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Sample records for historia del debate

  1. [Eugenics and immigration selection: notes on the debate between Alfredo Ellis Junior, Oliveira Vianna, and Menotti Del Picchia, 1926].

    PubMed

    El-Dine, Lorenna Ribeiro Zem

    2016-12-01

    This text analyzes the bill submitted by Alfredo Ellis Junior to the São Paulo legislature in August 1926, which would allow studies to be made of immigrants in São Paulo in order to orient immigration selection policies. It highlights the opinions of Menotti Del Picchia and Oliveira Vianna about the research agenda put forward by Alfredo Ellis Junior, focusing on the different conceptions about the race issue and immigration held in the 1920s. We suggest that Menotti Del Picchia's divergence from Alfredo Ellis Junior and Oliveira Vianna could be interpreted as a dispute between literati and scientists over the legitimacy of their respective knowledge about the Brazilian reality and the proposal of policies for the country.

  2. The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Language and Society, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This debate is part of a larger discussion on the effect of recent developments (particularly globalization and advances in technology) on the production and perception of language and focuses on assessing the quality of source texts and target texts in translation, the nature of translation versus the changing job profile of the translator, the…

  3. Debating Paul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbett, David

    2007-01-01

    This classroom note describes the lessons I learned from the use of formal debates during the two semesters I taught "Paul and Early Christianity" to undergraduates at a liberal arts college in Ohio. The purpose of the course was primarily to give students the exegetical skills to understand Paul in his own context. The secondary purpose…

  4. The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Language and Society, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The transcript of a debate within a group of specialists in translation is presented. The discussion addresses: translator "visibility" in translations and reader reception; the relationship of functionalism in translation, comparative linguistics, and intercultural communication; the client's power; literary translation; the…

  5. [Aphasia: debates].

    PubMed

    Roch Lecours, A

    1999-10-01

    . The meeting of 9th July (27th anniversary of the Charcot Chair) was dedicated to cerebral anatomy and the "quadrilateral". The subject of Dejerine's questionnaire was again raised. Accompanied by Georges Guillain, Fulgence Raymond was present on this occasion (but refrained from speaking). This time the star was Augusta Dejerine Klumpke, born on a Spanish sand dune now known as San Francisco, U.S.A. Mrs Dejerine contested the "lenticular zone" and gave it a quite different dimension by proving that its anterodorsal part included associative axons originating in or projecting to Broca's area, the remainder of the "Pierre Marie quadrilateral" being called into question. Brissaud was impressed by the performance of Madame Dejerine, and Pierre Marie found himself in an awkward position. His student François Moutier, present at his request, discussed his own clinical cases and then, on the subject of "Lelong's" brain' (autumn 1861), let it be known that Broca had scratched it with his finger nails while removing the meninges. André-Thomas and Georges Guillain took part in the discussion. At the last meeting, on 23rd July, Brissaud was absent. Fulgence Raymond was again present but remained silent. The only subject on the agenda was "physiological pathology", but several points that had not been resolved on the 9th July were brought up again. On this occasion, Pierre Marie opened the debate and adopted a very cautious approach. However, his patience eventually ran out and he replied sharply to the comments of Dejerine on "images of language" and those of Dupré on "mental representations". Metaphorically speaking, it might be said that the gold medal was not awarded, Augusta Dejerine Klumpke took the silver, Dupré and André-Thomas shared the bronze, and Souques and Moutier each deserved a special mention. It might also be suggested that in 1908 the Society sketched out to a large extent the programme for research on aphasia for the century to come. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATE

  6. 1977 National Debate Tournament Final Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rives, Stanley G., ed.; Boaz, John K., ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a transcript of the final debate of the Thirty-First National Debate Tournament sponsored by the American Forensic Association in 1977. Focuses on the necessity and desirability of requiring airbags to promote automobile safety. (MH)

  7. Whole Language: The Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl B., Comp.

    This book presents a debate between "reasonable" educators who either claim that there is evidence for the effectiveness of whole language, or who challenge the claim that whole language works across the broad spectrum of learners. The book presents the debate in the form of formal debate resolutions, opening "statements,"…

  8. Conservacion de truchas del Pacifico

    Treesearch

    Brooke E. Penaluna

    2016-01-01

    La historia de las truchas del Pacífico, pertenecientes al género Oncorhynchus, es una historia muy interesante que se basa en la persistencia y diversificación de sus especies debido, en gran parte, al dinamismo propio que existe en su medio ambiente. Desde el oeste de Norteamérica, extendiéndose hasta el este de Asia, las truchas del Pacífico han experimentado la...

  9. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  10. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  11. Debating Historical Propositions: Toward a Unique Genre of NEDA Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David K.

    The best way to develop a unique identity for the National Education Debate Association (NEDA) is to debate propositions distinct from National Debate Tournament (NDT) and the Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA). A neglected area of debate includes propositions temporally framed in the past. Yet, the present propositional categories of…

  12. A Matter of Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePitera, Ruth Ann; Rossow, Joe; Lange, Gretchen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an integrated unit linking social studies, science, and language arts. Students get first-hand experience of legislative processes by writing and debating environmental-protection laws. (CCM)

  13. A Matter of Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePitera, Ruth Ann; Rossow, Joe; Lange, Gretchen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an integrated unit linking social studies, science, and language arts. Students get first-hand experience of legislative processes by writing and debating environmental-protection laws. (CCM)

  14. Debating Real-World Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Presents three different scientific issues to students and uses debate as a way of gaining information. Involves information collection on the topic, team preparation, and debate between teams. Includes debate format and presentation guidelines, suggestions for debate questions, information on areas to explore when preparing to debate the question…

  15. Debating Real-World Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Maureen

    2001-01-01

    Presents three different scientific issues to students and uses debate as a way of gaining information. Involves information collection on the topic, team preparation, and debate between teams. Includes debate format and presentation guidelines, suggestions for debate questions, information on areas to explore when preparing to debate the question…

  16. Debating Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2009-11-01

    Debating Climate Change explores, both theoretically and empirically, how people argue about climate change and link to each other through various elements in their arguments. As science is a central issue in the debate, the arguments of scientists and the interpretations and responses of non-scientists are important aspects of the analysis. The book first assesses current thinking about the climate change debate and current participants in the debates surrounding the issue, as well as a brief history of various groups’ involvements. Chapters 2 and 3 distill and organize various ways of framing the climate change issue. Beginning in Chapter 4, a modified classical analysis of the elements carried in an argument is used to identify areas and degrees of disagreement and agreement. One hundred documents, drawn from a wide spectrum of sources, map the topic and debate space of the climate change issue. Five elements of each argument are distilled: the authority of the writer, the evidence presented, the formulation of the argument, the worldview presented, and the actions proposed. Then a social network analysis identifies elements of the arguments that point to potential agreements. Finally, the book suggests mechanisms by which participants in the debate can build more general agreements on elements of existing agreement.

  17. The Artilect Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Garis, Hugo; Halioris, Sam

    Twenty-first-century technologies will allow the creation of massively intelligent machines, many trillions of times as smart, fast, and durable as humans. Issues concerning industrial, consumer, and military applications of mobile autonomous robots, cyborgs, and computer-based AI systems could divisively split humanity into ideological camps regarding whether "artilects" (artificial intellects) should be built or not. The artilect debate, unlike any before it, could dominate the 21st-century political landscape, and has the potential to cause conflict on a global scale. Research is needed to inform policy and individual decisions; and healthy debate should be initiated now to prepare institutions and individuals alike for the impact of AI.

  18. Debate: Wired versus Wireless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Glenn; Nair, Prakash

    2000-01-01

    Debates the issue of investing in wiring schools for desktop computer networks versus using laptops and wireless networks. Included are cost considerations and the value of technology for learning. Suggestions include using wireless networks for existing schools, hardwiring computers for new construction, and not using computers for elementary…

  19. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  20. The Immigration Reform Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Som, Sonya Olds; Momblanco, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at recent government actions that have contributed to the immigration debate, and then considers a number of the key issues: (1) Should the United States grant some sort of legal process, or "amnesty," to undocumented workers already in the U.S. who wish to seek permanent residency and, perhaps, citizenship?; (2) What…

  1. The Immigration Reform Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Som, Sonya Olds; Momblanco, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at recent government actions that have contributed to the immigration debate, and then considers a number of the key issues: (1) Should the United States grant some sort of legal process, or "amnesty," to undocumented workers already in the U.S. who wish to seek permanent residency and, perhaps, citizenship?; (2) What…

  2. The Class Size Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishel, Lawrence, Ed.; Rothstein, Richard, Ed.

    This collection of papers debates the merits of smaller class sizes and research methods used to evaluate the efficacy of this education reform measure. Four chapters focus on (1) "Understanding the Magnitude and Effect of Class Size on Student Achievement" (Alan B. Krueger), which discusses expenditures per student and economic criterion; (2)…

  3. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  4. The Class Size Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishel, Lawrence, Ed.; Rothstein, Richard, Ed.

    This collection of papers debates the merits of smaller class sizes and research methods used to evaluate the efficacy of this education reform measure. Four chapters focus on (1) "Understanding the Magnitude and Effect of Class Size on Student Achievement" (Alan B. Krueger), which discusses expenditures per student and economic criterion; (2)…

  5. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James

    2012-01-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some…

  6. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, James

    2012-01-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some…

  7. 'Homeopathy': untangling the debate.

    PubMed

    Relton, Clare; O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J

    2008-07-01

    There are active public campaigns both for and against homeopathy, and its continuing availability in the NHS is debated in the medical, scientific and popular press. However, there is a lack of clarity in key terms used in the debate, and in how the evidence base of homeopathy is described and interpreted. The term 'homeopathy' is used with several different meanings including: the therapeutic system, homeopathic medicine, treatment by a homeopath, and the principles of 'homeopathy'. Conclusions drawn from one of these aspects are often inappropriately applied to another aspect. In interpreting the homeopathy evidence it is important to understand that the existing clinical experimental (randomised controlled trial) evidence base provides evidence as to the efficacy of homeopathic medicines, but not the effectiveness of treatment by a homeopath. The observational evidence base provides evidence as to the effectiveness of treatment by a homeopath. We make four recommendations to promote clarity in the reporting, design and interpretation of homeopathy research.

  8. The water fluoridation debate.

    PubMed

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Pretty, Iain A

    2011-01-01

    Water fluoridation schemes have been employed for over 50 years. Water fluoridation has been a source of continuous debate between those who advocate its use as a public health measure and those who oppose it. There have been no new fluoridation schemes in the U.K. for nearly 30 years owing to principally legislative, but also geographic, financial, and political reasons. However, in early 2008, the U.K. Secretary of State for Health promoted the use of water fluoridation schemes for areas in England with the highest rates of decay. This article, the third and final article of three, aims to discuss the arguments surrounding water fluoridation and its continued relevance as a public health measure. This article aims to provide an update for general practitioners for the background and the current status of the water fluoridation debate and to enable them to answer non-clinical questions raised by patients.

  9. Causal debates in environmentalism.

    PubMed

    Tesh, S N

    1994-01-01

    Many public health policy analysts celebrate the renewed popularity of environmentalism and its importance for public health. But few recognize that there are three competing versions of environmentalism. Each one assigns blame for environmental degradation and responsibility for addressing it to a different group of people. It is incumbent upon public health professionals to take note of the debate and to consider the ramifications for policy should one of these versions come to predominate.

  10. Discussion and Debate, English, Debate: 5114.117.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Karen P.

    Developed for a high school quinmester unit on discussion and debate, this guide is designed to help students learn the elements of good discussion and informal debate in a classroom atmosphere emphasizing the democratic process. Performance objective for the course include compiling information for classroom discussions and informal debates,…

  11. Framing the patent troll debate.

    PubMed

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system?

  12. Reconstructing the stem cell debate.

    PubMed

    Sitko, Bradley J

    2002-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells have been a major topic in science, medicine, and religion since their discovery in 1998. However, due to the complex discourse and rhetoric of scientific language, debate has remained within the professional realm via "expert bioethics." Using the tenets of pragmatism, the author examines the need to move the debate to society as a whole and disentangle the stem cell debate from the ideologies of the human cloning and abortion debates. Opening this issue to a societal debate will advance societal growth, resulting in informed decisions on moral issues, funding, or regulation associated with hES cell research.

  13. Debating personal health budgets

    PubMed Central

    Alakeson, Vidhya; Boardman, Jed; Boland, Billy; Crimlisk, Helen; Harrison, Charlotte; Iliffe, Steve; Khan, Masood; O'Shea, Rory; Patterson, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Personal health budgets (PHBs) were piloted in the National Health Service (NHS) in England between 2009 and 2012 and were found to have greater positive effects on quality of life and psychological well-being for those with mental health problems than commissioned service, as well as reducing their use of unplanned care. The government intends to extend PHBs in England for long-term conditions, including mental health, from April 2015. Given the importance of engaging clinicians in the next phase of PHB development, we provide an overview of the approach, synthesise the evidence from the national pilot and debate some of the opportunities and challenges. Balancing individual choice and recovery with concerns for risk, equity and the sustainability of existing community services is the central tension underpinning this innovation in mental health service delivery. PMID:26958358

  14. The great climate debate

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M. )

    1990-07-01

    There is no doubt that human activity is increasing the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Whether that spells sweeping global climate change is still much debated. Should we act to blunt the impact in the face of this uncertainty The authors thinks so. The paper presents data on the rise in atmospheric CO{sub 2}; projected rises in CO{sub 2}, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluoro-carbons; the changing pattern of global CO{sub 2} emissions from North America, USSR and Eastern Europe, Western Europe, Developing Countries, and others; the results of 3 computer models of climate change; and the contribution to global warming from various human activities.

  15. A debate about the merits of debate in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Hartin, Peter; Birks, Melanie; Bodak, Marie; Woods, Cindy; Hitchins, Marnie

    2017-09-01

    In this 'Issues for Debate' paper, the issue is debate. Today's nurses must be able to advocate, lead, and grow 'big ideas', as well as knowing their way around a patient's body and mind. This paper reports, partly, on a research study into the use of debate to develop clinical reasoning and thinking skills in nursing students. The study was conducted with first and third-year nursing students enrolled at an Australian regional university. Students were asked to comment on the effectiveness of debate as an educational strategy. We combine the results of this research study with literature and discussion into the educational uses of debate to put the argument that using debate in nursing education can be an effective way to foster the type of creative, intelligent, thoughtful and forward-thinking nurses needed in the modern healthcare system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  17. The euthanasia debate.

    PubMed

    Harris, N M

    2001-10-01

    Debates about the moral dilemmas of euthanasia date back to ancient times. Many of the historical arguments used for and against the practice remain valid today. Indeed, any form of discussion on the subject often provokes emotive responses, both from members of the medical profession and the general public. For this reason alone, the issue will continue to be debated at all levels of society. There are, however, other factors that ensure euthanasia will remain a subject of major controversy within medical, legal and governmental bodies. Firstly, the act of euthanasia itself is illegal, yet in its passive form occurs on a daily basis in many of our hospitals (1). Secondly, medical advances have made it possible to artificially prolong the life of an increasing number of patients far beyond what was possible only a few years ago. Furthermore, we must all contend with the reality that financial constraints are an important consideration in modern health care provision. Finally, there is an ethical difficulty in interpreting the concept of a patient's right, or autonomy, versus the rights and duty of a doctor. Before attempting to answer the questions posed by these issues, it is important to have some accurate definitions of both euthanasia and of the concept of morality. According to the House of Lords Select Committee on Medical Ethics, the precise definition of euthanasia is "a deliberate intervention undertaken with the express intention of ending a life, to relieve intractable suffering" (2). The term can be further divided into voluntary and involuntary euthanasia. The former is said to occur if a competent patient makes an informed request for a life terminating event and the latter can be used if a patient does not give informed and specific consent for such treatment. It is the occurrence of involuntary euthanasia which forms one of the main arguments against legalisation. This is discussed in greater detail below. Euthanasia is frequently separated into

  18. Reflections on the debriefing debate.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the debate on debriefing that has persisted for two decades and remains largely unresolved to this day. A brief history of Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) and Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) is given, these being the subject of the debate, followed by a summary of the development and current status of the debate. Discussion follows on why the opposing positions appear to be at a stalemate.

