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Sample records for histiocytosis orbital lesion

  1. Crystal-storing histiocytosis: a rare lesion in periapical pathology.

    PubMed

    da Cruz Perez, Danyel Elias; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa; de Andrade, Bruno Augusto Benevenuto; Rizo, Victor Hugo Toral; Almeida, Luciana Yamamoto; León, Jorge Esquiche; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2012-12-01

    Crystal-storing histiocytosis is a rare manifestation of plasma cell dyscrasia/monoclonal gammopathies and lymphoproliferative disorders, characterized by cytoplasmic accumulation of crystallized immunoglobulins in histiocytes. Nevertheless, some reported cases of crystal-storing histiocytosis raise the possibility that this lesion may also be reactive. Crystal-storing histiocytosis in the oral cavity is extremely rare; only one case affecting the tongue has been reported in the English-language literature. In this report, we discuss the case of a 38-year-old man who presented a persistent periapical lesion affecting the maxillary left lateral incisor. Histopathological analysis showed numerous crystal-laden histiocytes associated with a mild plasma cell infiltrate within a fibrous stroma. The plasma cells failed to show clonal light-chain restriction, and the patient had no associated hematologic disorder or systemic disease. Thus, this lesion was probably the result of hypersecretion of immunoglobulins by polyclonal plasma cells found in the periapical lesion. Crystal-storing histiocytosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of periapical lesions.

  2. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: recurrent lesions affecting mandible in a 10-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Loducca, S V; Mantesso, A; Araújo, N S; Magalhães, M H

    2001-01-01

    Hand-Schuller-Christian disease is a multifocal variant of eosinophilic granuloma, characterised by the classical triad of bony lesions, exophthalmos and diabetes insipidus. This case relates recurrent Langerhans' cell histiocytosis lesions presented as destruction of periodontal support associated with diabetes in a 10-year-old patient. Medical history suggests that the case represents a case of Hand-Schuller Christian disease.

  3. Langerhans cell histiocytosis with multifocal bone lesions: comparative clinical features between single and multi-systems.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Shinsaku; Kinugawa, Naoko; Matsuzaki, Akinobu; Kitoh, Toshiyuki; Ohki, Kentaro; Shioda, Yoko; Tsunematsu, Yukiko; Imamura, Toshihiko; Morimoto, Akira

    2009-11-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) can be a single system or multi-system disease. Both disease types can be associated with multi-focal bone lesions, but their bone involvement patterns have not been compared systematically. Of the new pediatric LCH cases enrolled into the JLSG-02 study during 2002-2007, 67 cases of single system multifocal bone (SMFB) LCH and 97 cases of multi-system bone (MSB) LCH were analyzed to determine if the bone involvement patterns differ in these two types, and whether these differences correlate with outcome. Statistical analysis was performed with Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher's exact test, and other measures. Onset ages were higher for SMFB (P < 0.001), but the two types did not differ in the number of bone lesions per patient. The skull was most frequently affected in both types, followed by the spine. Lesions in the temporal bone (P = 0.002), ear-petrous bone (P < 0.001), orbita (P = 0.003), and zygomatic bone (P = 0.016) were significantly more common in MSB. The two types did not differ in response to treatment, but MSB was associated with a significantly higher incidence of diabetes insipidus (DI) (P < 0.001). Novel measures are required in preventing the development of DI in MSB-type LCH patients with "risk" bone lesions.

  4. Insufficiency of bone scintigraphy in vertebral lesions of langerhans cell histiocytosis compared to f-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography and diagnostic computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Koç, Zehra Pınar; Şimşek, Selçuk; Akarsu, Saadet; Balcı, Tansel Ansal; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Kepenek, Ferat

    2015-02-05

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a benign disorder related to the histiocytes which can infiltrate bone tissue. The most effective method for demonstrating severity of this disease is PET/CT and bone scintigraphy might show bone lesions. We present a seventeen year old male patient with disseminated LCH presented with exophtalmos and having multiple vertebral lesions which were identified by F-18 FDG PET/CT scan and diagnostic CT but not in the bone scintigraphy.

  5. Sclerosing Lesions of the Orbit: A Review.

    PubMed

    Lokdarshi, Gautam; Pushker, Neelam; Bajaj, Mandeep S

    2015-01-01

    Orbital sclerosing inflammation is a distinct group of pathologies characterized by indolent growth with minimal or no signs of inflammation. However, contrary to earlier classifications, it should not be considered a chronic stage of acute inflammation. Although rare, orbital IgG4-related disease has been associated with systemic sclerosing pseudotumor-like lesions. Possible mechanisms include autoimmune and IgG4 related defective clonal proliferation. Currently, there is no specific treatment protocol for IgG4-related disease although the response to low dose steroid provides a good response as compared to non-IgG4 sclerosing pseudotumor. Specific sclerosing inflammations (e.g. Wegener's disease, sarcoidosis, Sjogren's syndrome) and neoplasms (lymphoma, metastatic breast carcinoma) should be ruled out before considering idiopathic sclerosing inflammation as a diagnosis.

  6. Treatment of Langerhans cell histiocytosis bone lesions with zoledronic acid: a case series.

    PubMed

    Sivendran, Shanthi; Harvey, Harold; Lipton, Allan; Drabick, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease caused by a clonal proliferation of specialized dendritic (Langerhans) cells. Although uncommon, it is potentially fatal and carries significant morbidity. Bone involvement is particularly destructive and to date, no standard of care exists for management of both the disease and the significant bone pain as many of these patients experience. In the literature, 12 patients who had previously been heavily pretreated for their disease had their bone pain treated with a bisphosphonate as extrapolated from the cancer literature. Interestingly, these patients had a complete or near complete resolution of their pain, return of functional status and in 75% of cases radiographic evidence of reduction or regression of disease. Only 6 of these patients were treated with a newer generation bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid. In this paper, we report a case series of 2 patients with LCH bone involvement who received 4 mg of intravenous zoledronic acid monthly for 1 year with complete resolution in their bone pain. In addition, both patients demonstrated reduction in tumor burden after bisphosphonate treatment. Uniquely, our first case is the only reported case in the literature using a bisphosphonate as first line therapy in the treatment of LCH. This case demonstrates the potential role of zoledronic acid therapy in the first line setting for disease stabilization and symptomatic control in patients unable to receive conventional therapy.

  7. Lymphoma and other lymphoid lesions of the orbit. Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kleener, J

    1975-03-01

    The orbit differs from the rest of the organism, excluding the central nervous system, as concerns lymph drainage. This may possible explain some of the peculiar features in lymphoid orbital lesions. The lymphoid tumours of the orbit are discussed on the basis of the classification most widely applied. An illustrative case is reported and it is concluded that even if local therapy may prove successful, patients in whom orbital lymphoid tumours have been diagnosed should be kept under constant observation with a view to prompt institution of treatment upon evidence of generalized disease.

  8. Chronic dermal sinuses as a manifestation of histiocytosis X.

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, S H; Hall, I; Ragge, N; Pritchard, J

    1986-01-01

    Two young patients presented with generalised lymphadenopathy, otorrhoea, otitis, and rash. Over the next few years chronically discharging sinuses began to form over enlarged nodes and histological appearances were typical of histiocytosis X. In neither case were micro-organisms isolated from the lesions, and in both patients healing occurred with immunosuppressive agents. Chronic dermal sinus formation secondary to lymph node disease has never before been recorded as a manifestation of histiocytosis X. Histiocytosis X should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of "suppurative" lymphadenopathy so that appropriate treatment may be given without delay. Images Case 1 PMID:3084014

  9. "Histiocytosis X" – A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekaran, Deepak; Chinnaswami, Ravindran; Balasubramaniam, Sivaramakrishnan; Jagdish, Eswari

    2016-01-01

    Histiocytosis X is an idiopathic disease, characterized by a disorder of the reticulo-endothelial system in the human body. Histopathological studies carried out right from the 1800s have seen a significant similarity in the pathologic process of different stages in particular clinical syndromes showing proliferation of mature histiocytes. It was then modified by Lichenstein in 1953 as “Histiocytosis X”. The exact aetiology is unknown; hence, the name “Histiocytosis X”. The disease classically presents with three syndromes namely Eosinophilic granuloma, Letterer-Siwe disease and Hand-Schuller-Christian disease. These syndromes present with a spectrum of clinical manifestations with histiocytic proliferation in the granulomatous lesion. The disease is neither familial nor hereditary, nor does it have any microbiological pathologic origin. This disease can be conservatively managed by antibiotics and steroids or surgical curettage with radiotherapy. We report a five-year-old male child who was incidentally diagnosed to have Histiocytosis X. This patient was managed with a moderate surgical procedure with total avoidance of radiotherapy. An adequate follow-up of this patient shows total regression of the lesion and good bone healing. PMID:27891484

  10. [Adult Langerhans cell histiocytosis].

    PubMed

    de Menthon, Mathilde; Meignin, Véronique; Mahr, Alfred; Tazi, Abdellatif

    2017-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease affecting both genders and can occur at any age. It often evolves through successive flares, and its severity varies from benign forms that don't require treatment to life threatening disease. Some patients have important functional impairment with psychological and social consequences and prolonged disability. LCH may affect only one organ, with uni- or multifocal involvement or be multisystem disease involving multiple organs. The organs most frequently involved are bones, lung, skin and the endocrinal system. Pulmonary LCH is strongly related to smoking. Some patients have mixed histocytosis combining LCH and other histiocytic disorders. The diagnosis relies on the histological study of tissues samples, and shows tissue infiltration with large cell with pale cytoplasm and reniform nucleus, staining for CD1a and Langerin (CD207) on immunohistochemistry. The BRAF(V600E) mutation is observed in tissue samples in approximately half of patients and the activation of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway has been shown to be constantly activated in LCH lesions, regardless the BRAF status. These findings represent an important forward step in the understanding of the physiopathology of the disease. Treatment must be adapted to the severity of the disease and goes from conservative observation to systemic chemotherapy. Therapies targeting the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway are promising treatments for progressive disease.

  11. [Generalized eruptive histiocytosis-Juvenile xanthogranuloma: clinical spectrum in a pediatric patient].

    PubMed

    Alperovich, Ruth; Grassino, Pedro T; Asial, Raúl; Pasteris, Luis; Boente, María Del Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Both, generalized eruptive histiocytosis and juvenile xanthogranuloma are dendritic histiocytic disorders (also known as non-Langerhans cells histiocytosis) that share clinicopathological and immunohistiochemical characteristics. We present a 3-year-old female patient with skin lesions that were clinically compatible with generalized eruptive histiocytosis, confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. During her development the disorder compromised the central nervous system, and surgical intervention of one symptomatic lesion was needed. The histopathological exam of the central nervous system lesion showed Touton cells, compatible with a diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma. This case demonstrates the need to consider these diseases as a spectrum of the same entity.

  12. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Clavicle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaowu; Zhang, Weisheng; Na, Shengbo; Zhang, Lina; Lang, Zhijin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We report a rare case of solitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) involving the clavicle of an adult female. The patient was a 32-year-old female presenting with 1 month history of progressive pain, swelling, and tenderness in the region near the left sternoclavicular joint. Radiograph, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging showed an osteolytic lesion in the clavicle with tumor extension and soft tissue edema. Surgical curettage of the lesion was performed, and the histopathologic diagnosis was LCH. Because of its rarity and possibly variable presentation, LCH should be included and considered in the differential diagnosis when we encounter a clavicle lesion. PMID:25365405

  13. [Orbit: Part 1: anatomy, imaging procedures and retrobulbar lesions].

    PubMed

    Reith, W; Yilmaz, U

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this 2-part review article on diseases of the orbit is to give the reader an insight into the anatomical structure and an overview of the most important diseases in the area of the eye socket. The main focus is on a description of the imaging procedures and their individual advantages and disadvantages. The most important tumors, trauma and degenerative alterations of the orbit are also described.

  14. Histiocytosis--an introduction.

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, J.; Broadbent, V.

    1994-01-01

    The Histiocytoses are a group of rare and puzzling multisystem disorders, currently regarded as non-malignant but often treated with 'cancer chemotherapy'. In this article, the origins of histiocytes and of the Histiocyte Society's classification of the Histiocytoses are described with suggested minor modifications to the classification. The current nomenclature for the 2 principal diseases, now named 'Langerhans cell histiocytosis' and 'Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis', is less confusing than the terms originally chosen. The article sets the scene for the succeeding papers, which focus on 'Langerhans cell histiocytosis'. PMID:8075000

  15. A gluteal mass of langerhans cell histiocytosis mimicking malignancy in a two-year-old boy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Zainal Abidin; Lung, Wong Siong; Long, Pan Kok

    2009-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a disease primarily affects the bone. More than 50 percent of the disease occurs between the age of 1 and 15. We reported a case of a 2 year old boy who presented with a gluteal mass. Radiographic imaging showed an osteolytic lesion suspicious of malignancy. However, the histological diagnosis was Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

  16. Lesions to polar/orbital prefrontal cortex selectively impair reasoning about emotional material.

    PubMed

    Goel, Vinod; Lam, Elaine; Smith, Kathleen W; Goel, Amit; Raymont, Vanessa; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2017-03-03

    While it is widely accepted that lesions to orbital prefrontal cortex lead to emotion related disruptions and poor decision-making, there is very little patient data on this issue involving actual logical reasoning tasks. We tested patients with circumscribed, focal lesions largely confined to polar/orbital prefrontal cortex (BA 10 & 11) (N=17) on logical reasoning tasks involving neutral and emotional content, and compared their performance to that of an age and education-matched normal control group (N=22) and a posterior lesion control group (N=24). Our results revealed a significant group by content interaction driven by a selective impairment in the polar/orbital prefrontal cortex group compared to healthy normal controls and to the parietal patient group, in the emotional content reasoning trials. Subsequent analyses of congruent and incongruent reasoning trials indicated that this impairment was driven by the poor performance of patients with polar/orbital lesions in the incongruent trials. We conclude that the polar/orbital prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in filtering emotionally charged content from the material before it is passed on to the reasoning system in lateral/dorsal regions of prefrontal cortex. Where unfiltered content is passed to the reasoning engine, either as a result of pathology (as in the case of our patients) or as a result of individual differences, reasoning performance suffers.

  17. Lipid Histiocytosis of the Gallbladder Neck Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Ben Romdhane, Mohamed Habib; Straub, Beate Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Lipid histiocytosis of the gallbladder neck lymph node is rarely reported nowadays. Two obese patients presented with gallbladder lithiasis detected on CT scan. The treatment consisted in coelioscopic cholecystectomy. Microscopy revealed subacute/chronic lithiasic cholecystitis and foci of vacuolated cells in the gallbladder neck lymph node. These cells were positive for CD68, CD31, S100 protein, and adipophilin and negative for cytokeratin and Alcian blue. In conclusion, we report lymph node lipid histiocytosis diagnosed microscopically after cholecystectomy. While such lesions may remain unidentified on imaging procedures, the microscopic analysis may require special stains and immunohistochemistry for ruling out adenocarcinoma metastasis. PMID:27847666

  18. Lipid Histiocytosis of the Gallbladder Neck Lymph Node.

    PubMed

    Handra-Luca, Adriana; Ben Romdhane, Mohamed Habib; Straub, Beate Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Lipid histiocytosis of the gallbladder neck lymph node is rarely reported nowadays. Two obese patients presented with gallbladder lithiasis detected on CT scan. The treatment consisted in coelioscopic cholecystectomy. Microscopy revealed subacute/chronic lithiasic cholecystitis and foci of vacuolated cells in the gallbladder neck lymph node. These cells were positive for CD68, CD31, S100 protein, and adipophilin and negative for cytokeratin and Alcian blue. In conclusion, we report lymph node lipid histiocytosis diagnosed microscopically after cholecystectomy. While such lesions may remain unidentified on imaging procedures, the microscopic analysis may require special stains and immunohistochemistry for ruling out adenocarcinoma metastasis.

  19. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: clinical experience with 124 patients.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Luna, R; Martinez-Guerra, G; Altamirano-Alvarez, E; Martinez-Avalos, A; Cardenas-Cardoz, R; Ayon-Cardenas, A; Ruiz-Maldonado, R; Lopez-Corella, E

    1988-08-01

    We cared for 124 pediatric patients with a histologic diagnosis of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (histiocytosis X) over a period of 14 years. Clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings were analyzed. The most frequent manifestations were bone lesions, lymph node involvement, and skin infiltration. Liver disease was noted in 50% of patients and lung disease in 23%; hematologic changes were also frequent. Dysfunction and involvement of these three organ systems, plus age of onset, distinguished the group of patients with the highest mortality. All patients with generalized disease or organ dysfunction were treated with systemic chemotherapy. The actuarial survival curve at 10 years was 63%.

  20. [Pulmonary Langerhans histiocytosis and Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Paris, A; Dib, M; Rousselet, M-C; Urban, T; Tazi, A; Gagnadoux, F

    2011-09-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans histiocytosis (PLH) is a rare disease due to the accumulation of Langerhans cells at the level of the bronchioles. These dendritic immunocytes form granulomata and destroy the wall of the airway. We report a case of PLH developing at the same time as Hodgkin's lymphoma in a young woman who smoked tobacco and cannabis. We observed a complete remission of the PLH lesions parallel to the remission of the Hodgkin's lymphoma after chemotherapy, in the absence of any change in the consumption of tobacco and cannabis. This observation leads us to discuss the potential relationships between PLH on one hand, and smoking, the lymphoma and its treatment on the other.

  1. Laryngeal involvement with fatal outcome in progressive nodular histiocytosis: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Salunke, Aarti; Belgaumkar, Vasudha; Chavan, Ravindranath; Dobariya, Rinkesh

    2016-01-01

    Progressive nodular histiocytosis (PNH) represents a very rare type of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is characterized by progressive appearance of papules and nodules without spontaneous resolution. We report a 60-year-old patient with novel clinical features in the form of extensive noduloulcerative lesions, ichthyotic patches, and laryngeal involvement culminating in fatal outcome prior to therapeutic intervention. Although the presenting features were baffling, histopathology and immunohistochemistry clinched the diagnosis of PNH. PMID:27990389

  2. Orbital tumours and tumour-like lesions: exploring the armamentarium of multiparametric imaging.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Bela S; Vargas, Maria Isabel; Ailianou, Angeliki; Merlini, Laura; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra; Delattre, Bénédicte M; Rager, Olivier; Burkhardt, Karim; Becker, Minerva

    2016-02-01

    Although the orbit is a small anatomical space, the wide range of structures present within it are often the site of origin of various tumours and tumour-like conditions, both in adults and children. Cross-sectional imaging is mandatory for the detection, characterization, and mapping of these lesions. This review focuses on multiparametric imaging of orbital tumours. Each tumour is reviewed in relation to its clinical presentation, compartmental location, imaging characteristics, and its histological features. We herein describe orbital tumours as lesions of the globe (retinoblastoma, uveal melanoma), optic nerve sheath complex (meningioma, optic nerve glioma), conal-intraconal compartment (hemangioma), extraconal compartment (dermoid/epidermoid, lacrimal gland tumours, lymphoma, rhabdomysarcoma), and bone and sinus compartment (fibrous dysplasia). Lesions without any typical compartmental localization and those with multi-compartment involvement (veno-lymphatic malformation, plexiform neurofibroma, idiopathic orbital pseudotumour, IgG4 related disease, metastases) are also reviewed. We discuss the role of advanced imaging techniques, such as MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography CT (FDG-PET CT), and positron emission tomography MRI (MRI PET) as problem-solving tools in the evaluation of those orbital masses that present with non-specific morphologic imaging findings. Main messages/Teaching points • A compartment-based approach is essential for the diagnosis of orbital tumours. • CT and MRI play a key role in the work-up of orbital tumours. • DWI, PET CT, and MRI PET are complementary tools to solve diagnostic dilemmas. • Awareness of salient imaging pearls and diagnostic pitfalls avoids interpretation errors.

  3. A Clinical Update and Radiologic Review of Pediatric Orbital and Ocular Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ajay A.; Naheedy, John H.; Chen, James Y.-Y.; Robbins, Shira L.; Ramkumar, Hema L.

    2013-01-01

    While pediatric orbital tumors are most often managed in tertiary care centers, clinicians should be aware of the signs of intraocular and orbital neoplasms. In the pediatric population, a delay in diagnosis of orbital and intraocular lesions, even if benign, can lead to vision loss and deformity. Intraocular lesions reviewed are retinoblastoma, medulloepithelioma, and retinal astrocytic hamartoma. Orbital neoplasms reviewed are rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma metastases, optic pathway glioma, plexiform neurofibroma, leukemia, lymphoprolipherative disease, orbital inflammatory syndrome, dermoid and epidermoid inclusion cysts, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Vascular lesions reviewed are infantile hemangioma and venous lymphatic malformation. In conjunction with clinical examination, high-resolution ophthalmic imaging and radiologic imaging play an important role in making a diagnosis and differentiating between benign and likely malignant processes. The radiologic imaging characteristics of these lesions will be discussed to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment. The current treatment modalities and management of tumors will also be reviewed. PMID:23577029

  4. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology as a Diagnostic Tool in Orbital and Adnexal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Lubna; Malukani, Kamal; Malaiya, Siddharth; Yeshwante, Prashant; Ishrat, Saba; Nandedkar, Shirish S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Cytological findings were correlated with histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. Methods: FNAC was performed in 29 patients of different age groups presenting with orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Patients were evaluated clinically and investigated by non-invasive techniques before fine needle aspiration of the masses. Smears were analyzed by a cytologist in all cases. Further, results of cytology were compared with the histopathological diagnosis. Results: The age of patients ranged from 1 to 68 years (mean: 29.79±19.29). There were 14 males and 15 females with a male to female ratio of 0.93:1. Out of 29 cases, 26 aspirates were cellular. Cellularity was insufficient in three (10.34%) aspirates. Out of 26 cellular aspirates, 11 were non-neoplastic while 15 were neoplastic on cytology. Subsequent histopathologic examination was done in 21/26 cases. Concordance rate of FNAC in orbital and ocular adnexal mass lesions with respect to the precise histologic diagnosis was 90%. Conclusion: When properly used in well-indicated patients (in cases where a diagnosis cannot be made by clinical and imaging findings alone), FNAC of orbital and periorbital lesions is an invaluable and suitable adjunct diagnostic technique that necessitates close cooperation between the ophthalmologist and cytologist. However, nondiagnostic aspirates may sometimes be obtained, and an inconclusive FNAC should not always be ignored. PMID:27621787

  5. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: Current concepts in dentistry and case report

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Gutiérrez, Efraín; Alejo-González, Francisco; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro; Garrocho-Rangel, José-Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), which is a rare granulomatous pediatric disease of unknown etiology, is characterized by the idiopathic proliferation and accumulation of abnormal and clonal Langerhans cells or their marrow precursors, resulting in localized, solitary or multiple destructive lesions. These lesions are most commonly eosinophilic granuloma, which are found in craniofacial bone structures such as the skull and mandible, skin and other organs. In children, the disease has a variable initial presentation, and the clinical course, prognosis and survival are unpredictable. The aims of this report were to present an LCH case in a girl aged 2 years, 8 months and her clinicopathological features, to describe the bucodental management provided, and to discuss special dental considerations of this disease. Key words:Children, dental management, histiocytosis, Langerhans cells. PMID:26855698

  6. Combined unilateral lesions of the amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex impair affective processing in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2004-05-01

    The amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex (PFo) interact as part of a system for affective processing. To assess whether there is a hemispheric functional specialization for the processing of emotion or reward or both in nonhuman primates, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with combined lesions of the amygdala and PFo in one hemisphere, either left or right, were compared with unoperated controls on a battery of tasks that tax affective processing, including two tasks that tax reward processing and two that assess emotional reactions. Although the two operated groups did not differ from each other, monkeys with unilateral lesions, left and right, showed altered reward-processing abilities as evidenced by attenuated reinforcer devaluation effects and an impairment in object reversal learning relative to controls. In addition, both operated groups showed blunted emotional reactions to a rubber snake. By contrast, monkeys with unilateral lesions did not differ from controls in their responses to an unfamiliar human (human "intruder"). Although the results provide no support for a hemispheric specialization of function, they yield the novel finding that unilateral lesions of the amygdala-orbitofrontal cortical circuit in monkeys are sufficient to significantly disrupt affective processing.

  7. Role of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the pathogenesis of adult pulmonary histiocytosis X.

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, A; Bonay, M; Bergeron, A; Grandsaigne, M; Hance, A J; Soler, P

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary histiocytosis X is a disorder characterised by the presence of destructive granulomas preferentially involving distal bronchioles, that contain numerous activated Langerhans' cells. Recent studies have shown that granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which is produced by normal bronchiolar epithelium, may play an important part in the distribution and differentiation of Langerhans' cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of this factor in the pathogenesis of pulmonary histiocytosis X. METHODS: Four patients with pulmonary histiocytosis X were examined by immunohistochemical techniques for GM-CSF and CD1a surface molecules. RESULTS: In early lesions the epithelium of bronchioles affected by the disease was strongly positive for GM-CSF and infiltrated by numerous CD1a+ Langerhans' cells organised into granulomas. In contrast, the expression of GM-CSF was substantially lower in bronchioles not affected by the disease, and these bronchioles contained few Langerhans' cells. When destruction by histiocytosis X lesions was more advanced, only remnants of bronchiolar epithelium could occasionally be identified; these remained strongly reactive for GM-CSF. Langerhans' cells within granulomas also moderately expressed this cytokine. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that GM-CSF could be one of the factors responsible for the local accumulation of lymphostimulatory Langerhans' cells in early lesions of pulmonary histiocytosis X. Images PMID:8693443

  8. Electrolytic lesions of the bilateral ventrolateral orbital cortex inhibit methamphetamine-associated contextual memory formation in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Peng; Chu, Zheng; Liu, Fei; Han, Wei; Xun, Xi; Dang, Yong-hui

    2015-10-22

    The memories that are formed between rewarding and drug-associated contextual cues have been suggested to contribute to drug addiction relapse. Recent evidence has indicated that the ventrolateral orbital cortex (VLO) plays important roles in reward-based learning and reversal learning. However, whether the VLO is required for methamphetamine-induced contextual memory formation is not well understood. In the present study, a three-phase methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) model was used to investigate the effects of VLO lesions on the formation of drug-associated contextual memories in rats. We found that the VLO lesions themselves elicited no observable effects on place preferences. However, the VLO lesions delayed the acquisition and extinction phases of CPP without affecting the expression level. Furthermore, the VLO lesions did not have an obvious influence on CPP reinstatement. These results indicate that electrolytic lesions of the bilateral ventrolateral orbital cortex can inhibit the formation of methamphetamine-induced contextual memories in rats. Moreover, VLO may not be critically involved in memory storage and retrieval.

  9. Atypical Histiocytosis in Red Squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Smith, S H; Stevenson, K; Del-Pozo, J; Moss, S; Meredith, A

    2017-03-17

    Four red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) were subjected to necropsy examination over a 3-year period as part of a broader surveillance study. The squirrels presented with cutaneous, subcutaneous and/or internal swellings and nodules that consisted microscopically of sheets of atypical round cells and multinucleated giant cells. There was moderate anisokaryosis with rare mitoses. Nuclei ranged from oval to indented or C-shaped and some were bizarre, twisted or multilobulated. Many giant cells also had a bizarre morphology, with anisokaryosis within individual cells. Giant cell nuclei were often multilobulated, ring-shaped or segmented. Affected internal organs varied depending on the squirrel, but included lymph node, kidney, intestinal tract and lungs. Representative lesions from each of the four squirrels were negative for acid-fast organisms. Formalin-fixed tissues from all four squirrels and ethanol-fixed tissue from one animal were negative for Mycobacterium by polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemically, the majority of mononuclear and multinucleated giant cells in all four squirrels strongly expressed vimentin and class II molecules of the major histocompatibility complex. Otherwise, the atypical mononuclear and multinucleated cells were negative for CD3, Pax-5, Mac387, CD18 and E-cadherin. Based on the combination of cellular morphology, arrangement and immunophenotype, a novel form of atypical histiocytosis is considered most likely in these squirrels, although the exact origin and triggering factors remain uncertain.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell histiocytosis affects the lungs, liver, or blood-forming (hematopoietic) system; damage to these organs and tissues ... occurs when the Langerhans cells crowd out blood-forming cells in the bone marrow, leads to a ...

  11. Maxillofacial manifestations of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a clinical and therapeutic analysis of 10 patients.

    PubMed

    Eckardt, A; Schultze, A

    2003-10-01

    The definition of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (formerly known as histiocytosis X) includes the clinical syndromes Hand-Schueller-Christian syndrome, Abt-Letterer-Siwe syndrome, and eosinophilic granuloma. The paper gives an overview of current diagnostic and treatment strategies of LCH. Furthermore, records and clinical data of 10 patients with LCH were evaluated retrospectively. Patients' age ranged from 13 years to 42 years. The mandible was more frequently involved than the maxilla. Three patients (30%) had systemic manifestations of LCH in addition to their oral lesions. The longest follow-up period was 12 years. During follow-up six patients (60%) developed recurrent LCH and received adjuvant chemo- or radiation therapy. For solitary bone lesions, surgical curettage is the recommended treatment. Those patients with multi-organ involvement or recurrent LCH should be included into clinical trials initiated by the Histiocyte Society.

  12. Lateral Orbital Rim Osteotomy in the Treatment of Certain Skull Base Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pritz, Michael B.

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative data from a recent human cadaveric study suggested that removal of the lateral orbital rim alone may be sufficient to reach many targets for which the orbitozygomatic craniotomy has been used. Consequently, a lateral orbital rim osteotomy was substituted for an orbitozygomatic craniotomy in seven patients with a variety of pathologies located in the anterior, middle, and interpeduncular fossae. In each case, lateral orbitotomy provided a satisfactory surgical corridor for diagnosis and treatment. Compared with the orbitozygomatic craniotomy, the lateral orbital rim osteotomy offers several advantages: technical simplicity, shorter operating time, and a low risk of postoperative malocclusion. If, however, prolonged access to a wide expanse of the anterior portion of the middle fossa and inferotemporal area is needed, an orbitozygomatic approach is a better choice. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:17167633

  13. Differential effects of amygdala, orbital prefrontal cortex, and prelimbic cortex lesions on goal-directed behavior in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Sarah E V; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2013-02-20

    We assessed the involvement of the orbital prefrontal cortex (PFo), the prelimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (PL), and the amygdala in goal-directed behavior. Rhesus monkeys were trained on a task in which two different instrumental responses were linked to two different outcomes. One response, called "tap," required the monkeys to repeatedly touch a colored square on a video monitor to produce one kind of food reward. The other response, called "hold," required persistent contact of an identical stimulus, and it produced a different kind of food reward. After training, we assessed the effects of sensory-specific reinforcer devaluation as a way to probe each monkey's use of goal-directed behavior. In this procedure, monkeys were allowed to consume one of the two foods to satiety and were then tested for tap/hold preference under extinction. Unoperated control monkeys showed a reduction in the response associated with obtaining the devalued food, called the "devaluation effect," a hallmark of goal-directed behavior. Monkeys with bilateral lesions of PFo or the amygdala exhibited significantly reduced devaluation effects. Results from monkeys with PL lesions were equivocal. We conclude that both PFo and the amygdala play a significant role in goal-directed behavior in monkeys. Notably, the findings for PFo challenge the idea that orbital and medial prefrontal regions are exclusively dedicated to object- and action-based processes, respectively.

  14. Histiocytosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... granuloma Images Eosinophilic granuloma - x-ray of the skull Respiratory system References Emile J-F, Abla O, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  15. Solitary extragnathic langerhans cell histiocytosis - a rare case.

    PubMed

    V, Yashoda; E, Sharath Kumar Reddy; S N, Bhavani; A, Krishna; Sekhar, M S Muni

    2015-03-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), mainly affects the skull, vertebrae, ribs and mandible in children and the long bones of adults. Symptoms range from none to pain, swelling and tenderness over the site of the lesion. This disease presents oral manifestations which can sometimes be the first expression of the condition. It occurs in three forms namely eosinophilic granuloma in which isolated or multiple bones are involved, But has a good prognosis whereas other variants Hand-Shuller-Christian disease (chronic dessiminated variant) and Letterer-Siwe disease (acute dessiminated form) have poor prognosis. Occasionally only soft tissues are affected without bony involvement. Males are more commonly affected than females. This article describes a rare variant of eosinophilic granuloma of labial mucosa without bony involvement.

  16. Solitary Extragnathic Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis – A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Eppalapally Sharath Kumar; Bhavani, Sangala Naga; A, Krishna; Sekhar, Mane Srinivas Muni

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), mainly affects the skull, vertebrae, ribs and mandible in children and the long bones of adults. Symptoms range from none to pain, swelling and tenderness over the site of the lesion. This disease presents oral manifestations which can sometimes be the first expression of the condition. It occurs in three forms namely eosinophilic granuloma in which isolated or multiple bones are involved, But has a good prognosis whereas other variants Hand-Shuller-Christian disease (chronic dessiminated variant) and Letterer-Siwe disease (acute dessiminated form) have poor prognosis. Occasionally only soft tissues are affected without bony involvement. Males are more commonly affected than females. This article describes a rare variant of eosinophilic granuloma of labial mucosa without bony involvement. PMID:25954715

  17. Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis case with diabetes insipidus and tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ugurlu, E; Altinisik, G; Aydogmus, U; Bir, F

    2017-04-01

    A 19-year-old male patient was observed due to having central diabetes insipidus (DI) for five years. He had a history of smoking 5-10 cigarettes a day for two years, but stopped smoking from the last month. The computerized tomography revealed thin-walled cystic lesions in different sizes more dominantly in the upper lobes and consolidated areas in the left upper and lower lobes. The wedge resection from the right lower lobe revealed pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis. Follow-up acid-fast bacteria (AFB) examinations revealed (+++) and antituberculous treatment was started. On the 40th day of the anti-tuberculosis treatment, the patient applied once again due to fever and chest pain. Although infiltrations persisted in the left upper and middle zones in the postero-anterior lung rontgenogram, right-sided pneumothorax was detected. The case is considered tuberculosis and the patient continued to receive anti-TB treatment under the close supervision.

  18. Efficacy of High Frequency Ultrasound in Localization and Characterization of Orbital Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gurushankar, G; Bhimarao; Kadakola, Bindushree

    2015-01-01

    Background The complicated anatomy of orbit and the wide spectrum of pathological conditions present a formidable challenge for early diagnosis, which is critical for management. Ultrasonography provides a detailed cross sectional anatomy of the entire globe with excellent topographic visualization and real time display of the moving organ. Objectives of the study To evaluate the efficacy of high frequency Ultrasound in localization of orbital diseases and to characterize various orbital pathologies sonologically. Materials and Methods Hundred eyes of 85 patients were examined with ultrasound using linear high frequency probe (5 to 17 MHz) of PHILPS IU22 ultrasound system. Sonological diagnosis was made based on location, acoustic characteristics, kinetic properties and Doppler flow dynamics. Final diagnosis was made based on clinical & laboratory findings/higher cross-sectional imaging/surgery & histopathology (as applicable). Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography was evaluated and compared with final diagnosis. Results The distinction between ocular and extraocular pathologies was made in 100% of cases. The overall sensitivity, specificity, NPV and accuracy of ultrasonography were 94.2%, 98.8%, 92.2% & 94.9% respectively for diagnosis of ocular pathologies and 94.2%, 99.2%, 95.9% & 95.2% respectively for extra ocular pathologies. Conclusion Ultrasonography is a readily available, simple, cost effective, non ionizing and non invasive modality with overall high diagnostic accuracy in localising and characterising orbital pathologies. It has higher spatial and temporal resolution compared to CT/MRI. However, CT/MRI may be indicated in certain cases for the evaluation of calcifications, bony involvement, extension to adjacent structures and intracranial extension. PMID:26500977

  19. Rare C-6 vertebral involvement in a child with histiocytosis X: case report.

    PubMed

    Salehpour, Firouz; Tubbs, R Shane; Zarrintan, Sina; Meshkini, Ali; Hadidchi, Shahram; Pourfathi, Hojjat; Azhough, Ramin; Fakhrjou, Asharf; Goodrich, James T; Khaki, Amir Afshin

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a rare case of C-6 vertebral involvement in a 12-year-old boy with histiocytosis X. The patient presented with limitation in movements of neck and upper extremities. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MRI) imaging were used in the preoperative workup. Surgery was performed via an anterior cervical approach along with stabilization using a fibula strut graft and plate fixation. Pathological assessment showed infiltration of Langerhans cells accompanied by a mixture of many eosinophils, giant cells, neutrophils and foamy cells. The patient went on to make a full recovery with complete resolution of his motor weakness. In an extensive review of the literature there are very few cases of cervical histiocytosis X reported. In addition, surgical management of this type of lesion has rarely been discussed.

  20. Bisphosphonates in Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: An International Retrospective Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Chellapandian, Deepak; Makras, Polyzois; Kaltsas, Gregory; van den Bos, Cor; Naccache, Lamia; Rampal, Raajit; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Weitzman, Sheila; Egeler, R. Maarten; Abla, Oussama

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone is the most common organ of involvement in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), which is often painful and associated with significant morbidity from pathological fractures. Current first-line treatments include chemotherapy and steroids that are effective but often associated with adverse effects, whereas the disease may reactivate despite an initial response to first-line agents. Bisphosphonates are osteoclast inhibitors that have shown to be helpful in treating bone lesions of LCH. To date, there are no large international studies to describe their role in treating bone lesions of LCH. Method We conducted a multicenter retrospective review of 13 patients with histologically proven LCH, who had received bisphosphonates either at diagnosis or at disease reactivation. Results Ten patients (77%) had a single system bone disease, and 3 (23%) had bone lesions as part of multisystem disease. Median follow-up time post-bisphosphonate therapy was 4.6 years (range, 0.8 to 8.2 years). Treatment with bisphosphonates was associated with significant pain relief in almost all patients. Twelve (92%) achieved resolution of active bone lesions, and 10 out of them had no active disease for a median of 3.5 years (range, 0.8 to 5 years). One patient did not respond. No major adverse effects were reported in this series. Conclusion Bisphosphonates are well-tolerated drugs that can significantly improve bone pain and induce remission in active bone LCH. Future prospective studies evaluating the role of bisphosphonates in LCH are warranted. PMID:27413525

  1. IgG4-related disease with cavernous sinus and intra-orbital lesions diagnosed by nasal mucosa biopsy.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Ruka; Yoshimura, Shunsuke; Motomura, Masakatsu; Tsujino, Akira; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Hara, Minoru

    2016-09-29

    IgG4-related disease is a systemic disease characterized by lesions with IgG4 positive plasma cell infiltration in the involved organs and a raised serum IgG4 level. We report a patient of 70-year-old male presented orbital inflammation of IgG4-related disease. The patient developed right eye pain, double vision, and reduced eye sight. MRI image revealed mild right ocular proptosis and swelling of right carvenous sinus, bilateral intraorbital extraocular muscles and right optic nerve. Right optic nerve showed ring-like enhancement. IgG4-related disease was suspected with increased serum IgG4 level of 355 mg/dl, mediastinal lymphadenopathy and prostate enlargement. Transbronchial lung biopsy and prostate needle biopsy were administered with negative results. The eye related symptoms resolved with time, but serum IgG4 continuously increased. IgG4-related disease was diagnosed by nasal mucosa biopsy, which showed IgG4 positive plasma cells within the inflammatory infiltrate. This report emphasizes the usefulness of nasal mucosa biopsy for the diagnosis of IgG4 related disease with lesions difficult to approach.

  2. [Neuroimaging of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in the central nervous system of children].

    PubMed

    De La Hoz Polo, M; Rebollo Polo, M; Fons Estupiña, C; Muchart López, J; Cruz Martinez, O

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease characterized by the accumulation within tissues of anomalous dendritic cells similar to Langerhans cells. The clinical presentation varies, ranging from the appearance of a single bone lesion to multisystemic involvement. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement, manifesting as diabetes insipidus secondary to pituitary involvement, has been known since the original description of the disease. Two types of CNS lesions are currently differentiated. The first, pseudotumoral lesions with infiltration by Langerhans cells, most commonly manifests as pituitary infiltration. The second, described more recently, consists of neurodegenerative lesions of the CNS associated with neurologic deterioration. This second type of lesion constitutes a complication of the disease; however, there is no consensus about the cause of this complication. Our objective was to describe the radiologic manifestations of LCH in the CNS in pediatric patients.

  3. Severe periodontal disease manifested in chronic disseminated type of langerhans cell histiocytosis in a 3-year old child.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Monika; Srivastava, Vinay Kumar; Bansal, Rajesh; Gupta, Vineeta; Bansal, Manish; Patne, Shashikant

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), previously known as histio-cytosis X, is a rare idiopathic disorder of reticulo-endothelial system with abnormal proliferation of bone marrow derived Langerhans cells along with a variable number of leukocytes, such as eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Three years old male child presented with multifocal osteolytic lesions and papulosquamous skin lesions. Clinical and radio-graphic features, such as severe alveolar bone loss, mobility of teeth, precocious eruption of teeth, foating appearance of teeth in orthopantomogram (OPG), osteolytic lesion in skull and cutaneous lesions were highly suggestive of LCH disease. Skin biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of LCH. Induction chemotherapy with oral prednisolone and intravenous vinblastine was started. Child responded well to chemotherapy. The clinical significance of the presented case is to diagnose the case of LCH on the basis of the manifestation of severe periodontal disease as this can be first or only manifestation of LCH. A dentist plays a major role in the multidisciplinary treatment of LCH through routine examination and periodic follow-up. How to cite this article: Bansal M, Srivastava VK, Bansal R, Gupta V, Bansal M, Patne S. Severe Periodontal Disease Manifested in Chronic Disseminated Type of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 3-Year Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):217-219.

  4. Severe Periodontal Disease Manifested in Chronic Disseminated Type of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 3-Year Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vinay Kumar; Bansal, Rajesh; Gupta, Vineeta; Bansal, Manish; Patne, Shashikant

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), previously known as histio-cytosis X, is a rare idiopathic disorder of reticulo-endothelial system with abnormal proliferation of bone marrow derived Langerhans cells along with a variable number of leukocytes, such as eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Three years old male child presented with multifocal osteolytic lesions and papulosquamous skin lesions. Clinical and radio-graphic features, such as severe alveolar bone loss, mobility of teeth, precocious eruption of teeth, foating appearance of teeth in orthopantomogram (OPG), osteolytic lesion in skull and cutaneous lesions were highly suggestive of LCH disease. Skin biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of LCH. Induction chemotherapy with oral prednisolone and intravenous vinblastine was started. Child responded well to chemotherapy. The clinical significance of the presented case is to diagnose the case of LCH on the basis of the manifestation of severe periodontal disease as this can be first or only manifestation of LCH. A dentist plays a major role in the multidisciplinary treatment of LCH through routine examination and periodic follow-up. How to cite this article: Bansal M, Srivastava VK, Bansal R, Gupta V, Bansal M, Patne S. Severe Periodontal Disease Manifested in Chronic Disseminated Type of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 3-Year Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):217-219. PMID:25709306

  5. Langerhans cell histiocytosis arising from a BCC: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patel, Payal; Talpur, Rakhshandra; Duvic, Madeleine

    2010-06-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease characterized by a proliferation of Langerhans cells. Several organs may be involved, including the skin, bone, and central nervous system. Adult onset of LCH and solely localized cutaneous involvement are quite uncommon. Langerhans cell histiocytosis has been found in combination with other skin lesions and systemic conditions, but no definitive conclusion exists for this phenomenon. We present a case report of a 63-year-old woman who initially presented with 3 pink papules on her forehead that had developed sequentially within 1 month, all diagnosed by biopsy as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and appropriately treated. Concurrent with the appearance of the third BCC, the patient began developing crusted ulcerative nodules on her scalp. Biopsy of 1 scalp nodule revealed a BCC, but a repeat biopsy of the same nodule weeks later revealed LCH. Langerhans cell histiocytosis arising from a BCC is extremely rare. No absolute explanation exists regarding the transformation of a BCC into LCH, but understanding the behavior of Langerhans cells may give us better insight into how this process could occur.

  6. Orbital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Robert M.

    2003-06-01

    ORBITAL requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 4.75 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher; Chime Plug-in, version compatible with your OS and browser (available from MDL).

  7. Diagnosis and Intralesional Corticotherapy in Oral Ulcers Occurring as the Sole Manifestation of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gambirazi, Liane; Libório, Tatiana; Nunes, Fábio; Sugaya, Norberto; Migliari, Dante

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a case of oral mucosa lesions as the sole manifestation in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). This is a very uncommon manifestation of LCH since this disease preferably affects the bones with frequent involvement of the jaws. LCH may also involve other organs, particularly the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, and skin. The highlights of this report are the differential diagnosis, immunohistochemical analysis and, mostly, the therapeutic approach. PMID:27398106

  8. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Clavicle in an Adult: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Udaka, Toru; Susa, Michiro; Kikuta, Kazutaka; Nishimoto, Kazumasa; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Sasaki, Aya; Kameyama, Kaori; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Morioka, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) usually occurs in children under the age of 10 years with a predilection for the skull, spine, rib and humerus. Solitary LCH occurring in an adult clavicle is uncommon with limited reports to date. The lesion in our patient was curetted with the intent to make a diagnosis, which subsequently lead to the remission of the symptom and the disease. At the final follow-up after 1 year, no local recurrence or metastasis is observed. PMID:26600774

  9. Langerhans cell histiocytosis case with dense metaphyseal band sign.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Ichiro; Aihara, Toshinori; Morimoto, Akira; Watanabe, Hideaki; Furukawa, Rieko

    2013-02-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma, a type of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, exhibits a classic vertebral collapse, which is called vertebra plana (Calve's disease) and it manifests as a solitary bony lesion. Vertebra plana can cause severe pain in patients. Bisphosphonates (clodronate, pamidronate and zoledronic acid) have been recently used to treat osteolytic bone lesions of LCH. Zoledronic acid has 100 times relative potency that of pamidronate. We report a case of a 10-year-old girl who had zoledronic acid treatment for severe back pain due to vertebra plana. X-ray photographs of the patient's body showed dense metaphyseal band sign, which can be found in lead poisoning, treated leukemia, healing rickets, recovery from scurvy, vitamin D hypervitaminosis, congenital hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism. Increased biological potent zoledronic acid deprived her of severe back pain due to vertebra plana and might cause dense metaphyseal band sign of her skeleton. Conclusion; We have cured the severe back pain of a 10-year-old girl case of eosinophilic granuloma with zoledronic acid. After that treatment, X-ray photographs of the patient's body showed dense metaphyseal band sign. There have been few such cases reported until now.

  10. Central nervous system disease in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Grois, N.; Tsunematsu, Y.; Barkovich, A. J.; Favara, B. E.

    1994-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus and anterior pituitary dysfunction, are familiar central nervous system (CNS) complications of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) but the pathophysiology and biological behaviour of other forms of CNS involvement in LCH are poorly understood. In an attempt to improve our understanding of these rare complications, we studied 23 patients with LCH in whom neuroradiological abnormalities, with or without neurological dysfunction other than diabetes insipidus, developed during the course of disease. Neuroradiological abnormalities were of three basic types (a) poorly-defined changes in white matter, (b) well-defined changes in white and grey matter and (c) extra-parenchymal "tumoural" masses. There was a profusion of associated neurological signs and symptoms in most cases but some patients were asymptomatic. The neuropathological features were complex but infiltration of the CNS by histiocytes with xanthomatous change, particularly prominent in mass lesions, was common in the 13 cases in which biopsies were done. Patients with lytic lesions of the skull and diabetes insipidus are evidently most at risk of developing these rare manifestations of LCH. Therapeutic questions could not be answered from this study because no standard treatment had been given and outcome varied widely. Images Figure 7 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8075002

  11. A case of thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis with diabetes insipidus as the first presentation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Huang, Xiaochun; Qiu, Yuan; Chen, Hanzhang; Fu, Yingyu; Li, Xinchun

    2013-03-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an idiopathic group of reactive proliferative diseases linked to aberrant immunity, pathologically characterized by clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. LCH rarely involves the thymus. We report a case of thymic LCH with diabetes insipidus as the first presentation, without evidence of myasthenia gravis and without evidenced involvement of the skin, liver, spleen, bones, lungs and superficial lymph nodes. This present case may have important clinical implications. In screening for LCH lesions, attention should be attached to rarely involved sites in addition to commonly involved organs. Follow-up and imageological examination are very important to a final diagnosis.

  12. Preserved stimulus-reward and reversal learning after selective neonatal orbital frontal areas 11/13 or amygdala lesions in monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Andy; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2012-01-01

    Neither lesions of orbital frontal (OFC) areas 11/13 nor selective amygdala lesions alter the ability to learn stimulus-reinforcer association and reversal discriminations in adult monkeys. Here, we investigated whether the same conclusion will hold true when the same lesions occur in infancy. Infant rhesus monkeys received sham-operations, neurotoxic amygdala lesions, or aspiration OFC 11/13 lesions at 8–10 days of age and were trained on object discrimination reversal (ODR) tasks. Performance on a single pair (1-pair) ODR was assessed at the age of 3 months and 3 years, and then animals were tested in a 5-pairs ODR task in which they had to concurrently learn and reverse five discrimination problems. The results indicated that the ability to solve a single-pair discrimination problem followed by six reversals appears to be late maturing in monkeys but is spared following selective lesions of either OFC areas 11/13 or amygdala, even with the use of the more challenging 5-object ODR task. Finally, performance in the 1-pair ODR at 3 years was comparable to that following adult-onset lesions, indicating that neither OFC areas 11/13 nor amygdala are critical for the development of reversal learning. PMID:22494813

  13. Oral manifestations of chronic disseminated histiocytosis. A report of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Mínguez, Ignacio; Mínguez, Juan Manuel; Bonet, Jaime; Peñarrocha, Miguel; Sanchis, José María

    2004-01-01

    Chronic disseminated histiocytosis is a systemic disorder resulting from tumor proliferation of Langerhans-type histiocytic cells. The etiology and pathogenesis are not fully clear, though the clinical manifestations are the result of the accumulation and infiltration of these types of cells in organs and tissues. The present study reports 10 patients (6 boys and 4 girls) with chronic disseminated histiocytosis. The patient age at onset of the disease varied from 4 months to 3.2 years (mean 1.7 years). All patients had oral lesions, and in 5 cases these were the first manifestation of the disease. The most frequent alterations were gingival bleeding (7 cases), aphthae measuring over 1 cm in diameter (6 cases), maxillary osteolytic lesions (6 cases), tooth loss due to expulsive folliculitis (5 cases), oral candidiasis (4 cases), orofacial swelling (3 cases), aphthae measuring under 1 cm in diameter (3 cases), and nonspecific oral pain (2 cases). All the oral lesions disappeared with the treatments prescribed, though some patients developed new outbreaks and exacerbations of the disease.

  14. Immunophenotype analysis of malignant histiocytosis of the intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Salter, D M; Krajewski, A S; Dewar, A E

    1986-01-01

    Five cases of malignant histiocytosis of the intestine and one case of true histiocytic lymphoma were studied using immunohistological techniques. In paraffin sections tumour cells in all cases were shown to contain alpha-1-antitrypsin and to express the leucocyte common antigen. Four of the five cases of malignant histiocytosis of the intestine and the case of histiocytic lymphoma expressed the epithelial membrane antigen. Cryostat sections in four cases of malignant histiocytosis of the intestine showed that most tumour cells reacted with anti-T cell monoclonal antibodies. Only a minority expressed a typical monocyte macrophage phenotype. Images PMID:3512610

  15. Intralymphatic Histiocytosis: A Report of 2 Cases.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sánchez, M E; Azaña-Defez, J M; Martínez-Martínez, M L; López-Villaescusa, M T

    2017-02-27

    Intralymphatic histiocytosis is a benign condition characterized by poorly defined erythematous plaques (sometimes forming a reticular pattern) as well as the presence of nodules and vesicles. Its etiology and pathogenesis appear to be related to chronic inflammation in the affected area, prior surgery, or systemic disease, particularly rheumatoid arthritis. We report on 2 new cases, both associated with joint surgery in the affected area and osteoarticular disease (primary synovial osteochondromatosis and rheumatoid arthritis). This is a chronic disease and there is no specific treatment. Different treatment options were chosen in the 2 cases described. A spectacular response to treatment with oral pentoxifylline and topical tacrolimus was observed in 1 of the patients.

  16. Thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis mimicking lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yağci, Begül; Varan, Ali; Uner, Aysegül; Akyüz, Canan; Büyükpamukçu, Münevver

    2008-12-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by clonal expansion of antigen presenting Langerhans cells. Different clinical features can be seen according to the involved organs and systems. Multisystem disease with organ dysfunction is more common in infants, whereas single system disease is usually observed in older children. The disease can affect any system or organ throughout the body. Thymus is a rarely involvement site reported in LCH and usually is accompanied by skin, bone or lung disease. Here we report a 12-year-old male with thymic involvement by LCH clinically mimicking lymphoma.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy plus syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Histiocytosis-lymphadenopathy plus syndrome (also known as SLC29A3 spectrum disorder) is a group of conditions with overlapping ... considered to be part of the same disease spectrum. While some affected individuals have signs and symptoms ...

