Newton, Anna E; Heiman, Katherine E; Schmitz, Ann; Török, Tom; Apostolou, Andria; Hanson, Heather; Gounder, Prabhu; Bohm, Susan; Kurkjian, Katie; Parsons, Michele; Talkington, Deborah; Stroika, Steven; Madoff, Lawrence C; Elson, Franny; Sweat, David; Cantu, Venessa; Akwari, Okey; Mahon, Barbara E; Mintz, Eric D
Cholera is rare in the United States (annual average 6 cases). Since epidemic cholera began in Hispaniola in 2010, a total of 23 cholera cases caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1 have been confirmed in the United States. Twenty-two case-patients reported travel to Hispaniola and 1 reported consumption of seafood from Haiti.
García-Senz, J.; Pérez-Estaún, A.
Eastern Hispaniola and the Puerto Rico Island are the emerged part of a doubly vergent thrust wedge formed by oblique arc-continent collision with subduction and underthrusting of the North America Plate in the Puerto Rico trench and underthrusting of the Caribbean crust in The Muertos trough (Dolan et al. 1998, Mann et al., 2002, ten Brink et al. 2010). In the relatively small area of Eastern Hispaniola several types of active crustal deformation have been recognized: 1) At the prowedge of the orogene, the rear of the accretionary prism is cut by the strike-slip Septentrional Fault, bounding a sliver plate (Mann et al, 2002). Recent detailed mapping and aeromagnetic surveys in the onshore part of the prism (Samaná Peninsula and Septentrional Cordillera, Sysmin Team) revealed that the internal structure of the sliver is made of parallel bands of sigmoidal, left-lateral, NW-SE thrust splays, bounded by steep strike-slip faults. We interpreted these structures as transpressional strike-slip duplex. It is worth to note the similarity between the strike and dip of the thrust splays and the 303, 62, 74 focal mechanism calculated by Russo and Villaseñor (1995) for the thrust event of the August 4, 1946 Hispaniola earthquake. 2) The uplifted core of the orogen extends between the accretionary prism and the beginning of the Muertos retrowedge. Half of this area is occupied by the Oriental Cordillera, a recent uplift of cretaceous island-arc rocks arching the Late Neogene reef. The rest of the territory is the Caribbean Coastal Plain modelled on the Late Neogene reef. The Oriental Cordillera is made of two en echelon left-stepping uplifts: the domal-shaped Haitises and the rhombohedral-shaped Seibo (García-Senz et al, 2007); the latter share structural similarities and scaling relations with the 90° neutral stepover model of McClay and Bonora (2001). Therefore we interpret it as a restraining stepover developed over a blind splay of the Septentrional Fault, and the main
This NOAA GOES-East satellite animation from July 6 to July 10 shows the development of Tropical Storm Chantal in the Atlantic Ocean and movement over Hispaniola by July 10. TRT 0:06 Credit: NASA/N...
Nagle, F.; Draper, G.
At least 4 types of serpentinite bodies are found in N. Hispaniola, by different inclusion and Tertiary deformation styles: (1) Narrow slivers occurring on Tertiary faults, rarely containing inclusions, which occur throughout the region. (2) Massive fractured serpentinites associated with a Cretaceous volcanic plutonic and metamorphic basement, and containing rodingite dikes, occurs in the Puerto Plata region. (3) Massive, fractured, but coherent bodies containing Tertiary limestone clasts which apparently the same as nearby limestone overlying the serpentinite occur west of Puerto Plata. (4) Diapirically emplaced bodies in the Gaspar Hernandez region containing both brecciated and massive zones and containing a variety of inclusions. Type 4 bodies protrude into the clastic Upper Eocene Altamira Fm. The most common tectonic inclusions in these bodies are rounded cobbles of diorite and gabbro. Amphibolites are also common, but friable greenschists and blueschists are rare, as are blocks of clastic sediments. The authors suggest that large blocks of the Altamira Fm. were incorporated into the serpentinite during their past Eocene diapirism and that these blocks were deformed in a brittle manner into gouge zones by internal movements in the diapir. Type 4 serpentinites may therefore have incorporated inclusions at high crustal levels by brittle processes. Type 2 bodies, in contrast, may have incorporated inclusions by ductile flow of serpentinite at lower crustal levels. Type 33 bodies are the most enigmatic. They may be sedimentary, but alternatively may have incorporated limestone in a gouge (as for type 4), which has later healed to a coherent mass.
Technical Abstract Pseudophoenix ekmanii Burret, P. lediniana Read, and P. vinifera (Mart.) Becc. (Arecaceae) are endemic to Hispaniola. The more wide-ranging P. sargentii H.Wendl. ex Sarg. occurs on this island as well. The population genetic diversity and structure of Pseudophoenix was investigate...
Herrera, Sócrates; Ochoa-Orozco, Sergio Andrés; González, Iveth J.; Peinado, Lucrecia; Quiñones, Martha L.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam
Malaria remains endemic in 21 countries of the American continent with an estimated 427,000 cases per year. Approximately 10% of these occur in the Mesoamerican and Caribbean regions. During the last decade, malaria transmission in Mesoamerica showed a decrease of ~85%; whereas, in the Caribbean region, Hispaniola (comprising the Dominican Republic [DR] and Haiti) presented an overall rise in malaria transmission, primarily due to a steady increase in Haiti, while DR experienced a significant transmission decrease in this period. The significant malaria reduction observed recently in the region prompted the launch of an initiative for Malaria Elimination in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola (EMMIE) with the active involvement of the National Malaria Control Programs (NMCPs) of nine countries, the Regional Coordination Mechanism (RCM) for Mesoamerica, and the Council of Health Ministries of Central America and Dominican Republic (COMISCA). The EMMIE initiative is supported by the Global Fund for Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) with active participation of multiple partners including Ministries of Health, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as research centers. EMMIE’s main goal is to achieve elimination of malaria transmission in the region by 2020. Here we discuss the prospects, challenges, and research needs associated with this initiative that, if successful, could represent a paradigm for other malaria-affected regions. PMID:25973753
Herrera, Sócrates; Ochoa-Orozco, Sergio Andrés; González, Iveth J; Peinado, Lucrecia; Quiñones, Martha L; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam
Malaria remains endemic in 21 countries of the American continent with an estimated 427,000 cases per year. Approximately 10% of these occur in the Mesoamerican and Caribbean regions. During the last decade, malaria transmission in Mesoamerica showed a decrease of ~85%; whereas, in the Caribbean region, Hispaniola (comprising the Dominican Republic [DR] and Haiti) presented an overall rise in malaria transmission, primarily due to a steady increase in Haiti, while DR experienced a significant transmission decrease in this period. The significant malaria reduction observed recently in the region prompted the launch of an initiative for Malaria Elimination in Mesoamerica and Hispaniola (EMMIE) with the active involvement of the National Malaria Control Programs (NMCPs) of nine countries, the Regional Coordination Mechanism (RCM) for Mesoamerica, and the Council of Health Ministries of Central America and Dominican Republic (COMISCA). The EMMIE initiative is supported by the Global Fund for Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) with active participation of multiple partners including Ministries of Health, bilateral and multilateral agencies, as well as research centers. EMMIE's main goal is to achieve elimination of malaria transmission in the region by 2020. Here we discuss the prospects, challenges, and research needs associated with this initiative that, if successful, could represent a paradigm for other malaria-affected regions.
Brandimarte, Luigia; Brath, Armando; Castellarin, Attilio; Baldassarre, Giuliano Di
It is sadly known that over the past decades Isla Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) has been exposed to the devastating passage of several hurricanes and tropical storms. Territories that are economically weak and extremely poor in terms of natural resources have been shaken by severe flood events that caused the loss of thousands of human lives, displacement of people and damage to the environment. On May 24th 2004, the flooding of the trans-boundary river Soliette killed over 1000 Haitian and Dominican people, wiping out villages and leaving behind desolation and poverty. After this catastrophic flood event, the General Direction for Development and Cooperation of the Italian Department of Foreign Affairs funded through the Istituto Italo-Latino Americano (IILA, www.iila.org) an international cooperation initiative (ICI), coordinated and directed by the University of Bologna. The ICI involved Haitian and Dominican institutions and was twofold: (a) institutional capacity building on flood risk management and mitigation measures and policies; (b) hydrological and hydraulic analysis of the May 2004 flood event aimed at formulating a suitable and affordable flood risk mitigation plan, consisting of structural and non-structural measures.
Draper, G.; Pindell, J.
Comparison of the geology of Cuba and Hispaniola demonstrates how different tectonic styles can be produced in closely adjacent parts of the accretion arc. Cuba is a laterally extensive fold-and-thrust belt that includes a narrow belt of Early Cretaceous to Campanian arc rocks, ocean crust, sub-oceanic mantle and metamorphosed continental crust. Hispaniola represents a broader and more complete (although deformed) Early Cretaceous to Eocene arc structure with a single accreted, metamorphosed continental terrane. We suggest that Cuba's preset arc terrane is essentially a fore-arc that was underplated by continental crust in the Campanian collision of the Greater Antilles arc with southern Yucatan. Following this collision, the proto Caribbean lithosphere detached from the eastern margin of Yucatan resulting in rapid, north directed rollback. This, in turn, developed extension of the over-riding Cuban lithosphere and exhumed the underplated continental crust as extensional metamorphic core complexes. The present Cuban fold belt was formed as a result of collision with the southern margin of North America in the mid-Eocene. In contrast, Hispaniola was to the east of Cuba and was not detectably involved in the Campanian collisional event. At present, it is not clear if the extensional rollback event that affected Cuba had any significant effect on Hispaniola. Hispaniola's collision with North America began in the late Eocene(?) and culminated in the Oligocene and was highly oblique. This event resulted in highly oblique, south-verging thrusting that telescoped the back arc basin. It also produced a pop-up structure that reveals evidence of an earlier, mid-Cretaceous collisional event within the arc. This oblique collision persists until the present.
Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S. D.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Meyer, B.; Ellouz, N.
The boundary between the Caribbean plate and the North American plate is transpressive due to the oblique collision between these two plates. The transpressive movement is partitioned and accommodated in the Hispaniola region along two left-lateral strike-slip structures surrounding a fold-and-thrust belt. New multibeam bathymetry data and multichannel seismic reflection profiles have been recently collected during the Haiti-SIS and Haiti-SIS 2 cruises, along part of the northern Caribbean plate boundary between Cuba, Jamaica and Hispaniola. From the north to the south, three types of deformations are observed. In the Windward Passage, the analysis of the data set reveals that the movement on the Oriente fault between Cuba and Hispaniola is purely left-lateral strike-slip according to the GPS measurements. In the Gonave basin, west of Hispaniola, the deformation is compressive. A series of folds is identified and moves toward the southwest. The Enriquillo-Plantain-Garden Fault (EPGF) is localized in the Jamaica Passage, between Jamaica and Hispaniola. The analysis of the data set reveals that the left-lateral EPGF recently intersects inherited basins from the eastern Cayman Trough margin. The study of the actual EPGF active trace shows that this fault moves with a pure strike-slip component, at least in its western part: the presence of a little push-up structure and a set of three en echelon folds is highlighting in the western part of the Jamaica Passage. The shortening rate in the inherited basins crossed by the EPGF increases from west to east (5.8% to 8.5%), indicating that a thrusting component is also accommodated around the EPGF.
ten Brink, U.S.; Bakun, W.H.; Flores, C.H.
We evaluate the long-term seismic activity of the North-American/Caribbean plate boundary from 500 years of historical earthquake damage reports. The 2010 Haiti earthquakes and other earthquakes were used to derive regional attenuation relationships between earthquake intensity, magnitude, and distance from the reported damage to the epicenter, for Hispaniola and for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. The attenuation relationship for Hispaniola earthquakes and northern Lesser Antilles earthquakes is similar to that for California earthquakes, indicating a relatively rapid attenuation of damage intensity with distance. Intensities in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands decrease less rapidly with distance. We use the intensity-magnitude relationships to systematically search for the location and intensity magnitude MI which best fit all the reported damage for historical earthquakes. Many events occurred in the 20th-century along the plate-boundary segment from central Hispaniola to the NW tip of Puerto Rico, but earlier events from this segment were not identified. The remaining plate boundary to the east to Guadeloupe is probably not associated with M > 8 historical subduction-zone earthquakes. The May 2, 1787 earthquake, previously assigned an M 8–8.25, is probably only MI 6.9 and could be located north, west or SW of Puerto Rico. An MI 6.9 earthquake on July 11, 1785 was probably located north or east of the Virgin Islands. We located MI I 7.7) and May 7, 1842 (MI 7.6) earthquakes ruptured the Septentrional Fault in northern Hispaniola. If so, the recurrence interval on the central Septentrional Fault is ~300 years, and only 170 years has elapsed since the last event. The recurrence interval of large earthquakes along the Hispaniola subduction segment is likely longer than the historical record. Intra-arc M ≥ 7.0 earthquakes may occur every 75–100 years in the 410-km-long segment between the Virgin Islands and Guadeloupe.
Acciavatti, Robert E.
Abstract The Brasiella tiger beetle fauna on Hispaniola, the second largest island of the Greater Antilles, has more species diversity than currently recognized as all populations previously have been assigned to the insular endemic Brasiella dominicana (Mandl). A comparative study of adult morphology, particularly male genitalic and female abdominal characters, for available Brasiella specimens from populations on Hispaniola, proposes eight additional new species also endemic to this island. Except for three sympatric species in the Sierra de Baoruco in southern Dominican Republic occurring in different habitats, all the Brasiella on Hispaniola appear to be allopatric. Most species occur in the major mountainous regions of Hispaniola. Two species, however, are known only from river floodplains in the southern coastal plain of the Dominican Republic. Brasiella dominicana (Mandl) and Brasiella ocoa, new species, occur along river floodplains emanating from the eastern end of the Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic. Two new Brasiella species, Brasiella bellorum, and Brasiella philipi, occur in the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic, the former species from central portions, and the latter species from north slopes of this mountain range, respectively. Three new Brasiella species, Brasiella rawlinsi, Brasiella iviei, and Brasiella youngi, are isolated in the Sierra de Baoruco, Dominican Republic, where each occupies a different habitat along an altitudinal gradient. The two new Brasiella species in Haiti are Brasiella darlingtoniana, in the Massif de la Selle, and Brasiella davidsoni, in the Massif de la Hotte. All nine Brasiella species on Hispaniola, along with Brasiella viridicollis (Dejean) and its two subspecies on Cuba, belong to the viridicollis species group of the genus Brasiella based on criteria presented in earlier published phylogenetic studies of Brazilian and West Indian tiger beetles. The subspecies Brasiella viridicollis fernandozayasi
Benford, B.; DeMets, C.; Calais, E.
We use elastic block modelling of 126 GPS site velocities from Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico and other islands in the northern Caribbean to test for the existence of a Hispaniola microplate and estimate angular velocities for the Gônave, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands and two smaller microplates relative to each other and the Caribbean and North America plates. A model in which the Gônave microplate spans the whole plate boundary between the Cayman spreading centre and Mona Passage west of Puerto Rico is rejected at a high confidence level. The data instead require an independently moving Hispaniola microplate between the Mona Passage and a likely diffuse boundary within or offshore from western Hispaniola. Our updated angular velocities predict 6.8 ± 1.0 mm yr-1 of left-lateral slip along the seismically hazardous Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone of southwest Hispaniola, 9.8 ± 2.0 mm yr-1 of slip along the Septentrional fault of northern Hispaniola and ˜14-15 mm yr-1 of left-lateral slip along the Oriente fault south of Cuba. They also predict 5.7 ± 1 mm yr-1 of fault-normal motion in the vicinity of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone, faster than previously estimated and possibly accommodated by folds and faults in the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone borderlands. Our new and a previous estimate of Gônave-Caribbean plate motion suggest that enough elastic strain accumulates to generate one to two Mw˜ 7 earthquakes per century along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and nearby faults of southwest Hispaniola. That the 2010 M= 7.0 Haiti earthquake ended a 240-yr-long period of seismic quiescence in this region raises concerns that it could mark the onset of a new earthquake sequence that will relieve elastic strain that has accumulated since the late 18th century.
Turvey, Samuel T; Hansford, James; Kennerley, Rosalind J; Nuñez-Miño, José M; Brocca, Jorge L; Young, Richard P
Continued uncertainty persists over the taxonomic status of many threatened Caribbean mammal populations. Recent molecular analysis has identified three genetically isolated allopatric hutia populations on Hispaniola that diverged during the Middle Pleistocene, with observed levels of sequence divergence interpreted as representing subspecies-level differentiation through comparison with genetic data for other capromyids. Subsequent analysis of existing museum specimens has demonstrated biogeographically congruent morphometric differentiation for two of these three populations, Plagiodontia aedium aedium (southwestern population) and P. aedium hylaeum (northern population). We report the first craniodental material for the southeastern Hispaniolan hutia population, and demonstrate that this population can also be differentiated using quantitative morphometric analysis from other Hispaniolan hutia subspecies. The holotype skull of P. aedium aedium, of unknown geographic provenance within Hispaniola, clusters morphometrically with the southwestern population. The southeastern Hispaniolan subspecies is described as Plagiodontia aedium bondi subsp. nov., and is assessed as Endangered under Criterion B1a,biii,v on the IUCN Red List.
Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Granja Bruña, J.; Llanes Estrada, M.; Munoz Martin, A.; Gómez Ballesteros, M.; Druet, M.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Pazos, A.; Catalan, M.; ten Brink, U. S.; Hernaiz-Huerta, P.; Olaiz, A. J.; Torres, R.; Brothers, D. S.
Detailed swath bathymetry mapping of complete geological provinces together with high-resolution seismic profiles provide critical perspective for the detection and study of active faults and their seismic and tsunami hazard. Since 2003 the Universidad Complutense de Madrid has been leading an international research group to study the north-eastern Caribbean, from the Lesser Antilles to Jamaica. This area comprises the 200 km-wide boundary zone between the North American and the Caribbean plates, where the relative plate motion is 18-20 ±3 mm/year towards 070-075. The highly-oblique convergence between the plates in Hispaniola is accommodated by strain partitioning on seismic fault systems sub-parallel to the plate boundary: strike-slip (the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and the Septentrional fault zones) and the compressive deformed belts (the Muertos thrust belt and the North Hispaniola thrust belt). Results from several research cruises offshore Hispaniola have identified and characterized zones of active deformation that were not observed onshore, such as the Muertos out-of-sequence thrust or the Beata Ridge crest fault zone. The Muertos out-of-sequence thrust could be related to the M≈8 event occurred the 18th of October in 1751 that shook central and south-eastern Hispaniola. In other seismic fault zones, such as the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and the Septentrional fault zones, knowledge of their offshore continuity is limited. Future research cruises will target the offshore continuity of these strike-slip seismic fault zones in the vicinity of Southern Peninsula of Haiti, in the Jamaica Passage and in the Gonave Bay. As part of the NORCARIBE project, a research cruise will be taking place in the spring of 2012 aboard the Spanish R/V Hespérides. Multichannel, high-resolution and wide-angle seismic profiles will be acquired together with swath bathymetry, magnetic and gravity data. The scientific and social interest in studying this region has greatly
Mann, P.; Matumoto, T.; Burke, K.
The question as to the extent to which earthquake mechanisms define plate motion is addressed in view of the pattern of Neogene faulting, volcanism, and sedimentation in Hispaniola. The structure of two fault systems that approximately define the northern and southern coasts of the island suggest an east-west trend in relative plate motion, which is consistent with previous findings. The intervening area consists of en echelon mountain ranges thrust up at the restraining bend from the early Miocene. A Pleistocene volcanic province within this area is interpreted as defining a diffuse extensional fault termination of the southern strike-slip fault zone.
Bakun, William H.; Flores, Claudia H.; ten Brink, Uri S.
Historical records indicate frequent seismic activity along the north-east Caribbean plate boundary over the past 500 years, particularly on the island of Hispaniola. We use accounts of historical earthquakes to assign intensities and the intensity assignments for the 2010 Haiti earthquakes to derive an intensity attenuation relation for Hispaniola. The intensity assignments and the attenuation relation are used in a grid search to find source locations and magnitudes that best fit the intensity assignments. Here we describe a sequence of devastating earthquakes on the Enriquillo fault system in the eighteenth century. An intensity magnitude MI 6.6 earthquake in 1701 occurred near the location of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, and the accounts of the shaking in the 1701 earthquake are similar to those of the 2010 earthquake. A series of large earthquakes migrating from east to west started with the 18 October 1751 MI 7.4–7.5 earthquake, probably located near the eastern end of the fault in the Dominican Republic, followed by the 21 November 1751 MI 6.6 earthquake near Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and the 3 June 1770 MI 7.5 earthquake west of the 2010 earthquake rupture. The 2010 Haiti earthquake may mark the beginning of a new cycle of large earthquakes on the Enriquillo fault system after 240 years of seismic quiescence. The entire Enriquillo fault system appears to be seismically active; Haiti and the Dominican Republic should prepare for future devastating earthquakes.
The Prioninae (Cerambycidae) of Hispaniola are reviewed. Tweny-seven species are known from the island, including five new ones and a new genus described herein: Elateropsis dichroma Lingafelter, new species, Elateropsis woodleyi Lingafelter, new species, Solenoptera tomentosa Lingafelter, new spec...
Granja Bruña, J. L.; Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Llanes Estrada, P.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; ten Brink, U. S.; Gómez Ballesteros, M.; Druet, M.; Pazos, A.
Oblique convergence between the Caribbean plate's interior and the inactive Greater Antilles island arc has resulted in the collision and impingement of the thickened crust of the Beata ridge into southern Hispaniola Island. Deformation resulting from this convergence changes from a low-angle southward-verging thrust south of eastern Hispaniola, to collision and uplift in south-central Hispaniola, and to left-lateral transpression along the Southern peninsula of Haiti in western Hispaniola. Using new swath bathymetry and a dense seismic reflection grid, we mapped the morphological, structural and sedimentological elements of offshore southern Hispaniola. We have identified four morphotectonic provinces: the Dominican sub-basin, the Muertos margin, the Beata ridge and the Haiti sub-basin. The lower slope of the Muertos margin is occupied by the active Muertos thrust belt, which includes several active out-of-sequence thrust faults that, were they to rupture along their entire length, could generate large-magnitude earthquakes. The interaction of the thrust belt with the Beata ridge yields a huge recess and the imbricate system disappears. The upper slope of the Muertos margin shows thick slope deposits where the extensional tectonics and slumping processes predominate. The northern Beata ridge consists of an asymmetrically uplifted and faulted block of oceanic crust. Our results suggest that the shallower structure and morphology of the northern Beata ridge can be mainly explained by a mechanism of extensional unloading from the Upper Cretaceous onward that is still active residually along the summit of the ridge. The tectonic models for the northern Beata ridge involving active reverse strike-slip faults and transpression caused by the oblique convergence between the Beata ridge and the island arc are not supported by the structural interpretation. The eastern Bahoruco slope an old normal fault that acts as a passive tear fault accommodating the sharp along
Torres-Cambas, Yusdiel; Lorenzo-Carballa, M Olalla; Ferreira, Sónia; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo
Both sexes of Hypolestes hatuey Torres-Cambas, sp. nov. (Odonata: Zygoptera: Hypolestidae) from Hispaniola are described and illustrated here. This newly described species differs from H. trinitatis and H. clara, the other two species within the genus, by the morphology of the genital ligula and male cerci. Females of H. hatuey sp. nov. differ from H. clara by the shape of the female antehumeral stripe and wing venation. Morphological distinctiveness in males is supported by genetic differences in the 16S mitochondrial gene. Following the categories and criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, we suggest this species should be listed as Data Deficient (DD), given that available data on its distribution are too limited to assess its risk of extinction.
Calais, Eric; de Lépinay, Bernard Mercier
Marine geophysical data including Seabeam, seismic reflection, magnetics, gravimetry and side-scan sonar have been recently collected along the northern Caribbean strike-slip plate boundary between Cuba and Hispaniola, in the Windward Passage area. The analysis of this comprehensive data set allows us to illustrate active strike-slip tectonic processes in relation to the kinematics of the Caribbean Plate. We show that the transcurrent plate boundary trace runs straight across the Windward Passage, from the southern Cuban Margin in the west (Oriente Fault) to the Tortue Channel in the east. The Windward Passage Deep is thus not an active pull-apart basin, as previously suggested. The plate boundary geometry implies that the motion of the Caribbean Plate relative to the North American Plate is partitioned between a strike-slip component, accommodated by the Windward Passage active fault zone, and a convergence component, accommodated by compression at the bottom of the Northern Hispaniola Margin. On the basis of a correlation with onland geological data, an age is given to the stratigraphic sequences identified on seismic profiles. A kinematic reconstruction is proposed that follows the tectonic unconformities recognized at sea and on land (Late Eocene, Early Miocene, Middle Miocene and Late Pliocene). Each one of these tectonic events corresponds to a drastic reorganization of the plate boundary geometry. We propose to correlate these events with successive collisions of the northern Caribbean mobile terranes against the Bahamas Bank. During each event, the plate boundary trace is shifted to the south and a part of the Caribbean Plate is accreted to North America.
Dillon, William P.; Austin, James A.; Scanlon, K.M.; Terence, Edgar N.; Parson, L.M.
Broad-range side-scan sonar (GLORIA) images and single- and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles demonstrate that the margin of north-western Hispaniola has experienced compression as a consequence of oblique North American-Caribbean plate convergence. Two principal morphological or structural types of accretionary wedges are observed along this margin. The first type is characterized by a gently sloping (???4??) sea floor and generally margin-parallel linear sets of sea-floor ridges that gradually deepen towards the flat Hispaniola Basin floor to the north. The ridges are caused by an internal structure consisting of broad anticlines bounded by thrust faults that dip southwards beneath Hispaniola. Anticlines form at the base of the slope and are eventually sheared and underthrust beneath the slope. In contrast, the second type of accretionary wedge exhibits a steeper (???6-16??) sea-floor slope characterized by local slumping and a more abrupt morphological transition to the adjacent basin. The internal structure appears chaotic on seismic reflection profiles and probably consists of tight folds and closely spaced faults. We suggest that changes in sea-floor declivity and internal structure may result from variations in the dip or frictional resistance of the de??collement, or possibly from changes in the cohesive strength of the wedge sediments. The observed pattern of thickening of Hispaniola Basin turbidites towards the insular margin suggests differential southwards tilting of the Hispaniola Basin strata, probably in response to North America-Caribbean plate interactions since the Early Tertiary. Based upon indirect age control from adjacent parts of the northern caribbean plate boundary, we infer a Late Eocene to Early Miocene episode of transcurrent motion (i.e. little or no tilting), an Early Miocene to Late Pliocene period of oblique convergence (i.e. increased tilt) during which the accretionary wedge began to be constructed, and a Late Pliocene to
Llanes Estrada, P.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Granja Bruna, J.; Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Flores, C. H.; Villasenor, A.; Pazos, A.; Martin Davila, J. M.
The Eastern Greater Antilles arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico) is bounded by a north-verging accretionary prism on its north side and a south-verging thrust belt (Muertos thrust belt) on its south side. This bivergent geometry has been attributed for the last 30 years to opposing subduction of the North American plate and the Caribbean oceanic interior beneath the island arc at the Muertos margin. Recent observations of seafloor and shallow sub-seafloor deformational features at the Muertos compressive margin together with sandbox kinematic and gravity modeling question the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc. To further test the subduction hypothesis, we carried out in 2009 a wide-angle seismic transect across the widest part of the Muertos compressive margin at longitude 69°W. A 2-D forward ray-tracing model of the wide-angle transect outlines the broad-scale crustal structure across the Muertos margin. The Caribbean oceanic slab is imaged beneath the Muertos margin to about 50 km north of the deformation front and down to 19 km depth. A change in crustal p-wave velocity at ~60 km from the deformation front is interpreted as the boundary between the compressive deformed belt and the arc crust. The Caribbean oceanic crust is not seen extending farther north or penetrating the upper mantle. Modeling of ship's gravity data, acquired along the seismic profile, corroborates the seismic results. Any subduction model imply the existence of a regional mass deficit generated by the subducted Caribbean slab beneath the island arc and that variations in the geometry of the subduction angle and the depth are not able to compensate it. Earthquake hypocenter distribution in the Muertos Margin shows diffuse seismicity beneath the island arc, being very hard to identify different clusters and to assign them to different subducted slabs. The diffuse seismicity may be related to the transition between subduction
Cruz, A.; Prather, J.W.; Wiley, J.W.; Weaver, P.F.
In contrast to African Village Weavers (Ploceus cucullatus) that are parasitized by Diederik Cuckoos (Chrysococcyx caprius), introduced weavers on Hispaniola existed without parasitism for at least 2 centuries until the arrival of the Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) in the 1970s. Cruz and Wiley (1989) found that Hispaniolan weavers had a lower rejection rate of foreign eggs than African populations. Subsequently, Robert and Sorci (1999) and Lahti (2005, 2006) found that acceptance of dissimilar eggs is not characteristic of the species throughout its Hispaniolan range. In 1999-2002, we studied egg rejection in Hispaniolan weavers on a broad regional scale. Rejection increased as experimental eggs became increasingly different from the host eggs. Rejection rates for mimetic eggs, different color eggs, different-spotting eggs, and cowbird eggs was 23.2%, 33.3%, 61.5%, and 85.3%, respectively, with higher rejection of cowbird eggs in areas where cowbirds were observed. Although rejection is likely to have a genetic component, the differences could be due to phenotypic plasticity. Plasticity in egg rejection may be expected, given the potential cost of rejection and the spatiotemporal distribution of cowbirds. Thus, egg rejection has not necessarily decreased in Hispaniolan weavers, but it may act in a plastic manner, increasing where cowbirds are present. ?? The Author 2008. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology. All rights reserved.
McNamara, D.; Meremonte, M.; Maharrey, J.Z.; Mildor, S-L.; Altidore, J.R.; Anglade, D.; Hough, S.E.; Given, D.; Benz, H.; Gee, L.; Frankel, A.
We determine frequency-dependent attenuation 1/Q(f) for the Hispaniola region using direct S and Lg waves over five distinct passbands from 0.5 to 16 Hz. Data consist of 832 high-quality vertical and horizontal component waveforms recorded on short-period and broadband seismometers from the devastating 12 January 2010 M 7.0 Haiti earthquake and the rich sequence of aftershocks. For the distance range 250–700 km, we estimate an average frequency-dependent Q(f)=224(±27)f0.64(±0.073) using horizontal components of motion and note that Q(f) estimated with Lg at regional distances is very consistent across vertical and horizontal components. We also determine a Q(f)=142(±21)f0.71(±0.11) for direct S waves at local distances, ≤100 km. The strong attenuation observed on both vertical and horizontal components of motion is consistent with expectations for a tectonically active region.
Ravin, Ian S.; Lingafelter, Steven W.
Abstract The genus Urgleptes Dillon (1956) is reviewed for Hispaniola. Five new species of Urgleptes from the Dominican Republic are described herein: Urgleptes charynae Ravin & Lingafelter, sp. n. (La Vega province), Urgleptes conjunctus Ravin & Lingafelter, sp. n. (Peravia Prov.), Urgleptes curtipennis Ravin & Lingafelter, sp. n. (Independencia Prov.), Urgleptes marionae Ravin & Lingafelter, sp. n. (Monseñor Nouel Prov.), and Urgleptes obliteratus Ravin & Lingafelter, sp. n. (Pedernales Prov.). Two additional, previously described species are newly recorded for Hispaniola: Urgleptes puertoricensis Gilmour and Urgleptes sandersoni Gilmour. It is established that Urgleptes haitiensis Gilmour is a new synonym of Urgleptes sandersoni. Thus there are seven species of Urgleptes recorded for Hispaniola. For all species photographs, illustrations, full descriptions, distribution maps, and a dichotomous key are included for their identification. PMID:26692806
Kirschbaum, D. B.; Stanley, T.; Simmons, J.