  19. Moving beyond the GM Debate

    PubMed Central

    Leyser, Ottoline

    2014-01-01

    Once again, there are calls to reopen the debate on genetically modified (GM) crops. I find these calls frustrating and unnecessarily decisive. In my opinion the GM debate, on both sides, continues to hamper the urgent need to address the diverse and pressing challenges of global food security and environmental sustainability. The destructive power of the debate comes from its conflation of unrelated issues, coupled with deeply rooted misconceptions of the nature of agriculture. PMID:24914954

  20. Moving beyond the GM debate.

    PubMed

    Leyser, Ottoline

    2014-06-01

    Once again, there are calls to reopen the debate on genetically modified (GM) crops. I find these calls frustrating and unnecessarily decisive. In my opinion the GM debate, on both sides, continues to hamper the urgent need to address the diverse and pressing challenges of global food security and environmental sustainability. The destructive power of the debate comes from its conflation of unrelated issues, coupled with deeply rooted misconceptions of the nature of agriculture.

  1. Debaters as Storytellers: The Narrative Perspective in Academic Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollihan, Thomas A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Argues that in order to counter the current elitism of academic debate, exemplars must be developed which emphasize teaching students the skills required to communicate arguments to inspire citizen activism. Proposes a narrative perspective of debate and offers suggestions regarding how this perspective might be applied and practiced. (MM)

  2. Debates in Citizenship Education. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James, Ed.; Cremin, Hilary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What are the key issues in Citizenship Education today? "Debates in Citizenship Education" encourages student and practising teachers to engage with and reflect on some of the key topics, concepts and debates that they will have to address throughout their career. It places the specialist field of Citizenship Education in a wider context…

  3. Debates in English Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Jon, Ed.; Daly, Caroline, Ed.; Moss, John, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Debates in English Teaching" explores the major issues all English teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It engages with established and contemporary debates, promotes and supports critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to reach informed judgements and argue their point of view with deeper…

  4. Debates in Religious Education. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, L. Philip, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What are the key debates in Religious Education teaching today? "Debates in Religious Education" explores the major issues all RE teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It encourages critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to think more deeply about their practice, and link research…

  5. Debates in Citizenship Education. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James, Ed.; Cremin, Hilary, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What are the key issues in Citizenship Education today? "Debates in Citizenship Education" encourages student and practising teachers to engage with and reflect on some of the key topics, concepts and debates that they will have to address throughout their career. It places the specialist field of Citizenship Education in a wider context…

  6. Debates in English Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Jon, Ed.; Daly, Caroline, Ed.; Moss, John, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Debates in English Teaching" explores the major issues all English teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It engages with established and contemporary debates, promotes and supports critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to reach informed judgements and argue their point of view with deeper…

  7. Debates in Religious Education. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, L. Philip, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What are the key debates in Religious Education teaching today? "Debates in Religious Education" explores the major issues all RE teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It encourages critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to think more deeply about their practice, and link research…

  8. The Japanese Domestic Labor Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueno, Chizuko

    The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…

  9. Curriculum Debate and Policy Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgstrom, Ole; Hellstenius, Mats

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the underlying themes and principles that inform curriculum debate and how they are articulated in current school policy discussions. This topic is approached with the help of a case study covering the debate on which subjects should be mandatory for students at the upper secondary school curriculum in Sweden. The focus…

  10. Clash! The World of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2008-01-01

    Debating has been around for a long time, with some pretty spectacular results. Look at Socrates, who was put to death in 399 BCE for corrupting the youth of Athens; his accusers could not forgive him for incessantly questioning their beliefs and making "the worse appear the better cause." More recently, debating has morphed into a sport for the…

  11. The Great Mini-Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benucci, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Debates remain popular in English language courses, and this activity gives students a low-stress opportunity to develop their speaking debating skills. This lesson plan is appropriate for upper intermediate or advanced students. Goals of the activity are to present an oral argument using evidence and use functional language related to agreeing,…

  12. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…

  13. Back to Basics in Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallmark, Michael

    High school debate style should emphasize persuasion, information, and logic above other skills. Recent trends, such as excessive speed of delivery and excessive amounts of evidence used in debate, have tended to inhibit the effective acquisition of those skills for students. Potential methods for moderating speed and evidence use are not allowing…

  14. Clash! The World of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2008-01-01

    Debating has been around for a long time, with some pretty spectacular results. Look at Socrates, who was put to death in 399 BCE for corrupting the youth of Athens; his accusers could not forgive him for incessantly questioning their beliefs and making "the worse appear the better cause." More recently, debating has morphed into a sport for the…

  15. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…

  16. Intercollegiate Debate: An Intrapersonal View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walwik, Theodore; Mehrley, R. Samuel

    1971-01-01

    The Thesis of the paper is that there is need to distinguish between debating as a means of training for public policy decision making and debatingas a means of training students in the cognitive processes necessary for effective decision making. The author views debating as fundamental training in interpersonal communication. (Author/MS)

  17. Debating in the ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Regular debating can be an effective way of improving the performance of ESL pupils and of assessing their language-learning propensities. It requires a lot of listening as well as speaking and generally seems to foster confidence in language use. The relationships set up in debating are pupil-pupil rather than pupil-teacher. (CFM)

  18. Special Feature: Debate the Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Lloyd H.; Russell, Earl B.

    1981-01-01

    This debate focuses on the location of federal-level administration of vocational agriculture and agribusiness: Should the program be administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture or by the U.S. Department of Education? (CT)

  19. Exploring the compassion deficit debate.

    PubMed

    Stenhouse, Rosie; Ion, Robin; Roxburgh, Michelle; Devitt, Patric Ffrench; Smith, Stephen D M

    2016-04-01

    Several recent high profile failures in the UK health care system have promoted strong debate on compassion and care in nursing. A number of papers articulating a range of positions within this debate have been published in this journal over the past two and a half years. These articulate a diverse range of theoretical perspectives and have been drawn together here in an attempt to bring some coherence to the debate and provide an overview of the key arguments and positions taken by those involved. In doing this we invite the reader to consider their own position in relation to the issues raised and to consider the impact of this for their own practice. Finally the paper offers some sense of how individual practitioners might use their understanding of the debates to ensure delivery of good nursing care.

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Communicative Behavior in CEDA Lincoln-Douglas Debate and CEDA Team Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Harold L.; Skaggs, Edward C.

    Keeping debate communicative is a great and recurring concern. A study investigated whether debate format may influence debaters' communicative behavior, by comparing behavior in Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) Lincoln-Douglas debate (LD) and in CEDA Team debate. Videotapes of the two first affirmative speeches of each, at the…

  1. Consciousness operationalized, a debate realigned.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Peter; Veillet, Bénédicte

    2017-08-10

    This paper revisits the debate about cognitive phenomenology. It elaborates, defends, and improves on our earlier proposal for resolving that debate, according to which the test for irreducible phenomenology is the presence of explanatory gaps. After showing how proposals like ours have been misunderstood or misused by others, we deploy our operationalization to argue that the correct way to align the debate over cognitive phenomenology is not between sensory and (alleged) cognitive phenomenology, but rather between non-conceptual and (alleged) conceptual or propositional phenomenology. In doing so we defend three varieties of non-sensory (amodal)(1) non-conceptual phenomenology: valence, a sense of approximate number, and a sense of elapsed time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Debates in History Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Debates in History Teaching" explores the major issues all history teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It encourages critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to think more deeply about their practice, and link research and evidence to what they have observed in schools. Written by a range of…

  3. Debates in Music Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Chris, Ed.; Spruce, Gary, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Debates in Music Teaching" encourages student and practising teachers to engage with contemporary issues and developments in music education. It aims to introduce a critical approach to the central concepts and practices that have influenced major interventions and initiatives in music teaching, and supports the development of new ways of looking…

  4. Debates in Music Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Chris, Ed.; Spruce, Gary, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Debates in Music Teaching" encourages student and practising teachers to engage with contemporary issues and developments in music education. It aims to introduce a critical approach to the central concepts and practices that have influenced major interventions and initiatives in music teaching, and supports the development of new ways of looking…

  5. Debates in History Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Debates in History Teaching" explores the major issues all history teachers encounter in their daily professional lives. It encourages critical reflection and aims to stimulate both novice and experienced teachers to think more deeply about their practice, and link research and evidence to what they have observed in schools. Written by a range of…

  6. Debating the Socialist Calculation Debate: A Classroom Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zygmont, Zenon X.

    2006-01-01

    The author describes a classroom exercise that introduces the Socialist Calculation Debate (SCD) to undergraduate economics students. The SCD concerns an issue that remains one of the most consequential of the 20th century--the belief in the superiority of socialism and central planning over capitalism and the free market. The exercise presents…

  7. Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Language & Society, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents a roundtable discussion carried out by scholars in the field of minority language broadcasting. Examines the context of minority language broadcasting, broadcasting and language policy and planning, and issues of language survival and success. (Author/VWL)

  8. NCLB Debate at the Sidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act has been the subject of intense debate in school board meetings, state legislatures, and Washington policy circles. Everywhere, it seems, but the presidential campaign--the winner of which may have the most important voice in reshaping the federal role in K-12 education. In their education proposals, Democratic Senator…

  9. Cooling Signs in Wake Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    More than a year after dismantling a student-assignment policy based on socioeconomic diversity and setting off a wave of reaction that drew national attention, the Wake County, North Carolina, school board took a step that may turn down the temperature of the intense debate. The board, which has been deeply split on an assignment plan for the…

  10. A debate on open inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    1999-07-01

    This is a reproduction of Professor Stephen Hawking's part in a debate, which took place at the COSMO 98 Coference, in Monterey, California. Two other physicists, Andrei Linde and Alexander Villenkin, also took part. Professor Hawking is the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, in England.

  11. "Parent Unions" Join Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Whether they're organizing events, buttonholing legislators, or simply trading ideas and information, a growing number of "parent unions" are attempting to stake out a place in policy debates over education in states and districts, amid a crowded field of actors and advocates. As the term implies, some of these organizations see…

  12. Cooling Signs in Wake Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    More than a year after dismantling a student-assignment policy based on socioeconomic diversity and setting off a wave of reaction that drew national attention, the Wake County, North Carolina, school board took a step that may turn down the temperature of the intense debate. The board, which has been deeply split on an assignment plan for the…

  13. "Parent Unions" Join Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Whether they're organizing events, buttonholing legislators, or simply trading ideas and information, a growing number of "parent unions" are attempting to stake out a place in policy debates over education in states and districts, amid a crowded field of actors and advocates. As the term implies, some of these organizations see…

  14. NCLB Debate at the Sidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act has been the subject of intense debate in school board meetings, state legislatures, and Washington policy circles. Everywhere, it seems, but the presidential campaign--the winner of which may have the most important voice in reshaping the federal role in K-12 education. In their education proposals, Democratic Senator…

  15. Using Debate in EFL Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasmari, Ali; Ahmed, Sayed Salahuddin

    2013-01-01

    The countries that use English as a foreign language need effective activities which propel students to practice skills of the language properly inside as well as outside classrooms. Debating is a practice that inspires learners to open their mouth, get into discussion, defend their own positions, place counter arguments and also conduct research…

  16. The Communication Paradigm in the Debate Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Dennis R.

    Over the last several years the increased speed of delivery in debate tournaments has made it difficult for judges to keep up with a debate during a round of competition. The responsibility for communication should be upon each debater to deliver his or her arguments, with intelligence, to the judge or critic. Debate is an oral communication…

  17. The Academic and Practical Values of Debating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Kent R.; Biggers, Thompson

    The educational benefits of debate suggest several reasons for funding debate programs on college campuses. First, debate training improves communication skills (analysis, delivery, and organization) and helps students in other communication situations. Second, debate promotes depth of educational experience by exposing students to important…

  18. Intimate Debate Technique: Medicinal Use of Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; DeRei, Kristie

    2007-01-01

    Classroom debates used to be familiar exercises to students schooled in past generations. In this article, the authors describe the technique called "intimate debate". To cooperative learning specialists, the technique is known as "structured debate" or "constructive debate". It is a powerful method for dealing with case topics that involve…

  19. Students in Action: Debating the "Mighty Opposites."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insights on Law & Society, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the hate speech, gun, and privacy debates that today's youth will have to address in their future. Includes articles addressing the arguments in each issue: (1) "Debating Hate Speech" (Frank Kopecky); (2) "Debating the Gun Issue" (Denise Barr); and (3) "Debating the Right to Privacy" (Pinky Wassenberg.)…

  20. Students in Action: Debating the "Mighty Opposites."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insights on Law & Society, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the hate speech, gun, and privacy debates that today's youth will have to address in their future. Includes articles addressing the arguments in each issue: (1) "Debating Hate Speech" (Frank Kopecky); (2) "Debating the Gun Issue" (Denise Barr); and (3) "Debating the Right to Privacy" (Pinky Wassenberg.)…

  1. Intimate Debate Technique: Medicinal Use of Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; DeRei, Kristie

    2007-01-01

    Classroom debates used to be familiar exercises to students schooled in past generations. In this article, the authors describe the technique called "intimate debate". To cooperative learning specialists, the technique is known as "structured debate" or "constructive debate". It is a powerful method for dealing with case topics that involve…

  2. Vitalism and the Darwin Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, James

    2012-08-01

    There are currently both scientific and public debates surrounding Darwinism. In the scientific debate, the details of evolution are in dispute, but not the central thesis of Darwin's theory; in the public debate, Darwinism itself is questioned. I concentrate on the public debate because of its direct impact on education in the United States. Some critics of Darwin advocate the teaching of intelligent design theory along with Darwin's theory, and others seek to eliminate even the mention of evolution from science classes altogether. Many of these critics base their objections on the claim that non-living matter cannot give rise to living matter. After considering some of the various meanings assigned to `vitalism' over the years, I argue that a considerable portion of Darwin deniers support a literal version of vitalism that is not scientifically respectable. Their position seems to be that since life cannot arise naturally, Darwin's theory accomplishes nothing: If it can only account for life forms changing from one to another (even this is disputed by some) but not how life arose in the first place, what's the point? I argue that there is every reason to believe that living and non-living matter differ only in degree, not in kind, and that all conversation about Darwinism should start with the assumption that abiogenesis is possible unless or until compelling evidence of its impossibility is presented. That is, I advocate a position that the burden of proof lies with those who claim "Life only comes from life." Until that case is made, little weight should be given to their position.