  18. The potential cost-effectiveness of the Diamondback 360® Coronary Orbital Atherectomy System for treating de novo, severely calcified coronary lesions: an economic modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Jeffrey; Généreux, Philippe; Lee, Arthur; Lewin, Jack; Young, Christopher; Crittendon, Janna; Mann, Marita; Garrison, Louis P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for severely calcified coronary lesions have long been known to have worse clinical and economic outcomes than patients with no or mildly calcified lesions. We sought to assess the likely cost-effectiveness of using the Diamondback 360® Orbital Atherectomy System (OAS) in the treatment of de novo, severely calcified lesions from a health-system perspective. Methods and results: In the absence of a head-to-head trial and long-term follow up, cost-effectiveness was based on a modeled synthesis of clinical and economic data. A cost-effectiveness model was used to project the likely economic impact. To estimate the net cost impact, the cost of using the OAS technology in elderly (⩾ 65 years) Medicare patients with de novo severely calcified lesions was compared with cost offsets. Elderly OAS patients from the ORBIT II trial (Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of OAS in Treating Severely Calcified Coronary Lesions) [ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01092426] were indirectly compared with similar patients using observational data. For the index procedure, the comparison was with Medicare data, and for both revascularization and cardiac death in the following year, the comparison was with a pooled analysis of the Harmonizing Outcomes with Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction (HORIZONS-AMI)/Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy (ACUITY) trials. After adjusting for differences in age, gender, and comorbidities, the ORBIT II mean index procedure costs were 17% (p < 0.001) lower, approximately US$2700. Estimated mean revascularization costs were lower by US$1240 in the base case. These cost offsets in the first year, on average, fully cover the cost of the device with an additional 1.2% cost savings. Even in the low-value scenario, the use of the OAS is cost-effective with a cost per life-year gained of US$11,895. Conclusions: Based on economic modeling

  19. Langerhans cell histiocytosis masquerading as acute appendicitis: Case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Karimzada, Mohammad M; Matthews, Michele N; French, Samuel W; DeUgarte, Daniel; Kim, Dennis Y

    2017-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare syndrome characterized by unifocal, multifocal unisystem, or disseminated/multi-system disease that commonly involves the bone, skin, lymph nodes, pituitary, or sometimes lung (almost exclusively in smokers) causing a variety of symptoms from rashes and bone lesions to diabetes insipidus or pulmonary infiltrates. We present a previously unreported case of gastrointestinal LCH as well as a novel characteristic lesion affecting the colon of a young woman who presented with signs and symptoms mimicking acute on chronic appendicitis. Immunohistochemical analysis of appendectomy specimen and nodular specimens on colonoscopy demonstrated S-100, CD1a, and langerin reactivity. The patient underwent systemic chemotherapy with cytarabine and demonstrated excellent response to therapy. PMID:28360976

  20. Solitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the hard palate: a diagnostic pitfall

    PubMed Central

    Varsha, Dalal; Kaur, Manveen; Chaudhary, Neena; Siraj, Fouzia

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a relatively rare and unique disease characterized by an abnormal proliferation of immature dendritic cells. It is predominantly seen in children with adults showing less than ten times the incidence compared to childhood. The clinical presentation and organ involvement is highly variable. Oral manifestations generally consist of mucosal ulceration associated with lesions of the underlying bone. Lesions limited to the oral mucosa are rare. We present a case of a 45-year-old male who presented with an ulcer on the hard palate showing histopathologic features of LCH. The present case is a reminder of the possibility of occurrence of this unusual entity in the oral cavity. Appropriate use of immunohistochemistry is advocated to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:27703428

  1. Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in an Adult Male Presenting with Central Diabetes Insipidus and Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeun Seoung; Lim, Jung Soo; Kwon, Woocheol; Jung, Soon-Hee; Park, Il Hwan; Lee, Myoung Kyu; Lee, Won Yeon; Yong, Suk Joong; Lee, Seok Jeong; Jung, Ye-Ryung; Choi, Jiwon; Choi, Ji Sun; Jeong, Joon Taek; Yoo, Jin Sae; Kim, Sang-Ha

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis is an uncommon diffuse cystic lung disease in adults. In rare cases, it can involve extrapulmonary organs and lead to endocrine abnormalities such as central diabetes insipidus. A 42-year-old man presented with polyphagia and polydipsia, as well as a dry cough and dyspnea on exertion. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamic-pituitary system failed to show the posterior pituitary, which is a typical finding in patients with central diabetes insipidus. This condition was confirmed by a water deprivation test, and the patient was also found to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Computed tomographic scanning of the lungs revealed multiple, irregularly shaped cystic lesions and small nodules bilaterally, with sparing of the costophrenic angles. Lung biopsy through video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery revealed pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. On a follow-up visit, only 1 year after the patient had quit smoking, clinical and radiological improvement was significant. Here, we report an uncommon case of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis that simultaneously presented with diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus.

  2. Neonatal lesions of orbital frontal areas 11/13 in monkeys alter goal-directed behavior but spare fear conditioning and safety signal learning.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Andy M; Davis, Michael; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in monkeys have demonstrated that damage to the lateral subfields of orbital frontal cortex (OFC areas 11/13) yields profound changes in flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and deficits in fear regulation. Yet, little consideration has been placed on its role in emotional and social development throughout life. The current study investigated the effects of neonatal lesions of the OFC on the flexible modulation of goal-directed behaviors and fear responses in monkeys. Infant monkeys received neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 or sham-lesions during the first post-natal week. Modulation of goal-directed behaviors was measured with a devaluation task at 3-4 and 6-7 years. Modulation of fear reactivity by safety signals was assessed with the AX+/BX- fear-potentiated-startle paradigm at 6-7 years. Similar to adult-onset OFC lesions, selective neonatal lesions of OFC areas 11/13 yielded a failure to modulate behavioral responses guided by changes in reward value, but spared the ability to modulate fear responses in the presence of safety signals. These results suggest that these areas play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation during goal-directed behaviors, but not or less so, in the development of the ability to process emotionally salient stimuli and to modulate emotional reactivity using environmental contexts, which could be supported by other OFC subfields, such as the most ventromedial subfields (i.e., areas 14/25). Given similar impaired decision-making abilities and spared modulation of fear after both neonatal lesions of either OFC areas 11 and 13 or amygdala (Kazama et al., 2012; Kazama and Bachevalier, 2013), the present results suggest that interactions between these two neural structures play a critical role in the development of behavioral adaptation; an ability essential for the self-regulation of emotion and behavior that assures the maintenance of successful social relationships.

  3. Langerhans cell histiocytosis or tuberculosis on a medieval child (Oppidum de la Granède, Millau, France - 10th-11th centuries AD).

    PubMed

    Colombo, Antony; Saint-Pierre, Christophe; Naji, Stephan; Panuel, Michel; Coqueugniot, Hélène; Dutour, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    In 2008, a skeleton of a 1 - 2.5-year-old child radiocarbon dated from the 10th - 11th century AD was discovered on the oppidum of La Granède (Millau, France). It presents multiple cranial osteolytic lesions having punched-out or geographical map-like aspects associated with sequestrum and costal osteitis. A multi 3D digital approach (CT, μCT and virtual reconstruction) enabled us to refine the description and identify the diploic origin of the lytic process. Furthermore, precise observation of the extent of the lesions and associated reorganization of the skeletal micro-structure were possible. From these convergent pieces of evidence, the differential diagnosis led to three possibilities: Langerhans cell histiocytosis, tuberculosis, or Langerhans cell histiocytosis and tuberculosis.

  4. [Recurrent infections of the respiratory tract and staphylococcal pneumonia with septic shock and total respiratory failure in a patient with histiocytosis X].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, L; Meleniewska-Maciszewska, A; Burakowski, J

    1994-01-01

    Disseminated pulmonary infiltrates, cutaneous lesions and diabetes insipidus in a female patients with a history of recurrent pneumothorax and persistent respiratory tract infections suggested the diagnosis of histiocytosis X. The pathological examination of a biopsy lung tissue specimen confirmed that diagnosis. In the course of treatment many dangerous complications were observed. The intensive therapy including artificial ventilation (24 days) was fully effective and settle the beneficial clinical outcome.

  5. Progressive spinocerebellar degeneration "plus" associated with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a new paraneoplastic syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg-Stern, H; Weitz, R; Zaizov, R; Gornish, M; Gadoth, N

    1995-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), formerly known as histiocytosis-X, manifests by granulomatous lesions consisting of mixed histiocytic and eosinophilic cells. The hallmark of LCH invasion into the CNS is diabetes insipidus, reflecting local infiltration of Langerhans cells into the posterior pituitary or hypothalumus. In five patients who had early onset LCH with no evidence of direct invasion into the CNS, slowly progressive spinocerebellar degeneration accompanied in some by pseudobulbar palsy and intellectual decline was seen. Neurological impairment started 2.5 to seven years after the detection of LCH. No correlation was found between the clinical syndrome and location of LCH or its mode of treatment. An extensive search for metabolic, toxic, neoplastic, and hereditary aetiologies for progressive cerebellar degeneration was negative. It seems that the clinical entity described here may be considered a new paraneoplastic syndrome related to LCH. It may be induced by the eosinophil derived neurotoxin, which was shown to cause damage to Purkinje cells and pyramidal neurons. Images PMID:7876848

  6. A case of adult Langerhans cell histiocytosis showing successfully regenerated osseous tissue of the skull after chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Izutsu, Koji; Kako, Shinichi; Ohta, Satoshi; Hangaishi, Akira; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Motokura, Toru; Chiba, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2008-04-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a proliferative disorder of Langerhans cells and extremely rare in adults. Adult LCH is often associated with osteolytic bone lesions, but large bone-defective lesions have been rarely reported. We report an adult case of LCH accompanied by large osteolytic lesions in the skull that successfully responded to chemotherapy. A 47-year-old woman with LCH who had multiple, large osteolytic areas of more than 3 cm in diameter in the skull was admitted to our hospital. She was treated with systemic chemotherapy consisting of prednisolone, vinblastine, and 6-mercaptopurine. Twelve months later, when she completed the treatment, osteolytic areas were covered with hard osseous tissue, and X-ray examination confirmed regeneration of the bone. This case indicates that chemotherapy can be effective even for the treatment of large osteolytic lesions in adult LCH patients.

  7. Selective aspiration or neurotoxic lesions of orbital frontal areas 11 and 13 spared monkeys' performance on the object discrimination reversal task.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Andy; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2009-03-04

    Damage to the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) has long been associated with reversal learning deficits in several species. In monkeys, this impairment follows lesions that include several OFC subfields. However, the different connectional patterns of OFC subfields together with neuroimaging data in humans have suggested that specific OFC areas play distinctive roles in processing information necessary to guide behavior (Kringelbach and Rolls, 2004; Barbas, 2007; Price, 2007). More specifically, areas 11 and 13 contribute to a sensory network, whereas medial areas 10, 14, and 25 are heavily connected to a visceromotor network. To examine the contribution of areas 11 and 13 to reversal learning, we tested monkeys with selective damage to these two OFC areas on two versions of the ODR task using either one or five discrimination problems. We compared their performance with that of sham-operated controls and of animals with neurotoxic amygdala lesions, which served as operated controls. Neither damage to areas 11 and 13 nor damage to the amygdala affected performance on the ODR tasks. The results indicate that areas 11 and 13 do not critically contribute to reversal learning and that adjacent damage to OFC subfields (10, 12, 14, and 25) could account for the ODR deficits found in earlier lesion studies. This sparing of reversal learning will be discussed in relation to deficits found in the same animals on tasks that measure behavioral modulation when relative value of affective (positive and negative) stimuli was manipulated.

  8. [Langerhans cell histiocytosis with atypical and early neonatal debut].

    PubMed

    García-Rodríguez, Esther; Bernabeu-Wittel, José; Calderón-López, Gemma; Pavón-Delgado, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a systemic disease associated with the proliferation of this type of cells in tissues. Its prevalence is estimated at 1-9/100 000. Bone is the most frequently affected organ, followed by the skin, lymph nodes, haematopoietic system, pituitary gland, lungs and liver. In the majority of cases, onset occurs during childhood, with peak between one and three years of age, and poor prognosis before two years of age. The haematological forms (pancytopenia) are usually aggressive in infants. We report a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis with neonatal onset and complex diagnosis: maintained and significant leukocytosis was the predominant data for the first two months of life, so some type of leukemia was considered. However, the most common blood disorder in Langerhans cell histiocytosis is pancytopenia rather than leukocytosis, so that the diagnosis was delayed.

  9. Pulmonary crystal-storing histiocytosis diagnosed by computed tomography-guided fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Todd, William U; Drabick, Joseph J; Benninghoff, Michael G; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E; Zander, Dani S

    2010-04-01

    Crystal-storing histiocytosis (CSH) is a rare process most often occurring in conjunction with an underlying hematopoietic neoplasm, usually multiple myeloma or low-grade B-cell lymphoma. We report the first case of pulmonary CSH diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. A patient with a history of urothelial carcinoma developed a lung nodule, which was evaluated by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Cytologic examination revealed macrophages with abundant cytoplasmic crystals diagnostic of CSH. Based on this cytologic interpretation, additional clinical laboratory evaluation was pursued and revealed a previously unknown monoclonal serum protein. CSH must be differentiated from other non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions and when diagnosed, should trigger a search for an underlying lymphoproliferative disorder.

  10. [Histiocytosis X of the jaw. I. Anatomico-clinical study apropos of 61 cases].

    PubMed

    Chomette, G; Auriol, M; Ragot, J P; Guilbert, F

    1987-01-01

    61 cases of histiocytosis X of jaws were reported here. They occurred more often in man (72% of men) than in woman, with an average age of 27 years. The mandible was affected more frequently than the maxilla. Clinically, dental expulsion, gingival swelling, fractures or pain were the usual symptoms. Roentgenographic examination showed either central or peripheral (alveolar bone) osteolytic areas. The histologic diagnosis was easy when eosinophilic polymorphous leukocytes or histiocytes were preponderant. In the other cases, immunohistochemistry (positivity of S-100 protein) and electron microscopy (presence of Birbeck granules about paraffin embedded specimens) were of a great usefulness. The prognosis of the disease was mainly related to the diffusion of lesions to other skeletal portions or extraskeletal localizations (37% of our cases). It has been improved by combination of chemotherapy to surgery (despite of frequent recurrences), 40 upon 45 patients are well after a follow-up of 2 to 10 years after the last localization.

  11. Langerhans cell histiocytosis as a possible differential diagnosis of painful scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Yuan; Lin, Ruey-Mo; Yan, Jing-Jou; Lin, Chii-Jeng

    2007-07-01

    We report on a 5-year 8-month-old boy suffering from spinal Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), who had initial symptoms of back and abdominal pain, as well as tilting of the shoulder that mimicked hemivertebra of T10 with scoliosis, as revealed by radiography. The LCH-involved vertebra did not demonstrate the classic radiographic picture of vertebra plana until the vertebral body symmetrically collapsed about 6 months later, when the patient's scoliosis disappeared. The delayed diagnosis of LCH was confirmed by biopsy after another 6 months. Polyostotic lesions affecting C6, T5, T9-12, and L2 were found. This case represented an unusual presentation of LCH as an early disease entity, which resulted in a misdiagnosis of painful scoliosis. We believe we are the first to report LCH as a differential diagnosis of painful scoliosis.

  12. Malignant histiocytosis. A phenotypic and genotypic investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Cattoretti, G.; Villa, A.; Vezzoni, P.; Giardini, R.; Lombardi, L.; Rilke, F.

    1990-01-01

    Ten cases of malignant histiocytosis (MH) were evaluated for clinical and histopathologic features, phenotype, and rearrangement of T cell receptor (TCR) beta, gamma, and alpha and immunoglobulin (Ig) genes (7/10). All cases were HLA-DR+ and CD30-positive. Four cases had molecular evidence of T cell lineage such as TCR beta, gamma, and alpha rearrangements, and one additional case synthesized the cytoplasmic TCR beta chain. The remaining five cases did not show unequivocal T, B, natural killer (NK) cell, or macrophagic origin, and three of them had germline TCR and Ig genes. Ultrastructural analysis was not helpful for the definition of the cell lineage. Most myelomonocytic markers (MAC387, CD13, CD14, CD64, CD68) were either negative on the MH cells or were expressed on cells with rearranged TCR gene. Precursor (CD34, CD7) and NK (CD16, CD56, and CD57) cell markers were not found. The lineage of a number of cases of MH remains unresolved. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2349962

  13. Localized Langerhans cell histiocytosis masquerading as Brodie's abscess in a 2-year-old child: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Fang; Hsu, Yi-Chih; Wu, Yi-Der; Kuo, Chun-Lang; Huang, Guo-Shu

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), formerly known as histiocytosis X, refers to a spectrum of diseases characterized by idiopathic proliferation of histiocytes that produce either focal (localized LCH) or systemic manifestations (Hand-Schüller-Christian disease and Letterer-Siwe disease). Localized LCH accounts for approximately 60-70 % of all LCH cases. Osseous involvement is the most common manifestation and typically involves the flat bones, along with lesions of the skull, pelvis, and ribs. Localized LCH in bone shows a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and radiologic features that may mimic those of infections as well as benign and malignant tumors. The diagnostic imaging findings of localized LCH are also diverse and challenging. The penumbra sign is a common and characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) feature of Brodie's abscess, but is rarely seen in localized LCH. In this report, we describe a case of localized LCH misdiagnosed as Brodie's abscess in a 2-year-old child based on clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, and pre-diagnostic MRI findings (penumbra sign). Therefore, the penumbra sign is not sufficient to clearly establish the diagnosis of Brodie's abscess, and the differential diagnosis of localized LCH should be considered when a child with an osteolytic lesion presents with a penumbra sign. PMID:27065773

  14. Occult Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, a Thickened Pituitary Stalk and Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Michael S; Gordon, Murray B

    2016-01-01

    Etiologies of a thickened stalk include inflammatory, neoplastic, and idiopathic origins, and the underlying diagnosis may remain occult. We report a patient with a thickened pituitary stalk (TPS) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) whose diagnosis remained obscure until a skin lesion appeared. The patient presented with PTC, status postthyroidectomy, and I(131) therapy. PTC molecular testing revealed BRAF mutant (V600E, GTC>GAG). She had a 5-year history of polyuria/polydipsia. Overnight dehydration study confirmed diabetes insipidus (DI). MRI revealed TPS with loss of the posterior pituitary bright spot. Evaluation showed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and low IGF-1. Chest X-ray and ACE levels were normal. Radiographs to evaluate for extrapituitary sites of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) were unremarkable. Germinoma studies were negative: normal serum and CSF beta-hCG, alpha-fetoprotein, and CEA. Three years later, the patient developed vulvar labial lesions followed by inguinal region skin lesions, biopsy of which revealed LCH. Reanalysis of thyroid pathology was consistent with concurrent LCH, PTC, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis within the thyroid. This case illustrates that one must be vigilant for extrapituitary manifestations of systemic diseases to diagnose the etiology of TPS. An activating mutation of the protooncogene BRAF is a potential unifying etiology of both PTC and LCH.

  15. An 'eruptive' variant of juvenile xanthogranuloma associated with langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Tran, Don T; Wolgamot, Gregory M; Olerud, John; Hurst, Stan; Argenyi, Zsolt

    2008-10-01

    The development of juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) as a sequel to langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) treated with chemotherapy is rare and the hypothesis is intriguing. This is a case of a 19-year-old woman who presented with progressive development of tan-red papules on the axilla and eyelids over a 1.5-year time span. A biopsy of an axillary lesion showed a prominent dermal infiltrate of foamy histiocytoid cells with occasional Touton-type multinucleate giant cells, consistent with JXG. Three years later, the patient presented with additional similar papules on the axilla and vulva as well as a painful mass in the pelvic bone and diabetes insipidus with an associated pituitary mass. An iliac crest bone biopsy showed an eosinophil-rich infiltrate admixed with histiocytoid cells with reniform nuclei, which expressed S100 and CD1a, consistent with a diagnosis of LCH. Nonetheless, an additional axillary papule was once again consistent with JXG, with negative reaction for S100 and CD1a with no Birbeck granules by electron microscopy. This case is unique by the co-existing presentation of multiple cutaneous JXG lesions and internally confined LCH lesions without an apparently associated chemotherapy, corroborating the concept that JXG and LCH may share a common histogenesis.

  16. Langerhans cell histiocytosis: literature review and descriptive analysis of oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Martínez-Pereda, Cristina; Guerrero-Rodríguez, Vanesa; Guisado-Moya, Blanca; Meniz-García, Cristina

    2009-05-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease, of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by intense and abnormal proliferation of bone marrow-derived histiocytes (Langerhans cells). It can present both local and systemic manifestations involving bone, skin and mucosal tissue, and internal organs. Three basic clinical forms develop: Letterer-Siwe disease (subacute or acute disseminated form), Hand-Schüller-Christian disease (disseminated chronic form) and eosinophilic granuloma (localized chronic form). LCH may manifest orally with single or multiple lesions of the alveolar or basal bone, ulcerated mucosal lesions accompanied by adenopathies and/or periodontal lesions, presenting gingival inflammation, bleeding, recession, necrosis, odontalgia, dental hypermobility and premature loss of teeth. The principal differential diagnoses include advanced periodontal disease or a periapical process of dental or periodontal origin. The odontologist plays a vital role in the diagnosis and multidisciplinary treatment of such patients, by performing routine examinations for periodic follow-up of the disease and its possible oral manifestations, bearing in mind that these may be the first or only signs of LCH.

  17. Strategies for the Prevention of Central Nervous System Complications in Patients with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: The Problem of Neurodegenerative Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Imashuku, Shinsaku; Arceci, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    Diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are common in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Besides active LCH lesions, neurodegenerative (ND) lesions of the cerebellum and/or basal ganglia may occur as late sequelae of LCH. While the etiology of this ND disease remains unclear, biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may reflect the activity of CNS disease in these patients. However, no well-planned CSF studies have yet been performed in patients at high risk for ND-CNS-LCH. Potential parallels with other neuroinflammatory/neurodegenerative disease suggest the utility of examining these other disorders in establishing strategies for the prevention and/or treatment of ND-CNS-LCH.

  18. Canine cutaneous histiocytoma is an epidermotropic Langerhans cell histiocytosis that expresses CD1 and specific beta 2-integrin molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, P. F.; Schrenzel, M. D.; Affolter, V. K.; Olivry, T.; Naydan, D.

    1996-01-01

    Canine cutaneous histiocytoma (CCH) is a common, benign neoplasm of the dog. Histiocytomas most commonly occur as solitary lesions that undergo spontaneous regression. The age-specific incidence rate for histiocytomas drops precipitously after 3 years, although histiocytomas occur in dogs of all ages. Langerhans cells (LCs) in humans and dogs express abundant major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and a variety of leukocyte antigens characteristic of dendritic cell differentiation including CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, and CD11c. The immunophenotype of CCH resembled that of cutaneous LCs by virtue of the expression of CD1 molecules (CD1a, -b, and -c), CD11c, and major histocompatibility complex class II. Furthermore, histiocytoma cells had a tropism for epidermis, which was also consistent with an epidermal LC lineage. The expression of adhesion molecules such as CD11b (variable), CD44, CD54 (ICAM-1), and CD49d (VLA-4) in CCH indicated that the infiltrating cells had some of the characteristics of activated LCs, as these molecules are not expressed by normal, resting canine epidermal LCs. CCH did not express Thy-1 or CD4. Thy-1 expression is a characteristic of human and canine dermal dendrocytes, which are perivascular dendritic antigen-presenting cells closely related to epidermal LCs. CD4 expression is prevalent in human LC histiocytosis, and in this respect CCH differed from human LC histiocytosis. Here we demonstrate that CCH is a localized form of self-limiting LC histiocytosis, which predominantly expresses an epidermal LC phenotype. CCH occurs as solitary or, less commonly, as multiple cutaneous nodules or plaques, which rarely may extend beyond the skin to local lymph nodes. Regression of CCH occurs spontaneously in the vast majority of cases in primary and secondary sites, and is mediated by CD8+ alpha beta T cells. The high frequency of CCH within the general canine population offers the potential that the dog may provide an interesting model system to

  19. Late-Onset Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis with Cerebellar Ataxia as an Initial Symptom

    PubMed Central

    Pyun, Jung-Min; Park, Hyeyoung; Moon, Kyung Chul; Jeon, Beomseok

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset progressive cerebellar ataxia is a diagnostic challenge because of a poor correlation between genotype and phenotype, and a broad range of secondary causes that extend beyond the neurological field. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman admitted after 2 years of slowly progressing cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and emotional instability. Notably, she was diagnosed with diabetes insipidus at the age of 35. As ‘idiopathic cerebellar ataxia’ was suspected, diagnostic tests, including genetic testing as well as serum and cerebrospinal fluid analyses, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed. All results were normal except those of MRI, performed 9 months prior to admission, which showed multiple dot-like white matter lesions with unclear cause. On a repeated brain MRI, a new lesion presenting as a 1.5-cm-sized highly enhancing mass attached to the right frontal skull was found. A sharply marginated lytic skull defect was also evident on skull X-ray, which corresponded to the lesion mass. Given these new radiological findings, a systemic review of the patient's medical history for rare secondary causes of cerebellar ataxia was performed, with particular attention to her past ‘diabetes insipidus’. The mass, lytic lesion of the skull, white matter lesion, diabetes insipidus, and cerebellar ataxia all suggested a final diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), which was confirmed histopathologically. This is a rare case of late-onset LCH with an unusual initial symptom which underlines the importance of carefully reviewing the patient's medical history and broadening the search for etiologies beyond the nervous system. PMID:27920713

  20. Mercaptopurine Treatment in an Adult Man with Orbital and Intracranial Rosai-Dorfman Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arnao, Valentina; Riolo, Marianna; Savettieri, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background. Rosai-Dorfmann disease (RDD) is a rare, idiopathic non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, affecting children and young adults, that commonly presents as painless, massive cervical lymphadenopathy with fever, weight loss, and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia. Cervical lymphadenopathy and extranodal involvement are the main presentations. On the contrary, ophthalmic involvement and localisation in the central nervous system are rare. Case Report. An old man was admitted to our hospital for first seizure. Brain imaging studies revealed on the left an extra-axial thickening of the dura mater with enhancement and perilesional oedema, infiltrating the sphenoorbital fissure and an isointense mass with enhancement in the orbital region with dislocation of the optic nerve. Pathological and immunohistochemistry examination of the bioptical specimen was consistent with a diagnosis of RDD. Treatment with levetiracetam and steroids was started obtaining only remission of seizures. Because of the patient refusal of the surgical debulking, therapy with mercaptopurine was started, stopping disease progression. Conclusion. So far, very few cases of extranodal RDD with multiple CNS lesions involving the orbital region have been described. Our case is significant because it is the first case in which the efficacy of mercaptopurine treatment has been documented in an adult patient with isolated ocular and intracranial RDD. PMID:27840753

  1. [A case of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis discovered by CT mass screening and followed by bronchoalveolar lavage].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Maemondo, Makoto; Okouchi, Shinya; Suzuki, Takuji; Kikuchi, Toshiaki; Tazawa, Ryushi; Ebina, Masahito; Saijo, Yasuo; Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Nukiwa, Toshihiro

    2006-11-01

    A 42-year-old woman who had a cigarette index of 420 had many cavitary lesions predominantly in the upper areas of both lungs. The lesions were detected on a health examination using CT. Analysis with bronchofiberscopy showed increased CD1a positive cells in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF). Histological examination by video-associated lung biopsy demonstrated that both S-100 and vimentin-positive cells were present in the peribronchial fibrotic lesions. From these data, this disease was diagnosed as pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH). Three months after the cessation of smoking, the cavity lesions disappeared. As the image findings improved, CD1a positive cells in BALF decreased (4.9% --> 1.8%) and the CD4/CD8 ratio in BALF increased (1.66 --> 6.16). So far, there is no report describing the time course of both CD1a positive cells and CD4/CD8 ratio in BALF after cessation of smoking in PLCH. These findings attract our interest on the PLCH.

  2. [Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as isolated adenitis in an infant: case report].

    PubMed

    Soriano-Ramos, María; Salcedo Lobato, Enrique; Baro Fernández, María; Blázquez-Gamero, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis in infants is a rare condition, and presentation as an isolated cervical adenitis is exceptional at this age. We describe the case of a 3-month-old female infant presenting with a neck mass in the right mandibular angle with poor response to antibiotic treatment. Fine needle aspiration was performed and confirmed the diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis with complementary tests showing no features of systemic involvement. Langerhans cell histiocytosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of subacute neck masses with poor outcome in infants and physicians should consider performing a fine needle aspiration to establish the diagnosis.

  3. Viruses and Langerhans cell histiocytosis: is there a link?

    PubMed Central

    McClain, K.; Weiss, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    As a rare, sporadic disease Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) presents a difficult problem in defining a likely etiology. Epidemiological data would not a priori lead one to choose a viral etiology. However, there are rare tumours which occur as sequelae of common infections from Epstein-Barr virus or human papilloma viruses. Likewise some viruses can cause cells to elaborate cytokines which could ultimately stimulate Langerhans cell growth. There is only a small amount of experimental data testing the hypothesis that viruses might be associated with LCH. The theoretical constructs surrounding this question and new data refuting the association are summarised. PMID:8075003

  4. Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as hypothyroid goitre: a unique presentation.

    PubMed

    Marupudi, Krishna Chaitanya; Karanth, Suman S; Thomas, Joseph

    2014-12-02

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a disease involving the antigen presenting cells, which can range from a single system involvement with an indolent course to a multisystem disease with increased morbidity. We present a rare case of LCH presenting as hypothyroid goitre that was successfully treated as per the LCH III trial protocol with a combination of vinblastine and oral prednisolone. We highlight the need for awareness of this rare presentation of LCH as a painless goitre which is often misdiagnosed as poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma or overlooked as a benign disease.

  5. Ultrasonographic features of Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Chen, En-Dong; Cheng, Pu; Cai, Ye-Feng; Xiang, Ying-Ying; Zheng, Hua-Min; Xing, Hai-Xia; Li, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease, especially when it involves the thyroid gland. Awareness of ultrasonic features will be helpful for a clinician who should consider this disease in the differential diagnosis from other more common thyroid disorders, especially prior to surgery. Here, we report two patients who have histologically confirmed LCH of the thyroid and summarize the reported cases with ultrasonographic scans from the last 10 years (n=10). Ultrasonograms showed isolated or multiple hypoechoic nodules in unilateral or bilateral thyroid gland. Internal acoustic features of most nodules was heterogeneous (n=5) or hypoechoic (n=2). PMID:24696742

  6. Isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the sublingual gland in an adult

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaodong; Chen, Xinming; Zhang, Jiali; Fang, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by the proliferation of pathologic Langerhans cells. Its clinical presentation is highly variable, that range from single-system, limited disease to severe, multi-organ disease with high mortality. LCH usually affects children and young adults. The most frequent sites for LCH are the bone, skin, lung, pituitary gland, and lymph nodes. Salivary gland involvement by LCH is extremely rare, and only a few cases of LHC involving the parotid glands have been reported in the English literature. To our knowledge, the involvement of the sublingual gland as a part of single or multisystem LCH has not been previously described. Herein we reported the first case of primary LCH of the sublingual gland. A 40-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of a painless mass on the right sublingual area. Excision of the lesion including the right sublingual gland was performed. Histopathological diagnosis of LCH was rendered. The patient remains free of symptoms 17 months after surgery. PMID:26722591

  7. Isolated Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the sublingual gland in an adult.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaodong; Chen, Xinming; Zhang, Jiali; Fang, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disorder characterized by the proliferation of pathologic Langerhans cells. Its clinical presentation is highly variable, that range from single-system, limited disease to severe, multi-organ disease with high mortality. LCH usually affects children and young adults. The most frequent sites for LCH are the bone, skin, lung, pituitary gland, and lymph nodes. Salivary gland involvement by LCH is extremely rare, and only a few cases of LHC involving the parotid glands have been reported in the English literature. To our knowledge, the involvement of the sublingual gland as a part of single or multisystem LCH has not been previously described. Herein we reported the first case of primary LCH of the sublingual gland. A 40-year-old woman presented with a 2-month history of a painless mass on the right sublingual area. Excision of the lesion including the right sublingual gland was performed. Histopathological diagnosis of LCH was rendered. The patient remains free of symptoms 17 months after surgery.

  8. How I treat Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Carl E.; Ladisch, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    “Langerhans cell histiocytosis” (LCH) describes a spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from a single bone lesion or trivial skin rash to an explosive disseminated disease. Regardless of clinical severity, LCH lesions share the common histology of CD1a+/CD207+ dendritic cells with characteristic morphology among an inflammatory infiltrate. Despite historical uncertainty defining LCH as inflammatory vs neoplastic and incomplete understanding of mechanisms of pathogenesis, clinical outcomes have improved markedly over the past decades through cooperative randomized clinical trials based on empiric therapeutic strategies. Significant advances include recognition of high- and low-risk clinical groups defined by hematopoietic and/or hepatic involvement, and of the importance of optimal intensity and of duration of chemotherapy. Nevertheless, mortality of high-risk patients, disease recurrence, lack of robustly tested salvage strategies, and significant disease morbidity of both high- and low-risk patients remain challenges. Recent discovery of recurrent somatic mutations in mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway genes at critical stages of myeloid hematopoietic differentiation in LCH patients supports redefinition of the disease as a myeloproliferative disorder and provides opportunities to develop novel approaches to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25827831

  9. Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying B | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying Biomarkers for Early Detection and Risk Assessment. This application addresses Program Announcement PA-09-197: Biomarkers for Early Detection of Hematopoietic Malignancies (R01). The overall aim of this project is to identify novel biomarkers that may be used to diagnose and treat patients with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH). LCH occurs with similar frequency as other rare malignancies including Hodgkin's lymphoma and AML. |

  10. [Growth retardation in histiocytosis X. Evaluation of anterior pituitary function (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Calzada, L D; Chaussain, J L; Job, J C

    Among six patients with histiocytosis X of long duration and growth retardation of 3 to 4 standard deviations, three had a blunted growth hormone response to stimulation tests, associated to diabetes insipidus. In two of these three children there was a partial catchup of growth without treatment by human growth hormone. The causes and mechanisms of growth retardation in histiocytosis X, the influence of hydroelectrolytic disorders on growth in these patients and their need for treatment with human growth hormone are discussed.

  11. Thyroid Langerhans cell histiocytosis and papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Algarni, Mohammed; Alhakami, Hadi; AlSubayea, Haia; Alfattani, Naif; Guler, Mohammet; Satti, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    A 27-year-old female, married with two children, presented to our clinic with a 1-year history of thyroid swelling and pressure symptoms on lying backward and bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. The patient was a known case of panhypopituitarism for 5 years. Comprehensive patient evaluation including FNAC with papillary thyroid cancer result then she underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection and final histologic examination confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma in the background of lymphocytic thyroiditis, associated with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). The draining cervical lymph nodes were also involved by LCH and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the association of LCH with papillary thyroid carcinoma in the thyroid has been reported, their co-existence with LCH in the draining lymph nodes is very uncommon. PMID:27867869

  12. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children under 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Luna, R; Alter-Molchadsky, N; Cardenas-Cardos, R; Martínez-Guerra, G

    1996-05-01

    This is a retrospective study of 55 children under the age of 2 years diagnosed with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). They were classified according to age and organ function and dysfunction following Lahey's criteria. The studied population was divided into four groups by age of diagnosis (0-6, 7-12, 13-18, and 19-24 months). Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in outcome between age groups, although the population under 6 months had a 81.3% fatality rate. The presence of organ dysfunction was a major cause of death in all age groups, being statistically significant in outcome (P > 0.005) compared with patients without organ dysfunction. The presence of thrombocytopenia and/or respiratory dysfunction was also highly associated with a fatal outcome. In the surviving population, no second malignancies have been reported. The late secondary effects of therapy include endocrine, orofacial, and osseous pathologies.

  13. Central nervous system imaging in childhood Langerhans cell histiocytosis – a reference center analysis

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Luciana; Schöning, Stefan; Hattingen, Elke; Sörensen, Jan; Jurcoane, Alina; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was (1) to describe central nervous system (CNS) manifestations in children with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) based on images sent to a reference center and meeting minimum requirements and (2) to assess the inter-rater agreement of CNS-MRI results, which represents the overall reproducibility of this investigation. Methods We retrospectively reviewed brain MRI examinations in children with LCH, for which MRI minimum requirements were met. Abnormalities were rated by two experienced neuroradiologists, and the inter-rater agreement was assessed. Results Out of a total of 94 imaging studies, only 31 MRIs met the minimum criteria, which included T2w, FLAIR, T1w images before/after contrast in at least two different section planes, and thin post contrast sagittal slices T1w through the sella. The most common changes were osseous abnormalities, followed by solid enlargement of the pineal gland, thickened enhancing stalk and signal changes of the dentate nucleus. Whereas inter-rater agreement in assessing most of the CNS lesions was relatively high (κ > 0.61), the application of minimum criteria often did not allow to evaluate the posterior pituitary. Conclusions The diversity of radiological protocols from different institutions leads to difficulties in the diagnosis of CNS abnormalities in children with LCH. Although the inter-rater agreement between neuroradiologists was high, not all the LCH manifestations could be completely ruled out when using the minimum criteria. Brain MRIs should therefore follow LCH guideline protocols and include T1 pre-gadolinium sagittal images, and be centrally reviewed in order to improve the comparison of clinical trials. PMID:26401129

  14. A case of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis following Hodgkin's disease

    PubMed Central

    LI, XIN; DENG, QI; LI, YU-MING

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a group of disorders in various tissues characterized by the proliferation of Langerhans cells. It is rarely observed in adults. Langerhans cells are dendritic cells that express cluster of differentiation 1a (CD1a) and S100 protein, and contain Birbeck granules. Its etiopathogenesis remains to be elucidated. One possible etiological cause is a reactive proliferation of Langerhans cells following chemotherapy or radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease (HD). A number of cases of LCH associated with malignant lymphoma have been reported previously. It may follow after the malignant lymphoma, or occur with it. However, fewer cases have been reported where the LCH followed after HD. In the present case report, a patient was diagnosed with HD following chemotherapy for LCH. As LCH was diagnosed, the patient was treated with a combination of various chemotherapeutic agents in two cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone (COP), and eight cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP). The patient went into a successful clinical remission. One year later, computed tomographic (CT) scans of the thorax and abdomen revealed augmentation of the tumor mass in the mediastinum. An excisional biopsy of the right inguinal lymph node was performed. The patient was diagnosed with nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's disease. Following four cycles of doxorubicin (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy, a whole-body positron emission tomographic CT scan revealed a decrease in tumor mass in the mediastinum. At present, the patient remains in treatment, and the prognosis has yet to be fully determined. PMID:27330759

  15. Cutaneous crystal storing histiocytosis: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing Jing; Henderson, Christopher

    2015-02-01

    Crystal storing histiocytosis (CSH) is a rare condition where crystals accumulate in the cytoplasm of macrophages and is usually associated with a lymphoplasmacytic neoplasm producing a monoclonal immunoglobulin with kappa light chain. CSH with primary manifestation in the skin is extraordinarily rare and limited to four case reports in the literature. Here we present two cases of cutaneous CSH. One case is that of an 80 year old woman who presented with bilateral periorbital oedema with yellow discolouration. Skin biopsy showed dermal CSH in association with a neoplastic lymphoplasmacytoid infiltrate showing IgM kappa light chain restriction. Subsequent work up led to the discovery of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia. She had an indolent clinical course but died 6 years later from transformation into a diffuse large B cell lymphoma in the bone marrow. The other case is that of a 52 year old man who was recently diagnosed with multiple myeloma and developed a pruritic rash on his back during chemotherapy. Skin biopsy showed Grover disease (transient acantholytic dermatosis) and crystal storing macrophages in the superficial dermis. He died 4 years later after a protracted clinical course involving multiple cycles of chemotherapy and numerous complications. In both patients cutaneous CSH occurred early in the course of their lymphoplasmacytic malignancy and its development did not herald rapid clinical decline.

  16. Bilateral lacrimal caruncle lesions

    PubMed Central

    Okumura, Yuta; Takai, Yoshiko; Yasuda, Shunsuke; Terasaki, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 65-year-old man was referred to our hospital for the treatment of a lesion on the medial lacrimal canthus of both eyes. He had a history of perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, i.e., pANCA-positive interstitial pneumonia. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging excluded space occupying lesions, and laboratory testing excluded thyroid-related diseases. The masses were excised, and histopathological examinations showed sebaceous gland hyperplasia and inflammatory changes around the gland. In addition, the specimen from the left eye showed a retention cyst possibly caused by an infection. It was also possible that the use of steroid was involved in the development of the lesions. A relationship between the ANCA and the lesions was not completely eliminated. PMID:28303065

  17. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and diabetes insipidus in pregnant women: our experience.

    PubMed

    Fuks, Leonardo; Kramer, Mordechai R; Shitrit, David; Raviv, Yael

    2014-04-01

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) occurs predominantly in young adult smokers. Diabetes insipidus occurs in up to 15 % patients with PLCH. Information on PLCH in pregnancy is sparse, especially associated with diabetes insipidus. We report three patients with these conditions and describe the disease history and pregnancy outcomes.

  18. The cognitive spectrum in neurodegenerative Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Le Guennec, Loïc; Decaix, Caroline; Donadieu, Jean; Santiago-Ribeiro, Maria; Martin-Duverneuil, Nadine; Levy, Richard; Delgadillo, Daniel; Kas, Aurélie; Drier, Aurélie; Magy, Laurent; Bayen, Eleonore; Hoang-Xuan, Khe; Idbaih, Ahmed

    2014-08-01

    Clinical spectrum of cognitive troubles complicating neurodegenerative Langerhans cell histiocytosis (ND-LCH) is poorly known. The aim of this study is to evaluate cognitive functions in ND-LCH. The cognitive functions of a series of eight adult patients (7 males and 1 female; mean age 26 years IQ 25-75; range 20-33) suffering from clinical and/or radiological ND-LCH were evaluated using the following tests: (1) forward/backward digit and spatial span tasks of the WAIS-R scale and the Corsi block task, (2) the French version of the free and cued selective reminding test, (3) verbal fluency tests, (4) the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), (5) backward measurement of the verbal and visuospatial memories of the WAIS-R scale, (6) the Rey complex figure test, (7) the trail making tests A and B, (8) digit symbol and symbol search of the WAIS-IV scale, and (9) the Stroop test. Episodic (i.e. autobiographical or personal) memory free recall, categorical verbal fluency, phonological verbal fluency, visuospatial processing skills, attention, speed of processing, and sensitivity to interference were impaired in ND-LCH patients. In contrast, verbal and visuospatial short-term memories (i.e. immediate memories or forward span tasks) were preserved in all patients. Adult ND-LCH patients suffer from a severe but dissociated dysexecutive syndrome, mostly affecting executive strategies and relatively sparing short-term memory. Our study supports the need of assessing executive functions using comprehensive cognitive evaluation in ND-LCH patients for early diagnosis.

  19. Differentiating skin-limited and multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Simko, Stephen J.; Garmezy, Benjamin; Abhyankar, Harshal; Lupo, Philip J.; Chakraborty, Rikhia; Lim, Karen Phaik Har; Shih, Albert; Hicks, M. John; Wright, Teresa S.; Levy, Moise L.; McClain, Kenneth L.; Allen, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify features associated with multisystem involvement and therapeutic failure in patients with skin Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Study design We reviewed medical records of 71 consecutive LCH patients with skin involvement evaluated at Texas Children’s Hospital and analyzed clinical features, laboratory results, and presence of circulating cells with the BRAF-V600E mutation, with respect to initial staging and clinical outcomes. Results Skin disease in patients older than 18 months at diagnosis was associated with presence of multisystem disease (OR 9.65, 95% CI 1.17–79.4). Forty percent of patients referred for presumed skin-limited LCH had underlying multisystem involvement, half of these with risk-organ involvement. Patients with skin-limited LCH had 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) of 89% after initial therapy, and none developed multisystem disease. Patients with skin/multisystem involvement had 3 year PFS of 44% with vinblastine/prednisone therapy, and risk-organ involvement did not correlate with failure to achieve non-active disease. Circulating cells with BRAF-V600E were detected at higher frequency in multisystem patients (8/11 skin/multisystem, 1/13 skin-limited, P=0.002). Conclusions Skin-limited LCH requires infrequent therapeutic intervention and has lower risk of progression relative to skin plus multisystem LCH. The less aggressive clinical course and lack of circulating cells with BRAF-V600E mutation in skin-limited LCH suggest a different mechanism of disease origin compared with multisystem or risk-organ disease. PMID:25441388

  20. Orbital endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C; Selva, Dinesh

    2008-01-01

    Minimally invasive "keyhole" surgery performed using endoscopic visualization is increasing in popularity and is being used by almost all surgical subspecialties. Within ophthalmology, however, endoscopic surgery is not commonly performed and there is little literature on the use of the endoscope in orbital surgery. Transorbital use of the endoscope can greatly aid in visualizing orbital roof lesions and minimizing the need for bone removal. The endoscope is also useful during decompression procedures and as a teaching aid to train orbital surgeons. In this article, we review the history of endoscopic orbital surgery and provide an overview of the technique and describe situations where the endoscope can act as a useful adjunct to orbital surgery.

  1. Congenital Orbital Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Pellerano, Fernando; Guillermo, Elvis; Garrido, Gloreley; Berges, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of congenital orbital teratoma. A 3-day-old male, born at 39 weeks’ gestation without relevant prenatal history, presented with a large vascularized proptotic mass distorting the left midface. Laboratory studies showed elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (12,910 ng/ml). Computed tomography showed a multiloculated heterogeneous lesion composed of hypodense and hyperdense calcified areas encompassing the whole orbital cavity with expansion of the bony walls, as well as forward displacement and compression of the eyeball without extension to surrounding structures. Clinical, imaging and laboratory features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to pronounced proptosis with exposure keratopathy and corneal perforation, no motility of the globe and no vision in the affected eye in a resource-limited setting, the patient underwent orbital exenteration. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of mature cystic teratoma. We describe the clinical course, radiographic and histopathological findings of this rare orbital tumor. PMID:28275597

  2. Congenital Orbital Teratoma.

    PubMed

    Pellerano, Fernando; Guillermo, Elvis; Garrido, Gloreley; Berges, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of congenital orbital teratoma. A 3-day-old male, born at 39 weeks' gestation without relevant prenatal history, presented with a large vascularized proptotic mass distorting the left midface. Laboratory studies showed elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (12,910 ng/ml). Computed tomography showed a multiloculated heterogeneous lesion composed of hypodense and hyperdense calcified areas encompassing the whole orbital cavity with expansion of the bony walls, as well as forward displacement and compression of the eyeball without extension to surrounding structures. Clinical, imaging and laboratory features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to pronounced proptosis with exposure keratopathy and corneal perforation, no motility of the globe and no vision in the affected eye in a resource-limited setting, the patient underwent orbital exenteration. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of mature cystic teratoma. We describe the clinical course, radiographic and histopathological findings of this rare orbital tumor.

  3. Brain Lesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... MRI scans, brain lesions appear as dark or light spots that don't look like normal brain tissue. Usually, a brain lesion is an incidental finding unrelated to the condition or symptom that led to the imaging test in the first place. ...

  4. Laryngeal Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting with Neck Mass in an Adult Woman

    PubMed Central

    Jahandideh, Hesam; Nasoori, Yasser; Rostami, Sara; Safdarian, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a very rare condition that commonly affects the head and neck region. There are very few cases of isolated laryngeal involvement by LCH, mostly reported in pediatric patients. Here, we report a case of laryngeal LCH in a 62-year-old woman presenting with a neck mass several weeks ago. The clinical and histopathological findings are reported with a brief discussion about the disease. PMID:27127670

  5. Bone Langerhans cell histiocytosis with pulmonary involvement in an adult non-smoker: A case report and brief review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Feng, Shicheng

    2017-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease of unknown cause, which encompasses a set of disorders of multiple organs with various clinical presentations that share the common characteristic of sizeable Langerhans cell infiltration. The clinical spectrum of LCH ranges from solitary bone lesions to involvement of other organs. lung involvement in LCH may be part of a multisystem disease, which almost exclusively occurs in adult smokers, while it is overlooked or misdiagnosed in the majority of non-smokers. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest is crucial for diagnosis; however, the treatment and prognosis of this disease have not been clearly determined. We herein present the case of a non-smoking adult patient who presented with lower limb pain and was diagnosed via biopsy with lch with multisystem involvement, including the bone and lungs. Lytic lesions in the corpus of the sacroiliac joint, sacrum, acetabulum and femoral head by a soft tissue mass were observed on diagnostic CT. In addition, chest HRCT revealed multiple cysts in the bilateral lungs, predominantly in the upper lobes. The final diagnosis of LCH was confirmed by histopathological examination and immunohistochemical staining for CD1a and S-100. Corticosteroid treatment alleviated lower limb pain and improved the patient's quality of life; thus, corticosteroids may be considered as a potential treatment option for patients with LCH. PMID:28123731

  6. Orbital cellulitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... hemolytic streptococci may also cause orbital cellulitis. Orbital cellulitis infections in children may get worse very quickly and ... in the space around the eye. An orbital cellulitis infection can get worse very quickly. A person with ...

  7. The adverse prognostic hallmarks in identical twins with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a clinical report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Chai, Damin; Tao, Yisheng; Bao, Zhengqi; Yang, Li; Feng, Zhenzhong; Ma, Li; Liang, Limei; Zhou, Xinwen

    2013-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of Langerhans cells accompanying eosinophils. It often attacks children under 10 years of age. LCH in identical twins is very rare and its prognosis is different. Here we report identical-twin sisters with LCH. Computed tomography (CT) revealed osteolytic change in each twin's skull, and the elder exhibited poor eyesight. There were massive histiocyte-like cells surrounded by eosinophils in pathologic specimen of the abnormal lesions, which is typical pathologic finding in LCH. These pathologic cells were positive for S-100 and the cell surface protein CD1 antigen (CD1α), the known markers of LCH. After treating them with surgery, no symptoms were seen in the younger until now. While the older was found another soft mass (about 2.0 cm in diameter) in the left temporal area 18 months later. The same treatment was given to the older after admission, and she is healthy to date. To explore the relationship between hallmarks and the prognosis of identical-twin patients with LCH, we retrieved the 16 literatures (16 identical-twin pairs, 31 patients) listed in PubMed during the past 60 years. The data revealed all those patients who have disseminated to the bone marrow, spleen and liver with symptoms of fever and hepatosplenomegaly exhibited worse prognosis (9 out of the 31 patients). The other identical-twin subjects without infiltration of those organs recovered well. In conclusion, this study reveals the adverse hallmarks of prognosis in identical-twin patients with LCH by reviewing relevant literatures.

  8. [Endoscopic approaches to the orbit].

    PubMed

    Cebula, H; Lahlou, A; De Battista, J C; Debry, C; Froelich, S

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the use of endoscopic endonasal approaches to the pituitary has increased considerably. The endoscopic endonasal and transantral approaches offer a minimally invasive alternative to the classic transcranial or transconjunctival approaches to the medial aspect of the orbit. The medial wall of the orbit, the orbital apex, and the optic canal can be exposed through a middle meatal antrostomy, an anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy, and a sphenoidotomy. The inferomedial wall of the orbit can be also perfectly visualized through a sublabial antrostomy or an inferior meatal antrostomy. Several reports have described the use of an endoscopic approach for the resection or the biopsy of lesions located on the medial extraconal aspect of the orbit and orbital apex. However, the resection of intraconal lesions is still limited by inadequate instrumentation. Other indications for the endoscopic approach to the orbit are the decompression of the orbit for Graves' ophthalmopathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. However, the optimal management of traumatic optic neuropathy remains very controversial. Endoscopic endonasal decompression of the optic nerve in case of tumor compression could be a more valid indication in combination with radiation therapy. Finally, the endoscopic transantral treatment of blowout fracture of the floor of the orbit is an interesting option that avoids the eyelid or conjunctive incision of traditional approaches. The collaboration between the neurosurgeon and the ENT surgeon is mandatory and reduces the morbidity of the approach. Progress in instrumentation and optical devices will certainly make this approach promising for intraconal tumor of the orbit.

  9. Clinico-pathologic conference: case 4. Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH).

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Takashi; Hall, Gillian L; Hashimoto, Sadamitsu; Miyauchi, Jun; Shimono, Masaki

    2010-12-01

    A 13-month-old Japanese boy presented with painless swelling in a left mandible and cheek. Intraoral examination revealed swelling in the left mandible and hemorrhage of oral mucosa due to biting. CT images revealed a wide osteolytic lesion of the left mandible with floating teeth. Biopsy was carried out and histopathological diagnosis was discussed.

  10. Concomitant orbital cavernous haemangioma and schwannoma in a patient.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shweta; Kaliki, Swathi; Gowrishankar, Swarnalata

    2017-01-12

    A woman aged 39 years presented with right eye painless proptosis and decreased vision since 5 months. Right fundus examination revealed optic disc oedema. CT of the orbit revealed a well-defined homogeneous mass in the intraconal space in both orbits. Surgical excisional biopsy of the orbital lesions was performed. Histopathological examination of the right orbital lesion was suggestive of cavernous haemangioma and the left orbital lesion revealed schwannoma. The patient had an unremarkable postoperative course with improved visual acuity. This case illustrates benign orbital masses of 2 different tissues of origin in a single patient, which has not been described in the literature.

  11. Pink lesions.

    PubMed

    Giacomel, Jason; Zalaudek, Iris

    2013-10-01

    Dermoscopy (dermatoscopy or surface microscopy) is an ancillary dermatologic tool that in experienced hands can improve the accuracy of diagnosis of a variety of benign and malignant pigmented skin tumors. The early and more accurate diagnosis of nonpigmented, or pink, tumors can also be assisted by dermoscopy. This review focuses on the dermoscopic diagnosis of pink lesions, with emphasis on blood vessel morphology and pattern. A 3-step algorithm is presented, which facilitates the timely and more accurate diagnosis of pink tumors and subsequently guides the management for such lesions.