Landslides pose a serious threat to life and property in Central America and the Caribbean Islands. In order to allow regionally coordinated situational awareness and disaster response, an online decision support system was created. At its core is a new flexible framework for evaluating potential landslide activity in near real time: Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness. This framework was implemented in Central America and the Caribbean by integrating a regional susceptibility map and satellite-based rainfall estimates into a binary decision tree, considering both daily and antecedent rainfall. Using a regionally distributed, percentile-based threshold approach, the model outputs a pixel-by-pixel nowcast in near real time at a resolution of 30 arcsec to identify areas of moderate and high landslide hazard. The daily and antecedent rainfall thresholds in the model are calibrated using a subset of the Global Landslide Catalog in Central America available for 2007-2013. The model was then evaluated with data for 2014. Results suggest reasonable model skill over Central America and poorer performance over Hispaniola due primarily to the limited availability of calibration and validation data. The landslide model framework presented here demonstrates the capability to utilize globally available satellite products for regional landslide hazard assessment. It also provides a flexible framework to interchange the individual model components and adjust or calibrate thresholds based on access to new data and calibration sources. The availability of free satellite-based near real-time rainfall data allows the creation of similar models for any study area with a spatiotemporal record of landslide events. This method may also incorporate other hydrological or atmospheric variables such as numerical weather forecasts or satellite-based soil moisture estimates within this decision tree approach for improved hazard analysis.
Kirschbaum, D. B.; Stanley, T.; Simmons, J.
Landslides pose a serious threat to life and property in Central America and the Caribbean Islands. In order to allow regionally coordinated situational awareness and disaster response, an online decision support system was created. At its core is a new flexible framework for evaluating potential landslide activity in near real-time: Landslide Hazard Assessment for Situational Awareness. This framework was implemented in Central America and the Caribbean by integrating a regional susceptibility map and satellite-based rainfall estimates into a binary decision tree, considering both daily and antecedent rainfall. Using a regionally distributed, percentile-based threshold approach, the model outputs a pixel-by-pixel nowcast in near real-time at a resolution of 30 arcsec to identify areas of moderate and high landslide hazard. The daily and antecedent rainfall thresholds in the model are calibrated using a subset of the Global Landslide Catalog in Central America available for 2007-2013. The model was then evaluated with data for 2014. Results suggest reasonable model skill over Central America and poorer performance over Hispaniola, due primarily to the limited availability of calibration and validation data. The landslide model framework presented here demonstrates the capability to utilize globally available satellite products for regional landslide hazard assessment. It also provides a flexible framework to interchange the indiviual model components and adjust or calibrate thresholds based on access to new data and calibration sources. The availability of free, satellite-based near real-time rainfall data allows the creation of similar models for any study area with a spatiotemporal record of landslide events. This method may also incorporate other hydrological or atmospheric variables such as numerical weather forecasts or satellite-based soil moisture estimates within this decision tree approach for improved hazard analysis.
Rimmer, Christopher C.; McFarland, Kent P.
We analyzed temporal trends in mist-net capture rates of resident (n = 8) and overwintering Nearctic-Neotropical migrant (n = 3) bird species at two sites in montane broadleaf forest of the Sierra de Bahoruco, Dominican Republic, with the goal of providing quantitative information on population trends that could inform conservation assessments. We conducted sampling at least once annually during the winter months of January–March from 1997 to 2010. We found evidence of declines in capture rates for three resident species, including one species endemic to Hispaniola. Capture rate of Rufous-throated Solitaire (Myadestes genibarbis) declined by 3.9% per year (95% CL = 0%, 7.3%), Green-tailed Ground-Tanager (Microligea palustris) by 6.8% (95% CL = 3.9%, 8.8%), and Greater Antillean Bullfinch (Loxigilla violacea) by 4.9% (95% CL = 0.9%, 9.2%). Two rare and threatened endemics, Hispaniolan Highland-Tanager (Xenoligea montana) and Western Chat-Tanager (Calyptophilus tertius), showed statistically significant declines, but we have low confidence in these findings because trends were driven by exceptionally high capture rates in 1997 and varied between sites. Analyses that excluded data from 1997 revealed no trend in capture rate over the course of the study. We found no evidence of temporal trends in capture rates for any other residents or Nearctic-Neotropical migrants. We do not know the causes of the observed declines, nor can we conclude that these declines are not a purely local phenomenon. However, our findings, along with other recent reports of declines in these same species, suggest that a closer examination of their conservation status is warranted. Given the difficulty in obtaining spatially extensive, long-term estimates of population change for Hispaniolan birds, we suggest focusing on other metrics of vulnerability that are more easily quantified yet remain poorly described, such as extent of occurrence. PMID:26844015
Draper, G.; Nagle, F.
Detailed mapping in the Rio San Juan Complex (RSJC) and reconnaissance investigations in the Samana peninsula, in North Hispaniola, have determined the characteristics of a Cretaceous blueschist/eclogite melange. In the RSJC, the melange has a mafic greenschist matrix which appears to be part of a larger, coherent greenschist terrane, which varies in composition and includes mafic and quartz feldspathic types interbedded in a sedimentary protolith. Of the many lithologies present in the melange, the most common are original gt-px and gt-hbl schist, both of which have been strongly overprinted by a blueschist facies metamorphism. The blocks also have a rind of coarse grained actinolite surrounded a second rind of actinolite + chlorite + fuchsitic (cr-rich) mica. The authors follow Moore in suggesting that the rind formed by contact with serpentinite at depth. They suggest instead that rind formation and block exhumation were by diapirism and/or corner flow of serpentinite. Limited isotopic evidence suggests that the blocks area about 90 m.y. old. Stratigraphic evidence indicates that the deeper levels of the coherent metamorphic terrane was eroded by Paleocene time (65 m.y. b.p.). Thus, the complete cycle of exhumation of blocks from greater than 30km., their incorporation into trench-fill sediments, burial of the coherent terrane and subsequent erosion of this terrane took place in about 25 m.y.. Since the erosion of the coherent terrane must have occupied the greater part of this time period (about 20 m.y.), then both burial and exumation took place in only a few million years.
Three species of Caribbomerus Vitali are newly recorded for the Dominican Republic: C. decoratus (Zayas), C. elongatus (Fisher), and C. asperatus (Fisher). The first two also represent first records for Hispaniola. Caribbomerus elongatus (Fisher) is redescribed based on additional material, includi...
A series of small microplates separate the Caribbean and North America plates in the northern Caribbean. My dissertation focuses on understanding the structural evolution and neotectonic deformation of Jamaica, and how it relates to the overall microplates and tectonics of the northern Caribbean. Jamaica, which lies along the same seismically active plate boundary as Haiti, has had twelve earthquakes with Modified Mercalli intensities of VII to X since 1667. However, remarkably little is known about which faults presently constitute the most significant seismic hazards. This research provides insight into tectonic processes and facilitates mitigation of geological hazards in the region. Two chapters focus on characterizing deformation in Jamaica through modeling GPS velocities and through field mapping. The best-fitting models based on GPS velocities place most strike-slip motion on faults in central Jamaica and suggest that faults in northern Jamaica have minimal motion. I estimate 4--5 mm yr-1 of slip for faults near the capital city of Kingston of southeastern Jamaica, implying significant seismic hazard. Field mapping combined with present-day topography, focal mechanisms, geology, gravity, and well and borehole data indicate that east-west contraction is accommodated by reactivated, NNW-striking reverse faults, which are bound by E-striking strike-slip faults in southern Jamaica. The other two chapters of my thesis focuses on understanding the behavior of the microplates along the Caribbean-North America plate boundary: I model GPS velocities and use shear-wave splitting to understand the crustal and mantle behaviors, respectively of the microplates. The GPS data require an independently moving Hispaniola microplate between the Mona Passage and a likely diffuse boundary just west of or within western Hispaniola. The new microplate angular velocities predict 6.8+/-1.0 mm yr-1 of left-lateral slip and 5.7+/-1 mm yr-1 of convergent motion surrounding the
Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Granja Bruña, José Luis; Rodríguez Zurrunero, Álvaro; Gómez de la Peña, Laura; Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Gómez Ballesteros, María; Gorosabel Araus, José Miguel; Espinosa, Salvador; Pazos, Anatonio; Catalán, Manuel; Yamil Rodríguez Asilis, Hector; Nuñez, José Luis; Muñoz, Santiago; ten Brink, Uri S.; Quijano, Jesús; Llanes Estrada, Pilar; Martín Dávila, José; Druet, María
The Caribbean plate is moving relative to the North American plate at a rate of 20.0 ± 0.4 mm/y towards 074° ± 1°. This eastward motion has been taking place during most of the Cenozoic developing a 250 km-wide band of deformation, in which microplate and block tectonics take place. The eastward motion of the Hispaniola block is being impeded relative to the motion of the Caribbean plate's interior due to the collision with the Bahamas banks. This collision has resulted in the development of the Northern Hispaniola deformed belt along the northern Hispaniola offshore margin. A series of large (M6.2-M8.1) thrust earthquakes from 1943-1953, and two significant events in 1994 (M5.6) and 2003 (M6.4) occurred close to the city of Puerto Plata have been attributed to oblique collision/subduction of the North America plate and Bahamas banks beneath the northern Hispaniola. 300 km of 2D multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data and approximately 15000 km2 of high-resolution, systematic swath bathymetry data were recorded in the northern Hispaniola offshore margin as part of a larger survey carried out in November-December of 2013 aboard the Spanish R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa. MCS profiles were collected shooting a GI gun array (GGUN-II®) of 1750 ci. every 37.5 m and the signal recorded in a 3000 m-long streamer with 240 channels (Sentinel Sercel®). Differential GPS navigated high-resolution bathymetry data were collected using the hull-mounted Hydrosweep ATLAS DS echo-sounder system. Using new high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and MCS data, combined with previous 2D seismic data, we have studied the along- and across-strike variations of the geomorphology and shallower structure of the northern Hispaniola offshore margin. Here we present preliminary results focused on the identification and characterization of recent tectonic features in the region and provide well-defined targets to carry out future studies for seismic and tsunamigenic hazard assessment.
Fernández, Francisco José; Rodríguez, Indira; Escuder-Viruete, Javier; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés
Paleostress variations and microstructural imprints of a subducted carbonate slab record changes in mechanical strength during its exhumation. The slab studied here forms part of the high-P Samaná Terrane located on the north-eastern margin of the Hispaniola Island. Cold-cathodoluminescence images reveal relict cataclastic fabrics within the highest-pressure marbles of the Punta Balandra and Santa Bárbara Schists structural units, formed in the early stages of exhumation at P-T conditions ca. 2.0 GPa - 500 °C. Cataclastic flow was triggered after a moderate increase of water content (1.2% < w.t. H2O < 1.8%). Accordingly, grain sizes larger than equivalent radius ri = 40 μm preserve distribution of power law type with fractal dimensions D2 = 2.43 in Punta Balandra unit and D2 = 2.72 in Santa Bárbara unit. After cataclastic flow, the stress dropped and grain comminution conducted the marbles to the dissolution-precipitation domain. Then, as exhumation progressed, the effective stress increased and calcite intracrystalline plasticity process dominated. Calcite-twinning incidence and recrystallized grain-size indicate maximum paleostress ca. 350 MPa and mean flow paleostress ≈ 130 MPa. SEM-EBSD analyses show similar weak type-c calcite fabrics in all high-P carbonate units, even though they record different metamorphic P peak. Therefore, intracrystalline plasticity was probably dominant during the development of the final tectonic fabric. Finer grain-size distributions are out of fractal range, with D1 < 1, because of the further superposed deformation. Most of the data are consistent with an initial forced exhumation model of the carbonate slab in a brittle-ductile rheology of the confined plate interface.
Lingafelter, Steven W.
Abstract First records of the tribes Anaglyptini and Tillomorphini (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) are documented for Hispaniola. A new genus of a highly myrmecomorphic longhorned beetle (Licracantha gen. n.) is described and illustrated based on one species (Licracantha formicaria sp. n.) and provisionally assigned to Tillomorphini. Three other new species of ant mimic longhorned beetles are described and illustrated: Calliclytus macoris sp. n. (Tillomorphini), Tilloclytus baoruco sp. n., and Tilloclytus neiba sp. n. (Anaglyptini). An identification key and distribution map to all known Hispaniolan species of these two tribes are presented. PMID:21852922
Díaz-Alcántara, César-Antonio; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Mulas, Daniel; García-Fraile, Paula; Gómez-Moriano, Alicia; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna; González-Andrés, Fernando
Hispaniola Island was the first stopover in the travels of Columbus between America and Spain, and played a crucial role in the exchange of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds and their endosymbionts. The analysis of recA and atpD genes from strains nodulating this legume in coastal and inner regions of Hispaniola Island showed that they were almost identical to those of the American strains CIAT 652, Ch24-10 and CNPAF512, which were initially named as Rhizobium etli and have been recently reclassified into Rhizobium phaseoli after the analysis of their genomes. Therefore, the species R. phaseoli is more abundant in America than previously thought, and since the proposal of the American origin of R. etli was based on the analysis of several strains that are currently known to be R. phaseoli, it can be concluded that both species have an American origin coevolving with their host in its distribution centres. The analysis of the symbiovar phaseoli nodC gene alleles carried by different species isolated in American and European countries suggested a Mesoamerican origin of the α allele and an Andean origin of the γ allele, which is supported by the dominance of this latter allele in Europe where mostly Andean cultivars of common beans have been traditionally cultivated.
Haney, D.C.; Walsh, S.J.
We investigated salinity and temperature effects on routine metabolic rate (RMR), temperature tolerance (CTMax, critical thermal maximum), and salinity tolerance of Limia melanonotata, a poecliid fish that occurs in west-central inland waters of Hispaniola. Routine metabolic rate and CTMax were measured in fish acclimated to three salinities (0, 30, and 60 ppt) and temperatures (25??, 30??, and 35??C) for nine temperature-salinity combinations. Salinity and temperature did not significantly interact in their effect on RMR. For combined salinity acclimations, adjusted RMR (ANCOVA) was significantly lower at 25??C than either 30?? or 35??C. For combined temperature acclimations, mean RMR was significantly lower at 60 ppt than either 0 or 30 ppt. Salinity and temperature had a significant interactive effect on temperature tolerance. Mean CTMax was significantly higher at 30?? than 25??C at all salinities, but at 35??C was significantly higher than at 25?? or 30??C only among fish acclimated in fresh water. Fish exposed to a chronic increase in salinity experienced most mortality in a salinity range of 70-107 ppt, with females exhibiting greater salinity tolerance than males. Limia melanonotata approaches the upper extreme in salinity and temperature tolerances known for poeciliids. Our results also suggest that L. melanonotata may reduce energy expenditures at environmental extremes to tolerate harsh conditions for extended periods. Despite its curythermal and euryhaline adaptations, L. melanonotata has a relatively restricted inland range in Hispaniola and is unknown from inshore brackish or marine habitats. The present distribution of this species and congeners may be the result of a combination of factors that include historical zoogeography and ecological requirements.
New records of Caribbomerus from Hispaniola and Dominica with redescription of C. elongatus (Fisher) and a key to species of the genus in the West Indies (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Graciliini)
Lingafelter, Steven W.
Abstract Three species of Caribbomerus Vitali are newly recorded for the Dominican Republic: Caribbomerus decoratus (Zayas), Caribbomerus elongatus (Fisher), and Caribbomerus asperatus (Fisher). The first two also represent first records for Hispaniola. Caribbomerus elongatus (Fisher) is redescribed based on additional material, including the first known males. Caribbomerus similis (Fisher) is newly recorded for Dominica. A key to the species of the genus from the West Indies is provided. PMID:21594096
Díaz de Neira, J. A.; Braga, J. C.; Mediato, J.; Lasseur, E.; Monthel, J.; Hernáiz, P. P.; Pérez-Cerdán, F.; Lopera, E.; Thomas, A.
This paper aims to reconstruct the palaeogeographic evolution of the Llanura Costera del Caribe (LCC) in eastern Hispaniola (Dominican Republic) during the Pleistocene, adding new insights to published information on Pliocene-Early Pleistocene deposits. The LCC is a generally flat region comprising the unfolded sedimentary cover of the Cordilleras Central and Oriental. Within this cover, the Pliocene-Early Pleistocene Yanigua Formation,mainly consisting of marl, changes seawards to the mainly limestone Los Haitises Formation. Both units formed in a shallow-water platform rimmed by a reef barrier at least in the latest depositional stages. The overlying Pleistocene La Isabela Formation consists of two major offlapping reef terraces, in which a reef core enclosed a lagoon, and prograded over forereef bioclastic debris. Two belts in LCC's morphostructure directly reflect its sedimentary evolution. The Inner Belt extends over the marly substrate of the Yanigua Formation and the Coastal Belt comprises three major surfaces corresponding to the depositional top of the Los Haitises Formation (Upper Surface), and to the Upper and Lower terraces of the La Isabela Formation (Intermediate and Lower Surfaces, respectively). The MIS 5e age of the 10-20 m high Lower Terrace implies a low uplift rate of 0.033-0.068 mm/yr for the Lower Surface. The Pliocene-Early Pleistocene platform was emergent in the Early-Middle Pleistocene. The Early Pleistocene reef barrier separated endorheic watersheds extending over the former shelf lagoon from the open ocean. Reefs built the Upper Terrace of the La Isabela Formation during one or several Middle Pleistocene highstands and the Lower Terrace during MIS 5e and previous highstands. Siliciclastic deposits in this terrace record the opening to the Caribbean Sea of watersheds in the eastern LCC. The Lower Terrace emersion and opening of the large drainage systems of the western and central LCC took place after MIS 5e. Relative sea level fall and
Ambrosius, I.; Mann, P.
Previous GPS studies have shown that the island of Hispaniola is a 250 km-wide zone of active, east-west, left-lateral shearing along two major strike-slip zones: the Septentrional-Oriente fault zone through the northern part of the island and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ) through the southern part of the island. The total interplate rate distributed on both faults is 21 mm/yr. Using a high-resolution DEM, we constructed fluvial channel profiles across transpression-related folds of late Miocene to recent age in the area of central and southern Dominican Republic and Haiti to determine controls of areas of relatively high, moderate, and slow uplift inferred from fluvial channel profiles. Fold axes in this area extend for 50-150 km and exhibit two different trends: 1) folds that occupy the area of the Sierra de Neiba-Chaine des Matheux north of the Enriquillo-Cul-de-Sac Valley and EPGFZ and folds that occupy the area of the Sierra de Bahoruco-Massif de la Selle all exhibit more east-west fold axes trending 110; 2) folds that occupy the area northwest of the EPGFZ in the western Chaine des Matheux and Sierra de Neiba all exhibit fold axes with more northwest trends of 125. River channel profiles show that the second group of more northwesterly-trending fold axes show relatively higher rates of tectonic uplift based on their convex-upward river profiles. Our interpretation for regional variations in river profiles and inferred uplift is that uplift is more pronounced on fold axes trending 15 degrees more to the northwest because their axes are more oblique to the interplate direction of east-west shearing. Longterm uplift rates previously measured from a stairstep of late Quaternary coral terraces at the plunging nose of the westernmost Chaine des Matheux have been previously shown to be occurring at a rate of 0.19 mm/yr. Onland exposures of Holocene corals are found only on one locality within the southern area of folds 30 km west of the epicenter
NASA's IMERG estimated totals for rainfall that fell over the Dominican Republic during the period from Nov. 8 to 15, 2016 and showed totals greater than 230 mm (9 inches) fell over the northeaster...
The generic differences and similarities between Leptostylus LeConte and Leptostylopsis Dillon (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Acanthocinini) are discussed. Leptostylopsis is redescribed and the following species are transferred from Leptostylus to Leptostylopsis: Leptostylopsis annulipes (Fisher 1942)...
This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from Sept. 30 to Oct. 3 shows Matthew become a major hurricane in the Caribbean Sea. Matthew reached Category 5 status late on Oct. 1 and droppe...
Norman, Francesca F; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Perez-Molina, Jose-Antonio; de Ory, Fernando; Franco, Leticia; Sánchez-Seco, María-Paz; López-Vélez, Rogelio
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is currently spreading in the Caribbean and America. Lymphadenopathy, described in infections with other alphaviruses, is not commonly reported in CHIKV infections. Painful lymphadenopathy was found in three of the first six CHIKV infections from the current outbreak diagnosed at a reference center in Madrid, Spain.
Heubeck, C.; Mann, P.
The Cordillera Central approximates an elongate (220 km), elevated (>3 km), thrust-bounded anticline cored by Cretaceous-Paleogene arc rocks and uplifted during Miocene to recent time by convergent strike-slip movements between the North American and Caribbean plates. The southeastern termination of the anticline plunges beneath a thick (>6 km), well-exposed marine clastic sedimentary sequence. Because uplift-related faulting is minimal in this hinge region of the Cordillera Central anticline, the authors have carried out detailed mapping of the area to determine (1) relation of Cretaceous-Paleogene arc basement to overlying Cenozoic sedimentary cover, and (2) Cenozoic deformational history of arc and basin sequences. Mapping has clearly distinguished three superimposed Cenozoic basins lying on arc basement. The lowest basin (basin 1) is Paleocene-Eocene in age and consists of alternations of arc-derived turbidies with interbedded pelagic limestone and red mudstone. In apparent conformity above this basin is an approximately 4-km thick marine clastic sequence of medial Eocene through early Miocene age (basin 2). These sediments consist of fining-upward turbiditic sequence derived from the northwest and northeast. Arc basement and overlying basins 1 and 2 were shortened approximately 25% in a short-lived, northwest-southeast-directed compressional event that resulted in the formation of large open synclines and tightly folded and faulted anticlines with fold amplitudes of 1-6 km. Underformed, medial Miocene sediments of a mixed clastic and carbonate shelf facies (basin 3) unconformably overlie the folded latest Oligocene-early Miocene rocks of basin 2 and thus constrain the age of folding as early to middle Miocene.
Azarian, Taj; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A.; Jubair, Mohammad; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Nolan, David J.; Farmerie, William; Rashid, Mohammad H.; Sinha-Ray, Shrestha; Alam, Meer T.; Morris, J. Glenn; Salemi, Marco
Vibrio cholerae is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, with environmental toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains serving as a source for recurrent cholera epidemics and pandemic disease. However, a number of questions remain about long-term survival and evolution of V. cholerae strains within these aquatic environmental reservoirs. Through monitoring of the Haitian aquatic environment following the 2010 cholera epidemic, we isolated two novel non-toxigenic (ctxA/B-negative) Vibrio cholerae O1. These two isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing and were investigated through comparative genomics and Bayesian coalescent analysis. These isolates cluster in the evolutionary tree with strains responsible for clinical cholera, possessing genomic components of 6th and 7th pandemic lineages, and diverge from “modern” cholera strains around 1548 C.E. [95% HPD: 1532–1555]. Vibrio Pathogenicity Island (VPI)-1 was present; however, SXT/R391-family ICE and VPI-2 were absent. Rugose phenotype conversion and vibriophage resistance evidenced adaption for persistence in aquatic environments. The identification of V. cholerae O1 strains in the Haitian environment, which predate the first reported cholera pandemic in 1817, broadens our understanding of the history of pandemics. It also raises the possibility that these and similar environmental strains could acquire virulence genes from the 2010 Haitian epidemic clone, including the cholera toxin producing CTXϕ. PMID:27786291
Azarian, Taj; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A; Jubair, Mohammad; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Nolan, David J; Farmerie, William; Rashid, Mohammad H; Sinha-Ray, Shrestha; Alam, Meer T; Morris, J Glenn; Salemi, Marco
Vibrio cholerae is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, with environmental toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains serving as a source for recurrent cholera epidemics and pandemic disease. However, a number of questions remain about long-term survival and evolution of V. cholerae strains within these aquatic environmental reservoirs. Through monitoring of the Haitian aquatic environment following the 2010 cholera epidemic, we isolated two novel non-toxigenic (ctxA/B-negative) Vibrio cholerae O1. These two isolates underwent whole-genome sequencing and were investigated through comparative genomics and Bayesian coalescent analysis. These isolates cluster in the evolutionary tree with strains responsible for clinical cholera, possessing genomic components of 6(th) and 7(th) pandemic lineages, and diverge from "modern" cholera strains around 1548 C.E. [95% HPD: 1532-1555]. Vibrio Pathogenicity Island (VPI)-1 was present; however, SXT/R391-family ICE and VPI-2 were absent. Rugose phenotype conversion and vibriophage resistance evidenced adaption for persistence in aquatic environments. The identification of V. cholerae O1 strains in the Haitian environment, which predate the first reported cholera pandemic in 1817, broadens our understanding of the history of pandemics. It also raises the possibility that these and similar environmental strains could acquire virulence genes from the 2010 Haitian epidemic clone, including the cholera toxin producing CTXϕ.
This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite imagery from August 2 through 4 shows the movement of Tropical Storm Bertha over Puerto Rico, Hispaniola and the Bahamas. It became a hurricane on Augus...
An animation of satellite observations from August 21 through August 29 showing the birth of Hurricane Irene in the Caribbean and her track over Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, the Bahamas, the U.S. East ...
Sánchez-Ruiz, Alexander; Brescovit, Antonio D; Alayón, Giraldo
We update the knowledge of the unusual Caponiidae spiders from the West Indies with the description of four new species, and the redescription of Nops blandus (Bryant) including the first description of the female. Specimens previously assigned to N. blandus from Hispaniola and Puerto Rico represents two new species: Nops hispaniola n. sp. and Nops agnarssoni n. sp. respectively; while the distribution of the former is limited to British and U. S. Virgin Islands. The others two new species are Nops finisfurvus n. sp. from British Virgin Islands and Cubanops luquillo n. sp. from Puerto Rico. Female internal genitalia of Nops species are described, photographed and illustrated for the first time.
Alcantara, Anibal; Aquino, Jaime; Lantigua, Juan A.; Rodriguez, Digna; Soto, Alejandro
This cultural heritage resource guide has been prepared as a tool for teachers to help them understand the cultural heritage of Dominican students and their communities. The Dominican Republic, which occupies two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola, has a long history dominated by the struggle for independence. In their efforts to create a better…
Pseudophoenix ekmanii is a threatened palm species restricted to the Parque Nacional of Jaragua in the southernmost region of Hispaniola. Sap from individual trees is commonly extracted to make a local drink; once they are tapped the plant usually dies. Additionally, adult plants are harvested for...
The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), infests numerous fruit species, particularly Anacardiaceae and most importantly mango (Mangifera indica L.). Widespread in the Neotropics, it was first reported in Hispaniola nearly 70 years ago. Continental populations are attacked by the op...
Echelle, Anthony A; Fuselier, Linda; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A; Rodriguez, Carlos M L; Smith, Michael L
We used sequence variation in the mtDNA control-region and ND2 and cyt b genes to assess the systematics and biogeography of the five species of pupfish (Cyprinodon) on Hispaniola. These include four endemics, the relatively large-bodied Cyprinodon bondi, Cyprinodon nichollsi, and Cyprinodon sp., each from a separate lake in southwestern Hispaniola, and Cyprinodon higuey from a coastal lake in eastern Hispaniola. The fifth species consists of coastal populations referable to Cyprinodon variegatus riverendi. The results indicate that Hispaniola has been invaded by at least two forms, first by a late Pliocene progenitor of Cyprinodon variegatus ovinus and the large-bodied Hispaniolan species, and, more recently, by one or more ancestral forms allied with Cyprinodon variegatus variegatus and C. v. riverendi. Levels of divergence indicate that large expanses of open sea have not acted as long-term barriers to inter-island dispersal of cyprinodontiform fishes. This study, together with the molecular systematics of other insular Caribbean fishes, indicates that most insular groups originated from late Neogene dispersal from the mainland. The patterns of mtDNA variation in Cyprinodon showed little congruence with the species/subspecies taxonomy.
This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Haiti, an independent nation that occupies the western portion of the island of Hispaniola in the northern Caribbean Sea. Haiti’s utility rates are roughly $0.35 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.
63 ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Subduction zone area with related features (from [7...shows the subduction zone cutting along the north shore of Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, and Cuba. The surrounding topography consists of various undersea...representing a symmetrical canyon. .............................22 Figure 14. Trench B bathymetry representing a subduction zone
Roca, Alfred L; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Eizirik, Eduardo; Helgen, Kristofer M; Maria, Roberto; Springer, Mark S; O'Brien, Stephen J; Murphy, William J
The highly endangered solenodons, endemic to Cuba (Solenodon cubanus) and Hispaniola (S. paradoxus), comprise the only two surviving species of West Indian insectivores. Combined gene sequences (13.9 kilobases) from S. paradoxus established that solenodons diverged from other eulipotyphlan insectivores 76 million years ago in the Cretaceous period, which is consistent with vicariance, though also compatible with dispersal. A sequence of 1.6 kilobases of mitochondrial DNA from S. cubanus indicated a deep divergence of 25 million years versus the congeneric S. paradoxus, which is consistent with vicariant origins as tectonic forces separated Cuba and Hispaniola. Efforts to prevent extinction of the two surviving solenodon species would conserve an entire lineage as old or older than many mammalian orders.
Lingafelter, Steven W.
Abstract The Tribe Hemilophini (Lamiinae) is reviewed for Hispaniola and an identification key is provided. Fifteen species are now known from the island, including one new species of Adesmus (Adesmus fortunei from Pedernales and La Vega Provinces, Dominican Republic), one new species of Oedudes (Oedudes anulatus from Peravia and La Vega Provinces, Dominican Republic), and five new species of Calocosmus (Calocosmus contortus from San Cristóbal Province, Calocosmus punctatus from Peravia Province, Calocosmus rawlinsi from Elías Piña Province, Calocosmus robustus from La Vega Province, and Calocosmus thonalmus from La Altagracia Province, all in the Dominican Republic). Oedudes and Adesmus are new island and country records for Hispaniola and Dominican Republic, respectively. Calocosmus holosericeus Gahan is a new synonym of Calocosmus janus Bates. In addition to the new species, five new country records and four new island records are presented for Calocosmus. PMID:23653499
On 14 September 1494, Christopher Columbus observed a lunar eclipse while at the island of Saona near the eastern tip of Hispaniola. He later recorded in his Libro de las Profecias that, from his timing of the eclipse, he determined his longitude to be west of Cape San Vicente. His actual longitude was three hours and 59 minutes west of Cape San Vicente, so Columbus was off by over an hour and a half, some 23 degrees of longitude.
Martínez, Leocadia Sánchez; Flechtmann, Carlos H W; De Moraes, Gilberto J
Fourteen mite species of plant-associated mites of the suborder Prostigmata are reported from the Dominican Republic. Four of these refer to new findings for the country, including Petrobia (Tetranychina) hispaniola n. sp. Sánchez & Flechtmann, described from specimens collected from leaves of Citrus sp. (Rutaceae) and Rosa sp. (Rosaceae). A key for the separation of the world species of Petrobia (Tetranychina) is presented.
the Gulf of Mexico. A secondary axis extends eastward near 20ON just north of Cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico . XXIV-16 CHAME 5 0)0 00." 0- C-4 I 00 0 o...Atlantic Coast: Gulf of Mexico. Puerto Rico . and 3Lirain Islands. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Survey, Washington, DC...States Coast Pilot 5. Atlantic Coast: Gulf of Mexico, Puerto Rico . and Virgin Iandg. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean
Baroni, Timothy J; Franco-Molano, Ana Esperanza; Lodge, D Jean; Lindner, Daniel L; Horak, Egon; Hofstetter, Valerie
Two new genera encompassing three new species of lyophylloid agarics that produce conidia on the basidiomata are described. Arthromyces is a genus comprised of two very different arthrospore-producing mushroom species found in the Greater Antilles and Central America. Blastosporella is a monotypic genus with spherical balls of blastospores covering the pileus surface with age and is known from Hispaniola and Colombia. A key to the species of Arthromyces is included.