  3. Teaching the Mantle Plumes Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulger, G. R.

    2010-12-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding whether or not mantle plumes exist. This debate has highlighted a number of issues regarding how Earth science is currently practised, and how this feeds into approaches toward teaching students. The plume model is an hypothesis, not a proven fact. And yet many researchers assume a priori that plumes exist. This assumption feeds into teaching. That the plume model is unproven, and that many practising researchers are skeptical, may be at best only mentioned in passing to students, with most teachers assuming that plumes are proven to exist. There is typically little emphasis, in particular in undergraduate teaching, that the origin of melting anomalies is currently uncertain and that scientists do not know all the answers. Little encouragement is given to students to become involved in the debate and to consider the pros and cons for themselves. Typically teachers take the approach that “an answer” (or even “the answer”) must be taught to students. Such a pedagogic approach misses an excellent opportunity to allow students to participate in an important ongoing debate in Earth sciences. It also misses the opportunity to illustrate to students several critical aspects regarding correct application of the scientific method. The scientific method involves attempting to disprove hypotheses, not to prove them. A priori assumptions should be kept uppermost in mind and reconsidered at all stages. Multiple working hypotheses should be entertained. The predictions of a hypothesis should be tested, and unpredicted observations taken as weakening the original hypothesis. Hypotheses should not be endlessly adapted to fit unexpected observations. The difficulty with pedagogic treatment of the mantle plumes debate highlights a general uncertainty about how to teach issues in Earth science that are not yet resolved with certainty. It also represents a missed opportunity to let students experience how scientific theories evolve, warts

  4. On Not Using Intrinsic Justification in Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Bill; Leeman, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Questions the theoretical justification for the standard of intrinsic justification. Challenges the applicability of phenomenological constructs to academic debate, demonstrates that "essences" cannot be readily located in debate resolutions, and illustrates that proponents of intrinsic justification have not adequately operationalized…

  5. The heated debate. [Global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Balling, R.C. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Heated Debate challenges head on the popular vision' of anthropogenically-caused global warming as characterized by catastrophic sea level rise, drought-desiccated farmlands, and more frequent and intense hurricanes spinning up and out from warmer tropical seas. The message of this book is that apocalyptic devastation of natural ecosystems and human socio-economic systems will not necessarily follow from a mild warming of earth's climate. According to Balling, the specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public specter of apocalypse is clearly the dominant view held by scientists, decisionmakers and the public at large, and, in his view, it is just as clearly incorrect based on a careful examination of the historical evidence. The Heated Debate present the other side' of global warming; a kinder, gentler greenhouse debate, the stated purpose of the book is to provide the reader with some background to the greenhouse issue, present an analysis of the certainties and uncertainties for future climate change, and examine the most probably changes in climate that may occur as the greenhouse gases increase in concentration. Ultimately the author hopes the book will more completely inform decisionmakers so that they do not commit money and resources to what may turn out to be a non-problem. Indeed, global warming may have many more benefits than costs, and, in any event, the (climate) penalty for postponing action a few years is potentially small, while our knowledge base will increase tremendously allowing society to make wiser and more informed decisions.

  6. Competitive bidding debate goes national

    SciTech Connect

    Stoiaken, L.N.

    1987-10-01

    Several states have either adopted or are considering proposal for competitive bidding among prospective cogenerators wishing to supply electric power to a utility. A survey of independent power producers found that an early issue to emerge was whether utilities, themselves, would have to compete for the right to expand. Another issue is access to transmission services. Arguments that this was not the intent of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act forget that diversifying energy sources was a major goal. Congress will continue hearings on the debate this fall on several issues.

  7. Literacy as Social Action in City Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland-Hughes, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examines critical literacy and the intersections of oral, aural, written, and performative literate practices in City Debate, an afterschool program dedicated to providing debate instruction to students in a major Southeastern city. Previous research into definitions and beliefs about literacy in an urban debate program over its twenty…

  8. Speech and Debate as Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, J. Michael; Kurr, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Jeremy D.; Bergmaier, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the U.S. Senate's designation of March 15, 2016 as "National Speech and Debate Education Day" (S. Res. 398, 2016), it only seems fitting that "Communication Education" devote a special section to the role of speech and debate in civic education. Speech and debate have been at the heart of the communication…

  9. The Importance of High School Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooley, Diana

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important educational objectives of high school is to teach critical-thinking skills, and no class does this better than strategic debate. Professor Mike Allen, lead author in a definitive study on debate and critical thinking, lauded debate's promotion of critical-thinking skills. Additionally, researcher Joe Bellon discusses the…

  10. The Power of In-Class Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Ruth R.

    2009-01-01

    The students in three sections of a class rated their knowledge and identified their view before and after each of five in-class debates. The degree of self-reported knowledge was significantly different after four of the five debates. Between 31% and 58% of participants changed their views after participating in or observing each debate. Some…

  11. 11 CFR 100.154 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.154 Section 100.154 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.154 Candidate debates. Funds used to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates...

  12. Speech and Debate as Civic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, J. Michael; Kurr, Jeffrey A.; Johnson, Jeremy D.; Bergmaier, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the U.S. Senate's designation of March 15, 2016 as "National Speech and Debate Education Day" (S. Res. 398, 2016), it only seems fitting that "Communication Education" devote a special section to the role of speech and debate in civic education. Speech and debate have been at the heart of the communication…

  13. Affective Learning and the Classroom Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagger, Suzy

    2013-01-01

    A commonly used teaching method to promote student engagement is the classroom debate. This study evaluates how affective characteristics, as defined in Bloom's taxonomy, were stimulated during debates that took place on a professional ethics module for first year computing undergraduates. The debates led to lively interactive group discussions…

  14. Technological Imperatives: Using Computers in Academic Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ticku, Ravinder; Phelps, Greg

    Intended for forensic educators and debate teams, this document details how one university debate team, at the University of Iowa, makes use of computer resources on campus to facilitate storage and retrieval of information useful to debaters. The introduction notes the problem of storing and retrieving the amount of information required by debate…

  15. Literacy as Social Action in City Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland-Hughes, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This study examines critical literacy and the intersections of oral, aural, written, and performative literate practices in City Debate, an afterschool program dedicated to providing debate instruction to students in a major Southeastern city. Previous research into definitions and beliefs about literacy in an urban debate program over its twenty…

  16. Soviet debate on missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, B.

    1987-04-01

    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  17. [The debate over drug legalization].

    PubMed

    Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís

    2013-01-01

    The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance.

  18. [The climate debate: the facts].

    PubMed

    van den Broeke, Michiel R

    2009-01-01

    The first report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) appeared almost 20 years ago. Environmental contamination has a negative effect on the environment in which we live. However, the public at large is confused about the ins and outs of climate change. Managers, politicians, various kinds of advisors, scientists, so-called experts, sceptics and journalists have all taken it upon themselves to lead the debate. Whose task is it to ensure a sound discussion? Surely it is the IPCC's task. However, most politicians and many journalists, and even many scientists, do not take the trouble to read the entire IPCC report or parts of it. As a consequence, much nonsense is published and broadcast. An effective procedure to deal with the climate problem starts with a fair discussion of the scientific evidence. My advice is: just read the free IPCC report: http://www.ipcc.ch/ and click on 'WG I The Physical Science Basis'.

  19. Levinas and the euthanasia debate.

    PubMed

    Nuyen, A T

    2000-01-01

    The philosophers' tendency to characterize euthanasia in terms of either the right or the responsibility to die is, in some ways, problematic. Stepping outside of the analytic framework, the author draws out the implications of the ethics of Emmanuel Levinas for the euthanasia debate, tracing the ways Levinas' position differs not only from the philosophical consensus but also from the theological one. The article shows that, according to Levinas, there is no ethical case for suicide or assisted suicide. Death cannot be assumed or chosen--not only because suicide is a logically and metaphysically contradictory concept but also because in the choice of death ethical responsibility turns into irresponsibility. However, since Levinas holds that one must be responsible to the point of expiation, he can be said to approve certain actions that may have the consequence of hastening death.

  20. Fetal pain: an infantile debate.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, S W G

    2001-02-01

    The question of whether a fetus can experience pain is an immense challenge. The issue demands consideration of the physical and psychological basis of being and the relation between the two. At the center of this debate is the question of how it is that we are conscious, a question that has inspired the writing of some of our most brilliant contemporary philosophers and scientists, with one commentary suggesting surrender. In my earlier review I attempted to draw together the various strands of thinking that had attacked the question of fetal pain and relate them back to the bigger question of consciousness. In their vituperative response, Benatar and Benatar bite off my finger before looking to where I am pointing. I will examine each of their criticisms.

  1. Historia Verdadera del Chicano del Norte. [True History of the Chicano of the North].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, David; Bryan, Clifford E.

    Very little is known about the Chicanos in the northern U.S., especially those in the Northwest. Research and writing on Chicanos have concentrated on the Southwest or large urban settings, thus excluding those Chicanos residing in rural settings except for those in the migrant stream. These rural residents have become a forgotten people,…

  2. The population debate heats up.

    PubMed

    Malay, R L

    1994-01-01

    60% of the 65 million people in the Philippines have lived below the poverty line amid overall negative GNP growth for almost a decade. The population is growing at the annual rate of 2.4%. These conditions suggest the urgent need to reduce population growth and take measures to improve the performance of the economy. The big debate in the Philippines regarding population and development, however, is not over the redistribution of resources, but about the morality of managing population growth through the promotion of artificial means of contraception. Roman Catholicism predominates among religions in the Philippines. The Catholic Church in the Philippines, as elsewhere around the world, alleges that artificial contraceptives are abortifacient and that only natural methods should be promoted. Although Health Secretary Dr. Juan M. Flavier, a staunch supporter of family planning, points out that the church and state both abhor abortion, accept natural family planning, and would like to offer a better quality of life to the people, it is clear that the government does not agree with the Church's endorsement of only natural family planning methods. Surveys have found that most Filipinos agree with the government; they are in favor of family planning and feel that the Church should stay out of the debate. A people-centered approach to development and concern for the environment are called for to improve the Filipino quality of life. At the global level, the Vatican has allies among believers of Islam in its position against abortion and in favor of a traditional concept of the family. Despite wrangling at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) over a woman's right to abortion and other contentious issues, such as the objection among Southern states to the ICPD committee's exclusion of the right to family reunification, the ICPD was a success because it gave prime importance to the link between population and sustainable development. The ICPD

  3. Biomedical ontologies: toward scientific debate.

    PubMed

    Maojo, V; Crespo, J; García-Remesal, M; de la Iglesia, D; Perez-Rey, D; Kulikowski, C

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical ontologies have been very successful in structuring knowledge for many different applications, receiving widespread praise for their utility and potential. Yet, the role of computational ontologies in scientific research, as opposed to knowledge management applications, has not been extensively discussed. We aim to stimulate further discussion on the advantages and challenges presented by biomedical ontologies from a scientific perspective. We review various aspects of biomedical ontologies going beyond their practical successes, and focus on some key scientific questions in two ways. First, we analyze and discuss current approaches to improve biomedical ontologies that are based largely on classical, Aristotelian ontological models of reality. Second, we raise various open questions about biomedical ontologies that require further research, analyzing in more detail those related to visual reasoning and spatial ontologies. We outline significant scientific issues that biomedical ontologies should consider, beyond current efforts of building practical consensus between them. For spatial ontologies, we suggest an approach for building "morphospatial" taxonomies, as an example that could stimulate research on fundamental open issues for biomedical ontologies. Analysis of a large number of problems with biomedical ontologies suggests that the field is very much open to alternative interpretations of current work, and in need of scientific debate and discussion that can lead to new ideas and research directions.

  4. Abortion: taking the debate seriously.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2015-05-19

    Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy.

  5. School Boundary Debate Divides Minnesota Suburb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses how an assignment plan intended to keep schools socioeconomically balanced spurs a bitter debate in suburban Eden Prairie. The boundary debate in the 9,700-student Eden Prairie, Minnesota, district has been bruising. Eden Prairie adopted new school attendance boundaries this year based on socioeconomic balance, ensuring for…

  6. Modified Group Debate in Introductory Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David E.

    This classroom exercise presents a scaled-down version of traditional debate for students enrolled in introductory public speaking or small group communication courses at the university level. The exercise project involves two weeks, the first week for preparation and the second week for conducting in-class debates, and is presented in a…

  7. The Affirmative Action Debate: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte

    2010-01-01

    In this article I contend that we cannot divorce affirmative action from issues about race and racism. Further, debates on affirmative action have to acknowledge the power of words/concepts/definitions and how they can be constructed and used for the purposes of domination or liberation. I argue that, in debating affirmative action, we have to…

  8. The United States: A Persistent Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Scotter, Richard; Hartoonian, H. Michael; White, William E.; Davis, James E.

    2007-01-01

    American democratic society is sustained through debate among its citizens. Four sets of value tensions--(1) law versus ethics, (2) private wealth versus common wealth, (3) freedom versus equality, and (4) unity versus diversity--are central in allowing citizens to address matters of public interest through debate. These value pairs are the…

  9. The Affirmative Action Debate: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wyk, Berte

    2010-01-01

    In this article I contend that we cannot divorce affirmative action from issues about race and racism. Further, debates on affirmative action have to acknowledge the power of words/concepts/definitions and how they can be constructed and used for the purposes of domination or liberation. I argue that, in debating affirmative action, we have to…

  10. The Debate Judge as Educator [and] Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Leslie; And Others

    The purpose of the three papers that make up this document is to explore and redefine the role of debate judges. The first paper, by Leslie Phillips, begins with the assertion that the debate judge is first and foremost an educator, notes that judging is one of the forces that shape and direct competitive forensics, and goes on to consider…

  11. A Stock Approach to Value Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Kent R.

    Existing theories of value debating (resolutions dealing with values rather than policy) may be more effectively applied and developed when viewed as stock issues paradigms for debating values in competitive situations. Issues are vital to an advocate's cause because they are essential to the meaning of a proposition and can also provide an…

  12. Modified Group Debate in Introductory Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David E.

    This classroom exercise presents a scaled-down version of traditional debate for students enrolled in introductory public speaking or small group communication courses at the university level. The exercise project involves two weeks, the first week for preparation and the second week for conducting in-class debates, and is presented in a…

  13. A Taxonomy of CEDA Debate Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudczak, Craig A.; Day, Donald L.

    To develop a taxonomy of Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) critics, a study associated professed judging philosophy and responses to survey questions with ballot behavior and elaborated judging profiles. Subjects were debate critics who judged rounds at CEDA tournaments in the Northeast during the Spring 1989 season. In all, 13 critics…

  14. Colleges Call Debate Contests out of Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Competitive debate has traditionally served as a laboratory for the democratic process and an important training ground for future policy makers. In recent years, a growing number of teams have played the game out of traditional bounds. They have turned events into commentaries on debate itself, in performances that bear little resemblance to the…

  15. Using Debates to Teach Information Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace, A. Graham

    2011-01-01

    This experience report details the use of debates in a course on Information Ethics. Formal debates have been used in academia for centuries and create an environment in which students must think critically, communicate well and, above all, synthesize and evaluate the relevant classroom material. They also provide a break from the standard…

  16. 11 CFR 100.92 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.92 Section 100.92 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.92 Candidate debates. Funds provided to defray costs incurred in staging candidate...

  17. Industry Interests in the HDTV Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neil, Suzanne Chambliss

    This analysis of the pattern of industrial interests in the current debate over high definition television systems argues that the debate involves more than just television; rather, it is an expression of a shift in the conceptualization of the nature of standards, one which conceives of standards as guidelines for the development of specific…

  18. Debate Revives Old Arguments on HPV Vaccine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on a Republican presidential debate which revives the contention over requiring middle school girls to be vaccinated against the virus that causes cervical cancer. At the September 12 debate, U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann, of Minnesota, and Rick Santorum, a former U.S. senator from Pennsylvania, attacked Texas Governor…

  19. Debating Our Way toward Stronger Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Teachers often find it challenging to incorporate higher order thinking skills in ways that both inspire student interest and allow for meaningful differentiation. Structured debate is an activity that can facilitate all of these goals. This article explains, in detail, how debates can be structured to promote a variety of critical thinking skills…

  20. School Boundary Debate Divides Minnesota Suburb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses how an assignment plan intended to keep schools socioeconomically balanced spurs a bitter debate in suburban Eden Prairie. The boundary debate in the 9,700-student Eden Prairie, Minnesota, district has been bruising. Eden Prairie adopted new school attendance boundaries this year based on socioeconomic balance, ensuring for…

  1. Debate Revives Old Arguments on HPV Vaccine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    The author reports on a Republican presidential debate which revives the contention over requiring middle school girls to be vaccinated against the virus that causes cervical cancer. At the September 12 debate, U.S. Representative Michele Bachmann, of Minnesota, and Rick Santorum, a former U.S. senator from Pennsylvania, attacked Texas Governor…

  2. Political Debates and Their Application to the Teaching of Lincoln-Douglas Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Diana B.