  12. Isolated Sphenoid Sinus Lesions: Experience with a Few Rare Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Sadashiva, Nishanth; Nandeesh, B. N.; Shukla, Dhaval; Bhat, Dhananjaya; Somanna, Sampath; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The sphenoid sinus is often neglected because of its difficult access. The deep position of the sphenoid sinus hinders early diagnosis of pathologies in that location. Delayed diagnosis can cause serious complications due to proximity to many important structures. Objectives: The aim of this study is to demonstrate different pathologies which can affect the sphenoid sinus and elucidate the findings. Methods: Cases of isolated sphenoid sinus lesions encountered in the neurosurgical setting which had rare pathologies are discussed. Pathologies such as Langerhans cell histiocytosis, solitary plasmacytoma, chordoma, pituitary adenoma, leiomyosarcoma, fungal infection, and mucocele which appeared primarily in sphenoid sinus are discussed along with their imaging features and pathological findings. Conclusion: Multitude of different pathologies can occur in sphenoid sinus. Detailed preoperative imaging is very helpful, but transnasal biopsy and histological study are required often for definitive diagnosis. The possible advantages of early diagnosis before spread of pathology for prognosis cannot be overemphasized. PMID:28149092

  13. Morphoproteomics provides support for TGF-β pathway signaling in the osteoclastogenesis and immune dysregulation of osteolytic Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrescu, Sanda; Tatevian, Nina; Czerniak, Bogdan A; Covinsky, Michael H; Burns, Nadja K; Brown, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has a challenging and still unclear pathogenesis. A body of literature points to impaired maturation of the lesional dendritic cells, and to immune dysregulation in the form of increased FoxP3 cells. Various cytokine abnormalities such as expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β have been reported, as well as abnormalities in lipid content in LCH cells. Morphoproteomic techniques were applied to identify the signal transduction pathways that could influence histogenesis and immune regulation in osteolytic LCH. Five pediatric cases of osteolytic LCH were examined, using antibodies against CD1a, S100, CD68, CD8, FoxP3, phosphorylated (p)-STAT3 (Tyr705), protein kinase C (PKC)-α, phospholipase (PL)D1, fatty acid synthase (FASN), and zinc finger protein, Gli2. Positive and negative controls were performed. A FoxP3(+)/CD8(+) cell ratio was calculated by counting the FoxP3+ and CD8+ cells in 10 high power fields for each case. There is induction of sonic hedgehog (SHH) mediators consistent with TGF-β signaling pathway through Smad3-dependent activation of Gli2, findings supported by the plasmalemmal and cytoplasmic expression of PKC-α and PLD1, and nuclear expression of Gli2, in lesional cells. The FoxP3+/CD8+ cell ratio is increased, ranging from 1.7-7.94. There is moderate cytoplasmic expression of FASN in most of the Langerhans cells, a finding that supports previously published phospholipid abnormalities in LCH and is consistent with PKC-α/PLD1/TGF-β signaling. With our study, we strongly suggest that the TGF-β cell signaling pathway is a major player in the pathogenesis of LCH, leading to non-canonical induction of nuclear Gli2 expression, thereby contributing to osteoclastogenesis in LCH histiocytes. It could also cause a state of immune frustration in LCH, by inducing the transformation of CD4(+)CD25(-) cells into CD4(+)/FoxP3(+) cells. This coincides with the clinical evidence of a response to thalidomide in

  14. The presence of CXCR4+ CD1a+ cells at onset of Langerhans cell histiocytosis is associated with a less favorable outcome

    PubMed Central

    Quispel, Willemijn T.; Stegehuis-Kamp, Janine A.; Blijleven, Laura; Santos, Susy J.; Lourda, Magda; van den Bos, Cor; van Halteren, Astrid G.S.; Egeler, R. Maarten

    2016-01-01

    abstract Purpose: Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is a neoplastic disorder characterized by tissue accumulating CD1a+ histiocytes which frequently carry somatic mutations. Irrespective of mutation status, these LCH-cells display constitutively active kinases belonging to the MAPK pathway. We evaluated, in retrospect, the contribution of individual components of the MAPK-activating and chemotaxis-promoting TNF-CXCR4-CXCL12 axis to LCH manifestation and outcome. Experimental design: CXCR4, CXCL12 and TNF protein expression was immunohistochemically analyzed in 70 LCH-affected biopsies. The presence of CXCR4+CD1a+ cells in peripheral blood (PB) and/or bone marrow (BM) samples was evaluated by flowcytometry in 13 therapy-naive LCH-patients. Results: CXCL12 was detected in 68/70 (97%) biopsies. CXCR4+LCH-cells were present in 50/70 (71%) biopsies; their presence was associated with higher levels of intralesional TNF. Circulating CD1a+CXCR4+ cells were detected in 4/13 (31%) therapy-naïve LCH-patients which displayed BRAFV600E (2/4), MAP2K1 (1/4) or no (1/4) mutations in their tissues. These CD11c co-expressing CD1a+CXCR4+cells migrated to CXCL12 in chemotaxis assays. Lesional CXCR4+LCH-cells were detected in 18/20 cases who presented with LCH manifestation at multiple sites and in 5/23 (22%) patients who developed additional lesions after initially presenting with a single lesion. The CXCR4 status at onset proved to be an independent risk factor for LCH reactivation in multivariate analysis (odds ratio 10.4, p = 0.034). Conclusions: This study provides the first evidence that CXCR4 is involved in the homing and retention of LCH-cells in CXCL12-expressing tissues and qualifies CXCR4 as a candidate prognostic marker for less favorable disease outcome.

  15. Kepler's Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kepler does not orbit the Earth, rather it orbits the Sun in concert with the Earth, slowly drifting away from Earth. Every 61 Earth years, Kepler and Earth will pass by each other. Throughout the ...

  16. Sporadic progressive mucinous histiocytosis in a Mexican patient.

    PubMed

    Narváez-Rosales, Verónica; Sáez-de-Ocariz, Marimar; Toussaint-Caire, Sonia; Ortiz-Hidalgo, Carlos; Espinosa-Rosales, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    A 33 year-old woman presented with numerous 3- to 5-mm red-brown and yellow-brown dome-shaped nodules, primarily located on the scalp, dorsal aspects of the forearms, and lower extremities (Figure 1 and Figure 2). Her lesions started to appear 5 years prior to her consultation with increasing number and without spontaneous regression. Findings from a previous biopsy revealed epithelioid dermatofibroma. The remainder of the physical examination was unremarkable. There were no familial cases of this condition (both the mother and two older sisters were examined).

  17. Recognition and treatment of concurrent active and neurodegenerative langerhans cell histiocytosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Karst, Jeffrey; Donohoue, Patricia A; Maheshwari, Mohit; McClain, Kenneth L; Bingen, Kristin; Kelly, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a disorder of dendritic cell proliferation with subsequent tissue damage often requiring chemotherapy. Neurodegenerative LCH presents with neuromuscular, cognitive, and behavioral alterations typically occurring years after diagnosis of active LCH. We present a male child with a 4-year history of growth arrest, polyuria, polydipsia, recurrent otitis media, and seborrheic dermatitis. Cutaneous biopsies confirmed LCH and chemotherapy was initiated. During treatment for active LCH he developed neuropsychiatric decline. White matter changes on brain MRI were consistent with neurodegenerative LCH. Treatment was changed to cytarabine and intravenous immunoglobulin. After 1 year of therapy the patient experienced neuropsychological improvement.

  18. Diabetes insipidus and Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a case report of reversibility with 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine.

    PubMed

    Ottaviano, Fabio; Finlay, Jonathan L

    2003-07-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is the most common manifestation of central nervous system involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Patients with LCH involving the head and neck region are reported to have about a 40% lifetime chance of developing DI. The clinical and biochemical diagnosis of DI is sometimes supported by the absence of the posterior pituitary bright signal on magnetic resonance images. Cladribine (2-chlorodeoxyadenosine, 2-CDA) has been reported as an active drug in children and adults with relapsed or refractory LCH. The authors report the successful reversal of DI in a 3-year-old child with established LCH using 2-CDA.

  19. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography for primary thyroid langerhans histiocytosis: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Long, Qi; Shaoyan, Wang; Hui, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare clonal proliferative disease, with an incidence rate of 4.0–5.4/1 million individuals. LCH encompasses a spectrum of disorders with diverse clinical presentations ranging from a single organ to multiple organ involvement. LCH rarely involves the thyroid gland. We presented a case with LCH of thyroid gland. The patient had painless progressive neck enlargement and then diabetes insipidus. Ultrasonic scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan revealed nodular goiter and pituitary stalk enlargement, respectively. Histopathological analysis revealed features of histiocytoid cells. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) was performed in order to rule out the presence of whole body infiltration. 18F-FDG PET/CT also demonstrated increased uptake in the thickening pituitary stalk and maxillofacial skin lesion, in addition to the bilateral thyroid nodules, CT showed the left lung nodule and the skull destruction without 18F-FDG uptake. This report emphasizes the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in multiple organs involvement of patients with LCH. PMID:26430317

  20. A Case of Orbital Histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Krakauer, Mark; Prendes, Mark Armando; Wilkes, Byron; Lee, Hui Bae Harold; Fraig, Mostafa; Nunery, William R

    2016-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus endemic to the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys of the United States. In this case report, a 33-year-old woman who presented with a right orbital mass causing progressive vision loss, diplopia, and facial swelling is described. Lateral orbitotomy with lateral orbital wall bone flap was performed for excisional biopsy of the lesion. The 1.5 × 1.8 × 2.3 cm cicatricial mass demonstrated a granulomatous lesion with necrosis and positive staining consistent with Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum infection. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of orbital histoplasmosis to be reported in the United States and the first case worldwide of orbital histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum.

  1. [Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Campos Arbulú, Ana L; Sadava, Emmanuel E; Sánchez Ruiz, Alejandro; Fernández Vila, Juan M; Dillon, Horacio S; Mezzadri, Norberto A

    2017-01-01

    Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. There is little published literature. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the orbital soft tissues. Surgical resection offered the best treatment for the patient. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy due to the proximity of the lesion to the surgical margins. Surgical treatment is feasible and should be considered as part of the surgeon's arsenal. However, therapeutic decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis.

  2. Nodular Fasciitis of the Orbit.

    PubMed

    Compton, Christopher J; Clark, Jeremy D; Thompson, Matthew P; Lee, Hui Bae H; Nunery, William R

    A 13-month-old boy was presented with new onset proptosis of the right eye. CT scan and MRI showed an enhancing mass in the right superior orbit with local bone remodeling and erosion. A craniotomy was performed for biopsy and sub-total resection. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the lesion to be nodular fasciitis. Nodular fasciitis lesions are classically found in the anterior ocular adnexa, especially in pediatric patients. This is the first reported case of nodular fasciitis arising in the posterior orbit of a child younger than 16.

  3. Tumor pathology of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Héran, F; Bergès, O; Blustajn, J; Boucenna, M; Charbonneau, F; Koskas, P; Lafitte, F; Nau, E; Roux, P; Sadik, J C; Savatovsky, J; Williams, M

    2014-10-01

    The term orbital tumor covers a wide range of benign and malignant diseases affecting specific component of the orbit or developing in contact with them. They are found incidentally or may be investigated as part of the assessment of a systemic disorder or because of orbital signs (exophthalmos, pain, etc.). Computed tomography, MRI and Color Doppler Ultrasound (CDU), play a varying role depending on the clinical presentation and the disease being investigated. This article reflects long experience in a reference center but does not claim to be exhaustive. We have chosen to consider these tumors from the perspective of their usual presentation, emphasizing the most common causes and suggestive radiological and clinical presentations (progressive or sudden-onset exophthalmos, children or adults, lacrimal gland lesions, periorbital lesions and enophthalmos). We will describe in particular muscle involvement (thyrotoxicosis and tumors), vascular lesions (cavernous sinus hemangioma, orbital varix, cystic lymphangioma), childhood lesions and orbital hematomas. We offer straightforward useful protocols for simple investigation and differential diagnosis. Readers who wish to go further to extend their knowledge in this fascinating area can refer to the references in the bibliography.

  4. Isolated thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis discovered on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT).

    PubMed

    Turpin, Sophie; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Dubois, Josée; Buteau, Chantal; Patey, Natalie

    2015-11-01

    The thymic infiltration in young patients with multisystemic Langerhans cell histiocytosis and its radiologic features are well known. However, isolated thymic disease has seldom been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 10-month-old child admitted for fever of unknown origin. Whole-body F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) was performed to identify a focus of infection. It demonstrated an unusual aspect of the thymus, which led to further investigation and revealed isolated infiltration of the thymus by Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The patient was treated accordingly and is now disease free. As evaluation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis patients with F-18 FDG PET/CT is becoming more frequent, it is important to be aware of the scintigraphical characteristics of thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

  5. Isolated Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Thyroid in an Adult Female: One-Year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Vilallonga, Ramon; Ciudin, Andrea; Fort, José Manuel; Baena, Juan Antonio; Gonzalez, Oscar; Armengol, Manuel; Mesa, Jordi; Ruiz Marcellán, Mari Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid gland involvement as the unique presentation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare phenomenon that can result in misdiagnosis. We report a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) presenting as a thyroid mass. It is a 52-year-old woman who presented an enlarged, diffusely firm, nontender, nonmobile, and not particularly nodular thyroid gland with mild compressive symptoms. Ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration showed a unique right node with benign signs. Patient was referred to our Ambulatory Surgery Department, where a hemithyroidectomy was performed. Histologic evaluation of the right thyroid gland revealed an involvement by LCH, confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis showing Langerhans cells that were positive for CD1a. LCH was a completely incidental occult finding apparent only after surgical resection and examination of the gland. Patient was evaluated, and no evidence of systemic affectation was found. LCH can rarely involve the thyroid gland in adults. Few cases have been reported in the literature. Most patients had evidence of LCH involving other anatomic sites. PMID:21461403

  6. Orbital Chondroma: A rare mesenchymal tumor of orbit

    PubMed Central

    Kabra, Ruchi S; Patel, Sonal B; Shanbhag, Swapna S

    2015-01-01

    While relatively common in the skeletal system, cartilaginous tumors are rarely seen originating from the orbit. Here, we report a rare case of an orbital chondroma. A 27-year-old male patient presented with a painless hard mass in the superonasal quadrant (SNQ) of left orbit since 3 months. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity of both eyes was 20/20, with normal anterior and posterior segment with full movements of eyeballs and normal intraocular pressure. Computerized tomography scan revealed well defined soft tissue density lesion in SNQ of left orbit. Patient was operated for anteromedial orbitotomy under general anesthesia. Mass was excised intact and sent for histopathological examination (HPE). HPE report showed lobular aggregates of benign cartilaginous cells with mild atypia suggesting of benign cartilaginous tumor - chondroma. Very few cases of orbital chondroma have been reported in literature so far. PMID:26265654

  7. Computed tomography of the eye and orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerschlag, S.B.; Hesselink, J.R.; Weber, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    This book is the product of the evolution of computed tomography (CT) into subspecialization and the need for one source of information for the busy radiologist. The authors have succeeded in providing a readable overview of orbital CT as well as a reference book. The book is divided into seven major catagories of pathology (Neurofibromatosis, Primary Orbital Neoplasms, Secondary and Metastic Tumors of the Orbit, Vascular Disorders, Inflammatory Disease, Occular Lesions, and Trauma) after separate discussions of anatomy and technique.

  8. Orbital Eccrine Hidrocystoma

    PubMed Central

    Marangoz, Deniz; Doğan Ekici, Işın; Çiftçi, Ferda

    2016-01-01

    A 29-year-old female patient presented with a painless mass on her upper eyelid medially. She noticed the mass 4 years earlier and it had increased in size over time. She had no diplopia, eyelid swelling, skin lesion overlying the mass, or visual disturbances. On ocular examination, eye movements and funduscopy were normal. The mass was movable and painless with palpation. Magnetic resonance imaging with contrast showed a 12x8x7 mm well-circumscribed cystic lesion with no contrast dye appearance. Surgical removal was performed delicately and no capsular rupture occured. Pathological examination revealed an eccrine hidrocystoma. Our aim is to underline that eccrine hidrocystoma should be included in differential diagnosis of orbital masses. PMID:28058171

  9. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy. Is the lymph node enlargement always massive?

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Ritesh; Setia, Namrata; Jain, Shyama

    2007-05-01

    Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) is a benign proliferating histiocytic disorder, predominantly of lymph nodes with extra-nodal involvement in some cases. It is a self-limiting disease and has a good prognosis; however some patients need steroid therapy. Therein lays a need to differentiate it from other lympho proliferative disorders of poorer prognosis. Clinically, it is suspected only when there is a significant lymph node enlargement in younger age group as the term signifies. Recently, we came across a case where a middle-aged female presented with a subtle swelling in submental region, clinically suspected of reactive or tubercular etiology. However on fine needle aspiration cytology, the smears showed many histiocytes, some of them showing lymphocytes and plasma cells in their cytoplasm, a morphological feature called as "emperipolesis" classically seen in SHML. The present case is reported because of unusual clinical presentation and possibly the need for a revision of existing terminology.

  10. Physiologic Determinants of Exercise Capacity in Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis: A Multidimensional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Stephanie; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Langlois, Carole; Bricout, Nicolas; Aguilaniu, Bernard; Bellocq, Agnes; Le Rouzic, Olivier; Dominique, Stephane; Delobbe, Alain; François, Geraldine; Tazi, Abdellatif; Wallaert, Benoit; Chenivesse, Cecile

    2017-01-01

    Background Reduced exercise capacity severely impacts quality of life in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Ascertaining mechanisms that impair exercise capacity is necessary to identify targets for symptomatic treatments. Methods Dyspnea, pulmonary function tests and cardiopulmonary exercise test were analysed in 62 study participants. Data were compared between subjects with impaired and normal aerobic capacity (V’O2 peak less than 84% versus 84% predicted or more). Data were reduced using a principal component analysis. Multivariate analysis included V’O2 peak as the dependent variable and principal components as covariates. Results V’O2 peak was reduced in 44 subjects (71%). Subjects with impaired aerobic capacity presented: (i) decreased FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, DLCO and DLCO/VA and increased AaDO2, (ii) increased ventilatory equivalents at ventilatory threshold, VD/VT peak, AaDO2 peak and PaCO2 peak and decreased ventilatory reserve and PaO2 peak. There was no difference between groups in dyspnea scores. Principal component analysis extracted 4 principal components interpreted as follows: PC1: gas exchange; PC2: “pseudorestriction”; PC3: exercise-induced hyperpnea; PC4: air trapping. Multivariate analysis explained 65% of V’O2 peak. The 4 principal components were independently associated with V’O2 peak (βcoefficients: PC1: 9.3 [4.6; 14], PC2: 7.5 [3; 11.9], PC3: -5.3 [-9.6;-1.], PC4: -9.8 [-14,9;-4.7]). Conclusion Impaired exercise capacity is frequent in pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is mainly caused by pulmonary changes but is not associated with increased dyspnea intensity. Therefore, treating the lung represents a relevant approach for improving exercise capacity, even in patients experiencing mild dyspnea. PMID:28072848

  11. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy Rosai-Dorfman disease: a unique case presentation.

    PubMed

    Kaltman, Jordan M; Best, Steven P; McClure, Shawn A

    2011-12-01

    Rosai and Dorfman first described sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) in 1969 with an article detailing 4 cases in which they differentiated this disease entity from the grouping of diseases categorized as histiocytosis X, where it was previously classified. Also known as Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), it is clinically characterized as massive, painless, bilateral, symmetric cervical lymphadenopathy, with fever and leukocytosis. An 11-year-old African American boy was referred to our clinic for extraction of a severely decayed tooth #30 and evaluation of a large right-sided neck mass. Initially, the patient had been seen by his general dentist who had diagnosed the mass as an odontogenic abscess. After 2 courses of different antibiotics, no changes in the mass were noted. Subsequently, the patient was sent to the emergency department where CT revealed multiple right-sided neck masses with the largest measuring 4 × 2 cm. The patient underwent an incisional biopsy by otolaryngology and a diagnosis of necrotic lymph tissue was made. Upon our examination, the carious tooth #30 was felt to be an incidental finding and fine-needle aspiration cytology of the largest mass was performed in 2 places. This also provided a diagnosis of necrotic lymph tissue. In concert with the patient and his mother, the decision was made to excise the mass because of psychosocial concerns. A massive right-sided lymph node attached to the submandibular gland was found and excised without complication. Histologic examination with S-100 stain confirmed a diagnosis of RDD. The patient healed well following surgery and has experienced no further lymphadenopathy. This case presentation and review of the literature is unique, as the patient presented with unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy only. Open biopsy and 2 fine-needle aspirations all returned as necrotic lymph tissue. Obtaining the correct diagnosis was additionally hampered by coincidental dental pathology on the

  12. Diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis on fine needle aspiration cytology: a case report and review of the cytology literature.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeta; Sayed, Shahin; Vinayak, Sudhir

    2011-01-20

    A case of multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a two-year-old child is presented where fine needle aspiration was helpful in achieving a rapid and accurate diagnosis in an appropriate clinical and radiological setting. This can avoid unnecessary biopsy and guide the management especially where access to histopathology is limited. The highly characteristic common and rare cytological features are highlighted with focus on differential diagnoses and causes of pitfalls.

  13. Orbiter's Skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The structure of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft is constructed from composite panels of carbon layers over aluminum honeycomb, lightweight yet strong. This forms a basic structure or skeleton on which the instruments, electronics, propulsion and power systems can be mounted. The propellant tank is contained in the center of the orbiter's structure. This photo was taken at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, during construction of the spacecraft.

  14. A multicentre retrospective survey of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis: 348 cases observed between 1983 and 1993. The French Langerhans' Cell Histiocytosis Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    In a retrospective study involving 32 haematology/oncology departments in France, 348 cases of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis diagnosed between 1983 and 1993 were collated. The percentage of males was 56.4%. Median age at diagnosis was 30.2 months. The median follow up was 35.5 months. Initially, 108 patients (31%) had isolated unifocal or bifocal bone involvement, 67 (19%) had isolated multifocal bone involvement, 136 (39%) had soft tissue involvement without organ dysfunction, and 37 (11%) had organ dysfunction. Two thirds of the sites of involvement diagnosed throughout the course of the disease were present at diagnosis, while the remaining one third appeared during a relapse. Treatment was tailored to the individual patient and was extremely varied, hampering any comparison of regimens. Vinblastine with or without steroids was the most common regimen when systemic chemotherapy was used for the first episode (246/348). Twenty four of the 216 patients received VP 16 as first line treatment. Two patients with progressive multiorgan relapse, despite the use of several drugs, underwent bone marrow transplantation and are alive and disease free 60 and 22 months later. Altogether 21.9% of patients had sequelae, including diabetes insipidus in 17.5% of cases. The overall survival rate is 91.7% (confidence interval 90.7 to 95%) three years after diagnosis. In the univariate analysis, age less than 1 year, ear, nose, and throat, cutaneous, lymph node, liver, spleen, lung, marrow and intestinal involvement, male sex, progressive episodes, the absence of response, and partial responses, were associated with a poor vital prognosis. In a multivariate analysis of prognostic factors, poor early outcome emerged as the most important parameter, closely linked to other poor outcome features such as young age and organ dysfunction. It identified a small number of patients with a poor initial response to treatment, for whom intensive treatment should be assessed in a phase II

  15. Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J. (Compiler); Su, S. Y. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Earth orbital debris issues and recommended future activities are discussed. The workshop addressed the areas of environment definition, hazards to spacecraft, and space object management. It concluded that orbital debris is a potential problem for future space operations. However, before recommending any major efforts to control the environment, more data are required. The most significant required data are on the population of debris smaller than 4 cm in diameter. New damage criteria are also required. When these data are obtained, they can be combined with hypervelocity data to evaluate the hazards to future spacecraft. After these hazards are understood, then techniques to control the environment can be evaluated.

  16. Nuclear orbiting

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear orbiting following collisions between sd and p shell nuclei is discussed. The dependence of this process on the real and imaginary parts of the nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed, as well as the evolution of the dinucleus toward a fully equilibrated fused system. 26 refs., 15 figs.

  17. Microsurgical Anatomy of the Orbit: The Rule of Seven

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Carolina; Costa e Silva, Isabel Eugênia; Campero, Alvaro; Yasuda, Alexandre; Aguiar, Luiz Roberto; Tatagiba, Marcos; Rhoton, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The orbits are paired structures, located on the anterior part of the face. Morphologically, each orbit is a four sided pyramid with a posterior apex and anterior base. In the orbit, all openings are arranged around the base, apex or between the orbital walls. An anatomical characteristic of the orbit is that structures are arranged in groups of seven: there are seven bones, seven intraorbital muscles and seven nerves in the orbit. Tumors confined within the periorbita in the anterior two thirds of the orbit can often be approached extracranially, but those located in the apical area, and especially those on the medial side of the optic nerve, often require a transcranial approach. Thus, knowledge of orbital osteology is paramount in adequately choosing and performing an orbital approach. Understanding the critical topographical elements in this area helps to classify an orbital lesion and provides for a solid basis in choosing the most adequate intraorbital route for its treatment. PMID:22567293

  18. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  19. Severe sclerosing cholangitis after Langerhans cell histiocytosis treated by liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yunhua; Zhang, Zhiheng; Chen, Maogen; Ju, Weiqiang; Wang, Dongping; Ji, Fei; Ren, Qingqi; Guo, Zhiyong; He, Xiaoshun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare hematopoietic disorder of unknown pathogenesis. LCH diseases may occur in a single organ or multisystem organ. The patients with multisystem involvement usually have a poor prognosis. Liver involvement in multisystem LCH results in severe complications, such as obvious sclerosing cholangitis (SC) with jaundice. Methods: We reported a 31-year-old man developed severe SC due to multisystem LCH and was successfully treated by liver transplantation (LT). In addition, we firstly used tacrolimus and mycofenolate mofetil as immunosuppressants to treat LCH after LT. Results: We performed the immunosuppressants to deal with the LCH after LT, now the patient is currently well with normal liver function and no evidence of recurrence of LCH for 4 and a half years follow-up. Conclusion: LT should be recommended as an effective treatment for these adults with severe SC due to multisystem LCH. Finally, using tacrolimus and mycofenolate mofetil as immunosuppressants to treat LCH might be favorable to prevent LCH recurrence. PMID:28248858

  20. Molecular analysis of BRAF V600E mutation in multiple nodules of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Dimmler, Arno; Geddert, Helene; Werner, Martin; Faller, Gerhard

    2017-02-20

    Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare, smoking-related histiocytic disorder with variable clinical symptoms. Like in other non-pulmonary Langerhans cell proliferations, PLCH has recently been shown to harbour BRAF V600E mutations in a significant subset of cases, thus challenging the concept of PLCH being a reactive disorder. Here, we analysed 38 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded PLCH nodules of nine patients for BRAF mutation using two different molecular methods. Using pyrosequencing and allele-specific quantitative PCR (AS-PCR), BRAF V600E mutations were found in 16/38 (42%) and 31/37 (84%) nodules, respectively. Analysing different nodules of the same patients with pyrosequencing 3/6 patients showed a concordant BRAF mutation status. When allele-specific quantitative PCR was used, condordant results were found in 5/6 patients. Our findings clearly indicate that (a) the sensitivity of the method used is crucial in analysing BRAF mutation status, (b) AS-PCR is more sensitive in detecting BRAF V600E mutations than pyrosequencing,

  1. Hypopituitarism and goitre as endocrine manifestation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). Case Report.

    PubMed

    Skowronska-Jozwiak, Elzbieta; Sporny, Stanislaw; Szymanska-Duda, Joanna; Baranska, Dobromila; Lewinski, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in adults is a rare disorder of unknown etiology characterized by monoclonal proliferation of Langerhans cells. It belongs to dendritic cell disorders and occurs in 1-2 adults per million. The most common endocrine manifestation of classical LCH is associated with the posterior pituitary, with clinical symptoms of diabetes insipidus. Less than 80 reported cases of LCH involving the thyroid gland have been published so far. We present the case of a 39 years old woman with 10 years history of diabetes insipidus and secondary amenorrhoea, which appeared after second delivery. She was suspected for lymphocytic inflammation of pituitary and she was administered steroid treatment. She was also treated symptomatically with desmopressin, L-thyroxine, estrogen and progestagen replacement therapy due to diabetes insipidus, secondary hypothyroidism and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. In September 2014, she noticed a painless, firm tumour of the neck. Ultrasound (US) examination demonstrated bilateral, solid, hypoechogenic thyroid nodules. The result of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was not diagnostic. Due to rapid progression and US image of the tumour, she was referred for surgery. In postoperative histopathology tumour cells were positive for CD1a and S-100 protein, therefore diagnosis of LCH was established. Postoperatively, the results of thoracic computed tomography scan, abdominal US and bone scintigraphy revealed no evidence of multifocal disease. We have not observed any disease recurrence in the patient after a year of follow-up in postoperative course. This case illustrates diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties in patient with LCH.

  2. A confusing case report of pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Wang; Costable, Ulrich; Jun, Xu; Zhe, Ren; YuPing, Mao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare disease. From the insidious onset and nonspecific manifestations, it is difficult to diagnose PLCH. To help improve the diagnosis and therapy options of adult PLCH, we present this case report and literature review about a confusing case of PLCH. In this report, we present a 37-year-old male PLCH case that was negative for CD1a and S100 expression. Smoking cessation and use of prescribed Spiriva appeared to improve the patient’s symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of PLCH in which improved symptoms were seen with the use of Spiriva alone.The mechanism is not clear, but potentially has some relationship with dilating the airway, decreasing the mucous hypersecretion and promoting anti-inflammatory pathways. From this patient’s case, we may be able to find more cases to then find other first line therapies for PLCH patients. PMID:28352790

  3. Nontraumatic Lesions of the Clavicle in a Paediatric Population: Incidence and Management

    PubMed Central

    Clement, N. D.; Nicol, G.; Porter, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Background. The incidence of paediatric nontraumatic clavicle lesions is unknown and there is limited literature regarding the management of such patients. Methods. A review of a prospectively complied radiological database held at the study was conducted for a defined 10-year period. The study centre is the only paediatric service available for a defined catchment population. The case notes of all patients with nontraumatic lesions were reviewed, and the mode of presentation, the diagnostic dilemmas, and the management were recorded. Results. A total of 2133 clavicle radiographs were performed during the study period, with only five having a nontraumatic history. The overall incidence of paediatric nontraumatic clavicle lesions was 0.38 per 100,000 per year. Three patients were diagnosed with chronic recurrent osteomyelitis, one with chronic bifocal osteomyelitis, and one with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. All patients with osteomyelitis demonstrated a typical natural history of a chronic relapsing remitting infection. Three underwent bone biopsy; however, no organism was identified. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that the incidence of nontraumatic clavicle lesions is small, and those patients presenting with osteomyelitis should not routinely undergo a bone biopsy and close observation with the appropriate antibiotic therapy is advised. PMID:27355009

  4. From idiopathic diabetes insipidus to neurodegenerative Langerhans cell histiocytosis--an unusual presentation and progression of disease.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Rachel M; Nicolin, Gary; Kennedy, Charles; Joy, Harriet; Davies, Justin H

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus (DI) is rare in childhood and has a wide-ranging aetiology including the involvement of uncontrolled proliferation of dendritic cells in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, characteristic of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). DI may manifest as a sequela of multisystem LCH disease involving skin, bone, liver, spleen and lymph nodes. In very rare cases patients diagnosed with LCH exhibit neurodegenerative changes, such as severe ataxia, tremor, dysarthria and intellectual impairment. We report a 2 1/2-year-old boy who presented initially with apparent idiopathic DI, developed anterior pituitary hormone deficiency and progressive neurological deterioration secondary to neurodegenerative LCH.

  5. Primary pancreatic sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease): an unusual extranodal manifestation clinically simulating malignancy.

    PubMed

    Podberezin, Mark; Angeles, Ronald; Guzman, Grace; Peace, David; Gaitonde, Sujata

    2010-02-01

    Abstract Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML), also called Rosai-Dorfman disease, is a rare entity. Its etiology and pathogenesis are still essentially unclear. The histologic hallmark of this disease is proliferation of distinctive histiocytes within lymph node sinuses and in extranodal sites. Approximately 23% of patients with SHML, documented in the SHML Registry, presented with disease primarily in extranodal sites, and very few cases of SHML (<1%) involving the gastrointestinal system have been described in the literature. We report an unusual case of primary pancreatic SHML with infiltration of the process into peripancreatic, perinephric, and perisplenic adipose tissue, simulating malignancy.

  6. Chronic subperiosteal hematic cyst formation twelve years after orbital fracture repair with alloplastic orbital floor implant.

    PubMed

    Glavas, Ioannis; Lissauer, Boaz; Hornblass, Albert

    2005-03-01

    An 89-year-old female patient with a history of a left orbital floor fracture repair with synthetic implant 12 years prior, presented with a three-week history of blurry vision, inferior conjunctival chemosis and proptosis of the left eye. CT scan revealed a well-circumscribed subperiosteal lesion with superior elevation of the orbital floor implant. The patient underwent transconjunctival orbital surgery with removal of the implant and drainage of the subperiosteal hemorrhagic cyst. The patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course, with resolution of the proptosis, chemosis, and return of normal vision. This case represents an unusual late complication of orbital fracture repair with associated reduced visual acuity.

  7. Orbit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-01-01

    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators.

  8. Example based lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung

    2014-03-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.

  9. Surgical approach to the superior mid-orbit.

    PubMed

    Krohn-Hansen, Dag; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Meling, Torstein R; Haaskjold, Erling

    2013-09-01

    Access to the superior mid-orbit is required for procedures on the levator muscle in the correction of upper eyelid ptosis and in surgery aimed at local lesions in this region. The purpose with this human cadaver study was to clarify the anatomical substrate for a surgical approach to the levator muscle and the upper mid-orbit structures, in which the orbital septum and the retroseptal fat pad is not harmed during surgery. Macro-anatomical dissections and histological examinations were performed on five human orbits from three formalin embalmed cadaver heads. It was found that the orbital septum extends posteriorly from its junction with the levator aponeurosis. This posterior continuation of the orbital septum encloses the superior orbital fat pad and separates this from the anterior surface of the levator muscle. In between the orbital septum and the levator, there is a dissection space that provides a minimal invasive access corridor to the structures in the upper mid-orbit.

  10. [Rosai-Dorfman's disease (sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy): a report of a case and bibliographic review].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Enrique Quezada; Garibay, Gabriela Escobar; Vázquez, Maria Isabel Castrejón; de la Mora, Maria Teresa Gorraez; Bayardo, Ricardo Guido; Camaño, María Eugenia Vargas

    2008-01-01

    Rosai-Dorfman's illness, also denominated sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy is considered benign entity of unknown etiology; although it is believed it may be due to alterations of immune system. It was described in 1969 by Rosai and Dorfman and there are nearly 500 cases worldwide reported. The most frequent clinical manifestation is massive lymph node enlargement, mainly cervical, but almost in the fifth percent of cases any lymph node may be affected. Diagnosis is pathological, without treatment of choice, evolution is often spontaneous resolution. In extraganglionar compromise, illness may be progressive and fatal. A45 year-old woman with cervical and nasal lymphadenopathy and fever is presented. Biopsy report: histiocytosis with emperipolesis phenomenon and immunohistochemical markers S-100, CD48, and CD45, positives. Encountering total T lymphopenia, mainly CD4+ diminished relationship CD4/CD8 and polyclonal gammopathy. Relevant in this case, clinical presentation multiple lymph nodes, distinct of other reported in our country whose presentation was mainly cutaneous plus association among Rosai-Dorfman with immunological changes and good clinical response to immunomodulator treatment, not previously seen, as in this patient.

  11. Insights into the pathogenesis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: the development of targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Hutter, Caroline; Minkov, Milen

    2016-01-01

    More than a century after its first description, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) still remains an intriguing disease. Considerable progress in understanding its biology has been achieved recently. Description of the V600E BRAF mutation in samples of LCH tissue in 2010 was followed by description of additional mutations, all leading to constitutive ERK activation. Current experimental data suggest that LCH is a myeloid neoplasia with inflammatory properties, yet the exact pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Disease management paradigms have changed over time, closely reflecting the evolving view of the nature of the disease. The international Histiocyte Society have conducted three prospective clinical studies on multisystem LCH since the early 1990s. The standard frontline therapy for patients with multisystem LCH based on the cumulative knowledge of those trials consists of 6–12 weeks of initial therapy (daily oral steroids and weekly vinblastine injections), followed by pulses of prednisolone/vinblastine every 3 weeks, for a total treatment duration of 12 months. A currently ongoing study (LCH-IV) with a complex design (five interventional and two observational strata) targets further reduction of mortality and morbidity by tailoring treatment intensity depending on expected risk, as well as by exploring treatment regimens for special locations. Current knowledge on LCH pathobiology opens opportunities for improvement in the patient outcome. The activating BRAF and MAP2K1 mutations collectively accounting for about 75% of the LCH population as well as the resulting constitutive activation of downstream ERK offer an opportunity for targeted treatment. Related issues (eg, finding most effective and less toxic drugs or combinations, appropriate dosage, and optimal treatment duration) must be addressed in controlled prospective trials. Additional mechanisms, such as the interactions of the mutated dendritic cell clone with other inflammatory cells and

  12. Orbital Winch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Robert (Inventor); Slostad, Jeffrey T. (Inventor); Frank, Scott (Inventor); Barnes, Ian M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Orbital winch having: lower and upper frames; spool having upper and lower flanges with lower flange attached to lower frame; axial tether guide mounted to upper frame; secondary slewing ring coaxial with spool and rotatably mounted to upper frame, wherein secondary slewing ring's outer surface has gearing; upper tether guide mounted to inner surface of secondary slewing ring; linear translation means having upper end mounted to upper frame and lower end mounted on lower frame; primary slewing ring rotatably mounted within linear translation means allowing translation axially between flanges, wherein primary slewing ring's outer surface has gearing; lower tether guide mounted on primary slewing ring's inner surface; pinion rod having upper end mounted to upper frame and lower end mounted to lower frame, wherein pinion rod's teeth engage primary and secondary slewing rings' outer surface teeth; and tether passing through axial, upper, and lower tether guides and winding around spool.

  13. Rare Form of Erdheim-Chester Disease Presenting with Isolated Central Skeletal Lesions Treated with a Combination of Alfa-Interferon and Zoledronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bulycheva, E. N.; Baykov, V. V.; Zaraĭskiĭ, M. I.; Salogub, G. N.

    2015-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) represents a clonal non-Langerhans histiocytosis, which manifests under an extensive variety of clinical symptoms. This creates a challenge for the physician, who is required to recognize and diagnose the disease in the early stages. Despite this considerable challenge, in the last decade there has been a dramatic increase in ECD diagnoses, in most part due to an increasing awareness of this rare disorder. Involvement of the axial skeleton is exclusively uncommon with no official recommendations for the treatment of the bone lesions. Here, we present a case report of a young male patient with isolated lesions of the spine, ribs, and pelvis, who was successfully treated with a combination therapy of alfa-interferon and zoledronic acid. PMID:25949835

  14. Aetiology of abfraction lesions.

    PubMed

    Lyons, K

    2001-09-01

    The aetiology of abfraction lesions is complex. Most evidence indicates that physical loading forces are a major contributing factor, although they are unlikely to be entirely responsible. Intraoral chemical influences and toothbrush abrasion, combined with the dynamics of inter-occlusal activity such as chewing, swallowing, and parafunction, lead to stress corrosion and may contribute to abfraction lesions. The multifactorial aetiology that operates in the initiation and progression of these lesions has made investigation difficult. Various theories have been proposed and numerous surveys and studies conducted, but the primary causal factor has yet to be definitively determined. This review concludes that occlusal loading is the initiating factor in the development of abfraction lesions.

  15. [Orbital leiomyoma. Case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, Emilio; Robla Costales, Javier; Fernández Fernández, Javier; Viñuela Lobo, Jesús; Santamarta, David; Lomas García, Jesús; Iglesias, Elena; Ribas Ariño, Teresa; García-Cosamalón, José

    2014-01-01

    Leiomyoma are slowly growing lesions arising from smooth muscle. Orbital location has been reported in 25 cases. Histological findings and no recurrence after total resection support their benign behaviour. We report an intraconal orbital haemangioleiomyoma in a 55-year-old female treated by total resection through fronto-orbital craniotomy, with no recurrence after 15 months of follow-up. Radiological and pathological features are discussed, emphasising the prognostic role of the surgery.

  16. The pituitary gland in patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a clinical and radiological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kurtulmus, Neslihan; Mert, Meral; Tanakol, Refik; Yarman, Sema

    2015-04-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease in which the most common endocrine manifestation is diabetes insipidus (DI). Data on anterior pituitary function in patients with LCH are limited. Thus, the present study investigated anterior pituitary function in LCH patients with DI via the evaluation of clinical and radiological findings at disease onset and during follow-up. The present study retrospectively evaluated nine patients with LCH (five males and four females). All diagnoses of LCH were made following histological and/or immunophenotypic analyses of tissue biopsies, bronchoalveolar lavage, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Basal and, if necessary, dynamic pituitary function tests were used to assess anterior pituitary function, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were used to image the pituitary. The LCH treatment modality was based on organ involvement. The mean age at onset of DI was 27.6 years (range 15-60 years). One patient (11%) exhibited single organ involvement, while eight patients (89%) displayed multisystem organ involvement. On admittance, one patient had hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, one patient exhibited panhypopituitarism [hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, central hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, and growth hormone (GH) deficiency], and four patients (44%) displayed hyperprolactinemia. The MRI data revealed infundibular enlargement in seven patients (78%), a thalamic mass in one patient (11%), and the absence of the bright spot in all patients. A single patient (11%) showed a mass in the pons that had a partially empty sella. The patients were treated with radiation therapy (RT), chemotherapy (CT), or a combination of both (RT+CT) and were followed up for a median of 91.8 months (range 2-318 months). Seven patients were assessed during the follow-up period, of whom four patients (57.1%) developed anterior pituitary hormone deficiency, three (43%) were diagnosed with GH deficiency, and one (14%) exhibited gonadotropin deficiency

  17. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  18. Multifocal vascular lesions.

    PubMed

    Levin, Laura E; Lauren, Christine T

    2016-09-01

    Multifocal vascular lesions are important to recognize and appropriately diagnose. Generally first noticed on the skin, multifocal vascular lesions may have systemic involvement. Distinguishing among the different types of multifocal vascular lesions is often based on clinical features; however, radiological imaging and/or biopsy are frequently needed to identify distinct features and guide treatment. Knowledge of the systemic associations that can occur with different vascular anomalies may reduce life-threatening complications, such as coagulopathy, bleeding, cardiac compromise, and neurologic sequelae. This review provides a synopsis of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, workup, and treatment of several well-recognized multifocal vascular tumors and malformations.

  19. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  20. Incidental vertebral lesions.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Jean-Valery C E; Walcott, Brian P

    2011-12-01

    Incidental vertebral lesions on imaging of the spine are commonly encountered in clinical practice. Contributing factors include the aging population, the increasing prevalence of back pain, and increased usage of MR imaging. Additionally, refinements in CT and MR imaging have increased the number of demonstrable lesions. The management of incidental findings varies among practitioners and commonly depends more on practice style than on data or guidelines. In this article we review incidental findings within the vertebral column and review management of these lesions, based on available Class III data.

  1. Orbital dystopia due to orbital roof defect.

    PubMed

    Rha, Eun Young; Joo, Hong Sil; Byeon, Jun Hee

    2013-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review of patients who presented with delayed dystopia as a consequence of an orbital roof defect due to fractures and nontraumatic causes to search for a correlation between orbital roof defect size and surgical indications for the treatment thereof. Retrospective analyses were performed in 7 patients, all of whom presented with delayed dystopia due to orbital roof defects, between January 2001 and June 2011. The causes of orbital roof defects were displaced orbital roof fractures (5 cases), tumor (1 case), and congenital sphenoid dysplasia (1 case). All 7 patients had initially been treated conservatively and later presented with significant dystopia. The sizes of the defects were calculated on computed tomographic scans. Among the 7 patients, aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid, which caused ocular symptoms, in 1 patient with minimal displaced orbital roof and reconstruction with calvarial bone, titanium micromesh, or Medpor in 6 other patients were performed. The minimal size of the orbital roof in patients who underwent orbital roof reconstruction was 1.2 cm (defect height) x 1.0 cm (defect length), 0.94 cm(2). For all patients with orbital dystopia, displacement of the globe was corrected without any complications, regardless of whether the patient was evaluated grossly or by radiology. In this retrospective study, continuous monitoring of clinical signs and active surgical management should be considered for cases in which an orbital roof defect is detected, even if no definite symptoms are noted, to prevent delayed sequelae.

  2. Sclerosing idiopathic orbital inflammation.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Paul A; Kersten, Robert C; Kulwin, Dwight R

    2006-01-01

    A 5-year-old girl referred for orbital cellulitis was found to have a right orbital mass. Computed tomography revealed a mass occupying the inferotemporal orbit, extending into the maxillary sinus. Biopsy yielded a diagnosis of sclerosing idiopathic orbital inflammation. She was successfully treated with prednisone.

  3. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  4. Skin lesion removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... removal; Basal cell cancer - removal; Actinic keratosis - removal; Wart - removal; Squamous cell - removal; Mole - removal; Nevus - removal; ... can remove: Benign or pre-malignant skin lesions Warts Moles Sunspots Hair Small blood vessels in the ...

  5. Orbital fractures: a review

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jeffrey M; Glavas, Ioannis P

    2011-01-01

    This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1) to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2) to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3) to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training. PMID:21339801

  6. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slojkowski, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Results from operational OD produced by the NASA Goddard Flight Dynamics Facility for the LRO nominal and extended mission are presented. During the LRO nominal mission, when LRO flew in a low circular orbit, orbit determination requirements were met nearly 100% of the time. When the extended mission began, LRO returned to a more elliptical frozen orbit where gravity and other modeling errors caused numerous violations of mission accuracy requirements. Prediction accuracy is particularly challenged during periods when LRO is in full-Sun. A series of improvements to LRO orbit determination are presented, including implementation of new lunar gravity models, improved spacecraft solar radiation pressure modeling using a dynamic multi-plate area model, a shorter orbit determination arc length, and a constrained plane method for estimation. The analysis presented in this paper shows that updated lunar gravity models improved accuracy in the frozen orbit, and a multiplate dynamic area model improves prediction accuracy during full-Sun orbit periods. Implementation of a 36-hour tracking data arc and plane constraints during edge-on orbit geometry also provide benefits. A comparison of the operational solutions to precision orbit determination solutions shows agreement on a 100- to 250-meter level in definitive accuracy.

  7. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  8. Manned Venus Orbiting Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Manned orbiting stopover round trips to Venus are studied for departure dates between 1975 and 1986 over a range of trip times and stay times. The use of highly elliptic parking orbits at Venus leads to low initial weights in Earth orbit compared with circular orbits. For the elliptic parking orbit, the effect of constraints on the low altitude observation time on the initial weight is shown. The mission can be accomplished with the Apollo level of chemical propulsion, but advanced chemical or nuclear propulsion can give large weight reductions. The Venus orbiting mission weights than the corresponding Mars mission.

  9. Intraventricular mass lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.; Sobel, D.F.; Kelley, W.M.; Norman, D.

    1984-11-01

    Determining the precise etiology of an intraventricular mass can be a difficult diagnostic problem. CT and angiographic findings were reviewed in a series of 73 patients who had intraventricular masses. The histologic diagnosis can be suggested preoperatively by an analysis of the frequency of lesions occurring at a given ventricular location, lesion density before and after administration of contrast material, age, and sex of the patient, morphologic appearance of the mass, and presence or absence of hydrocephalus. Angiography is useful when meningioma, choroid plexus papilloma and carcinoma, or arteriovenous malformation are considered.

  10. Lunar orbiting prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    One of the prime reasons for establishing a manned lunar presence is the possibility of using the potential lunar resources. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is a lunar orbiting platform whose mission is to prospect and explore the Moon from orbit in support of early lunar colonization and exploitation efforts. The LOP mission is divided into three primary phases: transport from Earth to low lunar orbit (LLO), operation in lunar orbit, and platform servicing in lunar orbit. The platform alters its orbit to obtain the desired surface viewing, and the orbit can be changed periodically as needed. After completion of the inital remote sensing mission, more ambitious and/or complicated prospecting and exploration missions can be contemplated. A refueled propulsion module, updated instruments, or additional remote sensing packages can be flown up from the lunar base to the platform.

  11. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  12. Five Equivalent d Orbitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance

    1970-01-01

    Amplifies and clarifies a previous paper on pyramidal d orbitals. Discusses two sets of pyramid d orbitals with respect to their maximum bond strength and their symmetry. Authors described the oblate and prolate pentagonal antiprisms arising from the two sets of five equivalent d orbitals. (RR)

  13. Intensified and prolonged therapy comprising cytarabine, vincristine and prednisolone improves outcome in patients with multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis: results of the Japan Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Study Group-02 Protocol Study.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Akira; Shioda, Yoko; Imamura, Toshihiko; Kudo, Kazuko; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Sakashita, Kazuo; Yasui, Masahiro; Koga, Yuhki; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Ishii, Eiichi; Fujimoto, Junichiro; Horibe, Keizo; Bessho, Fumio; Tsunematsu, Yukiko; Imashuku, Shinsaku

    2016-07-01

    The JLSG-96 study reported very low mortality rates for children newly diagnosed with multifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). The JLSG-02 study was performed to further improve the prognosis from 2002 to 2009. The present study compared the therapeutic results of these two studies in terms of multisystem disease. All patients were treated with 6 weeks of the Induction A regimen, comprising cytarabine, vincristine and prednisolone, followed by maintenance therapy. Poor responders to Induction A were switched to Induction B. JLSG-02 has been revised from JLSG-96 in the following respects: prednisolone dosage during Induction A increased; duration of maintenance therapy extended from 24 to 48 weeks; cyclosporine introduced to Induction B for progressive disease. One hundred forty-seven children with multisystem LCH were evaluated. Of these, 84 were positive for risk of organ involvement (RO) and 63 were RO-negative. At the 6-week point, 76.2 % of RO+ and 93.7 % of RO- patients responded to Induction A. Five-year event-free survival (EFS) was 46.2 % [95 % confidence (CI), 35.5-56.9] for RO+ and 69.7 % (58.4-81.1) for RO-, which was significantly superior to that in JLSG-96 [26.8 % (13.3-40.4) and 38.9 % (16.4-61.4), respectively]. The intensified induction and prolonged maintenance regimens in JLSG-02 improved EFS in patients with multisystem LCH.

  14. Orbit Software Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osgood, Cathy; Williams, Kevin; Gentry, Philip; Brownfield, Dana; Hallstrom, John; Stuit, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Orbit Software Suite is used to support a variety of NASA/DM (Dependable Multiprocessor) mission planning and analysis activities on the IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) platform. The suite of Orbit software tools (Orbit Design and Orbit Dynamics) resides on IPS/Linux workstations, and is used to perform mission design and analysis tasks corresponding to trajectory/ launch window, rendezvous, and proximity operations flight segments. A list of tools in Orbit Software Suite represents tool versions established during/after the Equipment Rehost-3 Project.

  15. Painless orbital myositis.

    PubMed

    Chakor, Rahul T; Santhosh, N S

    2012-07-01

    Idiopathic orbital inflammation is the third most common orbital disease, following Graves orbitopathy and lymphoproliferative diseases. We present a 11 year old girl with 15 days history of painless diplopia. There was no history of fluctuation of symptoms, drooping of eye lids or diminished vision. She had near total restricted extra-ocular movements and mild proptosis of the right eye. There was no conjunctival injection, chemosis, or bulb pain. There was no eyelid retraction or lid lag. Rest of the neurological examination was unremarkable.Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was raised with eosinophilia. Antinuclear antibodies were positive. Liver, renal and thyroid functions were normal. Antithyroid, double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid and acetylcholine receptor antibodies were negative. Repetitive nerve stimulation was negative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the orbit was typical of orbital myositis. The patient responded to oral steroids. Orbital myositis can present as painless diplopia. MRI of orbit is diagnostic in orbital myositis.

  16. Solar Sail Optimal Orbit Transfers to Synchronous Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Robert B.; Coverstone, Victoria; Prussing, John E.; Lunney, Bryan C. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    A constant outward radial thrust acceleration can be used to reduce the radius of a circular orbit of specified period. Heliocentric circular orbits are designed to match the orbital period of Earth or Mars for various radial thrust accelerations and are defined as synchronous orbits. Minimum-time solar sail orbit transfers to these synchronous heliocentric orbits are presented.

  17. Chronic cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Marchell, Richard M; Judson, Marc A

    2007-01-01

    Sarcoidosis involvement of the skin is common. The skin lesions of sarcoidosis may be nonspecific, showing a nondiagnostic inflammatory reaction pattern on histologic evaluation. Nonspecific skin lesions are often associated with an acute presentation of sarcoidosis and, in general, portend a good prognosis. Specific sarcoidosis skin lesions reveal typical sarcoid granulomas on histologic examination. These lesions tend to be chronic and require therapy for resolution. This article will review the epidemiology, diagnostic evaluation, and description of the various chronic skin lesions of sarcoidosis. Various images of these skin lesions will be demonstrated.

  18. [Managing focal incidental renal lesions].

    PubMed

    Nicolau, C; Paño, B; Sebastià, C

    2016-01-01

    Incidental renal lesions are relatively common in daily radiological practice. It is important to know the different diagnostic possibilities for incidentally detected lesions, depending on whether they are cystic or solid. The management of cystic lesions is guided by the Bosniak classification. In solid lesions, the goal is to differentiate between renal cancer and benign tumors such as fat-poor angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma. Radiologists need to know the recommendations for the management of these lesions and the usefulness of the different imaging techniques and interventional procedures in function of the characteristics of the incidental lesion and the patient's life expectancy.

  19. Pseudo-Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Presentation of a Crystal-Storing Histiocytosis With an Unmutated Monoclonal κ Light Chain

    PubMed Central

    Aline-Fardin, Aude; Bender, Sebastien; Fabiani, Bettina; Buob, David; Brahimi, Said; Verpont, Marie Christine; Mothy, Mohamad; Ronco, Pierre; Boffa, Jean Jacques; Aucouturier, Pierre; Garderet, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Crystal-storing histiocytosis (CSH) is a rare complication of monoclonal gammopathies caused by accumulation of crystalline material inside macrophages, and it may result in a variety of clinical manifestations depending on the involved organs. Although immunoglobulin κ light chains (LCs) seem to be the most frequent pathogenic component, very few molecular data are currently available. A 69-year-old man presented with a very poor performance status. Remarkable features were mesenteric lymph node enlargement and proteinuria, including a monoclonal κ LC. Light and electron microscopy studies revealed the presence of crystals within macrophages in the lymph nodes, bone marrow, and kidney, leading to the diagnosis of CSH. The pathogenic κ LC variable domain sequence was identical to the germline Vk3-20∗01/Jk2∗01 gene segments, without any somatic mutation, suggesting an extra-follicular B cell proliferation. The patient was successfully treated with 4 cycles of bortezomib and dexamethasone. After a 12-month follow-up, he remains in hematological and renal remission. CSH may present as pseudo-peritoneal carcinomatosis and relate to a monoclonal κ LC encoded by an unmutated gene. Bortezomib-based therapy proved efficacious in this case. PMID:26266355

  20. Secondary Sea-Blue Histiocytosis in a Patient with Transfusion Dependent HbE-Beta Thalassaemia and Osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Saad Eldeen Bakheet, Omayma; Yusof, Nurasyikin; Raja Zahratul, Azma; Ithnin, Azlin; Abdul Aziz, Suria; Alias, Hamidah

    2016-06-01

    Secondary sea-blue histiocytosis occurs more frequently than the primary form and occurs consequent to a wide range of metabolic and haematologic disorders including thalassaemia. We report an 18-year-old Chinese boy with transfusion-dependent HbE-beta thalassaemia who complained of pain and swelling at the left iliac crest region for 2 months duration. Physical examination revealed pallor with hepatosplenomegaly. Local examination revealed a huge swelling 12 cm × 12 cm in diameter, firm in consistency and tender. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed an osteosarcoma. His bone marrow aspirate showed numerous sea-blue histiocytes, the cytoplasm of which was closely packed with fine granules that stained blue with May-Grunwald-Giemsa. The nuclei were centrally located in some cells and displaced towards the periphery in other cells. There was no malignant cell infiltration in the marrow. The case is reported due to the co-incidental dual pathology in our patient (HbE-beta thalassaemia and osteosarcoma) and the unusual bone marrow finding of numerous sea-blue histiocytes.