Benz, Harley M.; Tarr, Arthur C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Furlong, Kevin P.; Dart, Richard L.; Rhea, Susan
The depth profile panels on this map portray earthquakes that extend from the Middle America Trench axis in the west to depths as great as 300 km beneath Guatemala, and from the Lesser Antilles Trench axis in the east to depths of approximately 200 km beneath Guadeloupe and the northeast Caribbean. In contrast, seismicity along the segments of the Caribbean plate margins from Guatemala to Hispaniola and from Trinidad to western Venezuela is indicative of transform fault tectonics.
Wadge, G.; Wooden, J. L.
The northwestern corner of the Caribbean plate has at least sixteen centers of alkalic volcanism, most of which is Quaternary in age. Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of the rocks in these centers are used to distinguish three geographical groups: a low-ratio group (0.7026-0.7031) at the Nicaraguan Rise, an intermediate-ratio group (0.7036-0.7038) in northeastern Costa Rica, and a high-ratio group (0.7047-0.7063) in Hispaniola. It is suggested that the increased radiogenic strontium in both Costa Rica and Hispaniola may have come from volatile-rich fluids escaping from adjacent subducting slabs of oceanic crust. The isotopic differences between the two areas is explained by the relative longevity and high rate of subduction in Costa Rica compared to that in Hispaniola. The Costa Rican alkaline rocks cover a segment of the Cocos plate which is being subducted at a smaller angle (about 35 deg) than at the rest of the Central American arc.
Loharikar, A; Newton, A E; Stroika, S; Freeman, M; Greene, K D; Parsons, M B; Bopp, C; Talkington, D; Mintz, E D; Mahon, B E
US cholera surveillance offers insight into global and domestic trends. Between 2001 and 2011, 111 cases were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cholera was associated with international travel in 90 (81%) patients and was domestically acquired in 20 (18%) patients; for one patient, information was not available. From January 2001 to October 2010, the 42 (47%) travel-associated cases were associated with travel to Asia. In October 2010, a cholera epidemic started in Haiti, soon spreading to the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola). From then to December 2011, 40 (83%) of the 48 travel-associated cases were associated with travel to Hispaniola. Of 20 patients who acquired cholera domestically, 17 (85%) reported seafood consumption; 10 (59%) ate seafood from the US Gulf Coast. In summary, an increase in travel-associated US cholera cases was associated with epidemic cholera in Hispaniola in 2010-2011. Travel to Asia and consumption of Gulf Coast seafood remained important sources of US cholera cases.
Winslow, M.A.; McCann, W.R.
The Septentrional fault system in the northeastern Dominican Republic marks the zone where the North American-Carribean plate boundary is evolving from subduction to strike-slip motion, and where terranes appear to be forming and migrating laterally in a subduction complex/forearc region. On the Island of Hispaniola, slip vectors are oblique to the strike of the Puerto Rico trench, and oblique subduction thrusts the upper plate over normal seafloor. The offshore geology and seismicity of the northern Caribbean suggest that uplift, broad crustal warping, thrusting, and strike-slip faulting (ie. collisional tectonics) should be present in the northern part of the Dominican Republic. The high topography (>1000m), high levels of seismicity, and large earthquakes support the hypothesis of contemporary deformation in Hispaniola. In this region, the subduction regime dies out toward the west, and deformation is transferred to onshore, oblique-slip faults. As this change in tectonic style has occurred in Neogene to Recent times, we are investigating the modern evolution of a plate boundary. We have already documented: (1) the presence of a strike-slip faulting in the northeastern Dominican Republic; (2) an anomalous push-up structure; and (3) a region of numerous splay faults. In conclusion, recent seismicity suggest a wide zone of deformation and variations in interplate motions near Hispaniola. This island lies at the western limit of active underthrusting and at the eastern limit of onshore faulting, i.e., at an important transition from a subduction to strike-slip regime.
Martén-Rodríguez, Silvana; Kress, W John; Temeles, Ethan J; Meléndez-Ackerman, Elvia
Variation in interspecific interactions across geographic space is a potential driver of diversification and local adaptation. This study quantitatively examined variation in floral phenotypes and pollinator service of Heliconia bihai and H. caribaea across three Antillean islands. The prediction was that floral characters would correspond to the major pollinators of these species on each island. Analysis of floral phenotypes revealed convergence among species and populations of Heliconia from the Greater Antilles. All populations of H. caribaea were similar, characterized by long nectar chambers and short corolla tubes. In contrast, H. bihai populations were strongly divergent: on Dominica, H. bihai had flowers with short nectar chambers and long corollas, whereas on Hispaniola, H. bihai flowers resembled those of H. caribaea with longer nectar chambers and shorter corolla tubes. Morphological variation in floral traits corresponded with geographic differences or similarities in the major pollinators on each island. The Hispaniolan mango, Anthracothorax dominicus, is the principal pollinator of both H. bihai and H. caribaea on Hispaniola; thus, the similarity of floral phenotypes between Heliconia species suggests parallel selective regimes imposed by the principal pollinator. Likewise, divergence between H. bihai populations from Dominica and Hispaniola corresponded with differences in the pollinators visiting this species on the two islands. The study highlights the putative importance of pollinator-mediated selection as driving floral convergence and the evolution of locally-adapted plant variants across a geographic mosaic of pollinator species.
Golden, J.; Updike, R. G.; Verdin, J. P.; Larsen, M. C.; Negri, A. J.; McGinley, J. A.
In the 10 days of 21-30 September 1998, Hurricane Georges left a trail of destruction in the Caribbean region and U.S. Gulf Coast. Subsequently, in the same year, Hurricane Mitch caused widespread destruction and loss of life in four Central American nations, and in December,1999 a tropical disturbance impacted the north coast of Venezuela causing hundreds of deaths and several million dollars of property loss. More recently, an off-season disturbance in the Central Caribbean dumped nearly 250 mm rainfall over Hispaniola during the 24-hr period on May 23, 2004. Resultant flash floods and debris flows in the Dominican Republic and Haiti killed at least 1400 people. In each instance, the tropical system served as the catalyst for major flooding and landslides at landfall. Our goal is to develop and transfer an end-to-end warning system for a prototype region in the Central Caribbean, specifically the islands of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, which experience frequent tropical cyclones and other disturbances. The envisioned system would include satellite and surface-based observations to track and nowcast dangerous levels of precipitation, atmospheric and hydrological models to predict short-term runoff and streamflow changes, geological models to warn when and where landslides and debris flows are imminent, and the capability to communicate forecast guidance products via satellite to vital government offices in Puerto Rico, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. In this paper, we shall present a preliminary proof-of-concept study for the May 21-24, 2004 floods and debris-flows over Hispaniola to show that the envisaged flow of data, models and graphical products can produce the desired warning outputs. The multidisciplinary research and technology transfer effort will require blending the talents of hydrometeorologists, geologists, remote sensing and GIS experts, and social scientists to ensure timely delivery of tailored graphical products to both weather offices and local
Smith, Aaron D; Sanchez, Lucio A
The Wattius species occurring in the West Indies are revised for the first time. Wattius cucullatus (Pascoe), previously reported from Cuba, is diagnosed and restricted to Brazil. Wattius asperulus (Pascoe), currently a synonym of Wattius cucullatus, from Colombia is diagnosed and resurrected. All species found in the West Indies are endemic to the islands and form a single informal species-group. Three species are described: Wattius andersoni sp. n. from Cuba, Wattius emmabaconae sp. n. from Hispaniola (Dominican Republic), and Wattius viatorus sp. n. from Cuba and the Bahamas, and lectotypes are designated for Calymmus cucullatus Pascoe and Calymmus asperulus Pascoe. A key to the West Indian species is provided.
Jiménez-Ferbans, Larry; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro; Schuster, Jack C
We present a synthesis of the state of knowledge concerning the species of Passalidae (Coleoptera) of the West Indies and we present a key to the species. The recently described genus Antillanax Boucher renders the subgenus Passalus (Pertinax) Kaup paraphyletic, therefore we place Antillanax in synonymy with Passalus (Pertinax) and we propose a new combination for Passalus (Pertinax) doesburgi (Boucher). The island richest in species is Hispaniola, with five species, three of them endemic. Excluding Trinidad and Tobago, the passalid fauna of the West Indies comprises 13 species; this is low richness, but with high endemism (50%), especially for the Greater Antilles.
ten Brink, U.; Lin, J.
Strike-slip faults in the forearc region of a subduction zone often present significant seismic hazard because of their proximity to population centers. We explore the interaction between thrust events on the subduction interface and strike-slip faults within the forearc region using three-dimensional models of static Coulomb stress change. Model results reveal that subduction earthquakes with slip vectors subparallel to the trench axis enhance the Coulomb stress on strike-slip faults adjacent to the trench but reduce the stress on faults farther back in the forearc region. In contrast, subduction events with slip vectors perpendicular to the trench axis enhance the Coulomb stress on strike-slip faults farther back in the forearc, while reducing the stress adjacent to the trench. A significant contribution to Coulomb stress increase on strike-slip faults in the back region of the forearc comes from "unclamping" of the fault, i.e., reduction in normal stress due to thrust motion on the subduction interface. We argue that although Coulomb stress changes from individual subduction earthquakes are ephemeral, their cumulative effects on the pattern of lithosphere deformation in the forearc region are significant. We use the Coulomb stress models to explain the contrasting deformation pattern between two adjacent segments of the Caribbean subduction zone. Subduction earthquakes with slip vectors nearly perpendicular to the Caribbean trench axis is dominant in the Hispaniola segment, where the strike-slip faults are more than 60 km inland from the trench. In contrast, subduction slip motion is nearly parallel to the Caribbean trench axis along the Puerto Rico segment, where the strike-slip fault is less than 15 km from the trench. This observed jump from a strike-slip fault close to the trench axis in the Puerto Rico segment to the inland faults in Hispaniola is explained by different distributions of Coulomb stress in the forearc region of the two segments, as a result
Haiti shares the island of Hispaniola with the Dominican Republic in the Caribbean Sea. On January 12, the country was the site of an earthquake, measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale, with the epicentre about 16 miles west of the capital, Port-au-Prince. The earthquake caused widespread loss of life and damage, and many organisations responded to appeals from the Haitian people for humanitarian aid. Among these was the UK-based charity Merlin. Calderdale and Huddersfield NHS Foundation Trust emergency nurse Deb Lau works for Merlin and here she describes what happened when she travelled to Haiti to help provide medical relief.
Geneva, Anthony J; Hilton, Jared; Noll, Sabina; Glor, Richard E
The distichus species group includes six species and 21 subspecies of trunk ecomorph anoles distributed across Hispaniola and its satellite islands as well as the northern Bahamas. Although this group has long served as a model system for studies of reproductive character displacement, adaptation, behavior and speciation, it has never been the subject of a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis. Our goal here is to generate a multilocus phylogenetic dataset (one mitochondrial and seven nuclear loci) and to use this dataset to infer phylogenetic relationships among the majority of the taxa assigned to the distichus species group. We use these phylogenetic trees to address three topics about the group's evolution. First, we consider longstanding taxonomic controversies about the status of several species and subspecies assigned to the distichus species group. Second, we investigate the biogeographic history of the group and specifically test the hypotheses that historical division of Hispaniola into two paleo-islands contributed to the group's diversification and that Bahamian and Hispaniolan satellite island populations are derived from colonists from the main Hispaniolan landmass. Finally, third, we use comparative phylogenetic analyses to test the hypothesis that divergence between pale yellow and darkly pigmented orange or red dewlap coloration has occurred repeatedly across the distichus species group.
Dévieux, Jessy G.; Pinzón-Iregui, María Claudia; Abreu-Pérez, Rosa; Lerebours-Nadal, Leonel; Gaston, Stephanie; Dean, Andrew G.; Halpern, Mina; Rouzier, Vanessa; Bertrand, Rachel; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Pape, Jean William; Nicholas, Stephen W.; Blasini, Ileana
A pilot study is underway to assess safety and acceptability of an intervention to disclose their HIV infection status to status-naïve pediatric antiretroviral therapy patients in Hispaniola [the island shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic (DR)]. Of 22 Haiti and 47 DR caregivers recruited to date, 68.2% Haiti and 34.0% DR caregivers had clinically significant depressive symptomatology at the time of enrollment (p = 0.008). Depressive symptom prevalence was higher in Haiti caregivers who were female (81.3% vs. 0 in males; p = 0.02) and in DR caregivers who were patients’ mothers (50.0%) or grandmothers (66.7%; 56.0% combined) than others (9.1%), (p < 0.001). Internalized stigma was more commonly reported by Haiti (85.7%) than DR (53.2%; p = 0.01) caregivers; 56.4% of Haiti and DR caregivers reporting internalized stigma vs. 26.1% of caregivers denying it had depressive symptoms (p = 0.02). Depression is common in Hispaniola caregivers possibly affecting disclosure timing. Study participation presents opportunities for addressing caregiver depression. PMID:25389181
Ellouz, N.; Hamon, Y.; Deschamps, R.; Schmitz, J.; Battani, A.; Leroy, S. D.; Monplaisir, R.; Ruffine, L.
The area of Western Haiti located in between two major fault systems, the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF) and Ciabao-Oriente Septentrional fault system has been surveyed during the 2012 and 2013 Haiti-SIS cruises. From seismic interpretation and mapping the two bordering transform faults systems, EPGF (to the South) and Oriente-Septentrional (to the North), we document the deformation partitioning and the fault segmentation at different scales. A common tectonic evolution has been registered in S. Eastern Cuba and Western Hispaniola (Haiti area), up to early Miocene times. From the effective Hispaniola-Cuba separation at Oligocene/Miocene transition times, left lateral strike-slip motion was registered along large crustal faults cross-cutting different domains versus time. Rooted on these crustal/lithospheric discontinuties tectonic stress is also released on secondary fault systems where both deep and basin, even meteoric fluids may migrate. Sedimentation processes and sequence deposition have been also analyzed both offshore and onshore in the same area showing the strong tectonic-sedimentation processes interaction. A tentative calendar of this deformation, coupled with Present-Day evaluation of the draining areas along Septentrional fault, Transhaitian Ranges and Gonave Bay will be presented on regional seismic profiles and cross-sections.
Charles, Macarthur; Das, Sanchita; Daniels, Rachel; Kirkman, Laura; Delva, Glavdia G; Destine, Rodney; Escalante, Ananias; Villegas, Leopoldo; Daniels, Noah M; Shigyo, Kristi; Volkman, Sarah K; Pape, Jean W; Golightly, Linnie M
Hispaniola is the only Caribbean island to which Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains endemic. Resistance to the antimalarial drug chloroquine has rarely been reported in Haiti, which is located on Hispaniola, but the K76T pfcrt (P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter) gene mutation that confers chloroquine resistance has been detected intermittently. We analyzed 901 patient samples collected during 2006-2009 and found 2 samples showed possible mixed parasite infections of genetically chloroquine-resistant and -sensitive parasites. Direct sequencing of the pfcrt resistance locus and single-nucleotide polymorphism barcoding did not definitively identify a resistant population, suggesting that sustained propagation of chloroquine-resistant parasites was not occurring in Haiti during the study period. Comparison of parasites from Haiti with those from Colombia, Panama, and Venezuela reveals a geographically distinct population with highly related parasites. Our findings indicate low genetic diversity in the parasite population and low levels of chloroquine resistance in Haiti, raising the possibility that reported cases may be of exogenous origin.
Majure, Lucas C.; Bécquer, Eldis R.; Judd, Walter S.
Abstract Miconia sect. Lima is an entirely Greater Antillean clade that consists of 19 known species of shrubs and small trees, which were previously recognized under the polyphyletic genera Leandra and Ossaea. The highest species richness in the clade is represented on Cuba (10 species), followed by Hispaniola (8 species) and then Jamaica (1 species). Here we present a taxonomic revision of the clade based on the study of species in the field, herbarium specimens, as well as a DNA-based phylogeny reconstruction. The Lima clade most likely originated on Cuba and then spread to Jamaica once and Hispaniola multiple times. Species of this clade can be recognized by the well developed bulla-based hairs of the adaxial leaf surface, as well as the clavate-dendritic hairs produced along the primary, secondary and tertiary veins of the adaxial leaf surface, mostly towards the leaf base, terminal inflorescences, acute petal apices, slightly bulla-based hairs produced subapically along the petal abaxial surface, and anthers with a dorso-basal appendage and a single, dorsally oriented pore. Descriptions, synonymies, along with distribution maps and illustrations/figures, are given for each species. Miconia pagnolensis sp. nov. is newly described in this revision. PMID:27829802
Majure, Lucas C; Bécquer, Eldis R; Judd, Walter S
Miconia sect. Lima is an entirely Greater Antillean clade that consists of 19 known species of shrubs and small trees, which were previously recognized under the polyphyletic genera Leandra and Ossaea. The highest species richness in the clade is represented on Cuba (10 species), followed by Hispaniola (8 species) and then Jamaica (1 species). Here we present a taxonomic revision of the clade based on the study of species in the field, herbarium specimens, as well as a DNA-based phylogeny reconstruction. The Lima clade most likely originated on Cuba and then spread to Jamaica once and Hispaniola multiple times. Species of this clade can be recognized by the well developed bulla-based hairs of the adaxial leaf surface, as well as the clavate-dendritic hairs produced along the primary, secondary and tertiary veins of the adaxial leaf surface, mostly towards the leaf base, terminal inflorescences, acute petal apices, slightly bulla-based hairs produced subapically along the petal abaxial surface, and anthers with a dorso-basal appendage and a single, dorsally oriented pore. Descriptions, synonymies, along with distribution maps and illustrations/figures, are given for each species. Miconia pagnolensissp. nov. is newly described in this revision.
Lahti, David C.
Historical introductions of species into new habitats can create rare opportunities to test evolutionary hypotheses, such as the role of natural selection in maintaining traits. This study examines two independent introductions of the African village weaverbird (Ploceus cucullatus) to islands where selection on egg appearance traits is expected to differ markedly from that of the source populations. The color and spotting of village weaver eggs in Africa are highly consistent within clutches, but highly variable between individuals. These two features may be an evolutionary response to brood parasitism. In Africa, weavers are parasitized by each other and by the diederik cuckoo (Chrysococcyx caprius), an egg mimic. African village weavers were introduced one century ago to Mauritius, and over two centuries ago to Hispaniola. Both islands are devoid of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In these two populations, between-individual variation and within-clutch consistency in egg appearance have both decreased, as has the incidence of spotting, relative to the source populations in Africa. These reductions are more pronounced on Hispaniola, the earlier introduction. Such changes support the hypothesis that egg appearance in the African village weaver has been maintained by natural selection as a counteradaptation to cuckoo brood parasitism. These results illustrate that the removal of an agent of selection can sometimes bring about rapid evolutionary consequences. PMID:16326805
Moen, Daniel S; Wiens, John J
Understanding the role of competition in explaining phenotypic diversity is a challenging problem, given that the most divergent species may no longer compete today. However, convergent evolution of extreme body sizes across communities may offer evidence of past competition. For example, many treefrog assemblages around the world have convergently evolved species with very large and small body sizes. To better understand this global pattern, we studied body-size diversification within the small, endemic radiation of Caribbean treefrogs (Osteopilus). We introduce a suite of analyses designed to help reveal the signature of past competition. Diet analyses show that Osteopilus are generalist predators and that prey size is strongly associated with body size, suggesting that body-size divergence facilitates resource partitioning. Community assembly models indicate that treefrog body-size distributions in Jamaica and Hispaniola are consistent with expectations from competition. Phylogenetic analyses show that similar body-size extremes in Jamaica and Hispaniola have originated through parallel evolution on each island, and the rate of body-size evolution in Osteopilus is accelerated relative to mainland treefrogs. Together, these results suggest that competition may have driven the rapid diversification of body sizes in Caribbean treefrogs to the extremes seen in treefrog communities around the world.
Charles, Macarthur; Das, Sanchita; Daniels, Rachel; Kirkman, Laura; Delva, Glavdia G.; Destine, Rodney; Escalante, Ananias; Villegas, Leopoldo; Daniels, Noah M.; Shigyo, Kristi; Volkman, Sarah K.; Pape, Jean W.
Hispaniola is the only Caribbean island to which Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains endemic. Resistance to the antimalarial drug chloroquine has rarely been reported in Haiti, which is located on Hispaniola, but the K76T pfcrt (P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter) gene mutation that confers chloroquine resistance has been detected intermittently. We analyzed 901 patient samples collected during 2006–2009 and found 2 samples showed possible mixed parasite infections of genetically chloroquine-resistant and -sensitive parasites. Direct sequencing of the pfcrt resistance locus and single-nucleotide polymorphism barcoding did not definitively identify a resistant population, suggesting that sustained propagation of chloroquine-resistant parasites was not occurring in Haiti during the study period. Comparison of parasites from Haiti with those from Colombia, Panama, and Venezuela reveals a geographically distinct population with highly related parasites. Our findings indicate low genetic diversity in the parasite population and low levels of chloroquine resistance in Haiti, raising the possibility that reported cases may be of exogenous origin. PMID:27089479
Jansma, Pamela E.; Mattioli, Glen S.; Lopez, Alberto; Demets, Charles; Dixon, Timothy H.; Mann, Paul; Calais, Eric
The boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates is characterized primarily by left-lateral motion along predominantly east-west striking faults. Seismicity and marine geophysical survey data are consistent with at least two, and possibly three, microplates in the diffuse boundary zone in the northeastern Caribbean: (1) the Gonave, (2) the Hispaniola, and (3) the Puerto Rico-northern Virgin Islands (PRVI). We discuss results from GPS geodetic measurements acquired since 1994 to test the microplate hypothesis, define PRVI translation and rotation within the boundary zone, and constrain PRVI neotectonics. GPS-derived velocities are analyzed with respect to both North American and Caribbean plate reference frames. Integrated displacements across PRVI are limited to a few millimeters per year, consistent with a rigid PRVI and permitting calculation of an average velocity for PRVI. The motions of PRVI relative to North America and the Caribbean are 16.9±1.1 mm/yr toward N68°E±3° (1σ) and 2.4±1.4 mm/yr toward S79°W±26° (1σ), respectively. In contrast with some recent models, ongoing rotation of PRVI about a nearby (< 25° distant) vertical axis is not supported by the geodetic data. In addition, we argue against eastward tectonic escape of PRVI and favor a simple, progressive increase in velocity across the plate boundary zone, requiring that the summed magnitude of strike-slip fault slip rates will equal the total plate motion rate between the Caribbean and North America. GPS data are consistent with components of left-lateral strike-slip faulting along the Muertos trough south of Puerto Rico and shortening across the Puerto Rico trench. Comparison of GPS velocities for PRVI with respect to North America with total North America-Caribbean relative motion suggests up to 85% of North American-Caribbean plate motion is accommodated by the Puerto Rico trench and offshore faults north of Puerto Rico. Differences in GPS-derived velocities from Hispaniola
Mann, P.; Prentice, C.; King, W.; Demets, C.; Wiggins-Grandison, M.; Benford, B.
At the longitude of Jamaica, Caribbean (Carib)-North America (Noam) plate motion of 19 ± 2 mm/a is carried by two parallel, left-lateral strike-slip faults, the Oriente fault zone, immediately south of Cuba, and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone (EPGFZ), which lies 100-150 km further south. It has been postulated that the lithosphere between these faults constitutes an independent Gonave microplate that has formed in response to the ongoing collision between the leading edge of Carib in Hispaniola and the Bahama carbonate platform. GPS measurements in Jamaica and Hispanola is supportive of the microplate hypothesis and indicates that roughly half of Carib-Noam plate motion (8-14 mm/a) is carried by the EPGFZ of southern Hispaniola and eastern Jamaica. This study applies geomorphic and paleoseismic methods as a direct test of the activity and amount of microplate motion carried on the Plantain Garden fault segment of eastern Hispaniola and how this motion is distributed across a large restraining bend that has formed the island of Jamaica since the late Miocene. The EPFZ curves gently to the northeast and forming a steep mountain front to the Blue Mountains restraining bend with elevations up to 2200 m. Geomorphic fault-related features along the mountain front fault zone include left-laterally deflected rivers and streams, but no small scale features indicative of Holocene activity. River and stream deflections range from 0.1 to 0.5 km. We identified and trenched the most active trace of the mountain front fault at the Morant River where the fault is characterized by a 1.5-m-wide sub-vertical fault zone juxtaposing sheared alluvium and fault Cretaceous basement rocks This section is overlain by a 6-m-thick fluvial terrace. Trenching in the unfaulted terrace immediately overlying the fault trace revealed radiocarbon and OSL ages ranging from 20 to 21 ka that are consistent with a prominent unfaulted alluvial fan along the projection of this fault 1.5 km to
Calais, Éric; Symithe, Steeve; Mercier de Lépinay, Bernard; Prépetit, Claude
The Caribbean-North America plate boundary in the northeastern Caribbean shows a remarkable example of along-strike transition from plate boundary-normal subduction in the Lesser Antilles, oblique subduction with no strain partitioning in Puerto Rico, and oblique subduction/collision with strain partitioning further west in Hispaniola. We show that this segmentation is well marked in the interseismic strain, as measured using space geodetic data, and in the Neogene deformation regime, as derived from geological observations. Hence, interseismic segmentation, which reproduces the geological segmentation persistent over a long time interval, is inherited from the geological history and long-term properties of the plate boundary. This result is relevant to the assessment of seismic hazard at convergent plate boundaries, where geodetic measurements often show interseismic segmentation between fully-and partially-coupled plate interface regions.
Fritz, Hermann M.; Hillaire, Jean Vilmond; Molière, Emanuel; Wei, Yong; Mohammed, Fahad
On 12 January 2010, a magnitude M w 7.0 earthquake occurred 25 km west-southwest of Haiti's capital Port-au-Prince causing an estimated 316,000 fatalities, thereby exceeding any previous loss of life from a similar size earthquake. In addition, tsunami waves triggered by the earthquake caused at least three fatalities at Petit Paradis due to a complete lack of tsunami awareness. The International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) was deployed within weeks of the event and covered the greater Bay of Port-au-Prince and more than 100 km of Hispaniola's southern coastline. The collected survey data include more than 21 tsunami heights along with observations of coastal land level change. Maximum tsunami heights of 3 m have been measured for two independently triggered tsunamis.
Reimer, Aleisha R; Van Domselaar, Gary; Stroika, Steven; Walker, Matthew; Kent, Heather; Tarr, Cheryl; Talkington, Deborah; Rowe, Lori; Olsen-Rasmussen, Melissa; Frace, Michael; Sammons, Scott; Dahourou, Georges Anicet; Boncy, Jacques; Smith, Anthony M; Mabon, Philip; Petkau, Aaron; Graham, Morag; Gilmour, Matthew W; Gerner-Smidt, Peter
Cholera was absent from the island of Hispaniola at least a century before an outbreak that began in Haiti in the fall of 2010. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of clinical isolates from the Haiti outbreak and recent global travelers returning to the United States showed indistinguishable PFGE fingerprints. To better explore the genetic ancestry of the Haiti outbreak strain, we acquired 23 whole-genome Vibrio cholerae sequences: 9 isolates obtained in Haiti or the Dominican Republic, 12 PFGE pattern-matched isolates linked to Asia or Africa, and 2 nonmatched outliers from the Western Hemisphere. Phylogenies for whole-genome sequences and core genome single-nucleotide polymorphisms showed that the Haiti outbreak strain is genetically related to strains originating in India and Cameroon. However, because no identical genetic match was found among sequenced contemporary isolates, a definitive genetic origin for the outbreak in Haiti remains speculative.
Aguila, Rayner Núñez
Abstract A new genus and species of Dioptinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Notodontidae) is described from Cuba, this being the third taxon of the subfamily known from the West Indies. Eremonidiopsis aggregata, gen. n., sp. n., appears to be closely related to Eremonidia mirifica Rawlins & Miller from Hispaniola among members of the tribe Dioptini. Eremonidiopsis aggregata is known from two localities in the middle and western portions of the northeastern Cuban mountain range, Nipe–Sagua–Baracoa. The species inhabits low elevations (300–400 m) covered by lowland rainforest and sclerophyll rainforest. The six known specimens, all males, were part of small swarms flying near the top of an unidentified tree during the day at both collecting sites. These localities are included within protected areas, the “Pico Cristal” National Park in the West and the “Alexander von Humbolt” National Park in the East. PMID:24146561
Smith, Aaron D.; Sanchez, Lucio A.
Abstract The Wattius species occurring in the West Indies are revised for the first time. Wattius cucullatus (Pascoe), previously reported from Cuba, is diagnosed and restricted to Brazil. Wattius asperulus (Pascoe), currently a synonym of Wattius cucullatus, from Colombia is diagnosed and resurrected. All species found in the West Indies are endemic to the islands and form a single informal species-group. Three species are described: Wattius andersoni sp. n. from Cuba, Wattius emmabaconae sp. n. from Hispaniola (Dominican Republic), and Wattius viatorus sp. n. from Cuba and the Bahamas, and lectotypes are designated for Calymmus cucullatus Pascoe and Calymmus asperulus Pascoe. A key to the West Indian species is provided. PMID:26798241
Flores, Claudia H.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Bakun, William H.
Documentation of an event in the past depended on the population and political trends of the island, and the availability of historical documents is limited by the physical resource digitization schedule and by the copyright laws of each archive. Examples of documents accessed are governors' letters, newspapers, and other circulars published within the Caribbean, North America, and Western Europe. Key words were used to search for publications that contain eyewitness accounts of various large earthquakes. Finally, this catalog provides descriptions of damage to buildings used in previous studies for the estimation of moment intensity (MI) and location of significantly damaging or felt earthquakes in Hispaniola and in the northeastern Caribbean, all of which have been described in other studies.
ten Brink, Uri S.; Danforth, William; Polloni, Christopher; Andrews, Brian D.; Llanes Estrada, Pilar; Smith, Shepard; Parker, Eugene; Uozumi, Toshihiko
The Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, is located where the North American (NOAM) plate is subducting under the Caribbean plate (Figure l). The trench region may pose significant seismic and tsunami hazards to Puerto Rico and the U.S.Virgin Islands, where 4 million U.S. citizens reside. Widespread damage in Puerto Rico and Hispaniola from an earthquake in 1787 was estimated to be the result of a magnitude 8 earthquake north of the islands [McCann et al., 2004]. A tsunami killed 40 people in NW Puerto Rico following a magnitude 7.3 earthquake in 1918 [Mercado and McCann, 1998]. Large landslide escarpments have been mapped on the seafloor north of Puerto Rico [Mercado et al., 2002; Schwab et al., 1991],although their ages are unknown.
Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer
We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.
The ninth in a series of Caribbean Geological Conferences, which are held every 3 or 4 years, took place in Santo Domingo, capital of the Dominican Republic, from the 15th to 26th of August 1980. The conference, which was sponsored by the government of the Dominican Republic and the Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra, was preceded by 2 days of field trips and was opened by President Antonio Guzman on the evening of the 17th of August. Generous support was provided by Alcoa Exploration Co., Falconbridge Dominicana, and Rosario Dominicana.Geologists and geophysicists from 25 countries presented about 130 papers on a wide variety of topics ranging from geophysics to paleontology. While the whole Caribbean area was discussed, there was special emphasis on the northern Caribbean and Hispaniola, as befitted the site of the conference. The contribution of workers from the Dirección General de Mineriá was particularly notable.