    Designed for teachers of the Lincoln-Douglas style debate, this curriculum guide outlines an approach to teaching analysis in debate, and suggests practical activities employing contemporary political debates as an instructional device. The guide first presents a framework for values analysis, including such aspects as (1) identifying the nature…

  3. The American Debate Association: An Evaluation of Rules for Academic Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Frank

    Many of the American Debate Association (ADA) rules merely codify conventions which are almost universally practiced in ADA tournaments. Among them are such standards as who is eligible to debate and judge, what shall be debated and for how long, and restrictions on ballot submissions. Other rules come under the general heading of "which…

  4. The Commission on Presidential Debates: A New Approach to Political Debates or Just a New Sponsor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Diana B.

    To grasp what happened to the institutionalization of presidential debates in 1988 it will be useful to ask what is the future of party sponsorship of presidential debates. Given that sponsorship has been an issue discussed after every debate since 1960, either from a legal perspective (i.e. who can sponsor and remain in compliance with Federal…

  5. Discussions about the Nature of Science in a Course on the History of Astronomy. (Spanish Title: Discusiones sobre la Naturaleza de la Ciencia en un Curso sobre Historia de la Astronomía.) Discussões sobre a Natureza da Ciência em um Curso sobre a História da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires de Andrade, Victória Flório; L'Astorina, Bruno

    2010-07-01

    There are an increasing number of researches in science education that affirm the importance of discussions on the "nature of science" in basic education level as well as in teacher training. The history of science applied to education is a way to contextualize epistemological discussions, allowing both the understanding of scientific content and learning about science concepts. We present some reasonably consensual definitions on the nature of science that have been widely discussed by the academic community. We show also some episodes in the history of astronomy which can lead to discussions involving some aspects of the nature of science, and how they can do it. Hay un número creciente de investigaciones en la enseñanza de las ciencias que afirman la importancia de debates sobre la "naturaleza de la ciencia" en la educación básica y formación del profesorado. La historia de la ciencia aplicada a la educación es una manera de contextualizar los debates de la epistemología, lo que permite tanto la comprensión de los contenidos científicos como el aprendizaje de conceptos científicos. En esto trabajo, presentamos algunas definiciones bastante consensuales sobre la naturaleza de la ciencia que han sido ampliamente discutidas por la comunidad académica y mostramos cómo algunos episodios en la historia de la astronomía pueden llevar a discusiones sobre algunos aspectos de la naturaleza de la ciencia. Há um número crescente de pesquisas na área de ensino de ciências que afirmam a importância de discussões sobre a "natureza da ciência" na educação básica e na formação de professores. A história da ciência aplicada ao ensino é uma maneira de contextualizar discussões epistemológicas, permitindo tanto a compreensão de conteúdos científicos quanto o aprendizado de noções sobre as ciências. Neste trabalho apresentamos algumas definições razoavelmente consensuais sobre a natureza da ciência que foram amplamente discutidas pela

  6. Astronomers debate diamonds in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    This is not the first time the intriguing carbonaceous compound has been detected in space. A peculiar elite of twelve stars are known to produce it. The star now added by ISO to this elite is one of the best representatives of this exclusive family, since it emits a very strong signal of the compound. Additionally ISO found a second new member of the group with weaker emission, and also observed with a spectral resolution never achieved before other already known stars in this class. Astronomers think these ISO results will help solve the mystery of the true nature of the compound. Their publication by two different groups, from Spain and Canada, has triggered a debate on the topic, both in astronomy institutes and in chemistry laboratories. At present, mixed teams of astrophysicists and chemists are investigating in the lab compounds whose chemical signature or "fingerprint" matches that detected by ISO. Neither diamonds nor fullerenes have ever been detected in space, but their presence has been predicted. Tiny diamonds of pre-solar origin --older than the Solar System-- have been found in meteorites, which supports the as yet unconfirmed theory of their presence in interstellar space. The fullerene molecule, made of 60 carbon atoms linked to form a sphere (hence the name "buckyball"), has also been extensively searched for in space but never found. If the carbonaceous compound detected by ISO is a fullerene or a diamond, there will be new data on the production of these industrially interesting materials. Fullerenes are being investigated as "capsules" to deliver new pharmaceuticals to the body. Diamonds are commonly used in the electronics industry and for the development of new materials; if they are formed in the dust surrounding some stars, at relatively low temperatures and conditions of low pressure, companies could learn more about the ideal physical conditions to produce them. A textbook case The latest star in which the compound has been found is

  7. The sources of Gessner's pictures for the Historia animalium.

    PubMed

    Kusukawa, S

    2010-07-01

    Gessner's sources for the pictures in his Historia animalium were varied in kind and in quality. This should be understood within the larger context of the Historia animalium in which Gessner sought to collect everything ever written about animals, an enterprise that could not be completed by a single individual. Just as Gessner did not distil or reduce similar texts but retained these as well as contradictory or false textual descriptions as part of a repository of knowledge, so also Gessner included several pictures of the same animal, false or badly drawn ones, and juxtaposed erroneous and 'true' images. The attribution of images to witnesses and correspondences also reflects Gessner's strategy to credit those who drew his attention to new information first. The sources of Gessner's images thus indicate how his visual world encompassed more than the strictly self-observable, and a pictorial practice that was intimately connected with textual traditions and intellectual networks.

  8. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and other periodical publications may stage candidate debates in accordance with this section and 11... producer), bona fide newspapers, magazines and other periodical publications, acting as press entities, may...

  9. House of Lords debates assisted dying (again).

    PubMed

    2003-07-01

    Lord Joffe's Patient (Assisted Dying) Bill (see Bulletin 187) had its Second Reading on 6 June. The debate was lively, informed and inevitably somewhat polarised. However, some common themes emerged and are outlined below.

  10. Ground Rules for the Power Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fainberg, Anthony

    1980-01-01

    A physicist argues for the establishment of ground rules in the current nuclear power debate so that vital policy decisions and discussions stay within the realm of rationality permitting useful and meaningful exchanges of information and data. (BT)

  11. Can We Make Intercollegiate Debate More Diverse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Pamela

    1997-01-01

    Shares demographics that pertain to women and minorities at five national CEDA (Cross Examination Debate Association) tournaments from 1991 to 1995; examines barriers that prevent diversity and representativeness; describes actions taken; and proposes solutions for the future. (PA)

  12. Four Republican Presidential Candidates Debate Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity and Excellence, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides the transcript of a September 1987 debate on educational issues between Republican presidential candidates Jack Kemp and Pierre du Pont. Interspersed throughout the transcript are written responses to questions submitted to additional candidates Robert Dole and George Bush. (BJV)

  13. Seven Democratic Presidential Candidates Debate Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity and Excellence, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides the transcript of a debate on educational issues among Democratic presidential candidates Paul Simon, Albert Gore, Joseph Biden, Jesse Jackson, Bruce Babbitt, Richard Gephart, and Michael Dukakis. (BJV)

  14. Seven Democratic Presidential Candidates Debate Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity and Excellence, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Provides the transcript of a debate on educational issues among Democratic presidential candidates Paul Simon, Albert Gore, Joseph Biden, Jesse Jackson, Bruce Babbitt, Richard Gephart, and Michael Dukakis. (BJV)

  15. Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated?

    PubMed

    Paixão, R L; Schramm, F R

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to raise some points for an understanding of the contemporary debate over the ethics of using animals in scientific experiments. We present the various positions from scientific and moral perspectives establishing different ways of viewing animals, as well as several concepts like 'animal ethics', 'animal rights', and 'animal welfare'. The paper thus aims to analyze the importance and growth of this debate, while proposing to expand the academic approach to this theme in the field of health.

  16. Teaching sociology to nurses: exploring the debate.

    PubMed

    Williamson, G R

    1999-05-01

    This article reviews literature on the current debate concerning teaching sociology to nurses. The debate is limited because it does not take into account the work of Donald Schön, or Anthony Giddens. The article also discusses theories of adult education which support teaching sociology in nurse education. Sociology is essential for nurses, because it can help to develop an understanding and analysis of the context and substance of nursing practice.

  17. Ten Years of Demographics: Who Debates in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Pamela L.; Gardner, Beth

    2001-01-01

    Presents demographics about gender and ethnicity of debate directors, debate coaches, and debaters in the Cross Examination Debate Association's National Tournament from 1991-2000. Considers that although there has been an increase in the numbers of females and minorities debating, there has also been a decline in the numbers of females directing…

  18. Formal Debate as a Pedagogical Tool in the College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercadante, Richard A., Jr.

    By understanding the values and goals of debate, the applicability of debate to all disciplines, the logistics of setting up a debate and the judging and grading procedures, college instructors in all disciplines can use debate to stimulate student interest and increase conceptual skills. Debate functions to develop skills in critical thinking,…

  19. Debating science policy in the physics classroom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Shannon

    2010-03-01

    It is critically important that national and international science policy be scientifically grounded. To this end, the next generation of scientists and engineers will need to be technically competent, effective communicators of science, and engaged advisors in the debate and formulation of science policy. We describe three science policy debates developed for the physics classroom aimed at encouraging students to draw connections between their developing technical expertise and important science policy issues. The first debate considers the proposal for a 450-megawatt wind farm on public lands in Nantucket Sound and fits naturally into the curriculum related to alternative forms of energy production. The second debate considers national fuel-economy standards for sport-utility vehicles and can be incorporated into the curriculum related to heat engines. The third debate, suitable for the curriculum in optics, considers solid state lighting and implications of recent United States legislation that places stringent new energy-efficiency and reliability requirements on conventional lighting. The technical foundation for each of these debates fits naturally into the undergraduate physics curriculum and the material is suitable for a wide range of physics courses, including general science courses for non-majors.

  20. Beyond the mammography debate: a moderate perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kaniklidis, C

    2015-01-01

    After some decades of contention, one can almost despair and conclude that (paraphrasing) “the mammography debate you will have with you always.” Against that sentiment, in this review I argue, after reflecting on some of the major themes of this long-standing debate, that we must begin to move beyond the narrow borders of claim and counterclaim to seek consensus on what the balance of methodologically sound and critically appraised evidence demonstrates, and also to find overlooked underlying convergences; after acknowledging the reality of some residual and non-trivial harms from mammography, to promote effective strategies for harm mitigation; and to encourage deployment of new screening modalities that will render many of the issues and concerns in the debate obsolete. To these ends, I provide a sketch of what this looking forward and beyond the current debate might look like, leveraging advantages from abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging technologies (such as the ultrafast and twist protocols) and from digital breast tomosynthesis—also known as three-dimensional mammography. I also locate the debate within the broader context of mammography in the real world as it plays out not for the disputants, but for the stakeholders themselves: the screening-eligible patients and the physicians in the front lines who are charged with enabling both the acts of screening and the facts of screening at their maximally objective and patient-accessible levels to facilitate informed decisions. PMID:26089721

  1. Beyond the mammography debate: a moderate perspective.

    PubMed

    Kaniklidis, C

    2015-06-01

    After some decades of contention, one can almost despair and conclude that (paraphrasing) "the mammography debate you will have with you always." Against that sentiment, in this review I argue, after reflecting on some of the major themes of this long-standing debate, that we must begin to move beyond the narrow borders of claim and counterclaim to seek consensus on what the balance of methodologically sound and critically appraised evidence demonstrates, and also to find overlooked underlying convergences; after acknowledging the reality of some residual and non-trivial harms from mammography, to promote effective strategies for harm mitigation; and to encourage deployment of new screening modalities that will render many of the issues and concerns in the debate obsolete. To these ends, I provide a sketch of what this looking forward and beyond the current debate might look like, leveraging advantages from abbreviated breast magnetic resonance imaging technologies (such as the ultrafast and twist protocols) and from digital breast tomosynthesis-also known as three-dimensional mammography. I also locate the debate within the broader context of mammography in the real world as it plays out not for the disputants, but for the stakeholders themselves: the screening-eligible patients and the physicians in the front lines who are charged with enabling both the acts of screening and the facts of screening at their maximally objective and patient-accessible levels to facilitate informed decisions.

  2. Clayton's compromises and the assisted dying debate.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    Richard Huxtable has recently argued that while assisted dying has been both repeatedly condemned and commended, a compromise resolution is possible. Following critique of other purported solutions, he argues for a new legal offence of "compassionate killing" as a plausible compromise between supporters and opponents of legalised assisted dying, because it offers something of significance to both sides. However, it turns out that "compassionate killing" would leave both sides with insufficient net benefit for the proposal to qualify as a compromise between them. By analogy with another apparently intractable bioethical debate, concerning destructive embryo research, this column rejects Huxtable's solution as another "Clayton's compromise". True compromise is not possible in bioethical debates involving divisions over deeply held values and world views. Resolving such debates inevitably involves the substitution of one dominant world view with another.

  3. Population genetics in the forensic DNA debate.

    PubMed Central

    Weir, B S

    1992-01-01

    The use of matching variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) profiles to link suspects with crimes is potentially very powerful, but it has been quite controversial. Initial debate over laboratory procedures has largely given way to debate over the statistical and population genetic issues involved in calculating the frequency of a profile for a random member of a population. This frequency is used to weight the evidence of a match between suspect and crime scene material when the suspect denies responsibility for that material. A recent report from the National Research Council, intended to put to rest some of the issues, has instead raised further debate by advocating a procedure based on maximum frequencies of profile components over several different populations. PMID:1465380

  4. Book review: The Wilderness Debate Rages On: Continuing the Great New Wilderness Debate

    Treesearch

    Peter Landres

    2009-01-01

    The Wilderness Debate Rages On is a collection of mostly previously published papers about the meaning, value, and role of wilderness and continues the discussion that was propelled by the editors' previous book The Great New Wilderness Debate (also a collection of papers) published in 1998. The editors state that this sequel to their previous book is mandated...

  5. "I Was Gone on Debating": Malcolm X's Prison Debates and Public Confrontations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branham, Robert James

    1995-01-01

    States that Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam relied heavily upon debate as a form of public address through which to enact and publicize confrontation with other civil rights organizations. Examines Malcolm X's first experience and training in debate as a prison inmate and later public experiences. Provides detailed accounts and analysis of his…

  6. "I Was Gone on Debating": Malcolm X's Prison Debates and Public Confrontations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branham, Robert James

    1995-01-01

    States that Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam relied heavily upon debate as a form of public address through which to enact and publicize confrontation with other civil rights organizations. Examines Malcolm X's first experience and training in debate as a prison inmate and later public experiences. Provides detailed accounts and analysis of his…

  7. Rules on the Substance of Debate: A Critique of the Charter of the National Debate Tournament.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbeck, Dale A.; Katsulas, John P.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that "substantive" rules instituted by the National Debate Tournament (NDT) Committee are ineffective and counterproductive. Critiques the rule restricting evidence reading at the end of a debate and the rule requiring judges to compare definitions when evaluating topicality arguments. Concludes that the NDT Committee should…

  8. No end in sight to cloning debate.

    PubMed

    Graumann, Sigrid; Poltermann, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Since last August, Great Britain has allowed the cloning for research purposes. This fact has re-generated an existing debate, taking into account the prohibition of cloning of the UN, the States are debating whether cloning should be prohibited or in the contrary, it should also be admitted for reproductive purposes. This situation has generated an international uneasiness due to the lack of a universal consensus. This article analyses this situation, bringing the reader closer to the very controversial texts, such as the European Constitution and the UN Convention on Cloning.