  1. A case of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis associated with Hodgkin's lymphoma: Fine-needle aspiration cytologic and histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Das, Dilip K; Sheikh, Zafar A; Alansary, Taiba A; Amir, Thasneem; Al-Rabiy, Fatma N; Junaid, Thamradeen A

    2016-02-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) can be associated with a variety of malignant neoplasms, the most common being malignant lymphoma, especially Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). In this report, we describe the fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic features of a case with concurrent LCH and HL in a lymph node. A 20-year-old man presented with an enlarged left upper cervical lymph node. FNA smears from the swelling revealed numerous CD1a+ and S-100+ Langerhans-type cells (LCs) along with many eosinophils, neutrophils, and lymphocytes; there were also large atypical cells with enlarged nuclei having prominent nucleoli. The cytodiagnosis was LCH and the possibility of association with or trans-differentiation into a lymphoma was suggested. The histopathological diagnosis of the excised left cervical lymph node was classical HL-nodular sclerosis type (CHL-NS) with LCH. The lacunar type Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells were positive for CD30 and CD15, and the LCs were positive for CD1a and S-100 protein. PET/CT imaging demonstrated hypermetabolic lymph nodes in neck, abdomen, thorax and pelvis as well as pulmonary nodules and a splenic mass. The patient received 13 courses of chemotherapy and two years later, the enhanced CT revealed regressive course of the disease.

  2. Management of adult patients with Langerhans cell histiocytosis: recommendations from an expert panel on behalf of Euro-Histio-Net

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) is an orphan disease of clonal dendritic cells which may affect any organ of the body. Most of the knowledge about the diagnosis and therapy is based on pedriatic studies. Adult LCH patients are often evaluated by physicians who focus on only the most obviously affected organ without sufficient evaluation of other systems, resulting in patients being underdiagnosed and/or incompletely staged. Furthermore they may be treated with pediatric-based therapies which are less effective and sometimes more toxic for adults. The published literature on adult LCH cases lacks a comprehensive discussion on the differences between pediatric and adult patients and there are no recommendations for evaluation and comparative therapies. In order to fill this void, a number of experts in this field cooperated to develop the first recommendations for management of adult patients with LCH. Key questions were selected according to the clinical relevance focusing on diagnostic work up, therapy, and follow up. Based on the available literature up to December 2012, recommendations were established, drafts were commented by the entire group, and redrafted by the executive editor. The quality of evidence of the recommendations is predominantly attributed to the level of expert opinion. Final agreement was by consensus. PMID:23672541

  3. Pituitary tumours: inflammatory and granulomatous expansive lesions of the pituitary.

    PubMed

    Carpinteri, R; Patelli, I; Casanueva, F F; Giustina, A

    2009-10-01

    Inflammatory and granulomatous diseases of the pituitary are rare causes of sellar masses. Lymphocytic hypophysitis is the most relevant of these disorders, and it is characterised by autoimmune pathogenesis with focal or diffuse inflammatory infiltration and varying degrees of pituitary gland destruction. Endocrine symptoms may include partial or total hypopituitarism, with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency being the earliest and most frequent alteration. Pituitary abscess is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease and, in 30-50% of patients, anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies or central diabetes insipidus (DI) at onset may be observed: the earliest manifestation being growth hormone deficiency (GHD), followed by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)/luteinising hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and ACTH deficiencies. Fungal infections of the pituitary are also very rare and include aspergillosis and coccidioidomycosis. Concerning pituitary involvement in systemic diseases, in sarcoidosis endocrine complications are rare, but the hypothalamus and pituitary are the glands most commonly affected. DI is reported in approximately 25-33 % of all neurosarcoidosis cases and is the most frequently observed endocrine disorder. Hyperprolactinaemia and anterior pituitary deficiencies may also occur. Rarely, partial or global anterior pituitary dysfunction may be present also in Wegener's granulomatosis, either at onset or in the course of the disease, resulting in deficiency of one or more of the pituitary axes. Other forms of granulomatous pituitary lesions include idiopathic giant cell granulomatous hypophysitis, Takayasu's disease, Cogan's syndrome and Crohn's disease. The hypotalamic-pituitary system is involved mainly in children with Langerhans' cells histiocytosis who develop DI, which is the most common endocrine manifestation. Anterior pituitary dysfunction is found more rarely and is almost invariably associated with DI

  4. Tumefactive Fibroinflammatory Lesion: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Promil; Sen, Rajeev; Sharma, Nisha; Bhargava, Shilpi; Singh, Virender

    2017-01-01

    Tumefactive fibroinflammatory lesions (TFLs) are rare idiopathic benign fibrosclerosing lesions that clinically simulate a malignancy. TFLs are seen more frequently in males between 10 and 74 years of age. The usual site of involvement is the head and neck region, but rarely the extremities may be involved. Coexisting fibrosclerotic processes have been reported including retroperitoneal fibrosis, sclerosing cholangitis, sclerosing mediastinal fibrosis, and orbital pseudotumors. The etiology of this poorly understood entity remains unknown. Possible suggestions include exaggerated responses or autoimmune reactions to any chronic infection. The clinical and radiological appearance of TFLs is that of malignancy, but histopathology reveals them to be a benign process broadly classified under non-neoplastic, fibroinflammatory proliferations. The treatment strategies for these lesions are not well defined and variable and include steroids, surgery, and radiotherapy either alone or in combination. TFLs, albeit not fatal, have a high recurrence rate; patients should, therefore, be kept on long-term follow-up. We describe a young female patient presenting with a rapidly developing cheek swelling, which was diagnosed histopathologically as a TFLs. PMID:28360448

  5. Gram stain of skin lesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Skin lesion gram stain Images Viral lesion culture References Hall GS, Woods GL. Medical bacteriology. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  6. Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Torrence, M. H.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zuber, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results on precision orbit determination from the radio science investigation of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. We describe the data, modeling and methods used to achieve position knowledge several times better than the required 50-100m (in total position), over the period from 13 July 2009 to 31 January 2011. In addition to the near-continuous radiometric tracking data, we include altimetric data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) in the form of crossover measurements, and show that they strongly improve the accuracy of the orbit reconstruction (total position overlap differences decrease from approx.70m to approx.23 m). To refine the spacecraft trajectory further, we develop a lunar gravity field by combining the newly acquired LRO data with the historical data. The reprocessing of the spacecraft trajectory with that model shows significantly increased accuracy (approx.20m with only the radiometric data, and approx.14m with the addition of the altimetric crossovers). LOLA topographic maps and calibration data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera were used to supplement the results of the overlap analysis and demonstrate the trajectory accuracy.

  7. A new case of cervical intramedullary sinus histiocytosis causing paraplegia and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Maguey, Jesús; Felix-Torrontegui, José-Angel; Cabrera-López, Myriam; Gutiérrez-Castro, Macrina; Montante-Montes de Oca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rosai–Dorfman disease (RDD) is an uncommon, benign histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown origin. It predominantly affects the lymph nodes, but can also be found extranodal in different organs. Nervous system involvement is rare, and the most cases are intracranial. Surgical treatment is indicated when the central nervous system (CNS) in compromised. Case Description: We herein describe the management of a 27-year-old woman who presented progressive spinal cord symptoms, secondary to an isolated intramedullary lesion, which had a histological confirmation of RDD. To our knowledge, this is the 6th case reported in English written manuscripts. We review these cases and analyze some of the literature concerning the disease. Conclusions: RDD shows some variability in the involvement of the entire neuraxis, and because its ability to mimic meningeal and primary brain tumors, it is essential to be aware of this entity and consider RDD in the differential diagnosis of various lesions of the CNS. The conclusive diagnosis must be obtained by histological methods, so surgical approaches have to be discussed. Although it is not considered as a malignancy, options for postoperative medical treatment are variable and include radiation, chemotherapy or maybe monoclonal antibodies for refractory or recurrent cases. PMID:26862448

  8. Orbital Debris: A Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, Davis S. F. (Editor); Loftus, Joseph P., Jr. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This chronology covers the 37-year history of orbital debris concerns. It tracks orbital debris hazard creation, research, observation, experimentation, management, mitigation, protection, and policy. Included are debris-producing, events; U.N. orbital debris treaties, Space Shuttle and space station orbital debris issues; ASAT tests; milestones in theory and modeling; uncontrolled reentries; detection system development; shielding development; geosynchronous debris issues, including reboost policies: returned surfaces studies, seminar papers reports, conferences, and studies; the increasing effect of space activities on astronomy; and growing international awareness of the near-Earth environment.

  9. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is small, and its only effect on the seasons is their unequal durations. Here I show a pleasant way to guide students to the actual value of Earth's orbital eccentricity, starting from the durations of the four seasons. The date of perihelion is also found.

  10. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the orbits of Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, a Solar-Terrestrial Probe mission comprising of four identically instrumented spacecraft that will study the Earth's magn...

  11. Family of Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows the paths of three spacecraft currently in orbit around Mars, as well as the path by which NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will approach and land on the planet. The t-shaped crosses show where the orbiters will be when Phoenix enters the atmosphere, while the x-shaped crosses show their location at landing time.

    All three orbiters, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Mars Odyssey and the European Space Agency's Mars Express, will be monitoring Phoenix during the final steps of its journey to the Red Planet.

    Phoenix will land just south of Mars's north polar ice cap.

  12. Klatskin-Like Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Senthil Kumar, M. P.; Marudanayagam, R.

    2012-01-01

    Hilar cholangiocarcinoma, also known as Klatskin tumour, is the commonest type of cholangiocarcinoma. It poses unique problems in the diagnosis and management because of its anatomical location. Curative surgery in the form of major hepatic resection entails significant morbidity. About 5–15% of specimens resected for presumed Klatskin tumour prove not to be cholangiocarcinomas. There are a number of inflammatory, infective, vascular, and other pathologies, which have overlapping clinical and radiological features with a Klatskin tumour, leading to misinterpretation. This paper aims to summarise the features of such Klatskin-like lesions that have been reported in surgical literature. PMID:22811587

  13. Cystic Lesions of the Mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Daniel; Suby-Long, Thomas; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2016-06-01

    Cystic lesions are commonly seen in the mediastinum, and they may arise from virtually any organ. The vast majority of these lesions are benign and result in no symptoms. When large, cysts may produce symptoms related to compression of adjacent structures. The most common mediastinal cysts are pericardial and foregut duplication cysts. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance are routinely used to evaluate these lesions. Although computed tomography offers superior spatial resolution, magnetic resonance is useful in differentiating cysts that contain proteinaceous material from solid lesions. Occasionally, cysts arise from solid lesions, such as thymoma or teratoma. Although cysts are alike in appearance, location helps narrowing the differential diagnoses.

  14. Orbital granulocytic sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Stockl, F.; Dolmetsch, A.; Saornil, M; Font, R.; Burnier, M.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—Orbital granulocytic sarcoma is a localised tumour composed of cells of myeloid origin. Histological diagnosis can be difficult in patients with poorly differentiated orbital tumours and no evidence of systemic leukaemia. The naphthol AS-D chloracetate esterase (Leder stain) and immunohistochemical stains for lysozyme and MAC387 were used to determine the staining characteristics of these tumours. A case series of seven patients with orbital granulocytic sarcoma is presented.
METHODS—Seven patients with orbital granulocytic sarcoma were studied. Haematoxylin and eosin, Leder, and lysozyme stained sections were available in seven cases. Unstained formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections of seven cases were available for immunohistochemical evaluation using the avidin-biotin-complex technique for MAC387.
RESULTS—The mean age of presentation of the orbital tumour was 8.8 years. Four patients presented with an orbital tumour before any systemic manifestations of leukaemia. In two cases the diagnosis of the orbital tumour and systemic leukaemia was made simultaneously. There was one case of established systemic myeloid leukaemia in remission with the subsequent development of orbital granulocytic sarcoma. Six of seven cases (86%) were positive for the Leder stain. Five of seven cases (71%) showed positive immunoreactivity with lysozyme. The immunohistochemical stain for MAC387 was positive in all seven cases (100%) including one case that was negative for both lysozyme and Leder stains.
CONCLUSIONS—Orbital granulocytic sarcoma is a tumour that affects children and can present with rapidly progressive proptosis. This tumour may develop before, during, or after the occurrence of systemic leukaemia. The combination of Leder and lysozyme stains is useful in the diagnosis of orbital granulocytic sarcoma. MAC387 may be a more reliable marker for orbital granulocytic sarcoma.

 PMID:9497470

  15. Congenital orbital encephalocele, orbital dystopia, and exophthalmos.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Han Joon

    2012-07-01

    We present here an exceedingly rare variant of a nonmidline basal encephalocele of the spheno-orbital type, and this was accompanied with orbital dystopia in a 56-year-old man. On examination, his left eye was located more inferolaterally than his right eye, and the patient said this had been this way since his birth. The protrusion of his left eye was aggravated when he is tired. His naked visual acuity was 0.7/0.3, and the ocular pressure was 14/12 mm Hg. The exophthalmometry was 10/14 to 16 mm. His eyeball motion was not restricted, yet diplopia was present in all directions. The distance from the midline to the medial canthus was 20/15 mm. The distance from the midline to the midpupillary line was 35/22 mm. The vertical dimension of the palpebral fissure was 12/9 mm. The height difference of the upper eyelid margin was 11 mm, and the height difference of the lower eyelid margin was 8 mm. Facial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed left sphenoid wing hypoplasia and herniation of the left anterior temporal pole and dura mater into the orbit, and this resulted into left exophthalmos and encephalomalacia in the left anterior temporal pole. To the best of our knowledge, our case is the second case of basal encephalocele and orbital dystopia.

  16. Reticulohistiocytoma of the Orbit

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Heather M.; Hayek, Brent R.; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2015-01-01

    Reticulohistiocytoma is a rare, benign histiocytic proliferation of the skin or soft tissue. While ocular involvement has been documented in the past, there have been no previously reported cases of reticulohistiocytoma of the orbit. In this report, the authors describe a reticulohistiocytoma of the orbit in a middle-aged woman. PMID:24807799

  17. Statistical initial orbit determination

    SciTech Connect

    Taff, L.G.; Belkin, B.; Schweiter, G.A.; Sommar, K. D.H. Wagner Associates, Inc., Paoli, PA )

    1992-02-01

    For the ballistic missile initial orbit determination problem in particular, the concept of 'launch folders' is extended. This allows to decouple the observational data from the initial orbit determination problem per se. The observational data is only used to select among the possible orbital element sets in the group of folders. Monte Carlo simulations using up to 7200 orbital element sets are described. The results are compared to the true orbital element set and the one a good radar would have been able to produce if collocated with the optical sensor. The simplest version of the new method routinely outperforms the radar initial orbital element set by a factor of two in future miss distance. In addition, not only can a differentially corrected orbital element set be produced via this approach - after only two measurements of direction - but also an updated, meaningful, six-dimensional covariance array for it can be calculated. This technique represents a significant advance in initial orbit determination for this problem, and the concept can easily be extended to minor planets and artificial satellites. 9 refs.

  18. Orbital Shape Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikuchi, Osamu; Suzuki, Keizo

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the use of orbital shapes for instructional purposes, emphasizing that differences between polar, contour, and three-dimensional plots must be made clear to students or misconceptions will occur. Also presents three-dimensional contour surfaces for the seven 4f atomic orbitals of hydrogen and discusses their computer generation. (JN)

  19. IL-17A receptor expression differs between subclasses of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, which might settle the IL-17A controversy.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Ichiro; Morimoto, Akira; Oka, Takashi; Kuwamoto, Satoshi; Kato, Masako; Horie, Yasushi; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Gogusev, Jean; Jaubert, Francis; Imashuku, Shinsaku; Al-Kadar, Lamia Abd; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2013-02-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a lymphoproliferative disorder consisting of abnormal Langerhans cell-like cells and other lymphoid cells. LCH presents as either a multisystem LCH (LCH-MS) or a single-system LCH (LCH-SS). Currently, neither the pathogeneses nor the factors that define these disease subclasses have been elucidated. The interleukin (IL)-17A autocrine LCH model and IL-17A-targeted therapies have been proposed and have engendered much controversy. Those authors showed high serum IL-17A levels in LCH and argued that serum IL-17A-dependent fusion activities in vitro, rather than serum IL-17A levels, correlated with LCH severity (i.e. the IL-17A paradox). In contrast, others could not confirm the IL-17A autocrine model. So began the controversy on IL-17A, which still continues. We approached the IL-17A controversy and the IL-17A paradox from a new perspective in considering the expression levels of IL-17A receptor (IL-17RA). We detected higher levels of IL-17RA protein expression in LCH-MS (n = 10) as compared to LCH-SS (n = 9) (P = 0.041) by immunofluorescence. We reconfirmed these data by re-analyzing GSE16395 mRNA data. We found that serum levels of IL-17A were higher in LCH (n = 38) as compared to controls (n = 20) (P = 0.005) with no significant difference between LCH subclasses. We propose an IL-17A endocrine model and stress that changes in IL-17RA expression levels are important for defining LCH subclasses. We hypothesize that these IL-17RA data could clarify the IL-17A controversy and the IL-17A paradox. As a potential treatment of LCH-MS, we indicate the possibility of an IL-17RA-targeted therapy.

  20. BRAF Mutation Correlates With High-Risk Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis and Increased Resistance to First-Line Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Emile, Jean-François; Barkaoui, Mohamed-Aziz; Thomas, Caroline; Fraitag, Sylvie; Boudjemaa, Sabah; Renaud, Florence; Moreau, Anne; Peuchmaur, Michel; Chassagne-Clément, Catherine; Dijoud, Frédérique; Rigau, Valérie; Moshous, Despina; Lambilliotte, Anne; Mazingue, Françoise; Kebaili, Kamila; Miron, Jean; Jeziorski, Eric; Plat, Geneviève; Aladjidi, Nathalie; Ferster, Alina; Pacquement, Hélène; Galambrun, Claire; Brugières, Laurence; Leverger, Guy; Mansuy, Ludovic; Paillard, Catherine; Deville, Anne; Armari-Alla, Corinne; Lutun, Anne; Gillibert-Yvert, Marion; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Cohen-Aubart, Fleur; Haroche, Julien; Pellier, Isabelle; Millot, Frédéric; Lescoeur, Brigitte; Gandemer, Virginie; Bodemer, Christine; Lacave, Roger; Hélias-Rodzewicz, Zofia; Taly, Valérie; Geissmann, Frédéric; Donadieu, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an inflammatory myeloid neoplasia with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and outcomes in children. The somatic BRAFV600E mutation occurs frequently, but clinical significance remains to be determined. Patients and Methods BRAFV600E mutation was investigated in a French LCH cohort. We analyzed associations between mutation status and clinical presentation, extent of disease, reactivation rate, response to therapy, and long-term permanent sequelae. Results Among 315 patients with successfully determined BRAF status, 173 (54.6%) carried a BRAFV600E mutation. Patients with BRAFV600E manifested more severe disease than did those with wild-type BRAF. Patients with BRAFV600E comprised 87.8% of patients (43 of 49) with multisystem LCH with risk organ involvement (liver, spleen, hematology), 68.6% of patients (35 of 51) with multisystem LCH without risk organ involvement, 43.9% of patients (86 of 196) with single-system LCH, and 42.1% of patients (8 of 19) with lung-involved LCH (P < .001). BRAFV600E mutation was also associated with organ involvement that could lead to permanent, irreversible damage, such as neurologic (75%) and pituitary (72.9%) injuries. Compared with patients with wild-type BRAF, patients with BRAFV600E more commonly displayed resistance to combined vinblastine and corticosteroid therapy (21.9% v 3.3%; P = .001), showed a higher reactivation rate (5-year reactivation rate, 42.8% v 28.1%; P = .006), and had more permanent, long-term consequences from disease or treatment (27.9% v 12.6%; P = .001). Conclusion In children with LCH, BRAFV600E mutation was associated with high-risk features, permanent injury, and poor short-term response to chemotherapy. Further population-based studies should be undertaken to confirm our observations and to assess the impact of BRAF inhibitors for this subgroup of patients who may benefit from targeted therapy. PMID:27382093

  1. Orbital Plots Using Gnuplot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Brian G.

    2000-06-01

    The plotting program Gnuplot is freely available, general purpose, easy to use, and available on a variety of platforms. Complex three-dimensional surfaces, including the familiar angular parts of the hydrogen atom orbitals, are easily represented using Gnuplot. Contour plots allow viewing the radial and angular variation of the probability density in an orbital. Examples are given of how Gnuplot is used in an undergraduate physical chemistry class to view familiar atomic orbitals in new ways or to generate views of orbital functions that the student may have not seen before. Gnuplot may also be easily integrated into the environment of a Web page; an example of this is discussed (and is available at http://onsager.bd.psu.edu/~moore/orbitals_gnuplot). The plotting commands are entered with a form and a CGI script is used to run Gnuplot and display the result back to the browser.

  2. Mars Climate Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this mission is to study the climate history and the water distribution of Mars. Beautiful panoramic views of the shuttle on the launch pad, engine ignition, Rocket launch, and the separation and burnout of the Solid Rocket Boosters are shown. The footage also includes an animation of the mission. Detailed views of the path that the Orbiter traversed were shown. Once the Orbiter lands on the surface of Mars, it will dig a six to eight inch hole and collect samples from the planets' surface. The animation also included the prospective return of the Orbiter to Earth over the desert of Utah. The remote sensor on the Orbiter helps in finding the exact location of the Orbiter so that scientists may collect the sample and analyze it.

  3. Remote Controlled Orbiter Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garske, Michael; delaTorre, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The Remote Control Orbiter (RCO) capability allows a Space Shuttle Orbiter to perform an unmanned re-entry and landing. This low-cost capability employs existing and newly added functions to perform key activities typically performed by flight crews and controllers during manned re-entries. During an RCO landing attempt, these functions are triggered by automation resident in the on-board computers or uplinked commands from flight controllers on the ground. In order to properly route certain commands to the appropriate hardware, an In-Flight Maintenance (IFM) cable was developed. Currently, the RCO capability is reserved for the scenario where a safe return of the crew from orbit may not be possible. The flight crew would remain in orbit and await a rescue mission. After the crew is rescued, the RCO capability would be used on the unmanned Orbiter in an attempt to salvage this national asset.

  4. Orbital Causes of Incomitant Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Lueder, Gregg T.

    2015-01-01

    Strabismus may result from abnormal innervation, structure, or function of the extraocular muscles. Abnormalities of the orbital bones or masses within the orbit may also cause strabismus due to indirect effects on the extraocular muscles. This paper reviews some disorders of the orbit that are associated with strabismus, including craniofacial malformations, orbital masses, trauma, and anomalous orbital structures. PMID:26180465

  5. Human papillomavirus in oral lesions.

    PubMed

    González, Joaquín V; Gutiérrez, Rafael A; Keszler, Alicia; Colacino, Maria del Carmen; Alonio, Lidia V; Teyssie, Angelica R; Picconi, Maria Alejandra

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cancer; however its involvement is still controversial. This study evaluates the frequency of HPV DNA in a variety of oral lesions in patients from Argentina. A total of 77 oral tissue samples from 66 patients were selected (cases); the clinical-histopathological diagnoses corresponded to: 11 HPV- associated benign lesions, 8 non-HPV associated benign lesions, 33 premalignant lesions and 25 cancers. Sixty exfoliated cell samples from normal oral mucosa were used as controls. HPV detection and typing were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers MY09, 11, combined with RFLP or alternatively PCR using primers GP5+, 6+ combined with dot blot hybridization. HPV was detected in 91.0% of HPV- associated benign lesions, 14.3% of non-HPV associated benign lesions, 51.5% of preneoplasias and 60.0% of cancers. No control sample tested HPV positive. In benign HPV- associated lesions, 30.0% of HPV positive samples harbored high-risk types, while in preneoplastic lesions the value rose to 59.9%. In cancer lesions, HPV detection in verrucous carcinoma was 88.9% and in squamous cell carcinoma 43.8%, with high-risk type rates of 75.5% and 85.6%, respectively. The high HPV frequency detected in preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions supports an HPV etiological role in at least a subset of oral cancers.

  6. Imaging findings of vascular lesions in the head and neck

    PubMed Central

    Güneyli, Serkan; Ceylan, Naim; Bayraktaroğlu, Selen; Acar, Türker; Savaş, Recep

    2014-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the head and neck include vascular neoplasms, vascular malformations, and hypervascular lesions, derived from nonvascular soft-tissue elements. We retrospectively evaluated magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography images of vascular lesions located in the head and neck. Twelve patients (seven males, five females) aged 1–68 years (mean age, 35.25 years) were included in this study. Most of the vascular lesions in our study were histologically diagnosed. The lesions were as follows: a hemangioma located in the parotid space (n=1); a hemangioendothelioma located in the parotid space (n=1); a hemangiopericytoma located in the larynx (n=1); a juvenile angiofibroma located in the nasopharynx (n=1); a glomus tumor located in the carotid bifurcation (n=1); venous malformations located in the parapharyngeal space, the pterygoid area, the orbital space, and the larynx (n=4); lymphatic malformations located in the parotid space and the supraclavicular area (n=2); and an arteriovenous malformation located in the infratemporal fossa (n=1). We present rare vascular lesions of the head and neck, which have typical radiological findings. PMID:25010372

  7. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.

    1985-08-06

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs.

  8. Orbit Stabilization of Nanosat

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON,DAVID J.

    1999-12-01

    An algorithm is developed to control a pulsed {Delta}V thruster on a small satellite to allow it to fly in formation with a host satellite undergoing time dependent atmospheric drag deceleration. The algorithm uses four short thrusts per orbit to correct for differences in the average radii of the satellites due to differences in drag and one thrust to symmetrize the orbits. The radial difference between the orbits is the only input to the algorithm. The algorithm automatically stabilizes the orbits after ejection and includes provisions to allow azimuthal positional changes by modifying the drag compensation pulses. The algorithm gives radial and azimuthal deadbands of 50 cm and 3 m for a radial measurement accuracy of {+-} 5 cm and {+-} 60% period variation in the drag coefficient of the host. Approaches to further reduce the deadbands are described. The methodology of establishing a stable orbit after ejection is illustrated in an appendix. The results show the optimum ejection angle to minimize stabilization thrust is upward at 86{sup o} from the orbital velocity. At this angle the stabilization velocity that must be supplied by the thruster is half the ejection velocity. An ejection velocity of 0.02 m/sat 86{sup o} gives an azimuthal separation after ejection and orbit stabilization of 187 m. A description of liquid based gas thrusters suitable for the satellite control is included in an appendix.

  9. OL- ORBITAL LIFETIME PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, L. H.

    1994-01-01

    The Orbital Lifetime (OL) program analyzes the long-term motion of Earth-orbiting spacecraft at altitudes of up to 2500 kilometers. It models perturbations to the orbit caused by solar radiation pressure, atmospheric drag, and gravitational effects due to the sun, the moon, and Earth oblateness. OL can be used to predict the orbital lifetime and decay rate of a satellite. The atmospheric density models used in OL are the U.S. Standard Atmosphere for altitudes below 90 km and the Jacchia model for altitudes above 90 km. The Jacchia model requires solar flux and geomagnetic index for the date of orbit. An input file containing these values for 1984 to 1998 is supplied with the OL package. The solar radiation pressure calculations in OL will predict the amount of time a spacecraft is subjected to the Earth's shadow. Input to OL includes spacecraft physical characteristics, initial orbit parameters, and launch date/time. OL calculates time histories of the orbital elements, total lifetime, and decay rates. A spacecraft is considered 'down' at an altitude of 64 km. OL also generates a file of plot data which can be input to a user-supplied graphics program for lifetime plots of altitude against time. OL is written in FORTRAN 77 for interactive or batch execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX series computer operating under VMS. This program was developed in 1985.

  10. Respiratory epithelial cysts of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Goh, Rachel L Z; Hardy, Thomas G; Williams, Richard A; McNab, Alan A

    2016-10-01

    To describe post-traumatic and congenital respiratory epithelial cysts in the orbit, which are rare lesions with only 5 and 13 published cases, respectively. We reviewed all cases of respiratory epithelial cysts diagnosed at three institutions (two tertiary referral hospitals, one private clinic) between 1995 and 2015. We describe 10 cases of post-traumatic respiratory epithelial cyst (age range 23 - 82), presenting a mean of 17.4 years after their original trauma; and 3 congenital cases (age range 17-34). All but one case underwent surgical excision of the cyst and its lining, along with any surgical implant within the cyst. Two were recurrent after incomplete excision. Three presented with acute infection within the cyst. Respiratory epithelial orbital cysts are probably commoner than the paucity of published reports would suggest. Post-traumatic cysts often present many years after trauma, and may become secondarily infected. Complete surgical removal is recommended to prevent future recurrence.

  11. Automated Estimation Of Lesion Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruttimann, Urs E.; Webber, Richard L.; Groenhuis, Roelf A. J.; Troullos, Emanuel; Rethman, Michael T.

    1985-06-01

    Two methods were studied of estimating automatically the relative volume of local lesions in digital subtractions radiographs. The first method approximates the projected, lesion area by an equivalent circular area, and the second by an equivalent polygonal area. Lesion volume is estimated in both methods as equivalent area times the average gray-level difference between the detected area and the surrounding background. Regression results of the estimated relative volume versus the calibrated size of lesions induced in dry human mandibles showed the polygonal approximation to be superior. This method also permitted successful monitoring of bone remodelling during the healing process of surgically induced lesions in dogs. The quantitative results, as well as the examples from in vivo lesions demonstrate feasibility and clinically relavance of the methodology.

  12. Removal of orbital debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew J.; Talent, David L.

    1989-01-01

    The several methods presently identified for the reduction of orbital debris populations are broadly classifiable as either preventive or remedial, and fall within distinctive operational regimes. For all particles, (1) in the 250-2000-km altitude band, intelligent sweepers may be used; (2) for large objects, in the 80-250-km altitude band, orbital decay renders removal impractical; (3) for the 250-750-km altitude band, deorbit devices should be used; (4) for 750-2500-km altitude, OMV rendezvous for propulsive deorbit package attachment is foreseeable; and beyond 2500 km, (5) propulsive escape from earth orbit is required.

  13. Orbit Determination Issues for Libration Point Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Mark; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Libration point mission designers require knowledge of orbital accuracy for a variety of analyses including station keeping control strategies, transfer trajectory design, and formation and constellation control. Past publications have detailed orbit determination (OD) results from individual libration point missions. This paper collects both published and unpublished results from four previous libration point missions (ISEE (International Sun-Earth Explorer) -3, SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory), ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) and MAP (Microwave Anisotropy Probe)) supported by Goddard Space Flight Center's Guidance, Navigation & Control Center. The results of those missions are presented along with OD issues specific to each mission. All past missions have been limited to ground based tracking through NASA ground sites using standard range and Doppler measurement types. Advanced technology is enabling other OD options including onboard navigation using seaboard attitude sensors and the use of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) measurement Delta Differenced One-Way Range (DDOR). Both options potentially enable missions to reduce coherent dedicated tracking passes while maintaining orbital accuracy. With the increased projected loading of the DSN (Deep Space Network), missions must find alternatives to the standard OD scenario.

  14. Fuzzy description of skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskaris, Nikolaos; Ballerini, Lucia; Fisher, Robert B.; Aldridge, Ben; Rees, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    We propose a system for describing skin lesions images based on a human perception model. Pigmented skin lesions including melanoma and other types of skin cancer as well as non-malignant lesions are used. Works on classification of skin lesions already exist but they mainly concentrate on melanoma. The novelty of our work is that our system gives to skin lesion images a semantic label in a manner similar to humans. This work consists of two parts: first we capture they way users perceive each lesion, second we train a machine learning system that simulates how people describe images. For the first part, we choose 5 attributes: colour (light to dark), colour uniformity (uniform to non-uniform), symmetry (symmetric to non-symmetric), border (regular to irregular), texture (smooth to rough). Using a web based form we asked people to pick a value of each attribute for each lesion. In the second part, we extract 93 features from each lesions and we trained a machine learning algorithm using such features as input and the values of the human attributes as output. Results are quite promising, especially for the colour related attributes, where our system classifies over 80% of the lesions into the same semantic classes as humans.

  15. Adult Xanthogranulomatous Disease of the Orbit: Clinical Presentations, Evaluation, and Management.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Salvador, J M; Subiabre Ferrer, D; Pérez Ferriols, A

    2017-03-02

    Adult xanthogranulomatous disease of the orbit refers to a heterogeneous group of clinical syndromes with differing degrees of systemic involvement and distinct prognoses. The different syndromes all present clinically with progressively enlarging, yellowish lesions of the orbit. Histologically, the lesions are characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate of foam cells and Touton-type multinucleated giant cells. The xanthomatized histiocytes are CD68(+), S100(-), and CD1a(-). There are 4 clinical forms of xanthogranulomatous disease of the orbit: adult xanthogranulomatous disease of the orbit, adult onset asthma and periocular xanthogranuloma, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, and Erdheim-Chester disease. The treatment of local lesions are treated with systemic corticosteroids and other immunosuppressors. Vemurafenib, tocilizumab, and sirolimus have shown promising results in systemic disease.

  16. ARTEMIS Orbits Magnetic Moon

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's THEMIS spacecraft have completed their mission and are still working perfectly, so NASA is re-directing the outermost two spacecraft to special orbits around the Moon. Now called ARTEMIS, th...

  17. Space Shuttle Orbiter ECLSS.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, O. T.; Laubach, G. E.; Gibb, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The Orbiter Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) provides the functions of atmosphere revitalization, crew life support, active thermal conditioning, and airlock support for EVA and docking activities. The ECLSS must satisfy the requirements of orbital missions with four to ten crewmembers and mission duration of a few hours to 30 days and the requirements associated with an atmospheric horizontal flight test program and ferry flight missions. The ECLSS development plan utilizes an ECLSS ground test article and thermal/vacuum testing to support the first horizontal flight test at the end of 1976. The ground testing and horizontal flight test program certify the Orbiter ECLSS for the first orbital flight in early 1978.

  18. MMS Orbit Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the orbits of Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS)mission, a Solar Terrestrial Probes mission comprising of fouridentically instrumented spacecraft that will study the Earth’sm...

  19. Optical orbital debris spotter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, Christoph R.; Bays, J. Timothy; Marr, Kenneth D.; Brown, Charles M.; Nicholas, Andrew C.; Finne, Theodore T.

    2014-11-01

    The number of man-made debris objects orbiting the Earth, or orbital debris, is alarmingly increasing, resulting in the increased probability of degradation, damage, or destruction of operating spacecraft. In part, small objects (<10 cm) in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are of concern because they are abundant and difficult to track or even to detect on a routine basis. Due to the increasing debris population it is reasonable to assume that improved capabilities for on-orbit damage attribution, in addition to increased capabilities to detect and track small objects are needed. Here we present a sensor concept to detect small debris with sizes between approximately 1.0 and 0.01 cm in the vicinity of a host spacecraft for near real time damage attribution and characterization of dense debris fields and potentially to provide additional data to existing debris models.

  20. Orbiter entry aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ried, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The challenge in the definition of the entry aerothermodynamic environment arising from the challenge of a reliable and reusable Orbiter is reviewed in light of the existing technology. Select problems pertinent to the orbiter development are discussed with reference to comprehensive treatments. These problems include boundary layer transition, leeward-side heating, shock/shock interaction scaling, tile gap heating, and nonequilibrium effects such as surface catalysis. Sample measurements obtained from test flights of the Orbiter are presented with comparison to preflight expectations. Numerical and wind tunnel simulations gave efficient information for defining the entry environment and an adequate level of preflight confidence. The high quality flight data provide an opportunity to refine the operational capability of the orbiter and serve as a benchmark both for the development of aerothermodynamic technology and for use in meeting future entry heating challenges.

  1. Report on orbital debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The success of space endeavors depends upon a space environment sufficiently free of debris to enable the safe and dependable operation of spacecraft. An environment overly cluttered with debris would threaten the ability to utilize space for a wide variety of scientific, technological, military, and commercial purposes. Man made space debris (orbital debris) differs from natural meteoroids because it remains in earth orbit during its lifetime and is not transient through the space around the Earth. The orbital debris environment is considered. The space environment is described along with sources of orbital debris. The current national space policy is examined, along with ways to minimize debris generation and ways to survive the debris environment. International efforts, legal issues and commercial regulations are also examined.

  2. Altimetry, Orbits and Tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, O. L.

    1984-01-01

    The nature of the orbit error and its effect on the sea surface heights calculated with satellite altimetry are explained. The elementary concepts of celestial mechanics required to follow a general discussion of the problem are included. Consideration of errors in the orbits of satellites with precisely repeating ground tracks (SEASAT, TOPEX, ERS-1, POSEIDON, amongst past and future altimeter satellites) are detailed. The theoretical conclusions are illustrated with the numerical results of computer simulations. The nature of the errors in this type of orbits is such that this error can be filtered out by using height differences along repeating (overlapping) passes. This makes them particularly valuable for the study and monitoring of changes in the sea surface, such as tides. Elements of tidal theory, showing how these principles can be combined with those pertinent to the orbit error to make direct maps of the tides using altimetry are presented.

  3. Habitability study shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Habitability design concepts for the Shuttle Orbiter Program are provided for MSC. A variety of creative solutions for the stated tasks are presented. Sketches, mock-ups, mechanicals and models are included for establishing a foundation for future development.

  4. Tethered orbital refueling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fester, Dale A.; Rudolph, L. Kevin; Kiefel, Erlinda R.; Abbott, Peter W.; Grossrode, Pat

    1986-01-01

    One of the major applications of the space station will be to act as a refueling depot for cryogenic-fueled space-based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), Earth-storable fueled orbit maneuvering vehicles, and refurbishable satellite spacecraft using hydrazine. One alternative for fuel storage at the space station is a tethered orbital refueling facility (TORF), separated from the space station by a sufficient distance to induce a gravity gradient force that settles the stored fuels. The technical feasibility was examined with the primary focus on the refueling of LO2/LH2 orbital transfer vehicles. Also examined was the tethered facility on the space station. It was compared to a zero-gravity facility. A tethered refueling facility should be considered as a viable alternative to a zero-gravity facility if the zero-gravity fluid transfer technology, such as the propellant management device and no vent fill, proves to be difficult to develop with the required performance.

  5. Orbiter thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotts, R. L.; Curry, D. M.; Tillian, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The major material and design challenges associated with the orbiter thermal protection system (TPS), the various TPS materials that are used, the different design approaches associated with each of the materials, and the performance during the flight test program are described. The first five flights of the Orbiter Columbia and the initial flight of the Orbiter Challenger provided the data necessary to verify the TPS thermal performance, structural integrity, and reusability. The flight performance characteristics of each TPS material are discussed, based on postflight inspections and postflight interpretation of the flight instrumentation data. Flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements for the orbiter TPS are met and that the overall performance is outstanding.

  6. A tapestry of orbits

    SciTech Connect

    King-Hele, D.

    1992-01-01

    In this book, the author describes how orbital research developed to yield a rich harvest of knowledge about the earth and its atmosphere. King-Hele relates a personal account of this research based on analysis of satellite orbits between 1957 and 1990 conducted from the Royal Aircraft Establishment in Farnborough England. The early research methods used before the launch of Sputnik in 1957 are discussed.

  7. The Lunar Orbital Prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, Frank J.; Cantrell, James N.; Mccurdy, Greg

    1992-01-01

    The establishment of lunar bases will not end the need for remote sensing of the lunar surface by orbiting platforms. Human and robotic surface exploration will necessarily be limited to some proximate distance from the support base. Near real-time, high-resolution, global characterization of the lunar surface by orbiting sensing systems will continue to be essential to the understanding of the Moon's geophysical structure and the location of exploitable minerals and deposits of raw materials. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is an orbiting sensing platform capable of supporting a variety of modular sensing packages. Serviced by a lunar-based shuttle, the LOP will permit the exchange of instrument packages to meet evolving mission needs. The ability to recover, modify, and rotate sensing packages allows their reuse in varying combinations. Combining this flexibility with robust orbit modification capabilities and near real-time telemetry links provides considerable system responsiveness. Maintenance and modification of the LOP orbit are accomplished through use of an onboard propulsion system that burns lunar-supplied oxygen and aluminum. The relatively low performance of such a system is more than compensated for by the elimination of the need for Earth-supplied propellants. The LOP concept envisions a continuous expansion of capability through the incorporation of new instrument technologies and the addition of platforms.

  8. The Exoplanet Orbit Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. T.; Fakhouri, O.; Marcy, G. W.; Han, E.; Feng, Y.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, A. W.; Fischer, D. A.; Valenti, J. A.; Anderson, J.; Piskunov, N.

    2011-04-01

    We present a database of well-determined orbital parameters of exoplanets, and their host stars’ properties. This database comprises spectroscopic orbital elements measured for 427 planets orbiting 363 stars from radial velocity and transit measurements as reported in the literature. We have also compiled fundamental transit parameters, stellar parameters, and the method used for the planets discovery. This Exoplanet Orbit Database includes all planets with robust, well measured orbital parameters reported in peer-reviewed articles. The database is available in a searchable, filterable, and sortable form online through the Exoplanets Data Explorer table, and the data can be plotted and explored through the Exoplanet Data Explorer plotter. We use the Data Explorer to generate publication-ready plots, giving three examples of the signatures of exoplanet migration and dynamical evolution: We illustrate the character of the apparent correlation between mass and period in exoplanet orbits, the different selection biases between radial velocity and transit surveys, and that the multiplanet systems show a distinct semimajor-axis distribution from apparently singleton systems.

  9. New Heteroclinic Orbits Coined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haijun; Li, Chang; Li, Xianyi

    We devote to studying the problem for the existence of homoclinic and heteroclinic orbits of Unified Lorenz-Type System (ULTS). Other than the known results that the ULTS has two homoclinic orbits to E0 = (0, 0, 0) for b = -2a1, d = -a1, a12 + a 2c > 0, e < 0 and two heteroclinic orbits to E1,2 = (±-2(a1 2+a2 c) e ,∓a1 a2 -2(a1 2+a2 c) e ,-a12+a2c a2e ) for b = -2a1, d = -a1, a12 + a 2c < 0, e > 0 on its invariant algebraic surface Q(x,y,z) = z - x2 2a2 = 0, formulated in the literature by Yang and Chen [2014], we seize two new heteroclinic orbits of this Unified Lorenz-Type System. Namely, we rigorously prove that this system has another two heteroclinic orbits to E0 and E± = (±b(a2 c-a1 d) a1e ,∓a1 a2 b(a2 c-a1 d) a1e , a1d-a2c a2e ) while no homoclinic orbit when a1 < 0, e < 0, a1 + d < 0, a2≠0, a2c - a1d > 0, b + 2a1 ≥ 0.

  10. Fortuitously discovered liver lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Sharma, Malay; Gibson, Robert N; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jenssen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The fortuitously discovered liver lesion is a common problem. Consensus might be expected in terms of its work-up, and yet there is none. This stems in part from the fact that there is no preventive campaign involving the early detection of liver tumors other than for patients with known liver cirrhosis and oncological patients. The work-up (detection and differential diagnosis) of liver tumors comprises theoretical considerations, history, physical examination, laboratory tests, standard ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound techniques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as image-guided biopsy. CEUS techniques have proved to be the most pertinent method; these techniques became part of the clinical routine about 10 years ago in Europe and Asia and are used for a variety of indications in daily clinical practice. CEUS is in many cases the first and also decisive technical intervention for detecting and characterizing liver tumors. This development is reflected in many CEUS guidelines, e.g., in the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) guidelines 2004, 2008 and 2012 as well as the recently published World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-EFSUMB guidelines 2012. This article sets out considerations for making a structured work-up of incidental liver tumors feasible. PMID:23745019

  11. Overall view of the Orbiter Servicing Structure within the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of the Orbiter Servicing Structure within the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. Can you see any hint of the Orbiter Discovery? It is in there. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. A respiratory epithelial choristomatous cyst of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Newton, C; Dutton, J J; Klintworth, G K

    1985-12-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with a 19-year history of unilateral, intermittently painful, slowly progressive proptosis. Clinical examination disclosed decreased orbital resiliency and choroidal folds in the posterior pole. Orbital echography revealed an acoustically empty cystic lesion superotemporally. Computerized tomography demonstrated bony molding of the adjacent lateral orbital wall. At operation, a discrete, well-encapsulated mass was found adherent to the periorbita behind the lacrimal gland and extending into the muscle cone. There was no connection with the bony orbit. Histological examination disclosed the well-encapsulated cyst to be lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells and filled with mucoid debris. We postulate that the cyst arose from respiratory epithelium sequestered during the intrauterine development of the paranasal sinuses.

  13. [Orbital complications of sinusitis].

    PubMed

    Šuchaň, M; Horňák, M; Kaliarik, L; Krempaská, S; Koštialová, T; Kovaľ, J

    2014-12-01

    Orbital complications categorised by Chandler are emergency. They need early diagnosis and agresive treatment. Stage and origin of orbital complications are identified by rhinoendoscopy, ophtalmologic examination and CT of orbite and paranasal sinuses. Periorbital cellulitis and early stage of orbital cellulitis can be treated conservatively with i. v. antibiotics. Monitoring of laboratory parameters and ophtalmologic symptoms is mandatory. Lack of improvement or worsening of symptoms within 24-48 hours and advanced stages of orbital complications are indicated for surgery. The purpose of the study is to evaluate epidemiology, clinical features and management of sinogenic orbital complications. Retrospective data of 8 patients with suspicion of orbital complication admited to hospital from 2008 to 2013 were evaluated. Patients were analyzed in terms of gender, age, CT findings, microbiology, clinical features, stage and treatment. Male and female were afected in rate 1,66:1. Most of patients were young adult in 3rd. and 4th. decade of life (62,5 %). Acute and chronic sinusitis were cause of orbital complication in the same rate. The most common origin of orbital complication was ethmoiditis (62,5 %), than maxillary (25 %) and frontal (12,5 %) sinusitis. Polysinusitis with affection of ethmoidal, maxillary and frontal sinuses (75 %) was usual CT finding. Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus were etiological agens in half of cases. Periorbital oedema (100 %), proptosis, chemosis (50 %), diplopia and glaucoma (12,5 %) were observed. Based on examinations, diagnosis of periorbital oedema/preseptal cellulitis was made in 3 (37,5 %), orbital cellulitis in 3 (37,5 %) and subperiosteal abscess in 2 cases (25 %). All patients underwent combined therapy - i. v. antibiotics and surgery within 24 hours. Eradication of disease from ostiomeatal complex (OMC), drainage of affected sinuses and drainage of subperiosteal abscess were done via fuctional endonasal

  14. Mars Geoscience Orbiter and Lunar Geoscience Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuldner, W. V.; Kaskiewicz, P. F.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using the AE/DE Earth orbiting spacecraft design for the LGO and/or MGO missions was determined. Configurations were developed and subsystems analysis was carried out to optimize the suitability of the spacecraft to the missions. The primary conclusion is that the basic AE/DE spacecraft can readily be applied to the LGO mission with relatively minor, low risk modifications. The MGO mission poses a somewhat more complex problem, primarily due to the overall maneuvering hydrazine budget and power requirements of the sensors and their desired duty cycle. These considerations dictate a modification (scaling up) of the structure to support mission requirements.

  15. Sedna Orbit Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    These four panels show the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed 'Sedna,' which lies in the farthest reaches of our solar system. Each panel, moving counterclockwise from the upper left, successively zooms out to place Sedna in context. The first panel shows the orbits of the inner planets, including Earth, and the asteroid belt that lies between Mars and Jupiter. In the second panel, Sedna is shown well outside the orbits of the outer planets and the more distant Kuiper Belt objects. Sedna's full orbit is illustrated in the third panel along with the object's current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach to the Sun; its 10,000 year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. The final panel zooms out much farther, showing that even this large elliptical orbit falls inside what was previously thought to be the inner edge of the Oort cloud. The Oort cloud is a spherical distribution of cold, icy bodies lying at the limits of the Sun's gravitational pull. Sedna's presence suggests that this Oort cloud is much closer than scientists believed.

  16. Orbital spacecraft resupply technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Tracey, T. R.; Bailey, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    The resupplying of orbital spacecraft using the Space Shuttle, Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle, Orbital Transfer Vehicle or a depot supply at a Space Station is studied. The governing factor in fluid resupply designs is the system size with respect to fluid resupply quantities. Spacecraft propellant management for tankage via diaphragm or surface tension configurations is examined. The capabilities, operation, and application of adiabatic ullage compression, ullage exchange, vent/fill/repressurize, and drain/vent/no-vent fill/repressurize, which are proposed transfer methods for spacecraft utilizing tankage configurations, are described. Selection of the appropriate resupply method is dependent on the spacecraft design features. Hydrazine adiabatic compression/detonation, liquid-free vapor venting to prevent freezing, and a method for no-vent liquid filling are analyzed. Various procedures for accurate measurements of propellant mass in low gravity are evaluated; a system of flowmeters with a PVT system was selected as the pressurant solubility and quantity gaging technique. Monopropellant and bipropellant orbital spacecraft consumable resupply system tanks which resupply 3000 lb of hydrazine and 7000 lb of MMH/NTO to spacecraft on orbit are presented.

  17. Orbits For Sixteen Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Z.; Novakovic, B.

    2006-12-01

    In this paper orbits for 13 binaries are recalculated and presented. The reason is that recent observations show higher residuals than the corresponding ephemerides calculated by using the orbital elements given in the Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars. The binaries studied were: WDS 00182+7257 = A 803, WDS 00335+4006 = HO 3, WDS 00583+2124 = BU 302, WDS 01011+6022 = A 926, WDS 01014+1155 = BU 867, WDS 01112+4113 = A 655, WDS 01361-2954 + HJ 3447, WDS 02333+5219 = STT 42 AB, WDS 04362+0814 = A 1840 AB, WDS 08017-0836 = A 1580, WDS 08277-0425 = A 550, WDS 17471+1742 = STF 2215 and WDS 18025+4414 = BU 1127 Aa-B. In addition, for three binaries - WDS 01532+1526 = BU 260, WDS 02563+7253 =STF 312 AB and WDS 05003+3924 = STT 92 AB - the orbital elements are calculated for the first time. In this paper the authors present not only the orbital elements, but the masses, dynamical parallaxes, absolute magnitudes and ephemerides for the next five years, as well.

  18. Orbital Fluid Resupply Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Ralph N.

    1989-01-01

    Orbital fluid resupply can significantly increase the cost-effectiveness and operational flexibility of spacecraft, satellites, and orbiting platforms and observatories. Reusable tankers are currently being designed for transporting fluids to space. A number of options exist for transporting the fluids and propellant to the space-based user systems. The fluids can be transported to space either in the Shuttle cargo bay or using expendable launch vehicles (ELVs). Resupply can thus be accomplished either from the Shuttle bay, or the tanker can be removed from the Shuttle bay or launched on an ELV and attached to a carrier such as the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) or Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) for transport to the user to be serviced. A third option involves locating the tanker at the space station or an unmanned platform as a quasi-permanent servicing facility or depot which returns to the ground for recycling once its tanks are depleted. Current modular tanker designs for monopropellants, bipropellants, and water for space station propulsion are discussed. Superfluid helium tankers are addressed, including trade-offs in tanker sizes, shapes to fit the range of ELVs currently available, and boil-off losses associated with longer-term (greater than 6-month) space-basing. It is concluded that the mixed fleet approach to on-orbit consumables resupply offers significant advantages to the overall logistics requirements.

  19. GOCE Precise Science Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Heike; Jäggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Beutler, Gerhard; Heinze, Markus; Hugentobler, Urs

    GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer), as the first ESA (European Space Agency) Earth Explorer Core Mission, is dedicated for gravity field recovery of unprece-dented accuracy using data from the gradiometer, its primary science instrument. Data from the secondary instrument, the 12-channel dual-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver, is used for precise orbit determination of the satellite. These orbits are used to accu-rately geolocate the gradiometer observations and to provide complementary information for the long-wavelength part of the gravity field. A precise science orbit (PSO) product is provided by the GOCE High-Level Processing Facility (HPF) with a precision of about 2 cm and a 1-week latency. The reduced-dynamic and kinematic orbit determination strategies for the PSO product are presented together with results of about one year of data. The focus is on the improvement achieved by the use of empirically derived azimuth-and elevation-dependent variations of the phase center of the GOCE GPS antenna. The orbits are validated with satellite laser ranging (SLR) measurements.