After more than half a century of exploration for petroleum in that part of the Caribbean Basin covered by this review, the prospects for substantial discoveries remain low. Only Barbados has had modest but sustained production of oil and gas. In Hispaniola minor production from small prospects lasted briefly. Exploration in the northeast Caribbean has not resulted in discoveries. Similar exploration in Puerto Rico and, on a more extensive scale, in Jamaica, has also failed to show positive results. On the Nicaragua Rise (Mosquitia, Tela Basins) drilling has produced shows but no production, a situation also evident in Belize. Nevertheless, examination of these results, in the context of the regional geology of the Caribbean Basin, suggests there are areas where further exploration is justified.
Klose, C. D.; Webersik, C.
The two Caribbean states, Haiti and the Dominican Republic, have experienced similar natural forces since the 18th century, such as for instance, hurricanes and earthquakes. Despite this fact, Haiti tends to be more vulnerable to natural forces than the Dominican Republic, while environmental management strategies have been very different in both countries throughout the 19th century. Research findings show that neither atmospheric nor seismic hazards, which directly hit the territory of Haiti, have significant impacts on long-term population densities and growth rates. Conversely, uncontrolled and unregulated urbanization in Haiti between 1850 and 2009 has systematically exposed more people to natural forces. Thus, Haiti is willing to take increasing human security risks, because, it finally matters where people settle. Population growth versus storm occurrence/frequency in different departments/provinces on Hispaniola island between 1850 and 2009.
Colonial medicine is a thriving field of study in the history of nineteenth- and twentieth-century medicine. Medicine can be used as a lens to view colonialism in action and as a way to critique colonialism. This article argues that key debates and ideas from that modern field can fruitfully be applied to the Middle Ages, especially for the early empires of Spain and Portugal (mid-fourteenth to mid-sixteenth centuries). The article identifies key modern debates, explores approaches to colonization and colonialism in the Middle Ages and discusses how medieval and modern medicine and healthcare could be compared using colonial and postcolonial discourses. The article ends with three case studies of healthcare encounters in Madeira, Granada and Hispaniola at the end of the fifteenth century. PMID:26550030
Pulliam, J.; Polanco Rivera, E.; Pujols Guridy, R.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; Lopez, A. M.
The Northeast Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone (NCPBZ) is characterized by oblique subduction of oceanic crust belonging to the North American Plate, a broad zone of deformation to accommodate strain, and the development of transform and normal faults on and around the island of Hispaniola. Other features may include the formation of a new microplates, rearrangement and aggregation of crustal fragments into new islands, and rotations of the microplates. Numerous issues regarding the nature and timing of formation of the features described above, their roles in regional tectonics and even whether they exist at all, remain unresolved. Our short-term goal is to better constraint lithospheric structure and identify active earthquake faults with a temporary broadband seismic network in the Dominican Republic. The oblique-subduction-to-strike-slip transition found in the NCPBZ is representative of numerous locales around the world, so lessons learned here may inform our understanding of plate tectonics broadly. In 2013-2014 we installed sixteen broadband seismic stations in the Dominican Republic. The temporary network will remain in place for two years. Data acquired by the temporary network will be integrated with data recorded by existing seismic facilities in the region and the combined dataset will be used for a series of analyses that will, collectively, allow us to image lithospheric structure and aid seismic hazard assessment for the island of Hispaniola. Preliminary results will be presented from the deployment, including regional earthquake locations and improved 1D Earth structure as well as plans for collaborations between regional seismic networks and local capacity-building.
Gailler, A.; Calais, E.; Hébert, H.; Roy, C.; Okal, E.
The northeastern Caribbean island arc, which materializes the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates, is particularly exposed to large earthquakes and tsunamis. The low level of preparedness of a large part of its population and the lack of risk reduction provisions in public policies in many countries of the region put their population and economy at high risk in case of large telluric events. Here, we investigate the impact of three possible earthquake scenarios, consistent with the regional seismotectonic setting, on northern Haiti through inundation by tsunami waves. These scenarios simulate the effect of a M8.0 earthquake on the Septentrional strike-slip fault (possibly similar to the 1842 earthquake), a M8.1 earthquake on the offshore thrust fault system north of Haiti, and an earthquake rupturing a large portion of the offshore thrust fault system north of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. We calculate run-up heights along the northern coast of Haiti, in particular in the densely populated Cap Haitien. We find that the rupture of the offshore North Hispaniola thrust fault could result in wave heights up to 10 m with inundation up to 4 km inland, with only 10-15 min between ground shaking and the first wave arrivals. The city of Cap Haitien is particularly exposed, with potential flooding of most of the city and its suburbs, including the international airport. We also find that the historical reports available for the 1842 earthquake, when compared to our simulations, favor a rupture of the North Hispaniola thrust fault, although much uncertainty remains. If the 1842 earthquake did not rupture the Septentional fault offshore Haiti, then it is currently capable of at least a Mw7.7 earthquake, significantly larger than previously thought. The simulations presented here provide a basis for developing conservative maps of run-up heights that can be transferred, with added factors of safety, into practical implementation for tsunami preparedness
Núñez, Diana; Córdoba, Diego; Cotilla, Mario Octavio; Pazos, Antonio
The complex tectonic region of NE Caribbean, where Hispaniola and Puerto Rico are located, is bordered by subduction zone with oblique convergence in the north and by incipient subduction zone associated to Muertos Trough in the south. Central Caribbean basin is characterized by the presence of a prominent topographic structure known as Beata Ridge, whose oceanic crustal thickness is unusual. The northern part of Beata Ridge is colliding with the central part of Hispaniola along a transverse NE alignment, which constitutes a morphostructural limit, thus producing the interruption of the Cibao Valley and the divergence of the rivers and basins in opposite directions. The direction of this alignment coincides with the discontinuity that could explain the extreme difference between west and east seismicity of the island. Different studies have provided information about Beata Ridge, mainly about the shallow structure from MCS data. In this work, CARIBE NORTE (2009) wide-angle seismic data are analyzed along a WNW-ESE trending line in the northern flank of Beata Ridge, providing a complete tectonic view about shallow, middle and deep structures. The results show clear tectonic differences between west and east separated by Beata Island. In the Haiti Basin area, sedimentary cover is strongly influenced by the bathymetry and its thickness decreases toward to the island. In this area, the Upper Mantle reaches 20 km deep increasing up to 24 km below the island where the sedimentary cover disappears. To the east, the three seamounts of Beata Ridge provoke the appearance of a structure completely different where sedimentary cover reaches thicknesses of 4 km between seamounts and Moho rises up to 13 km deep. This study has allowed to determine the Moho topography and to characterize seismically the first upper mantle layers along the northern Beata Ridge, which had not been possible with previous MCS data.
Abstract Background Using syntactic and semantic conventions of the taxonomic concept approach (Franz et al. 2015), we describe three newly recognized fossil broad-nosed weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae) preserved in Early Miocene amber (ca. 20.4-16.0 mya) from the Dominican Republic: Scelianoma compacta sp. n. sec. Franz & Zhang (2017) (henceforth abbreviated as [FZ2017]), Tropirhinus palpebratus sp. n. [FZ2017], and Diaprepes anticus sp. n. [FZ2017]. The taxonomic assignment of the amber inclusions is grounded in a preceding phylogenetic analysis by Franz (2012). As many as 88 of the 143 therein identified characters were coded for the fossils, whose traits are largely congruent with those present in extant congeners while also differing in ways that justify their new nomenclatural and taxonomic status. New information We present detailed images, descriptions, and phylogenetically informed diagnoses for the three new species-level entities, along with logically consistent Region Connection Calculus (RCC-5) alignments of the amended genus-level classifications for Scelianoma Franz and Girón 2009 [FZ2017], Tropirhinus Schoenherr 1823 [FZ2017], and Diaprepes Schoenherr 1823 [FZ2017] - in relation to 2-4 preceding classifications published in 1982-2012. The description of Scelianoma compacta [FZ2017] from Hispaniola is indicative of a more widespread historical range of Scelianoma [FZ2017] than reflected in the extant, southwestern Puerto Rican Scelianoma elydimorpha Franz and Girón 2009 sec. Franz and Girón (2009). The presence of Diaprepes anticus [FZ2017] in Hispaniola during the Early Miocene suggests an eastward directed process of island colonization and likely speciation of members of Diaprepes [FZ2017], given that most extant relatives occur throughout the Lesser Antilles. The herein presented data will facilitate more reliable reconstructions of historical biographic processes thought to have played a prominent role in the diversification of
Mann, Paul; Taylor, F. W.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Ku, Teh-Lung
The pattern of folding, faulting, and late Quaternary coral-reef uplift rates in western and central Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) suggest that the elongate Gonave microplate, a 190,000-km 2 area of the northeastern Caribbean plate, is in the process of shearing off the Caribbean plate and accreting to the North American plate. Late Cenozoic transpression between the southeastern Bahama Platform and the Caribbean plate in Hispaniola has inhibited the eastward motion of the northeastern corner of the plate. Transpression is manifested in western and central Hispaniola by the formation of regional scale folds that correspond to present-day, anticlinal topographic mountain chains continuous with offshore anticlinal ridges. Areas of most rapid Quaternary uplift determined from onland coral reefs 125 ka and younger, coincide with the axial traces of these folds. Offshore data suggest recent folding and faulting of the seafloor. Onshore reef data do not conclusively require late Quaternary folding, but demonstrate that tectonic uplift rates of the axial areas of the anticlines decrease from the Northwest Peninsula of Haiti (0.37 mm/yr) to to the central part of the coast of western Haiti (0.19 mm/yr) to the south-central part of western Haiti (0 mm/yr). Formation of the 1200-km-long Enriquillo-Plantain Garden-Walton fault zone as a 'bypass' strike-slip fault has isolated the southern edge of the Gonave microplate and is allowing continued, unimpeded eastward motion of a smaller Caribbean plate past the zone of late Neogene convergence and Quaternary uplift of coral reefs in Hispaniola. Offshore seismic reflection data from the Jamaica Passage, the marine strait separating Jamaica and Haiti, show that the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone forms a narrow but deep, active fault-bounded trough beneath the passage. The active fault is continuous with active faults mapped onshore in western Haiti and eastern Jamaica; the bathymetric deep is present because the
Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer
In response to the urgent need for earthquake-hazard information after the tragic disaster caused by the moment magnitude (M) 7.0 January 12, 2010, earthquake, we have constructed initial probabilistic seismic hazard maps for Haiti. These maps are based on the current information we have on fault slip rates and historical and instrumental seismicity. These initial maps will be revised and improved as more data become available. In the short term, more extensive logic trees will be developed to better capture the uncertainty in key parameters. In the longer term, we will incorporate new information on fault parameters and previous large earthquakes obtained from geologic fieldwork. These seismic hazard maps are important for the management of the current crisis and the development of building codes and standards for the rebuilding effort. The boundary between the Caribbean and North American Plates in the Hispaniola region is a complex zone of deformation. The highly oblique ~20 mm/yr convergence between the two plates (DeMets and others, 2000) is partitioned between subduction zones off of the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola and strike-slip faults that transect the northern and southern portions of the island. There are also thrust faults within the island that reflect the compressional component of motion caused by the geometry of the plate boundary. We follow the general methodology developed for the 1996 U.S. national seismic hazard maps and also as implemented in the 2002 and 2008 updates. This procedure consists of adding the seismic hazard calculated from crustal faults, subduction zones, and spatially smoothed seismicity for shallow earthquakes and Wadati-Benioff-zone earthquakes. Each one of these source classes will be described below. The lack of information on faults in Haiti requires many assumptions to be made. These assumptions will need to be revisited and reevaluated as more fieldwork and research are accomplished. We made two sets of
Geerts, B.; Heymsfield, G.; Tian, L.
On 22 September 1998 hurricane Georges made landfall on the Dominican Republic (DR). Georges cost the DR at least 500 lives, made more than 155,000 people homeless and caused extensive damage to the country's main industries, tourism and agriculture. There was considerable wind damage, with wind gusts up to 58 m/s in Santa Domingo on the south coast, but most of the damage and deaths resulted from mudslides and the flooding of rivers. While this may have been the worst natural disaster to strike the DR, the sustained rapid storm movement saved the island from worse damage. Georges had previously affected several islands in the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico, but it had retained much of its circulation strength. Forty raingauge stations across the DR measured rainfall totals from Georges between 0.7 and 41 cm, the latter at the capital Santo Domingo, located on the south coast. At Herrera the maximum 1 h rainfall rate was 72 mm/h. It is suspected that much higher rain rates occurred in DR's mountainous interior. Before landfall the eye was clearly evident in satellite imagery. When the eye moved over southeastern DR, it filled rapidly, and the cloud top height decreased in all storm sectors except in the southern inflow sector, where a long-lived MCS, with a diameter larger than that of the eyewall, slowly became enwrapped in the hurricane circulation. The eye closure was most rapid between 16-18 UTC, when the eyewall circulation felt the mountainous terrain of the Cordillera Central, which rises up to 3,093 m. The estimated central pressure increased from 962 hPa at 15 UTC to 986 hPa at 03Z on 23 Sept, and the maximum sustained surface wind speed decreased from 54 to 36 in s-1 during the same period. The island of Hispaniola has a cross-track width of about 250 km, much wider than the diameter of the eyewall anvil (about 100 km before landfall). So the event can truly be considered to be a landfalling case, even though Georges recovered after crossing Hispaniola
Symithe, S. J.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.
The quasi-frontal subduction of the north and south American plates under the Lesser Antilles and the left and right lateral strike-slip along the northern and southern margins of the Caribbean plate offer the opportunity to study the transition from subduction to strike-slip between major plates. In addition, the segmentation and degree of interplate coupling at the Lesser Antilles subduction is key to our understanding of the earthquake potential of a subduction whose length is similar to the rupture area of the Mw9.0, 2011, Tohoku earthquake in Japan. We used the block modeling approach described in Meade and Loveless (2009) to test the optimal block geometry for the northern, eastern and southern boundaries of the Caribbean plate. We solved for angular velocities for each block/plate and strain accumulation rates for all major faults in the region. Then we calculated the variations in interplate coupling along the subduction plate boundaries using the accumulated strain rates. We tested 11 different block geometries; they are all based on geological evidences unless they are suggested by discrepancies within the GPS and seismological data or by previously published results. We confirm the existence of the micro Gonave plate. The boundary between the Micro-Gonave plate and the Hispaniola crustal block is better suited along the Haitian-Thrust-Belt instead of the Neiba-Matheux fault. The interseismic GPS velocities do not show evidence for a distinct North Lesser Antilles block. We found a totally uncoupled section of the subduction starting from the Puerto-Rico trench to the end of the Lesser Antilles section. All the relative motion of the Caribbean block is lost aseismically along the boundary of that portion of the subduction. While we found strong coupling along the northern Hispaniola section, most of the deformation on this region is being accumulated along intrablock faults with very low strain (~2mm/yr) along the intraplate subduction interface. We also
The northeastern Caribbean island arc, which materializes the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates, is particularly exposed to large earthquakes and tsunamis. The low level of preparedness of a large part of its population and the lack of risk reduction provisions in public policies in many countries of the region put their population and economy at high risk in case of large telluric events. Here we investigate the impact that three possible earthquake scenarios, all consistent with the regional seismotectonic setting, would have on northern Haiti through inundation by tsunami waves. These scenarios follow the conclusions of the 2013 IOC Meeting of Experts (IOC Workshop Report No. 255) and simulate the effect of a M8.0 earthquake on the Septentrional strike-slip fault (possibly similar to the 1842 earthquake), a M8.1 earthquake on the offshore thrust fault system north of Haiti, and an earthquake rupturing a large portion of the offshore thrust fault system north of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. We calculate run-up heights along the northern coast of Haiti, in particular in the densely populated, coastal city of Cap Haitien. We find that the rupture of the offshore North Hispaniola thrust fault could result in wave heights up to 10 m with inundation up to 4 km inland, with only 10-15 minutes between ground shaking and the first wave arrivals. The city of Cap Haitien is particularly exposed, with potential flooding of most of the city and its suburbs, including the international airport. We also find that the historical reports available for the 1842 earthquake, when compared to our simulations, favor a rupture of the North Hispaniola thrust fault, although much uncertainty remains. If the 1842 earthquake did not rupture the Septentional fault offshore Haiti, then it is currently capable of at least a Mw7.7 earthquake, significantly larger than previously thought. The simulations presented here provide a basis for developing conservative
Parchman, Thomas L; Benkman, Craig W; Mezquida, Eduardo T
Crossbills (Aves: Loxia) and several conifers have coevolved in predator-prey arms races over the last 10,000 years. However, the extent to which coevolutionary arms races have contributed to the adaptive radiation of crossbills or to any other adaptive radiation is largely unknown. Here we extend our previous studies of geographically structured coevolution by considering a crossbill-conifer interaction that has persisted for a much longer time period and involves a conifer with more variable annual seed production. We examined geographic variation in the cone and seed traits of two sister species of pines, Pinus occidentalis and P. cubensis, on the islands of Hispaniola and Cuba, respectively. We also compared the Hispaniolan crossbill (Loxia megaplaga) to its sister taxa the North American white-winged crossbill (Loxia leucoptera leucoptera). The Hispaniolan crossbill is endemic to Hispaniola whereas Cuba lacks crossbills. In addition and in contrast to previous studies, the variation in selection experienced by these pines due to crossbills is not confounded by the occurrence of selection by tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus and Sciurus). As predicted if P. occidentalis has evolved defenses in response to selection exerted by crossbills, cones of P. occidentalis have scales that are 53% thicker than those of P. cubensis. Cones of P. occidentalis, but not P. cubensis, also have well-developed spines, a known defense against vertebrate seed predators. Consistent with patterns of divergence seen in crossbills coevolving locally with other conifers, the Hispaniolan crossbill has evolved a bill that is 25% deeper than the white-winged crossbill. Together with phylogenetic analyses, our results suggest that predator-prey coevolution between Hispaniolan crossbills and P. occidentalis over approximately 600,000 years has caused substantial morphological evolution in both the crossbill and pine. This also indicates that cone crop fluctuations do not prevent crossbills and
Ntuli, G.; Agrawal, M.; Pulliam, J.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.; Polanco Rivera, E.
Due to its tectonic history, the Caribbean plate contains complex fault systems that are likely to have disrupted the Moho. To study the region's subsurface structure we computed a 3D image of the Northeast Caribbean via "velocity analysis" with Ps receiver functions. In this technique we simultaneously find, via an optimization procedure, depths to major discontinuities (in this case the Moho) and P and S velocity profiles beneath each seismic station. Ps receiver functions are time series computed from three-component seismograms that identify waves converted from P- to S-type at velocity discontinuities, such as the Moho and subducting lithosphere. Data were requested from the IRIS Data Management Center for events that occurred in the 2005-15 time period with magnitudes of 5.5-8.0 and epicentral distances of 30°-95° from stations in the study region. Data pre-processing steps include tapering, removing the trend and mean, and rotating from Z-N-E to L-Q-T (ray-based) coordinate systems. Ps receiver functions were then computed via iterative deconvolution in the time domain and the best receiver functions were stacked and modeled to generate a 3D image of the subsurface. Shear velocity profiles for each station are varied in a procedure, driven by simulated annealing, that seeks to optimize the correlation of a target feature—in this case the Moho—in the set of pre-processed Ps receiver functions. This procedure is feasible only when station spacing is relatively dense, which limits its success in this region to the islands of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola. Individual receiver functions were computed for isolated stations in the NE Caribbean, as well, but velocity analysis is limited to the two islands that have the densest station coverage. Moho depths beneath Puerto Rico range from 24 km, in the north, to 37 km, in the south. Moho depths beneath Hispaniola range from 23 km to 36 km but exhibit a more complex pattern of variation than beneath Puerto Rico
Jany, I.; Scanlon, K.M.; Mauffret, A.
The Anegada Passage (sensu lato) includes several basins and ridges from Southeast of Puerto Rico to the corner of the Virgin Islands Platform. Seabeam (Seacarib I) and Gloria long-range sidescan sonar surveys were carried out in this area. These new data allow us to propose an interpretation of the Anegada Passage. Most of the features described are related to wrench faulting: (a) St Croix and Virgin Islands Basins are pull-apart basins created in a right-lateral strike-slip environment based on their rhomboidal shape and seismic data (e.g. the flower structure). These two pull-aparts are divided into two sub-basins by a curvilinear normal fault in the Virgin Islands Basin and a right-lateral strike-slip fault in the St Croix Basin. (b) Tortola Ridge and a 'dog's leg' shaped structure are inferred to be restraining bends between two right-lateral strike-slip faults. (c) We identified two ENE-WSW volcanic lineaments in the eastern area and one volcano lying between Virgin Islands and St Croix Basins. (d) As shown by the seismic activity main wrench motion occurs along the north slope of Virgin Islands Basin and through Anegada Passage. A branching of this main fault transmits the transtensional motion to St Croix Basin. A two-stage story is proposed for the creation of the basins. A first extensional event during Eocene(?)-Oligocene-lower Miocene time created Virgin Islands, St Croix Basins and the tilted blocks of St Croix Ridge. A second transtensional event from Pliocene to Recent gave the present day pattern to this area. However, the displacement along the strike-slip faults is no more than 15 km long. The proposed geodynamic model is based on the separation of the northeastern Caribbean boundary into two blocks. In the West, the indenter of Beata Ridge gives a northeastern motion to Hispaniola Block. In the East, as a result of Hispaniola Block's motion, the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands Block could escape in an east-northeast direction. ?? 1990 Kluwer Academic
Yong, Alan; Hough, Susan E.; Cox, Brady R.; Rathje, Ellen M.; Bachhuber, Jeff; Dulberg, Ranon; Hulslander, David; Christiansen, Lisa; and Abrams, Michael J.
We report about a preliminary study to evaluate the use of semi-automated imaging analysis of remotely-sensed DEM and field geophysical measurements to develop a seismic-zonation map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. For in situ data, VS30 values are derived from the MASW technique deployed in and around the city. For satellite imagery, we use an ASTER GDEM of Hispaniola. We apply both pixel- and object-based imaging methods on the ASTER GDEM to explore local topography (absolute elevation values) and classify terrain types such as mountains, alluvial fans and basins/near-shore regions. We assign NEHRP seismic site class ranges based on available VS30 values. A comparison of results from imagery-based methods to results from traditional geologic-based approaches reveals good overall correspondence. We conclude that image analysis of RS data provides reliable first-order site characterization results in the absence of local data and can be useful to refine detailed site maps with sparse local data.
Yong, A.; Hough, S.E.; Cox, B.R.; Rathje, E.M.; Bachhuber, J.; Dulberg, R.; Hulslander, D.; Christiansen, L.; Abrams, M.J.
We report about a preliminary study to evaluate the use of semi-automated imaging analysis of remotely-sensed DEM and field geophysical measurements to develop a seismic-zonation map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. For in situ data, Vs30 values are derived from the MASW technique deployed in and around the city. For satellite imagery, we use an ASTER GDEM of Hispaniola. We apply both pixel- and object-based imaging methods on the ASTER GDEM to explore local topography (absolute elevation values) and classify terrain types such as mountains, alluvial fans and basins/near-shore regions. We assign NEHRP seismic site class ranges based on available Vs30 values. A comparison of results from imagery-based methods to results from traditional geologic-based approaches reveals good overall correspondence. We conclude that image analysis of RS data provides reliable first-order site characterization results in the absence of local data and can be useful to refine detailed site maps with sparse local data. ?? 2011 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
López, Pablo; Rivera-Amill, Vanessa; Paulino-Ramirez, Robert
Abstract The Caribbean region has the world second highest incidence rate of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The island of Hispaniola is composed of two sovereign nations: the Dominican Republic and Haiti. Together, they account for more than 85% of HIV/AIDS cases in the Caribbean; and the Dominican Republic alone has approximately 46,000 (33,000–59,000) HIV-1-infected adults and children. Despite this, the magnitude of the genetic variability and evolution of the HIV-1 virus in the Dominican Republic is unclear. In the current study, we analyzed 195 reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences obtained from the Los Alamos HIV database. The data were used to assess the course of the viral epidemic over time in the Dominican Republic, using a coalescent approach. Based on the data, we estimated that the timing of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of local HIV-1 subtype B emerged in 1963, approximately. In addition, the Bayesian analysis provided new information that suggests that the epidemic in the Dominican Republic experienced a significant decrease in relative genetic diversity in the past 2 decades. The results suggest that adherence to antiretroviral therapy, adequate prevention campaigns, and better access to health care may be altering the virus's evolution in the Dominican Republic. PMID:25941939
Mann, Paul; Calais, Eric; Huerfano, Victor
At 12:45 pm on 22 September, a M6.5 earthquake severely shook the northern Dominican Republic on the island of Hispaniola. The earthquake caused extensive damage to buildings in the major cities of Puerto Plata and Santiago, along with landslides in outlying areas. The main shock was followed by a large aftershock of M5.1 1 hr and 45 min later. Unfortunately, one person died due to collapse of a building during the main shock, two elderly people died of heart attacks, and one person jumped out of a building and later died of injuries. Fortunately, two partially collapsed school buildings and several office buildings in Puerto Plata that were severely damaged were unoccupied at the time of the early morning main shock. Aftershocks ranging up to nearly M5 continued for over a month, alarming local inhabitants. The M6.5 earthquake is the strongest shock to affect the northern Dominican Republic since a series of thrust events ranging from M6.1-8.1 occurred offshore and northeast of the Dominican Republic between 1943 and 1953 [Dolan and Wald, 1998]. This article summarizes the tectonic setting of the recent earthquake, its focal mechanism and inferred fault plane, damage, and ongoing research.
ten Brink, Uri S.; Lopez-Vegas, Alberto M.
Kinematic similarities between the Sumatra and Puerto Rico Trenches highlight the potential for a mega-earthquake along the Puerto Rico Trench and the generation of local and trans-Atlantic tsunamis. We used the horizontal components of continuous GPS (cGPS) measurements from 10 sites on NE Caribbean islands to evaluate strain accumulation along the North American (NA) - Caribbean (CA) plate boundary. These sites move westward and slightly northward relative to CA interior at rates ≤2.5 mm/y. Provided this motion originates in the subduction interface, the northward motion suggests little or no trench-perpendicular thrust accumulation and may in fact indicate divergence north of Puerto Rico, where abnormal subsidence, bathymetry, and gravity are observed. The Puerto Rico Trench, thus, appears unable to generate mega-earthquakes, but damaging smaller earthquakes cannot be discounted. The westward motion, characterized by decreasing rate with distance from the trench, is probably due to eastward motion of CA plate impeded at the plate boundary by the Bahamas platform. Two additional cGPS sites in Mona Passage and SW Puerto Rico move to the SW similar to Hispaniola and unlike the other 10 sites. That motion relative to the rest of Puerto Rico may have given rise to seismicity and normal faults in Mona Rift, Mona Passage, and SW Puerto Rico.
Kushlan, James A.
The American crocodile is a rare and endangered species, the range of which has contracted to disjunct locations such as Hispaniola, Jamaica, Cuba, Panama, and southern Florida. In an attempt to determine what factors might be limiting population growth, an extensive collaborative research program was conducted in 1978 82 in southern Florida. Limiting factors explicitly studied included climate, hurricanes, population dispersion, nesting habitat, fertility, predation, nest chamber environment, juvenile survivorship, artificial mortality, disturbance, and environmental contamination. No single natural factor limits the population, although in concert various factors result in low adult recruitment rates. Such natural limitations explain the natural rarity of this tropical species at the temperate limits of its range. Two artificial sources of mortality are death of adults on roads and the flooding of nests by high groundwater tables. These sources of mortality are potentially controllable by the appropriate management agencies. Active management, by such means as protection of individuals, habitat preservation and enhancement, nest site protection, and captive breeding, is also appropriate for assuring the survival of a rare species. The American crocodile has survived in southern Florida in face of extensive human occupancy of parts of its former nesting habitat, demonstrating the resilience of a threatened species. This case history illustrates the efficacy of conducting research aimed at testing specific management hypotheses, the importance of considering biographical constraints limiting population status in peripheral populations, the need for active management of rare species, and the role of multiple reserves in a conservation and management strategy.
Muñoz, Martha M; Stimola, Maureen A; Algar, Adam C; Conover, Asa; Rodriguez, Anthony J; Landestoy, Miguel A; Bakken, George S; Losos, Jonathan B
Understanding how quickly physiological traits evolve is a topic of great interest, particularly in the context of how organisms can adapt in response to climate warming. Adjustment to novel thermal habitats may occur either through behavioural adjustments, physiological adaptation or both. Here, we test whether rates of evolution differ among physiological traits in the cybotoids, a clade of tropical Anolis lizards distributed in markedly different thermal environments on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. We find that cold tolerance evolves considerably faster than heat tolerance, a difference that results because behavioural thermoregulation more effectively shields these organisms from selection on upper than lower temperature tolerances. Specifically, because lizards in very different environments behaviourally thermoregulate during the day to similar body temperatures, divergent selection on body temperature and heat tolerance is precluded, whereas night-time temperatures can only be partially buffered by behaviour, thereby exposing organisms to selection on cold tolerance. We discuss how exposure to selection on physiology influences divergence among tropical organisms and its implications for adaptive evolutionary response to climate warming.
Moya, José; Pimentel, Raquel; Puello, José
The Region of the Americas has been affected since December 2013 by a chikungunya epidemic for the first time. Although the first cases were recorded in the French Caribbean, the epidemic quickly spread to the Dominican Republic due to trade and people movements. The Dominican Republic, which shares the island of Hispaniola with Haiti, has a population of 10 million. This article contains information from a range of different publications and official documents about the chikungunya virus infection and epidemic. These papers were extremely helpful for guiding the response to the epidemic in the Dominican Republic and may also be useful for enhancing knowledge of the virus and responses among health workers elsewhere in the region. Particular attention is drawn to the important research undertaken in countries and territories affected by the epidemic in the Indian Ocean area. This is the case, for example, of the island of La Réunion, where the epidemic had an attack rate of more than 30% between 2005 and 2007. Researchers were able to identify risk groups, severe and atypical forms of the infection, cases of vertical transmission, chronic disease causing recurrent pain over three years, and directly- or indirectly-related deaths from the virus. Given its high attack rate, the chikungunya virus has emerged as an exceptional challenge for health ministries and calls for appropriate organized responses from the health services, prioritization of care for risk groups and patients exhibiting severe forms of the disease, and effective social communication and intersectoral actions.
Chinea, J.D.; Beymer, R.J.; Sastre de Jesus, I.; Scatena, F.N.
The plant species of the Bisley area were surveyed for several years, mostly as a result of studies conducted under the Long-Term Ecological Research Program of the National Science Foundation. A list was prepared that contains a total of 336 plant species in 255 genera and 102 families of bryophytes and vascular plants. Within these species there are 107 tree species, 20 shrub species, 28 dicotyledonous vines, 86 herbs, 52 bryophytes, and 43 ferns. There are 22 introduced and 314 native species (of the later, 30 are endemic to Puerto Rico). Nine families account for 39 percent of all species found in the Bisley area. Forests of the Bisley area have been classified as subtropical wet forests, lower montane rain forests, and single-dominant forests. The Bisley watersheds are covered by a secondary forest of the tabonuco type (Dacryodes excelsa). This forest type is part of the Dacryodes-Sloanea association of Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, and higher elevation islands of the Lesser Antilles.