  9. Issue ads and the health reform debate.

    PubMed

    Bergan, Daniel; Risner, Genevieve

    2012-06-01

    The public debate over health care reform in 2009 was carried out partly through issue advertisements aired online and on television. Did these advertisements alter the course of the debate over health care reform? While millions of dollars are spent each year on issue ads, little is known about their effects. Results from a naturalistic online experiment on the effects of issue ads suggest that they can influence the perceived importance of an issue and perceptions of politicians associated with the featured policy while influencing policy support only among those low in political awareness.

  10. Medicinal cannabis: moving the debate forward.

    PubMed

    Newton-Howes, Giles; McBride, Sam

    2016-11-18

    There has been increased interest in cannabis as a medicine both nationally and internationally. Internationally, cannabis is accepted as a medication for a variety of purposes in a variety of legal guises and this, associated with anecdotes of the utility of cannabis as medication has led for calls for it to be 'medicalised' in New Zealand. This viewpoint discusses the issues associated with this approach to accessing cannabis and some of the difficulties that may be associated with it. It is important doctors are at the forefront of the debate surrounding medicalised cannabis. Recommendations as to the ongoing debate are offered.

  11. United States: Exploring the Marriage Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Julie H.

    2004-01-01

    As citizens of the United States respond to legislative and judicial actions that have challenged the prohibition against same-sex couples receiving marriage licenses, schools have a timely opportunity to engage students on this most important debate. Educators can help their students understand the full significance of this issue by encouraging…

  12. Senate begins clean air legislation debate

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, M.

    1990-03-01

    This article reports on Senate debate on the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1989. Topics include acid rain provisions, administration objections, costs of the bill including disparity of costs in different regions and cost-sharing proposals, and the effects the current energy policy will have on the bill. Presidential, Senate, and subcommittee views on the bill are presented.

  13. Philosophizing about Debate and Individual Events Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittus, James K.; Davies, Miriam R.

    A joint forensics program including both debate and individual events offers important benefits to students and coaches in training. A complete forensics experience provides what some would consider a true liberal arts education. When exposed to all events, students learn a variety of argumentative styles and develop a variety of universal skills…

  14. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  15. Debate: Should Abortion Be Available on Request?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Bernard; Lawrence, George

    1971-01-01

    Two physicians debate whether abortions should be available on request regardless of medical indications. The crux of the issue is whether the fetus should be considered body tissue over which the woman has complete control or whether society has an interest in the embryo and should protect it. (Author/BY)

  16. Anonymity in Classroom Voting and Debating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron; Gelmini-Hornsby, Giulia; Threapleton, Kate; Crook, Charles; O'Malley, Claire; Buda, Marie

    2011-01-01

    The advent of networked environments into the classroom is changing classroom debates in many ways. This article addresses one key attribute of these environments, namely anonymity, to explore its consequences for co-present adolescents anonymous, by virtue of the computer system, to peers not to teachers. Three studies with 16-17 year-olds used a…

  17. Debate, Research on E-Cigarettes Continues

    Cancer.gov

    Since they first began to be sold in North America in the mid-2000s, electronic cigarettes have been the subject of intense debate. NCI's Dr. Michele Bloch recently presented an update on some of the issues surrounding e-cigarettes.

  18. Debates over School Shutdowns Heating Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    As school closures are increasingly used as a remedy to budget woes and a solution to failing schools in many cities, debates are intensifying about their effect on student performance and well-being, on district finances, and on communities and the processes districts use to choose which schools will be shuttered. Student and parent groups in…

  19. Voices on Choice: The Education Reform Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, K. L., Ed.

    This collection presents a sampling of opinions of both proponents and opponents in the school choice debate from a variety of professional perspectives, including academics, bureaucrats, politicians, union leaders, economists, lawyers, parents, and activists. The following essays are included: (1) "School Choice Promotes Educational…

  20. Nebraska Speech, Debate, and Drama Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska School Activities Association, Lincoln.

    Prepared and designed to provide general information in the administration of speech activities in the Nebraska schools, this manual offers rules and regulations for speech events, high school debate, and one act plays. The section on speech events includes information about general regulations, the scope of competition, district contests, the…

  1. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  2. Modularity in Cognition: Framing the Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, H. Clark; Kurzban, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Modularity has been the subject of intense debate in the cognitive sciences for more than 2 decades. In some cases, misunderstandings have impeded conceptual progress. Here the authors identify arguments about modularity that either have been abandoned or were never held by proponents of modular views of the mind. The authors review arguments that…

  3. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  4. The New U.S. Strategic Debate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    part of America’s own supreme law and who generally believed that free institutions con- tributed to international peace. But what was radically new...formation of the North American Free Trade Agree- ment ( NAFTA ) as well as a possible Yen zone in Southeast Asia; 41iL 42 The New U.S. Strategic Debate

  5. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  6. Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian, Ed.; Reese, Elaine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development" is a unique resource and reference work that brings together leading international researchers and thinkers, with divergent points of view, to discuss contemporary problems and questions in childhood education and developmental psychology. Through an innovative format whereby leading…

  7. Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Robyn S.

    2006-01-01

    Bioethics--the study of ethical issues in science and medicine--has grown to become a significant academic and service-oriented discipline with its own research centers, conferences, journals, and degree programs. As these issues have moved to the center of public debate, the law has assumed an increasingly important place in the discipline of…

  8. Meningitis Deaths Renew Debate About Vaccinating Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisberg, Leo

    1999-01-01

    The annual incidence of meningococcal disease among 15- to 25-year olds has doubled since 1991, to over 600 cases, and recent studies indicate outbreaks may be increasing on college campuses. Six of the 83 cases appearing at academic institutions have been fatal. The trend has fueled the debate over whether a vaccine should be administered…

  9. Evolution: Don't Debate, Educate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses controversy over the teaching of biological evolution and other scientific ideas such as Big Bang theory. Recommends that teachers avoid debating creationists, help students develop a greater understanding and appreciation for science as a way of explaining the natural world, and emphasize inquiry and the nature of science. (Contains 19…

  10. National Debate Tournament Booklet of Judges, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Walter, Ed.

    A compilation of statements of the judging philosophies of the judges for the 1987 National Debate Tournament, this booklet presents the views of 132 college level coaches from institutions all across the country. The areas examined in the standard judge philosophy form include (1) personal preferences in regard to a decision making paradigm; (2)…

  11. State Legislatures Debate Tuition for Illegal Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Josh

    2007-01-01

    With plans for a sweeping federal immigration bill stuck in Congress, Arizona and a growing number of states have decided to try to deal with the in-state-tuition issue themselves. This spring lawmakers in at least 22 states have already considered or are debating legislation concerning in-state tuition to illegal immigrants. In about half of…

  12. Personal and Academic Writing: Revisiting the Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlynarczyk, Rebecca Williams

    2006-01-01

    More than ten years have passed since the widely publicized debate about personal and academic writing that played out in the 1990s between Peter Elbow and David Bartholomae. But the question of the relative merits of these two different types of writing for student writers continues to be an issue of concern for teachers of composition,…

  13. Twitter Gets Favorited in the Education Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The author describes how the interactive study of social media's effect on the Common Core debate was designed and executed. Important findings from the study were: 1) We live in an increasingly interconnected social world. 2) Media has evolved over the last half century from a passive system dominated by a few central opinion makers to the…

  14. "Scientific" Label in Law Stirs Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that a quiet debate is unfolding over proposals to tinker with No Child Left Behind Act's (NCLB) definition of what constitutes "scientifically based research" in education while other ideas for revamping it are taking center stage. Sprinkled through the federal education statute more than 100 times, the references…

  15. Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Robyn S.

    2006-01-01

    Bioethics--the study of ethical issues in science and medicine--has grown to become a significant academic and service-oriented discipline with its own research centers, conferences, journals, and degree programs. As these issues have moved to the center of public debate, the law has assumed an increasingly important place in the discipline of…

  16. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  17. Making Sense of the MOOCs Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This article considers recent public debates about massive open online courses (MOOCs) and their potential to transform higher education. Drawing on reports and media commentary, it probes the claims and counterclaims of MOOC proponents and MOOC sceptics. It considers the implications for students, governments, institutions and scholars…

  18. Debates over School Shutdowns Heating Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2012-01-01

    As school closures are increasingly used as a remedy to budget woes and a solution to failing schools in many cities, debates are intensifying about their effect on student performance and well-being, on district finances, and on communities and the processes districts use to choose which schools will be shuttered. Student and parent groups in…

  19. The Great Graduation-Rate Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Christine O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote clearer understanding of the graduation-rate debate by distilling the policy developments and controversy surrounding the measurement of these rates over the last decade. The paper concludes with a discussion of the move toward a federally mandated common metric for graduation rates. The No Child Left Behind…

  20. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  1. Release of Unreviewed Studies Sparks Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Studies generally undergo an evaluation process before they are accepted for publication in an academic journal, presented at a conference, or released by a think tank. This article discusses the release of unreviewed research that sparks debate over the need for tighter peer-review mechanisms. Researchers from two of the nation's most eminent…

  2. State, Schooling and Society: Contemporary Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalanyane, Tanakie

    2010-01-01

    The paper articulates debates surrounding schools and schooling in the contemporary era with a view of showing some granted assumptions about schools and schooling by some educationists. The paper further shows that schools are always arenas or sites of struggle where ideological hegemonic control is fought for by various actors, such as: the…

  3. The Grade Retention/Social Promotion Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindelow, John

    1985-01-01

    This publication focuses on the retention/promotion debate regarding failing and low-achieving students. An introductory essay describes the inherent limitation in the research done on this issue--the impossibility of obtaining an appropriate control group--and suggests that the retention/promotion quandary can best be resolved by accommodating…

  4. Teaching Group Work with "The Great Debaters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Jeffry; Autry, Linda; Olson, Joann S.; Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2014-01-01

    An experiential learning activity, based on the film "The Great Debaters" (Washington, D., 2007), was used during a group work class. Description and preliminary evaluation of the activity is provided, including analysis of participant scores on the group leader self-efficacy instrument at multiple points. Implications and future…

  5. Multiple "Curriculum" Meanings Heighten Debate over Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Calls for shared curricula for the common standards have triggered renewed debates about who decides what students learn, and even about varied meanings of the word "curriculum," adding layers of complexity to the job of translating the broad learning goals into classroom teaching. The most recent calls for common curricula came from the American…

  6. Nutritional development and the target weight debate.

    PubMed

    Hall, John B

    2013-11-01

    Postnatal nutrition has immediate and long-lasting effects on beef heifer reproductive efficiency, longevity, and productivity. This article reviews the effects of nutrients and nutritional management on reproduction in developing heifers. In addition, the current debate on the preferred target weight for heifers at breeding is discussed.

  7. Central Perspectives and Debates in Organization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, W. Graham; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1983-01-01

    Classifies organizational theories, by analytical level and assumptions about human nature, into four perspectives (system-structural, strategic choice, natural selection, collective action), each with different concepts of organizational structure, behavior, change, and managerial roles. Identifies six debates generated among the perspectives and…

  8. United States: Exploring the Marriage Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Julie H.

    2004-01-01

    As citizens of the United States respond to legislative and judicial actions that have challenged the prohibition against same-sex couples receiving marriage licenses, schools have a timely opportunity to engage students on this most important debate. Educators can help their students understand the full significance of this issue by encouraging…

  9. "Scientific" Label in Law Stirs Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that a quiet debate is unfolding over proposals to tinker with No Child Left Behind Act's (NCLB) definition of what constitutes "scientifically based research" in education while other ideas for revamping it are taking center stage. Sprinkled through the federal education statute more than 100 times, the references…

  10. Classicists versus Experimentalists: Reexamining the Great Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses an educational controversy between classicists and experimentalists over the educational needs of a democracy. Begins in the 1930s with the Robert Hutchins-John Dewey debate. Compares the educational ideas of Alexander Mieklejohn, the most progressive classicist, to those of Dewey, the undisputed leader of the experimentalists. (AYC)

  11. Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian, Ed.; Reese, Elaine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development" is a unique resource and reference work that brings together leading international researchers and thinkers, with divergent points of view, to discuss contemporary problems and questions in childhood education and developmental psychology. Through an innovative format whereby leading…

  12. Reframing the English Grammar Schools Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Rebecca; Perry, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In October 2015 the Department for Education (DfE) permitted a grammar school in Tonbridge, Kent, to open up an annexe in Sevenoaks, 10 miles away. Amidst claims that the annexe was essentially a new grammar school, the decision reignited an old debate about the value of academically-selective "grammar" schools in England. The intensity…

  13. Meningitis Deaths Renew Debate About Vaccinating Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisberg, Leo

    1999-01-01

    The annual incidence of meningococcal disease among 15- to 25-year olds has doubled since 1991, to over 600 cases, and recent studies indicate outbreaks may be increasing on college campuses. Six of the 83 cases appearing at academic institutions have been fatal. The trend has fueled the debate over whether a vaccine should be administered…

  14. Applications of Computer Technology in Intercollegiate Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Jack, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Focusing on how computers can and should be used in intercollegiate forensics, this journal issue offers the perspectives of a number of forensics instructors. The lead article, "Applications of Computer Technology in Intercollegiate Debate" by Theodore F. Sheckels, Jr., discusses five areas in which forensics educators might use computer…

  15. Evolution: Don't Debate, Educate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses controversy over the teaching of biological evolution and other scientific ideas such as Big Bang theory. Recommends that teachers avoid debating creationists, help students develop a greater understanding and appreciation for science as a way of explaining the natural world, and emphasize inquiry and the nature of science. (Contains 19…

  16. "Growth Models" Gaining in Accountability Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2007-01-01

    In the debate over the future of the No Child Left Behind Act, policymakers, educators, and researchers seem to agree on one thing: The federal law's accountability system should be rewritten so it rewards or sanctions schools on the basis of students' academic growth. The U.S. Department of Education recently reaffirmed the Bush administration's…

  17. Knowledge of the Debate Critic-Judge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Neil

    Arguing that any discussion of debate theory is incomplete without at least some analysis or review of paradigm theory, this paper begins by analogizing the arguments over paradigms to a battle ground over control of the activity. The analysis then shifts to an examination of Thomas Kuhn's sociological theory as a basis for the argument that the…

  18. Central Perspectives and Debates in Organization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, W. Graham; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1983-01-01

    Classifies organizational theories, by analytical level and assumptions about human nature, into four perspectives (system-structural, strategic choice, natural selection, collective action), each with different concepts of organizational structure, behavior, change, and managerial roles. Identifies six debates generated among the perspectives and…

  19. Using Role Play to Debate Animal Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agell, Laia; Soria, Vanessa; Carrió, Mar

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in biomedical research is a socio-scientific issue in which decision-making is complicated. In this article, we describe an experience involving a role play activity performed during school visits to the Barcelona Biomedical Research Park (PRBB) to debate animal testing. Role playing games require students to defend different…

  20. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  1. Reframing the English Grammar Schools Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Rebecca; Perry, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In October 2015 the Department for Education (DfE) permitted a grammar school in Tonbridge, Kent, to open up an annexe in Sevenoaks, 10 miles away. Amidst claims that the annexe was essentially a new grammar school, the decision reignited an old debate about the value of academically-selective "grammar" schools in England. The intensity…

  2. Knowledge of the Debate Critic-Judge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Neil

    Arguing that any discussion of debate theory is incomplete without at least some analysis or review of paradigm theory, this paper begins by analogizing the arguments over paradigms to a battle ground over control of the activity. The analysis then shifts to an examination of Thomas Kuhn's sociological theory as a basis for the argument that the…

  3. Teaching Group Work with "The Great Debaters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Jeffry; Autry, Linda; Olson, Joann S.; Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2014-01-01

    An experiential learning activity, based on the film "The Great Debaters" (Washington, D., 2007), was used during a group work class. Description and preliminary evaluation of the activity is provided, including analysis of participant scores on the group leader self-efficacy instrument at multiple points. Implications and future…

  4. Making Sense of the MOOCs Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharrock, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    This article considers recent public debates about massive open online courses (MOOCs) and their potential to transform higher education. Drawing on reports and media commentary, it probes the claims and counterclaims of MOOC proponents and MOOC sceptics. It considers the implications for students, governments, institutions and scholars…

  5. Beyond the Virtues-Principles Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keat, Marilyn S.

    1992-01-01

    Indicates basic ontological assumptions in the virtues-principles debate in moral philosophy, noting Aristotle's and Kant's fundamental ideas about morality and considering a hermeneutic synthesis of theories. The article discusses what acceptance of the synthesis might mean in the theory and practice of moral pedagogy, offering examples of…

  6. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  7. Multiple "Curriculum" Meanings Heighten Debate over Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Calls for shared curricula for the common standards have triggered renewed debates about who decides what students learn, and even about varied meanings of the word "curriculum," adding layers of complexity to the job of translating the broad learning goals into classroom teaching. The most recent calls for common curricula came from the American…

  8. Market Rhetoric and the Ebonics Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longaker, Mark Garrett

    2005-01-01

    Using a method of topical rhetorical analysis, inspired by K. Burke, to discuss the Ebonics debate, this article demonstrates that conversations about education, particularly writing instruction, have adopted a market rhetoric that limits teachers' agency. However, reappropriation of this market rhetoric can help writing teachers to imagine and…

  9. Applications of Computer Technology in Intercollegiate Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Jack, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Focusing on how computers can and should be used in intercollegiate forensics, this journal issue offers the perspectives of a number of forensics instructors. The lead article, "Applications of Computer Technology in Intercollegiate Debate" by Theodore F. Sheckels, Jr., discusses five areas in which forensics educators might use computer…

  10. Reclaiming the Moral in the Dispositions Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burant, Terry J.; Chubbuck, Sharon M.; Whipp, Joan L.