  20. Langerhans cell histiocytosis misdiagnosed as liver cancer and pituitary tumor in an adult: A case report and brief review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    MA, JING; JIANG, YONGFANG; CHEN, XIANGYU; GONG, GUOZHONG

    2014-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare proliferative disorder in which pathological Langerhans cells accumulate in a variety of organs. LCH usually affects the bone, skin and lymph nodes of children; however, LCH occasionally affects vital organs, including the liver, spleen and pituitary gland. The present study reports a case of an adult LCH patient with marked liver damage, splenomegaly and pituitary damage treated using a new therapeutic strategy. This case was misdiagnosed as liver cancer and pituitary tumor on the basis of abdominal ultrasound, abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and head MRI. The final diagnosis was established by identifying the proliferation of cluster of differentiation 1a-positive LCs in liver tissues. A new regimen of combined 12-week therapy of prednisolone/desmopressin/vincristine and 10 months of maintenance therapy of prednisolone/vinblastine/6-mercaptopurine improved symptoms, liver function and blood cell tests. PMID:24765185

  1. Effective BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib therapy in a 2-year-old patient with sequentially diagnosed Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Erdheim–Chester disease

    PubMed Central

    Váradi, Zsófia; Bánusz, Rita; Csomor, Judit; Kállay, Krisztián; Varga, Edit; Kertész, Gabriella; Csóka, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD) is a rare histiocytic disorder, characterized by the xanthomatous infiltration of tissues by CD68-positive and CD1a-/CD100-negative foamy histiocytes. In childhood, ECD is exceptionally rare, and only a dozen cases have been published so far. The cooccurence of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and ECD is even rarer. Here, we report a 2-year-old boy, the youngest patient in the literature so far, who was diagnosed with concomitant BRAF mutation-positive LCH and ECD. In his case, conventional LCH treatment proved to be ineffective, but he is the youngest patient who was successfully treated with the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib. PMID:28182116

  2. Mars Telecommunications Orbiter, Artist's Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This illustration depicts a concept for NASA's Mars Telecommunications Orbiter in flight around Mars. The orbiter is in development to be the first spacecraft with a primary function of providing communication links while orbiting a foreign planet. The project's plans call for launch in September 2009, arrival at Mars in August 2010 and a mission of six to 10 years while in orbit. Mars Telecommunication Orbiter would serve as the Mars hub for an interplanetery Internet, greatly increasing the information payoff from other future Mars missions. The mission is designed to orbit Mars more than 10 times farther from the planet than orbiters dedicated primarily to science. The high-orbit design minimizes the time that Mars itself blocks the orbiter from communicating with Earth and maximizes the time that the orbiter is above the horizon -- thus capable of communications relay -- for rovers and stationary landers on Mars' surface.

  3. Unusual case of traumatic neuroma of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Ulivieri, Simone; Muscas, Giovanni; Miracco, Clelia; Oliveri, Giuseppe; Galluzzi, Paolo; Giorgio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic or amputation neuromas are neoformations developing after damage to a peripheral nerve. They are not proper tumors but rather a reactive process or a frustrated attempt of nerve regeneration. Traumatic neuromas are potentially found in every sensory peripheral nerve and often at the site of past surgical intervention, including orbital surgery. A 29-year-old Northern African migrant presented progressive exophthalmos and progressive loss of acuity in left eye, which had started about 6 months before after a cranio-facial trauma caused by a violent assault. MRI of the orbits showed a massive intra-orbital, intra-conical lesion, clearly compressing and dislocating the optic nerve and extending posteriorly to the orbital apex. Surgery was performed through lateral approach of Kroenlein and led to complete excision of the lesion. Histology revealed fibrotic, adipose and striated muscle tissues, a disordered, non-neoplastic overgrowth of small and large fascicles of nerves, inflammatory infiltrates, and fibrosis with sparse calcifications were diffusely observed in a background of fat, scar and striated muscle tissued. Patient was discharged on the fifth day in good health condition, without deficit of eye motion but without recovery of visual acuity. In conclusion, this case demonstrates that traumatic neuromas may arise in the orbit in patients with minor direct trauma to nerves and without previous surgical treatment.

  4. Vertical orbital dystopia.

    PubMed

    Tan, S T; Ashworth, G; Czypionka, S; Poole, M D; Briggs, M

    1996-06-01

    Many pathologic processes may lead to vertical orbital dystopia. We reviewed 47 consecutive cases seen over a 13-year period. Twenty-nine patients underwent eye leveling procedures to improve cosmesis, 2 of these by camouflage procedures and 27 by orbital translocation. Ten patients had 16 secondary operations. There was one death, serious complications occurred in 3 patients, and nuisance complications occurred in 20 others. Seven patients developed diplopia postoperatively, and in 6 patients it was troublesome. In these, it resolved fully in 2 patients, improved to be of no consequence in 2, and in the remaining 2 troublesome symptoms persisted requiring inferior oblique muscle recession in 1. Binocular vision was never restored when not present preoperatively, and in 3 patients temporary loss occurred. There was an overall modest but significant improvement in appearance after surgery. It is concluded that vertical orbital translocation is rewarding and worthwhile.

  5. Deceleration Orbit Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Church, M.

    1991-04-26

    During the accelerator studies period of 12/90-1/91 much study time was dedicated to improving the E760 deceleration ramps. 4 general goals were in mind: (1) Reduce the relative orbit deviations from the nominal reference orbit as much as possible. This reduces the potential error in the orbit length calculation - which is the primary source of error in the beam energy calculation. (2) Maximize the transverse apertures. This minimizes beam loss during deceleration and during accidental beam blow-ups. (3) Measure and correct lattice parameters. Knowledge of {gamma}{sub T}, {eta}, Q{sub h}, Q{sub v}, and the dispersion in the straight sections allows for a more accurate energy calculation and reliable SYNCH calculations. (4) Minimize the coupling. This allows one to discern between horizontal and vertical tunes.

  6. Nerve lesioning with direct current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravid, E. Natalie; Shi Gan, Liu; Todd, Kathryn; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity due to exaggerated stretch reflexes) often develops in people with stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Lesioning of nerves, e.g. with phenol or botulinum toxin is widely performed to reduce spastic hypertonus. We have explored the use of direct electrical current (DC) to lesion peripheral nerves. In a series of animal experiments, DC reduced muscle force by controlled amounts and the reduction could last several months. We conclude that in some cases controlled DC lesioning may provide an effective alternative to the less controllable molecular treatments available today.

  7. No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Mattigatti, Sudha; Managoli, Noopur A; Rairam, Surabhi G; Patil, Ashwini M

    2013-01-01

    Abfraction or Theory of Abfraction is a theory explaining the non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). It suggests that they are caused by flexural forces, usually from cyclic loading; the enamel, especially at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), undergoes this pattern of destruction by separating the enamel rods. Clinical aspect importance of these ineart lesions are at most important to be detected for early intervention and treatment modalities as options during the progression of the disease. How to cite this article: Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Mattigatti S, Managoli NA, Rairam SG, Patil AM. No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):142-5. PMID:24324319

  8. No carious cervical lesions: abfraction.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Mattigatti, Sudha; Managoli, Noopur A; Rairam, Surabhi G; Patil, Ashwini M

    2013-10-01

    Abfraction or Theory of Abfraction is a theory explaining the non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). It suggests that they are caused by flexural forces, usually from cyclic loading; the enamel, especially at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), undergoes this pattern of destruction by separating the enamel rods. Clinical aspect importance of these ineart lesions are at most important to be detected for early intervention and treatment modalities as options during the progression of the disease. How to cite this article: Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Mattigatti S, Managoli NA, Rairam SG, Patil AM. No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):142-5.

  9. Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Soyer, H P; Argenziano, G; Chimenti, S; Ruocco, V

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the basic concepts of dermoscopy, the various dermoscopic equipments and the standard criteria for diagnosing pigmented skin lesions. In assessing dermoscopic images, both global and local features can be recognized. These features will be systematically described and illustrated in Part I of this article. First, we will focus on 8 morphologically rather distinctive global features that allow a quick, preliminary categorization of a given pigmented skin lesion. Second, we will describe various local features representing the letters of the dermoscopic alphabet. The local features permit a more detailed assessment of pigmented skin lesions.

  10. Spiral Orbit Tribometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, Stephen V.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Kingsbury, Edward; Jansen, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    The spiral orbit tribometer (SOT) bridges the gap between full-scale life testing and typically unrealistic accelerated life testing of ball-bearing lubricants in conjunction with bearing ball and race materials. The SOT operates under realistic conditions and quickly produces results, thereby providing information that can guide the selection of lubricant, ball, and race materials early in a design process. The SOT is based upon a simplified, retainerless thrust bearing comprising one ball between flat races (see figure). The SOT measures lubricant consumption and degradation rates and friction coefficients in boundary lubricated rolling and pivoting contacts. The ball is pressed between the lower and upper races with a controlled force and the lower plate is rotated. The combination of load and rotation causes the ball to move in a nearly circular orbit that is, more precisely, an opening spiral. The spiral s pitch is directly related to the friction coefficient. At the end of the orbit, the ball contacts the guide plate, restoring the orbit to its original radius. The orbit is repeatable throughout the entire test. A force transducer, mounted in-line with the guide plate, measures the force between the ball and the guide plate, which directly relates to the friction coefficient. The SOT, shown in the figure, can operate in under ultra-high vacuum (10(exp -9) Torr) or in a variety of gases at atmospheric pressure. The load force can be adjusted between 45 and 450 N. By varying the load force and ball diameter, mean Hertzian stresses between 0.5 and 5.0 GPa can be obtained. The ball s orbital speed range is between 1 and 100 rpm.

  11. Optical orbital angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Stephen M; Babiker, Mohamed; Padgett, Miles J

    2017-02-28

    We present a brief introduction to the orbital angular momentum of light, the subject of our theme issue and, in particular, to the developments in the 13 years following the founding paper by Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)). The papers by our invited authors serve to bring the field up to date and suggest where developments may take us next.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  12. Optical orbital angular momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Babiker, Mohamed; Padgett, Miles J.

    2017-02-01

    We present a brief introduction to the orbital angular momentum of light, the subject of our theme issue and, in particular, to the developments in the 13 years following the founding paper by Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)). The papers by our invited authors serve to bring the field up to date and suggest where developments may take us next. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  13. Optical orbital angular momentum

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Stephen M.; Babiker, Mohamed; Padgett, Miles J.

    2017-01-01

    We present a brief introduction to the orbital angular momentum of light, the subject of our theme issue and, in particular, to the developments in the 13 years following the founding paper by Allen et al. (Allen et al. 1992 Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.45.8185)). The papers by our invited authors serve to bring the field up to date and suggest where developments may take us next. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Optical orbital angular momentum’. PMID:28069775

  14. Satellite orbit predictor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Morton l.; Garrett, James, Major

    An analog aid to determine satellite coverage of Emergency Locator Transmitters Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (ELT/EPIRB) distress incidence is discussed. The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminal. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite.A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  15. ARTEMIS Lunar Orbit Insertion and Science Orbit Design Through 2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broschart, Stephen B.; Sweetser, Theodore H.; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Folta, David; Woodard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    As of late-July 2011, the ARTEMIS mission is transferring two spacecraft from Lissajous orbits around Earth-Moon Lagrange Point #1 into highly-eccentric lunar science orbits. This paper presents the trajectory design for the transfer from Lissajous orbit to lunar orbit insertion, the period reduction maneuvers, and the science orbits through 2013. The design accommodates large perturbations from Earth's gravity and restrictive spacecraft capabilities to enable opportunities for a range of heliophysics and planetary science measurements. The process used to design the highly-eccentric ARTEMIS science orbits is outlined. The approach may inform the design of future planetary moon missions.

  16. Lesions of the avian pancreas.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Robert E; Reavill, Drury R

    2014-01-01

    Although not well described, occasional reports of avian exocrine and endocrine pancreatic disease are available. This article describes the lesions associated with common diseases of the avian pancreas reported in the literature and/or seen by the authors.

  17. Herpes viral culture of lesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus; Herpes simplex virus culture Images Viral lesion culture References Costello M, Sabatini LM, Yungbluth M. Viral infections. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  18. Electrocautery for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Cancer.gov

    Results from a randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at treating potentially precancerous anal lesions in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

  19. Border preserving skin lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamali, Mostafa; Samei, Golnoosh

    2008-03-01

    Melanoma is a fatal cancer with a growing incident rate. However it could be cured if diagnosed in early stages. The first step in detecting melanoma is the separation of skin lesion from healthy skin. There are particular features associated with a malignant lesion whose successful detection relies upon accurately extracted borders. We propose a two step approach. First, we apply K-means clustering method (to 3D RGB space) that extracts relatively accurate borders. In the second step we perform an extra refining step for detecting the fading area around some lesions as accurately as possible. Our method has a number of novelties. Firstly as the clustering method is directly applied to the 3D color space, we do not overlook the dependencies between different color channels. In addition, it is capable of extracting fine lesion borders up to pixel level in spite of the difficulties associated with fading areas around the lesion. Performing clustering in different color spaces reveals that 3D RGB color space is preferred. The application of the proposed algorithm to an extensive data-base of skin lesions shows that its performance is superior to that of existing methods both in terms of accuracy and computational complexity.

  20. Simulation of spiculated breast lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Premkumar; Alrehily, Faisal; Pinto, R. Ferrari; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Wells, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    Virtual clinical trials are a promising new approach increasingly used for the evaluation and comparison of breast imaging modalities. A key component in such an assessment paradigm is the use of simulated pathology, in particular, simulation of lesions. Breast mass lesions can be generally classified into two categories based on their appearance; nonspiculated masses and spiculated masses. In our previous work, we have successfully simulated non-spiculated masses using a fractal growth process known as diffusion limited aggregation. In this new work, we have extended the DLA model to simulate spiculated lesions by using features extracted from patient DBT images containing spiculated lesions. The features extracted included spicule length, width, curvature and distribution. This information was used to simulate realistic looking spicules which were attached to the surface of a DLA mass to produce a spiculated mass. A batch of simulated spiculated masses was inserted into normal patient images and presented to an experienced radiologist for review. The study yielded promising results with the radiologist rating 60% of simulated lesions in 2D and 50% of simulated lesions in DBT as realistic.

  1. Pineal lesions: a multidisciplinary challenge.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Manfred; Emami, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    The pineal region is a complex anatomical compartment, harbouring the pineal gland surrounded by the quadrigeminal plate and the confluents of the internal cerebral veins to form the vein of Galen. The complexity of lesions in that region, however, goes far beyond the pineal parenchyma proper. Originating in the pineal gland, there are not only benign cysts but also numerous different tumour types. In addition, lesions such as tectal gliomas, tentorial meningiomas and choroid plexus papillomas arise from the surrounding structures, occupying that regions. Furthermore, the area has an affinity for metastatic lesions. Vascular lesions complete the spectrum mainly as small tectal arteriovenous malformations or cavernous haemangiomas.Taken together, there is a wide spectrum of lesions, many unique to that region, which call for a multidisciplinary approach. The limited access and anatomical complexity have generated a spectrum of anatomical approaches and raised the interest for neuroendoscopic approaches. Equally complex is the spectrum of treatment modalities such as microsurgery as the main option but stereotactic radiosurgery as an alternative or adjuvant to surgery for selected cases, radiation as for germinoma (see below) and or combinatorial chemotherapy, which may need to precede any other ablative technique as constituents.In this context, we review the current literature and our own series to obtain a snapshot sentiment of how to approach pineal lesions, how to interrelate alternative/competing concepts and review the recent technological advances.

  2. Sedna Orbit Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the location of the newly discovered planet-like object, dubbed 'Sedna,' in relation to the rest of the solar system. Starting at the inner solar system, which includes the orbits of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars (all in yellow), the view pulls away through the asteroid belt and the orbits of the outer planets beyond (green). Pluto and the distant Kuiper Belt objects are seen next until finally Sedna comes into view. As the field widens the full orbit of Sedna can be seen along with its current location. Sedna is nearing its closest approach to the Sun; its 10,000 year orbit typically takes it to far greater distances. Moving past Sedna, what was previously thought to be the inner edge of the Oort cloud appears. The Oort cloud is a spherical distribution of cold, icy bodies lying at the limits of the Sun's gravitational pull. Sedna's presence suggests that this Oort cloud is much closer than scientists believed.

  3. A Neptune Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Spilker, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of new analyses and mission/system designs for a low cost Neptune Orbiter mission. Science and measurement objectives, instrumentation, and mission/system design options are described and reflect an aggressive approach to the application of new advanced technologies expected to be available and developed over the next five to ten years.

  4. [Orbital neoplasms in children].

    PubMed

    Küchle, H J

    1989-04-01

    The incidence, diagnosis and clinical picture of the orbital tumors in children are discussed on the basis of 49 personal cases. Discovered was the preponderance of primary non-malignant tumors. The most frequently encountered tumors were angiomas (27 p.c.), dermatomas (19 p.c.) lymphomas (8 p.c.) and among the malignant tumors--rhabdomyosarcoma (6 p.c.).

  5. Electrostatic drops in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Isabel J.; Schmidt, Erin; Weislogel, Mark M.; Pettit, Donald

    2016-11-01

    We present what we think are the first intentional electrostatic orbits in the near-weightless environment of a drop tower. Classical physics problems involving Coulombic forces in orbital mechanics have traditionally been confined to thought experiments due to practical terrestrial experimental limitations, namely, the preponderance of gravity. However, the use of a drop tower as an experimental platform can overcome this challenge for brief periods. We demonstrate methanol-water droplets in orbit around a variety of charged objects- some of which can be used to validate special cases of N-body systems. Footage collected via a high-speed camera is analyzed and orbital trajectories are compared with existing theoretical predictions. Droplets of diameters 0.5 to 2mm in a variety of obits are observed. Due to the repeatability of drop tower initial conditions and effective low-g environment, such experiments may be used to construct empirical analogues and confirm analyses toward the benefit of other fields including space and planetary science. NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX12A047A, Portland State LSAMP, Robert E. McNair Scholars Program.

  6. Mars Climate Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor '98 Climate Orbiter is shown here during acoustic tests that simulate launch conditions. The orbiter was to conduct a two year primary mission to profile the Martian atmosphere and map the surface. To carry out these scientific objectives, the spacecraft carried a rebuilt version of the pressure modulated infrared radiometer, lost with the Mars Observer spacecraft, and a miniaturized dual camera system the size of a pair of binoculars, provided by Malin Space Science Systems, Inc., San Diego, California. During its primary mission, the orbiter was to monitor Mars atmosphere and surface globally on a daily basis for one Martian year (two Earth years), observing the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterizing seasonal changes of the planet's surface. Imaging of the surface morphology would also provide important clues about the planet's climate in its early history. The mission was part of NASA's Mars Surveyor program, a sustained program of robotic exploration of the red planet, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. Lockheed Martin Astronautics was NASA's industrial partner in the mission. Unfortunately, Mars Climate Orbiter burned up in the Martian atmosphere on September 23, 1999, due to a metric conversion error that caused the spacecraft to be off course.

  7. Orbital Fluid Transfer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, A. S., (Nick); Ryder, Mel; Tyler, Tony R.

    1998-01-01

    An automated fluid and power interface system needs to be developed for future space missions which require on orbit consumable replenishment. Current method of fluid transfer require manned vehicles and extravehicular activity. Currently the US does not have an automated capability for consumable transfer on-orbit. This technology would benefit both Space Station and long duration satellites. In order to provide this technology the Automated Fluid Interface System (AFIS) was developed. The AFIS project was an advanced development program aimed at developing a prototype satellite servicer for future space operations. This mechanism could transfer propellants, cryogens, fluids, gasses, electrical power, and communications from a tanker unit to the orbiting satellite. The development of this unit was a cooperative effort between Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and Moog, Inc. in East Aurora, New York. An engineering model was built and underwent substantial development testing at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). While the AFIS is not suitable for spaceflight, testing and evaluation of the AFIS provided significant experience which would be beneficial in building a flight unit. The lessons learned from testing the AFIS provided the foundation for the next generation fluid transfer mechanism, the Orbital Fluid Transfer System (OFTS). The OFTS project was a study contract with MSFC and Moog, Inc. The OFTS was designed for the International Space Station (ISS), but its flexible design could used for long duration satellite missions and other applications. The OFTS was designed to be used after docking. The primary function was to transfer bipropellants and high pressure gases. The other items addressed by this task included propellant storage, hardware integration, safety and control system issues. A new concept for high pressure couplings was also developed. The results of the AFIS testing provided an excellent basis for the OFTS design. The OFTS

  8. Shuttle on-orbit rendezvous targeting: Circular orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    The strategy and logic used in a space shuttle on-orbit rendezvous targeting program are described. The program generates ascent targeting conditions for boost to insertion into an intermediate parking orbit, and generates on-orbit targeting and timeline bases for each maneuver to effect rendezvous with a space station. Time of launch is determined so as to eliminate any plane change, and all work was performed for a near-circular space station orbit.

  9. Comparison of Low Earth Orbit and Geosynchronous Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The technological, environmental, social, and political ramifications of low Earth orbits as compared to geosynchronous Earth orbits for the solar power satellite (SPS) are assessed. The capital cost of the transmitting facilities is dependent on the areas of the antenna and rectenna relative to the requirement of high efficiency power transmission. The salient features of a low orbit Earth orbits are discussed in terms of cost reduction efforts.

  10. Prefrontal and Executive Attention Network Lesions and the Development of Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Symptomatology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey E.; Manes, Facundo F.; Robertson, Brigitte A.M.; Mathews, Katherine; Fox, Peter T.; Lancaster, Jack

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between focal stroke lesions of Posner's executive attention network and a specific region of interest in the frontal lobes (orbital frontal and mesial frontal) and either attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or traits of the disorder (ADHD symptomatology). Method: Twenty-nine children with…

  11. Close up view of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up view of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center. The view is a detail of the aft, starboard landing gear and a general view of the Thermal Protection System tiles around the landing-gear housing. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  12. Nodular lesions and mesangiolysis in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Wada, Takashi; Shimizu, Miho; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Iwata, Yasunori; Sakai, Yoshio; Kaneko, Shuichi; Furuichi, Kengo

    2013-02-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal failure all over the world. Advanced human diabetic nephropathy is characterized by the presence of specific lesions including nodular lesions, doughnut lesions, and exudative lesions. Thus far, animal models precisely mimicking advanced human diabetic nephropathy, especially nodular lesions, remain to be fully established. Animal models with spontaneous diabetic kidney diseases or with inducible kidney lesions may be useful for investigating the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Based on pathological features, we previously reported that diabetic glomerular nodular-like lesions were formed during the reconstruction process of mesangiolysis. Recently, we established nodular-like lesions resembling those seen in advanced human diabetic nephropathy through vascular endothelial injury and mesangiolysis by administration of monocrotaline. Here, in this review, we discuss diabetic nodular lesions and its animal models resembling human diabetic kidney lesions, with our hypothesis that endothelial cell injury and mesangiolysis might be required for nodular lesions.

  13. Helioseismology with Solar Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löptien, Björn; Birch, Aaron C.; Gizon, Laurent; Schou, Jesper; Appourchaux, Thierry; Blanco Rodríguez, Julián; Cally, Paul S.; Dominguez-Tagle, Carlos; Gandorfer, Achim; Hill, Frank; Hirzberger, Johann; Scherrer, Philip H.; Solanki, Sami K.

    2015-12-01

    The Solar Orbiter mission, to be launched in July 2017, will carry a suite of remote sensing and in-situ instruments, including the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (PHI). PHI will deliver high-cadence images of the Sun in intensity and Doppler velocity suitable for carrying out novel helioseismic studies. The orbit of the Solar Orbiter spacecraft will reach a solar latitude of up to 21∘ (up to 34∘ by the end of the extended mission) and thus will enable the first local helioseismology studies of the polar regions. Here we consider an array of science objectives to be addressed by helioseismology within the baseline telemetry allocation (51 Gbit per orbit, current baseline) and within the science observing windows (baseline 3×10 days per orbit). A particularly important objective is the measurement of large-scale flows at high latitudes (rotation and meridional flow), which are largely unknown but play an important role in flux transport dynamos. For both helioseismology and feature tracking methods convection is a source of noise in the measurement of longitudinally averaged large-scale flows, which decreases as T -1/2 where T is the total duration of the observations. Therefore, the detection of small amplitude signals (e.g., meridional circulation, flows in the deep solar interior) requires long observation times. As an example, one hundred days of observations at lower spatial resolution would provide a noise level of about three m/s on the meridional flow at 80∘ latitude. Longer time-series are also needed to study temporal variations with the solar cycle. The full range of Earth-Sun-spacecraft angles provided by the orbit will enable helioseismology from two vantage points by combining PHI with another instrument: stereoscopic helioseismology will allow the study of the deep solar interior and a better understanding of the physics of solar oscillations in both quiet Sun and sunspots. We have used a model of the PHI instrument to study its

  14. SPECS: Orbital debris removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The debris problem has reached a stage at which the risk to satellites and spacecraft has become substantial in low Earth orbit (LEO). This research discovered that small particles posed little threat to spacecraft because shielding can effectively prevent these particles from damaging the spacecraft. The research also showed that, even though collision with a large piece of debris could destroy the spacecraft, the large pieces of debris pose little danger because they can be tracked and the spacecraft can be maneuvered away from these pieces. Additionally, there are many current designs to capture and remove large debris particles from the space environment. From this analysis, it was decided to concentrate on the removal of medium-sized orbital debris, that is, those pieces ranging from 1 cm to 50 cm in size. The current design incorporates a transfer vehicle and a netting vehicle to capture the medium-sized debris. The system is based near an operational space station located at 28.5 deg inclination and 400 km altitude. The system uses ground-based tracking to determine the location of a satellite breakup or debris cloud. These data are uploaded to the transfer vehicle, which proceeds to rendezvous with the debris at a lower altitude parking orbit. Next, the netting vehicle is deployed, tracks the targeted debris, and captures it. After expending the available nets, the netting vehicle returns to the transfer vehicle for a new netting module and continues to capture more debris in the target area. Once all the netting modules are expended, the transfer vehicle returns to the space station's orbit where it is resupplied with new netting modules from a space shuttle load. The new modules are launched by the shuttle from the ground and the expended modules are taken back to Earth for removal of the captured debris, refueling, and repacking of the nets. Once the netting modules are refurbished, they are taken back into orbit for reuse. In a typical mission, the

  15. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Highlights

    NASA Video Gallery

    Since launch on June 18, 2009 as a precursor mission, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has remained in orbit around the moon, collecting vast amounts of science data in support of NASA's expl...

  16. The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, R. C.; Hendrix, M. K.; Fox, J. C.; Thomas, D. J.; Nicholson, J.

    1986-01-01

    The hardware and software of NASA's proposed Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) are described. The OARE is to provide aerodynamic acceleration measurements along the Orbiter's principal axis in the free-molecular flow-flight regime at orbital attitude and in the transition regime during reentry. Models considering the effects of electromagnetic effects, solar radiation pressure, orbiter mass attraction, gravity gradient, orbital centripetal acceleration, out-of-orbital-plane effects, orbiter angular velocity, structural noise, mass expulsion signal sources, crew motion, and bias on acceleration are examined. The experiment contains an electrostatically balanced cylindrical proofmass accelerometer sensor with three orthogonal sensing axis outputs. The components and functions of the experimental calibration system and signal processor and control subsystem are analyzed. The development of the OARE software is discussed. The experimental equipment will be enclosed in a cover assembly that will be mounted in the Orbiter close to the center of gravity.

  17. Microorganisms in closed periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Abou-Rass, M; Bogen, G

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the microorganisms of strictly selected closed periapical lesions associated with both refractory endodontic therapy and pulpal calcification. Definitive criteria were established that assured complete clinical isolation of the periapical lesion from the oral and periodontal environment. A total of 13 criteria-referenced lesions were selected from 70 patients with endodontic surgical indications. A well controlled culturing method was used in all cases and samples were taken by one clinician at three separate sites during each surgery. Samples taken at the surgical window and within the body of the lesion served as controls, whilst a third sample was taken at the apex. In all 13 cases, samples taken from the apex yielded microorganisms comprising 63.6% obligate anaerobes and 36.4% facultative anaerobes. Prevalence of the isolated species was 31.8% for Actinomyces sp., 22.7% Propionibacterium sp., 18.2% Streptococcus sp., 13.6% Staphlyococcus sp., 4.6% Porphyromonas gingivalis, 4.6% Peptostreptococcus micros and 4.6% Gram-negative enterics. The results of this investigation indicate that closed periapical lesions associated with calcified teeth or those resistant to root canal treatment harbour bacteria. The inability to eradicate all root canal microorganisms during root canal treatment, along with anatomical factors, may allow further bacterial colonization of the root apex and surrounding periapical tissues, and consequently prevent healing.

  18. Orbitals and orbital energies in DFT and TDDFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baerends, Evert Jan

    The status and meaning of orbitals and orbital energies in the Kohn-Sham one-electron model of DFT has been controversial, in contrast to Hartree-Fock orbitals and orbital energies. We will argue the opposite: the exact Kohn-Sham orbitals of DFT are ''better'' than HF orbitals and their orbital energies are much closer to ionization energies than HF orbital energies are. This follows from the relation between the KS potential and the wavefunction, which can be cast in the form vs =vc , kin +vH +vxchole +vresp, where each term depends on the KS orbitals and the wavefunction (the one- or two-particle density matrices). The response potential vresp (r) = ∑ j ∞|/dj(r) | 2 ρ (r) Ij - ∑ i H|/ψs , i(r) | 2 ρ (r) (-ɛi) (dj is the Dyson orbital corresponding to ion state ΨjN - 1 , ψs , i is a Kohn-Sham orbital) enables the connection between ionization energies Ii and orbital energies ɛi to be made. For virtual orbitals and orbital energies similar statements can be made: the shapes and energies of the (exact) KS orbitals are much more realistic than those of the Hartree-Fock model or hybrid functionals. The HOMO-LUMO gap in molecules is very close to the optical gap, and very different from the fundamental gap. In solids the situation is very different, which is the well-known ''KS gap problem''. Again the response potential vresp (a good approximation to it) helps to solve this problem, affording a straigtforward correction method of the KS gap to the fundamental gap.

  19. [A case of primary intraosseous cavernous hemangioma extending from the orbital rim to the sphenoid wing: a case report].

    PubMed

    Inaka, Yasufumi; Otani, Naoki; Nishida, Sho; Kumagai, Kohsuke; Fujii, Kazuya; Ueno, Hideaki; Tomiyama, Arata; Tomura, Satoshi; Osada, Hideo; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2014-11-01

    A primary intraosseous cavernous hemangioma located at the sphenoid bone with extensive involvement of the orbital roof and the lateral wall of the orbit is very rare. A 48-year-old woman presented with progressive right exophthalmos and diplopia. CT showed a bony mass lesion in the right sphenoid bone extending to the orbital bone. MRI showed an abnormal lesion in the sphenoid bone, which was heterogeneously enhanced with gadolinium. All of the abnormal bone was surgically removed, and histological examination confirmed a cavernous angioma. We also present a brief clinical and radiological review of seven previously reported cases.

  20. Leiomyosarcoma of the uterus with sphenoid bone and orbital metastases.

    PubMed

    Su, Grant W; Hong, Sang H

    2007-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman presented with a 1-week history of vision loss in the right eye associated with proptosis and diplopia. Past medical history was significant for high-grade leiomyosarcoma of the uterus status post total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and postoperative pelvic radiation 18 months prior to presentation. Staging studies at the time of initial diagnosis of uterine leiomyosarcoma showed no evidence for metastatic disease. At presentation, CT and MRI showed a well-circumscribed 3.0 cm x 3.6 cm x 2.4 cm mass centered in the right greater sphenoid wing, extending into the middle cranial fossa and the superior and lateral orbital wall. Biopsy of the orbital mass revealed a poorly differentiated high-grade leiomyosarcoma, consistent with recurrent metastatic disease from the uterus. The patient subsequently underwent radiation treatment followed by a left orbital exenteration 6 months after the orbital biopsy. A left thoracostomy was performed 8 months after the orbital biopsy for a metastatic nodule in the left lower lobe of the lung. The clinicopathologic findings of this rare metastatic orbital lesion are presented.

  1. Spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onffroy, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibilty of a spectrophotovoltaic orbital power generation system that optically concentrates solar energy is demonstrated. A dichroic beam-splitting mirror is used to divide the solar spectrum into two wavebands. Absorption of these wavebands by GaAs and Si solar cell arrays with matched energy bandgaps increases the cell efficiency while decreasing the amount of heat that must be rejected. The projected cost per peak watt if this system is $2.50/W sub p.

  2. 'Spider' in Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    View of the Apollo 9 Lunar Module 'Spider' in a lunar landing configuration photographed by Command Module pilot David Scott inside the Command/Service Module 'Gumdrop' on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The landing gear on 'Spider' has been deployed. lunar surface probes (sensors) extend out from the landing gear foot pads. Inside the 'Spider' were astronauts James A. McDivitt, Apollo 9 Commander; and Russell L. Schweickart, Lunar Module pilot.

  3. Orbital Debris Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation outlne: (1) The NASA Orbital Debris (OD) Engineering Model -- A mathematical model capable of predicting OD impact risks for the ISS and other critical space assets (2) The NASA OD Evolutionary Model -- A physical model capable of predicting future debris environment based on user-specified scenarios (3) The NASA Standard Satellite Breakup Model -- A model describing the outcome of a satellite breakup (explosion or collision)

  4. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  5. An Orbit Plan toward AKATSUKI Venus Reencounter and Orbit Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Campagnola, Stefano; Hirose, Chikako; Ishii, Nobuaki

    2012-01-01

    On December 7, 2010, AKATSUKI, the Japanese Venus explorer reached its destination and tried to inject itself into Venus orbit. However, due to a malfunction of the propulsion system, the maneuver was interrupted and AKATSUKI again escaped out from the Venus into an interplanetary orbit. Telemetry data from AKATSUKI suggests the possibility to perform orbit maneuvers to reencounter the Venus and retry Venus orbit injection. Reported in this paper is an orbit plan investigated under this situation. The latest results reflecting the maneuvers conducted in the autumn 2011 is introduced as well.

  6. Circular-Orbit Maintenance Strategies for Primitive Body Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Mark S.; Broschart, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    For missions to smaller primitive bodies, solar radiation pressure (SRP) is a significant perturbation to Keplerian dynamics. For most orbits, SRP drives large oscillations in orbit eccentricity, which leads to large perturbations from the irregular gravity field at periapsis. Ultimately, chaotic motion results that often escapes or impacts that body. This paper presents an orbit maintenance strategy to keep the orbit eccentricity small, thus avoiding the destabilizing secondary interaction with the gravity field. An estimate of the frequency and magnitude of the required maneuvers as a function of the orbit and body parameters is derived from the analytic perturbation equations.

  7. Orbiter Autoland reliability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, D. Phillip

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter is the only space reentry vehicle in which the crew is seated upright. This position presents some physiological effects requiring countermeasures to prevent a crewmember from becoming incapacitated. This also introduces a potential need for automated vehicle landing capability. Autoland is a primary procedure that was identified as a requirement for landing following and extended duration orbiter mission. This report documents the results of the reliability analysis performed on the hardware required for an automated landing. A reliability block diagram was used to evaluate system reliability. The analysis considers the manual and automated landing modes currently available on the Orbiter. (Autoland is presently a backup system only.) Results of this study indicate a +/- 36 percent probability of successfully extending a nominal mission to 30 days. Enough variations were evaluated to verify that the reliability could be altered with missions planning and procedures. If the crew is modeled as being fully capable after 30 days, the probability of a successful manual landing is comparable to that of Autoland because much of the hardware is used for both manual and automated landing modes. The analysis indicates that the reliability for the manual mode is limited by the hardware and depends greatly on crew capability. Crew capability for a successful landing after 30 days has not been determined yet.

  8. [Bone lesion in multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Ise, Mikiko; Takagi, Toshiyuki

    2007-12-01

    Bone destruction is a hallmark of multiple myeloma(MM). Almost all MM patients develop osteolytic bone lesions that can cause pathologic fractures and severe bone pain. Osteolytic lesions result from increased bone resorption due to osteoclast stimulation and decreased bone formation due to osteoblast inhibition. Plain radiography, CT, and MRI are established imaging techniques in MM. FDG-PET imaging is promising newer scanning technique under current evaluation. The aggressive features of MM bone lesions have significantly contributed to poor prognosis. Therefore, a systemic approach to analgesia, which includes radiotherapy and orthopedic intervention, must be applied as a part of the comprehensive care plan of MM patient. Bisphosphonates have been shown to reduce vertebral fractures and bone pain.

  9. Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659

  10. Renal lesions of nondomestic felids.

    PubMed

    Newkirk, K M; Newman, S J; White, L A; Rohrbach, B W; Ramsay, E C

    2011-05-01

    To comprehensively evaluate the occurrence of renal lesions in a variety of nondomestic felids, necropsy cases from 1978 to 2008 were reviewed from a municipal zoo and a large cat sanctuary for those in which the kidneys were examined histologically. Seventy exotic felids were identified (25 tigers, 18 lions, 6 cougars, 5 leopards, 3 snow leopards, 3 clouded leopards, 3 Canadian lynx, 2 ocelots, 2 bobcats, 2 cheetahs, 1 jaguar), and their histologic renal lesions were evaluated and compared. The most common lesion was tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN); 36 of 70 (51%) cats were affected to some degree. Lymphocytic interstitial nephritis was the most common lesion in the tigers (9 of 25, 36%) and was rarely seen in other species. Although the renal pelvis was not available for all cats, 28 of 47 (60%) had some degree of lymphocytic pyelitis. There was no significant association between the presence of pyelitis and that of TIN. Only 1 cat had pyelonephritis. Renal papillary necrosis was present in 13 of 70 (19%) cats and was significantly associated with historical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment (odds ratio, 7.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.9 to 26.8). Only 1 cat (lion) had amyloid accumulation, and it was restricted to the corticomedullary junction. Primary glomerular lesions were absent in all cats. Intraepithelial pigment was identified in many of the cats but was not correlated with severity of TIN. Despite several previous reports describing primary glomerular disease or renal amyloidosis in exotic felids, these lesions were rare to absent in this population.

  11. Can Small Lesions Induce Language Reorganization as Large Lesions Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestu, Fernando; Saldana, Cristobal; Amo, Carlos; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Mercedes; Fernandez, Alberto; Fernandez, Santiago; Mata, Pedro; Papanicolaou, Andrew; Ortiz, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    Shift of the cortical mechanisms of language from the usually dominant left to the non-dominant right hemisphere has been demonstrated in the presence of large brain lesions. Here, we report a similar phenomenon in a patient with a cavernoma over the anterolateral superior temporal gyrus associated with epilepsy. Language mapping was performed by…

  12. Cutaneous lesions of the nose

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Skin diseases on the nose are seen in a variety of medical disciplines. Dermatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, general practitioners and general plastic and dermatologic surgeons are regularly consulted regarding cutaneous lesions on the nose. This article is the second part of a review series dealing with cutaneous lesions on the head and face, which are frequently seen in daily practice by a dermatologic surgeon. In this review, we focus on those skin diseases on the nose where surgery or laser therapy is considered a possible treatment option or that can be surgically evaluated. PMID:20525327

  13. Lesion detectability in digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagne, Robert M.; Boswell, Jonathan S.; Myers, Kyle J.; Peter, Guillaume

    2001-06-01

    The usefulness of Fourier-based measures of imaging performance has come into question for the evaluation of digital imaging systems. Figures of merit such as detective quantum efficiency are relevant for linear, shift-invariant systems with stationary noise. However, no digital imaging system is shift invariant, and realistic images do not satisfy the stationarity condition. Our methods for task- based evaluation of imaging systems, based on lesion detectability, do not require such assumptions. We have computed the performance of Hotelling and nonprewhitening matched-filter observers for the task of lesion detection in digital radiography.

  14. Global Orbit Feedback in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, M.; Hulsart, R.; Marusic, A.; Michnoff, R.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Satogata, T.

    2010-05-23

    For improved reproducibility of good operating conditions and ramp commissioning efficiency, new dual-plane slow orbit feedback during the energy ramp was implemented during run-10 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The orbit feedback is based on steering the measured orbit, after subtraction of the dispersive component, to either a design orbit or to a previously saved reference orbit. Using multiple correctors and beam position monitors, an SVD-based algorithm is used for determination of the applied corrections. The online model is used as a basis for matrix computations. In this report we describe the feedback design, review the changes made to realize its implementation, and assess system performance.

  15. Orbital maneuvers and space rendezvous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butikov, Eugene I.

    2015-12-01

    Several possibilities of launching a space vehicle from the orbital station are considered and compared. Orbital maneuvers discussed in the paper can be useful in designing a trajectory for a specific space mission. The relative motion of orbiting bodies is investigated on examples of spacecraft rendezvous with the space station that stays in a circular orbit around the Earth. An elementary approach is illustrated by an accompanying simulation computer program and supported by a mathematical treatment based on fundamental laws of physics and conservation laws. Material is appropriate for engineers and other personnel involved in space exploration, undergraduate and graduate students studying classical physics and orbital mechanics.

  16. Lunar Prospector Orbit Determination Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Mark; Concha, Marco

    1998-01-01

    The orbit support for Lunar Prospector (LP) consists of three main areas: (1) cislunar orbit determination, (2) rapid maneuver assessment using Doppler residuals, and (3) routine mapping orbit determination. The cislunar phase consisted of two trajectory correction maneuvers during the translunar cruise followed by three lunar orbit insertion burns. This paper will detail the cislunar orbit determination accuracy and the real-time assessment of the cislunar trajectory correction and lunar orbit insertion maneuvers. The non-spherical gravity model of the Moon is the primary influence on the mapping orbit determination accuracy. During the first two months of the mission, the GLGM-2 lunar potential model was used. After one month in the mapping orbit, a new potential model was developed that incorporated LP Doppler data. This paper will compare and contrast the mapping orbit determination accuracy using these two models. LP orbit support also includes a new enhancement - a web page to disseminate all definitive and predictive trajectory and mission planning information. The web site provides definitive mapping orbit ephemerides including moon latitude and longitude, and four week predictive products including: ephemeris, moon latitude/longitude, earth shadow, moon shadow, and ground station view periods. This paper will discuss the specifics of this web site.

  17. Orbital Debris: A Policy Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing orbital debris from a policy perspective is shown. The contents include: 1) Voyage through near-Earth Space-animation; 2) What is Orbital Debris?; 3) Orbital Debris Detectors and Damage Potential; 4) Hubble Space Telescope; 5) Mir Space Station Solar Array; 6) International Space Station; 7) Space Shuttle; 8) Satellite Explosions; 9) Satellite Collisions; 10) NASA Orbital Debris Mitigation Guidelines; 11) International Space Station Jettison Policy; 12) Controlled/Uncontrolled Satellite Reentries; 13) Return of Space Objects; 14) Orbital Debris and U.S. National Space Policy; 15) U.S Government Policy Strategy; 16) Bankruptcy of the Iridium Satellite System; 17) Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC); 18) Orbital Debris at the United Nations; 19) Chinese Anti-satellite System; 20) Future Evolution of Satellite Population; and 21) Challenge of Orbital Debris

  18. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  19. Cystic Lesions in Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gompertz, Macarena; Morales, Claudia; Aldana, Hernán; Castillo, Jaime; Berger, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) can be chronic or recurrent, but frequently completely reversible after steroid treatment. A cystic lesion in AIP is a rare finding, and it can mimic a pancreatic cystic neoplasm. Difficulties in an exact diagnosis interfere with treatment, and surgery cannot be avoided in some cases. We report the history of a 63-year-old male presenting with jaundice and pruritus. AIP was confirmed by imaging and elevated IgG4 blood levels, and the patient completely recovered after corticosteroid therapy. One year later, he presented with a recurrent episode of AIP with elevated IgG4 levels, accompanied by the appearance of multiple intrapancreatic cystic lesions. All but 1 of these cysts disappeared after steroid treatment, but the remaining cyst in the pancreatic head was even somewhat larger 1 year later. Pancreatoduodenectomy was finally performed. Histology showed the wall of the cystic lesion to be fibrotic; the surrounding pancreatic tissue presented fibrosis, atrophy and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration by IgG4-positive cells, without malignant elements. Our case illustrates the rare possibility that cystic lesions can be part of AIP. These pseudocysts appear in the pancreatic segments involved in the autoimmune disease and can be a consequence of the local inflammation or related to ductal strictures. Steroid treatment should be initiated, after which these cysts can completely disappear with recovery from AIP. Surgical intervention may be necessary in some exceptional cases.

  20. Orbiter door closure tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acres, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    Safe reentry of the shuttle orbiter requires that the payload bay doors be closed and securely latched. Since a malfunction in the door drive or bulkhead latch systems could make safe reentry impossible, the requirement to provide tools to manually close and secure the doors was implemented. The tools would disconnect a disabled door or latch closure system and close and secure the doors if the normal system failed. The tools required to perform these tasks have evolved into a set that consists of a tubing cutter, a winch, a latching tool, and a bolt extractor. The design, fabrication, and performance tests of each tool are described.

  1. Hypervelocity Orbital Intercept Guidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-14

    Professor Charles E. Fosha, Jr. Terminal guidance of a hypervelocity exo-atmospheric orbital interceptor with free end-time is examined. The pursuer is...stochastic nonlinear systems with free end-time was developed by Tse and 29 Bar-Shalom [5]. This method differs from the optimal control formulation...Vol. AC-18, No. 2, April 1973, pp. 98-108. 5. Tse, E., and Y. Bar-Shalom, "Adaptive Dual Control For Stochastic Nonlinear Systems with Free End- Time

  2. Lunar Exploration Orbiter (LEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Spohn, T.; Hiesinger, H.; Jessberger, E. K.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Helbert, J.; Christensen, U.; Keller, H. U.; Mall, U.; Böhnhardt, H.; Hartogh, P.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H.-U.; Moreira, A.; Werner, M.; Pätzold, M.; Palme, H.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.; Mandea, M.; Lesur, V.; Häusler, B.; Hördt, A.; Eichentopf, K.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Köhler, U.; Kührt, E.; Michaelis, H.; Pauer, M.; Sohl, F.; Denk, T.; van Gasselt, S.

    2007-08-01

    The Moon is an integral part of the Earth-Moon system, it is a witness to more than 4.5 b. y. of solar system history, and it is the only planetary body except Earth for which we have samples from known locations. The Moon is our closest companion and can easily be reached from Earth at any time, even with a relatively modest financial budget. Consequently, the Moon was the first logical step in the exploration of our solar system before we pursued more distant targets such as Mars and beyond. The vast amount of knowledge gained from the Apollo and other lunar missions of the late 1960's and early 1970's demonstrates how valuable the Moon is for the understanding of our planetary system. Even today, the Moon remains an extremely interesting target scientifically and technologically, as ever since, new data have helped to address some of our questions about the Earth-Moon system, many questions remained. Therefore, returning to the Moon is the critical stepping-stone to further exploring our immediate planetary neighborhood. In this concept study, we present scientific and technological arguments for a national German lunar mission, the Lunar Explorations Orbiter (LEO). Numerous space-faring nations have realized and identified the unique opportunities related to lunar exploration and have planned missions to the Moon within the next few years. Among these missions, LEO will be unique, because it will globally explore the Moon in unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. LEO will significantly improve our understanding of the lunar surface composition, surface ages, mineralogy, physical properties, interior, thermal history, gravity field, regolith structure, and magnetic field. The Lunar Explorations Orbiter will carry an entire suite of innovative, complementary technologies, including high-resolution camera systems, several spectrometers that cover previously unexplored parts of the electromagnetic spectrum over a broad range of wavelengths, microwave and

  3. Periodic orbits for three and four co-orbital bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrier, P. E.; McInnes, C. R.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the natural families of periodic orbits associated with the equilibrium configurations of the planar-restricted 1 + n-body problem for the case 2 ≤ n ≤ 4 equal-mass satellites. Such periodic orbits can be used to model both trojan exoplanetary systems and parking orbits for captured asteroids within the Solar system. For n = 2, there are two families of periodic orbits associated with the equilibria of the system: the well-known horseshoe and tadpole orbits. For n = 3, there are three families that emanate from the equilibrium configurations of the satellites, while for n = 4, there are six such families as well as numerous additional connecting families. The families of periodic orbits are all of the horseshoe or tadpole type, and several have regions of neutral linear stability.

  4. Resonant and secular orbital interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke

    In stable solar systems, planets remain in nearly elliptical orbits around their stars. Over longer timescales, however, their orbital shapes and sizes change due to mutual gravitational perturbations. Orbits of satellites around a planet vary for the same reason. Because of their interactions, the orbits of planets and satellites today are different from what they were earlier. In order to determine their original orbits, which are critical constraints on formation theories, it is crucial to understand how orbits evolve over the age of the Solar System. Depending on their timescale, we classify orbital interactions as either short-term (orbital resonances) or long-term (secular evolution). My work involves examples of both interaction types. Resonant history of the small Neptunian satellites. In satellite systems, tidal migration brings satellite orbits in and out of resonances. During a resonance passage, satellite orbits change dramatically in a very short period of time. We investigate the resonant history of the six small Neptunian moons. In this unique system, the exotic orbit of the large captured Triton (with a circular, retrograde, and highly tilted orbit) influences the resonances among the small satellites very strongly. We derive an analytical framework which can be applied to Neptune's satellites and to similar systems. Our numerical simulations explain the current orbital tilts of the small satellites as well as constrain key physical parameters of both Neptune and its moons. Secular orbital interactions during eccentricity damping. Long-term periodic changes of orbital shape and orientation occur when two or more planets orbit the same star. The variations of orbital elements are superpositions of the same number of fundamental modes as the number of planets in the system. We investigate how this effect interacts with other perturbations imposed by external disturbances, such as the tides and relativistic effects. Through analytical studies of a

  5. Management Strategies in Rosai-Dorfman Disease: To Do or Not To Do.

    PubMed

    Shrirao, Neha; Sethi, Aditya; Mukherjee, Bipasha

    2016-10-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease or sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy is an extremely rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Orbital involvement is even rarer and may be accompanied by lymph node involvement. Treatment options range from systemic steroids and immunosuppressants to radiation and debulking. We present a rare case of bilateral orbital sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy with cervical and circumaortic lymphadenopathy.

  6. Optimal Continuous Thrust Orbital Evasive Maneuvers from Geosynchronous Orbit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    control thrusters, if its warning time and orbital parameters were appropriate. A model is developed using optimal control theory and is solved numericaly...Maneuvers of a Spacecraft Relative to a Point in Circular Orbit ,’ Journal of Guidance, Control . and Dynamics. 9(l): 27-31 (January -February 1966). 10... Elliptical Orbit ," Joursal of Guidance. Control . and Drjsmakjs1 (4: 271-275 (July- August 1979). 22. Meirovitch, Leonard. Methods of Anakytical Dynamics

  7. Orbital debris issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, D. J.

    Orbital debris issues fall into three major topics: Environment Definition, Spacecraft Hazard, and Space Object Management. The major issue under Environment Definition is defining the debris flux for sizes smaller (10 cm in diameter) than those tracked by the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD). Sources for this size debris are fragmentation of larger objects, either by explosion or collision, and solid rocket motor products. Modeling of these sources can predict fluxes in low Earth orbit which are greater than the meteoroid environment. Techniques to measure the environment in the size interval between 1 mm and 10 cm are being developed, including the use of telescopes and radar both on the ground and in space. Some impact sensors designed to detect meteoroids may have detected solid rocket motor products. Once the environment is defined, it can be combined with hypervelocity impact data and damage criteria to evaluate the Spacecraft Hazard. Shielding may be required to obtain an acceptable damage level. Space Object Management includes techniques to control the environment and the desired policy to effectively minimize the hazard to spacecraft. One control technique - reducing the likelihood of future explosions in space - has already been implemented by NASA. The effectiveness of other techniques has yet to be evaluated.

  8. Orbital construction demonstration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A conceptual design and program plan for an Orbital Construction Demonstration Article (OCDA) was developed that can be used for evaluating and establishing practical large structural assembly operations. A flight plan for initial placement and continued utility is presented as a basic for an entirely new shuttle payload line-item having great future potential benefit for space applications. The OCDA is a three-axis stabilized platform in low-earth orbit with many structural nodals for mounting large construction and fabrication equipments. This equipment would be used to explore methods for constructing the large structures for future missions. The OCDA would be supported at regular intervals by the shuttle. Construction experiments and consumables resupply are performed during shuttle visit periods. A 250 kw solar array provides sufficient power to support the shuttle while attached to the OCDA and to run construction experiments at the same time. Wide band communications with a Telemetry and Data Relay Satellite compatible high gain antenna can be used between shuttle revisits to perform remote controlled, TV assisted construction experiments.

  9. General view of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center showing the payload bay doors open exposing the heat-dissipating radiator panels located on the inside of the payload bay doors. Also in the view is the boom portion of the boom sensor system deployed as part of the return to flight procedures after STS-107 to inspect the orbiter's thermal protection system. The Remote Manipulator System, the "Canadarm", and the airlock are seen in the background of the image. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  10. Orbital Evolution and Impact Hazard of Asteroids on Retrograde Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankiewicz, P.; Włodarczyk, I.

    2014-07-01

    We present the past evolutional scenarios of known group of asteroids in retrograde orbits. Applying the latest observational data, we determined their nominal and averaged orbital elements. Next, we studied the behaviour of their orbital motion 1~My in the past (100~My in the future for two NEAs) taking into account the limitations of observational errors. It has been shown that the influence of outer planets perturbations in many cases can import small bodies on high inclination or retrograde orbits into the inner Solar System.

  11. The orbit properties of colliding co-orbiting bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, John W.

    1987-01-01

    It is generally assumed that an ensemble of small bodies located in similar Keplarian orbits will, because of collisions, tend to disperse into more and more dissimilar orbits. This theory was challenged. Alfven maintains that for the case where the time between collisions is longer than the orbit period and the collisions are essentially inelastic the orbits and velocities will become more similar. This gives rise to the concepts of negative diffusion and jet streams. It is proposed that this question might be investigated experimentally using the space station. The proposed experiment is briefly described.

  12. Hock lesions and free-stall design.

    PubMed

    Weary, D M; Taszkun, I

    2000-04-01

    We compared the prevalence and severity of skin lesions on the hocks of lactating dairy cows in southern British Columbia, comparing 20 farms using three common bedding surfaces: sawdust, sand, and geotextile mattresses. Skin lesions were scored at five positions on the hock. For each position we noted if the lesion showed inflammatory attributes, and then assigned a severity score. Of the 1752 lactating cows scored, 1267 cows (73%) had at least one hock lesion. Of those cows with lesions, 87% had lesions on both legs, 76% had lesions on more than one location on the hock, and 78% had a lesion of at least moderate severity (i.e., evidence of skin breakage or an area of hair loss >10 cm2). Lesions were most prevalent on farms that used geotextile mattresses (91% of cows) and least common on farms that used sand (24% of cows). Moreover, lesions on cows from farms using mattresses were more numerous and more severe than those on cows from sand-bedded farms. The prevalence and severity of lesions on farms using sawdust was intermediate. Lesions also varied in relation to location on the hock. For farms using geotextile mattresses, lesions were more common and more severe on the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. On farms using sawdust, lesions were common on the dorsal surface of the tuber calcis and the lateral surfaces of both the tuber calcis and the tarsal joint. Lesions were rare on all five positions for cows from sand-bedded farms. Among the 10 farms sampled using sawdust, we found a significant negative relationship between the length of the stall and severity of lesions. For cows with lesions, the number and severity of lesions increased with age.