Rogers-Brown, Jessica; Johnson, Ryan; Smith, Dominique; Ramsey-White, Kim
Worldwide, diarrheal disease is a leading cause of death affecting over 1.7 million individuals annually. Much of this can be attributed to lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. Nearly all of these deaths occur in countries with developing economies. This public health problem is apparent in the island of Hispaniola; the island that is shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Significant gaps in income between the countries have resulted in Haitians migrating into the Dominican Republic. While there has been increased migration into the Dominican Republic, many of the neighborhoods remain segregated. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted at 49 sites in the Dominican Republic. Samples were classified as being from a Haitian neighborhood or Dominican neighborhood and analyzed for microbial contamination. Overall, Haitian neighborhoods were found to have statistically significantly higher levels of contamination of both coliform and E. coli. The odds of having E. coli contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.25 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. The odds of having coliform contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.78 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. This study provides evidence of the disparity in access to clean drinking water for Haitian immigrants and highlights the need for further investigation. PMID:26703674
Suárez, William; Olson, Storrs L
After reviewing the systematics and distribution of the extinct West Indian taxa of Tytonidae (Tyto) larger than the living barn owl Tyto alba (Scopoli), we reached the following conclusions: (1) the species T. ostologa Wetmore (1922) is the only giant barn owl known so far from Hispaniola; (2) T. pollens Wetmore (1937) was a somewhat larger and even more robust representative of T. ostologa known from the Great Bahama Bank and Cuba; (3) the very rare species T. riveroi Arredondo (1972b) is here synonymized with T. pollens; (4) the smallest taxon of these giant barn owls is T. noeli Arredondo (1972a), which is widespread and abundant in Quaternary deposits of Cuba and is here reported for the first time from two cave deposits in Jamaica; (5) the only large barn owl named so far from the Lesser Antilles is T. neddi Steadman & Hilgartner (1999), which is here synonymized with T. noeli; (6) a new taxon from Cuba, T. cravesae new species, which in size approached the linear dimensions of T. ostologa, is named and described herein.
Over the last decades, Isla Hispaniola (i.e. the territory shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic) has been sadly affected by several hydro-geological disasters. In fact, the island has been involuntary protagonist of the international chronicles for being hit by the passage of several devastating hurricanes. Incalculable damages to structures and environment and thousand fatalities are the results of such events. A recent and glaring example is that of May 2004, when extreme and intense precipitations, originated by a tropical depression in the Caribbean Sea, occurred over the island, producing a devastating flash-flooding of the river Soliette trans-boundary catchment. The flooding destroyed most of the cities of Jimaní and Fond Verrettes and killed over 1,000 Haitian and Dominican people. The same event also killed 414 people in the Dominican Republic. This presentation shows the analysis of the hydrological and hydraulic behaviour of the river Soliette aimed at modelling the flood event of May 2004 and formulating a trans-boundary flood mitigation plan.
McLaughlin, P.P. Jr. ); Sen Gupta, B.K. )
The Azua Basin contains a 4000-m-thick regressive Neogene sedimentary sequence that records the effects of neotectonic activity along the northern bounary of the Caribbean plate. Shifts of benthic foraminiferal depth zone boundaries between stratigraphic sections demonstrate a southeastward migration of paleoenvironments in the Miocene and early Pliocene which suggest that the Hispaniola restraining bend was activated near the beginning of the late Miocene. In the morthwestern part of the Azua basin, the boundary between the middle and upper bathyal biofacies is in the uppermost Miocene Globorotalia humerosa Zone; the bathyal-neritic boundary is near the top of the same zone. In contrast, toward the southeastern (i.e., seaward) end of the basin, the middle bathyal/upper bathyal boundary is just above the base of the lower Pliocene Globorotalia margaritae margaritae Subzone, and the bathyal-neritic transition falls within the upper part of the same zone or in the overlying Globorotalia margaritae evoluta Subzone. The diachroneity of biofacies boundaries spans a time interval of ca. 1 m.y. The foraminiferal trends are corroborated by the disposition of time-transgressive lithofacies.
Benford, B.; DeMets, C.; Tikoff, B.; Williams, P.; Brown, L.; Wiggins-Grandison, M.
We use block modelling of GPS site velocities from Jamaica and nearby islands, including Hispaniola, to test alternative plate boundary geometries for deformation in Jamaica and estimate slip rates along the island's major fault zones. Relative to the Caribbean Plate, GPS sites in northern Jamaica move 6.0 ± 0.5 mm yr-1 to the WSW, constituting a lower bound on the motion of the Gônave microplate across its southern boundary in Jamaica. Obliquely convergent motion of all 30 GPS sites on and near Jamaica relative to the island's ˜E-W-trending strike-slip faults may be partitioned into 2.6 ± 0.6 mm yr-1 of ˜N-S shortening across submarine faults south of Jamaica and 5-6 mm yr-1 of E-W motion. Guided by geological and seismic information about the strikes and locations of faults in Jamaica, inverse block modelling of the regional GPS velocities rejects plate boundary configurations that presume either a narrow plate boundary in Jamaica or deformation concentrated across a restraining bend defined by the topographically high Blue Mountains of eastern Jamaica. The best-fitting models instead place most deformation on faults in central Jamaica. The 4-5 mm yr-1 slip rate we estimate for the Plantain Garden fault and Blue Mountain restraining bend of southeastern Jamaica implies significant seismic hazard for the nearby capital of Kingston.
Filipowicz, Natalia; Renner, Susanne S
Hallucinogenic or toxic species of Brunfelsia (Solanaceae: Petunieae) are important in native cultures throughout South America, and the genus also contains several horticulturally important species. An earlier morphological revision of the c. 50 species recognized three main groups, one consisting of the 23 Antillean species, another of southern South American and Andean species, and a third of species from the Amazon Basin and Guiana Shield. Based on plastid and nuclear DNA sequences from up to 65 accessions representing 80% of the species, we generated a phylogeny and a calibrated chronogram for Brunfelsia to infer clade expansion and shifts in pollinators and fruit types. Brunfelsia flowers offer nectar, and attract lepidoptera, hummingbirds, or bees; the fruits are dry or fleshy. Our results imply that Brunfelsia is 16-21 Myr old and entered the Antilles from South America early during its history, with subsequent expansion along the island arc. The ancestor of the Antillean clade was hawk-moth-pollinated and had fleshy capsules, perhaps facilitating dispersal by birds. The only shift to hummingbird pollination occurred on Cuba, which also harbors the largest single radiation, with 11 species (10 included in our study) that apparently arose over the past 4 Myr. Jamaica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico each sustained smaller radiations. The data also reveal at least one new species.
Though not the most powerful storm of the 2007 Atlantic Hurricane season, Tropical Storm Noel was among the most deadly. Only Category 5 Hurricane Felix and its associated flooding had a higher toll. The slow-moving Tropical Storm Noel inundated the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Cuba, and the Bahamas with heavy rain between October 28 and November 1, 2007. The resulting floods and mudslides left at least 115 dead and thousands homeless throughout the Caribbean, reported the Associated Press on November 2, 2007. This image shows the distribution of the rainfall that made Noel a deadly storm. The image shows rainfall totals as measured by the Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center from October 26 through November 1, 2007. The analysis is based on measurements taken by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. The heaviest rainfall fell in the Dominican Republic and the Bahamas, northeast of Noel's center. Areas of dark red show that rainfall totals over the south-central Dominican Republic and parts of the Bahamas were over 551 millimeters (21 inches). Much of eastern Hispaniola, including both the Dominican Republic and Haiti received at least 200 mm (about 8 inches) of rain, shown in yellow. Rainfall totals over Haiti and Cuba were less, with a range of at least 50 mm (2 inches) to over 200 mm (8 inches).
Laurenzano, Claudia; Costa, Tânia M.; Schubart, Christoph D.
Fiddler crabs (Brachyura, Ocypodidae), like many other marine organisms, disperse via planktonic larvae. A lengthy pelagic larval duration is generally assumed to result in genetic connectivity even among distant populations. However, major river outflows, such as of the Amazon or Orinoco, or strong currents may act as phylogeographic barriers to ongoing gene flow. For example, the Mona Passage, located between Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, has been postulated to impair larval exchange of several species. In this study, Cox1 mtDNA data was used to analyze population genetic structure of two fiddler crab species from the western Atlantic, comparing the continental coastline and Caribbean islands. The results indicate genetic homogeneity in Minuca rapax among Atlantic (continental) populations (Suriname, Brazil), whereas Caribbean populations show significantly restricted gene flow among the constituent islands and towards continental populations. Our data support the hypothesis of the Mona Passage hindering larval exchange. Contrastingly, Caribbean Leptuca leptodactyla populations appear to be devoid of detectable variation, while Atlantic-continental (i.e. Brazilian) populations show much higher haplotype and nucleotide diversities and display slight genetic differentiation among populations within the Atlantic region, though not statistically significant. Both species show a pronounced divergence between regions, supporting the presence of a phylogeographic barrier. PMID:27861598
Díaz-Lameiro, Alondra M; Oleksyk, Taras K; Bird-Picó, Fernando J; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos
Little is known about the natural history of the Sphaerodactylus species endemic to the three islands located in the Mona Passage separating the Greater Antillean islands of Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. In this study, parts of two mitochondrial genes, 16S rRNA and 12S rRNA, were sequenced to determine the relationships between the sphaerodactylids that live in the Mona Passage and other Caribbean species from the same genus. While the main goal was to identify the biogeographical origin of these species, we also identified a genetically distinct type of dwarf gecko that warrants future evaluation as a possible new species. According to the reconstructed phylogenies, we propose a stepwise model of colonization wherein S. nicholsi from southwestern Puerto Rico or a very close ancestor gave rise through a founder event to Sphaerodactylus monensis on Mona Island. In a similar fashion, S. monensis or a very close ancestor on Mona Island gave rise to S. levinsi on Desecheo Island. This study also suggests that the most recent common ancestor between the species from the islands in the Mona Passage and Puerto Rico existed approximately 3 MYA. PMID:24340189
Prather, J.W.; Cruz, A.; Weaver, P.F.; Wiley, J.W.
We experimentally parasitized nests of the Village Weaver (Ploceus cucullatus) in Hispaniola using real and artificial eggs made from wood and modeling clay. Artificial eggs were similar in size and shape to real weaver eggs and were coated with acrylic paint and glazed. Real eggs were actual weaver eggs taken from Village Weaver nests. Experimental parasitic eggs (1) mimicked natural weaver eggs, (2) differed in color only, (3) differed in spotting only, or (4) mimicked Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) egg color and spotting pattern. Parasitized nests were checked after 2-6 days. Real eggs were ejected from weaver nests with increasing frequency as they became less similar to the eggs in the nest with cowbirds eggs having the highest rejection (81%). However, for artificial egg types there were no significant within-composition differences in patterns of rejection. Clay eggs were usually ejected from the nests, whereas nests containing wood eggs often ended empty, or with only the artificial egg remaining in the nest. These patterns may reflect the differential ability of weavers to recognize and remove foreign eggs of different compositions from their nests. Researchers undertaking egg-rejection experiments should use real eggs either in addition or in place of artificial eggs to assess the cost of rejection and the coevolutionary relationships between parasite and host.
Sessa, R; Palagiano, C; Scifoni, M G; di Pietro, M; Del Piano, M
With the discovery of the New World, the Europeans flocked to America and with them spread infectious diseases. During long sea voyages the agents of these diseases increased their diffusion capacity in a suitable environment. Lack of hygiene, fatigue and privations, a diet without vitamins and many persons kept in confined spaces were the essential features of this environment. Sick persons, whose health conditions worsened during the journey to the New World, carried the germs of infectious diseases. The first disease to appear in the New World was smallpox described in 1518 in Hispaniola. From there the disease moved rapidly to Mexico in 1520, exterminating most of the Aztecs, Guatemala and to the territories of Incas from 1525-26, killing most of them and the King himself. The second disease, influenza, appeared in La Isabela, a few years later, causing a heavy epidemic between 1558 and 1559. Other diseases followed such as yellow fever and malaria. So Europeans and these invisible and mortal agents caused enormous destruction of American populations. In fact historians have estimated that beginning from early 1500, in only 50 years the population of Peru and Mexico fell from 60 to 10 million; in the latter country, in one century, the populations fell from an initial 10 million to only 2 million.
Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S.; Meyer, B.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Ellouz-Zimmermann, N.; Momplaisir, R.
Transpressive deformation at the northern Caribbean plate boundary is accommodated mostly by two major strike-slip faults, but the amount and location of accommodation of the compressional component of deformation are still debated. We collected marine geophysical data including multibeam bathymetry and multichannel seismic reflection profiles along this plate boundary around Hispaniola, in the Jamaica Passage, and in the Gulf of Gonâve. The data set allows us to image the offshore active strike-slip faults as well as the compressional structures. We confirm that the Enriquillo-Plantain-Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ) in the Jamaica Passage has a primary strike-slip motion, as indicated by active left-lateral strike-slip-related structures, i.e., restraining bend, asymmetrical basin, en echelon pressures ridges, and horsetail splay. Based on topographic cross sections across the EPGFZ, we image a very limited compressional component, if any, for at least the western part of the Jamaica Passage. Toward the east of the Jamaica Passage, the fault trace becomes more complex, and we identify adjacent compressional structures. In the Gulf of Gonâve, distributed folding and thrust faulting of the most recent sediments indicate active pervasive compressional tectonics. Estimates of shortening in the Jamaica Passage and in the Gulf of Gonâve indicate an increase of the compressional component of deformation toward the east, which nonetheless remains very small compared to that inferred from block modeling based on GPS measurements.
Rogers-Brown, Jessica; Johnson, Ryan; Smith, Dominique; Ramsey-White, Kim
Worldwide, diarrheal disease is a leading cause of death affecting over 1.7 million individuals annually. Much of this can be attributed to lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. Nearly all of these deaths occur in countries with developing economies. This public health problem is apparent in the island of Hispaniola; the island that is shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Significant gaps in income between the countries have resulted in Haitians migrating into the Dominican Republic. While there has been increased migration into the Dominican Republic, many of the neighborhoods remain segregated. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted at 49 sites in the Dominican Republic. Samples were classified as being from a Haitian neighborhood or Dominican neighborhood and analyzed for microbial contamination. Overall, Haitian neighborhoods were found to have statistically significantly higher levels of contamination of both coliform and E. coli. The odds of having E. coli contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.25 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. The odds of having coliform contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.78 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. This study provides evidence of the disparity in access to clean drinking water for Haitian immigrants and highlights the need for further investigation.
Rosenberger, Alfred L; Cooke, Siobhán B; Rímoli, Renato; Ni, Xijun; Cardoso, Luis
The nearly pristine remains of Antillothrix bernensis, a capuchin-sized (Cebus) extinct platyrrhine from the Dominican Republic, have been found submerged in an underwater cave. This represents the first specimen of an extinct Caribbean primate with diagnostic craniodental and skeletal parts in association, only the second example of a skull from the region, and one of the most complete specimens of a fossil platyrrhine cranium yet discovered. Cranially, it closely resembles living cebines but is more conservative. Dentally, it is less bunodont and more primitive than Cebus, with crowns resembling Saimiri (squirrel monkeys) and one of the oldest definitive cebines, the late Early Miocene Killikaike blakei from Argentina. The tricuspid second molar also resembles the enigmatic marmosets and tamarins, whose origins continue to present a major gap in knowledge of primate evolution. While the femur is oddly short and stout, the ulna, though more robust, compares well with Cebus. As a member of the cebid clade, Antillothrix demonstrates that insular Caribbean monkeys are not monophyletically related and may not be the product of a single colonizing event. Antillothrix bernensis is an intriguing mosaic whose primitive characters are consistent with an early origin, possibly antedating the assembly of the modern primate fauna in greater Amazonia during the La Venta horizon. While most Greater Antillean primate specimens are quite young geologically, this vanished radiation, known from Cuba (Paralouatta) and Jamaica (Xenothrix) as well as Hispaniola, appears to be composed of long-lived lineages like several other mainland clades.
Rosenberger, Alfred L; Pickering, Robyn; Green, Helen; Cooke, Siobhán B; Tallman, Melissa; Morrow, Andrea; Rímoli, Renato
Endemic New World monkeys are an important element of the extinct mammal faunas of the Caribbean's Greater Antilles. Here we report the first geochronometric evidence that the primate Antillothrix bernensis existed in the Dominican Republic during the Pleistocene, based on the uranium-series age of carbonate speleothem that encased a tibia when it was collected in a flooded cave. Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics of laser-scanned living and extinct samples provide evidence to support the hypothesis that this specimen and other Dominican primate tibial remains belong to that same species. U-Th dating of the host cave carbonate returns ages consistently at the 600 ka upper limit of the technique. However, U-Pb, capable of resolving ages of greater antiquity, is more robust in this context, returning a secure age of 1.32 ± 0.11 Ma, which is the oldest chronometric age recorded for a Hispaniolan mammal. While its origins and manner and time of arrival are obscure, the morphometric studies are consistent with phylogenetic analyses that place A. bernensis within the pitheciid clade of the platyrrhines. The species apparently endured for over 1 million years during the climatic perturbations of the Pleistocene, as a frugivorous climbing quadruped, one of two known primate species occupying the hazard prone island of Hispaniola.
Rosenberger, Alfred L.; Cooke, Siobhán B.; Rímoli, Renato; Ni, Xijun; Cardoso, Luis
The nearly pristine remains of Antillothrix bernensis, a capuchin-sized (Cebus) extinct platyrrhine from the Dominican Republic, have been found submerged in an underwater cave. This represents the first specimen of an extinct Caribbean primate with diagnostic craniodental and skeletal parts in association, only the second example of a skull from the region, and one of the most complete specimens of a fossil platyrrhine cranium yet discovered. Cranially, it closely resembles living cebines but is more conservative. Dentally, it is less bunodont and more primitive than Cebus, with crowns resembling Saimiri (squirrel monkeys) and one of the oldest definitive cebines, the late Early Miocene Killikaike blakei from Argentina. The tricuspid second molar also resembles the enigmatic marmosets and tamarins, whose origins continue to present a major gap in knowledge of primate evolution. While the femur is oddly short and stout, the ulna, though more robust, compares well with Cebus. As a member of the cebid clade, Antillothrix demonstrates that insular Caribbean monkeys are not monophyletically related and may not be the product of a single colonizing event. Antillothrix bernensis is an intriguing mosaic whose primitive characters are consistent with an early origin, possibly antedating the assembly of the modern primate fauna in greater Amazonia during the La Venta horizon. While most Greater Antillean primate specimens are quite young geologically, this vanished radiation, known from Cuba (Paralouatta) and Jamaica (Xenothrix) as well as Hispaniola, appears to be composed of long-lived lineages like several other mainland clades. PMID:20659936
Laurenzano, Claudia; Costa, Tânia M; Schubart, Christoph D
Fiddler crabs (Brachyura, Ocypodidae), like many other marine organisms, disperse via planktonic larvae. A lengthy pelagic larval duration is generally assumed to result in genetic connectivity even among distant populations. However, major river outflows, such as of the Amazon or Orinoco, or strong currents may act as phylogeographic barriers to ongoing gene flow. For example, the Mona Passage, located between Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, has been postulated to impair larval exchange of several species. In this study, Cox1 mtDNA data was used to analyze population genetic structure of two fiddler crab species from the western Atlantic, comparing the continental coastline and Caribbean islands. The results indicate genetic homogeneity in Minuca rapax among Atlantic (continental) populations (Suriname, Brazil), whereas Caribbean populations show significantly restricted gene flow among the constituent islands and towards continental populations. Our data support the hypothesis of the Mona Passage hindering larval exchange. Contrastingly, Caribbean Leptuca leptodactyla populations appear to be devoid of detectable variation, while Atlantic-continental (i.e. Brazilian) populations show much higher haplotype and nucleotide diversities and display slight genetic differentiation among populations within the Atlantic region, though not statistically significant. Both species show a pronounced divergence between regions, supporting the presence of a phylogeographic barrier.
Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio; Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Mercedes; Palacio-Grüber, Jose; Campos, Cristina; Camacho, Alejandro; Martin-Villa, Jose Manuel; Martinez-Quiles, Narcisa; Gomez-Casado, Eduardo; Muñiz, Ester
HLA-G polymorphism has been found to be relatively low in all world populations. In the present paper two new HLA-G molecules are described in ancient American natives. A new HLA-G molecule from a Ecuador Amerindian individual (male) showed four codon changes with respect to HLA-G*01:01:01. Silent changes at α1 domain (residue 57, Pro, CCG→CCA) and α2 domain (residue 93, His, CAC→CAT and residue 100, Gly, GGC→GGT) and one productive change in α3 domain (residue 219 changed from Arg to Trp). This α3 change may dramatically alter HLA-G interactions with beta-2 microglobulin, CD8, ILT-2 and ILT-4 ligands present in subsets of T, B, NK, monocytes, macrophages and dentritic cells. Another HLA-G new molecule was found in a woman from Hispaniola Island, Dominican Republic (Sto Domingo): it presented a silent change at α2 domain residue 107, Gly, GGA→GGT and non-silent change at residue 178, Met→Thr (with respect to HLA-G*01:01:01) which is close to class I molecule/clonotypic T cell receptor interaction sites. Functional implications of these findings are discussed.
Rosencrantz, Eric; Mann, Paul
SeaMARC II maps of the southern wall of the Cayman Trough between Honduras and Jamaica show zones of continuous, well-defined fault lineaments adjacent and parallel to the wall, both to the east and west of the Cayman spreading axis. These lineaments mark the present, active traces of transform faults which intersect the southern end of the spreading axis at a triple junction. The Swan Islands transform fault to the west is dominated by two major lineaments that overlap with right-stepping sense across a large push-up ridge beneath the Swan Islands. The fault zone to the east of the axis, named the Walton fault, is more complex, containing multiple fault strands and a large pull-apart structure. The Walton fault links the spreading axis to Jamaican and Hispaniolan strike-slip faults, and it defines the southern boundary of a microplate composed of the eastern Cayman Trough and western Hispaniola. The presence of this microplate raises questions about the veracity of Caribbean plate velocities based primarily on Cayman Trough opening rates.
A reconnaissance review of reflection-seismic sections from the Caribbean, together with limited information derived from dredged rocks, sediment cores, and drillholes, yields or contributes to first-order conclusions regarding the tectonic history of the water-covered Caribbean. Broadly speaking, tectonic episodes for which there is some evidence are: (1) late Cenozoic convergence and accretion along deformed continental or island margins off Panama, Colombia/Venezuela, and Hispaniola/Puerto Rico; (2) late Cenozoic generation of oceanic crust within the Cayman Trough; (3) late Cenozoic secondary deformation along the Caribbean-North American plate boundary zone, in the form of small pull-apart basins, transcurrent faults, tensional rift basins, and compressional features; (4) late Cenozoic slow disintegration of the western part of the Caribbean plate; (5) Cenozoic rift-basin formation on the upper Nicaraguan rise; (6) early Cenozoic or late Cretaceous opening of the Yucatan Basin; (7) late Cretaceous through early Cenozoic island arc formation; and (8) late Cretaceous and earlier emplacement of flow basalts in the northwestern Venezuelan Basin and possibly beneath large areas of the Caribbean. There is no evidence that except along their active margins, the Venezuelan Basin, Beata Ridge, Colombian Basin, and Nicaraguan rise areas have been sites for large-scale relative movements which created or destroyed plate material since late Cretaceous time - or earlier.
McNamara, D. E.; Benz, H.; Gee, L. S.; Frankel, A. D.
We analyze frequency-dependent attenuation of Lg waves, 1/Q(f), for numerous tectonic environments. Tectonic environments studied include: south Pacific oceanic subduction zone near Samoa, the oblique subduction zone off Hispaniola, two continental-oceanic subduction zones in Chile and Alaska, the continental-continental collision zone of the Tibetan Plateau, stable continental interior regions of the central US and Colorado Plateau, the eastern US passive margin and the active margins of the western US. Lg propagates with a group velocity of about 3.5 km/s, the average crustal shear wave velocity. This wave is commonly observed as the dominant phase on high-frequency seismograms at regional distances and is generated by a superposition of higher-mode surface waves or multiply-reflected shear energy in a crustal waveguide. Consequently, Lg provides a good measure of path-averaged crustal properties, such as shear-wave velocity and attenuation. Lg is particularly useful since its amplitude is sensitive to lateral heterogeneity in the crust due to varying tectonic environment. In this global survey we observe that Lg attenuation is generally higher for tectonically active regions than for stable continental interiors. Q(f) is an important physical parameter and is required for a variety of USGS research projects such as the simulation of strong ground motion and seismic network magnitude detection threshold modeling.
Higuera-Gundy, Antonia; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David A.; Curtis, Jason H.; Leyden, Barbara W.; Binford, Michael W.
Pleistocene and Holocene vegetation dynamics in the American tropics are inferred largely from pollen in continental lake sediments. Maritime influences may have moderated climate and vegetation changes on Caribbean islands. Stable isotope (δ18O) study of a 7.6-m core from Lake Miragoane, Haiti, provided a high-resolution record of changing evaporation/precipitation (E/P) since ∼10,300 14C yr B.P. The Miragoane pollen record documents climate influences and human impacts on vegetation in Hispaniola. The δ18O and pollen data near the base of the core indicate cool, dry conditions before ∼10,000 14C yr B.P. Lake Miragoane filled with water in the early Holocene as E/P declined and the freshwater aquifer rose. Despite increasing early Holocene moisture, shrubby, xeric vegetation persisted. Forest expanded ∼7000 14C yr B.P. in response to greater effective moisture and warming. The middle Holocene (∼7000-3200 14C yr B.P.) was characterized by high lake levels and greatest relative abundance of pollen from moist forest taxa. Climatic drying that began ∼3200 14C yr B.P. may have driven some mesophilic animal species to extinction. The pollen record of the last millennium reflects pre-Columbian (Taino) and European deforestation. Long-term, Holocene vegetation trends in southern Haiti are comparable to trends from continental, lowland circum-Caribbean sites, suggesting a common response to regional climate change.
Graham, A.; Cozadd, D.; Areces-Mallea, A.; Frederiksen, N.O.
An assemblage of 46 fossil pollen and spore types is described from a core drilled through the middle Eocene Saramaguacan Formation, Camaguey Province, eastern Cuba. Many of the specimens represent unidentified or extinct taxa but several can be identified to family (Palmae, Bombacaceae, Gramineae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae) and some to genus (Pteris, Crudia, Lymingtonia?). The paleo-climate was warm-temperate to subtropical which is consistent with other floras in the region of comparable age and with the global paleotemperature curve. Older plate tectonic models show a variety of locations for proto-Cuba during Late Cretaceous and later times, including along the norther coast of South America. More recent models depict western and central Cuba as two separate parts until the Eocene, and eastern Cuba (joined to northern Hispaniola) docking to central Cuba also in the Eocene. All fragments are part of the North American Plate and none were directly connected with northern South America in late Mesozoic or Cenozoic time. The Saramaguacan flora supports this model because the assemblage is distinctly North American in affinities, with only one type (Retimonocolpites type 1) found elsewhere only in South America.
Klose, Christian D.
Since the 18th century, the Republic of Haiti has experienced numerous tropical cyclones. In 2011, the United Nations Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction outlined that the worldwide physical exposure to natural hazards, which includes tropical storms and hurricanes in Haiti, increased by 192 per cent between 1970 and 2010. Now, it can be hypothesized that the increased physical exposure to cyclones that made landfall in Haiti has affected the country's development path. This study shows that tropical storm risks in Haiti increased due to more physical exposure of the population in urban areas rather than a higher cyclone frequency in the proximity of Hispaniola island. In fact, the population density accelerated since the second half of the 20th century in regions where historically more storms made landfall, such as in the departments Ouest, Artibonite, Nord and Nord-Ouest including Haiti's four largest cities: Port-au-Prince, Gonaïves, Cap-Haïtien and Port-de-Paix. Thus, urbanization in and migration into storm hazard prone areas could be considered as one of the major driving forces of Haiti's fragility.
Maria, Roberto; Ramer, Jan; Reichard, Tim; Tolson, Peter J; Christopher, Mary M
Caribbean iguanas, including the Ricord's iguana (Cyclura ricordii) are ranked as critically endangered on the International Union of the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. The taxon is endemic to Hispaniola, where it inhabits xeric lowlands and is found in a very limited range in two subpopulations in the southwestern area of the island. The goals of this study were to obtain and analyze plasma biochemical and intestinal microbiological data from Ricord's iguanas in the subpopulation of the Neiba Valley, on Cabritos Island National Park, Dominican Republic, and to establish biochemical reference intervals. A total of 23 blood samples from clinically healthy iguanas (16 males, 7 females) and 14 fecal samples from clinically healthy iguanas were analyzed. Adult female iguanas had higher concentrations of cholesterol, phosphorus, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, and aspartate transaminase activity compared with male iguanas, although the difference was not statistically significant. Seventeen bacterial isolates were obtained, including: Salmonella sp. (serogroup B; serogroup D negative) Escherichia coli, Brevibacterium sp., Enterobacter cloacae, and Enterococcus durans. These data will help contribute to the management and recovery of Ricord's iguana populations.
Graham, A; Cozadd, D; Areces-Mallea, A; Frederiksen, N O
An assemblage of 46 fossil pollen and spore types is described from a core drilled through the middle Eocene Saramaguacán Formation, Camagüey Province, eastern Cuba. Many of the specimens represent unidentified or extinct taxa but several can be identified to family (Palmae, Bombacaceae, Gramineae, Moraceae, Myrtaceae) and some to genus (Pteris, Crudia, Lymingtonia?). The paleoclimate was warm-temperate to subtropical which is consistent with other floras in the region of comparable age and with the global paleotemperature curve. Older plate tectonic models show a variety of locations for proto-Cuba during Late Cretaceous and later times, including along the norther coast of South America. More recent models depict western and central Cuba as two separate parts until the Eocene, and eastern Cuba (joined to northern Hispaniola) docking to central Cuba also in the Eocene. All fragments are part of the North American Plate and none were directly connected with northern South America in late Mesozoic or Cenozoic time. The Saramaguacán flora supports this model because the assemblage is distinctly North American in affinities, with only one type (Retimonocolpites type 1) found elsewhere only in South America.
Shaw, Jeffrey; Pratlong, Francine; Floeter-Winter, Lucile; Ishikawa, Edna; El Baidouri, Fouad; Ravel, Christophe; Dedet, Jean-Pierre
Leishmania parasites isolated, between 1979 and 1988 by the late Bryce Walton, from Dominican Republic (DR) patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, were characterized using a panel of 12 isoenzymes, 23 monoclonal antibodies, small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSu rDNA), and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The isoenzyme and monoclonal antibody profiles and the MLSA results showed that the Dominican Republic parasites were distinct from other described Leishmania species. This new species belongs to the mexicana complex, which is distributed in central and parts of northern South America. It is suggested that the parasites uniqueness from other members of the mexicana complex is related to it being isolated on an island for millions of years. If Leishmania (Leishmania) waltoni fails to adapt to some imported mammal, such as the house rat, it will be the only Leishmania to be classified as an endangered species. The excessive destruction of habitats on Hispaniola threatens the survival of its vectors and presumed natural reservoirs, such as the rodent hutias and the small insectivorous mammal solenodon. The concept of Leishmania species is discussed in the light of recent evaluations on criteria for defining bacterial species. PMID:26149864
Guillory, Anthony R.; Hood, Robbie E.