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the current debates about the definition and assessment of dispositions in teacher education. Competing perspectives on the definitions and assessment of dispositions in teacher education are examined and critiqued, and a renewed commitment to foregrounding the moral nature of teaching is suggested. Recommendations for…

  11. Twitter Gets Favorited in the Education Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supovitz, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The author describes how the interactive study of social media's effect on the Common Core debate was designed and executed. Important findings from the study were: 1) We live in an increasingly interconnected social world. 2) Media has evolved over the last half century from a passive system dominated by a few central opinion makers to the…

  12. Is Dance a Sport?: A Twenty-First-Century Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a new debate which has emerged for dancers. For many years dancers debated dance as art versus entertainment. This age-old debate still exists without a consensus, yet there is suddenly a new generation of dancers with a fresh debate. Legions of young performers are fervently proclaiming that their dance is actually a sport.…

  13. Taking CEDA Debaters Out of the Normal Tournament Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Pamela

    Debate educators have been concerned about the disadvantages of tournament debating. While student debaters have learned critical thinking, research, writing, public speaking, and other skills, some former participants feel the experience left them too argumentative generally. Some scholars favor moving away from formal debating contests. A…

  14. Academic Debate Paradigms: An Examination from a Rules Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himes, Kenneth G.

    Debate paradigms, which at one time established standards to help judges evaluate arguments and rules to guide debaters' argument choice and strategy selection, no longer offer consistent guidance for either judges or debaters. An increased emphasis on creativity and flexibility has led to a general unwillingness to use a rigid debate format. The…

  15. Effects of the Bush/Ferraro Debate on Candidate Characterization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Keith R.

    A study was conducted to determine the cognitive effects on viewers of the debate between vice-presidential candidates George Bush and Geraldine Ferraro. Adult passengers (N=468) on the Washington State ferries were interviewed, 191 before the debate and 277 afterward. Of those interviewed after the debate, 168 reported watching the debate and 108…

  16. Is Dance a Sport?: A Twenty-First-Century Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a new debate which has emerged for dancers. For many years dancers debated dance as art versus entertainment. This age-old debate still exists without a consensus, yet there is suddenly a new generation of dancers with a fresh debate. Legions of young performers are fervently proclaiming that their dance is actually a sport.…

  17. Academic Debate Paradigms: An Examination from a Rules Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himes, Kenneth G.

    Debate paradigms, which at one time established standards to help judges evaluate arguments and rules to guide debaters' argument choice and strategy selection, no longer offer consistent guidance for either judges or debaters. An increased emphasis on creativity and flexibility has led to a general unwillingness to use a rigid debate format. The…

  18. Ethical debates: enhancing critical thinking in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Candela, Lori; Michael, Susan Rush; Mitchell, Shae

    2003-01-01

    The use of classroom debates can be helpful in teaching ethical content that is often nebulous and difficult for students to comprehend and apply. Debates enhance critical thinking skills through researching issues and developing a stance that can be supported in scientific literature. The authors describe a student debate project involving ethical issues with chronically ill clients. Many students changed their views during the debates. Students evaluated the debates as a positive learning experience.

  19. Debatable issues in automated ECG reporting.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Peter W; Mason, Jay W; Kligfield, Paul; Sommargren, Claire E; Drew, Barbara; van Dam, Peter; Abächerli, Roger; Albert, David E; Hodges, Morrison

    2017-09-01

    Although automated ECG analysis has been available for many years, there are some aspects which require to be re-assessed with respect to their value while newer techniques which are worthy of review are beginning to find their way into routine use. At the annual International Society of Computerized Electrocardiology conference held in April 2017, four areas in particular were debated. These were a) automated 12 lead resting ECG analysis; b) real time out of hospital ECG monitoring; c) ECG imaging; and d) single channel ECG rhythm interpretation. One speaker presented the positive aspects of each technique and another outlined the more negative aspects. Debate ensued. There were many positives set out for each technique but equally, more negative features were not in short supply, particularly for out of hospital ECG monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. NORMAL HUMAN VARIATION: REFOCUSSING THE ENHANCEMENT DEBATE

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This article draws attention to several common mistakes in thinking about biomedical enhancement, mistakes that are made even by some supporters of enhancement. We illustrate these mistakes by examining objections that John Harris has recently raised against the use of pharmacological interventions to directly modulate moral decision-making. We then apply these lessons to other influential figures in the debate about enhancement. One upshot of our argument is that many considerations presented as powerful objections to enhancement are really strong considerations in favour of biomedical enhancement, just in a different direction. Another upshot is that it is unfortunate that much of the current debate focuses on interventions that will radically transform normal human capacities. Such interventions are unlikely to be available in the near future, and may not even be feasible. But our argument shows that the enhancement project can still have a radical impact on human life even if biomedical enhancement operated entirely within the normal human range. PMID:23906367

  1. Quantitative and qualitative research: beyond the debate.

    PubMed

    Gelo, Omar; Braakmann, Diana; Benetka, Gerhard

    2008-09-01

    Psychology has been a highly quantitative field since its conception as a science. However, a qualitative approach to psychological research has gained increasing importance in the last decades, and an enduring debate between quantitative and qualitative approaches has arisen. The recently developed Mixed Methods Research (MMR) addresses this debate by aiming to integrate quantitative and qualitative approaches. This article outlines and discusses quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research approaches with specific reference to their (1) philosophical foundations (i.e. basic sets of beliefs that ground inquiry), (2) methodological assumptions (i.e. principles and formal conditions which guide scientific investigation), and (3) research methods (i.e. concrete procedures for data collection, analysis and interpretation). We conclude that MMR may reasonably overcome the limitation of purely quantitative and purely qualitative approaches at each of these levels, providing a fruitful context for a more comprehensive psychological research.

  2. Moving research beyond the spanking debate.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, Harriet L; Mikton, Christopher R

    2017-02-26

    Despite numerous studies identifying a broad range of harms associated with the use of spanking and other types of physical punishment, debate continues about its use as a form of discipline. In this commentary, we recommend four strategies to move the field forward and beyond the spanking debate including: 1) use of methodological approaches that allow for stronger causal inference; 2) consideration of human rights issues; 3) a focus on understanding the causes of spanking and reasons for its decline in certain countries; and 4) more emphasis on evidence-based approaches to changing social norms to reject spanking as a form of discipline. Physical punishment needs to be recognized as an important public health problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Normal human variation: refocussing the enhancement debate.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-02-01

    This article draws attention to several common mistakes in thinking about biomedical enhancement, mistakes that are made even by some supporters of enhancement. We illustrate these mistakes by examining objections that John Harris has recently raised against the use of pharmacological interventions to directly modulate moral decision-making. We then apply these lessons to other influential figures in the debate about enhancement. One upshot of our argument is that many considerations presented as powerful objections to enhancement are really strong considerations in favour of biomedical enhancement, just in a different direction. Another upshot is that it is unfortunate that much of the current debate focuses on interventions that will radically transform normal human capacities. Such interventions are unlikely to be available in the near future, and may not even be feasible. But our argument shows that the enhancement project can still have a radical impact on human life even if biomedical enhancement operated entirely within the normal human range.

  4. The Lashley-Hull debate revisited.

    PubMed

    Bruce, D

    1998-02-01

    N. Weidman (1994) claimed that "Karl Lashley and Clark Hull had a long and unresolved controversy about the structure and function of the brain, its relationship to the mind, and the use of machine metaphors to explain intelligence" (p. 162). The record contained in published articles and unpublished correspondence indicates otherwise. The clash was explicitly about continuity versus noncontinuity in discrimination learning, stimulus generalization, and the development of quantitative and mathematical psychological theory and its relation to neurophysiological data. Weidman also contended that the subtext of the debate was whether heredity or environment was more important in determining intelligence and behavior. This is doubtful. It is more probable that the debate stemmed from Lashley's career-long opposition to connectionism.

  5. [Neonatal screening: trends, debates and consensus].

    PubMed

    Vailly, Joëlle

    2007-03-01

    This study focuses on the social and political implications of the substantial expansion of genetic tests and neonatal screening. The introduction of neonatal screening for cystic fibrosis is one of the significant developments that have fuelled debate on their appropriateness. It has raised a series of questions on the pros and cons, the role of evidence in biomedicine, and the articulation between the therapeutic approach and foetal selection. In this respect France provides an ideal research field as it was one of the first countries to generalize this screening, launched in January 2002. Several questions arise: What were the terms of the debate in France and their underlying logics? How was consensus reached? More generally, what does this screening tell us about policies on life forms today?

  6. Psychopathy and Personality: Advances and Debates.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R

    2015-12-01

    Nine original articles comprise this special issue of the Journal of Personality addressing personality-based perspectives of psychopathy. In this introduction to the special issue, we review five advances and areas of agreement that are highlighted across the articles, including the utility of trait perspectives to psychopathy, the emergence of a prototypical trait profile of psychopathy, the importance of recognizing earlier developmental manifestations of psychopathy, the ongoing study and revelation of the basic neural underpinnings of psychopathy, and the important theoretical and empirical association between psychopathy and antisocial behavior. At the same time, several important debates remain, which are also highlighted in the special issue's articles. These debates center around the necessity and sufficiency of certain psychopathy traits, the role of traits alternatively labeled stable Extraversion, fearless dominance, or boldness, and the validity and utility of separating psychopathy from Machiavellianism as is done in research on the Dark Triad.

  7. Patenting human genetic material: refocusing the debate

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Timothy; Gold, E. Richard; Cho, Mildred K.

    2008-01-01

    The biotechnology industry has become firmly established over the past twenty years and gene patents have played an important part in this phenomenon. However, concerns have been raised over the patentability of human genetic material, through public protests and international statements, but to little effect. Here we discuss some of these concerns, the patent authorities’ response to them, and ways in which to address these issues and to move the debate forward using current legal structures. PMID:11252752

  8. Current debates over nosology of somatoform disorders.

    PubMed

    Jana, Amlan K; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Mazumdar, Joyita

    2012-01-01

    There is a wide debate among the researchers and clinicians over the diagnostic categories subsumed under the rubric of somatoform disorders (SDs). Recent proposals vary from radical views that call for removing this category altogether to the conservative views that suggests cosmetic changes in the diagnostic criteria of SDs. We have the reviewed the relevant literature through PUBMED search supplemented with manual search on current concepts of SD.

  9. [The ethnic enclave debate: a critical review].

    PubMed

    Waldinger, R

    1993-01-01

    "With the renewal of mass immigration to the United States, large numbers of immigrants have gone into business for themselves. Research on the Cuban immigrant economy of Miami, Florida found that employment in the 'ethnic enclave' increases immigrant earnings and improves immigrants' chances of moving into self-employment. This article reviews the American debate that ensued over the 'ethnic enclave' and its causes." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  10. Intellectual property and biotechnology: the European debate.

    PubMed

    Brody, Baruch

    2007-06-01

    The European patent system allows for the introduction of moral issues into decisions about the granting of patents. This feature has greatly impacted European debates about the patenting of biotechnology. This essay explores the European experience, in both the European Union and the European Patent Organization. It argues that there has been great confusion surrounding these issues primarily because the Europeans have not developed a general theory about when exclusion from patentability is the best social mechanism for dealing with morally offensive technologies.

  11. A continued debate about hastened death.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, G A H

    2000-06-01

    Oregon's Death with Dignity Act has changed the nature of the discussion and debate surrounding hastened death. After considering how the Act has been implemented, the clinical, policy, and research implications of physician-assisted suicide or physician-assisted death are introduced. This brief article, and the special theme issue of Psychology, Public Policy, and the Law, present the opposing viewpoints on this issue.

  12. Venezuelan political debate focuses on Pdvsa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-14

    This paper reports that another political firestorm has flared over Venezuelan petroleum sector investment. Statements by Venezuela's President Carlos Andres Perez who has provoked a new political debate over oil affairs in Venezuela. Commenting on Pdvsa's overseas interests, it has been ordered that the state oil company to sell part of its shares in Citgo Petroleum Corp., Tulsa, and Ruhr Oel GmbH, a joint venture with Veba Oel AG, Gelsenkirchen.

  13. Four themes in recent Swedish bioethics debates.

    PubMed

    Helgesson, Gert; Eriksson, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    A wide variety of bioethical themes have recently been debated and researched in Sweden, including genetic screening, HPV vaccination strategies, end-of-life care, injustices and priority setting in healthcare, dual-use research, and the never-ending story of scientific fraud. Also, there are some new events related to Swedish biobanking that might be of general interest. Here we will concentrate on four themes: end-of-life care, dual-use research, scientific fraud, and biobanking.

  14. Closed Circuit TV Debate Bridges the Gap Between Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Robert D.; Richardson, Ken J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes how two elementary teachers used closed circuit television to promote debate skills among their students. The topic debated was the right of teachers and principals to search a student's desk if a suspicious situation exists. (JDH)

  15. Catholic options in the abortion debate.

    PubMed

    Maguire, D C

    1990-01-01

    The little-known Roman Catholic theological doctrine of probabilism, an ethical system explicated in all manuals of moral theology, is explained using as an example the dilemma of abortion. Probabilism is based on the notion that a doubtful moral obligation may not be imposed as though it were certain. "Ubi dubium, ibi libertas," means where there is doubt, there is freedom. There are 2 types of moral probability, intrinsic probability, where the individual, without the help of moral theologians, perceives the inapplicability of a particular moral teaching; and extrinsic probability, which involves reliance on the findings of 5 or 6 reputable moral theologians, who may hold a liberal view. Probabilism implies a reasonable doubt, and one's reasons must be cogent, but not necessarily conclusive. Today's abortion debate is an example of a respectable debate, where the liberal view has been endorsed by a number of reputable religious or other humanitarian bodies that in some cases abortion is not always immoral. Other examples in history are the view once taught by the church that taking interest on loans was immoral, that depriving slaves and women of civil rights on non-Catholics of religious or political freedom was moral. For today's legislators, there is a precedent throughout theological history for the state permitting an evil: both St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas wrote that prostitution, although evil, should not be outlawed, because worse evils would occur with prohibition. Legislators who personally find abortion always immoral can support a Roe V. Wade decision because 1) it does not require anyone to have an abortion, and 2) the abortion debate, among Catholics, and non-Catholics is not settled.