  13. Covalently Linked Tandem Lesions in DNA

    PubMed Central

    Patrzyc, Helen B.; Dawidzik, Jean B.; Budzinski, Edwin E.; Freund, Harold G.; Wilton, John H.; Box, Harold C.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generate a type of DNA damage called tandem lesions, two adjacent nucleotides both modified. A subcategory of tandem lesions consists of adjacent nucleotides linked by a covalent bond. Covalently linked tandem lesions generate highly characteristic liquid chromotography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) elution profiles. We have used this property to comprehensively survey X-irradiated DNA for covalently linked tandem lesions. A total of 15 tandem lesions were detected in DNA irradiated in deoxygenated aqueous solution, five tandem lesions were detected in DNA that was irradiated in oxygenated solution. PMID:23106212

  14. Orbital Metastasis of Breast Cancer Mimicking Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Hazboun, Igor Moreira; Sakuma, Emerson Taro Inoue; Sampaio, Marcelo Hamilton

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. A range of traumatic, vascular, inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic processes can affect the orbit and its structures. In the area of otolaryngology, the rhino-orbital-cerebral involvement of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis can affect the orbit, which may look like initially a rhinosinusitis or even mimic malignancy. Case Presentation. Female patient, 32 years old, with headache and ocular proptosis. She was using prednisone in immunosuppressive doses for a year and had breast cancer treated three years earlier. The initial CT scan showed opacification of the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses, left intraorbital involvement and contrast impregnation in the cavernous sinus. The biopsy resulted positive for invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. Discussion. The initial CT scan of our patient showed both signs of early changes of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFR) and possible metastatic involvement. The intracranial extension and ocular involvement are usually the most common signs of IFR (first hypothesis). Among metastases at the orbit and the eye, breast and lung carcinomas are the most frequent. Conclusion. Although several studies on the differential diagnosis of orbital lesions exist, especially when it concerns the involvement of the nasal cavity, the diagnosis by imaging is still a challenge. PMID:27563478

  15. Precise Orbit Determination for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Ryo; Nakamura, Shinichi; Kudo, Nobuo; Katagiri, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has been developed to contribute to the fields of mapping, precise regional land coverage observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Because the mounted sensors need high geometrical accuracy, precise orbit determination for ALOS is essential for satisfying the mission objectives. So ALOS mounts a GPS receiver and a Laser Reflector (LR) for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). This paper deals with the precise orbit determination experiments for ALOS using Global and High Accuracy Trajectory determination System (GUTS) and the evaluation of the orbit determination accuracy by SLR data. The results show that, even though the GPS receiver loses lock of GPS signals more frequently than expected, GPS-based orbit is consistent with SLR-based orbit. And considering the 1 sigma error, orbit determination accuracy of a few decimeters (peak-to-peak) was achieved.

  16. Energy Ordering of Molecular Orbitals

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Orbitals are invaluable in providing a model of bonding in molecules or between molecules and surfaces. Most present-day methods in computational chemistry begin by calculating the molecular orbitals of the system. To what extent have these mathematical objects analogues in the real world? To shed light on this intriguing question, we employ a photoemission tomography study on monolayers of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) grown on three Ag surfaces. The characteristic photoelectron angular distribution enables us to assign individual molecular orbitals to the emission features. When comparing the resulting energy positions to density functional calculations, we observe deviations in the energy ordering. By performing complete active space calculations (CASSCF), we can explain the experimentally observed orbital ordering, suggesting the importance of static electron correlation beyond a (semi)local approximation. On the other hand, our results also show reality and robustness of the orbital concept, thereby making molecular orbitals accessible to experimental observations. PMID:27935313

  17. Analysis of 43 cases of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH)-induced central diabetes insipidus registered in the JLSG-96 and JLSG-02 studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shioda, Yoko; Adachi, Souichi; Imashuku, Shinsaku; Kudo, Kazuko; Imamura, Toshihiko; Morimoto, Akira

    2011-12-01

    To determine the ability of recent systemic chemotherapy protocols to reduce the incidence of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), 43 CDI cases that belonged to a cohort of 348 pediatric patients with multi-focal LCH who were treated with the JLSG-96/-02 protocols were analyzed. The overall incidence of CDI was 12.4%, but in 24 cases CDI was already present at the time LCH was diagnosed. Thus, CDI developed during or after systemic chemotherapy over a follow-up period of 5.0 (0.2-14.7) years in only 19 patients (5.9%), with 7.4% at 5-year cumulative risk by Kaplan-Meier analysis. In two cases, complete resolution of CDI was noted. Anterior pituitary hormone deficiency was detected in 13 cases, while CDI-associated neurodegenerative disease was observed in six cases. The JLSG-96/-02 protocol appears to effectively reduce the occurrence of CDI. However, novel therapeutic measures are required to reverse pre-existing CDI and to prevent CDI-associated neurological complications.

  18. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis with cervical lymph node involvement, and coexistence with pulmonary tuberculosis and right pneumothorax: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Gao, Limin; Li, Huifang; Li, Gandi; Liu, Weiping; Li, Jinnan; Zhang, Wenyan

    2015-01-01

    We report an uncommon 22-year-old male Pulmonary Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (PLCH) case which co-existed with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Unlike the common PLCH cases, this PLCH case has cervical lymph node involvement and right pneumothorax. The diagnosis was established by the imaging of lung and the biopsies of the lung and left neck lymph node. Imaging of the chest showed characteristic small nodules and thin-walled cysts and right pneumothorax. The LCH cells in the lung and left neck lymph node were characterized by large convoluted nuclei with cerebriform indentations of the nuclear envelope and longitudinal grooves. The nuclei contained small eosinophilic nucleoli and moderate amount cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the histiocytoid cells were positive for Langerin, CD1a and S-100. Acid-fast bacilli were found in sputum and lung biopsy tissue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of PLCH with cervical lymph node involvement, and coexisted with pulmonary tuberculosis, right pneumothorax. A contribution of this case and review three of the five cases of PLCH with extrapulmonary involvement to lymph nodes resolved spontaneously after smoking cessation constitute a novel addition that it is inappropriate to regard pulmonary/nodal LCH as multi-organ or disseminated disease, and the treatment methods are the same whether the PLCH patient with lymph node involvement or not.

  19. Dieulafoy's lesion of the rectum.

    PubMed

    Gul, Y A; Jabbar, M F; Karim, F A; Moissinac, K

    2002-06-01

    Dieulafoy's lesion is an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal haemorrhage. It may present with massive and life threatening bleed and although more common in the upper gastrointestinal tract, it is being increasingly reported as affecting the lower gastrointestinal tract. Diagnosis is usually achieved during proctoscopic and endoscopic visualization. In cases where there is profuse and torrential hemorrhage, angiography may help to confirm the diagnosis. There are a few treatment options available, all of which have a varying degree of success. More commonly than not, a combination of treatment is warranted as illustrated by our case. Recurrent bleeding may occur just as in cases of Dieulafoy's lesion affecting the upper gastrointestinal tract. Even though endoscopic visualization of the lower gastrointestinal tract in the presence of profuse lower gastrointestinal haemorrhage may not be possible, this important procedure should not be omitted as the bleeding source may be lying in a low and accessible location for prompt interventional haemorrhage control.

  20. Adaptive interplanetary orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, Timothy Price

    This work documents the development of a real-time interplanetary orbit determination monitoring algorithm for detecting and identifying changes in the spacecraft dynamic and measurement environments. The algorithm may either be utilized in a stand-alone fashion as a spacecraft monitor and hypothesis tester by navigators or may serve as a component in an autonomous adaptive orbit determination architecture. In either application, the monitoring algorithm serves to identify the orbit determination filter parameters to be modified by an offline process to restore the operational model accuracy when the spacecraft environment changes unexpectedly. The monitoring algorithm utilizes a hierarchical mixture-of-experts to regulate a multilevel bank organization of extended Kalman filters. Banks of filters operate on the hierarchy top-level and are composed of filters with configurations representative of a specific environment change called a macromode. Fine differences, or micromodes, within the macromodes are represented by individual filter configurations. Regulation is provided by two levels of single-layer neural networks called gating networks. A single top-level gating network regulates the weighting among macromodes and each bank uses a gating network to regulate member filters internally. Experiments are conducted on the Mars Pathfinder cruise trajectory environment using range and Doppler data from the Deep Space Network. The experiments investigate the ability of the hierarchical mixture-of-experts to identify three environment macromodes: (1) unmodeled impulsive maneuvers, (2) changes in the solar radiation pressure dynamics, and (3) changes in the measurement noise strength. Two methods of initializing the gating networks are examined in each experiment. One method gives the neurons associated with all filters equivalent synaptic weight. The other method places greater weight on the operational filter initially believed to model the spacecraft environment. The

  1. 'Columbia Hills' from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view of the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater was made by draping an image from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter (image E0300012 from that camera) over a digital elevation model that was derived from two Mars Orbiter Camera images (E0300012 and R0200357).

    This unique view is helpful to the rover team members as they plan the journey of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit to the base of the Columbia Hills and beyond. Spirit successfully completed a three-month primary mission, and so far remains healthy in an extended mission of bonus exploration. As of sol 135 (on May 21, 2004), Spirit sits approximately 680 meters (0.4 miles) away from its first target at the western base of the hills, a spot informally called 'West Spur.' The team estimates that Spirit will reach West Spur by sol 146 (June 1, 2004). Spirit will most likely remain there for about a week to study the outcrops and rocks associated with this location.

    When done there, Spirit will head approximately 620 meters (0.38 miles) to a higher-elevation location informally called 'Lookout Point.' Spirit might reach Lookout Point by around sol 165 (June 20, 2004). On the way, the rover will pass by and study ripple-shaped wind deposits that may reveal more information about wind processes on Mars.

    Lookout Point will provide a great vantage point for scientists to remotely study the inner basin area of the Columbia Hills. This basin contains a broad range of interesting geological targets including the informally named 'Home Plate' and other possible layered outcrops. These features suggest that the hills contain rock layers. Spirit might investigate the layers to determine whether they are water-deposited sedimentary rock.

    Once at Lookout Point, Spirit will acquire 360-degree panoramic images of the entire area to help define the rover's next steps. Assuming the rover stays healthy, Spirit will eventually drive down into the basin to get an up

  2. Orbital State Uncertainty Realism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwood, J.; Poore, A. B.

    2012-09-01

    Fundamental to the success of the space situational awareness (SSA) mission is the rigorous inclusion of uncertainty in the space surveillance network. The *proper characterization of uncertainty* in the orbital state of a space object is a common requirement to many SSA functions including tracking and data association, resolution of uncorrelated tracks (UCTs), conjunction analysis and probability of collision, sensor resource management, and anomaly detection. While tracking environments, such as air and missile defense, make extensive use of Gaussian and local linearity assumptions within algorithms for uncertainty management, space surveillance is inherently different due to long time gaps between updates, high misdetection rates, nonlinear and non-conservative dynamics, and non-Gaussian phenomena. The latter implies that "covariance realism" is not always sufficient. SSA also requires "uncertainty realism"; the proper characterization of both the state and covariance and all non-zero higher-order cumulants. In other words, a proper characterization of a space object's full state *probability density function (PDF)* is required. In order to provide a more statistically rigorous treatment of uncertainty in the space surveillance tracking environment and to better support the aforementioned SSA functions, a new class of multivariate PDFs are formulated which more accurately characterize the uncertainty of a space object's state or orbit. The new distribution contains a parameter set controlling the higher-order cumulants which gives the level sets a distinctive "banana" or "boomerang" shape and degenerates to a Gaussian in a suitable limit. Using the new class of PDFs within the general Bayesian nonlinear filter, the resulting filter prediction step (i.e., uncertainty propagation) is shown to have the *same computational cost as the traditional unscented Kalman filter* with the former able to maintain a proper characterization of the uncertainty for up to *ten

  3. Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    the articulation between C1 and the os odontoideum on flexion imaging. The remainder of his cervical vertebral bodies had normal alignment with no...appears normal. Figure 3. Flexion view of plain cervical spine. This image shows abnormal translation of the articulation between C1 and the C2 os...worldwide. Peer Reviewed Title: Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion Journal Issue: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 12(4) Author: Robson

  4. Vascular lesions in lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Grishman, E; Venkataseshan, V S

    1988-05-01

    Three groups of kidney specimens from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were examined for histologic evidence of vascular lesions in small arteries and arterioles. Group 1 consisted of 24 autopsy kidneys from patients who died before the advent of steroid therapy, and Group 2, of 26 more recent autopsy specimens from patients treated with steroids and/or immunosuppressive drugs. Group 3 comprised 276 renal biopsies. Group 1 showed characteristic subendothelial eosinophilic deposits in small arteries and arterioles of 8 cases; Group 2 showed similar lesions in 5 specimens, while 3 others revealed evidence of resorption of deposits. Deposits were characterized by clumping and were delimited toward the media by a thick basement membrane. Only one case showed necrotizing arteritis resembling polyarteritis nodosa. Group 3 presented vascular deposits in 19 cases and thrombotic microangiopathy in 2. Electron microscopic appearance of some of the deposits is described. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed a mixture of IgG, IgA, and IgM in 7 cases, a finding that was not seen in a group of non-lupus patients with various vascular lesions. Vascular deposits are generally rare in systemic lupus erythematosus, although in autopsies widely scattered involvement of arteries and arterioles was seen in nearly 1/3 of the cases. The deposits were more common in male patients. The evolution of the lesions could be followed through various stages to eventual sclerosis, particularly in patients treated with steroids or immunosuppressants. Some deposits appeared to resolve after treatment. Patients with vascular deposits had more severe glomerular disease and a more serious clinical course. Thrombotic microangiopathy appears to be a secondary phenomenon whose pathogenesis is unknown.

  5. Cassini ISS Satellite Orbit Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitale, J. N.; Jacobson, R. A.; Porco, C. C.; Owen, W. M.; Charnoz, S.; Murray, C. D.; Brahic, A.; Evans, M. W.; Beurle, K.; Cooper, N.; Cassini Imaging

    2004-11-01

    We report on the orbits of several small Saturnian satellites, either recovered or newly-discovered in recent Cassini imaging observations. The mean motions of Pan and Atlas have been corrected based on recent Cassini imaging combined with Voyager observations. Two small satellites, S/2004 S 1 and S/2004 S 2, have been discovered between the orbits of Mimas and Enceladus on orbits that are nearly circular and uninclined. Both bodies were observed for a fraction of one orbit on June 1, 2004 and S/2004 S 1 was subsequently detected in images shuttered three weeks earlier. Those bodies may be recovered in late October in imaging sequences designed for that purpose. A third new object was detected in images from June 21, 2004, orbiting just outside the F ring. However, a search for additional detections revealed something orbiting interior to the F ring near the longitude at which the new object would be expected 5 hours later. A low-residual orbit that crosses the F ring has been found to explain all of the observations, but it is not yet clear whether the two sequences imaged the same object or two different objects that coincidentally were found orbiting at the same longitude but at different orbital semimajor axes. These issues make its nature -- solid satellite or F ring clump -- unclear. The data, fitting procedures, and results will be discussed.

  6. OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The description, development history, test history, and orbital performance analysis of the OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory are presented. The OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory was the sixth flight model of a series of scientific spacecraft designed to provide a stable platform for experiments engaged in the collection of solar and celestial radiation data. The design objective was 180 days of orbital operation. The OSO-6 has telemetered an enormous amount of very useful experiment and housekeeping data to GSFC ground stations. Observatory operation during the two-year reporting period was very successful except for some experiment instrument problems.

  7. Orbiter utilization as an ACRV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jonathan N.; Heck, Michael L.; Kumar, Renjith R.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Troutman, Patrick A.

    1990-01-01

    Assuming that a Shuttle Orbiter could be qualified to serve long duration missions attached to Space Station Freedom in the capacity as an Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV), a study was conducted to identify and examine candidate attach locations. Baseline, modified hardware, and new hardware design configurations were considered. Dual simultaneous Orbiter docking accommodation were required. Resulting flight characteristics analyzed included torque equilibrium attitude (TEA), microgravity environment, attitude controllability, and reboost fuel requirements. The baseline Station could not accommodate two Orbiters. Modified hardware configurations analyzed had large TEA's. The utilization of an oblique docking mechanism best accommodated an Orbiter as an ACRV.

  8. Imaging of the Postoperative Orbit.

    PubMed

    Learned, Kim O; Nasseri, Farbod; Mohan, Suyash

    2015-08-01

    Imaging evaluation of the postoperative orbit remains challenging even for the expert neuroradiologist. This article provides a simplified framework for understanding the complex postoperative appearances of the orbit, in an attempt to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of postoperative computed tomography and MR imaging of the orbit. Readers are familiarized with the normal appearances of common eye procedures and orbit reconstructions to help avoid interpretative pitfalls. Also reviewed are imaging features of common surgical complications, and evaluation of residual/recurrent neoplasm in the setting of oncologic imaging surveillance.

  9. Fibronectin in multiple sclerosis lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Sobel, R. A.; Mitchell, M. E.

    1989-01-01

    Cryostat sections of central nervous system (CNS) tissues of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and other CNS diseases were stained with antibodies to fibronectin, a macrophage fibronectin receptor component, fibrin/fibrinogen, and albumin using immunoperoxidase. In active, but not inactive, MS plaques vessel fibronectin was increased (to approximately 57% of Factor VIII+ vessels) over uninvolved MS and normal control white matter (P less than 0.001 for both). Fibronectin was primarily localized to vessel walls and amount of staining correlated with degree of inflammation. Active plaques and necrotic lesions also had extracellular fibronectin and fibrin/ogen. These molecules and the fibronectin receptor were found on macrophages. Albumin was more widely and diffusely distributed in lesions than fibronectin. Thus, in addition to extravasation from damaged vessels, fibronectin may be deposited on or synthesized by endothelial cells and macrophages in the CNS. Fibronectin could facilitate monocyte adhesion to endothelial cell luminal surfaces, promote migration of mononuclear cells, and enhance myelin phagocytosis in MS lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2528301

  10. Automatic segmentation of psoriasis lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Yang; Shi, Chenbo; Wang, Li; Shu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    The automatic segmentation of psoriatic lesions is widely researched these years. It is an important step in Computer-aid methods of calculating PASI for estimation of lesions. Currently those algorithms can only handle single erythema or only deal with scaling segmentation. In practice, scaling and erythema are often mixed together. In order to get the segmentation of lesions area - this paper proposes an algorithm based on Random forests with color and texture features. The algorithm has three steps. The first step, the polarized light is applied based on the skin's Tyndall-effect in the imaging to eliminate the reflection and Lab color space are used for fitting the human perception. The second step, sliding window and its sub windows are used to get textural feature and color feature. In this step, a feature of image roughness has been defined, so that scaling can be easily separated from normal skin. In the end, Random forests will be used to ensure the generalization ability of the algorithm. This algorithm can give reliable segmentation results even the image has different lighting conditions, skin types. In the data set offered by Union Hospital, more than 90% images can be segmented accurately.

  11. Imaging of skull base lesions.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Hillary R; Curtin, Hugh D

    2016-01-01

    Skull base imaging requires a thorough knowledge of the complex anatomy of this region, including the numerous fissures and foramina and the major neurovascular structures that traverse them. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play complementary roles in imaging of the skull base. MR is the preferred modality for evaluation of the soft tissues, the cranial nerves, and the medullary spaces of bone, while CT is preferred for demonstrating thin cortical bone structure. The anatomic location and origin of a lesion as well as the specific CT and MR findings can often narrow the differential diagnosis to a short list of possibilities. However, the primary role of the imaging specialist in evaluating the skull base is usually to define the extent of the lesion and determine its relationship to vital neurovascular structures. Technologic advances in imaging and radiation therapy, as well as surgical technique, have allowed for more aggressive approaches and improved outcomes, further emphasizing the importance of precise preoperative mapping of skull base lesions via imaging. Tumors arising from and affecting the cranial nerves at the skull base are considered here.

  12. Skylab Orbiter Workshop Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This cutaway illustration shows the characteristics and basic elements of the Skylab Orbiter Workshop (OWS). The OWS was divided into two major compartments. The lower level provided crew accommodations for sleeping, food preparation and consumption, hygiene, waste processing and disposal, and performance of certain experiments. The upper level consisted of a large work area and housed water storage tanks, a food freezer, storage vaults for film, scientific airlocks, mobility and stability experiment equipment, and other experimental equipment. The compartment below the crew quarters was a container for liquid and solid waste and trash accumulated throughout the mission. A solar array, consisting of two wings covered on one side with solar cells, was mounted outside the workshop to generate electrical power to augment the power generated by another solar array mounted on the solar observatory. Thrusters were provided at one end of the workshop for short-term control of the attitude of the space station.

  13. TOPEX orbital radiation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Barth, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The space radiation environment of the TOPEX spacecraft is investigated. A single trajectory was considered. The external (surface incident) charged particle radiation, predicted for the satellite, is determined by orbital flux integration for the specified trajectory. The latest standard models of the environment are used in the calculations. The evaluation is performed for solar maximum conditions. The spacecraft exposure to cosmic rays of galactic origin is evaluated over its flight path through the magnetosphere in terms of geomagnetic shielding effects, both for surface incident heavy ions and for particles emerging behind different material thickness. Limited shielding and dose evaluations are performed for simple infinite slab and spherical geometries. Results, given in graphical and tabular form, are analyzed, explained, and discussed. Conclusions are presented and commented on.

  14. Geology orbiter comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  15. Orbital angular momentum microlaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Pei; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jingbo; Walasik, Wiktor; Longhi, Stefano; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Feng, Liang

    2016-07-01

    Structured light provides an additional degree of freedom for modern optics and practical applications. The effective generation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) lasing, especially at a micro- and nanoscale, could address the growing demand for information capacity. By exploiting the emerging non-Hermitian photonics design at an exceptional point, we demonstrate a microring laser producing a single-mode OAM vortex lasing with the ability to precisely define the topological charge of the OAM mode. The polarization associated with OAM lasing can be further manipulated on demand, creating a radially polarized vortex emission. Our OAM microlaser could find applications in the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices for optical communications in both quantum and classical regimes.

  16. Theory of Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaletti, Dino; Pucacco, Giuseppe

    This textbook treats Celestial Mechanics as well as Stellar Dynamics from the common point of view of orbit theory making use of the concepts and techniques from modern geometric mechanics. It starts with elementary Newtonian Mechanics and ends with the dynamics of chaotic motions. The book is meant for students in astronomy and physics alike. Prerequisite is a physicist's knowledge of calculus and differential geometry. Volume 1 begins with classical mechanics and a thorough treatment of the 2-body problem, including regularization, followed by an introduction to the N-body problem with particular attention given to the virial theorem. Then the authors discuss all important non-perturbative aspects of the 3-body problem. A final chapter deals with integrability of Hamilton-Jacobi-systems.

  17. Calculating Trajectories And Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alderson, Daniel J.; Brady, Franklyn H.; Breckheimer, Peter J.; Campbell, James K.; Christensen, Carl S.; Collier, James B.; Ekelund, John E.; Ellis, Jordan; Goltz, Gene L.; Hintz, Gerarld R.; Legerton, Victor N.; Mccreary, Faith A.; Mitchell, Robert T.; Mottinger, Neil A.; Moultrie, Benjamin A.; Moyer, Theodore D.; Rinker, Sheryl L.; Ryne, Mark S.; Stavert, L. Robert; Sunseri, Richard F.

    1989-01-01

    Double-Precision Trajectory Analysis Program, DPTRAJ, and Orbit Determination Program, ODP, developed and improved over years to provide highly reliable and accurate navigation capability for deep-space missions like Voyager. Each collection of programs working together to provide desired computational results. DPTRAJ, ODP, and supporting utility programs capable of handling massive amounts of data and performing various numerical calculations required for solving navigation problems associated with planetary fly-by and lander missions. Used extensively in support of NASA's Voyager project. DPTRAJ-ODP available in two machine versions. UNIVAC version, NPO-15586, written in FORTRAN V, SFTRAN, and ASSEMBLER. VAX/VMS version, NPO-17201, written in FORTRAN V, SFTRAN, PL/1 and ASSEMBLER.

  18. Orbital science's 'Bermuda Triangle'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrill, Thomas J.

    1991-02-01

    The effects of a part of the inner Van Allen belt lying closest to the earth, known as the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) upon spacecraft including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), are discussed. The area consists of positively charged ions and electrons from the Van Allen Belt which become trapped in the earth's dipole field. Contor maps representing the number of protons per square centimeter per second having energies greater than 10 million electron volts are presented. It is noted that the HST orbit causes it to spend about 15 percent of its time in the SAA, but that, unlike the experience with earlier spacecraft, the satellite's skin, internal structure, and normal electronic's packaging provides sufficient protection against eletrons, although some higher energy protons still get through. Various charged particle effects which can arise within scientific instruments including fluorescence, Cerenkov radiation, and induced radioactivity are described.

  19. Orbiting Carbon Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    Human impact on the environment has produced measurable changes in the geological record since the late 1700s. Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 today may cause the global climate to depart for its natural behavior for many millenia. CO2 is the primary anthropogenic driver of climate change. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory goals are to help collect measurements of atmospheric CO2, answering questions such as why the atmospheric CO2 buildup varies annually, the roles of the oceans and land ecosystems in absorbing CO2, the roles of North American and Eurasian sinks and how these carbon sinks respond to climate change. The present carbon cycle, CO2 variability, and climate uncertainties due atmospheric CO2 uncertainties are highlighted in this presentation.

  20. Orbit Determination Toolbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, James R.; Berry, Kevin; Gregpru. Late; Speckman, Keith; Hur-Diaz, Sun; Surka, Derek; Gaylor, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The Orbit Determination Toolbox is an orbit determination (OD) analysis tool based on MATLAB and Java that provides a flexible way to do early mission analysis. The toolbox is primarily intended for advanced mission analysis such as might be performed in concept exploration, proposal, early design phase, or rapid design center environments. The emphasis is on flexibility, but it has enough fidelity to produce credible results. Insight into all flight dynamics source code is provided. MATLAB is the primary user interface and is used for piecing together measurement and dynamic models. The Java Astrodynamics Toolbox is used as an engine for things that might be slow or inefficient in MATLAB, such as high-fidelity trajectory propagation, lunar and planetary ephemeris look-ups, precession, nutation, polar motion calculations, ephemeris file parsing, and the like. The primary analysis functions are sequential filter/smoother and batch least-squares commands that incorporate Monte-Carlo data simulation, linear covariance analysis, measurement processing, and plotting capabilities at the generic level. These functions have a user interface that is based on that of the MATLAB ODE suite. To perform a specific analysis, users write MATLAB functions that implement truth and design system models. The user provides his or her models as inputs to the filter commands. The software provides a capability to publish and subscribe to a software bus that is compliant with the NASA Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) standards, to exchange data with other flight dynamics tools to simplify the flight dynamics design cycle. Using the publish and subscribe approach allows for analysts in a rapid design center environment to seamlessly incorporate changes in spacecraft and mission design into navigation analysis and vice versa.

  1. Orbital metastasis as initial manifestation of a widespread papillary thyroid microcarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pagsisihan, Daveric Ablis; Aguilar, Anthony Harvey Isabelo; Maningat, Ma Patricia Deanna Delfin

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), particularly microcarcinomas, rarely metastasise to the orbit. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman with a right supraorbital mass and unremarkable physical examination of the thyroid gland region. Orbital CT scan showed an expansile lytic lesion in the orbital plate of the frontal bone with a soft tissue component. An incision biopsy revealed metastatic well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid ultrasound was normal except for a subcentimetre nodule in the right lobe. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy where histopathology showed a subcentimetre follicular variant PTC. She subsequently received radioactive iodine therapy. Post-therapy whole body scan revealed metastatic thyroid tissues in the right orbital and posterior parietal, and left shoulder and hip areas. Although infrequent, metastatic thyroid carcinoma should be considered in patients with orbital metastasis even when neck examination is normal. In rare cases, this may be the initial manifestation of a widely metastatic papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. PMID:25819821

  2. Menstrual bleeding from an endometriotic lesion.

    PubMed

    Burney, Richard O; Lathi, Ruth B

    2009-05-01

    We present a case in which endometriotic lesions were observed to be focally hemorrhagic at laparoscopy performed during menstruation. Red vesicular lesions likely represent early disease with intact capacity for hormonally induced menstrual bleeding.

  3. PyORBIT: A Python Shell For ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Jean-Francois Ostiguy; Jeffrey Holmes

    2003-07-01

    ORBIT is code developed at SNS to simulate beam dynamics in accumulation rings and synchrotrons. The code is structured as a collection of external C++ modules for SuperCode, a high level interpreter shell developed at LLNL in the early 1990s. SuperCode is no longer actively supported and there has for some time been interest in replacing it by a modern scripting language, while preserving the feel of the original ORBIT program. In this paper, we describe a new version of ORBIT where the role of SuperCode is assumed by Python, a free, well-documented and widely supported object-oriented scripting language. We also compare PyORBIT to ORBIT from the standpoint of features, performance and future expandability.

  4. Orbital fluctuations and orbital flipping in RVO3 perovskites.

    PubMed

    Yan, J-Q; Zhou, J-S; Goodenough, J B; Ren, Y; Cheng, J G; Chang, S; Zarestky, J; Garlea, O; Llobet, A; Liobet, A; Zhou, H D; Sui, Y; Su, W H; McQueeney, R J

    2007-11-09

    The effect of the average R-site ionic radius IR and variance on the orbital and magnetic order in R3+-doped YVO3 was studied in Y1-xLaxVO3 and Y1-x(La0.2337Lu0.7663)xVO3 with fixed IR. The orbital flipping temperature T{CG} increases nonlinearly with increasing R-site variance, indicating that the V-O-V bond angle is not the primary driving force stabilizing the C-type orbitally ordered phase. The suppressed thermal conductivity in the G-type orbitally ordered phase signals some remaining orbital randomness that is enhanced by t{2} and et hybridization in {3}T{1g} site symmetry.

  5. Orbital Fluctuations and Orbital Flipping in RVO3 Perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, J.-Q.; Zhou, J.-S.; Goodenough, J. B.; Ren, Y.; Cheng, J. G.; Zarestky, Jerel L; Garlea, Vasile O; Liobet, A.; Zhou, H. D.; Sui, Y.; Su, W. H.; McQueeney, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the average A-site ionic radius hIRi and variance on the orbital and magnetic order in R3+-doped YVO3 was studied in Y1-xLaxVO3 and Y1-x(La0.2337Lu0.7663)xVO3 with fixed . The orbital flipping temperature T_CG increases nonlinearly with increasing R-site variance, indicating that the V-O-V bond angle is not the primary driving force stabilizing the C-type orbitally ordered phase. The suppressed thermal conductivity in the G-type orbitally ordered phase signals some remaining orbital randomness that is enhanced by t2 and et hybridization in 3T_1g site symmetry.

  6. New orbit correction method uniting global and local orbit corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, N.; Takaki, H.; Sakai, H.; Satoh, M.; Harada, K.; Kamiya, Y.

    2006-01-01

    A new orbit correction method, called the eigenvector method with constraints (EVC), is proposed and formulated to unite global and local orbit corrections for ring accelerators, especially synchrotron radiation(SR) sources. The EVC can exactly correct the beam positions at arbitrarily selected ring positions such as light source points, simultaneously reducing closed orbit distortion (COD) around the whole ring. Computer simulations clearly demonstrate these features of the EVC for both cases of the Super-SOR light source and the Advanced Light Source (ALS) that have typical structures of high-brilliance SR sources. In addition, the effects of errors in beam position monitor (BPM) reading and steering magnet setting on the orbit correction are analytically expressed and also compared with the computer simulations. Simulation results show that the EVC is very effective and useful for orbit correction and beam position stabilization in SR sources.

  7. An unusual orbital localization of wegener granulomatosis detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Bertagna, Francesco; Treglia, Giorgio; Rossini, Pierluigi; Giubbini, Raffaele

    2014-08-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old male patient affected by Wegener granulomatosis and left exophthalmos who underwent F-FDG PET/CT during follow-up for rectal cancer. The study was negative for secondary lesions but revealed high uptake at the left orbital mass consistent with Wegener granulomatosis.

  8. Sclerosing Orbital Inflammation Caused by Leishmania braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Antonio Augusto V; Alves-Ferreira, Eliza V C; Milbratz-Moré, Gherusa; Chahud, Fernando; Ruy, Patricia C; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Cruz, Angela Kaysel

    2017-01-11

    Orbital biopsy of nonspecific orbital inflammation, commonly referred to as "orbital pseudotumor," typically shows a combination of polyclonal lymphocytes, plasmocytes, leukocytes, macrophages, and variable degrees of collagen deposition. Herein, we report a patient with a positive history of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis who presented with an orbital mass with a histological profile of idiopathic orbital inflammation. Immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of the orbital specimens demonstrated that the orbital inflammation was associated with the presence of antigens of Leishmania braziliensis and DNA from the parasite.

  9. IgG4-related Orbital Disease and Its Mimics in a Western Population.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Judith A; Klepeis, Veronica; Sohani, Aliyah R; Harris, Nancy Lee; Preffer, Frederic I; Stone, John H; Grove, Arthur; Deshpande, Vikram

    2015-12-01

    Although chronic inflammatory disorders of the ocular adnexa are relatively common, their pathogenesis is in many cases poorly understood. Recent investigation suggests that many cases of sclerosing orbital inflammation are a manifestation of IgG4-related disease; however, most patients reported have been Asian, and it is not clear whether the results of studies from the Far East can be reliably extrapolated to draw conclusions about Western patients. We evaluated 38 cases previously diagnosed as orbital inflammatory pseudotumor or chronic dacryoadenitis to determine whether our cases fulfill the criteria for IgG4-RD (IgG4-related dacryoadenitis when involving the lacrimal gland, and IgG4-related sclerosing orbital inflammation when involving orbital soft tissue). Fifteen patients had IgG4-related dacryoadenitis or orbital inflammation. These patients included 9 men and 6 women, aged 24 to 77 years (median, 64 y). Lesions involved orbital soft tissue (8 cases), lacrimal gland (6 cases), and canthus (1 case). In 1 case, focal in situ follicular neoplasia was seen in a background of IgG4-RD. In another case, a clonal IGH gene rearrangement was detected. Four patients with IgG4-RD had evidence of IgG4-RD in other anatomic sites. Five patients, 1 man and 4 women, aged 26 to 74 years (median 50 y) had orbital lesions (2 involving lacrimal gland, 3 involving soft tissue) suspicious for, but not diagnostic of, IgG4-RD. Of 16 patients with IgG4-RD or probable IgG4-RD with information available regarding the course of their disease, 11 patients experienced recurrent or persistent orbital disease. However, no patient developed lymphoma, and no patient died of complications of IgG4-RD. Eighteen patients had lesions not representing IgG4-RD. They included 6 male and 12 female individuals aged 6 to 77 years (median, 47 y). These patients had a variety of diseases, including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (3 cases), Rosai-Dorfman disease (1 case), nonspecific chronic

  10. What is a MISR orbit?

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... reasons, the orbit number is explicitly included in the name of many MISR data and product files. The sun-synchronous orbit of ... (each with 9 cameras and 4 spectral bands) of a particular site in 2 days (Poles) to 9 days (Equator), depending on its latitude, but of ...

  11. Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Orbital Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Benjamin; Rajjoub, Lamise; Mansour, Tamer; Chen, Tony; Mumtaz, Aisha

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether prophylactic antibiotic use in patients with orbital fracture prevent orbital infection. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Participants: All patients diagnosed with orbital fracture between January 1, 2008 and March 1, 2014 at The George Washington University Hospital and Clinics. Main Outcome Measures: Development of orbital infection. Results: One hundred seventy-two patients with orbital fracture met our inclusion and exclusion criteria. No orbital infections were documented. Twenty subjects (12%) received no prophylactic antibiotic, and two (1%) received only one dose of antibiotics pre-operatively for surgery. For primary antibiotic, 136 subjects (79%) received oral antibiotics, and 14 (8%) received intravenous (IV) antibiotics (excluding cefazolin). Cephalexin and amoxicillin-clavulanate were the most prescribed oral antibiotics that are equally effective. Five-to-seven day courses of antibiotics had no increased infections compared to ten-to-fourteen day courses. Calculated boundaries for effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics ranged from a Number Needed to Treat (NNT) of 75 to a Number Needed to Harm (NNH) of 198. Conclusion: Antibiotics for prevention of orbital infection in patients with orbital fractures have become widely used. Coordination between trauma teams and specialists is needed to prevent patient overmedication and antibiotic resistance. Should antibiotics be used, shorter courses and avoidance of broad spectrum agents are recommended. Additional studies are needed.

  12. Diffractive molecular-orbital tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Chunyang; Zhu, Xiaosong; Lan, Pengfei; Wang, Feng; He, Lixin; Shi, Wenjing; Li, Yang; Li, Min; Zhang, Qingbin; Lu, Peixiang

    2017-03-01

    High-order-harmonic generation in the interaction of femtosecond lasers with atoms and molecules opens the path to molecular-orbital tomography and to probe the electronic dynamics with attosecond-Ångström resolutions. Molecular-orbital tomography requires both the amplitude and phase of the high-order harmonics. Yet the measurement of phases requires sophisticated techniques and represents formidable challenges at present. Here we report a scheme, called diffractive molecular-orbital tomography, to retrieve the molecular orbital solely from the amplitude of high-order harmonics without measuring any phase information. We have applied this method to image the molecular orbitals of N2, CO2, and C2H2 . The retrieved orbital is further improved by taking account the correction of Coulomb potential. The diffractive molecular-orbital tomography scheme, removing the roadblock of phase measurement, significantly simplifies the molecular-orbital tomography procedure and paves an efficient and robust way to the imaging of more complex molecules.

  13. Unilateral orbital emphysema after sneezing.

    PubMed

    Koçak, Nilüfer; Oztürk, Taylan; Zengin, Mehmet Ozgür; Kaynak, Süleyman; Men, Süleyman

    2009-01-01

    We report a case who developed unilateral orbital emphysema after sneezing in a 30-year-old man presented with left crepitant eyelid swelling and progressive ptosis. Sneezing may cause orbital emphysema in cases with a history of minor periorbital trauma. While periodical followup without any medication is considered satisfactory, needle decompression may provide early cure.

  14. Orbital Analysis of Macron Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-28

    effects on the orbital debris environment as well as to formulate possible implementations of this technology. Ultimately, the direction, velocity...and altitude at which these macrons are fired determine the macron’s trajectory and dictate the level of impact upon the orbital debris environment

  15. Orbital anatomy for the surgeon.

    PubMed

    Turvey, Timothy A; Golden, Brent A

    2012-11-01

    An anatomic description of the orbit and its contents and the eyelids directed toward surgeons is the focus of this article. The bone and soft tissue anatomic nuances for surgery are highlighted, including a section on osteology, muscles, and the orbital suspensory system. Innervation and vascular anatomy are also addressed.

  16. [Enophthalmos in an orbital tumor].

    PubMed

    Szabo, Bianca; Szabo, I; Nicula, Cristina; Popescu, Livia Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Enophtalmus is an unusual sign of the orbital tumors often represented by proptosis. One patient with enophtalmus and intraorbital tumor and aplasy is presented. The treatment of choice of orbital tumor is complete surgical excision and careful follow-up. Considering the more aggressive course followed by recurrent tumor, correct diagnosis and management is essential.

  17. Video Orbits of the Geminids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdukova, M.

    2014-07-01

    Geminid meteoroids, observed by the video technique, were analysed with the aim of determining the actual dispersion of their reciprocal semimajor axes 1/a within the stream. Orbits were selected from the European Video Meteor Network Database, EDMOND, (Kornos et al., 2013), from the SonotaCo Shower Catalogue (SonotaCo, 2009), and from the Czech Catalogue of Video Meteor Orbits (Koten et al., 2003). The observed orbital dispersion, including the measurement errors, was compared with that obtained from the precisely-reduced photographic orbits of Geminids from the IAU Meteor Data Center (Lindblad et al., 2003). In this paper, we concentrate on the influence of errors on the orbital dispersion. The size and distribution of observational errors determined from the long-period meteoroid streams (Hajdukova 2013), were applied to determine the real dispersion within this short-period meteoroid stream. The observed dispersions, described by the median absolute deviation in terms of 1/a, range from 0.041 to 0.050 1/au. The deviation of the median reciprocal semimajor axis from the parent (3200) Phaethon, obtained from Japanese video orbits, is 0.009 1/au, and that from the EDMOND data 0.01 1/au. This deviation obtained from the photographic orbits of the IAU Meteor Data Center was significantly greater (Hajdukova 2009). Similar results were obtained from the Czech Video Orbits Catalogue, where the value is 0.05 1/au. The investigation showed that semimajor axes of meteor orbits in both the SonotaCo and EDMOND datasets are systematically biased as a consequence of the method used for the video orbit determination, probably because corrections for atmospheric deceleration were either incorrectly made or were not done at all. Thus, the determined heliocentric velocities are underestimated, and the semimajor axes medians shifted towards smaller values. The observed distributions in 1/a from these video data become biased towards higher values of 1/a. The orbits of the Geminid

  18. General relativity and satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubincam, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The general relativistic correction to the position of a satellite is found by retaining Newtonian physics for an observer on the satellite and introducing a potential. The potential is expanded in terms of the Keplerian elements of the orbit and substituted in Lagrange's equations. Integration of the equations shows that a typical earth satellite with small orbital eccentricity is displaced by about 17 cm. from its unperturbed position after a single orbit, while the periodic displacement over the orbit reaches a maximum of about 3 cm. The moon is displaced by about the same amounts. Application of the equations to Mercury gives a total displacement of about 58 km. after one orbit and a maximum periodic displacement of about 12 km.

  19. Floating orbital molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Perlt, Eva; Brüssel, Marc; Kirchner, Barbara

    2014-04-21

    We introduce an alternative ab initio molecular dynamics simulation as a unification of Hartree-Fock molecular dynamics and the floating orbital approach. The general scheme of the floating orbital molecular dynamics method is presented. Moreover, a simple but sophisticated guess for the orbital centers is provided to reduce the number of electronic structure optimization steps at each molecular dynamics step. The conservation of total energy and angular momentum is investigated in order to validate the floating orbital molecular dynamics approach with and without application of the initial guess. Finally, a water monomer and a water dimer are simulated, and the influence of the orbital floating on certain properties like the dipole moment is investigated.

  20. Low Earth Orbiter: Terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kremer, Steven E.; Bundick, Steven N.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the current government budgetary environment that requires the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to do more with less, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility has developed and implemented a class of ground stations known as a Low Earth Orbiter-Terminal (LEO-T). This development thus provides a low-cost autonomous ground tracking service for NASA's customers. More importantly, this accomplishment provides a commercial source to spacecraft customers around the world to purchase directly from the company awarded the NASA contract to build these systems. A few years ago, NASA was driven to provide more ground station capacity for spacecraft telemetry, tracking, and command (TT&C) services with a decreasing budget. NASA also made a decision to develop many smaller, cheaper satellites rather than a few large spacecraft as done in the past. In addition, university class missions were being driven to provide their own TT&C services due to the increasing load on the NASA ground-tracking network. NASA's solution for this ever increasing load was to use the existing large aperture systems to support those missions requiring that level of performance and to support the remainder of the missions with the autonomous LEO-T systems. The LEO-T antenna system is a smaller, cheaper, and fully autonomous unstaffed system that can operate without the existing NASA support infrastructure. The LEO-T provides a low-cost, reliable space communications service to the expanding number of low-earth orbiting missions around the world. The system is also fostering developments that improve cost-effectiveness of autonomous-class capabilities for NASA and commercial space use. NASA has installed three LEO-T systems. One station is at the University of Puerto Rico, the second system is installed at the Poker Flat Research Range near Fairbanks, Alaska, and the third system is installed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. This paper

  1. An Inflammatory Pseudotumor Arising from Pterygopalatine Fossa with Invasion to the Maxillary Sinus and Orbital Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Yokoi, Hidenori; Yazawa, Takuya; Matsumoto, Yuma; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Fujiwara, Masachika; Ohkura, Yasuo; Kohno, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient who had an inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) that invaded to the maxillary sinus and orbital cavity, with the left pterygopalatine fossa as the principal site; this is a very rare case. The patient was an 83-year-old woman who suddenly became aware of impairment in the eyesight and visual field of the left eye. CT images showed a neoplastic lesion that invaded to the maxillary sinus and orbital cavity, with the left pterygopalatine fossa as the principal site, and also showed contrast effects. To obtain a definitive diagnosis from histopathological analysis, the lesion was biopsied, and she was diagnosed as the inflammatory pseudotumor with the immunohistochemical study and multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based clonality assays. The patient had a lymphoid-predominant lesion that responded to radiotherapy but corticosteroids were not effective. It is important to scrutinize the pathology to avoid unnecessary and mutilating surgery. PMID:26167321

  2. HEO space debris orbit predictions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorowicz, Dorota; Pospieszynski, Remigiusz; Golembiewska, Justyna; Wnuk, Edwin

    2012-07-01

    HEO (Highly Elliptical Orbit) satellites are objects with an elliptic orbit with a low-altitude perigee and a high-altitude apogee. Perigee mainly cross the LEO orbits and apogee reaches regions above GEO orbits. Number of satellites on the orbits are old racket bodies and other space debris. Most of HEO objects has the eccentricity more than 0.7. Many trackable objects are included in the NORAD TLE Catalogue but much more small debris exist which we could not track. Objects on as highly elliptical orbit are very danger for satellites in LEO region because of increasing velocity near the perigee. In order to calculate the trajectory of space debris we have to take into account force model consisting of geopotential, luni-solar effects, solar radiation pressure and for objects with low-altitude of perigee, atmospheric drag. This last perturbation is very important to calculate orbits with high accuracy but also one of the hardest to predict. Many atmospheric space debris objects parameters should be taken into account in this case, but we do not have sufficient data from observations, in particular S/M (area-to-mass) ratio. Fortunately we have some archival data for some debris included in TLE Catalogue, which are very helpful to estimate the approximate value of the parameter. In this paper we present the results of calculations of orbit predictions for short and medium time span (up to several weeks). We tried to designate the S/M parameter for some HEO objects from archival data from the TLE Catalogue and predict its orbital elements for several weeks. With better knowledge about approximate mean value of the S/M parameter we are able to improve the accuracy of predicted orbits.

  3. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis of the orbit: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Santhi; Adulkar, Namrata G; Rangarajan, Viji

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis is a rare condition presenting with tumefactive lesions of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, upper respiratory tract and rarely the orbit; and has characteristic histopathological features. We report the case of a 38-year-old lady with a mass lesion in right orbit. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen revealed extensive areas of perivascular fibrosis showing a characteristic angiocentric whirling with onion skin pattern; along with perivascular exudates of eosinophils accompanied by collection of plasma cells and lymphocytes. Rheumatology review and autoimmune screening was negative. She underwent surgical debulking followed by tapering course of oral steroids and was completely free of orbital disease at her last follow-up visit.

  4. A bizarre abdominal cystic lesion.

    PubMed

    Zucchini, Giorgia; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Ricci, Claudio; Casadei, Riccardo; Santini, Donatella; Calculli, Lucia; Corinaldesi, Roberto

    2010-09-06

    In spite of careful intraoperative precautions and gauze counts, mistakes can still occur during surgery. In the case reported, a retained gauze leaved during a surgical approach for removing a solid-cystic papillary tumor localized in the pancreatic tail, caused both persistent abdominal discomfort and the presence of an abdominal cystic lesion at imaging techniques. When a previous operative history is present, a foreign body should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of a patient with an intra-abdominal cystic mass. Finally, radio-opaque marker should be routinely used by surgeons in order to reach a correct diagnosis in operated patients having retained gauze.

  5. Orbital angular momentum entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Mary Jacquiline Romero

    Entanglement in higher dimensions is an attractive concept that is a challenge to realise experimentally. To this end, the entanglement of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons holds promise. The OAM state-space is discrete and theoretically unbounded. In the work that follows, we investigate various aspects of OAM entanglement. We show how the correlations in OAM and its conjugate variable, angular position, are determined by phase- matching and the shape of the pump beam in spontaneous parametric down- conversion. We implement tests of quantum mechanics which have been previously done for other variables. We show the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox for OAM and angle, supporting the incompatibility of quantum mechanics with locality and realism. We demonstrate violations of Bell-type inequalities, thereby discounting local hidden variables for describing the correlations we observe. We show the Hardy paradox using OAM, again highlighting the nonlocal nature of quantum mechanics. We demonstrate violations of Leggett-type inequalities, thereby discounting nonlocal hidden variables for describing correlations. Lastly, we have looked into the entanglement of topological vortex structures formed from a special superposition of OAM modes and show violations of Bell-type inequalities confined to a finite, isolated volume.

  6. Orbiter Camera Payload System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Components for an orbiting camera payload system (OCPS) include the large format camera (LFC), a gas supply assembly, and ground test, handling, and calibration hardware. The LFC, a high resolution large format photogrammetric camera for use in the cargo bay of the space transport system, is also adaptable to use on an RB-57 aircraft or on a free flyer satellite. Carrying 4000 feet of film, the LFC is usable over the visible to near IR, at V/h rates of from 11 to 41 milliradians per second, overlap of 10, 60, 70 or 80 percent and exposure times of from 4 to 32 milliseconds. With a 12 inch focal length it produces a 9 by 18 inch format (long dimension in line of flight) with full format low contrast resolution of 88 lines per millimeter (AWAR), full format distortion of less than 14 microns and a complement of 45 Reseau marks and 12 fiducial marks. Weight of the OCPS as supplied, fully loaded is 944 pounds and power dissipation is 273 watts average when in operation, 95 watts in standby. The LFC contains an internal exposure sensor, or will respond to external command. It is able to photograph starfields for inflight calibration upon command.

  7. Solid Propulsion De-Orbiting and Re-Orbiting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonenborg, R. A. C.; Schoyer, H. F. R.

    2009-03-01

    With many "innovative" de-orbit systems (e.g. tethers, aero breaking, etc.) and with natural de-orbit, the place of impact of unburned spacecraft debris on Earth can not be determined accurately. The idea that satellites burn up completely upon re-entry is a common misunderstanding. To the best of our knowledge only rocket motors are capable of delivering an impulse that is high enough, to conduct a de-orbit procedure swiftly, hence to de-orbit at a specific moment that allows to predict the impact point of unburned spacecraft debris accurately in remote areas. In addition, swift de-orbiting will reduce the on-orbit time of the 'dead' satellite, which reduces the chance of the dead satellite being hit by other dead or active satellites, while spiralling down to Earth during a slow, 25 year, or more, natural de-orbit process. Furthermore the reduced on-orbit time reduces the chance that spacecraft batteries, propellant tanks or other components blow up and also reduces the time that the object requires tracking from Earth.The use of solid propellant for the de-orbiting of spacecraft is feasible. The main advantages of a solid propellant based system are the relatively high thrust and the facts that the system can be made autonomous quite easily and that the system can be very reliable. The latter is especially desirable when one wants to de-orbit old or 'dead' satellites that might not be able to rely anymore on their primary systems. The disadvantage however, is the addition of an extra system to the spacecraft as well as a (small) mass penalty. [1]This paper describes the above mentioned system and shows as well, why such a system can also be used to re-orbit spacecraft in GEO, at the end of their life to a graveyard orbit.Additionally the system is theoretically compared to an existing system, of which performance data is available.A swift market analysis is performed as well.

  8. Orbit Determination System for Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elisha, Yossi; Shyldkrot, Haim; Hankin, Maxim

    2007-01-01

    The IAI/MBT Precise Orbit Determination system for Low Earth Orbit satellites is presented. The system is based on GPS pesudorange and carrier phase measurements and implements the Reduced Dynamics method. The GPS measurements model, the dynamic model, and the least squares orbit determination are discussed. Results are shown for data from the CHAMP satellite and for simulated data from the ROKAR GPS receiver. In both cases the one sigma 3D position and velocity accuracy is about 0.2 m and 0.5 mm/sec respectively.

  9. Computer-aided tracking of MS lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Deborah; Gurwitz Kletenik, Devorah; Koshy, Philip

    2011-03-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions are known to change over time. The location, size and shape characteristics of lesions are often used to diagnose and to track disease progression. We have improved our lesion-browsing tool that allows users to automatically locate successive significant lesions in a MRI stack. In addition, an automatic alignment feature was implemented to facilitate comparisons across stacks. A lesion stack is formed that can be browsed independently or in tandem with the image windows. Lesions of interest can then be measured, rendered and rotated. Multiple windows allow the viewer to compare the size and shape of lesions from the MRI images of the same patient taken at different time intervals.

  10. Ossicular chain lesions in cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Albera, R; Canale, A; Piumetto, E; Lacilla, M; Dagna, F

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to describe ossicle resorption in chronic otitis with cholesteatoma and correlate it with clinical parameters such as age, contralateral ear condition, tympanic membrane aspect, cholesteatoma pathogenesis and extension, associated lesions and hearing threshold. Preoperative clinical data were collected for 140 patients with chronic otitis with cholesteatoma, whose ossicles were evaluated during surgery. 82% of patients showed ossicle resorption, with incus damage in 78% of cases. Multiple involvement was found in 45% of cases and the incus-stapes association was the most frequent. In 13 patients (11%) with ossicle damage, the ossicular chain was in continuity with a hearing threshold similar to patients without ossicular resorption. Ossicles were always damaged in congenital cholesteatoma and in case of associated lesions. Cholesteatoma extension was related to the incidence of ossicle resorption (p < 0.0001). Air and bone conduction worsened as the number of involved ossicles increased, while the air-bone gap remained stable. In conclusion, the origin and location of cholesteatoma are related to the site of ossicular damage, which is subsequent to the contact between bone and cholesteatoma. Pure-tone audiometry and air-bone gap do not reflect actual ossicular chain status. None of the other preoperative clinical parameters considered were reliable predictors of the condition of the ossicular chain.