The third Convection And Moisture EXperiment (CAMEX-3) was conducted from 6 August - 27 September 1998. CAMEX is a series of field experiments sponsored by the Earth Science Enterprise of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The overall goal of CAMEX-3 was to study atmospheric water vapor and precipitation processes using a unique array of aircraft, balloon, and land-based remote sensors for research in tropical cyclone development, tracking, intensification, and landfalling situations using NASA-funded aircraft and surface remote sensing instrumentation. This project collected high spatial and temporal information of hurricane structure, dynamics, and motion. The ER-2 and DC-8 were the primary NASA aircraft used in the deployment flying at altitudes of 65,000 and 35,000 feet, respectively. In addition, coordinated flights with NOAA WP-3 and Air Force Reserve Hurricane Hunters C-130 aircraft were developed so that some missions involved as many as five to six aircraft. This presentation will highlight the CAMEX-3 research. It will focus primarily on the unique observations gained while studying Hurricane Georges during four missions: 1) near St. Croix, 2) over the Domican Republic, 3) over the Florida Keys, and 4) near landfall on the Mississippi coast. In particular, observations obtained through the use of the ER-2 of the orographically forced precipitation as it interacted with Hispaniola on 22 September 1998 will be shown.
The U.S. Department's background notes on Haiti briefly describe her geography, people, history, government, economy and foreign relations. Haiti comprises the western third of the Caribbean island Hispaniola, situated east of Cuba. There are 6 million people, growing at 1.9% annually, of African origin. Infant mortality is 124/1000; life expectancy 54 years. The country is undeveloped: 80% live in rural areas; per capita income is $379; literacy is estimated at 23%; most speak Creole, although Haiti is the only officially French speaking nation in the Western hemisphere. The land is hot and dry, largely becoming deforested and eroded. Haiti became independent in 1804 after a slave rebellion. Since then the government has been a succession of dictatorships, leading to constant political and economic disorder. The current transition government rules by decree. The economy is largely based on small subsistence farms. Coffee, cocoa, mangoes, essential oils and locally assembled manufactured goods are exported. Haiti benefits from foreign aid from several institutions and governments, including an active USAID program that fosters soil conservation, education and business.
Hernaiz Huerta, P. P.; Pérez-Valera, F.; Abad, M.; Monthel, J.; Diaz de Neira, A.
The Cordillera Septentrional records the oblique subduction and collisional processes between the Caribbean and North American plates during Late Cretaceous to early Palaeogene times. The Puerto Plata basement complex of this range is considered to represent a fragment of the frontal part of the Great Arc of the Caribbean in Hispaniola that originated during thrusting of the Caribbean plate onto the North American shelf. This paper describes and interprets mélange-type formations spatially related to this basement complex and its associated sedimentary cover, the Imbert Fm. Such formations include the San Marcos olistostromic Fm and a unit of Serpentinic Breccias located at the base and interbedded in the lower section of the former. Both units are Eocene in age, have been mainly deposited by syntectonic subaqueous mass-transport processes and typically host a varied mixture of blocks of known and unknown origin, including high-P metamorphic rocks (knockers). Cartoon models of palaeotectonic reconstructions depicting the final stages of subduction and the onset of collisional process in Early and Middle Eocene times respectively, are proposed in order to show the original relationships among all geological units involved in the study area. The Serpentinic Breccias are interpreted as being the result of extensive sedimentary recycling of peridotite and serpentinite massive bodies or subduction related mélanges when exposed at the surface by return flow during early exhumation stages of the accretionary complex, coevally with the end of island-arc volcanism. This process is inferred to be the triggering mechanism for the feeding of originally deep-sited knockers, probably in combination with strike-slip tectonics and associated mud diapirism The slightly younger San Marcos Fm records the collision event and main exhumation stage, while displaying the typical features present in olistostromes and other mass-wasting, gravitationally-driven deposits recognized in
Wei, Y.; Titov, V. V.; Moore, C. W.; Gica, E.; Arcas, D.; Spillane, M. C.; Zhou, H.
The Indian Ocean tsunami of 24 December 2004 has changed the perception of a tsunami as an infrequent low-risk hazard. The devoid of subduction or convergent zones in the Atlantic Ocean makes coastal communities less aware of the potential tsunami hazard in the East Coast of US. The existing continental shelf offshore has believed to act as additional buffer that may significantly attenuate the tsunami impact to the U.S. Atlantic coast. However, the uncertainties are still substantial and need to be timely addressed: 1. the largest tsunami ever recorded in Atlantic, 1755 Lisbon, was understudied; 2. the Hispaniola-Puerto Rico-Lesser Antilles subduction zone - a Sumatra-Andaman type of trench - in the northeast of Caribbean is capable of generating catastrophic tsunami; 3. the South Sandwich Trench was mostly overlooked; and 4. most of previous studies tackling these issues did not surpass the linear tsunami propagation in the deep ocean for nonlinear tsunami inundation modeling in the coastal area. Using the established NOAA high-resolution tsunami inundation model, the present study explores above uncertainties and provides comprehensive modeling assessment of the potential earthquake-generated tsunami hazard for selected coastal communities in U.S. Atlantic coasts, with highlight on over-shelf tsunami wave dynamics. This study is an extension of the USGS evaluation of earthquake-tsunami impact in Atlantic (ten Brink et al., 2007; Barkan et al., 2009) in the light of the Nuclear Regulation Commission (NRC) efforts on tsunami risk assessment for existing and potential nuclear power plants in U. S. East Coast.
Marchesi, Claudio; Garrido, Carlos J.; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Hidas, Károly; Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Butjosa, Lidia; Lewis, John F.
The Loma Caribe peridotite body is mainly composed of serpentinized spinel harzburgites and lherzolites and minor orthopyroxene-bearing dunites and dunites. Modal proportions, mineral and whole-rock major and trace element compositions generally coincide with those of abyssal mantle rocks from mid-ocean ridges for the lherzolites, and refractory supra-subduction peridotites for the harzburgites and dunites. The clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgites have intermediate compositions that overlap with those of residual mantle from both these settings. Major elements in the peridotites were mostly undisturbed by serpentinization and/or seafloor weathering whereas light rare earth elements (LREE) and large ion lithophile elements (LILE) were enriched by syn- and/or post-melting interaction with fluids/melts. Major element variations indicate that protoliths of the Loma Caribe peridotites mostly melted at 1-2 GPa and 1250 °C-1500 °C, as normal mid-ocean ridge and supra-subduction zone mantle. The MREE/HREE fractionations in both whole rocks and clinopyroxene can be explained by initial low (5%-6%) fractional melting of a garnet lherzolite source followed by variable (5%-20%) melting in the spinel stability field. The lherzolites and clinopyroxene-bearing harzburgites are residues of increasing melting triggered by increasing addition of slab fluids to a spinel peridotite source, while melting of the harzburgite protoliths was likely the result of focused flux of slab hydrous melts. The dunites and orthopyroxene-bearing dunites are products of pyroxene dissolution in residual peridotites caused by reaction with two different subduction-related melts, probably the parental magmas of Early Cretaceous low-Ti island arc tholeiites (IAT) and boninites from Central Hispaniola, respectively. We conclude that the geochemical heterogeneity of the Loma Caribe peridotites records shifting conditions of melting during the development of subduction beneath the incipient Greater Antilles
Calais, Eric; de Lepinay, Bernard Mercier
Marine geophysical surveys using Seabeam, single-channel seismic reflection, gravimetric and magnetic measurements have been conducted along a segment of the northern Caribbean transcurrent plate boundary (SEACARIB II cruise). The data allow a better definition of the geometry and the tectonic regime of this major strike-slip area. They support the following results: (1) Along the southern Cuban margin, the Oriente fault displays a discontinuous trace, mainly composed of dextral offset, "en echelon" segments. Some pull-apart basins are located between fault segments (Cabo Cruz basin, Chivirico and Baitiquiri basins). In the Windward Passage area, the plate boundary enters into the Tortue Channel and is not connected with the subduction front off northern Hispaniola. (2) The eastern part of the Oriente Deep and the Santiago Promontory are characterised by active compressional tectonics. They form the Santiago Deformed Belt, described here for the first time. This deformed belt can be divided longitudinally into three main segments, each one characterised by a particular tectonic style. Its development is related to a transpressional mechanism along the left-lateral Oriente strike-slip fault. Our observations suggest that a tectonic and kinematic reorganisation occurred recently in this area, probably in the Late Pliocene, which may be compared with the recent geological events recorded on land in the northern Caribbean domain. The precise knowledge of both geometry and structures along the Oriente strike-slip fault south of Cuba provides new constraints for the recent kinematic evolution along the northern Caribbean transcurrent plate boundary: it leads us to infer the existence of a convergence component associated with the slip component along the Oriente transform fault.
Harbitz, C. B.; Glimsdal, S.; Bazin, S.; Zamora, N.; Løvholt, F.; Bungum, H.; Smebye, H.; Gauer, P.; Kjekstad, O.
The present study documents a high tsunami hazard in the Caribbean region, with several thousands of lives lost in tsunamis and associated earthquakes since the XIXth century. Since then, the coastal population of the Caribbean and the Central West Atlantic region has grown significantly and is still growing. Understanding this hazard is therefore essential for the development of efficient mitigation measures. To this end, we report a regional tsunami exposure assessment based on potential and credible seismic and non-seismic tsunamigenic sources. Regional tsunami databases have been compiled and reviewed, and on this basis five main scenarios have been selected to estimate the exposure. The scenarios comprise two Mw8 earthquake tsunamis (north of Hispaniola and east of Lesser Antilles), two subaerial/submarine volcano flank collapse tsunamis (Montserrat and Saint Lucia), and one tsunami resulting from a landslide on the flanks of the Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano (north of Grenada). Offshore tsunami water surface elevations as well as maximum water level distributions along the shore lines are computed and discussed for each of the scenarios. The number of exposed people has been estimated in each case, together with a summary of the tsunami exposure for the earthquake and the landslide tsunami scenarios. For the earthquake scenarios, the highest tsunami exposure relative to the population is found for Guadeloupe (6.5%) and Antigua (7.5%), while Saint Lucia (4.5%) and Antigua (5%) have been found to have the highest tsunami exposure relative to the population for the landslide scenarios. Such high exposure levels clearly warrant more attention on dedicated mitigation measures in the Caribbean region.
Cáceres, Carlos; Rivera, Antonella; González, Sonia; Anadón, Ricardo
Phytoplankton fuel epipelagic ecosystems and affect global biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of quantitative information about the factors that determine both phytoplankton community structure and dynamics, particularly in subtropical gyres. Here, we estimated size fractionated phytoplankton growth (μ) and microzooplankton grazing rates (m) along a transect in the subtropical North Atlantic, from the island of Hispaniola to the Iberian Peninsula, by conducting dilution experiments and fitting mixed models. We also examined the relationship between nutrient availability and the differences in both phytoplankton community structure and size fractionated phytoplankton growth rates at two spatial scales (i.e. subtropical gyre and within-province spatial scale). Our results revealed high values for both phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates. Phytoplankton growth (0.00-1.19 d-1) displayed higher variability among stations, biogeochemical provinces and size fractions than the microzooplankton grazing rate (0.32-0.74 d-1). Differences in phytoplankton community structure were associated with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (0.72-5.85 μM; R2 = 0.19) and squared Brunt-Väisälä frequency (R2 = 0.21) at the whole gyre scale. Conversely, the differences in phytoplankton growth rate showed a weak relationship with those properties (R2 ⩽ 0.05) at that scale, but a stronger relationship at the within province scale (R2 ⩾ 0.07). These results support the idea that phytoplankton grow at high rates in oligotrophic subtropical gyres, this is likely due to the selection of phytoplankton groups with functional traits suited to exploit low nutrient availability. Thus, shedding new, multi-scale knowledge on the commonly misunderstood "ocean deserts".
Prentice, C.S.; Mann, P.; Pena, L.R.; Burr, G.
The Septentrional fault zone (SFZ) is the major North American-Caribbean, strike-slip, plate boundary fault at the longitude of eastern Hispaniola. The SFZ traverses the densely populated Cibao Valley of the Dominican Republic, forming a prominent scarp in alluvium. Our studies at four sites along the central SFZ are aimed at quantifying the late Quaternary behavior of this structure to better understand the seismic hazard it represents for the northeastern Caribbean. Our investigations of excavations at sites near Rio Cenovi show that the most recent ground-rupturing earthquake along this fault in the north central Dominican Republic occurred between A.D. 1040 and A.D. 1230, and involved a minimum of ???4 m of left-lateral slip and 2.3 m of normal dip slip at that site. Our studies of offset stream terraces at two locations, Rio Juan Lopez and Rio Licey, provide late Holocene slip rate estimates of 6-9 mm/yr and a maximum of 11-12 mm/yr, respectively, across the Septentrional fault. Combining these results gives a best estimate of 6-12 mm/yr for the slip rate across the SFZ. Three excavations, two near Tenares and one at the Rio Licey site, yielded evidence for the occurrence of earlier prehistoric earthquakes. Dates of strata associated with the penultimate event suggest that it occurred post-A.D. 30, giving a recurrence interval of 800-1200 years. These studies indicate that the SFZ has likely accumulated elastic strain sufficient to generate a major earthquake during the more than 800 years since it last slipped and should be considered likely to produce a destructive future earthquake.
Cooper, Joseph H.
The development of faith-based missionary aviation is a post-World War II phenomenon. The war effort demonstrated the value, utility, and global reach of aviation to remote, underdeveloped areas of the world. With the beginnings of a worldwide infrastructure for aviation, Christian aviators realized aviation could increase the range and effectiveness of their efforts to reach the world for Christ (Mellis, 2006). Although individual organizations provide statistical information and data about flight operations there is a lack of external evidence and relevant research literature confirming the scope and value of these faith based aviation organizations and operations. A qualitative, ethnographic study was conducted to document the activities of one faith-based aviation organization to gain an understanding of this little known aspect of civilian aviation. The study was conducted with Missionary Flights International (MFI) of Fort Pierce, FL which has been involved in faith-based, missionary aviation since its inception in 1964. As an aviation organization "MFI strives to offer affiliated missions the kind of efficient service and professionalism expected of an airline operation" (Missionary Flights International, 2013, p.1). MFI is a lifeline for missionaries to Haiti and the Dominican Republic, fulfilling their motto of "Standing in the Gap". MFI provides twice a week service to the island of Hispaniola and the Republic of Haiti. In this in-depth study insight and understanding was gained into the purpose of MFI, their daily routines and operations, and the challenges they face in maintaining their flight services to Haiti. This study provided documentation of the value and utility of such aviation efforts and of the individuals involved in this endeavor.
Mercier de Lepinay, B. F.; Mazabraud, Y.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Clouard, V.; Hello, Y.; Graindorge, D.; Marcaillou, B.; Crozon, J.; Saurel, J.; Charvis, P.; Mildor, B. S.; Deschamps, A.; Bouin, M.; Perrot, J.
The devastating 2010 Haiti earthquake ruptured only a relatively short segment (~50km) of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault (EPGF) a 600km long strike-slip fault running onland and offshore from Jamaica to Dominican Republic, with apparently no major surface rupture in the epicentral area. Considering the general behavior of such strike-slip fault (i.e. North Anatolian fault, San Andreas fault), we can expect that, following the 2010 earthquake, other large earthquakes will occur in the near future on adjacent segments. To contribute to the multinational scientific effort for a better understanding of the rupture process and the stress relaxation of this earthquake, we organized the Haiti-OBS cruise of the R/V L'Atalante few weeks after the catastrophe (Feb.5 to Feb.15, 2010, from and to Pointe-a-Pitre, Guadeloupe). Our goal was 1) to deploy a temporary network of seismologic stations -21 OBS, Ocean Bottom Seismometer, and 4 onland stations- and 2) to survey the detailed sea-floor features in relation with the deformation pattern of the area (multibeam bathymetry and mud-penetrator). We show that the distribution pattern of the aftershocks as well as the compressive surface structures observed in the geology and onshore/offshore morphology of the area are consistent with a deformation model implying a major left-lateral component along the EPGF, and a strong reverse component. The January 12, 2010 mainshock has been shown as very complex. However, in the first order, the mainshock and the distribution of the aftershocks, better localized by our temporary network, can be explained by the interaction between the strike-slip EPGF system and a blind folds-and-thrusts system. Thus, the general geological setting shows a southern extension until the southern part of the Canal du Sud area of the well-known fold and thrust system of the Hispaniola main block.
Leroy, S.; Pubellier, M.; Ellouz, N.; Momplaisir, R.; Boisson, D.; Amilcar, H.
The recent Haiti earthquake, although it ruptured dramatically the strike-slip Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ), is actually located where this fault cross-cut or is overlapped by the frontal part of the Trans-Haitian belt accretionary wedge. This belt started accreting flysch series in the North of Hispaniola during the late Palaeogene and propagated onto the carbonate platform during the Miocene and the Pliocene. Well dated flexural basins filled with clastics attest for this migration. The recent Matheux and the latest Gonave anticline are still currently uplifting as shown by marine terraces, so that the wedge has at present reached the active flower structure of the Presqu’île-du-Sud of Haiti, which is dissected by the EPGFZ. Therefore the structures and possible recent expression associated with their compression must be carefully investigated at surface as well as the strike-slip structure itself, recent ground destabilization and fluid escape. In fact, fault propagation is controlled mainly by, tectonic regime, physical/mechanical properties of the host-rocks and fluid/gas circulation within fault planes. Fluid and gas composition changes, flow increase or decrease, noble gas isotopic evolution can be used as indicators and evenly precursors of stress regime and mechanical variation along faults. We are now initiating onshore field observation on the strike-slip and compressional faults connection, coupled with fluid/gas sampling along both active and locked segments of the Haiti active fault system, similarly with methods tested in the Colorado plateau and along the South Atlas front (Morocco). Some investigations will be realized offshore, especially the mapping of the junction between Haïti and Jamaïca, in order to precise (1) newly and/or past destabilized segments, (2) the wavelength of the segmentation, (3) relationships with the oblique ridges, inherited segments, cross-cut by the EPGFZ.
Now entering their 3rd decade, GPS measurements in the Caribbean region have been used to study a wide range of tectonic topics such as the movement of the Caribbean plate relative to North and South America, earthquake cycle effects along the seismically hazardous Caribbean plate boundary faults, and microplate interactions along the complexly deforming Caribbean plate boundaries. The construction of COCONet stands out as the most significant-ever one-time advance in GPS-MET infrastructure in the Caribbean region due to its standardized GPS-MET equipment, its open access to real-time data, and its expansion of coverage relative to pre-existing GPS stations. In this talk, I will show an up-to-date Caribbean region velocity field derived using the most recent version of GIPSY software (release 6.1), the latest satellite orbit products, single-station ambiguity resolution, and a consistent realization of the Caribbean plate reference frame. Consisting of several hundred site velocities, the new velocity field clearly defines how the crust responds to east-to-west changes in the geometry of the Caribbean-North America plate boundary, including the profound effect of the oblique collision zone between the Bahama platform and northern edge of the Caribbean plate. I will discuss implications of the still-maturing COCONet GPS velocities for ongoing studies of Caribbean plate motion and plate rigidity and will also discuss applications of COCONet velocities for testing recently published kinematic estimates for the movements of the Gonave, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, and southern Jamaica microplates.
Divino, Flavia; de Lima Guerra Corado, Andre; Gomes Naveca, Felipe; Stefani, Mariane M. A.; Bello, Gonzalo
The Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) epidemic in Brazil is mainly driven by the subtype B pandemic lineage (BPANDEMIC), while Caribbean non-pandemic subtype B clades (BCAR) seem to account for a very low fraction of HIV-infections in this country. The molecular characteristics of the HIV-1 subtype B strains disseminated in the Northern and Northeastern Brazilian regions, however, have not been explored so far. In this study, we estimate the prevalence of the HIV-1 BPANDEMIC and BCAR clades across different Brazilian regions and we reconstruct the spatiotemporal dynamics of dissemination of the major Brazilian BCAR clades. A total of 2,682 HIV-1 subtype B pol sequences collected from 21 different Brazilian states from the five country regions between 1998 and 2013 were analyzed. Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses revealed that the BCAR strains reached 16 out 21 Brazilian states here analyzed. The BCAR clades comprise a low fraction (<10%) of subtype B infections in most Brazilian states analyzed, with exception of Roraima (41%), Amazonas (14%) and Maranhão (14%). Bayesian phylogeographic analyses indicate that BCAR strains originally from the Hispaniola and Trinidad and Tobago were introduced at multiple times into different states from all Brazilian regions and a few of those strains, probably introduced into Roraima, Maranhão and São Paulo between the late 1970s and the early 1980s, established secondary outbreaks in the Brazilian population. These results support that the HIV-1 subtype B epidemics in some Brazilian states from the Northern and Northeastern regions display a unique molecular pattern characterized by the high prevalence of BCAR lineages, which probably reflects a strong epidemiological link with the HIV-1 epidemics in the Caribbean region. PMID:27603317
ten Brink, U.S.; Marshak, S.; Granja, Bruna J. L.
At several localities around the world, thrust belts have developed on both sides of oceanic island arcs (e.g., Java-Timor, Panama, Vanuatu, and the northeastern Caribbean). In these localities, the overall vergence of the backarc thrust belt is opposite to that of the forearc thrust belt. For example, in the northeastern Caribbean, a north-verging accretionary prism lies to the north of the Eastern Greater Antilles arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico), whereas a south-verging thrust belt called the Muertos thrust belt lies to the south. Researchers have attributed such bivergent geometry to several processes, including: reversal of subduction polarity; subduction-driven mantle flow; stress transmission across the arc; gravitational spreading of the arc; and magmatic inflation within the arc. New observations of deformational features in the Muertos thrust belt and of fault geometries produced in sandbox kinematic models, along with examination of published studies of island arcs, lead to the conclusion that the bivergence of thrusting in island arcs can develop without reversal of subduction polarity, without subarc mantle flow, and without magmatic inflation. We suggest that the Eastern Greater Antilles arc and comparable arcs are simply crustalscale bivergent (or "doubly vergent") thrust wedges formed during unidirectional subduction. Sandbox kinematic modeling suggests, in addition, that a broad retrowedge containing an imbricate fan of thrusts develops only where the arc behaves relatively rigidly. In such cases, the arc acts as a backstop that transmits compressive stress into the backarc region. Further, modeling shows that when arcs behave as rigid blocks, the strike-slip component of oblique convergence is accommodated entirely within the prowedge and the arc-the retrowedge hosts only dip-slip faulting ("frontal thrusting"). The existence of large retrowedges and the distribution of faulting in an island arc may, therefore, be evidence that the arc is
Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gravel, Simon; Zakharia, Fouad; McCauley, Jacob L.; Byrnes, Jake K.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia A.; Martínez, Ricardo J.; Hedges, Dale J.; Morris, Richard W.; Eng, Celeste; Sandoval, Karla; Acevedo-Acevedo, Suehelay; Norman, Paul J.; Layrisse, Zulay; Parham, Peter; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Burchard, Esteban González; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Martin, Eden R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.
The Caribbean basin is home to some of the most complex interactions in recent history among previously diverged human populations. Here, we investigate the population genetic history of this region by characterizing patterns of genome-wide variation among 330 individuals from three of the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola), two mainland (Honduras, Colombia), and three Native South American (Yukpa, Bari, and Warao) populations. We combine these data with a unique database of genomic variation in over 3,000 individuals from diverse European, African, and Native American populations. We use local ancestry inference and tract length distributions to test different demographic scenarios for the pre- and post-colonial history of the region. We develop a novel ancestry-specific PCA (ASPCA) method to reconstruct the sub-continental origin of Native American, European, and African haplotypes from admixed genomes. We find that the most likely source of the indigenous ancestry in Caribbean islanders is a Native South American component shared among inland Amazonian tribes, Central America, and the Yucatan peninsula, suggesting extensive gene flow across the Caribbean in pre-Columbian times. We find evidence of two pulses of African migration. The first pulse—which today is reflected by shorter, older ancestry tracts—consists of a genetic component more similar to coastal West African regions involved in early stages of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The second pulse—reflected by longer, younger tracts—is more similar to present-day West-Central African populations, supporting historical records of later transatlantic deportation. Surprisingly, we also identify a Latino-specific European component that has significantly diverged from its parental Iberian source populations, presumably as a result of small European founder population size. We demonstrate that the ancestral components in admixed genomes can be traced back to distinct sub
Latta, Steven C; Faaborg, John
Funding of ecological research and monitoring of Neotropical migratory birds on their overwintering grounds has benefited both migratory and permanent-resident species. Using examples from our work in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, we demonstrate that ecological research of overwintering migrants often provides information about the ecology and demography of little-known tropical resident birds. Critically important long-term monitoring in Puerto Rico with a focus on winter residents has provided information on the relationships between annual rainfall and fluctuations in resident bird populations and survival rates. It also has alerted local biologists to declines in resident bird populations, including a decline apparently driven by the entry of a brood parasite. But migrant-focused research may also have had an underappreciated effect on the development of conservation capacity and conservation efforts in host countries. Investments in research on Neotropical migrants overwintering on Hispaniola have resulted in a huge increase in field training of students and wildlife professionals, promoted conservation awareness at local and national levels, played an important role in the growth and professionalization of key environmental organizations, spawned a growing ecotourism industry for bird-watching, and driven national park management planning and conservation efforts for all bird species. We encourage funding organizations and agencies to consider the broader impacts of funding migratory-bird research and monitoring efforts, and we encourage researchers in the tropics to use protocols that provide the most information about all the birds that use the study areas involved and to be aware of important opportunities that they may have to build capacity in host countries.
Torró, L.; Garcia-Casco, A.; Proenza, J. A.; Blanco-Quintero, I. F.; Gutiérrez-Alonso, G.; Lewis, J. F.
The Maimón Formation (Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic) is formed of metamorphosed bi-modal mafic-felsic volcanic rocks and sedimentary horizons of Early Cretaceous age deposited in the forearc of the nascent Caribbean island arc. Two structural-metamorphic zones depict an inverted metamorphic gradient: the Ozama shear zone, which records intense mylonitic and phyllonitic deformation and ubiquitous metamorphic recrystallization, tectonically overlies the much less deformed and variably recrystallized rocks of the El Altar zone. The presence of ferri-winchite and high-Si phengite, first reported in this paper, in the peak metamorphic assemblage of rocks of the Ozama shear zone (actinolite + phengite + chlorite + epidote + quartz + albite ± ferri-winchite ± stilpnomelane) point to subduction-related metamorphism. Pseudosection calculations and intersection of isopleths indicate peak metamorphic conditions of 8.2 kbar at 380 °C. These figures are consistent with metamorphism in the greenschist/blueschist facies transition, burial depths of 25-29 km and a thermal gradient of 13-16 °C/km. Our new data dispute previous models pointing to metamorphism of Maimón rocks under a steep thermal gradient related to burial under a hot peridotite slice. Instead, we contextualize the metamorphism of the Maimón Formation in a subduction scenario in which a coherent slice of the (warm) Early Cretaceous forearc was engulfed due to intra-arc complexities and regional-scale-driven tectonic processes operating in the late Early Cretaceous. Integration of our findings with previous studies on metamorphic complexes in Hispaniola suggests that a major tectonic event affecting the whole arc system took place at c. 120-110 Ma.
Kew, Olen M.; Wright, Peter F.; Agol, Vadim I.; Delpeyroux, Francis; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nathanson, Neal; Pallansch, Mark A.
Within the past 4 years, poliomyelitis outbreaks associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) have occurred in Hispaniola (2000-01), the Philippines (2001), and Madagascar (2001-02). Retrospective studies have also detected the circulation of endemic cVDPV in Egypt (1988-93) and the likely localized spread of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV)-derived virus in Belarus (1965-66). Gaps in OPV coverage and the previous eradication of the corresponding serotype of indigenous wild poliovirus were the critical risk factors for all cVDPV outbreaks. The cVDPV outbreaks were stopped by mass immunization campaigns using OPV. To increase sensitivity for detecting vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), in 2001 the Global Polio Laboratory Network implemented additional testing requirements for all poliovirus isolates under investigation. This approach quickly led to the recognition of the Philippines and Madagascar cVDPV outbreaks, but of no other current outbreaks. The potential risk of cVDPV emergence has increased dramatically in recent years as wild poliovirus circulation has ceased in most of the world. The risk appears highest for the type 2 OPV strain because of its greater tendency to spread to contacts. The emergence of cVDPVs underscores the critical importance of eliminating the last pockets of wild poliovirus circulation, maintaining universally high levels of polio vaccine coverage, stopping OPV use as soon as it is safely possible to do so, and continuing sensitive poliovirus surveillance into the foreseeable future. Particular attention must be given to areas where the risks for wild poliovirus circulation have been highest, and where the highest rates of polio vaccine coverage must be maintained to suppress cVDPV emergence. PMID:15106296
Tuttle, M.P.; Prentice, C.S.; Dyer-Williams, K.; Pena, L.R.; Burr, G.
Several generations of sand blows and sand dikes, indicative of significant and recurrent liquefaction, are preserved in the late Holocene alluvial deposits of the Cibao Valley in northern Dominican Republic. The Cibao Valley is structurally controlled by the Septentrional fault, an onshore section of the North American-Caribbean strike-slip plate boundary. The Septentrional fault was previously studied in the central part of the valley, where it sinistrally offsets Holocene terrace risers and soil horizons. In the eastern and western parts of the valley, the Septentrional fault is buried by Holocene alluvial deposits, making direct study of the structure difficult. Liquefaction features that formed in these Holocene deposits as a result of strong ground shaking provide a record of earthquakes in these areas. Liquefaction features in the eastern Cibao Valley indicate that at least one historic earthquake, probably the moment magnitude, M 8, 4 August 1946 event, and two to four prehistoric earthquakes of M 7 to 8 struck this area during the past 1100 yr. The prehistoric earthquakes appear to cluster in time and could have resulted from rupture of the central and eastern sections of the Septentrional fault circa A.D. 1200. Liquefaction features in the western Cibao Valley indicate that one historic earthquake, probably the M 8, 7 May 1842 event, and two prehistoric earthquakes of M 7-8 struck this area during the past 1600 yr. Our findings suggest that rupture of the Septentrional fault circa A.D. 1200 may have extended beyond the central Cibao Valley and generated an earthquake of M 8. Additional information regarding the age and size distribution of liquefaction features is needed to reconstruct the prehistoric earthquake history of Hispaniola and to define the long-term behavior and earthquake potential of faults associated with the North American-Caribbean plate boundary.
Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Meyer, B.; Ellouz-Zimmermann, N.; Momplaisir, R.
Multibeam bathymetry data and multichannel seismic reflection profiles have been collected at the end of 2012 along the Enriquillo-Plantain-Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ) in the Jamaica Passage, between Jamaica and Hispaniola. Analysis of the data set reveals the tectonic evolution and the stratigraphic complexity of the northern Caribbean boundary. Stratigraphic correlations with previous marine and on land studies are proposed to place the identified seismic sequences in their regional tectonic history. Two distinct crustal domains are interpreted. Typical stratigraphic sequences for the rifted blocks of the Eastern Cayman Trough margin are identified in five basins of the Jamaica Passage, highlighting the eastward limit of the Cayman Trough margin. These inherited basins are deformed and folded during a first phase of compression that could correspond to the regional tectonic rearrangement recorded in the early Miocene (about 20 Ma). A distinct crustal domain that we propose to relate to the Carib Beds (Caribbean typical reflectors A″, B″ and V) is identified in the southern part of the Jamaica Passage, indicating that the Caribbean Large Igneous Province could extend up to the extreme northeast part of the Lower Nicaragua Rise. The left-lateral EPGFZ currently cuts across two pre-existing basins, the Morant and Matley basins. During the activity of the EPGFZ, these basins are deformed and folded indicating a second phase of compression. In contrast, the Navassa basin, located in the middle of the Jamaica Passage, results from the strike-slip motion of the EPGFZ and is interpreted as an asymmetrical basin bordered by the EPGFZ only on its northern side.