  16. "Moral Realism" and Justness in War in Gregory of Tours'"Historia Francorum".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Burnam W.

    1982-01-01

    Examines how the concept of justness influenced the conduct of wars in the early Middle Ages. The author offers a new interpretation of Gregory of Tours' perspective on war as found in his "Historia Francorum." (AM)

  17. "Moral Realism" and Justness in War in Gregory of Tours'"Historia Francorum".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Burnam W.

    1982-01-01

    Examines how the concept of justness influenced the conduct of wars in the early Middle Ages. The author offers a new interpretation of Gregory of Tours' perspective on war as found in his "Historia Francorum." (AM)

  18. Debating Organ Procurement Policy Without Illusions.

    PubMed

    Hippen, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    In this perspective, I review and critique claims that the transplant waiting list overstates the demand for kidneys and correct a few mischaracterizations of some structural barriers to increasing rates of transplantation. The solutions to the shortage of organs proffered by opponents of financial incentives fail to account for a panoply of clinical, regulatory, and financial realities of transplantation centers in the United States in ways that undermine the thesis that a trial of financial incentives for organ procurement is not warranted at this time. I conclude with some personal pessimistic reflections on the progress of this debate.

  19. Debating the biological reality of modelling preservation.

    PubMed

    ter, Steeg P F; Ueckert, J E

    2002-03-01

    Predictive food microbiology is a rapidly developing science and has made great advances. The aim is to debate a number of issues in modelling preservation: (1) inoculum and prehistory effects on lag times and process susceptibility; (2) mechanistic vs. empirical modelling; and (3) concluding remarks (the Species concept, methodology and biovariability). Increasing the awareness in these issues may bridge the gap between the complex reality in food microbial physiology and the application potential of predictive models. The challenge of bringing integrated preservation or risk analysis further and developing ways to truly model and link biological susceptibility distributions from raw ingredients via process survival to outgrowth probabilities in the final product remains.

  20. Great debate probes Pluto's planetary credentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-09-01

    It had all the trappings of an Olympic boxing final: two fiery competitors, a partisan crowd and the attention of the global press. But no individual gold medalist emerged from the Great Planet Debate held last month in Baltimore to discuss what type of astronomical object Pluto really is. Rather, the contest between Neil de-Grasse Tyson, director of New York's Hayden Planetarium, and Mark Sykes of the University of Arizona's Planetary Science Institute provided a view of how science deals with controversial issues of definition.

  1. Pedagogical Possibilities for Argumentative Agency in Academic Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Gordon R.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the promises and pitfalls of primary research, public debate, debate outreach, and public advocacy as specific modes of debate activism designed to cultivate argumentative agency and bring argumentation skills to bear in wider spheres of public deliberation beyond the academy. (CR)

  2. The Dewey-Hutchins Debate: A Dispute over Moral Teleology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, James Scott

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, James Scott Johnston claims that a dispute over moral teleology lies at the basis of the debate between John Dewey and Robert M. Hutchins. This debate has very often been cast in terms of perennialism, classicism, or realism versus progressivism, experimentalism, or pragmatism. Unfortunately, casting the debate in these terms…

  3. Some Thoughts on Anthony Bruton's Critique of the Correction Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper, Anthony Bruton argued that correction receives too much attention and that the debate over it (which he calls "the Truscott debate") is "a rather tedious sterile academic debate" that has harmed the field. He dismissed the case against correction, based on arguments that uncorrected students do not improve, some general…

  4. The Dark Side of Debate: The Downfall of Interpersonal Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Ann; Olson, Clark D.

    Debaters are trained to think differently from others, and while that type of thinking might be useful, it can be detrimental to interpersonal relationships. Participation in debate creates a unique standpoint, which, in turn, plays havoc with a debater's ability to cope with uncertainty, encourages second-guessing, impedes rather than fosters…

  5. The Dewey-Hutchins Debate: A Dispute over Moral Teleology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, James Scott

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, James Scott Johnston claims that a dispute over moral teleology lies at the basis of the debate between John Dewey and Robert M. Hutchins. This debate has very often been cast in terms of perennialism, classicism, or realism versus progressivism, experimentalism, or pragmatism. Unfortunately, casting the debate in these terms…

  6. Assigned Positions for In-Class Debates Influence Student Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Emily

    2012-01-01

    In-class debates are frequently used to encourage student engagement. Ideally, after researching both sides of the debate, students will form their own opinions based on what they have learned. However, in a large course of Environmental Science, opinions of students, when surveyed after the debate, were remarkably consistent with the position…

  7. The Thrill Is Gone: Rediscovering Pathos and Style in Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallmon, James M.

    This is a polemic on the need to rehumanize collegiate debate. Viewed as a reform movement insofar as its primary concern is to revitalize public debate, the National Education Debate Association (NEDA) ought to be mindful of the ethical implications of its aims in the same way that a repairman fixes what is broken: by concentrating, not on the…

  8. Organizing a Congressional Candidate Debate as Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeckelman, Keith; Deitz, Janna L.; Hardy, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a political debate among congressional candidates that the authors organized in 2006. The debate was structured to maximize student involvement both in the planning stages and during the event itself. After discussing relevant literature on experiential learning, the article describes the debate format and details the issues…

  9. Debate and Dissent in Late Tokugawa and Meiji Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branham, Robert James

    1994-01-01

    Argues that debate is not antithetical to Japanese culture and that Japan has indigenous traditions of argument and debate. Outlines the Japanese tradition of argumentation prior to the "opening to the West" in 1853. Suggests a more expansive model of debate as appropriate to cross-cultural analysis. (HB)

  10. Is It Too Late To Save Policy Debate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbeck, Dale A.

    National Debate Tournament (NDT) policy debate is in a state of crisis, suffering a steady and precipitous drop in participation. This decline is due not to external factors, but rather to problems and abuses unique to NDT policy debate. Its demise reflects a much broader problem, the abrogation of intellectual leadership in the activity. Coaches…

  11. An Empirical Analysis of the Value Debate Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Brenda J.; Verch, Stephen L.

    A survey was conducted of students participating in the 1982 Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) tournament to uncover the reasons why they were competing in CEDA, whether they had ever participated in the National Debate Tournament (NDT), and which style of debate they preferred. Of the 133 respondents, 83 males and 50 females, 42%…

  12. The Story of California. Teacher's Guide = Guia del Maestro de La Historia de California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray (Naomi) Associates, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    The teacher's guide is designed to accompany "The Story of California," a Spanish-English bilingual history and geography of the state intended for classroom use by limited-English-proficient, native Spanish-speaking students in California's urban middle schools. The guide describes classroom activities coordinated with the student's…

  13. The Story of California. Teacher's Guide = Guia del Maestro de La Historia de California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray (Naomi) Associates, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    The teacher's guide is designed to accompany "The Story of California," a Spanish-English bilingual history and geography of the state intended for classroom use by limited-English-proficient, native Spanish-speaking students in California's urban middle schools. The guide describes classroom activities coordinated with the student's…

  14. Debates about assisted suicide in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Sandra; La Harpe, Romano

    2012-12-01

    Assisted suicide is allowed in 3 states of the United States (Oregon, Washington, Montana) but only if performed by a physician.On the opposite, in Switzerland, at the beginning of the 20th century, the Swiss Penal Code referred to assisted suicide in the context of honor or an unhappy love affair. It was only in 1985 that Exit Deutsche Schweiz (Exit for German-speaking Switzerland) "medically" assisted the first patient to end his life.Even if authorized by the Swiss law upon certain conditions, assisted suicide is subject to debates for ethical reasons. The Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences described directives to guide physicians on this difficult subject.Different studies showed an increase in the number of medical-assisted suicide in Switzerland since the 1990s. Now, this number seems to be quite stable. Assisted suicide is authorized in a few hospitals under strict conditions (especially when returning home is impossible).Thus, according to the Swiss law, any person could perform assisted suicide; this is essentially performed by 3 main associations, using pentobarbital on medical prescription as lethal substance.Generally speaking, the Swiss population is rather in favor of assisted suicide. Among politics, the debate has been tough until 2010, when the Federal Council decided not to modify the Swiss Penal Code concerning assisted suicide.

  15. Genetic advances require comprehensive bioethical debate.

    PubMed

    ten Have, Henk A M J

    2003-10-01

    In the popular media and scientific literature, the idea of medical utopia seems to have been revived. Medical science and technology are expected to provide solutions for all kinds of daily problems in human existence. The utopian context and optimistic atmosphere are influencing deeply the bio-ethical debate concerning bio-molecular technologies. They a priori direct this debate towards individual perspectives, emphasizing the benefits among which an autonomous person can make his or her choice, and towards practical applications the potential beneficial effects of which are almost there. It is argued that the concept of "geneticization" is useful for the analysis of the interrelations between genetics, medicine, society, and culture. This concept focuses on conceptual issues--the use of genetic vocabulary to define problems; institutional issues--the emergence of bio-ethics experts; cultural issues--the transformation of individual and social attitudes under the influence of genetic knowledge and technology; and philosophical issues--changing views of human identity, interpersonal relationships, and individual responsibility.

  16. The labeling debate in the United States.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Gary E; Cardineau, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    The mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) food has become the predominant policy issue concerning biotechnology in the United States. The controversy over GM labeling is being debated at several different levels and branches of government. At the federal level, the Food and Drug Administration, which has primary jurisdiction over food safety and labeling, has steadfastly refused to require labeling of GM foods since 1992 based on its conclusion that GM foods as a category present no unique or higher risks than other foods. Proposed legislation has been repeatedly introduced in the US. Congress over the years to mandate GM labeling, but has made very little progress. With federal labeling requirements apparently stalled, the main activity has switched to the state level, where numerous individual states are considering mandatory GM labeling, either through legislation or proposition. The debate over GM labeling, at both the federal and state levels, has focused on five issues: (1) public opinion; (2) the legality of labeling requirements; (3) the risks and benefits of GM foods; (4) the costs and burdens of GM labeling; and (5) consumer choice. While the pro-labeling forces argue that all of these factors weigh in favor of mandatory GM labeling, a more careful evaluation of the evidence finds that all five factors weigh decisively against mandatory GM labeling requirements.

  17. The great health policy debate of 2010.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E

    1996-01-01

    Moderator: Good evening. Tonight I will be moderating a debate on the Health Care System Salvage and Coverage Overhaul Act of 2010 (Senate Bill 1, with companion legislation in the House). The bill is awaiting final congressional action, and the issue is considered so important that all 14 major television networks are carrying this debate live, along with many radio networks and at least 1,873 Internet/World Wide Web sites. As you know, S.B. 1 would provide immediate federal aid to the 1,000 hospitals and health care systems that are currently in bankruptcy; extend government-subsidized coverage to the estimated 90 million Americans who lack it; return to the federal government a wide range of health care regulatory and payment activities that had been transferred to the states; and prohibit certain types of health care enterprises and services, chiefly proprietary delivery and managed care systems. At the moment, the chances of its passage are too close to call. Arguments in support of S.B. 1 will be presented tonight by Sen. Joseph P. Kennedy II, Democrat of Massachusetts; arguments in opposition to the bill will be presented by Sen. George W. Bush, Republican of Texas; and the view of the Independent Party will be presented by former Kansas Senator Nancy Kassebaum, who also speaks as chairman of the National Nonpartisan Commission to Save American Health Care. Senator Kennedy will begin.

  18. The Renaissance of Educational Debate: Results of a Five-Year Study of the Use of Debate in Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Howard W.; Bourne, S. Graham

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the history and benefits of debating as an educational technique, then discusses a five-year study of the use of student debates in a senior-level college marketing course. Students reported that debates both enhanced their learning and improved their speaking skills. (MDM)

  19. The role of background behavior in televised debates: does displaying nonverbal agreement and/or disagreement benefit either debater?

    PubMed

    Seiter, John S; Weger, Harry; Jensen, Andrea; Kinzer, Harold J

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of background nonverbal behavior displayed with the purpose of undermining one's opponent in televised debates. Students watched one of four versions of a televised debate. In each, while the speaking debater appeared on the main screen, subscreens displayed her nonspeaking opponent's background nonverbal behavior. In one version, the non-speaking debater remained "stone faced" during her opponent's speech, while in the other three she nonverbally displayed occasional disagreement, nearly constant disagreement, or both agreement and disagreement. After viewing the debates, students rated the debaters' credibility, appropriateness, objectivity, and debate skills, in addition to judging who won the debate. Analysis indicated that background nonverbal behavior influenced audience perceptions of debaters' credibility, appropriateness, objectivity, debate skill, and the extent to which the debate was won. These results suggest that adding nonverbal agreement to expressions of nonverbal disagreement do not reduce the negative impacts of communicating disagreement nonverbally during an opponent's speech and may in fact further decrease the audiences' perception of a debater's credibility and overall performance.

  20. Urban Debate and High School Educational Outcomes for African American Males: The Case of the Chicago Debate League

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezuk, Briana

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether participating in competitive policy debate influences high school completion, academic achievement, and college readiness for African American male students. The analysis examines data from the Chicago Debate League from 1997 to 2006. Debate participants were 70% more likely to graduate and three times less likely to…

  1. The "Ad Circulorum" Fallacy and Comparative Advantage Debating or: Why Don't Debate Cases Make Sense to Outside Listeners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Larry S.

    Circular reasoning is often employed in comparative advantage debate cases when only a plan and advantages are articulated without adequate reference to the resolution which inspired the proposal. The advancing of such subtopical analyses as debate cases is deleterious to the long-range interests of educational debate because the practice…

  2. Broadening the Debate: Comments on Michael J. Feuer's "Moderating the Debate"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Emily

    2009-01-01

    In "Moderating the Debate: Rationality and the Promise of American Education", Michael Feuer argues that insights from cognitive science and the theory of bounded rationality can help us understand why educational policy makers overreach in seeking optimal solutions to educational problems. In this essay, Emily Robertson argues that cognitive…

  3. The Effects of Pre-Debate Training on Viewers' Perceptions and Evaluations of Presidential Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Bertram W.; Laux, James L.

    A study examined the effects of training in argumentation and of initial candidate preference on perceptions and evaluations of presidential candidate debates. Subjects, 490 undergraduate speech communication students, were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions--control (no training), criteria only, and criteria plus explanations for…

  4. How Much Should the Words of a Debate Proposition Predetermine the Debate Subject Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeley, Austin J.

    The committee that phrases the proposition for the national intercollegiate debates has a reasonably clear interpretation in mind when they phrase it. The next party to attempt to determine what the words of the resolution really mean is the affirmative team, which has a propensity to write a "squirrel" case that in one instance will find the…

  5. How Much Should the Words of a Debate Proposition Predetermine the Debate Subject Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeley, Austin J.

    The committee that phrases the proposition for the national intercollegiate debates has a reasonably clear interpretation in mind when they phrase it. The next party to attempt to determine what the words of the resolution really mean is the affirmative team, which has a propensity to write a "squirrel" case that in one instance will find the…

  6. Online debates to enhance critical thinking in pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Charrois, Theresa L; Appleton, Michelle

    2013-10-14

    To assess the impact of teaching strategies on the complexity and structure of students' arguments and type of informal reasoning used in arguments. Students were given an introduction to argumentation followed by 2 formal debates, with feedback provided in between. Four debate groups were randomly selected for evaluation. In debate 1, all groups posted 1 argument, and all 4 arguments were rationalistic and ranked as high-level arguments. In debate 2, members of the 4 groups posted a total of 33 arguments, which were evaluated and received an overall median ranking lower than that for debate 1. All debates were categorized as rationalistic. Students were able to formulate rationalistic arguments to therapeutic controversies; however, their level of argumentation decreased over the course of the study. Changes planned for the future include conducting the debates in the context of patient scenarios to increase practical applicability.