  11. Radiation therapy for orbital lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Ping . E-mail: pzhou@partners.org; Ng, Andrea K.; Silver, Barbara; Li Sigui; Hua Ling; Mauch, Peter M.

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To describe radiation techniques and evaluate outcomes for orbital lymphoma. Methods and Materials: Forty-six patients (and 62 eyes) with orbital lymphoma treated with radiotherapy between 1987 and 2003 were included. The majority had mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (48%) or follicular (30%) lymphoma. Seventeen patients had prior lymphoma at other sites, and 29 had primary orbital lymphoma. Median follow-up was 46 months. Results: The median dose was 30.6 Gy; one-third received <30 Gy. Electrons were used in 9 eyes with disease confined to the conjunctiva or eyelid, and photons in 53 eyes with involvement of intraorbital tissues to cover entire orbit. Local control rate was 98% for all patients and 100% for those with indolent lymphoma. Three of the 26 patients with localized primary lymphoma failed distantly, resulting in a 5-year freedom-from-distant-relapse rate of 89%. The 5-year disease-specific and overall survival rates were 95% and 88%, respectively. Late toxicity was mainly cataract formation in patients who received radiation without lens block. Conclusions A dose of 30 Gy is sufficient for indolent orbital lymphoma. Distant relapse rate in patients with localized orbital lymphoma was lower than that reported for low-grade lymphoma presenting in other sites. Orbital radiotherapy can be used for salvage of recurrent indolent lymphoma.

  12. Space Telescopes and Orbital Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitzer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Almost 12,000 artificial objects orbiting the Earth are currently in the public catalog of orbital elements maintained by the USAF. Only a small fraction of them are operational satellites. The remainder is satellites whose missions have ended, rocket bodies, and parts and debris from larger parent objects. And the catalog only contains the biggest and brightest of the objects in orbit. The Low Earth Orbit (LEO) regime where most of this population concentrates is also a regime of incredible interest to astronomers, since it is where flagship missions such as the Hubble Space Telescope and other Great Observatories operate. I'll review the current state of knowledge of the orbital debris population, how it has grown with time, and how this environment could affect current and future space telescopes. There are mitigation measures which many spacecraft operators have adopted which can control the growth of the debris population. Orbital debris research at the University of Michigan is funded by NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas.

  13. Lifetimes of lunar satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Kurt W.; Buglia, James J.; Desai, Prasun N.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative has generated a renewed interest in lunar mission planning. The lunar missions currently under study, unlike the Apollo missions, involve long stay times. Several lunar gravity models have been formulated, but mission planners do not have enough confidence in the proposed models to conduct detailed studies of missions with long stay times. In this report, a particular lunar gravitational model, the Ferrari 5 x 5 model, was chosen to determine the lifetimes for 100-km and 300-km perilune altitude, near-circular parking orbits. The need to analyze orbital lifetimes for a large number of initial orbital parameters was the motivation for the formulation of a simplified gravitational model from the original model. Using this model, orbital lifetimes were found to be heavily dependent on the initial conditions of the nearly circular orbits, particularly the initial inclination and argument of perilune. This selected model yielded lifetime predictions of less than 40 days for some orbits, and other orbits had lifetimes exceeding a year. Although inconsistencies and limitations are inherent in all existing lunar gravity models, primarily because of a lack of information about the far side of the moon, the methods presented in this analysis are suitable for incorporating the moon's nonspherical gravitational effects on the preliminary design level for future lunar mission planning.

  14. Clinico-Pathological Spectrum of Ophthalmic Lesions: An Experience in Tertiary Care Hospital of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Gahine, Renuka; Hussain, Nighat; Memon, Mohd Jafar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Ophthalmic lesions show varied distribution on the basis of geographical location. Eye being a unique sensory organ needs to be studied both clinically and pathologically. Aim This study was aimed to evaluate the histomorphological and clinico-pathlological spectrum of ophthalmic lesions at a tertiary care hospital of Central India. Materials and Methods We reviewed all the ophthalmic biopsies performed in the Department of Pathology of our institute between January 2008 and November 2014. Total 488 biopsies of the orbito-ocular region were obtained from patients attending the ophthalmology department. Ophthalmic biopsies were studied as per epidemiological and histomorphological data. Results The patients ranged in age from one month to 85 years with bimodal distribution. With a male to female ratio of 1:1. Ophthalmic lesions were highest (44.8%) in less than 20 years age group. Eyelid (33.6%) was the most commonly involved site. Clinical diagnosis was consistent with histopathological diagnosis in approximately 76% cases. The non-neoplastic, benign and malignant lesions were 61.1%, 7.8% and 31.1% respectively. Retinoblastoma formed 40.1% of all malignant lesions followed by sebaceous carcinoma (19.1%) and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) (10.5%). Rare lesions were primary neuroblastoma of orbit and rhabdomyosarcoma of eyelid. Conclusion Findings suggest that among neoplastic lesions the most common ophthalmic malignancies were retinoblastoma in children and sebaceous carcinoma in adults. Among non-neoplastic lesions, 89% cases of infectious aetiology were of rhinosporidiosis in our study making it an important differential diagnosis among ophthalmic lesions. PMID:28273971

  15. Post-ablative reconstruction of the medial canthus and medial orbital wall using conchal cartilage graft with three illustrative cases.

    PubMed

    Dagregorio, G; Darsonval, V

    2005-12-01

    When the medial third of the upper or lower eyelid has to be reconstructed after full-thickness tumour excision, we usually use Hübner tarsomarginal grafts, but when medial canthal lesions spread to the medial orbital wall without invading the orbital margin, conchal graft becomes our first surgical option. Previously reported solutions to this difficult problem are few and concern more directly medial orbital wall fractures. We found no article dealing specifically with the use of conchal graft in post-ablative reconstruction of the medial orbital wall. Nevertheless the concha presents great advantages over bone grafting or rib cartilage, because it is more flexible and malleable. And it is less prone to extrusion or infection as may be allografts implants. It is a very effective way to repair medial orbital defects, but graft reorientation must be perfect to match exactly the medial orbital wall concavity.

  16. Orbital Infarction due to Sickle Cell Disease without Orbital Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Kim-Binh T.

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is a hemoglobinopathy that results in paroxysmal arteriolar occlusion and tissue infarction that can manifest in a plurality of tissues. Rarely, these infarcted crises manifest in the bony orbit. Orbital infarction usually presents with acute onset of periorbital tenderness, swelling, erythema, and pain. Soft tissue swelling can result in proptosis and attenuation of extraocular movements. Expedient diagnosis of sickle cell orbital infarction is crucial because this is a potentially sight-threatening entity. Diagnosis can be delayed since the presentation has physical and radiographic findings mimicking various infectious and traumatic processes. We describe a patient who presented with sickle cell orbital crisis without pain. This case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion in patients with known sickle cell disease or of African descent born outside the United States in a region where screening for hemoglobinopathy is not routine, even when the presentation is not classic. PMID:27891273

  17. BRAF V600E mutation correlates with suppressive tumor immune microenvironment and reduced disease-free survival in Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Kaixuan; Wang, Zhe; Ohshima, Koichi; Liu, Yixiong; Zhang, Weichen; Wang, Lu; Fan, Linni; Li, Mingyang; Li, Xia; Wang, Yingmei; Yu, Zhou; Yan, Qingguo; Guo, Shuangping; Wei, Jie; Guo, Ying

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a neoplasm of myeloid origin characterized by a clonal proliferation of CD1a+/CD207+ dendritic cells. Recurrent BRAF V600E mutation has been reported in LCH. In the present report, we confirm the feasibility of the high-specificity monoclonal antibody VE1 for detecting BRAF V600E mutation in 36/97 (37.1%) retrospectively enrolled patients with LCH; concordant immunohistochemistry and Sanger sequencing results were seen in 94.8% of cases. We then assessed the tumor immune microenvironment status in LCH, and found that the GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3)+/T-bet+ ratio could distinguish between clinical multi-system/single-system (SS) multifocal and SS unifocal LCH. Notably, we found that BRAF V600E mutation is significantly correlated with increased programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PDL1) expression and forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3)+ regulatory T cells (p < 0.001, 0.009, respectively). Moreover, Cox multivariate survival analysis showed that BRAF V600E mutation and PDL1 were independent prognostic factors of poor disease-free survival (DFS) in LCH (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02–5.56, p = 0.044; HR = 3.06, 95%CI 1.14–7.14, p = 0.025, respectively), and the superiority of PDL1 in sensitivity and specificity as biomarker for DFS in LCH was demonstrated by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves when compared with BRAF V600E and risk category. Collectively, this study identifies for the first time relationship between BRAF V600E mutation and a suppressive tumor immune microenvironment in LCH, resulting in disruption of host–tumor immune surveillance, which is DFS. Our findings may provide a rationale for combining immunotherapy and BRAF-targeted therapy for treating patients with BRAF V600E mutant LCH. PMID:27622040

  18. BRAF V600E mutation correlates with suppressive tumor immune microenvironment and reduced disease-free survival in Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Kaixuan; Wang, Zhe; Ohshima, Koichi; Liu, Yixiong; Zhang, Weichen; Wang, Lu; Fan, Linni; Li, Mingyang; Li, Xia; Wang, Yingmei; Yu, Zhou; Yan, Qingguo; Guo, Shuangping; Wei, Jie; Guo, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a neoplasm of myeloid origin characterized by a clonal proliferation of CD1a(+)/CD207(+) dendritic cells. Recurrent BRAF V600E mutation has been reported in LCH. In the present report, we confirm the feasibility of the high-specificity monoclonal antibody VE1 for detecting BRAF V600E mutation in 36/97 (37.1%) retrospectively enrolled patients with LCH; concordant immunohistochemistry and Sanger sequencing results were seen in 94.8% of cases. We then assessed the tumor immune microenvironment status in LCH, and found that the GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3)(+)/T-bet(+) ratio could distinguish between clinical multi-system/single-system (SS) multifocal and SS unifocal LCH. Notably, we found that BRAF V600E mutation is significantly correlated with increased programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PDL1) expression and forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3)(+) regulatory T cells (p < 0.001, 0.009, respectively). Moreover, Cox multivariate survival analysis showed that BRAF V600E mutation and PDL1 were independent prognostic factors of poor disease-free survival (DFS) in LCH (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-5.56, p = 0.044; HR = 3.06, 95%CI 1.14-7.14, p = 0.025, respectively), and the superiority of PDL1 in sensitivity and specificity as biomarker for DFS in LCH was demonstrated by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves when compared with BRAF V600E and risk category. Collectively, this study identifies for the first time relationship between BRAF V600E mutation and a suppressive tumor immune microenvironment in LCH, resulting in disruption of host-tumor immune surveillance, which is DFS. Our findings may provide a rationale for combining immunotherapy and BRAF-targeted therapy for treating patients with BRAF V600E mutant LCH.

  19. Mab's orbital motion explained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K.; de Pater, I.; Showalter, M. R.

    2015-07-01

    We explored the hypothesis that Mab's anomalous orbital motion, as deduced from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data (Showalter, M.R., Lissauer, J.J. [2006]. Science (New York, NY) 311, 973-977), is the result of gravitational interactions with a putative suite of large bodies in the μ-ring. We conducted simulations to compute the gravitational effect of Mab (a recently discovered Uranian moon) on a cloud of test particles. Subsequently, by employing the data extracted from the test particle simulations, we executed random walk simulations to compute the back-reaction of nearby perturbers on Mab. By generating simulated observation metrics, we compared our results to the data retrieved from the HST. Our results indicate that the longitude residual change noted in the HST data (Δλr,Mab ≈ 1 deg) is well matched by our simulations. The eccentricity variations (ΔeMab ≈10-3) are however typically two orders of magnitude too small. We present a variety of reasons that could account for this discrepancy. The nominal scenario that we investigated assumes a perturber ring mass (mring) of 1 mMab (Mab's mass) and a perturber ring number density (ρn,ring) of 10 perturbers per 3 RHill,Mab (Mab's Hill radius). This effectively translates to a few tens of perturbers with radii of approximately 2-3 km, depending on the albedo assumed. The results obtained also include an interesting litmus test: variations of Mab's inclination on the order of the eccentricity changes should be observable. Our work provides clues for further investigation into the tantalizing prospect that the Mab/μ-ring system is undergoing re-accretion after a recent catastrophic disruption.

  20. Orbiter Crew Compartment Integration-Stowage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, L. Gary

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Orbiter Crew Compartment Integration (CCI) stowage. The evolution of orbiter crew compartment stowage volume is also described, along with photographs presented of the on-orbit volume stowage capacity.

  1. Thirteenth satellite of Jupiter. [orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowal, C. T.; Aksnes, K.; Marsden, B. G.; Roemer, E.

    1975-01-01

    The discovery, observations, and attempts to determine the orbit of Jupiter XIII are described. It is found that the orbit is very similar to the orbits of Jupiter VI, VII, and X. An ephemeris is provided for the 1975 opposition.

  2. Computed tomography of orbital-facial neurofibromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Metzger, R.A.; Grossman, R.I.; Schut, L.; Bruce, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with orbital-facial manifestations of neurofibromations were examined by computed tomography. Delineation of the extent of the disease, and differentiation of the disease processes (orbital tumor, osseous orbital dysplasia, plexiform neurofibromatosis, and buphthalmos) was possible.

  3. Advanced space system for geostationary orbit surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, N. N.; Nazarov, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The structure and orbital configuration of the advanced space system for geostationary orbit surveillance, as well as possible approaches to the development of the satellite bus and payload for the geostationary orbit surveillance, are considered.

  4. Ocular complications of orbital venography.

    PubMed

    Safer, J N; Guibor, P

    1975-03-01

    Three ocular complications directly related to orbital venography are described, one resulting in permanent loss of vision,. The patient had lymphangioma of the orbit which evidently had bled secondary to increased venous pressure and injection of contrast bolus. Both of the 2 patients with transient visual disturbances had diabetic retinopathy. The common factor is felt to be an imparied vascular bed which cannot meet the stress of increased venous pressure and contrast medium injection. Conditions which predispose to ocular-orbital stasis and/or hemorrhage are discussed.

  5. Orbital, Rotational, and Climatic Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bills, Bruce G. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The report of an international meeting on the topic of Orbital, Rotational, and Climatic Interactions, which was held 9-11 Jul. 1991 at the Johns Hopkins University is presented. The meeting was attended by 22 researchers working on various aspects of orbital and rotational dynamics, paleoclimate data analysis and modeling, solid-Earth deformation studies, and paleomagnetic analyses. The primary objective of the workshop was to arrive at a better understanding of the interactions between the orbital, rotational, and climatic variations of the Earth. This report contains a brief introduction and 14 contributed papers which cover most of the topics discussed at the meeting.

  6. Orbital problems in GPS interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Janusz B.

    The GPS orbits and the influence of the orbital errors on the geodetic determination were investigated during the last few years. In the paper, the summary of some analyses is presented concerning the nature of the interferometric observations, the propagation of the orbital errors, and the correlations and covariances in geodetic GPS solutions. One of the results was a proof that, in relative determinations by GPS, the error propagation factor is close to b/10 h, that is almost one order smaller than previously supposed.

  7. Orbit Determination with Very Short Arcs: Preliminary Orbits and Identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, A.; Gronchi, G. F.; Knezevic, Z.; Sansaturio, M. E.

    2004-05-01

    When the observation of a new asteroid are not enough to compute an orbit we can represent them with an attributable (two angles and their time derivatives). The undetermined range and range rate span an admissible region of solar system orbits, which can be represented by a set of Virtual Asteroids (VAs) selected by an optimal triangulation (see the presentation by G. Gronchi). The four coordinates of the attributable are the result of a fit and have a covariance matrix. Thus the predictions of future observations have a quasi-product structure (admissible region times confidence ellipsoid), approximated by a triangulation with a confidence ellipsoid for each node. If we have >2 observations we can also estimate the geodetic curvature and the acceleration of the observed path on the celestial sphere. If both are significantly measured they constrain the range and the range rate and may allow to reduce the size of the admissible region. To compute a a preliminary orbit starting from two attributables, for each VA (selected in the admissible region of the first arc) we consider the prediction at the time of the second and its covariance matrix, and we compare them with the attributable of the second arc with its covariance. By using the identification penalty (as in the algorithms for orbit identification) we can select as a preliminary orbit the VAs which fits together both arcs in the 8-dimensional space. Two attributables may not be enough to compute an orbit with convergent differential corrections. The preliminary orbit is used in a constrained differential correction, providing solutions along the Line Of Variations, to be used as second generation VAs to predict the observations at the time of a third arc. In general the identification with a third arc ensures a well determined orbit.

  8. Pleomorphic adenoma of a deep orbital ectopic lacrimal gland.

    PubMed

    Misra, Somen; Bhandari, Akshay; Misra, Neeta; Gogri, Pratik; Mahajan, Shruti

    2016-10-01

    Ectopic lacrimal gland, being one of the choristomas, is comprised of lacrimal gland tissue outside the lacrimal gland fossa in the fronto-lateral part of the orbital roof. Ectopic lacrimal gland is a rare condition where the gland may be found in the orbit, eyelids, ocular adnexa or within the globe. Neoplastic transformation of such tissue may occur. A sixty-two-year old male patient presented with right eye proptosis and slight nasal displacement of the globe. Computerized tomography scan revealed a well-defined hypodense lesion of size 19 x 18 x 20 mm supero-lateral to lateral rectus muscle, with mild proptosis and thinning of the right lateral orbital wall. Excisional biopsy was performed through a lateral orbitotomy approach. A well circumscribed globular mass was removed from the right orbit, well behind the fossa for the lacrimal gland in the retrobulbar space. Histopathology was suggestive of pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland. Pleomorphic adenoma is an epithelial tumor of the lacrimal gland which is extremely rare from an ectopic lacrimal gland and only few cases have been reported in literature till date.

  9. JSC Orbital Debris Website Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The website provides information about the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office at JSC, which is the lead NASA center for orbital debris research. It is recognized world-wide for its leadership in addressing orbital debris issues. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has taken the international lead in conducting measurements of the environment and in developing the technical consensus for adopting mitigation measures to protect users of the orbital environment. Work at the center continues with developing an improved understanding of the orbital debris environment and measures that can be taken to control its growth. Major Contents: Orbital Debris research is divided into the following five broad efforts. Each area of research contains specific information as follows: 1) Modeling - NASA scientists continue to develop and upgrade orbital debris models to describe and characterize the current and future debris environment. Evolutionary and engineering models are described in detail. Downloadable items include a document in PDF format and executable software. 2) Measurements - Measurements of near-Earth orbital debris are accomplished by conducting ground-based and space-based observations of the orbital debris environment. The data from these sources provide validation of the environment models and identify the presence of new sources. Radar, optical and surface examinations are described. External links to related topics are provided. 3) Protection - Orbital debris protection involves conducting hypervelocity impact measurements to assess the risk presented by orbital debris to operating spacecraft and developing new materials and new designs to provide better protection from the environment with less weight penalty. The data from this work provides the link between the environment defined by the models and the risk presented by that environment to operating spacecraft and provides recommendations on design and operations procedures to reduce the risk as

  10. Effect of fluoride, lesion baseline severity and mineral distribution on lesion progression.

    PubMed

    Lippert, F; Butler, A; Lynch, R J M; Hara, A T

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of fluoride (F) concentration, lesion baseline severity (ΔZ(base)) and mineral distribution on lesion progression. Artificial caries lesions were created using three protocols [methylcellulose acid gel (MeC), hydroxyethylcellulose acid gel (HEC), carboxymethylcellulose acid solution (CMC)] and with low and high ΔZ(base) groups by varying demineralization times within protocols. Subsequently, lesions were immersed in a demineralizing solution for 24 h in the presence of 0, 1, 2 or 5 ppm F. Changes in mineral distribution characteristics of caries lesions were studied using transverse microradiography. At baseline, the protocols yielded lesions with three distinctly different mineral distributions. Secondary demineralization revealed differences in F response between and within lesion types. In general, lowΔZ lesions were more responsive to F than highΔZ lesions. LowΔZ MeC lesions showed the greatest range of response among all lesions, whereas highΔZ HEC lesions were almost unaffected by F. Laminations were observed in the presence of F in all but highΔZ HEC and CMC lesions. Changes in mineral distribution effected by F were most pronounced in MeC lesions, with remineralization/mineral redeposition in the original lesion body at the expense of sound enamel beyond the original lesion in a dose-response manner. Both ΔZ(base) and lesion mineral distribution directly impact the F response and the extent of secondary demineralization of caries lesions. Further studies - in situ and on natural white spot lesions - are required to better mimic in vivo caries under laboratory conditions.

  11. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the orbital maneuvering system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prust, C. D.; Paul, D. J.; Burkemper, V. J.

    1987-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results for the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) hardware are documented. The OMS provides the thrust to perform orbit insertion, orbit circularization, orbit transfer, rendezvous, and deorbit. The OMS is housed in two independent pods located one on each side of the tail and consists of the following subsystems: Helium Pressurization; Propellant Storage and Distribution; Orbital Maneuvering Engine; and Electrical Power Distribution and Control. The IOA analysis process utilized available OMS hardware drawings and schematics for defining hardware assemblies, components, and hardware items. Each level of hardware was evaluted and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was asigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  12. Reactionless orbital propulsion using tether deployment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1990-01-01

    Examples of tether propulsion in orbit without the use of reaction mass are discussed. These include (1) using tether extension to reposition a satellite in orbit without fuel expenditure by extending a mass on the end of the tether; (2) using a tether for eccentricity pumping to add energy to the orbit for boosting and orbital transfer; and (3) length modulation of a spinning tether to transfer angular momentum between the orbit and tether spin, thus allowing changes in orbital angular momentum.

  13. Aqua satellite orbiting the Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the Aqua satellite orbiting the Earth on August 27, 2005 by revealing MODIS true-color imagery for that day. This animation is on a cartesian map projection, so the satellite w...

  14. Cost Per Pound From Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    Traditional studies of Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) designs have focused on designs that are completely reusable except for the fuel. This may not be realistic with current technology . An alternate approach is to look at partially reusable launch vehicles. This raises the question of which parts should be reused and which parts should be expendable. One approach is to consider the cost/pound of returning these parts from orbit. With the shuttle, this cost is about three times the cost/pound of launching payload into orbit. A subtle corollary is that RLVs are much less practical for higher orbits, such as the one on which the International Space Station resides, than they are for low earth orbits.

  15. NASA Orbital Debris Baseline Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has created high fidelity populations of the debris environment. The populations include objects of 1 cm and larger in Low Earth Orbit through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit. They were designed for the purpose of assisting debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment is derived directly from the newest ORDEM model populations which include a background derived from LEGEND, as well as specific events such as the Chinese ASAT test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, the RORSAT sodium-potassium droplet releases, and other miscellaneous events. It is the most realistic ODPO debris population to date. In this paper we present the populations in chart form. We describe derivations of the background population and the specific populations added on. We validate our 1 cm and larger Low Earth Orbit population against SSN, Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  16. The orbit of Pluto's satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tholen, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Nineteen speckle interferometric observations of the Pluto system have been used to improve the determination of the orbital elements for Pluto's satellite. Calibration uncertainties appear to be the dominant source of error, but the observation of a partial occultation of the satellite by Pluto has been used to constrain the orbit solution. The orbital period is found to be in excellent agreement with the rotational period of the planet, reinforcing the belief that the system is completely tidally evolved. The orbital radius and period imply a total mass for the system of 6.8 + or - 0.5 x 10 to the -9th solar masses. Density constraints place an upper limit of 3615 + or - 90 km on the diameter of Pluto, while observations of the first mutual events establish a crude lower limit of about 2800 km.

  17. ARTEMIS Maneuvers into Lunar Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation visualizes the maneuvers required to move the ARTEMIS spacecraft from their kidney-shaped paths on each side of the moon to orbiting the moon. It took one and a half years, over 90 o...

  18. Two stage to orbit design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design of a two-stage to orbit vehicle was conducted with the requirements to carry a 10,000 pound payload into a 300 mile low-earth orbit using an airbreathing first stage, and to take off and land unassisted on a 15,000 foot runway. The goal of the design analysis was to produce the most efficient vehicle in size and weight which could accomplish the mission requirements. Initial parametric analysis indicated that the weight of the orbiter and the transonic performance of the system were the two parameters that had the largest impact on the design. The resulting system uses a turbofan ramjet powered first stage to propel a scramjet and rocket powered orbiter to the stage point of Mach 6 to 6.5 at an altitude of 90,000 ft.

  19. Real and Hybrid Atomic Orbitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, D. B.; Fowler, P. W.

    1981-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogenlike atom separates in both spheroconal and prolate spheroidal coordinates and that these separations provide a sound theoretical basis for the real and hybrid atomic orbitals. (Author/SK)

  20. Visualization of Molecular Orbitals: Formaldehyde

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcott, Richard J.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a computer program that plots a solid" representation of molecular orbital charge density which can be used to analyze wave functions of molecules. Illustrated with diagrams for formaldehyde. (AL)

  1. How to Orbit the Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Donald J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the geometry, algebra, and logic involved in the solution of a "Mindbenders" problem in "Discover" magazine and applies it to calculations of satellite orbital velocity. Extends the solution of this probe to other applications of falling objects. (JM)

  2. Lunar orbital mass spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, manufacture, test and calibration of five lunar orbital mass spectrometers with the four associated ground support equipment test sets are discussed. A mass spectrometer was installed in the Apollo 15 and one in the Apollo 16 Scientific Instrument Module within the Service Module. The Apollo 15 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 38 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit and 50 hours of data were collected during transearth coast. The Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 76 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit. However, the Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was ejected into lunar orbit upon malfunction of spacecraft boom system just prior to transearth insection and no transearth coast data was possible.

  3. Orbits in a logarithmic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hooverman, R. H.

    2014-04-15

    The characteristics of charged particle orbits in the logarithmic electrostatic potential field surrounding a straight conducting wire at a fixed potential are investigated. The equations of motion of an electron in a logarithmic potential are derived, the limiting cases are considered, and the results of numerical integration of the equations of motion are presented along with sketches of a few representative orbits. (C.E.S.)

  4. Orbit Prediction Tool for Different Classes of Space Debris Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wnuk, Edwin; Wytrzyszczak, Iwona; Golembiewska, Justyna; Klinkrad, Heiner

    There are two aspects of the orbital evolution of space debris: the long-term evolution and the short-term prediction of individual object orbits. In the case of the long-term evolution (years or tens of years time span) general characteristics (e.g. total number of objects, spa-tial distribution and density) of a future space environment are predicted with the use of a relatively simple theory of motion for statistical analysis of future orbits of a large number of objects -a cloud of particles". In the short-term orbital evolution of space debris objects, as considered in this paper, future positions and velocities of individual objects are calculated for a few days or a few weeks time span. A much more sophisticated theory of satellite motion is applied in this case. The paper presents the orbital prediction tool that uses an analytical and semi-analytical theories of satellite motion. The force model includes all important perturbing factors: geopotential effects with arbitrary degree and order spherical harmonic coefficients taken into account, luni-solar attractions, solar radiation pressure and atmospheric drag. The analytical theory of motion is of the second order and is not sensitive to singularities for small eccentricities and small inclinations. A new algorithm for the transformation between mean and osculating elements for the second order theory is applied. Predicted positions of a satel-lite on a given level of accuracy are calculated only with the use of terms that essentially influence on predicted satellite orbit, all other terms are omitted. The number of terms in for-mulas for perturbations, and thus complexity of the theory, depends on the defined level of accuracy and the type of orbit. In practice, we create a dynamical model for a given class of satellite orbit. Geopotential and luni-solar perturbations are calculated in the two following steps. In the first step, values of secular terms and all amplitudes of periodic terms are calculated

  5. Congenital lung lesions: Postnatal management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Dakshesh H; Rasiah, Shree Vishna

    2015-08-01

    Antenatal diagnosis of lung lesion has become more accurate resulting in dilemma and controversies of its antenatal and postnatal management. Majority of antenatally diagnosed congenital lung lesions are asymptomatic in the neonatal age group. Large lung lesions cause respiratory compromise and inevitably require urgent investigations and surgery. The congenital lung lesion presenting with hydrops requires careful postnatal management of lung hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension. Preoperative stabilization with gentle ventilation with permissive hypercapnia and delayed surgery similar to congenital diaphragmatic hernia management has been shown to result in good outcome. The diagnostic investigations and surgical management of the asymptomatic lung lesions remain controversial. Postnatal management and outcome of congenital cystic lung lesions are discussed.

  6. Low Earth orbit communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroney, D.; Lashbrook, D.; Mckibben, B.; Gardener, N.; Rivers, T.; Nottingham, G.; Golden, B.; Barfield, B.; Bruening, J.; Wood, D.

    1992-01-01

    A current thrust in satellite communication systems considers a low-Earth orbiting constellations of satellites for continuous global coverage. Conceptual design studies have been done at the time of this design project by LORAL Aerospace Corporation under the program name GLOBALSTAR and by Motorola under their IRIDIUM program. This design project concentrates on the spacecraft design of the GLOBALSTAR low-Earth orbiting communication system. Overview information on the program was gained through the Federal Communications Commission licensing request. The GLOBALSTAR system consists of 48 operational satellites positioned in a Walker Delta pattern providing global coverage and redundancy. The operational orbit is 1389 km (750 nmi) altitude with eight planes of six satellites each. The orbital planes are spaced 45 deg., and the spacecraft are separated by 60 deg. within the plane. A Delta 2 launch vehicle is used to carry six spacecraft for orbit establishment. Once in orbit, the spacecraft will utilize code-division multiple access (spread spectrum modulation) for digital relay, voice, and radio determination satellite services (RDSS) yielding position determination with accuracy up to 200 meters.

  7. Precision Orbit Determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Frank; Rowlands, David; McGarry, Jan; Neumann, Gregory; Chinn, Douglas; Mazarico, Erwan; Torrence, Mark

    The U.S. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission will be launched in October 2008, and will carry out a detailed mapping of the Moon using a science payload of multiple instruments, including the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) (Chin, 2007). One of the primary goals of the LRO mission is develop a geodetic grid for the planet. A subsidiary goal is the improvement of the lunar gravity field. The environment for POD on LRO is especially challenging. The spacecraft will orbit the Moon at a mean altitude of 50 km, and the expected error from the Lunar Prospector series of gravity models (to degree 100 or to degree 150) can be expected to be hundreds of meters. LRO will be tracked by S Band Doppler from White Sands, New Mexico, and Dongara, Australia, as well as by one-way laser ranging from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) tracking stations on the Earth. However, unlike the Japanese lunar mission SELENE (Kaguya), no direct tracking will be available while the spacecraft is over the lunar farside. We review the status of orbit modelling for LRO, for both the geopotential modelling and the nonconservative force models, as well as anticipated improvements. We discuss the modelling for the one-way laser ranging observable, and how the data from the one-way laser ranging (LR) system will be acquired from selected stations of the global stations of the SLR network. We discuss the orbit determination strategies which we expect to implement on this mission, including the use of altimeter crossovers from the LOLA instrument to supplement the Earth-based tracking and we review the projected orbit determination accuracies that will be attainable.

  8. Human papillomavirus DNA in oral mucosal lesions.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Lucia; Campisi, Giuseppina; Lama, Anna; Giambalvo, Ornella; Osborn, John; Margiotta, Valerio; Ammatuna, Pietro

    2002-03-15

    This study determined the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in oral mucosa cells from 121 patients with different types of oral mucosal lesions (13 squamous cell carcinomas, 59 potentially malignant lesions, 49 benign erosive ulcerative lesions) and from 90 control subjects. HPV DNA was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction, and genotype was determined by DNA sequencing. HPV prevalence was 61.5% in carcinomas, 27.1% in potentially malignant lesions, 26.5% in erosive ulcerative lesions, and 5.5% in control subjects. The risk of malignant or potentially malignant lesions was associated with HPV and was statistically significant. HPV-18 was found in 86.5% of HPV-positive lesions but was not associated with a particular type of lesion and was found in 80% of the HPV-positive control subjects. HPV infection was related to older age but not to sex, smoking, or alcohol use; the presence of lesions in the oral cavity increased the risk of HPV infection.

  9. Comet Lesions in Patients with Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

    PubMed Central

    Tatlıpınar, Sinan; Şahan, Berna; Altunsoy, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a genetic multisystemic disorder affecting the skin, eyes and cardiovascular system. Basic fundoscopic findings in PXE result from Bruch’s membrane involvement. The most important fundoscopic findings are angioid streaks. Other significant ocular findings are peau d’orange appearance, optic disc drusen, pattern dystrophy-like macular appearance, comet lesions, and choroidal neovascularization. Comet lesions are a pathognomonic ocular finding for PXE. The presence of both angioid streaks in the fundus and typical skin lesions should alert clinicians to PXE. Herein, we present two PXE cases with comet lesions. PMID:27800246

  10. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  11. Orbital order from the on-site orbital attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodas, M.; Chubukov, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    We study the model of Fe-based superconductors with intraorbital attraction, designed to favor a spontaneous orbital polarization. Previous studies of this model within the two-orbital approximation indicated that the leading instability is toward s -wave superconductivity and the subleading one is toward anti-ferro-orbital order, which breaks the translational symmetry of the crystal. The two-orbital approximation is, however, not consistent with the Fermi surface geometry of Fe superconductors, as it yields the wrong position of one of the hole pockets. Here we analyze the model with the same interaction but with realistic Fermi surface geometry (two hole pockets at the center of the Brillouin zone and two electron pockets at its boundary). We apply the parquet renormalization-group (pRG) technique to detect the leading instability upon the lowering of the temperature. We argue that the pRG analysis strongly favors a q =0 orbital order, which in the band basis is a d -wave Pomeranchuk order.

  12. Ibotenic acid lesions of the lateral hypothalamus: comparison with the electrolytic lesion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Winn, P; Tarbuck, A; Dunnett, S B

    1984-05-01

    Rats received either ibotenic acid, electrolytic or sham lesions of the lateral hypothalamic area. Compared to sham operated rats, both lesion groups showed aphagia and adipsia following the lesion; this was less severe in the ibotenic acid lesioned rats. Once recovered, the ibotenic acid lesioned rats showed residual regulatory impairments in their compensatory responses to glucoprivation and to extracellular and intracellular dehydration. However, unlike the electrolytic lesioned rats, those with ibotenic acid lesions did not show akinesia and exhibited normal responses to both d-amphetamine and apomorphine. Ibotenic acid lesions resulted in extensive loss of cell bodies within the lateral hypothalamic area while sparing ascending dopamine neurones. The results are interpreted as suggesting that the lateral hypothalamic area and ascending dopamine neurones are components of a single system involved in the regulation of food and water intake.

  13. THE ORBITS OF THE OUTER URANIAN SATELLITES

    SciTech Connect

    Brozovic, M.; Jacobson, R. A.

    2009-04-15

    We report on the numerically integrated orbits for the nine outer Uranian satellites. The orbits are calculated based on fits to the astrometric observations for the period from 1984 to 2006. The results include the state vectors, post-fit residuals, and mean orbital elements. We also assess the accuracy of the orbital fits and discuss the need for future measurements.

  14. An Analytical Satellite Orbit Predictor (ASOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starke, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The documentation and user's guide for the Analytical Satellite Orbit Predictor (ASOP) computer program is presented. The ASOP is based on mathematical methods that represent a new state-of-the-art for rapid orbit computation techniques. It is intended to be used for computation of near-earth orbits including those of the shuttle/orbiter and its payloads.

  15. Radiation therapy of conjunctival and orbital lymphoid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Jereb, B.; Lee, H.; Jakobiec, F.A.; Kutcher, J.

    1984-07-01

    Lymphoid tumors of the conjuctiva and orbit are rare and remain localized in the majority of cases. Sometimes it is not possible either clinically or histologically to differentiate between a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and benign lymphoid hyperplasia. A series of 24 patients is reported. Nineteen were classified as having malignant NHL and 5 benign hyperplasia; 1 of these 5 later developed metastases, however. All patients had systemic work-up: 18 had Stage I, 1 had Stage II, and 5 had Stage IV disease. All patients received local radiation therapy with doses of 2400 to 2750 rad in 2-3 weeks for lesions of the eyelid and conjunctiva, and between 3000 and 3750 rad in 3-4 weeks for retrobulbar lesions. A method of shielding the lens with a lead block mounted on a low vac lens is described, and the dose distribution within the eye and orbit is presented. Patients who were treated with doses higher than 3000 rad experienced conjunctivitis and skin erythema that resolved completely. No other effects of radiation on normal structures of the ocular adnexa were observed in the 20 patients who are alive and without signs of tumor 10-46 months with a median follow-up time of 22 months.

  16. [Furcation lesions in deciduous teeth].

    PubMed

    Demars-Fremault, C; Pilipili Muhima, C

    1991-03-01

    The area of furcation of temporary molars constitutes a zone of exchanges and rearrangements relating to the evolution of the sub-adjacent permanent tooth. It is subjected to the eruption of the latter and to the physiological modifications of the temporary tooth. Moreover, this area is the site of above-mentioned inflammatory or infections conditions, maintained or aggravated by anatomical factors (accessory canals, thin pulpar floor, with little calcified dentine and broad tubuli), physiological factors (multiplication of accessory canals, decrease in the floor and migration of the epithelial attachment), endodontic factors (pulpal involvement and its complications) and periodontal factors (septum syndrome). The pathology of furcation is an evolving lesion. When discovered early it can be treated by endodontic therapy, while, in a later phase, it will require the extraction of the tooth. The assessment is made on the basis of a X-Ray examination which permits the temporary tooth to be situated in its stable or labile phase, the condition of the pulpal floor to be evaluated and the stage of sub-adjacent germ mineralisation to be estimated. A periodontal arrangement, by coronal reconstitution, conditions the reliability of the endodontic therapies.

  17. Focal liver lesions found incidentally

    PubMed Central

    Algarni, Abdullah A; Alshuhri, Abdullah H; Alonazi, Majed M; Mourad, Moustafa Mabrouk; Bramhall, Simon R

    2016-01-01

    Incidentally found focal liver lesions are a common finding and a reason for referral to hepatobiliary service. They are often discovered in patients with history of liver cirrhosis, colorectal cancer, incidentally during work up for abdominal pain or in a trauma setting. Specific points should considered during history taking such as risk factors of liver cirrhosis; hepatitis, alcohol consumption, substance exposure or use of oral contraceptive pills and metabolic syndromes. Full blood count, liver function test and tumor markers can act as a guide to minimize the differential diagnosis and to categorize the degree of liver disease. Imaging should start with B-mode ultrasound. If available, contrast enhanced ultrasound is a feasible, safe, cost effective option and increases the ability to reach a diagnosis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography should be considered next. It is more accurate in diagnosis and better to study anatomy for possible operation. Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance is the gold standard with the highest sensitivity. If doubt still remains, the options are biopsy or surgical excision. PMID:27028805

  18. Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Gurkan; Kutlubay, Zekayi; Engin, Burhan; Tuzun, Yalcin

    2014-01-01

    Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as potentially malignant disorders in recent years, are consists of a group of diseases, which should be diagnosed in the early stage. Oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral erythroplakia are the most common oral mucosal diseases that have a very high malignant transformation rate. Oral lichen planus is one of the potentially malignant disorders that may be seen in six different subtypes including papular, reticular, plaque-like, atrophic, erosive, and bullous type, clinically. Atrophic and erosive subtypes have the greater increased malignant transformation risk compared to another subtypes. Although there are various etiological studies, the etiology of almost all these diseases is not fully understood. Geographically, etiologic factors may vary. The most frequently reported possible factors are tobacco use, alcohol drinking, chewing of betel quid containing areca nut, and solar rays. Early diagnosis is very important and can be lifesaving, because in late stages, they may be progressed to severe dysplasia and even carcinoma in situ and/or squamous cell carcinoma. For most diseases, treatment results are not satisfactory in spite of miscellaneous therapies. While at the forefront of surgical intervention, topical and systemic treatment alternatives such as corticosteroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and retinoids are widely used. PMID:25516862

  19. [Mandibular lesions in multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Scutellari, P N; Orzincolo, C

    1992-03-01

    A review was made of 237 cases of multiple myeloma seen at the Institute of Radiology and Hematology of the Ferrara University from 1984 through 1990. The results showed skeletal involvement of the mandible to be present in 25 patients (10.54%). The diagnosis of multiple myeloma was based on the following criteria: 1) increased number of abnormal, atypical or immature plasma cells in the bone marrow; 2) the presence of a monoclonal protein in the serum or urine; 3) bone lesions consistent with those of myeloma. Symptoms include pain and swelling of the oral cavity, tooth mobility and loss, numbness along the inferior dental nerve, and paresthesia of the lower lip. The typical radiographic appearance is a well-defined "punched-out" lytic defect, solitary or multiple; sometimes, the defect enlarges and appears "bubbly" or septated. Permeative lytic areas, with blurred outlines, are a rare pattern, which is radiologically indistinguishable from skeletal metastases. The involvement of the oral cavity and jaw in multiple myeloma has been often reported in literature: nevertheless, if radiographs of the jaws had been systematically taken in all the cases, its incidence would probably have been much higher than previously suspected.

  20. The 2009 Mars Telecommunications Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. R.; DePaula, R.; Diehl, R. E.; Edwards, C. D.; Fitzgerald, R. J.; Franklin, S. F.; Kerridge, S. A.; Komarek, T. A.; Noreen, G. K.

    2004-01-01

    The first spacecraft with a primary function of providing communication links while orbiting a foreign planet has begun development for a launch in 2009. NASA's Mars Telecommunications Orbiter would use three radio bands to magnify the benefits of other future Mars missions and enable some types of missions otherwise impractical. It would serve as the Mars hub for a growing interplanetary Internet. And it would pioneer the use of planet-to-planet laser communications to demonstrate the possibility for even greater networking capabilities in the future. With Mars Telecommunications Orbiter overhead in the martian sky, the Mars Science Laboratory rover scheduled to follow the orbiter to Mars by about a month could send to Earth more than 100 times as much data per day as it could otherwise send. The orbiter will be designed for the capability of relaying up to 15 gigabits per day from the rover, equivalent to more than three full compact discs each day. The same benefits would accrue to other future major Mars missions from any nation.

  1. Sampling characteristics of satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunsch, Carl

    1989-01-01

    The irregular space-time sampling of any finite region by an orbiting satellite raises difficult questions as to which frequencies and wavenumbers can be determined and which will alias into others. Conventional sampling theorems must be extended to account for both irregular data distributions and observational noise - the sampling irregularity making the system much more susceptible to noise than in regularly sampled cases. The problem is formulated here in terms of least-squares and applied to spacecraft in 10-day and 17-day repeating orbits. The 'diamond-pattern' laid down spatially in such repeating orbits means that either repeat period adequately samples the spatial variables, but the slow overall temporal coverage in the 17-day pattern leads to much greater uncertainty than in the shorter repeat cycle. The result is not definitive and it is not concluded that a 10-day orbit repeat is the most appropriate one. A major conclusion, however, is that different orbital choices have potentially quite different sampling characteristics which need to be analyzed in terms of the spectral characteristics of the moving sea surface.

  2. Virtual Surgical Planning for Orbital Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Susarla, Srinivas M.; Duncan, Katherine; Mahoney, Nicholas R.; Merbs, Shannath L.; Grant, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of computer-assisted technology has revolutionized planning for complex craniofacial operations, including orbital reconstruction. Orbital reconstruction is ideally suited for virtual planning, as it allows the surgeon to assess the bony anatomy and critical neurovascular structures within the orbit, and plan osteotomies, fracture reductions, and orbital implant placement with efficiency and predictability. In this article, we review the use of virtual surgical planning for orbital decompression, posttraumatic midface reconstruction, reconstruction of a two-wall orbital defect, and reconstruction of a large orbital floor defect with a custom implant. The surgeon managing orbital pathology and posttraumatic orbital deformities can benefit immensely from utilizing virtual planning for various types of orbital pathology. PMID:26692714

  3. The Eccentric Behavior of Nearly Frozen Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetser, Theodore H.; Vincent, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Frozen orbits are orbits which have only short-period changes in their mean eccentricity and argument of periapse, so that they basically keep a fixed orientation within their plane of motion. Nearly frozen orbits are those whose eccentricity and argument of periapse have values close to those of a frozen orbit. We call them "nearly" frozen because their eccentricity vector (a vector whose polar coordinates are eccentricity and argument of periapse) will stay within a bounded distance from the frozen orbit eccentricity vector, circulating around it over time. For highly inclined orbits around the Earth, this distance is effectively constant over time. Furthermore, frozen orbit eccentricity values are low enough that these orbits are essentially eccentric (i.e., off center) circles, so that nearly frozen orbits around Earth are bounded above and below by frozen orbits.

  4. Deceptive Lesions of Periodontium: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Pandiar, Deepak; Pattamparambath, Manjusha; Kalathingal, Pranav Vijayan; Maliyekkal, Shameena Pallikandi; Vijay, Amol Nagrale

    2015-09-01

    Basic pathology of the common appearing diseases of the periodontium are not always common inflammatory reactions. The root cause may be malignant and metastatic lesions. Here, we present unusual causes of these common periodontal lesions. This article also stress upon the importance of histopathological examination of the surgically excised localized gingival swellings which fail to regress after conservative therapy.

  5. Osteochondral Lesions of the Talar Dome.

    PubMed

    Stone

    1996-03-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the talar dome are relatively common causes of ankle pain and disability. Trauma is the most common cause, but ischemic necrosis, en-docrine disorders, and genetic factors may have etiologic significance. Medial lesions are usually located posteriorly on the dome of the talus, whereas lateral lesions are most frequently located anteriorly. Although the staging system described by Berndt and Harty remains popular, it may not accurately reflect the integrity of the articular cartilage. Small lesions of the talar dome may be present despite a normal appearance on plain radiography. Bone scintigraphy may show increased radionuclide uptake in the talar dome. Magnetic resonance imaging is also sensitive for identifying intraosseous abnormalities in the talus and has the added benefit of revealing other types of soft-tissue lesions not visible on routine radiographic studies. Computed tomography remains the imaging technique of choice when delineation of a bone fragment is desired. Nonoperative management of osteochondral lesions, including restricted weight-bearing and/or immobilization, is recommended unless a loose fragment is clearly present. Surgical options include drilling (usually reserved for intact lesions), debridement of the lesion with curettage or abrasion of the bone bed, internal fixation of the fragment, and bone grafting. Recent technical advances allow these procedures to be performed arthroscopically, with potential reduction of surgical trauma, length of hospital stay, and complication rates.

  6. Pure Gerstmann's syndrome from a focal lesion.

    PubMed

    Roeltgen, D P; Sevush, S; Heilman, K M

    1983-01-01

    It is controversial whether a focal lesion can specifically induce Gerstmann's syndrome (dyscalculia, left-right disorientation, finger agnosia, and agraphia). Also, Gerstmann's tetrad has been attributed to other cerebral symptoms, particularly aphasia. We examined a patient who had all four symptoms of Gerstmann's syndrome, without other symptoms or signs, and who had a discrete left parietal lesion.

  7. Benign lesions of the external auditory canal.

    PubMed

    Tran, L P; Grundfast, K M; Selesnick, S H

    1996-10-01

    Benign mass lesions of the external auditory canal, such as exostoses and osteomas, are common findings on physical examination but most often do not require treatment. The differential diagnosis of lesions in the external auditory canal, however, should not be limited to those benign processes discussed here, but should also include infectious, dermatologic, congenital, and malignant processes.

  8. Radio frequency interference at the geostationary orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sue, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    Growing demands on the frequency spectrum have increased the possibility of radio frequency interference (RFI). Various approaches to obtain in orbit RFI data are compared; this comparision indicates that the most practical way to obtain RFI data for a desired orbit (such as a geostationary orbit) is through the extrapolation of in orbit RFI measurements by a low orbit satellite. It is concluded that a coherent RFI program that uses both experimental data and analytical predictions provides accurate RFI data at minimal cost.

  9. Pediatric Awake Craniotomy for Brain Lesions.

    PubMed

    Akay, Ali; Rükşen, Mete; Çetin, H Yurday; Seval, H Özer; İşlekel, Sertaç

    2016-01-01

    Awake craniotomy is a special method to prevent motor deficits during the resection of lesions that are located in, or close to, functional areas. Although it is more commonly performed in adult patients, reports of pediatric cases undergoing awake craniotomy are limited in the literature. In our clinic, where we frequently use awake craniotomy in adult patients, we performed this method in 2 selected pediatric cases for lesion surgery. At an early age, these 2 cases diagnosed with epilepsy presented cerebral lesions, but since the lesions enclosed functional areas, surgical resection was not regarded as a treatment option at this time. In these 2 pediatric cases, we successfully completed lesion surgery with awake craniotomy. The method and the techniques employed during surgery are presented concomitant with other reports in the literature.

  10. The evolution of comet orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, E.

    1976-01-01

    The origin of comets and the evolution of their orbits are discussed. Factors considered include: the law of survival of comets against ejection on hyperbolic orbits; short-period comets are not created by single close encounters of near-parabolic comets with Jupiter; observable long-period comets do not evolve into observable short-period comets; unobservable long-period comets with perihelia near Jupiter can evolve into observable short-period comets; long-period comets cannot have been formed or created within the planetary region of the solar system (excluding the effects of stellar perturbations); it is possible that some of the short-period comets could have been formed inside the orbit of Neptune; circularly-restricted three-body problem, and its associated Jacobi integral, are not valid approximations to use in studying origin and evolution of comets.

  11. The Challenge of Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Since the dawn of the Space Age more than 50 years ago, humans have been launching objects into the space environment faster than they have been removed by active means or natural decay. This has led to a proliferation of debris -- derelict satellites, discarded rocket upper stages, and pieces from satellite breakups -- in Earth orbit, especially in well-used orbital regimes. This talk will summarize the current knowledge of the debris environment and describe plans to address the challenges orbital debris raises for the future usability of near-Earth space. The talk will be structured around 4 categories: Measurements, Modeling, Shielding, and Mitigation. This will include discussions of the long-term prognosis of debris growth (i.e., the "Kessler Syndrome") as well as plans for active debris removal.

  12. Management of the orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, Joseph P., Jr.; Kessler, Donald J.; Anz-Meador, Phillip D.

    1991-01-01

    Data regarding orbital debris are presented to shed light on the requirements of environmental management in space, and strategies are given for active intervention and operational strategies. Debris are generated by inadvertent explosions of upper stages, intentional military explosions, and collisional breakups. Design and operation practices are set forth for minimizing debris generation and removing useless debris from orbit in the low-earth and geosynchronous orbits. Self-disposal options include propulsive maneuvers, drag-augmentation devices, and tether systems, and the drag devices are described as simple and passive. Active retrieval and disposition are considered, and the difficulty is examined of removing small debris. Active intervention techniques are required since pollution prevention is more effective than remediation for the problems of both earth and space.

  13. Oncocytic Adenocarcinoma of the Orbit.

    PubMed

    Harris, Gerald J; Paul, Sean; Hunt, Bryan C

    Oncocytic adenocarcinoma of the orbit is a rare tumor, with 1 case of nonlacrimal sac, nonlacrimal gland origin, and a poor outcome previously reported. An 85-year-old man with a 2-month history of left-sided epiphora, enlarging eyelid nodules, and diplopia in left gaze was found on imaging to have a poorly circumscribed, nodular mass of uniform radiodensity in the inferomedial orbit. Incisional biopsy revealed morphologic and immunohistochemical features of oncocytic adenocarcinoma with origin in the caruncle suspected, and CT of the neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no metastases or remote primary tumor source. Based on multidisciplinary consensus, orbital exenteration with adjuvant radiation therapy was performed, and there was no evidence of residual or recurrent tumor 2 years after treatment.

  14. Orbit of 1976 AA. [asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, B. G.; Williams, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    The orbit of Asteroid 1976 AA is described, with attention given to calculations of its period and its distance from earth, both of which could be accurately and quickly determined by measuring the minor planet's position over wide ranges of hour angle on one to three nights. The geometry of the asteroid's orbit is compared to that of earth's orbit, and the periodicity of the minor planet's approaches to earth is projected. The motion of 1976 AA over an interval of seven centuries into both past and future is also studied; the possibility of its libration with respect to earth or to Venus is examined. Some data on closest approaches of the asteroid to Mars and Venus, as well as to earth, are given.

  15. Gravity Probe B orbit determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestople, P.; Ndili, A.; Hanuschak, G.; Parkinson, B. W.; Small, H.

    2015-11-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite was equipped with a pair of redundant Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers used to provide navigation solutions for real-time and post-processed orbit determination (OD), as well as to establish the relation between vehicle time and coordinated universal time. The receivers performed better than the real-time position requirement of 100 m rms per axis. Post-processed solutions indicated an rms position error of 2.5 m and an rms velocity error of 2.2 mm s-1. Satellite laser ranging measurements provided independent verification of the GPS-derived GP-B orbit. We discuss the modifications and performance of the Trimble Advance Navigation System Vector III GPS receivers. We describe the GP-B precision orbit and detail the OD methodology, including ephemeris errors and the laser ranging measurements.

  16. Detection of lesions in mammographic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Arthur E.; Jacobson, Francine L.; Judy, Philip F.

    1999-05-01

    This paper is a report on very surprising results from recent work on detection of real lesions in digitized mammograms. The experiments were done using a novel experimental procedure with hybrid images. The lesions (signals) were real tumor masses extracted from breast tissue specimen radiographs. In the detection experiments, the tumors were added to digitized normal mammographic backgrounds. The results of this new work have been both novel and very surprising. Contrast thresholds increased with increasing lesion size for lesions larger than approximately 1 mm in diameter. Earlier work with white noise, radiographic image noise, computed tomography (CT) noise and some types of patient structure have accustomed us to a particular relationship between lesion size and contrast for constant detectability. All previous contrast/detail (CD) diagrams have been similar, the contrast threshold decreases as lesion size increases and flattens at large lesion sizes. The CD diagram for lesion detection in mammographic structure is completely different. It will be shown that this is a consequence of the power-law dependence of the projected breast tissue structure spectral density on spatial frequency. Mammographic tissue structure power spectra have the form P(f) equals B/f(beta ), with an average exponent of approximately 3 (range from 2 to 4), and are approximately isotropic (small angular dependence). Results for two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) signal detection experiments using 4 tumor lesions and one mathematically generated signal will be presented. These results are for an unbiased selection of mammographic backgrounds. It is possible that an additional understanding of the effects of breast structure on lesion detectability can be obtained by investigating detectability in various classes of mammographic backgrounds. This will be the subject of future research.