Mann, P.; Debalko, D.; Grote, D.; Tyburski, S. )
The North American-Caribbean plate boundary consists of strike-slip deformation extending 3,200 km from the Middle American volcanic arc in western Guatemala to the northern Lesser Antilles. The authors have reconstructed the complex sedimentary and tectonic evolution of this zone over the past 65 m.y. by integration of onshore geologic data and offshore geophysical data. Onshore geologic data consists mainly of detailed structural maps and biostratigraphic studies from uplifted sedimentary basins in Hispaniola and Jamaica. Offshore data consists of single and multichannel seismic profiles and side-scan sonar maps. Both onshore and offshore data have been synthesized into a set of computer-based, paleogeographic maps for the following Cenozoic periods: late Paleocene, middle Eocene, late Oligocene, early Miocene, late Miocene, Pliocene, and Holocene. These data allow them to generalize the tectonic evolution of the boundary into three stages. Stage 1: Paleocene to early Eocene rifting and bimodal volcanism associated with formation of the Cayman Trough pullapart basin. Nonmarine to shallow marine sedimentation was controlled by northwest-northeast-striking normal faults formed at a high angle to the direction of plate motion. Stage 2: middle Eocene to early Miocene strike-slip faulting across a broad, California Borderlands-type margin. Shallow marine to marine sedimentation was controlled by strike-slip faults parallel or at a low angle to the direction of plate motion. Stage 3: middle Miocene to present strike-slip faulting along a single major fault. Deep-marine sedimentation was controlled by a major strike-slip fault scarp formed approximately parallel to the direction of plate motion over most of the length of the boundary. Eustatic sea level effects are recognizable in all three stages.
Jodice, Patrick G.; Ronconi, Robert A.; Rupp, Ernst; Wallace, George E.; Satgé, Yvan
The black-capped petrel Pterodroma hasitata is an endangered seabird with fewer than 2000 breeding pairs restricted to a few breeding sites in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. To date, use areas at sea have been determined entirely from vessel-based surveys and opportunistic sightings and, as such, spatial and temporal gaps in our understanding of the species’ marine range are likely. To enhance our understanding of marine use areas, we deployed satellite tags on 3 black-capped petrels breeding on Hispaniola, representing the first tracking study for this species and one of the first published tracking studies for any breeding seabird in the Caribbean. During chick rearing, petrels primarily used marine habitats in the southern Caribbean Sea (ca. 18.0° to 11.5°N, 70.0° to 75.5°W) between the breeding site and the coasts of Venezuela and Colombia. Maximum distance from the breeding sites ranged from ca. 500 to 1500 km during the chick-rearing period. During the post-breeding period, each bird dispersed north and used waters west of the Gulf Stream offshore of the mid- and southern Atlantic coasts of the USA as well as Gulf Stream waters and deeper pelagic waters east of the Gulf Stream. Maximum distance from the breeding sites ranged from ca. 2000 to 2200 km among birds during the nonbreeding period. Petrels used waters located within 14 different exclusive economic zones, suggesting that international collaboration will benefit the development of management strategies for this species.
Gorczyk, W.; Gerya, T. V.; Guillot, S.; Connolly, J. A.; Yuen, D.
The upwelling of subduction generated partially molten rocks is potentially a mechanism for the exhumation of UHP rocks through the mantle wedge. We investigated this processes using a 2-D coupled petrological- thermomechanical model that incorporates slab dehydration and water transport as well as partial melting of mantle and crustal rocks. This approach allows us to study the dynamics of mantle wedge processes including evolution of partially molten plumes and their interaction with surrounding dry mantle. To study the internal structure of the plumes we used ultra-high resolution numerical simulations with 10 billion active markers to detail the internal structure of natural plumes originating from the slab. The plumes consist of partially molten hydrated peridotite, dry solid mantle and subducted oceanic crust, which may comprise up to 12 volume % of the plume. As the plumes grow and mature these materials mix chaotically resulting in attenuation and duplication of the original layering on scales of 1-1000 m. Comparison of numerical results with geological observations from the Horoman ultramafic complex in Japan suggests that mixing and differentiation processes related to development of partially molten plumes above slabs may be responsible for strongly layered lithologically mixed (marble cake) structure of asthenospheric mantle wedges. The recent discovery of garnet bearing peridotites in the subduction zone of the Great Antilles in Hispaniola has raised questions about the process that leads to their exhumation. To evaluate whether upwelling plumes are a plausible exhumation mechanism we investigated the dynamics of subduction of slow spreading ridges. The results show that subduction of strongly serpentinized oceanic plate causes strong dehydration of the slab and leads to a rheological weakening of the interface between subducting and overriding plate. This weakening triggers trench retreat and massive asthenospheric upwelling into the gap between the
I review some unsolved problems in Caribbean active tectonics. At the regional and plate scale: 1) confirm the existence of intraplate deformation zones of the central Caribbean plate that are within the margin of error of ongoing GPS measurements; 2) carry out field studies to evaluate block models versus models for distributed fault shear on the densely populated islands of Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; 3) carry out paleoseismological research of key plate boundary faults that may have accumulated large strains but have not been previously studied in detail; 4) determine the age of onset and far-field effects of the Cocos ridge and the Central America forearc sliver; 4) investigate the origin and earthquake-potential of obliquely-sheared rift basins along the northern coast of Venezuela; 5) determine the age of onset and regional active, tectonic effects of the Panama-South America collision including the continued activation of the Maracaibo block; and 6) validate longterm rates on active subduction zones with improving, tomographic maps of subducted slabs. At the individual fault scale: 1) determine the mode of termination of large and active strike -slip faults and application of the STEP model (Septentrional, Polochic, El Pilar, Bocono, Santa Marta-Bucaramanaga); 2) improve the understanding of the earthquake potential on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone given "off-fault" events such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake; how widespread is this behavior?; and 3) estimate size of future tsunamis from studies of historic or prehistoric slump scars and mass transport deposits; what potential runups can be predicted from this information?; and 4) devise ways to keep rapidly growing, circum-Caribbean urban populations better informed and safer in the face of inevitable and future, large earthquakes.
Harp, Edwin L.; Jibson, Randall W.; Schmitt, Robert G.
The magnitude (M) 7.0 Haiti earthquake of January 12, 2010, triggered landslides throughout much of Haiti on the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea. The epicenter of the quake was located at 18.44°N., 72.57°W. at a depth of 13 kilometers (km) approximately 25 km southwest of the capital, Port-au-Prince. Although estimates vary widely, the most reliable surveys of casualties indicate that the earthquake caused 158,679 fatalities and more than 300,000 injuries. The U.S. Geological Survey compared publicly available satellite imagery acquired both before and after the earthquake and mapped 23,567 landslides that were triggered by the strong shaking. Our mapping from aerial photography and satellite imagery was augmented by field observations.Most of the landslides triggered by the earthquake were south of the Léogâne fault on the footwall and were fairly shallow falls and slides in weathered limestone (2–5 meters [m] thick) and volcanic rock and soil (generally <1 m thick). Landslides extended from the north to the south coasts of the southwestern peninsula (southwest of Port-au-Prince) and almost 60 km to the east and west of the epicenter. The highest concentration of landslides was on the steep limestone slopes of incised river valleys, but large numbers of landslides also occurred on gentler slopes in weathered volcanic rocks. Although some high landslide concentrations did occur near areas of maximum fault slip, the overall distribution of landslides appears to involve complex interactions between geology, topography, and strong shaking with limited spatial correlation between fault slip and landslides.
Granja, Bruna J. L.; ten Brink, U.S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Munoz-Martin, A.; Gomez, Ballesteros M.
Multibeam bathymetry data acquired during the 2005 Spanish R/V Hesp??rides cruise and reprocessed multichannel seismic profiles provide the basis for the analysis of the morphology and deformation in the central Muertos Trough and Muertos thrust belt. The Muertos Trough is an elongated basin developed where the Venezuelan Basin crust is thrusted under the Muertos fold-and-thrust belt. Structural variations along the Muertos Trough are suggested to be a consequence of the overburden of the asymmetrical thrust belt and by the variable nature of the Venezuelan Basin crust along the margin. The insular slope can be divided into three east-west trending slope provinces with high lateral variability which correspond to different accretion stages: 1) The lower slope is composed of an active sequence of imbricate thrust slices and closed fold axes, which form short and narrow accretionary ridges and elongated slope basins; 2) The middle slope shows a less active imbricate structure resulting in lower superficial deformation and bigger slope basins; 3) The upper slope comprises the talus region and extended terraces burying an island arc basement and an inactive imbricate structure. The talus region is characterized by a dense drainage network that transports turbidite flows from the islands and their surrounding carbonate platform areas to the slope basins and sometimes to the trough. In the survey area the accommodation of the ongoing east-west differential motion between the Hispaniola and the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands blocks takes place by means of diffuse deformation. The asymmetrical development of the thrust belt is not related to the geological conditions in the foreland, but rather may be caused by variations in the geometry and movement of the backstop. The map-view curves of the thrust belt and the symmetry of the recesses suggest a main north-south convergence along the Muertos margin. The western end of the Investigator Fault Zone comprises a broad band of
James, K. H.
of Middle American geographic components, negates rotations of the Maya and Chortis blocks required by Pacific models and shows that the Caribbean Plate formed in place. Regional geologic and seismic data indicate that much of "oceanic" Middle America is in fact underpinned by extended continental crust. Salt is present, and probably Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary source rocks also. Oil is seen on Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Cuba, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Prolific hydrocarbon provinces exist in the Gulf of Mexico and along northern S America. The submarine areas in between have significant hydrocarbon potential.
McCann, W. R.
Deformation along the margin of the Caribbean Plate is the principal cause of the tsunami threat in the Caribbean. That margin parallels the northern coast of South America, the Eastern side of the Lesser Antilles, and extends along the Greater Antilles from Puerto Rico through Jamaica. The eastern boundary of the Caribbean plate near the Lesser Antilles is the locus of subduction of Atlantic seafloor. At least three distinct, shallow tectonic regimes parallel that margin. They are: an outer tectonic belt where the North/South America Plate bends to enter the subduction zone, the zone of contact between the plates, and an inner zone of intraplate activity in the overriding Caribbean Plate. The level of seismic activity and tsunami potential in each of these zones is influenced by the presence of rough seafloor on the downgoing plate. Aseismic Ridges may increase the probability slow earthquakes by changing the physical characteristics of the base of the accretionary prism. The northeastern corner of the Caribbean Plate margin undergoes a smooth transition from the relatively simple head-on subduction zone in the N. Lesser Antilles into a region of oblique convergence to the west. It is a complex margin dominated by microplate tectonics from near Puerto Rico through Hispaniola. Here too the same three tectonic zones can be defined, but the third zone, "intraplate activity in the Caribbean Plate", is more clearly delineated as microplate deformation in a wide plate boundary zone. Strike-slip tectonics dominates from Haiti westward to northern Honduras. Local bends in the transcurrent fault systems lead to vertical tectonics in the form of push-up and pull-aparts. Other potential sources lie along the northern coast of S. America and off the east coast of C. America. Manipulation of gridded bathymetry to produce maps of seafloor slope, slope direction, and residual bathymetry, aid the identification of potential slides/slumps, or reveal portions of subduction zones
Kocel, E.; Stewart, R.; Mann, P.; Dowla, N.
variation of the gravitational field may be related to the proposed faults. More extensive surveys are expected to be conducted in January, 2014. Figure 1 a- digital elevation map of Hispaniola, b- zoomed view of Léogâne fan and Lake Enriquillo with gravity stations, c- surveys over Léogâne area, d- chirp surveys over Lake Enriquillo
Poupardin, Adrien; Hébert, Hélène; Calais, Eric; Gailler, Audrey
The Mw 7 earthquake of January 12, 2010, in Haïti was followed by a tsunami with wave heights reaching 3 m in some locations (Grand Goâve, Jacmel) on either side of the Presqu'Ile du Sud where the event took place. The tsunami was also recorded at DART buoy 42407 (about 600 km southeast of the earthquake source) and at a tide gauge in Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic). In the hours following the event, the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) suggested rupture of a south-dipping segment of the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault (EPGF). Fritz et al. (2013) used the NEIC source model to simulate the tsunami height and match coastal run-up measurements and DART data by (1) increasing coseismic slip on the EPGF while keeping a constant Mo by scaling the regional rigidity, and (2) invoking a coastal submarine landslide in addition to ground motion. Since then, several studies have considerably improved our understanding of the 2010 Haiti earthquake source using GPS, InSAR, seismological, geological, and/or teleseismic data (Meng et al., 2012; Hayes et al., 2010, Symithe et al., 2013). All show that rupture occurred on a north-dipping blind fault (Leogâne fault) with 1/3 of its moment expressed by reverse motion and up to 60 cm of coastal uplift. Here we revisit the January 12, 2010 Haiti tsunami by modeling runup heights, DART, and tide gauge observations using these recent source models as input parameters. We propagate the tsunami using a non linear shallow water tsunami model able to account for the shoaling effect thanks to imbricated bathymetric grids. Simulations indicate run-up heights much lower than observed (1) in the Grand Goâve Bay, consistent with the hypoythesis of a landslide-triggered tsunami at this location, (2) along the southern coast of Hispaniola and at the DART buoy, closest to observations however when using Symithe et al.'s source model. We also find wave heights up to 1 m in Port-au-Prince (harbor and coastal shantytowns) when using
Ott, B.; Mann, P.; Saunders, M.
recognizable from the current GPS network (~3 mm/yr). The Late Miocene age of the fault indicates it may have activated during the Late Miocene to recent Hispaniola-Bahamas oblique collision event.
Rojas-Agramonte, Y.; Neubauer, F.; Handler, R.; Garcia-Delgado, D. E.; Friedl, G.; Delgado-Damas, R.
The Neogene to Recent North Caribbean (Oriente) Transform Fault (OTF) off the coast of southern Cuba is part of the northern Caribbean transform fault system. It has affected the southern Sierra Maestra mountain range, SE Cuba, and portrays the dynamics and tectonic evolution of the southern Cuban coast in the boundary zone between the Caribbean and North American plates. The region has been affected by historical earthquakes and shows many structures due to brittle deformation in Neogene to Pleistocene shallow-water limestones. Present-day structures vary along strike of the OTF, with dominant transpression in the east and transtension in the west. The focal mechanisms of historical earthquakes are in agreement with dominant ENE-WSW compression found onland. Neogene-Pleistocene limestones are deformed, faulted, fractured, and contains calcite- and karst-filled extension gashes. Type and orientation of the principal normal paleostresses vary along strike in accordance with observations of large-scale submarine structures at the southern Cuban continental margin. Deformation phase D1 comprises N-S extension, exemplified mainly by karst-filled extensional veins and normal faults. We correlate this deformation with the regional kinematics in the Caribbean realm, imposed by the opening of the Cayman trough and the disruption between Cuba and Hispaniola. D2 and D3 comprise NE-SW to nearly N-S and subsequent NW-SE-directed compression and generated conjugate Mohr shears that correlate with strike-slip movement along the main fault to the south. These phases are also associated with a transpressional tectonic regime in the submarine Santiago Deformed Belt and with deformation processes along the Oriente Deep, both located off the southern Cuban coast. D4 reflects ENE-WSW to E-W-directed compression and corresponds to reactivation of sinistral strike-slip faults and formation of Riedel shears, consistent with stress orientations deduced from earthquake focal mechanisms
Latortue, P R
This work examines the history of Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic, the central role of Haitian migration in Dominican society, working conditions of Haitian migrants in the Dominican Republic, and the relationship of the migration to economic development on the island of Hispaniola. Lack of data, the difficulty of measuring illegal movement, and the problem of defining Haitians in Santo Domingo have impeded understanding of migration to the Dominican Republic. It is believed by many authorities that Haitian migration to Santo Domingo is considerable and perhaps exceeds that to the US. Haitian migration to the Dominican Republic began after 1915 with the fall of the Haitian president, a worsening of economic conditions partly caused by stagnation in the agricultural sector, and the newly dominant role of the US in Haitian economic affairs. The Great Depression of the 1930s was a direct antecedent of the massacre of Haitians by Dominican police in which some 30 thousand persons were killed; the economic recession of the early 1980s has also caused an outburst of antiHaitian feeling in the Dominican Republic although 80% of laborers in the sugar industry are Haitians. Sugar is extremely important to the Dominican economy: in 1974, sugar covered 12% of cultivated land, produced 40% of foreign exchange earnings, and was responsable for 21% of taxable income. Dominicans however refuse to work in sugar plantations under the current technological. conditions and wage system. Although the government periodically demands the Dominicanization of the sugar work force, no such changes have been made. Sugar will probably continue to play a decisive role in the generation of foreign exchange despite introduction of more technologically advanced sectors which benefit from better prices in the international market. Possibilities of mechanizing sugar production in the Dominican Republic appear remote, and failure to modernize an important sector of the economy has
Batbayar, K.; Mann, P.; Hippolyte, J.
We compiled paleostress analyses from previous research works collected at 591 localities of striated fault planes in rocks ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Quaternary in the circum-Caribbean and Mexico. The purpose of the study is to quantify a progressive clockwise rotation of the Caribbean plate during its Late Cretaceous to recent subduction of the Proto-Caribbean seaway. Paleostress analysis is based on the assumption that slickenside lineations indicate both the direction and sense of maximum resolved shear stress on that fault plane. We have plotted directions of maximum horizontal stress onto plate tectonic reconstructions of the circum-Caribbean plate boundaries and infer that these directions are proxies for paleo-plate motion directions of the Caribbean plate. Plotting these stress directions onto reconstructions provided a better visualization of the relation of stress directions to blocks at their time of Late Cretaceous to recent deformation. Older, more deformed rocks of Late Cretaceous to Eocene ages yield a greater scatter in derived paleostress directions as these rocks have steeper dips, more pervasive faulting, and were likely affected by large rotations as known from previous paleomagnetic studies of Caribbean plate margins. Despite more scatter in measurements from older rock units, four major events that affected the Caribbean plate and the Great Arc of the Caribbean (GAC) are recognizable from changing orientations of stress directions: 1) Late Cretaceous collision of the GAC with southern Mexico and Colombia is consistent with NE directions of maximum compression in rocks of this age range in southern Mexico and EW directions in Colombia as the GAC approached the Proto-Caribbean seaway; 2) Paleocene-Eocene collision of the GAC with the Bahamas platform in Cuba and Hispaniola and with the South American plate in Venezuela is consistent with CW rotations of stress directions in rocks of these ages in the northern Caribbean and CCW
Krebs, M.; Schertl, H.-P.; Maresch, W. V.; Draper, G.
Serpentinite mélanges formed in the subduction zone channel of an intra-oceanic arc system are exposed in the Rio San Juan complex of northern Hispaniola. This study presents an array of pressure-temperature paths for 14 metamorphic blocks. The P- T paths were constructed from isochemical P- T phase diagrams ("pseudosections") as well as multi-equilibrium calculations on mineral assemblages, providing for the first time the means to compare P- T paths in both time and space. The study involves metabasic, meta-andesitic and metagranitic lithologies. Subduction was slow, so that the uninterrupted thermal development of the subduction zone can be followed over a time span of more than 60 Myr. Early eclogites mirror "warm" subduction zone gradients (˜18°/km); both clockwise and anticlockwise paths are found. The maximum P- T conditions reached are ˜800 °C and 26 kbar, thus indicating sufficient buoyancy for return flow from depths exceeding the stability of serpentine. As the subduction zone matures, P/ T gradients gradually steepen to ˜6°/km, and the maximum depth from which blocks are exhumed decreases in a regular way from 26 to 17 kbar. The exhumed metamorphic products are initially omphacite-bearing blueschists and evolve to jadeite- and lawsonite-bearing blueschists with veins of jadeitite jade. Lawsonite eclogites are not found, because in the latest history of the subduction zone the predominantly basic geochemistry of the blocks evolved to more intermediate compositions inappropriate for this rock type. There are no indications of systematic differences or episodic variations in subduction/exhumation velocities, so that a continuous cycling of material in the subduction zone channel is indicated. In two blocks of eclogite and garnet blueschist an earlier amphibolite-facies history at 575-700 °C and 7-8 kbar can be documented, suggesting erosion of the base of the overlying intra-oceanic island arc. The fossil subduction zone studied in detail here is
Gomez Capera, A.; Bindi, D.; Cifuentes, H.; Choy, J.; Chuy Rodriguez, T.; Garcia, J.; Massa, M.; Palme, C.; Pierristal, G.; Salcedo Hurtado, E.; Sanchez Vasquez, A.
The assessment of location, magnitude and uncertainties of great historical earthquakes is a key issue for understanding the seismic potential and PSHA of a region. In the last years independent techniques using only macrosesismic data points have been developed as, for example, the approach of Bakun and Wentworth (1997) or BW. This method has been largely applied in different tectonic contexts (Bindi et al., 2013), in different UE international projects and in estimations of location, magnitude and epistemic uncertainties (Bakun et al., 2011). We focus on some regional calibration initiatives in Northern South America and areas of the Caribbean Region. BW has been calibrated by Palme et al. (2005) and Choy et al. (2012) for earthquakes of the Mérida Andes and the Venezuela Central Regions. As well, BW calibrations have been proposed for the interandean Valley in Ecuador (Beauval et al., 2010), in the Hispaniola (Bakun et al, 2012) and for the northeastern Caribbean region (ten Brink et al., 2011). Preliminary BW calibration for the southeastern region of Cuba has been proposed by Gómez-Capera et al. (2012). Applications to historical earthquakes in Cuba have given encouraging results mainly for offshore events and are presented in the present study. We also present preliminary results for some earthquakes that have been recently studied in literature as for example the historical earthquakes of 1743 (Salcedo Hurtado and Gómez-Capera in press) and 1785 (Salcedo Hurtado and Castaño Castaño, 2011) which occurred close to Bogotá, BW method and intensity relationship of the literature were used. We present comparisons and sensibility analysis of the different relationships obtained in the region as well as uncertainty assessment. We also note that the magnitude parameter depends strongly on the regional calibration. Because of the availability of new macroseismic studies in Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano y Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 2013
Belizaire, D.; Benito, B.; Carreño, E.; Meneses, C.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; McCormack, D.
The destructive earthquake occurred on January 10, 2010 in Haiti, highlighted the lack of preparedness of the country to address seismic phenomena. At the moment of the earthquake, there was no seismic network operating in the country, and only a partial control of the past seismicity was possible, due to the absence of a national catalogue. After the 2010 earthquake, some advances began towards the installation of a national network and the elaboration of a seismic catalogue providing the necessary input for seismic Hazard Studies. This paper presents the state of the works carried out covering both aspects. First, a seismic catalogue has been built, compiling data of historical and instrumental events occurred in the Hispaniola Island and surroundings, in the frame of the SISMO-HAITI project, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and Developed in cooperation with the Observatoire National de l'Environnement et de la Vulnérabilité of Haiti (ONEV). Data from different agencies all over the world were gathered, being relevant the role of the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico seismological services which provides local data of their national networks. Almost 30000 events recorded in the area from 1551 till 2011 were compiled in a first catalogue, among them 7700 events with Mw ranges between 4.0 and 8.3. Since different magnitude scale were given by the different agencies (Ms, mb, MD, ML), this first catalogue was affected by important heterogeneity in the size parameter. Then it was homogenized to moment magnitude Mw using the empirical equations developed by Bonzoni et al (2011) for the eastern Caribbean. At present, this is the most exhaustive catalogue of the country, although it is difficult to assess its degree of completeness. Regarding the seismic network, 3 stations were installed just after the 2010 earthquake by the Canadian Government. The data were sent by telemetry thought the Canadian System CARINA. In 2012, the Spanish IGN together
Moknatian, M.; Piasecki, M.
One of the most valuable sources of data is Landsat imagery when in-situ data is absent. The Landsat satellite observations are also among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water resources. The purpose of this study is to investigate the water body changes of the two biggest lakes of Hispaniola Island for the past 30 years, using remote sensing techniques when there are no in-situ measurements available. Lake Azuei in Haiti and Lake Enriquillo in the Dominican Republic both have been changing constantly in their quality and quantity. Unexpected growth of the two lakes has been observed since 2003, leaving the area with many ecological and socio-economic complications affecting thousands of local peoples' lives during the past 12 years. Such phenomena are expected to be due to the influence of climate change on the lakes. One of the main key components to investigate this hypothesis is first to detect and map the patterns of changes of the lakes over time. 100 Landsat 4-5 TM and 192 Landsat 7-ETM+ scenes acquired from 1984 to 2014 were analyzed to investigate the surface area changes for each lake. Almost 60% of the images are fully or partially cloudy which makes it difficult to picture the full extent of the lakes and consequently calculate their surface area. Moreover, 65% of images have gaps due to the failure of the ETM+ scan line corrector (SLC) since 2003 which adds to the problem. To solve this problem, we developed an algorithm to identify and classify clouds and cloud shadows using blue and Thermal bands; remove them from the scene and then detect water body using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) using Green and NIR bands. The next step was to fill the gaps which were created after removing clouds and stripes from the scenes. Toward this end, we decided to complete each image using the previous or next available image. 95% of the images have been processed and surface area has been calculated for both lakes. Using the
Bozza, Andrea; Durand, Arnaud; Allenbach, Bernard; Confortola, Gabriele; Bocchiola, Daniele
We present a feasibility study to explore potential of high-resolution imagery, coupled with hydraulic flood modeling to predict flooding risks, applied to the case study of Gonaives basins (585 km²), Haiti. We propose a methodology working at different scales, providing accurate results and a faster intervention during extreme flood events. The 'Hispaniola' island, in the Caribbean tropical zone, is often affected by extreme floods events. Floods are caused by tropical springs and hurricanes, and may lead to several damages, including cholera epidemics, as recently occurred, in the wake of the earthquake upon January 12th 2010 (magnitude 7.0). Floods studies based upon hydrological and hydraulic modeling are hampered by almost complete lack of ground data. Thenceforth, and given the noticeable cost involved in the organization of field measurement campaigns, the need for exploitation of remote sensing images data. HEC-RAS 1D modeling is carried out under different scenarios of available Digital Elevation Models. The DEMs are generated using optical remote sensing satellite (WorldView-1) and SRTM, combined with information from an open source database (Open Street Map). We study two recent flood episodes, where flood maps from remote sensing were available. Flood extent and land use have been assessed by way of data from SPOT-5 satellite, after hurricane Jeanne in 2004 and hurricane Hanna in 2008. A semi-distributed, DEM based hydrological model is used to simulate flood flows during the hurricanes. Precipitation input is taken from daily rainfall data derived from TRMM satellite, plus proper downscaling. The hydraulic model is calibrated using floodplain friction as tuning parameters against the observed flooded area. We compare different scenarios of flood simulation, and the predictive power of model calibration. The method provide acceptable results in depicting flooded areas, especially considering the tremendous lack of ground data, and show the potential of
Moores, E. M.
Well-preserved ophiolites represent oceanic crust and mantle formed at a spreading center and emplaced by collision of a mantle-rooted thrust fault (subduction zone) with a continental margin or island arc. Ophiolite nappes thus represent remnants of lithospheric plates; their basal thrusts (fossil subduction zones) intrinscally cannot be balanced; their displacements are unknown but very large. Many environments of formation are possible for ophiolites: mid-ocean ridge, back-arc, forearc, or intra-arc spreading vrnyrtd, but geochemistry alone is inadequate to differentiate between the possibilities; geologic field evidence is needed, as well. Mesozoic ophiolites in western North America are associated either with the Stikine-Intermontane superterrane (e.g. Sierra Nevada, Klamath Mountains, California. Guerrero terrane, Mexico?), or lie west of it (e.g. Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite and correlatives to north and south.). The "Great Arc" of the Caribbean (Burke, 1988), including ophiolitic rocks in Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Venezuela, and Colombia, may also correlate with the Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite and/or with ophiolites in the Sierra Nevada. The Wrangellia/Insular superterrane may have extended to the south and at times may have included parts of the Chortis-Choco blocks of Central America, as well as the Cordillera Occidental of Colombia and Ecuador). These relations suggest the hypothesis that in mid-late Mesozoic time, a separate intra-oceanic plate similar to the present Philippine plate, herein informally called "Americordilleria" was separated by active island arc complexes from the American andFarallon/Kula plates to the east and west, respectively. Basement rocks of the Colombian, Venezuelan, and Yucatan basins, as well as the Great Valley/Coast Range ophiolite, may represent remnants of "Americordilleria". Convergence and collision of "Americordilleria" and its island arc margins with the American continents were major factors in
Sanford, T. B.; D'Asarp, E. A.; Girton, J. B.; Price, J. F.; Webb, D. C.
In ONR's CBLAST Hurricane research program observations were made of the upper ocean's response to Hurricane Frances. Three EM-APEX floats (velocity sensing versions of Webb Research APEX floats) and two Lagrangian floats were deployed north of Hispaniola from a C-130 aircraft ahead of Hurricane Frances in September 2004. The EM-APEX floats measured T, S and V over the upper 500 m starting about a day before the storm's arrival. The Lagrangian floats measured temperature and salinity while following the three- dimensional boundary layer turbulence in the upper 40 m. One EM-APEX float was directly under the track of the storm's eye, another EM-APEX and two Lagrangian floats went in about 50 km to the right of the track (where the surface winds are strongest) and the third float was about 100 km to the right. The EM-APEX floats profiled for 10 hours from the surface to 200 m, then continued profiling between 35 and 200 m with excursions to 500 m every half inertial period. After 5 days, the EM-APEX floats surfaced and transmitted the accumulated processed observations, then the floats profiled to 500 m every half inertial period until recovered early in October aided by GPS and Iridium. The float array sampled in unprecedented detail the upper-ocean turbulence, momentum, and salt and heat changes in response to the hurricane. The buildup of surface gravity waves in advance of the storm was also observed in the velocity profiles, with significant wave heights of up to 11 m. Rapid acceleration of inertial currents in the surface mixing layer (SML) to over 1 m/s stimulated vertical mixing by shear instability at the SML base, as indicated by low Richardson numbers and SML deepening from about 40 m to 120 m under the strongest wind forcing. Surface cooling of about 2.5 C was primarily due to the SML deepening and entrainment of colder water, with a small contribution from surface heat flux. Intense inertial pumping was observed under the eye, with vertical excursions of
Sanford, T. B.; Price, J. F.; Webb, D. C.; Girton, J. B.
Three new autonomous ocean velocity and density profilers were deployed ahead of Hurricane Frances as it passed north of Hispaniola in September 2004. These EM-APEX floats (velocity sensing versions of Webb Research Corp APEX floats) were launched from a C-130. The EM-APEX floats measured T, S and V over the upper 500 m starting about a day before the storm's arrival. One EM-APEX float was directly under the track of the storm's eye, another EM-APEX float went in about 55 km to the right of the track (where the surface winds are strongest) and the third float was about 110 km to the right. The EM-APEX floats profiled for 10 hours from the surface to 200 m then continued profiling between 30 and 200 m with excursions to 500 m every half inertial period. After 5 days, the EM-APEX floats surfaced and transmitted the accumulated processed observations, then the floats profiled to 500 m every half inertial period until recovered early in October aided by GPS and Iridium. The float array sampled in unprecedented detail the upper-ocean momentum, turbulence and salt and heat changes in response to the hurricane. Rapid acceleration of inertial currents in the surface mixing layer (SML) to over 1 m/s produced vertical mixing by shear instability at the SML base, as indicated by low Richardson numbers and SML deepening from about 40 m to 120 m under the strongest wind forcing. Surface cooling of about 2.2 C was primarily due to the SML deepening and entrainment of colder water, with a small contribution from surface heat flux. Intense inertial pumping was observed under the eye, with vertical excursions of 50 m or more. Comparison with a 3-D numerical model of the ocean response to Frances' winds simulates accurately SML deepening and surface cooling as well as significant differences in maximum currents and heat content changes. These differences highlight the sensitivity of the ocean's response to both the specification of the wind field and the parameterization of stress
Prentice, C. S.; Crone, A. J.; Gold, R. D.; Briggs, R. W.; Narcisse, R.
The catastrophic M 7.0 earthquake that occurred in Haiti on 12 January 2010 highlighted the hazard associated with the Caribbean-North American plate boundary in Hispaniola. Detailed analysis and modeling of geologic, geodetic, and seismologic data showed that most of the moment release occurred on a previously unidentified, north-dipping, blind thrust fault (now named the Léogâne fault), which is north of the plate-bounding, left-lateral Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault (EPGF). The result that the Léogâne fault was the source of the 2010 earthquake implies that the EPGF remains a significant hazard and raises the question of other potential seismic sources near Port-au-Prince (PaP). Following the earthquake, we mapped Quaternary traces of the EPGF in the field using satellite imagery, aerial photography, and LiDAR data. We identified three paleoseismic study sites along the EPGF: the Jean-Jean and Marianne sites southwest of PaP along the Momance section of the EPGF and the Riviére Grise site southeast of PaP along the Dumay section. Trenches at the Jean-Jean site show fault strands breaking nearly to the ground surface, but that did not move in the 2010 earthquake. We collected radiocarbon samples from faulted strata that we anticipate will provide constraints on the age of the most recent surface rupture. We also identified a buried channel deposit that is left-laterally offset a minimum of 3 m, and collected radiocarbon samples to constrain its age. In a natural stream cut at the Marianne site, we documented three colluvial wedges, and collected samples for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating that we anticipate will provide age constraints on the three most recent earthquakes. At Riviére Grise we documented evidence for three surface ruptures in a fluvial terrace deposit, and collected OSL samples to constrain their ages. Our preliminary geomorphic analysis of a belt of low hills north of the EPGF and east of PaP suggests that these hills are
Wei, Y.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Atwater, B. F.; Tuttle, M. P.; Robert, H.; Feuillet, N.; Jennifer, W.; Fuentes, Z.
In a comparison among numerical models of storms and tsunamis, only tsunami waves of nearby origin manage to wash over an area where coral heads of medieval age are scattered hundreds of meters inland from the north shore of Anegada, British Virgin Islands. This low-lying island faces the Puerto Rico Trench 120 km to the north. The island's north shore, fringed by a coral reef 100-1200 m offshore, displays geological evidence for two levels of overwash. The medieval overwash, dated to AD 1200-1450, was the higher one. It is evidenced by scores of coral boulders scattered hundreds of meters inland. Some of them crossed the area of the modern storm berm at Soldier Wash, continued across a broad limestone rise 3-4 m above sea level, and came to rest on lower ground farther inland. Coral heads in four other areas, also medieval or older, came to rest hundreds of meters inland from beach ridges now 2-4 m above sea level. The later, lower-elevation overwash, dated to AD 1650-1800, laid down a sheet of sand and shell that extends as much as 1.5 km inland. The hypothetical causes for each event, tested by numerical modeling, include (1) category IV and V hurricanes that differ in surge and wave heights; (2) the 1755 Lisbon earthquake or hypothetical medieval predecessor, at M 8.7 and M 9.0; (3) M 8.4 thrust earthquake along the Puerto Rico Trench between Hispaniola and Anegada; (4) M 8.7 thrust along the Puerto Rico Trench between Tortola and Antigua; (5) M 8.0 earthquake from normal faulting on the outer rise north of Anegada. The model output includes extent of onshore flooding, depth and velocity of overland flow, and energy lost by tsunami and hurricane waves as they cross the reef and continue across a shallow subtidal flat to Anegada's north shore. For the medieval overwash, the modeling is most conclusive in testing various explanations for the coral boulders inland of Soldier Wash. The simulated hurricane waves do not wash inland of the storm berm; the height of
Kammerer, A. M.; ten Brink, U. S.; Titov, V. V.
collecting existing information and assessing the potential impact to the coasts. The focus of seismic sources focused on the Hispaniola-Puerto Rico-Lesser Antilles subduction zone and the enigmatic zone of large earthquakes west of Gibraltar. These source areas were investigated, an evaluation of their tsunamigenic potential was undertaken, and the potential for hazard to the U.S. coastline was considered. As part of the current phase, the USGS will conduct field investigations in key locations for the purpose of filling existing data gaps. Investigations will also continue to assess landslide potential in the Gulf of Mexico and to determine the source of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. The potential for developing tools and data to undertake probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments (PTHA) will also be a key focus of later phases of the program. Simultaneously, the NOAA MOST tsunami generation and propagation model is being enhanced to include landslide-based initiation mechanisms and is being validated with case studies. The enhanced MOST model will be used to investigate the tsunamigenic sources characterized by the USGS, with the goal of creating an estimation of deterministic tsunami hazard levels for the length of Atlantic and Gulf Coasts.
Weil-Accardo, J.; Feuillet, N.; Jacques, E.; Deschamps, P.; Saurel, J.-M.; Thirumalai, K.; Demeza, S.; Anglade, D.
record of B8, the diversity in shape of the S. siderea microatolls and the position of fossil D. strigosa corals overall indicate stable to slightly increasing relative sea-level (about 1 mm/yr). This is on the same order of magnitude, although slightly lower, as the rate we determined over the last 74 years by using eight tide gauge records around Hispaniola (1.63 ± 0.20 mm/yr) and the mean rate of sea-level rise previously published (2.0 ± 0.5 mm/yr) in the area. This study demonstrates that coral microatolls can be used to infer relative sea-level changes over the last decades or centuries in the Caribbean, where tide gauge records are often sparse, incomplete or nonexistent. This is of prime importance for the numerous small and flat Caribbean islands, highly vulnerable to the threat of global sea-level rise.
Heymsfield, G.; Geerts, B.; Tian, L.
. Both TEFLUN-A and B were amply supported by surface data, in particular a dense raingauge network, a polarization radar, wind profilers, a mobile radiosonde system, a cloud physics aircraft penetrating the overflown storms, and a network of 10 cm Doppler radars(WSR-88D). This presentation will show some preliminary comparisons between TRMM, EDOP, and WSR-88D reflectivity fields in the case of an MCS, a hurricane, and less organized convection in central Florida. A validation of TRMM reflectivity is important, because TRMM's primary objective is to estimate the rainfall climatology with 35 degrees of the equator. Rainfall is estimated from the radar reflectivity, as well from TRMM's Microwave Imager, which measures at 10.7, 19.4, 21.3, 37, and 85.5 GHz over a broader swath (78 km). While the experiments lasted about three months the cumulative period of near simultaneous observations of storms by ground-based, airborne and space borne radars is only about an hour long. Therefore the comparison is case-study-based, not climatological. We will highlight fundamental differences in the typical reflectivity profiles in stratiform regions of MCS's, Florida convection and hurricanes and will explain why Z-R relationships based on ground-based radar data for convective systems over land should be different from those for hurricanes. These catastrophically intense rainfall from hurricane Georges in Hispaniola and from Mitch in Honduras highlights the importance of accurate Z-R relationships, It will be shown that a Z-R relationship that uses the entire reflectivity profile (rather than just a 1 level) works much better in a variety of cases, making an adjustment of the constants for different precipitation system categories redundant.
Atwater, B. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Fuentes, Z.; Halley, R. B.; Spiske, M.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.
Has the Antilles Subduction Zone produced thrust or outer-rise earthquakes east of Hispaniola? An affirmative answer is suggested by tiered evidence for overwash 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench. The evidence comes from Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 200 km east-northeast of San Juan, Puerto Rico. PREVIOUS FINDINGS* suggested that a medieval overwash event had greater geologic effects at Anegada than did a Lisbon(?) event, and that both events outrank recent storms. The medieval overwash, in AD 1200-1450, dislodged brain corals from a reef, moved them as much as 500 m across a shallow subtidal flat, and scattered them as solitary boulders as much as 1000 m inland. Gentler overwash in 1650-1800, called Lisbon(?) because it may represent the 1755 tsunami, laid down a sheet of sand and island-derived shells as much as 1500 m from the north shore. A recent hurricane of category 4 left no durable geologic record other than sandy fans within 40 m of the south shore. NEW FINDINGS reinforce the ranking medieval > Lisbon(?) > storm: (1) The medieval event washed ashore marine shells that the Lisbon(?) event did not. An articulated marine bivalve (Codakia orbicularis), probably deposited live, is part of an overwash fan 400 m inland from Windlass Bight. The shell dates to the same time window as the medieval coral boulders. Additional articulated Codakia shells and a conch shell adjoin the buried base of one of these coral boulders 1500 m south of the fringing reef from which the coral was probably derived. (2) Lisbon(?) overwash used breaches that the medieval event had cut through beach ridges of the north shore. The re-use is marked by sand: on the muddy floor of a partly filled breach, on an organic soil in another such breach, and on a pre-existing fan south of an area of beach-ridge dissection. The buried organic soil, inset into a old breach, is 500 m inland from an area, near Cow Wreck High Point, where young beach ridges may have been breached for the first
Marchesi, C.; Garrido, C. J.; Proenza, J. A.; Konc, Z.; Hidas, K.; Lewis, J.; Lidiak, E.
Several mantle peridotite massifs crop out as isolated dismembered bodies in tectonic belts along the northern margin of the Caribbean plate, especially in Cuba, Guatemala, Jamaica, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. Among these bodies, the Loma Caribe peridotite forms the core of the Median Belt in central Dominican Republic and is considered to have been emplaced in Aptian time as result of the collision between an oceanic plateau (the Duarte plateau terrane) and the primitive Caribbean island arc. This peridotite massif is mainly composed of clinopyroxene-rich harzburgite, harzburgite, lherzolite and dunite which mainly have porphyroclastic texture with strongly deformed orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, as commonly observed in ophiolitic mantle tectonites. Mg# [100*Mg/(Mg+Fe2+)] of olivine increases from lower values in lherzolite (89-90), to higher values in harzburgite (89-91) and dunite (91-92). Orthopyroxene in harzburgite has higher Mg# (91-92) and lower Al2O3 (0.89 to 1.12 wt.%) than in lherzolite (Mg# = 89-91; Al2O3 = 2.4-3.5wt.%), similarly to clinopyroxene (Mg# = 94-95 and Al2O3 = 0.89-1.10 wt% in harzburgite, versus Mg# = 86-94 and Al2O3 = 2.3-4.0 wt% in lherzolite). Cr# [Cr/(Cr+Al)] of spinel spans from 0.30 in lherzolite to 0.88 in dunite. These variations in terms of Mg# in olivine and Cr# in spinel overlap the mineral compositions in both abyssal and supra-subduction zone peridotites. The sample/chondrite REE concentrations of peridotites are variable (0.002 < LREE chondrite-normalized < 0.11 and 0.002 < HREE chondrite-normalized < 1.02) and their HREE contents generally reflect the clinopyroxene proportions in the samples, i.e. harzburgite has lower HREE abundances than lherzolite. These trace element abundances are transitional between those of highly depleted supra-subduction peridotites from ophiolites in eastern Cuba and those of fertile mantle rocks in ultramafic massifs from Puerto Rico. Chondrite-normalized patterns are U-shaped (i.e., relatively
Ellouz, N.; Leroy, S. D.; Momplaisir, R.; Mercier de Lepinay, B.
pathway changes. Geochemical signature and temperature of the fluids and gas, change drastically depending on location and depth provenance. Our first results show that 1) the present-day EPGF geometry results from oblique shortening processes along different segments of the fault. Deep basins previously localized south and north of the fault are inverted at different degrees, 2) the Gonâve Island is only the emerged part of a NW-SE, either growing large " anti-formal stack" or basement inversion responsible for the large present-day fold amplitude, or both of them successively. It separates two sub-basins South and North Gonâve with independant sedimentary and deformation evolution 3) the Jeremie Basin probably has a specific long-living evolution, allowing to precise the geodynamic evolution of the Western Hispaniola Margin.
Pierristal, G.; Benito, B.; Cervera, J.; Belizaire, D.
Haiti, because of his seismicity associated with plate boundary and several faults that cross the island of Hispaniola (Haiti-Dominican Republic), has been affected in the past by major earthquakes, which have caused loss of life and damage or considerable structural collapses (ex. 1771, 1842), sometimes the destruction of the cities. The recent earthquake of January 12, 2010, was the most destructive earthquake that any country has experienced in modern times, when we measure the number of people killed with respect to the population of a country (Cavallo et al. 2010). It's obvious that the major causes of theses losses are the lack of awareness of the population about the earthquakes, the absence of seismic code and quality control of the building. In this paper, we propose some recommendations for the establishment of the seismic code of Haiti in order to decrease physical and social impacts of earthquakes in the future. First of all, we present a theoretical part of concepts and fundamental elements to establish a seismic code, such as: description of the methodology for seismic hazard's assessment, presentation of the results in terms of acceleration maps for the whole country (in rock sites) and Uniform Hazard Spectrum (UHS) in the cities, and the criteria for soil classification and amplification factors for including site's effects, equivalent forces, etc. Then, we include a practical part where calculations and comparisons of five seismic codes of different countries (Eurocode 8, Spain, Canada, United States and Dominican Republic) are included, in order to have criteria for making the proposals for Haiti. Using the results of Benito et al (presented in this session S10) we compare the UHS in different cities of Haiti with the response spectrum derived from the application of the spectral shapes given by the aforementioned codes. Furthermore, the classification of soils and buildings have been also analyzed and contrasted with local data in order to
Kay, Richard F
Molecular data have converged on a consensus about the genus-level phylogeny of extant platyrrhine monkeys, but for most extinct taxa and certainly for those older than the Pleistocene we must rely upon morphological evidence from fossils. This raises the question as to how well anatomical data mirror molecular phylogenies and how best to deal with discrepancies between the molecular and morphological data as we seek to extend our phylogenies to the placement of fossil taxa. Here I present parsimony-based phylogenetic analyses of extant and fossil platyrrhines based on an anatomical dataset of 399 dental characters and osteological features of the cranium and postcranium. I sample 16 extant taxa (one from each platyrrhine genus) and 20 extinct taxa of platyrrhines. The tree structure is constrained with a "molecular scaffold" of extant species as implemented in maximum parsimony using PAUP with the molecular-based 'backbone' approach. The data set encompasses most of the known extinct species of platyrrhines, ranging in age from latest Oligocene (∼26 Ma) to the Recent. The tree is rooted with extant catarrhines, and Late Eocene and Early Oligocene African anthropoids. Among the more interesting patterns to emerge are: (1) known early platyrrhines from the Late Oligocene through Early Miocene (26-16.5Ma) represent only stem platyrrhine taxa; (2) representatives of the three living platyrrhine families first occur between 15.7 Ma and 13.5 Ma; and (3) recently extinct primates from the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola) are sister to the clade of extant platyrrhines and may have diverged in the Early Miocene. It is probable that the crown platyrrhine clade did not originate before about 20-24 Ma, a conclusion consistent with the phylogenetic analysis of fossil taxa presented here and with recent molecular clock estimates. The following biogeographic scenario is consistent with the phylogenetic findings and climatic and geologic evidence: Tropical South
Santos, Rúben; Caldeira, Bento; Borges, José; Bezzeghoud, Mourad
which is in agreement with the deformation field measured by InSAR.  Bakun W, Flores C, Brink U, 2012 Significant Earthquakes on the Enriquillo Fault System, Hispaniola, 1500-2010: Implications for Seismic Hazard. Bul. Seis. Soc. of America, 102(1):18-30.  Dixon, T. et al., 1998. Relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates and related boundary zone deformation based on a decade of GPS observations. J. Geophys. Res. 103, 15157-15182.  Mercier de Lépinay, B., Deschamps, A., Klingelhoefer, F., Mazabraud, Y., Delouis, B., Clouard, V., Hello Y., Crozon, J., Marcaillou, B., Graindorge, D., Vallée M., Perrot, J., Bouin, M., Saurel, J., Charvis, Philippe, C. and St-Louis, 2011. The 2010 Haiti earthquake: A complex fault pattern constrained by seismologic and tectonic observations, Geoph. Res. Let., 30, L22305  Caldeira B, Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF., 2009 DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining the seismic rupture velocity vector. J. of Seis.. 2009;14(3):565-600.
Mintz, H. E.; Pulliam, J.
seismic data is common to these island-based stations due to energy generated by ocean wave action. To overcome this limitation, we stacked error diagrams obtained from our split analyses to produce more robust solutions (Wolfe and Silver, 1998; Monteiller and Chevrot, 2010). A regional synthesis of our results reveals fast shear-wave polarizations that are generally oriented parallel to the plate boundary with intermediate to high split times. For example, polarization directions are oriented roughly N-S along the bulk of the Lesser Antilles, E-W along the Puerto Rico Trench and the northern Lesser Antilles, and NW-SE beneath Hispaniola. Beneath the U.S. and British Virgin Islands, however, the fast polarization direction differs markedly from the regional pattern, becoming almost perpendicular to the plate boundary. Stations on Anegada and St. Croix show a fast polarization direction that is oriented nearly N-S and smaller delay times than surrounding stations. These results suggest that mantle flow is redirected N-S at this location through a gap in the subducted lithosphere of the North American plate. This new understanding of plate geometries and mantle flow provides insight into the controls of Northeast Caribbean tectonism and to other regions around the world with proposed slab tears and gaps.
Wessels, Richard; Ellouz-Zimmermann, Nadine; Rosenberg, Claudio; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Hamon, Youri; Deschamps, Remy; Battani, Anne; Leroy, Sylvie; Momplaisir, Roberte
The NW - SE trending Haitian fold-and-thrust belt (HFTB) is located in the western part of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. It covers the suture between the Cretaceous Caribbean island arc in the north and the Late Cretaceous thickened oceanic crust in the south. The HFTB is bounded to the north and south by the left-lateral Septentrional (SFZ) and Enriquillo-Plantain Garden (EPGFZ) fault zones, respectively. Compressional deformation on the HFTB commenced as early as Eocene times. It was followed by transpressional deformation from the early Miocene onwards, with in sequence progressive stacking of thrust sheets towards the SW. Seismicity at the junction between the HFTB and the EPGFZ is recorded by the 12 January 2010 Mw 7.0 earthquake. Surface mapping did not reveal a rupture, as the main activity occurred on the steep NNW dipping oblique transpressional Léogâne fault, while aftershocks documented motion on a shallow SW dipping thrust segment. The structural style of deformation of the HFTB, either the stacking of thrust sheets on basement heterogeneities or basement-involved thrusting, has not been studied in detail. Also lacking are conceptual models addressing the amount of convergence between the northern and southern domains, and describing how convergence was accommodated. To address these problems we conducted a detailed fieldwork on the southernmost thrust sheet, known as the Chaîne des Matheux front. Using stratigraphy, geological mapping, cross sections, kinematic fault slip data, analysis of mineralizations and fluid inclusions, and geochemical analysis of fluid seeps, we decipher the evolution of this anticlinal structure. Stratigraphic data reveal stable Eocene platform sedimentation over the whole region, which preceded deepening of the basin throughout Oligocene and early Miocene times. A diachronous evolution is evident from the middle Miocene onwards. The NE flank displays a shallowing upwards trend and clastic sedimentation, while the
Cobiella, J.; Hueneke, H.; Meschede, M.; Sommer, M.
Cuba acts as the northwestern boundary of the Caribbean Sea. However it is not part of the Caribbean plate, its geological development is deeply related to the plate history. In fact, its Cretaceous volcanic arc rocks tightly correlate with coeval sections in Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, and the same probably occurs with the ophiolites. The early Palaeogene events in Cuba were also involved in the Caribbean plate history. In general, two principal structural levels can be distinguished in the geological structure of Cuba. The rocks belonging to the upper level (Eocene to Quaternary) are little disturbed and can be referred to as the cover. Below it occurs the great complex of the Cuban orogenic belt, which consists mainly of rocks of Jurassic to Eocene age. In addition, small outcrops of Proterozoic metamorphic rocks also occur in north central Cuba. The Palaeocene-Eocene section contains volcanic arc sequences in SE Cuba and northward thrusted piggy back and foreland basins in central and western Cuba. The Mesozoic rocks lies unconformably below. The contacts between the major Mesozoic elements are always tectonic. With the exception of the rocks of the passive Mesozoic margin of North America in northern Cuba, the remaining units represent tectonostratigraphic terranes extending parallel to the axis of the present main island of Cuba. The northernmost unit is the Mesozoic passive continental margin of North America. It consists of a Jurassic- Cretaceous mainly marine sedimentary sequence now exposed as a thrust and fold belt along the northern edge of the Cuban mainland. The other units are, from north to south: the Northern Ophiolitic Belt, the Volcanic Arc Terrane and the Southern Metamorphic Terranes. The ophiolites and the Cretaceous volcanic arc terranes belong to the Proto-Caribbean plate and were accreted to the palaeomargin during Late Cretaceous and early Palaeogene episodes. Some constrains to Caribbean plate origin and evolution according to data from
Rios, J. K.; McHugh, C. M.; Seeber, L.; Blair, S.; Sorlien, C. C.
The Baie de Port au Prince (BPP) is adjacent a restraining segment of the sinistral Caribbean-North America plate boundary and is therefore situated between converging high-relief thrust systems, the Massif Selle (Peninsula Range) to the south and the Chaine de Matheux (Hispaniola highlands) to the north. To evaluate neotectonic deformation, seismic hazards and sedimentation patterns for the BPP, six gravity cores were studied within the framework of chirp profiles collected from the R/V Endeavor in 2010. The cores were recovered from 76 m to 148 m of water depth sampling sediment from the carbonate platform that rims the BPP and from the slope. We studied the biostratigraphy (foraminifers, nannoplankton), geochemical elemental composition and physical properties of the sediment. An age model from the last glacial to the present (~20 ka BP) was derived from radiocarbon. Nannoplankton biostratigraphy provide constraints on the late Pleistocene. The BPP is 150 m maximum water depth and is rimmed by an ~30 m deep carbonate platform that has undergone dissolution. Terraces characterize the sub-bottom topography to the NE. This topography was covered by sediment during at least one relative sea-level cycle. Sediment progradation and mass-wasting on the northern and southern flanks of the BPP respectively, occurred during the latest Pleistocene low stand (~20 ka BP). Increased sedimentation from 0.2 mm/year to 0.8 mm/year occurred from 14.2 ka BP to 9.5 ka BP. This period also corresponds with a global rapid rate in sea-level rise from -94 m to -37 m. A basin wide acoustically transparent layer of sediment ~10 m thick covered the BPP. Mass-wasting, microfaulting, fluidization and turbidites caused by erosion triggered by pre-historic earthquakes possibly associated with EPG transform fault are found in the cores. One such deposit is possibly associated to the 2010 earthquake and another to an unconformable surface that separates early- from late-Holocene sediment on the
Comarazamy, D.; Gonzalez, J.; Glenn, E.; Leon, Y.; Brito, D. R.
The Enriquillo and Sumatra are saltwater lakes located in a rift valley that is a former marine strait created around 1 million years ago when the water level fell and the strait was filled in by river sediments, they are the largest lakes in the Dominican Republic and Haiti, respectively, with Lake Enriquillo being the lowest point in the Caribbean. The lakes, part of the Enriquillo closed water basin in the southwestern region of the island of La Hispaniola, have been experiencing dramatic changes in total lake-surface area coverage during the period 1980-2012. The size of the lakes was determined using remote sensing images (NASA-LANDSAT) analyzed with geographic information system (GIS) at different times during the available record. The size calculation for Lake Enriquillo shows a lake surface area of approximately 276 km2 in 1984 that gradually decreased to 172 km2 in 1996. After a period of fluctuations between 1996 and 2001, the surface area of the lake reaches its lowest point in 2004, at 165 km2. Beginning in 2004, the recent growth of the lake begins and reaches its 1984 size in 2006. Based on surface area measurement for December 2009, the lake size is 333 km2, 17% larger than in 1984 and almost double than in 2004. Sumatra sizes at both ends of the record are 115.96 km2 in 1984 and 134.26 km2 in 2011, an overall 15.8% increase in 27 years. Because the lakes are mostly latitudinally restricted by topography, most of the size changes occur on the southeastern side of Lake Enriquillo, with some growth on the western tip. Determining the causes of lake surface area changes is of extreme importance due to the environmental, social, and economic consequences. The goal of this study is to quantify the changing water balance in these lakes using satellite and ground observations and regional atmospheric modeling. Analyses of environmental variables in the region reflect a hydrological unbalance of the lakes due to changing regional hydro-climatic conditions
Troester, J. W.
Ile de la Gonave is a 750-square-kilometer island off the western coast of Haiti. The island is composed of Eocene and Miocene limestones unconformably overlain by Pleistocene limestone. The highest elevation is 778 meters. Annual precipitation varies across the island because of the orographic effect and ranges from 800 to 1,400 millimeters. There is no surface water except immediately after large storms. Droughts, some extending for more than one year, and frequent crop failures due to droughts have been reported. Potential evaporation is estimated to be about 2,000 millimeters at the coast, but less at higher elevations. Consequently most rain is lost through evapotranspiration; recharge to the limestone aquifers apparently occurs only after large storms and is estimated to be about 4 percent of the mean annul precipitation based on a chloride mass balance. Depth to the water table ranges from less than 30 meters in the Eocene and Miocene limestones to over 60 meters in the 300-meter thick Quaternary limestone. Average annual precipitation at Port au-Prince (50 kilometers to the east and on the main island of Hispaniola) has decreased from about 1600 millimeters in 1860's to about 1300 mm in the 1950's. Precipitation data from Port-au-Prince after the 1950's are sporadic, making further comments about climate change difficult. Even without decreasing precipitation, which may be due in part to climate change or the deforestation of Haiti, the increasing population on Ile de la Gonave has and will continue to exacerbate the scarce water supply, particularly because of the small number of sources (springs, cave pools, and wells) where people can obtain water. Women take an average of almost three hours per day to travel an average of 2.5 kilometers (one-way) to obtain water for their families. Because of the difficulties in obtaining freshwater, the 100,000 inhabitants use an average of only 7 to 13 liters per person per day. Reconnaissance field analyses indicate
Mooers, C. N.
The Caribbean Sea is the least studied portion of the Intra-Americas Sea (IAS), which is the combined Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Straits of Florida, and the adjacent western North Atlantic. The upstream elements of the Gulf Stream System are the dominant features of the upper ocean circulation in the Caribbean Sea. The Trade Winds superimpose a coastal upwelling regime along the northern coast of South America and a coastal downwelling regime along the southern coasts of Cuba and Hispaniola. The inflow from the Atlantic through several Antillean passages is derived from tropical and subtropical sources and is relatively weak, shallow, and variable; the outflow to the Gulf of Mexico through the Yucatan Channel is relatively strong, deep, and variable. The variability includes mesoscale eddies and meanders as well as the seasonal cycle and year-to-year variability; it also includes lengthy plumes from the Orinoco and other rivers and lengthy filaments from coastal upwelling centers. Some of the mesoscale variability originates in the Eastern Caribbean; other components originate in the Western Caribbean, especially in the cyclonic Panama-Colombia Gyre. The upper ocean of the Caribbean Sea is not only under the influence of the Trade Winds and their seasonal and longer term variability but also two other, not mutually exclusive, sources of variability: the seasonal heating and precipitation cycles on one hand, and synoptic scale and mesoscale phenomena on the other hand. For example, there are wet and dry seasons, and the Eastern Caribbean is typically dry and the Western Caribbean typically wet, with a heavy rainfall zone off the coast of Central America. And the patterns of atmospheric deep convection and subsidence apparently account for the summertime intensification of an extensive "warm pool" concentrated in the Northwestern Caribbean, which is exported to the Gulf of Mexico. As another example, the weekly Tropical Easterly Waves (TEWs) are the predominant
Haitians themselves. In the ensuing weeks, the USGS tracked aftershocks and issued statements with probabilities of future earthquakes. Early on, the U.S. Southern Command made it possible to put an advance team of engineers and a USGS seismologist on the ground in Haiti. That initial team was followed by the first major deployment of a USGS/USAID Earthquake Disaster Assistance Team, which evolved from the long-standing partnership between these two agencies. EDAT activities included field assessment of faulting, coastal uplift, and landslides; seismometer deployments for aftershock recording and characterization of ground shaking amplification; and development of a probabilistic seismic hazard map for Haiti and the whole island of Hispaniola. The team’s efforts benefited greatly from collaboration with Haitian colleagues with knowledge transfer occurring in both directions. The effort also benefited from significant remote sensing acquisitions, which helped to target field activities and constrain fault rupture patterns. Although the products have been put to use in Haiti, it still remains to turn hazard assessments into tools that can be used for effective planning, building code development and land-use decisions.
Geochemistry of jadeitites and jadeite-lawsonite rocks in a serpentinite mélange (Rio San Juan Complex, northern Dominican Republic): Constraints on fluid composition in a subduction channel environment
Baese, Rauno; Maresch, Walter V.; Schenk, Volker; Schertl, Hans-Peter
and trace element concentrations also change from centers to rims. Ca/Na varies from 0.75-0.77 in the center to 1.03-1.29 in the rim; the rims are enriched in Rb, Ba, Pb, Eu and have slightly higher REE concentrations than the centers. This may be explained by the lower solubility of lawsonite compared to that of jadeite , causing lawsonite to crystallize first during precipitation. Lawsonite crystallization leads to a decrease of the Ca/Na ratio in the fluid. When the Ca/Na ratio becomes low enough jadeite starts to crystallize. Based on chemical data, jadeitites and jadeite-lawsonite rocks can be subdivided into two groups. The chondrite-normalised REE pattern of the first group shows decreasing normalized values from LREE (40-10 times) towards HREE (8-1 times). The second group has a U-shaped pattern with a strong positive Eu (5 times) anomaly. Even though no depletion zone in the adjoining host rock of the jadeitite is petrographically visible, there are lower REE concentrations in blueschists directly adjacent to the veins as compared to homogeneous blueschists without any veins. This clearly indicates some fluid-rock interaction during formation of the veins. References 1) Harlow G.E., Sorensen S.S. (2005) Jade (nephrite and jadeitite) and serpentinite: Metasomatic connections. International Geology Review 47:113-146. 2) Schertl, H.-P., Maresch, W.V., Krebs, M., Draper, G. (2007) The Rio San Juan serpentinite complex and its jadeitites (Dominican Republic). In: Martens U., García-Casco A. (eds) High-pressure belts of Central Guatemala: the Motagua suture and the Chuacús Complex. IGCP 546 Special Contribution, 1. 3) Schertl, H.-P., Krebs, M., Maresch, W.V., Draper, G. (2007) Jadeitite from Hispaniola: a link between Guatemala and Antigua? 20th Colloquium on Latin American Earth Sciences, Kiel, Germany, Abstract Volume, 167-168 4) Baese, R., Schertl, H.-P., Maresch, W.V. (2007) Mineralogy and petrology of Hispaniolan jadeitites: first results. In: Martens U