  17. Assessing Terra Disposal Orbit Candidates from an Orbital Debris Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Andrew J.; Thompson, Roger C.; Mantziaras, Dimitrios C.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Terra satellite is reaching the end of its mission life. Because the satellite resides in the 705 km Earth Science Constellation, disposal strategies need to be considered to remove it from this densely populated operational orbit. Of critical importance was the need to examine the future potential risk to other satellite residents of the 705 km constellation due to an unexpected breakup event of the Terra satellite post-disposal. This study quantifies the comparative risk of debris impacts associated with the two leading candidate disposal orbits (701 km vs. 686 km) and characterizes the suitability of each orbit for the purpose of long-term spacecraft disposal. The increase in collision risk to any member of the 705 km Earth Science Constellation is very modest. The long-term, average, total risk (including the ambient background risk) due to a Terra breakup at a disposal of -19 km (i.e., 686 km) relative to the 705 km constellation is 9.7 × 10(exp -6) impacts/day versus 1.0 × 10(exp -5) impacts/day for a disposal of only -4 km (i.e., 701 km). For perspective, note that the nominal space background risk to the 705 km constellation is 9.2 × 10(exp -6) impacts/day which implies a very modest increase in risk (approximately 3% difference between the two cases) due to a Terra breakup in either disposal orbit.

  18. Precise GPS orbits for geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has become, in recent years, the main space-based system for surveying and navigation in many military, commercial, cadastral, mapping, and scientific applications. Better receivers, interferometric techniques (DGPS), and advances in post-processing methods have made possible to position fixed or moving receivers with sub-decimeter accuracies in a global reference frame. Improved methods for obtaining the orbits of the GPS satellites have played a major role in these achievements; this paper gives a personal view of the main developments in GPS orbit determination.

  19. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    PubMed

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.

  20. The Stability of Periodic Orbits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-21

    I AOB a7 PRIlNCETON UNIV NJ JOSEPH HENRY LABS OF PHYSICS FD 7/S THE STABILITY OF PERIODIC ORBITS. (U) JAN 81 L SNEDOOM N00014-77-C-0711 UNCLASSIFIE-D...NL I - The Stability of Periodic Orbits Leigh Sneddon* Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey 08544 ABSTRACT...eigenvalue of the Poincare map passes out through the unit circle at -1 : see Appendix 1) 9,10 are observed and are referred to as subharmonic or period

  1. Energy and the Elliptical Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettles, Bill

    2009-03-01

    In the January 2007 issue of The Physics Teacher, Prentis, Fulton, Hesse, and Mazzino describe a laboratory exercise in which students use a geometrical analysis inspired by Newton to show that an elliptical orbit and an inverse-square law force go hand in hand. The historical, geometrical, and teamwork aspects of the exercise are useful and important. This paper presents an exercise which uses an energy/angular momentum conservation model for elliptical orbits. This exercise can be done easily by an individual student and on regular notebook-sized paper.

  2. Constraints on Triton's Orbital Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, D. P.; Zhang, K.; Agnor, C.

    2005-05-01

    Three models have been proposed for the capture origin of Triton: Collision with a preexisting satellite (Goldreich 1989), Gas drag (McKinnon 1990), and three-body exchange (Agnor and Hamilton 2004). All three scenarios put Triton onto a highly elongated orbit which is subsequently circularized by satellite tides. Our goal here is to use the current state of the Neptunian system to constrain these capture scenarios. Triton strongly affects inner satellites (or an inner disk) directly via close pericenter passages before its orbit circularizes. Since satellite tides nearly conserve angular momentum, a simple tidal model puts Triton's minimum pericenter distance at aT/2 ˜ 7RN, where aT is its current semimajor axis. Our initial simulations show that some satellites orbiting outside Proteus (the outermost of the inner satellites at a=4.67RN) can survive these Triton passages. So why are there no known moonlets beyond 4.67RN? Seeking answers, we have integrated Triton's orbit backwards in time with a more sophisticated model that includes J2, solar perturbations, and satellite tides. We find that Triton's pericenter smoothly descends toward 7RN, as in the simple tidal model, but with superimposed oscillations at i) 1/2 Neptune's orbital period and ii) the nodal and apsidal precession periods. At a ˜ 94RN Triton encounters a Kozai-like resonance between these precession periods which causes its pericenter to dip to ˜ 4.2RN - well within the current orbit of Proteus. If Triton's orbit were ever this large, then the early inner satellite system must have been much smaller than it is today. Additional apsidal and nodal resonances between an early Triton on a highly elliptical orbit and the small inner satellites (with resonant arguments like 2nT - 2Ω sat) are strong enough to drive moonlet inclinations up to several degrees. We are using the stengths and locations of these resonances to further limit possible capture and evolution scenarios and will report on the

  3. Bar shapes and orbital stochasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Athanassoula, E. )

    1990-06-01

    Several independent lines of evidence suggest that the isophotes or isodensities of bars in barred galaxies are not really elliptical in shape but more rectangular. The effect this might have on the orbits in two different types of bar potentials is studied, and it is found that in both cases the percentage of stochastic orbits is much larger when the shapes are more rectangularlike or, equivalently, when the m = 4 components are more important. This can be understood with the help of the Chirikov criterion, which can predict the limit for the onset of global stochasticity. 9 refs.

  4. Orbiter electrical equipment utilization baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The baseline for utilization of Orbiter electrical equipment in both electrical and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) thermal analyses is established. It is a composite catalog of Space Shuttle equipment, as defined in the Shuttle Operational Data Book. The major functions and expected usage of each component type are described. Functional descriptions are designed to provide a fundamental understanding of the Orbiter electrical equipment, to insure correlation of equipment usage within nominal analyses, and to aid analysts in the formulation of off-nominal, contingency analyses.

  5. Orbital Resonances Around Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.

  6. Bacteriology of diabetic foot lesions.

    PubMed

    Yoga, R; Khairul, A; Sunita, K; Suresh, C

    2006-02-01

    Infection plays a pivotal role in enhancing a diabetic foot at risk toward amputation. Effective antibiotic therapy against the offending pathogens is an important component of treatment of diabetic foot infections. Recognition of the pathogen is always difficult as the representative deep tissue sample for culture is surrounded by ulcer surface harbouring colonies of organisms frequently labelled as skin commensals. The emergent of resistant strains represents a compounding problem standing against efforts to prevent amputation. This study was undertaken to identify the pathogens associated with diabetic foot infection in terms of their frequency and sensitivity against certain commonly used antibiotics. Forty-four consecutive patients with open diabetic foot infections had wound swab taken for culture and sensitivity testing. Cultures positive were observed in 89% of the cases with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa encountered in 20%, 14% and 14% of cases respectively. Mixed growths were isolated in 6% of cultures. All Staphylcoccus aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin but 80% were sensitive to Erythromycin and Co-trimoxazole. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to Methicillin and Gentamycin in 80% and 60% of cases respectively, and resistant to Ampicillin and Ceftazidime in 83% and 50% respectively. All Pseudomonas aeroginosa isolates were sensitive to Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin but 50% were resistant to Gentamycin. There was no single antibiotic possessing good coverage for all common organisms isolated from diabetic foot lesions. Staphylococcus aureus remains the predominant cause of diabetic foot infections followed by Klebsiela pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Most infections are monomicrobial. The emergence of multiresistant organisms is a worrying feature in diabetic foot infections.

  7. CyberKnife radiosurgery for the treatment of orbital metastases.

    PubMed

    Klingenstein, A; Kufeld, M; Wowra, B; Muacevic, A; Fürweger, C; Schaller, U C

    2012-10-01

    Purpose of this study is to evaluate radiographic therapy response, clinical outcome and adverse effects of CyberKnife radiosurgery in patients suffering from orbital metastases. Sixteen orbital metastases originating from different solid cancers in fourteen patients were treated by single fraction CyberKnife radiosurgery. Radiographic response and clinical outcome were evaluated. The treated tumor volume ranged from 0.2 to 35 cm3 (median 2.3 cm3, mean 7.0 cm3, SD 6 10.4 cm3, CI 0.9-9.4 cm3). The prescription dose ranged from 16.5-21 Gy (median 18 Gy, mean 18.2 Gy, SD 6 1.2 Gy, CI 17.0-18.4 Gy). A no change situation was observed in nine lesions, partial remission in four as well as complete remission in one metastasis. Tumor growth was stabilized or regressive following CyberKnife therapy in 87% of the cases. Recurrence was observed in two cases (13%). Before therapy, three patients suffered from visual disturbance and five patients reported diplopia. Six patients had no initial symptoms. After therapy, one patient indicated improvement of the present visual deficit and two patients no change. Out of the two patients with persistent diplopia, two reported improvement after therapy and three no change. No progression of symptoms was noted in any of the cases. Fourteen out of sixteen treated lesions were stable or regressive following CyberKnife radiosurgery (87%). As no serious adverse effects were reported in this series, CyberKnife therapy was shown to be of great value for local management of orbital metastases.

  8. Orbital dynamics in galaxy mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Loren

    In the favored vacuum energy + cold dark matter (ACDM) cosmology, galaxies form through a hierarchical merging process. Mergers between comparable-mass sys tems are qualitatively different from the ongoing accretion of small objects by much larger ones, in that they can radically transform the nature of the merging objects, e.g. through violent relaxation of the stars and dark matter, triggered starbursts, and quasar activity. This thesis covers two phenomena unique to major galaxy mergers: the formation of supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary and triple systems, and the transformation of the stellar orbit structure through violent relaxation, triggered gas inflow, and star formation. In a major merger, the SMBHs can spiral in and form a bound binary in less than a Hubble time. If the binary lifetime exceeds the typical time between mergers, then triple black hole (BH) systems may form. We study the statistics of close triple-SMBH encounters in galactic nuclei by computing a series of three-body orbits with physically-motivated initial conditions appropriate for giant elliptical galaxies. Our simulations include a smooth background potential consisting of a stellar bulge plus a dark matter halo, drag forces due to gravitational radiation and dynamical friction on the stars and dark matter, and a simple model of the time evolution of the inner density profile under heating and mass ejection by the SMBHs. We find that the binary pair coalesces as a result of repeated close encounters in ~85% of our runs. In about 40% of the runs the lightest BH is left wandering through the galactic halo or escapes the galaxy altogether. The triple systems typically scour out cores with mass deficits ~1-2 times their total mass. The high coalescence rate and prevalence of very high-eccentricity orbits could provide interesting signals for the future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Our study of remnant orbit structure involved 42 disk-disk mergers at various gas fractions

  9. Colon Preneoplastic Lesions in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Suzui, Masumi; Morioka, Takamitsu; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    The animal model is a powerful and fundamental tool in the field of biochemical research including toxicology, carcinogenesis, cancer therapeutics and prevention. In the carcinogenesis animal model system, numerous examples of preneoplastic lesions have been isolated and investigated from various perspectives. This may indicate that several options of endpoints to evaluate carcinogenesis effect or therapeutic outcome are presently available; however, classification of preneoplastic lesions has become complicated. For instance, these lesions include aberrant crypt foci (ACF), dysplastic ACF, flat ACF, β-catenin accumulated crypts, and mucin-depleted foci. These lesions have been induced by commonly used chemical carcinogens such as azoxymethane (AOM), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), methylnitrosourea (MUN), or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Investigators can choose any procedures or methods to examine colonic preneoplastic lesions according to their interests and the objectives of their experiments. Based on topographical, histopathological, and biological features of colon cancer preneoplastic lesions in the animal model, we summarize and discuss the character and implications of these lesions. PMID:24526805

  10. Polypoidal Lesions in the Nasal Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Kumari M.K., Kalpana; K.C., Mahadeva

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nasal polyps are polypoidal masses arising from mucous membranes of nose and paranasal sinuses. They are overgrowths of the mucosa that frequently accompany allergic rhinitis. They are freely movable and nontender. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to study the histopathologic spectrum of polypoidal lesions of the nasal cavity. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 100 consecutive cases of polypoidal lesions in the nasal cavity, received in the department of pathology. The age and sex of the patients were recorded. The tissues were routinely processed for histopathologic sections and stained with haematoxylin and eosin stains. Special stains like Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) was done wherever applicable. The cases were classified into neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions. The neoplastic lesions were further classified according to WHO classification on histopathologic examination. Results: Analysis of 100 polypoidal lesions in the nose and paranasal sinuses with clinical diagnosis of nasal polyps, revealed 66 cases were nonneoplastic and 34 were neoplastic;17 (50%)were benign and 17(50%) were malignant. True nasal polyps both inflammatory and allergic together comprised 44 cases of the 100 polypoidal lesions in the nasal cavity. Angiofibroma and inverted papilloma were the most frequent benign tumour accounting for 12/17(0.7%). The most common malignant tumour was anaplastic carcinoma 7/17(0.4%). Nonneoplastic and benign tumours were common in younger age groups whereas malignant tumours were most common in older males. Conclusion: The majority of polypoidal lesions in the nasal cavity are nonneoplastic. PMID:23905098

  11. Hepatic lesions segmentation in ultrasound nonlinear imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissi, Adelaide A.; Cormier, Stephane; Pourcelot, Leandre; Tranquart, Francois

    2005-04-01

    Doppler has been used for many years for cardiovascular exploration in order to visualize the vessels walls and anatomical or functional diseases. The use of ultrasound contrast agents makes it possible to improve ultrasonic information. Nonlinear ultrasound imaging highlights the detection of these agents within an organ and hence is a powerful technique to image perfusion of an organ in real-time. The visualization of flow and perfusion provides important information for the diagnosis of various diseases as well as for the detection of tumors. However, the images are buried in noise, the speckle, inherent in the image formation. Furthermore at portal phase, there is often an absence of clear contrast between lesions and surrounding tissues because the organ is filled with agents. In this context, we propose a new method of automatic liver lesions segmentation in nonlinear imaging sequences for the quantification of perfusion. Our method of segmentation is divided into two stages. Initially, we developed an anisotropic diffusion step which raised the structural characteristics to eliminate the speckle. Then, a fuzzy competitive clustering process allowed us to delineate liver lesions. This method has been used to detect focal hepatic lesions (metastasis, nodular hyperplasia, adenoma). Compared to medical expert"s report obtained on 15 varied lesions, the automatic segmentation allows us to identify and delineate focal liver lesions during the portal phase which high accuracy. Our results show that this method improves markedly the recognition of focal hepatic lesions and opens the way for future precise quantification of contrast enhancement.

  12. Characterizing lesions in corals from American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The study of coral disease has suffered from an absence of systematic approaches that are commonly used to determine causes of diseases in animals. There is a critical need to develop a standardized and portable nomenclature for coral lesions in the field and to incorporate more commonly available biomedical tools in coral disease surveys to determine the potential causes of lesions in corals. We characterized lesions in corals from American Samoa based on gross and microscopic morphology and classified them as discoloration, growth anomalies, or tissue loss. The most common microscopic finding in corals manifesting discoloration was the depletion of zooxanthellae, followed by necrosis, sometimes associated with invasive algae or fungi. The most common microscopic lesion in corals manifesting tissue loss was cell necrosis often associated with algae, fungi, or protozoa. Corals with growth anomaly had microscopic evidence of hyperplasia of gastrovascular canals, followed by necrosis associated with algae or metazoa (polychaete worms). Several species of apparently normal corals also had microscopic changes, including the presence of bacterial aggregates or crustacea in tissues. A single type of gross lesion (e.g., discoloration) could have different microscopic manifestations. This phenomenon underlines the importance of using microscopy to provide a more systematic description of coral lesions and to detect potential pathogens associated with these lesions.

  13. Association of Malassezia species with psoriatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Honnavar, Prasanna; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Dogra, Sunil; Singh, Pankaj; Handa, Sanjeev

    2014-08-01

    The aetiology of psoriasis remains elusive. Among multiple factors hypothesised, association of Malassezia spp. is supported by response to topical antifungals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of Malassezia spp. with psoriatic lesion. The subjects included 50 consecutive patients with psoriasis, and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Samples were collected using scotch tape over one square inch area from the lesional and non-lesional sites. The isolated Malassezia spp. were identified by phenotypic methods and confirmed by ITS2 PCR-RFLP and sequencing of D1/D2 region of 26S rDNA. Psoriatic lesions were seen commonly on scalp (28%, 14), chest (22%, 11) and arms (16%, 8). Majority of cases presented with chronic plaque form (76%, 38; P < 0.05). From psoriatic lesions, most frequently isolated Malassezia species was M. furfur (70.6%, 24), followed by M. japonica (11.8%, 4) and M. globosa (8.8%, 3). From healthy individuals M. furfur, M. sympodialis, mixture of M. furfur and M. globosa was isolated in 73.3%, 10% and 16.7% (22, 3 and 5) of cases respectively. The average number of colonies isolated from scalp lesions of the patients was significantly higher (P = 0.03) than healthy areas. Although no strong association of Malassezia species was formed with psoriatic lesion in general, the fungi may play a role in exacerbation of scalp psoriasis.

  14. Precision Orbit Determination for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter: orbit quality and gravity field estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Torrence, M. H.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.; Mao, D.

    2010-12-01

    We present results of the Precision Orbit Determination work undertaken by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Science Team for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, in order to meet the position knowledge accuracy requirements (50-m total position) and to precisely geolocate the LRO datasets. In addition to the radiometric tracking data, one-way laser ranges (LR) between Earth stations and the spacecraft are made possible by a small telescope mounted on the spacecraft high-gain antenna. The photons received from Earth are transmitted to one LOLA detector by a fiber optics bundle. The LOLA timing system enables 5-s LR normal points with precision better than 10cm. Other types of geodetic constraints are derived from the altimetric data itself. The orbit geometry can be constrained at the times of laser groundtrack intersections (crossovers). Due to the Moon's slow rotation, orbit solutions and normal equations including altimeter crossovers are processed and created in one month batches. Recent high-resolution topographic maps near the lunar poles are used to produce a new kind of geodetic constraints. Purely geometric, those do not necessitate actual groundtrack intersections. We assess the contributions of those data types, and the quality of our orbits. Solutions which use altimetric crossover meet the horizontal 50-m requirement, and perform usually better (10-20m). We also obtain gravity field solutions based on LRO and historical data. The various LRO data are accumulated into normal equations, separately for each one month batch and for each measurement type, which enables the final weights to be adjusted during the least-squares inversion step. Expansion coefficients to degree and order 150 are estimated, and a Kaula rule is still needed to stabilize the farside field. The gravity field solutions are compared to previous solutions (GLGM-3, LP150Q, SGM100h) and the geopotential predicted from the latest LOLA spherical harmonic expansion.

  15. Neurovestibular Compensation following Ototoxic Lesion and Labyrinthectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanshenas, Hamed; Ashouri, Anousheh; Kaufman, Galen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Unilateral labyrinthectomy and intra-tympanic gentamycin have been employed in the treatment of Ménière's disease, but the efficacy of these techniques has not been well established. Objective The objective of this study is to measure the time course of recovery from a unilateral labyrinthectomy either after ipsilateral topical treatment with gentamicin to the inner ear or without the previous insult. Methods Twenty-nine adult Mongolian gerbils were randomized into two experimental groups. Group 1 (n = 17) received a right ear gentamicin drug-induced lesion by unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). Group 2 (n = 12) only received a right unilateral labyrinthectomy lesion. We measured the horizontal vestibulo-ocular responses in gerbils before and after the lesion. The gerbils received an angular acceleration stimulus and their eye movements were recorded. Results The gentamicin lesion resulted in a quicker recovery. Experimental groups underwent a similar time course of recovery. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups. Both groups displayed adaptation to the lesion by day 21, but long-term compensation did not completely revert to the original pre-lesion state. Conclusions In a lesion requiring both static and dynamic compensation as in UL, the need for a static compensation may alter pre-existing compensation from a previous dynamic insult and require a new compensation. A previous lesion and adaptation is not preserved for a second lesion and the subject has to re-compensate. Therefore, surgical treatment in Meniere's disease such as UL can be considered without prior gentamicin treatment. Static and dynamic compensations do not appear to be as independent as previous studies have suggested. PMID:27096015

  16. Oral White Lesions Associated with Chewing Khat

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, Meir; Epstein, Joel B; Levi, Harel; Yarom, Noam

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Khat is a cultivated plant whose leaves when chewed elevate mood. Unlike the chewing of betel nut, no association between the white oral mucosal lesions in khat users and oral malignancies has been reported. Chewing of khat has been documented in many countries and has increased with worldwide migration. The impact of chewing khat upon the oral mucosa is essentially unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of oral white changes in chronic khat chewers. Oral mucosal changes in a group of 47 Yemenite Israeli men over 30 years of age, who had chewed khat more than 3 years, were compared to those of 55 Yemenite men who did not chew. Results White lesions were significantly more prevalent in the khat chewers (83%) compared to the non chewing individuals (16%) (P < 0.001). White oral lesions were identified primarily on the lower buccal attached gingival mucosa, the alveolar mucosa and the lower mucobuccal fold on the chewing side (p < 0.001). There was no significant association between the occurrence of the white lesions and smoking. Even though the majority of the white lesions (85.4%) were homogenous, 71.4% of the non homogenous lesions were identified in khat chewers. Vital staining with toluidine blue and exfoliative cytology was conducted on a subset of patients with homogenous and non-homogenous oral lesions, and there were no findings suspicious for pre-malignant or malignant changes. Discussion This study demonstrated a relationship between khat chewing and oral white lesions, which we attribute to chronic local mechanical and chemical irritation of the mucosa. Our findings also suggest that mucosal changes associated with khat are benign, however, this initial study requires further studies including follow-up of khat users to confirm the current findings, including the likely benign changes associated with chronic use and histologic findings of clinical lesions.

  17. Oral White Lesions Associated with Chewing Khat

    PubMed Central

    Gorsky, Meir; Epstein, Joel B; Levi, Harel; Yarom, Noam

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Khat is a cultivated plant whose leaves when chewed elevate mood. Unlike the chewing of betel nut, no association between the white oral mucosal lesions in khat users and oral malignancies has been reported. Chewing of khat has been documented in many countries and has increased with worldwide migration. The impact of chewing khat upon the oral mucosa is essentially unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of oral white changes in chronic khat chewers. Oral mucosal changes in a group of 47 Yemenite Israeli men over 30 years of age, who had chewed khat more than 3 years, were compared to those of 55 Yemenite men who did not chew. Results White lesions were significantly more prevalent in the khat chewers (83%) compared to the non chewing individuals (16%) (P < 0.001). White oral lesions were identified primarily on the lower buccal attached gingival mucosa, the alveolar mucosa and the lower mucobuccal fold on the chewing side (p < 0.001). There was no significant association between the occurrence of the white lesions and smoking. Even though the majority of the white lesions (85.4%) were homogenous, 71.4% of the non homogenous lesions were identified in khat chewers. Vital staining with toluidine blue and exfoliative cytology was conducted on a subset of patients with homogenous and non-homogenous oral lesions, and there were no findings suspicious for pre-malignant or malignant changes. Discussion This study demonstrated a relationship between khat chewing and oral white lesions, which we attribute to chronic local mechanical and chemical irritation of the mucosa. Our findings also suggest that mucosal changes associated with khat are benign, however, this initial study requires further studies including follow-up of khat users to confirm the current findings, including the likely benign changes associated with chronic use and histologic findings of clinical lesions. PMID:19570281

  18. Sampling probability distributions of lesions in mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Looney, P.; Warren, L. M.; Dance, D. R.; Young, K. C.

    2015-03-01

    One approach to image perception studies in mammography using virtual clinical trials involves the insertion of simulated lesions into normal mammograms. To facilitate this, a method has been developed that allows for sampling of lesion positions across the cranio-caudal and medio-lateral radiographic projections in accordance with measured distributions of real lesion locations. 6825 mammograms from our mammography image database were segmented to find the breast outline. The outlines were averaged and smoothed to produce an average outline for each laterality and radiographic projection. Lesions in 3304 mammograms with malignant findings were mapped on to a standardised breast image corresponding to the average breast outline using piecewise affine transforms. A four dimensional probability distribution function was found from the lesion locations in the cranio-caudal and medio-lateral radiographic projections for calcification and noncalcification lesions. Lesion locations sampled from this probability distribution function were mapped on to individual mammograms using a piecewise affine transform which transforms the average outline to the outline of the breast in the mammogram. The four dimensional probability distribution function was validated by comparing it to the two dimensional distributions found by considering each radiographic projection and laterality independently. The correlation of the location of the lesions sampled from the four dimensional probability distribution function across radiographic projections was shown to match the correlation of the locations of the original mapped lesion locations. The current system has been implemented as a web-service on a server using the Python Django framework. The server performs the sampling, performs the mapping and returns the results in a javascript object notation format.

  19. Getting a Crew into Orbit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Despite the temporary setback in our country's crewed space exploration program, there will continue to be missions requiring crews to orbit Earth and beyond. Under the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, NASA should have its own heavy launch rocket and crew vehicle developed by 2016. Private companies will continue to explore space, as well. At the…

  20. Launching Social Studies into Orbit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Kirk

    1986-01-01

    As a social studies educator, Christa McAuliffe was delighted that a "non-science teacher" was chosen to become the first teacher to orbit the earth. Her thoughts concerning the NASA space flight and its meaning for the social studies are discussed. (RM)

  1. Atypical presentations of orbital cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Pushker, Neelam; Chaturvedi, Amrita; Balasubramanya, Ramamurthy; Bajaj, Mandeep S; Kumar, Neena; Sony, Parul

    2005-01-01

    We describe three patients with orbital cysticercosis who presented with atypical clinical or radiologic features previously unreported. All three patients had a cyst with a scolex on imaging studies. After 6 weeks of treatment, all three had almost complete resolution of their features.

  2. Closed Orbits in Phase Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Andrew; Haestad, Jace; Morgan, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    We report characteristics of closed classical orbits in an electric field in phase space produced in photoabsorption. Rydberg states of atomic and molecular hydrogen and helium are considered. The core potential used for the hydrogen molecule is an effective one electron one center core potential evaluated at the internuclear equilibrium distance. Poincare surfaces of section in phase space are generated by integrating the equations of motion in semiparabolic coordinates u = (r + z) 1 / 2 and v = (r - z) 1 / 2, and plotting the location in phase space (pv versus v) whenever u = 0, with the electric field in the z direction. Combination orbits produced by Rydberg electron core scattering are studied and the evolution in phase space of these combination orbits due to scattering from one closed orbit into another is investigated. Connections are made to measured laser photoabsorption experiments that excite Rydberg states (20 < n < 30) and produce accompanying scaled energy recurrence spectra. The phase space structures responsible for the spectra are identified.

  3. Biomaterials for orbital fractures repair

    PubMed Central

    Totir, M; Ciuluvica, R; Dinu, I; Careba, I; Gradinaru, S

    2015-01-01

    The unique and complex anatomy of the orbit requires significant contouring of the implants to restore the proper anatomy. Fractures of the orbital region have an incidence of 10-25% from the total facial fractures and the most common age group was the third decade of life. The majority of cases required reconstruction of the orbital floor to support the globe position and restore the shape of the orbit. The reason for this was that the bony walls were comminuted and/ or bone fragments were missing. Therefore, the reconstruction of the missing bone was important rather than reducing the bone fragments. This could be accomplished by using various materials. There is hardly any anatomic region in the human body that is so controversial in terms of appropriate material used for fracture repair: non resorbable versus resorbable, autogenous/ allogeneic/ xenogenous versus alloplastic material, non-prebent versus preformed (anatomical) plates, standard versus custom-made plates, nonporous versus porous material, non-coated versus coated plates. Thus, the importance of the material used for reconstruction becomes more challenging for the ophthalmologist and the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. PMID:25914737

  4. Augmented orbiter heat rejection study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    Spacecraft radiator concepts are presented that relieve attitude restrictions required by the shuttle orbiter space radiator for baseline and extended capability STS missions. Cost effective heat rejection kits are considered which add additional capability in the form of attached spacelab radiators or a deployable radiator module.

  5. Energy and the Elliptical Orbit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Bill

    2009-01-01

    In the January 2007 issue of "The Physics Teacher," Prentis, Fulton, Hesse, and Mazzino describe a laboratory exercise in which students use a geometrical analysis inspired by Newton to show that an elliptical orbit and an inverse-square law force go hand in hand. The historical, geometrical, and teamwork aspects of the exercise are useful and…

  6. Viking orbiter stereo imaging catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blasius, K. R.; Vertrone, A. V.; Lewis, B. H.; Martin, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    The extremely long mission of the two Viking Orbiter spacecraft produced a wealth of photos of surface features. Many of these photos can be used to form stereo images allowing the student of Mars to examine a subject in three dimensional. This catalog is a technical guide to the use of stereo coverage within the complex Viking imaging data set.

  7. [Primary orbital tumors in children].

    PubMed

    Składzień, J; Olszewski, E; Reroń, E; Modrzejewski, M; Tomik, J; Paziewski, E

    1996-01-01

    We present the incidence, diagnosis and clinical picture of the primary orbital tumors in children. They were treated in ENT Clinic CM UJ in Kraków between 1981-1990 years. Discovered was preponderance of primary non malignant tumors. The most frequently encountered tumors were dermatomas, angiomas and among the malignant tumors-rhabdomyosarcoma.

  8. Myeloid Sarcoma in the Orbit.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaoxiao; Gigantelli, James W; Abromowitch, Minnie; Morgan, Linda A; Suh, Donny W

    2016-12-08

    The authors describe a case of myeloid sarcoma of the orbit in a pediatric patient. An 8-month-old male infant presented to the ophthalmology clinic with a left orbital mass, which had been increasing in size over the previous 2 months. The mass was initially diagnosed at another clinic as an infantile hemangioma, and had been treated with a topical formulation of timolol. In the ophthalmology clinic, orbital magnetic resonance imaging showed a solid enhancing mass. A biopsy was performed, and histopathology revealed myeloid sarcoma. The disease responded well to a standard chemotherapy regimen. Myeloid sarcoma is a rare, extra-medullary presentation that can occur as an isolated tumor, concurrently with or at relapse of acute myeloid leukemia. Because few cases of myeloid sarcoma in the orbit have been reported, this case report aids in the management of myeloid sarcoma in pediatric patients. The report describes an 8-month-old male infant, the youngest patient to develop myeloid sarcoma without preexisting acute myeloid leukemia. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2016;53:e64-e68.].

  9. NASA Facts, Orbits and Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is intended for senior high physics students. It contains information on the sidereal and synodic periods of revolution of an orbiting satellite, including their calculation. This pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook.…

  10. THREE PLANETS ORBITING WOLF 1061

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D. J.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Tinney, C. G.; Bentley, J. S.; Zhao, Jinglin

    2016-02-01

    We use archival HARPS spectra to detect three planets orbiting the M3 dwarf Wolf 1061 (GJ 628). We detect a 1.36 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with an orbital period P = 4.888 days (Wolf 1061b), a 4.25 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 17.867 days (Wolf 1061c), and a likely 5.21 M{sub ⊕} minimum-mass planet with orbital period P = 67.274 days (Wolf 1061d). All of the planets are of sufficiently low mass that they may be rocky in nature. The 17.867 day planet falls within the habitable zone for Wolf 1061 and the 67.274 day planet falls just outside the outer boundary of the habitable zone. There are no signs of activity observed in the bisector spans, cross-correlation FWHMs, calcium H and K indices, NaD indices, or Hα indices near the planetary periods. We use custom methods to generate a cross-correlation template tailored to the star. The resulting velocities do not suffer the strong annual variation observed in the HARPS DRS velocities. This differential technique should deliver better exploitation of the archival HARPS data for the detection of planets at extremely low amplitudes.

  11. Nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, G.A.; Lawrence, T.J. )

    1989-06-01

    The state of the art in nuclear propulsion for orbital transfer is discussed. Cryogenic propulsion, electric propulsion, solar-thermal propulsion and direct nuclear propulsion are examined in this context. New technologies with exceptional promise are addressed, emphasizing the particle test bed nuclear engine.

  12. [Liver ultrasound: focal lesions and diffuse diseases].

    PubMed

    Segura Grau, A; Valero López, I; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M

    2016-01-01

    Liver ultrasound is frequently used as a first-line technique for the detection and characterization of the most common liver lesions, especially those incidentally found focal liver lesions, and for monitoring of chronic liver diseases. Ultrasound is not only used in the Bmode, but also with Doppler and, more recently, contrast-enhanced ultrasound. It is mainly used in the diagnosis of diffuse liver diseases, such as steatosis or cirrhosis. This article presents a practical approach for diagnosis workup, in which the different characteristics of the main focal liver lesions and diffuse liver diseases are reviewed.

  13. The Horizon for Treating Cutaneous Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Amit M.; Chou, Elizabeth L.; Findeiss, Laura; Kelly, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    Dermatologists encounter a wide range of cutaneous vascular lesions, including infantile hemangiomas, port-wine stain birthmarks, arteriovenous malformations, venous malformations, Kaposi sarcomas, angiosarcomas, and angiofibromas. Current treatment modalities to reduce these lesions include topical and/or intralesional steroids, laser therapy, surgical resection, and endovascular therapy. However, each method has limitations owing to recurrence, comorbidities, toxicity, or lesion location. Photodynamic therapy, antiangiogenic therapy, and evolving methods of sclerotherapy are promising areas of development that may mitigate limitations of current treatments and offer exciting options for patients and their physicians. PMID:22640429

  14. [Precancerous conditions and lesions of the stomach].

    PubMed

    Falt, P; Hanousek, M; Kundrátová, E; Urban, O

    2013-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is a common malignant disease associated with an unfavorable prognosis in the case of late dia-gnosis. The most significant precancerous condition is chronic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. These longlasting changes may lead to formation of dysplastic precancerous lesions. Upper endoscopy and histologic examination of forceps bio-psy specimens play a key role in the dia-gnosis of gastric precancerous conditions and lesions. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy and endoscopic surveillance are main therapeutic modalities of gastric precancerous conditions. Localized precancerous lesions and early gastric neoplasia without the risk of lymphatic spread could be cured by means of endoscopic resection techniques.

  15. The horizon for treating cutaneous vascular lesions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amit M; Chou, Elizabeth L; Findeiss, Laura; Kelly, Kristen M

    2012-06-01

    Dermatologists encounter a wide range of cutaneous vascular lesions, including infantile hemangiomas, port-wine stain birthmarks, arteriovenous malformations, venous malformations, Kaposi sarcomas, angiosarcomas, and angiofibromas. Current treatment modalities to reduce these lesions include topical and/or intralesional steroids, laser therapy, surgical resection, and endovascular therapy. However, each method has limitations owing to recurrence, comorbidities, toxicity, or lesion location. Photodynamic therapy, antiangiogenic therapy, and evolving methods of sclerotherapy are promising areas of development that may mitigate limitations of current treatments and offer exciting options for patients and their physicians.

  16. An unexpected cause of orbital apex syndrome in an immune-competent elderly male

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harjit; Kandel, Ramesh; Nisar, Sobia; Das, Chandan J.; Dey, Aparajit Ballav

    2014-01-01

    Invasive aspergillosis causing orbital apex syndrome (OAS) in an immune-competent individual is a very rare phenomenon, scarcely reported in medical literature. A 68-year-old male presented with progressive loss of vision in the right eye, starting after a cataract surgery. Neurological examination suggested OAS. Imaging was suggestive of mass lesion causing destruction of ethmoid bone. Biopsy of the lesion could not be done initially in view of its proximity to the major neuro-vascular bundle in the orbital apex and cavernous sinus and the major risk involved in the procedure relative to its yield. There was no response to empirical therapy with antibacterials, steroids or Amphotericin-B. Gradually the mass increased in size and was amenable to biopsy. Endoscopy guided biopsy revealed invasive aspergillosis. Switching over to voriconazole lead to successful management. This case highlights the importance of early diagnosis and selection of an appropriate antifungal therapy in the management of invasive aspergillosis. PMID:25988050

  17. Orbital sporadic Burkitt lymphoma in an adult diabetic African American female and a review of adult orbital cases

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, John; Misra, Raghunath P; Langford, Marlyn P; Byrd, William A; Ditta, Lauren; Vekovius, Bryan; Texada, Donald E

    2011-01-01

    A case of sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL) presenting with jaw and lid involvement in a diabetic adult African American female and a review of adult orbital Burkitt lymphoma cases are presented. Lid edema, visual loss, ophthalmoparesis, proptosis, and sinusitis progressed over 4 weeks despite antibiotic and steroid treatment. Upper lid biopsy histopathological evaluation and immunophenotyping revealed a homogenous mass of atypical CD10 and CD20-negative B-cells and tingible body macrophages yielding a “starry sky” appearance. Cytogenetic analysis detected a minor variant c-MYC translocation, but no Epstein–Barr virus RNA. Detection of multiple lesions prompted a diagnosis of stage IV disease that totally regressed following radiation and chemotherapy. Review results of the six adult orbital sBL cases support a poor prognosis and a heightened suspicion of variant CD10, CD20 and BCL6 positive sBL in adults presenting with jaw pain and rapidly progressive orbital symptoms, particularly in female, African American, and diabetic patients. PMID:21573040

  18. SMC Orbital/Sub-Orbital Debris Mitigation User’s Handbook, Version 1.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    SUBTITLE SMC Orbital/Sub- Orbital Debris Mitigation User’s Handbook Version 1.0 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6... Orbital Debris ..................................................................... A-6 4.1 Design Considerations...orbital (or space) debris and sub- orbital debris . Space debris is defined as any non-functioning man-made object orbiting the Earth. This definition

  19. Orbital Debris Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, Eugene G.

    2009-01-01

    The United States has one of the most active programs of research of the orbital debris environment in the world. Much of the research is conducted by NASA s Orbital Debris Program Office at the Johnson Space Center. Past work by NASA has led to the development of national space policy which seeks to limit the growth of the debris population and limit the risk to spacecraft and humans in space and on the Earth from debris. NASA has also been instrumental in developing consistent international policies and standards. Much of NASA's efforts have been to measure and characterize the orbital debris population. The U.S. Department of Defense tracks and catalogs spacecraft and large debris with it's Space Surveillance Network while NASA concentrates on research on smaller debris. In low Earth orbit, NASA has utilized short wavelength radars such as Haystack, HAX, and Goldstone to statistically characterize the population in number, size, altitude, and inclination. For higher orbits, optical telescopes have been used. Much effort has gone into the understanding and removal of observational biases from both types of measurements. NASA is also striving to understand the material composition and shape characteristics of debris to assess these effects on the risk to operational spacecraft. All of these measurements along with data from ground tests provide the basis for near- and long-term modeling of the environment. NASA also develops tools used by spacecraft builders and operators to evaluate spacecraft and mission designs to assess compliance with debris standards and policies which limit the growth of the debris environment.

  20. Space Shuttle Orbiter-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration is an orbiter cutaway view with callouts. The orbiter is both the brains and heart of the Space Transportation System (STS). About the same size and weight as a DC-9 aircraft, the orbiter contains the pressurized crew compartment (which can normally carry up to seven crew members), the huge cargo bay, and the three main engines mounted on its aft end. There are three levels to the crew cabin. Uppermost is the flight deck where the commander and the pilot control the mission. The middeck is where the gallery, toilet, sleep stations, and storage and experiment lockers are found for the basic needs of weightless daily living. Also located in the middeck is the airlock hatch into the cargo bay and space beyond. It is through this hatch and airlock that astronauts go to don their spacesuits and marned maneuvering units in preparation for extravehicular activities, more popularly known as spacewalks. The Space Shuttle's cargo bay is adaptable to hundreds of tasks. Large enough to accommodate a tour bus (60 x 15 feet or 18.3 x 4.6 meters), the cargo bay carries satellites, spacecraft, and spacelab scientific laboratories to and from Earth orbit. It is also a work station for astronauts to repair satellites, a foundation from which to erect space structures, and a hold for retrieved satellites to be returned to Earth. Thermal tile insulation and blankets (also known as the thermal protection system or TPS) cover the underbelly, bottom of the wings, and other heat-bearing surfaces of the orbiter to protect it during its fiery reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. The Shuttle's 24,000 individual tiles are made primarily of pure-sand silicate fibers, mixed with a ceramic binder. The solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are designed as an in-house Marshall Space Flight Center project, with United Space Boosters as the assembly and refurbishment contractor. The solid rocket motor (SRM) is provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  1. Orbital abscess from an odontogenic infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Kyu; Kim, Ju-Rok; Jang, Keum-Soo; Moon, Yeon-Sung; Park, Sun-Won

    2007-01-01

    An orbital abscess is a rare but serious complication of an odontogenic infection, which can lead to loss of vision or worse. This paper presents a case of orbital abscess secondary to an infection from the upper molar teeth, which extended to the retobulbar and posterosuperior region of the orbit, close to the superior orbital fissure. The infection spreaded to the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossa and then to the orbit via the inferior orbital fissure. This paper reviews the clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, route of spread, value of serial CT scanning, treatment and possible complications.

  2. 'Orbital volume restoration rate after orbital fracture'; a CT-based orbital volume measurement for evaluation of orbital wall reconstructive effect.

    PubMed

    Wi, J M; Sung, K H; Chi, M

    2017-01-13

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of orbital reconstruction and factors related to the effect of orbital reconstruction by assessing of orbital volume using orbital computed tomography (CT) in cases of orbital wall fracture.MethodsIn this retrospective study, 68 patients with isolated blowout fractures were evaluated. The volumes of orbits and herniated orbital tissues were determined by CT scans using a three-dimensional reconstruction technique (the Eclipse Treatment Planning System). Orbital CT was performed preoperatively, immediately after surgery, and at final follow ups (minimum of 6 months). We evaluated the reconstructive effect of surgery making a new formula, 'orbital volume reconstruction rate' from orbital volume differences between fractured and contralateral orbits before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at final follow up.ResultsMean volume of fractured orbits before surgery was 23.01±2.60 cm(3) and that of contralateral orbits was 21.31±2.50 cm(3) (P=0.005). Mean volume of the fractured orbits immediately after surgery was 21.29±2.42 cm(3), and that of the contralateral orbits was 21.33±2.52 cm(3) (P=0.921). Mean volume of fractured orbits at final follow up was 21.50±2.44 cm(3), and that of contralateral orbits was 21.32±2.50 cm(3) (P=0.668). The mean orbital volume reconstruction rate was 100.47% immediately after surgery and 99.17% at final follow up. No significant difference in orbital volume reconstruction rate was observed with respect to fracture site or orbital implant type. Patients that underwent operation within 14 days of trauma had a better reconstruction rate at final follow up than patients who underwent operation over 14 days after trauma (P=0.039).ConclusionComputer-based measurements of orbital fracture volume can be used to evaluate the reconstructive effect of orbital implants and provide useful quantitative information. Significant reduction of orbital volume is observed immediately after orbital wall

  3. CT & CBCT imaging: assessment of the orbits.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, David C

    2012-11-01

    The orbits can be visualized easily on routine or customized protocols for computed tomography (CT) or cone beam CT (CBCT) scans. Detailed orbital investigations are best performed with 3-dimensional imaging methods. CT scans are preferred for visualizing the osseous orbital anatomy and fissures while magnetic resonance imaging is preferred for evaluating tumors and inflammation. CBCT provides high-resolution anatomic data of the sinonasal spaces, airway, soft tissue surfaces, and bones but does not provide much detail within the soft tissues. This article discusses CBCT imaging of the orbits, osseous anatomy of the orbits, and CBCT investigation of selected orbital pathosis.

  4. Orbiter CIU/IUS communications hardware evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.

    1979-01-01

    The DOD and NASA inertial upper stage communication system design, hardware specifications and interfaces were analyzed to determine their compatibility with the Orbiter payload communications equipment (Payload Interrogator, Payload Signal Processors, Communications Interface Unit, and the Orbiter operational communications equipment (the S-Band and Ku-band systems). Topics covered include (1) IUS/shuttle Orbiter communications interface definition; (2) Orbiter avionics equipment serving the IUS; (3) IUS communication equipment; (4) IUS/shuttle Orbiter RF links; (5) STDN/TDRS S-band related activities; and (6) communication interface unit/Orbiter interface issues. A test requirement plan overview is included.

  5. Conversion of Osculating Orbital Elements to Mean Orbital Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Der, Gim J.; Danchick, Roy

    1996-01-01

    Orbit determination and ephemeris generation or prediction over relatively long elapsed times can be accomplished with mean elements. The most simple and efficient method for orbit determination, which is also known as epoch point conversion, performs the conversion of osculating elements to mean elements by iterative procedures. Previous epoch point conversion methods are restricted to shorter elapsed times with linear convergence. The new method presented in this paper calculates an analytic initial guess of the unknown mean elements from a first order theory of secular perturbations and computes a transition matrix with accurate numerical partials. It thereby eliminates the problem of an inaccurate initial guess and an identity transition matrix employed by previous methods. With a good initial guess of the unknown mean elements and an accurate transition matrix, converging osculating elements to mean elements can be accomplished over long elapsed times with quadratic convergence.

  6. Fractal analysis of tumoral lesions in brain.

    PubMed

    Martín-Landrove, Miguel; Pereira, Demian; Caldeira, María E; Itriago, Salvador; Juliac, María

    2007-01-01

    In this work, it is proposed a method for supervised characterization and classification of tumoral lesions in brain, based on the analysis of irregularities at the lesion contour on T2-weighted MR images. After the choice of a specific image, a segmentation procedure with a threshold selected from the histogram of intensity levels is applied to isolate the lesion, the contour is detected through the application of a gradient operator followed by a conversion to a "time series" using a chain code procedure. The correlation dimension is calculated and analyzed to discriminate between normal or malignant structures. The results found showed that it is possible to detect a differentiation between benign (cysts) and malignant (gliomas) lesions suggesting the potential of this method as a diagnostic tool.

  7. Endoscopic management of adenomatous ampullary lesions

    PubMed Central

    Espinel, Jesús; Pinedo, Eugenia; Ojeda, Vanesa; del Rio, Maria Guerra

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the ampulla of Vater represent an uncommon group of gastrointestinal malignancies. The majority of lesions of the ampulla of Vater are either adenomas or adenocarcinomas. Ampullary lesions are often incidental findings. Accurate preoperative diagnosis and staging of ampullary tumors is imperative for predicting prognosis and determining the most appropriate therapeutic approach. Endoscopic ampullectomy is a safe and efficacious therapeutic procedure that can obviate the need for potentially major surgical intervention. This review will provide the framework for the diagnosis and management of ampullary lesions from the perspective of the practicing gastroenterologist. Strategies for safe and successful endoscopic ampullectomy with a focus on accurate preoperative diagnosis and staging, resection technique, and management of complications are presented. PMID:26413485

  8. Frozen Orbits-Near Constant or Beneficially Varying Orbital Parameters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-15

    In this approach , the difference between the primary acceleration and all perturbing accelerations is integrated . A reference (or osculating) orbit is...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS .’ AFIT STUDENT AT: University of Colorado to II...I am thankful for the time and financial support making the degree possible. I thank Dr. Felix R. Hoots, Directorate of Astrodynamics at NORAD, and

  9. Bone marrow lesions: A systematic diagnostic approach

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Filippo Del; Farahani, Sahar J; Carrino, John A; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow lesions on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are common and may be seen with various pathologies. The authors outline a systematic diagnostic approach with proposed categorization of various etiologies of bone marrow lesions. Utilization of typical imaging features on conventional MR imaging techniques and other problem-solving techniques, such as chemical shift imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), to achieve accurate final diagnosis has been highlighted. PMID:25114392

  10. [Osteoporosis associated with spinal cord lesion].

    PubMed

    Miladinović, Ksenija; Vavra-Hadziahmetović, Narcisa; Muftić, Mirsad; Sakota, Slavica

    2007-01-01

    One of the complications caused by spinal lesion is osteoporosis which development is induced by lesion itself, and its mechanism is not explained enough. Risk factor of this kind of osteoporosis is fracture which management is difficult and is cause of further complications which aggravate already damaged quality of life of patients with spinal cord injury, and demand additional health insurance expenses. Importance of prevention and treatment of spinal cord injury induced osteoporosis is enlightened by case report.

  11. Ocular lesions and experimental choline deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ossani, Georgina P; Pelayes, David; Diaz, María L; Lago, Nestor R; Fariña, Silvia L; Monserrat, Alberto J; Zarate, Jorge O

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown ocular haemorrhages in choline-deficient rats. The aim of this paper is to study further the relationship between ocular and renal lesions and biochemical alterations in rats fed a choline-deficient diet. Fifty one weanling male Wistar rats, were divided into two groups. Thirty one of them were fed a choline-deficient diet and the rest was fed a choline-supplemented diet ad libitum. Animals from both groups were killed between the fifth and the eighth day. Urea, creatinine and homocysteine concentrations in blood were determined. Eyes were used for light microscopy study; high resolution light microscopy and the study of the retina as "rétine a plat". Kidneys were studied by light microscopy. Choline-supplemented rats did not show ocular or renal lesion. Choline-deficient rats that showed renal lesions, tubular or cortical necrosis, did not always have ocular changes. There were no ocular changes in the only choline-deficient rat without renal lesion. The ocular changes consisted mainly in haemorrhage in both cameras and ciliary and vitreous bodies. Correlations between ocular and renal lesion (r = 0.72, p < 0.0001, CI 95%: 0.48-0.86); ocular lesion and creatinine (r = 0.86, p < 0.0001, Cl 95%: 0.72-0.93) and ocular lesion and urea (r = 0.70, p < 0.0001, Cl 95%: 0.44-0.85) were positive. Choline-deficiency induces ocular haemorrhagic lesions after the development of renal necrosis. The ocular pathology could be due to the immaturity of the ocular vasculature at this age. The hyaloid, choroid and retinal system are involved.

  12. Elementary lesions in dermatological semiology: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    Cardili, Renata Nahas; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Discrepancies in the terminology of elementary lesions persist when texts from Dermatology and Semiology books are compared, which can cause some confusion in both the teaching of undergraduate medical students and the learning acquired by professionals in the field. This review aims to compare and clarify the differences in the description of elementary lesions by many authors, used as references for specialists in dermatology. PMID:27828637

  13. Medial septal lesion enhances general anesthesia response.

    PubMed

    Leung, L Stan; Ma, Jingyi; Shen, Bixia; Nachim, Ilan; Luo, Tao

    2013-09-01

    Electrolytic lesion of the medial septum, a basal forebrain nucleus that projects to the hippocampus, prolonged the emergence from general anesthesia in rats. Septal lesioned rats required a longer time to recover from a loss of righting reflex (LORR) and a loss of tail-pinch response after injectable (20 mg/kg i.p. pentobarbital, 5mg/kg i.v. propofol) or volatile (1.5% halothane, 2% isoflurane) anesthetic. When incremental doses of propofol were given i.p., septal lesioned rats as compared to control rats showed LORR at a lower dose of propofol. Similarly, when the rats were exposed to increasing concentrations of isoflurane, the percent of rats showing LORR was leftward shifted for lesioned rats as compared to control rats. Septal lesioned rats as compared to control rats showed decreased locomotor activity when exposed to 1.5% halothane. Lesion of the medial septum was confirmed by thionin-stained histological sections as well as loss of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) staining in the hippocampus, indicating a depletion of septohippocampal cholinergic afferents. Medial septal lesion resulted in a near complete loss of hippocampal theta rhythm during walking and a general decrease in power of the hippocampal EEG at all frequencies (0-100 Hz), during walking or immobility. It is concluded that lesion of medial septum, in part through a loss of septohippocampal cholinergic afferents, increased the anesthesia response to volatile and injectable general anesthetics, during both induction and emergence. It is suggested that the septohippocampal system participates in many components of general anesthesia including hypnosis, immobility, and analgesia.

  14. 21 CFR 882.4725 - Radiofrequency lesion probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion probe is a device connected to a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator to deliver the RF energy to the site within the nervous system where a lesion is...

  15. 21 CFR 882.4725 - Radiofrequency lesion probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion probe is a device connected to a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator to deliver the RF energy to the site within the nervous system where a lesion is...

  16. 21 CFR 882.4725 - Radiofrequency lesion probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion probe is a device connected to a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator to deliver the RF energy to the site within the nervous system where a lesion is...

  17. 21 CFR 882.4725 - Radiofrequency lesion probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion probe is a device connected to a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator to deliver the RF energy to the site within the nervous system where a lesion is...

  18. 21 CFR 882.4725 - Radiofrequency lesion probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... (a) Identification. A radiofrequency lesion probe is a device connected to a radiofrequency (RF) lesion generator to deliver the RF energy to the site within the nervous system where a lesion is...

  19. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid proliferative lesions are rather common in bony fishes but disagreement exists in the fish pathology community concerning diagnostic criteria for hyperplastic versus neoplastic lesions. To simplify the diagnosis of proliferative thyroid lesions and to reduce confusion reg...

  20. Renal lesions in cetaceans from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Viera, O; Ruoppolo, V; Marigo, J; Carvalho, V L; Groch, K R; Bertozzi, C P; Takakura, C; Namiyama, G; Vanstreels, R E T; Catão-Dias, J L

    2015-05-01

    This study reports the occurrence of renal lesions in cetaceans from the coast of Brazil subjected to necropsy examination between 1996 and 2011. The animals (n = 192) were by-caught in fishing nets, were found dead on beaches or died despite attempted rehabilitation. Kidney samples were evaluated grossly and microscopically and, depending on the histopathological findings, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses were conducted. Due to autolysis, a diagnosis was reached in only 128 animals, of which 82 (64.1%) had kidney lesions. Cystic renal disease was the most common lesion observed in 34 cases (26.6%) and these were classified as simple cysts in eight cases (6.3%), polycystic kidney disease in one rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis), secondary glomerulocystic disease in 16 cases (12.5%) and primary glomerulocystic disease in nine cases (7%). Other lesions included membranous glomerulonephritis (28 cases; 21.9%), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (20 cases; 15.6%), lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis (21 cases; 16.4%), lipidosis (19 cases; 14.8%), glomerulosclerosis (8 cases; 6.3%) and pyogranulomatous nephritis(five cases; 3.9%); two of the later were associated with the migration of nematode larvae. Additionally, tubular adenoma was identified in a Franciscana (Pontoporia blainvillei). The pathological implications of these lesions are discussed according the cause of death, age or sex of the animals. Furthermore, the lesions were compared with those of other marine and terrestrial mammals, including man.