  7. The not-for-profit debate.

    PubMed

    Kobylus, K

    1992-07-01

    Across the country, not-for-profit hospitals are being subjected to unprecedented scrutiny. From local school boards to the Internal Revenue Service, government entities are challenging tax-exempt status. Some financially pressed states and cities are eyeing these hospitals as sources of additional revenue. Other entities want to see tax policy drive social policy by promoting more charity care. Tax-exempt status also is under fire from consumers and legislators. In the wake of the competitive '80s, many people perceive non-profit hospitals as behaving more like businesses than charities. Or, as attorney Brian W. FitzSimons recently wrote in Trustee, they suspect "the fund-raising tail is wagging the medical care dog." The standards for granting tax-exempt status have come under intense examination from all levels. Congress, the IRS, consumers, state legislators and judges, local tax authorities, the Texas attorney general and non-profit hospitals themselves have all joined in the debate.

  8. Antarctic “quiet” site stirs debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists from the United States and New Zealand plan to meet in the coming months to assess the electromagnetic pollution of an Antarctic site especially designated for research. U.S. scientists charge that a satellite Earth station erected apparently inside the preserve by New Zealand's Telecom company could interfere with experiments on the ionosphere and magnetosphere (Eos, April 28, 1992). The Site of Special Scientific Interest at Arrival Heights, the only Antarctic preserve specifically for physical science, is located near the U.S. McMurdo and New Zealand Scott bases.Debate over the Telecom facility inter-twines diplomatic and scientific issues. One question is whether the station violates the Antarctic treaty. Secondly, does it actually impair research at the site—or could it harm future experiments? To deepen the imbroglio, those involved from both nations say that transmissions from sources off-site also interfere with research—raising doubts about how pristine the site really is.

  9. Debating Water Fluoridation Before Dr. Strangelove.

    PubMed

    Carstairs, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    In the 1930s, scientists learned that small amounts of fluoride naturally occurring in water could protect teeth from decay, and the idea of artificially adding fluoride to public water supplies to achieve the same effect arose. In the 1940s and early 1950s, a number of studies were completed to determine whether fluoride could have harmful effects. The research suggested that the possibility of harm was small. In the early 1950s, Canadian and US medical, dental, and public health bodies all endorsed water fluoridation. I argue in this article that some early concerns about the toxicity of fluoride were put aside as evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of water fluoridation mounted and as the opposition was taken over by people with little standing in the scientific, medical, and dental communities. The sense of optimism that infused postwar science and the desire of dentists to have a magic bullet that could wipe out tooth decay also affected the scientific debate.

  10. [A Parliament debate regarding a scientific study].

    PubMed

    Cervino, Marco; Mangia, Cristina; Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca

    2015-01-01

    Publishing studies on the relationship between health and pollution provokes reactions and interest in the public opinion involved, the highest national institutions included. This commentary, aroused by a parliamentary debate, which also concerned one of our recent scientific papers published on Environmental Research about the association between congenital anomalies and maternal exposure to atmospheric pollutants in Brindisi (Apulia Region, Southern Italy), aims at contributing to reply the following questions: the type and quality of the data used in the estimates of exposure must be certified by institutional bodies? Adverse health effects in people exposed to pollutants at levels below the law limits can be excluded? Finally, we draw some remarks on measures to protect public health and on the relationship between the work of the researchers of public institutes and administrations.

  11. [Drug use in the public health debate].

    PubMed

    Tirado-Otálvaro, Andrés Felipe

    2016-07-21

    This article addresses illegal drug use within the current debate in traditional public health and in proposals from Latin America, while emphasizing the need to approach the issue from an alternative public health perspective centered on individual users, groups, and social movements as protagonists. This counterhegemonic approach thus aims to orient the discussion on the need for inclusive and democratic public policies. Illegal drug use has been addressed from various perspectives: clinical medicine, viewing it as a problem that generates mental disorders and infectious diseases, both through risky sexual practices and/or use of injecting paraphernalia; from a legal perspective, as a problem related to delinquency; and according to traditional public health, as a problem that generates school dropout and work absenteeism and increases the demand on health services, in addition to increasing violence and death. However, not all forms of drug consumption involve problematic use, nor do they all trigger disorders related to substance use.

  12. Bioethics in Germany: debates and infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lanzerath, Dirk

    2004-01-01

    In Germany the public awareness on ethical problems of the application of medicine and life sciences on human beings is very high. It can be observed that German Society is rather sensitive concerning bioethical issues. Politics supports this attitude. Many articles in professional journals as well as in newspapers cover bioethical issues. Conferences and workshops on a professional and an educational level deal with topics on ethics of life sciences and ethics in general. Moreover, in the case of bioethics many different disciplines contribute with relevant considerations to the process of opinion and judgment formation. This paper summarizes the main ethical and legal debates on bioethical issues in Germany, specifies the focus of leading German centres of bioethics and biolaw, and explains the tasks, services and networking of the German Reference Centre for Ethics in the Life Sciences (DRZE) which was founded by the Federal Government.

  13. Debating restrictions on embryonic stem cell research.

    PubMed

    McClain, Colleen

    2009-09-01

    This study investigates the emotional and behavioral effects of interpersonal online communication, focusing on the controversy surrounding the loosening of restrictions on human embryonic stem cell research. The issue, central to national and statewide elections in 2008, generated heated debate among candidates and voters and evoked strong emotional sentiments among partisans. Using the theory of affective intelligence, this study proposes a predictive model connecting levels of enthusiasm and anxiety with behavioral and information-seeking outcomes. Cognitive appraisal theory is also employed to provide a role for political emotion in accounting for interactive media effects. To investigate the ways that online deliberation may influence discussions surrounding stem cell research, a between-subjects experimental study was conducted that systematically varied the tone of feedback received (reinforcing or challenging) and type of interaction (synchronous or asynchronous) experienced by users. Results indicate that emotional responses play a significant role in predicting behavioral intentions arising from the user-to-user interactive experience.

  14. [The gender debate from the pedagogic perspective].

    PubMed

    Forster, Johanna

    2004-09-01

    The question of form and extent of biological and/or cultural influences on female and male behaviour and performance is marking a major focus in present scientific research. Accordingly, a broad spectrum of approaches in research and interpretations of results is available. The recent debate on sex and gender is offering two basic objectives for research in education science: First, the critical review of the data and results on sex specifics presented in respect to the articulation of educational aims, topics and methods. Second, the intensified research focus on the developmental consequences of gender and gender roles for boys and girls, women and men. The pedagogical focus is discussed regarding the following three objectives: 1. developmental conditions in early ontogeny, 2. the question of sex specific differences in cognitive abilities in respect to school performance of adolescents, and 3. teaching knowledge on "sex" and "gender" in schools.

  15. The great brain versus vein debate.

    PubMed

    Menon, Ravi S

    2012-08-15

    From the earliest fMRI experiments, it was quickly appreciated by those working with BOLD at high field that the signal change originated from visible veins whose spatial localization was relatively coarse ("the macrovasculature"), and smaller vessels ("the microvasculature") that were not individually visible in BOLD images. It was expected that a functional brain imaging technique that was predominantly sensitive to the macrovasculature would not have the same effective resolution as one sensitive to the microvasculature. Elimination of the venous signal and enhancement of the microvascular one offered the tantalizing ability to image columnar and lamellar structures in the brain and distinguished fMRI from its predecessor techniques. This article reviews a brief history of how these signal sources were first identified and separated and some of the controversy associated with the "brain versus vein" debate.

  16. [Mammogram screening: an on-going debate].

    PubMed

    García Vivar, Cristina

    2005-04-01

    General public mamma-gram screening programs directed at women aged from 50 to 65 years are a common practice in Spain and other European countries. After more than ten years being recognized as early detection programs for breast cancer A debate has opened about the effectiveness of mamma-gram screening to reduce the number of deaths due to this type of tumor. The author includes a wide bibliography and various data bases such as MEDLINE: 1989-2003, CANCERLIT: 1975-2002, CINAHL: 1982-2003, and EMBASE: 1988-2003; and realizes it is not simple to justify mamma-gram screening since there is a great diversity of opinion in medical literature.

  17. Nuclear winter: the continuing debate. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Nida, A.V.

    1987-03-23

    This essay examines the debate over the climatic consequences of global nuclear war as related in the so-called Nuclear Winter hypothesis. This review examines the major components of the theory and traces development of the scientific knowledge leading to a second phase of the controversy two years after the first hypothesis. The conclusions of the essay are that the original nuclear winter findings have been altered by later scientific study and, therefore, the political conclusions drawn by Carl Sagan in 1983 can no longer be supported by theory or facts. Continued use of the Crutzen-Birks (Ambio, 1982) and TTAPS (Science, December 1983) studies worst-case evidence from NCAR (Foreign Affairs, Summer 86) represents selective science. Arguing for strategic policy changes based on nuclear winter risks constitutes anti-nuclear rhetoric and not scientific reasoning.

  18. The debate over robotics in benign gynecology.

    PubMed

    Rardin, Charles R

    2014-05-01

    The debate over the role of the da Vinci surgical robotic platform in benign gynecology is raging with increasing fervor and, as product liability issues arise, greater financial stakes. Although the best currently available science suggests that, in the hands of experts, robotics offers little in surgical advantage over laparoscopy, at increased expense, the observed decrease in laparotomy for hysterectomy is almost certainly, at least in part, attributable to the availability of the robot. In this author's opinion, the issue is not whether the robot has any role but rather to define the role in an institutional environment that also supports the safe use of vaginal and laparoscopic approaches in an integrated minimally invasive surgery program. Programs engaging robotic surgery should have a clear and self-determined regulatory process and should resist pressures in place that may preferentially support robotics over other forms of minimally invasive surgery. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Debating Race, Race-ing Debate: An Extended Ethnographic Case Study of Black Intellectual Insurgency in U.S. Intercollegiate Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, David Kent

    2014-01-01

    The following study is an extended ethnographic case study of a "black intellectual insurgency" within the predominantly white space of the U.S. intercollegiate policy debate activity. A growing number of black students are entering the debate activity and insisting that "whiteness" be confronted and interrogated and that…

  1. Debating Race, Race-ing Debate: An Extended Ethnographic Case Study of Black Intellectual Insurgency in U.S. Intercollegiate Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, David Kent

    2014-01-01

    The following study is an extended ethnographic case study of a "black intellectual insurgency" within the predominantly white space of the U.S. intercollegiate policy debate activity. A growing number of black students are entering the debate activity and insisting that "whiteness" be confronted and interrogated and that…

  2. Debating space security: Capabilities and vulnerabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Jaganath

    The U.S. position in the debate on space security has been that (1) space-based systems could be developed and used to obtain decisive warfighting superiority over an adversary, and (2) these space-based systems, because they might give such an inordinate advantage over any adversary, will be attacked. The Russians and Chinese, in contrast, claim to be threatened by U.S. aspirations in space but deny that they pose a serious threat to U.S. space-based systems. They view the development of advanced military space systems by the United States as evidence of a growing gap of military capabilities limited only by technological—not political—constraints. They argue that U.S. missile defense systems operating in coordination with advanced satellite sensors would weaken their nuclear retaliatory potential. This dissertation argues that the positions held by both of these parties are more extreme than warranted. An analytical evaluation quickly narrows the touted capabilities and assumed vulnerabilities of space systems to a much smaller set of concerns that can be addressed by collaboration. Chapter 2: Operationally Responsive Space (ORS): Is 24/7 Warfighter Support Feasible? demonstrates the infeasibility of dramatically increasing U.S. warfighting superiority by using satellites. Chapter 3: What Can be Achieved by Attacking Satellites? makes the case that although U.S. armed forces rely extensively on its satellite infrastructure, that does not immediately make them desirable targets. The functions performed by military satellites are diffused among large constellations with redundancies. Also, some of the functions performed by these satellites can be substituted for by other terrestrial and aerial systems. Chapter 4: The Limits of Chinese Anti-Satellite Missiles demonstrates that anti-satellite (ASAT) intercepts are very complex under realistic conditions and that a potential adversary with space capabilities comparable to China's has very limited capability to

  3. Using Debate to Teach Pharmacy Students About Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Lezley-Anne; Barry, Johanne; Donnelly, Ryan; Hughes, Fiona; Jones, David; Laverty, Garry; Parsons, Carole; Ryan, Cristin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To create, implement, and evaluate debate as a method of teaching pharmacy undergraduate students about ethical issues. Design. Debate workshops with 5 hours of contact with student peers and facilitators and 5 hours of self-study were developed for second-year pharmacy students. Student development of various skills and understanding of the topic were assessed by staff members and student peers. Assessment. One hundred fifty students completed the workshops. The mean score for debating was 25.9 out of 30, with scores ranging from 23.2 to 28.7. Seventy percent of students agreed that the debates were a useful teaching method in the degree program. Conclusion. A series of workshops using debates effectively delivered course content on ethical issues and resulted in pharmacy students developing skills such as teamwork, peer assessment, communication, and critical evaluation. These findings suggest that pharmacy students respond favorably to a program using debates as a teaching tool. PMID:24761018

  4. Dobzhansky and Montagu's Debate on Race: The Aftermath.

    PubMed

    Farber, Paul Lawrence

    2016-12-01

    Dobzhansky and Montagu debated the use and validity of the term "race" over a period of decades. They failed to reach an agreement, and the "debate" has continued to the present. The ms contains an account of the debate to the present. This essay is part of a Special Issue, Revisiting Garland Allen's Views on the History of the Life Sciences in the Twentieth Century.

  5. [The debate about the right to die].

    PubMed

    Beca, Juan Pablo; Ortiz, Armando; Solar, Sebastián

    2005-05-01

    The Right to Die is a debatable issue and some basic notions need to be clarified to discuss it. Death needs to be recognized as part of human life. The goal of medicine is to avoid pain and alleviate suffering, to prevent premature death and when this is not possible, to let it occur peacefully. The concept of euthanasia is unclear, which increases the confusion on end-of-life topics. The term euthanasia should be used only when referring to medical acts performed to produce the patient's death, with the intention of terminating his/her suffering. It is what is usually called "active" euthanasia, which can be voluntary or involuntary. It is essential to understand the difference between producing and allowing death. This will permit timely decisions about limiting or withdrawing treatments, that can be disproportionate or that are only prolonging suffering. Limiting treatments does not mean to abandon the patient but rather to redefine his needs, such as pain treatment, prevention of complications, and relief of suffering. The ethic rationale for these decisions is the respect to the dignity of human life, and the estimation of proportionality or futility of each treatment. The physician's duty with the patient at the end of his life is to assist him in dying according to his values and to minimize his distress.

  6. The conscientious objection: debate on emergency contraception.

    PubMed

    Montanari Vergallo, G; Zaami, S; Di Luca, N M; Marinelli, E

    2017-01-01

    The authors discuss the emergency contraception (EC) topic, assessing scientific and ethical aspects. The almost totality of the studies carried out tends to report on the use of drugs as an emergency measure to prevent pregnancy. However, it is not yet completely excluded that emergency contraceptives can induce medical abortion. The debate on side effects of EC continues to be a highly emotional and controversial issue both for advocates who believe they will lower considerably the number of unintended pregnancies and abortions, and for opponents who believe that using emergency contraception amounts to an abortion. This latter hypothesis highlights the conflicting aspect of the conscientious objection to abortion of physicians and pharmacists. This research work is aimed at investigating the emergency contraception issue, paying particular attention to the medico-legal and regulatory aspects of this subject. Particularly, the authors focus on the conscientious objection in order to assess, if any, legal protection for physicians and pharmacists who claim a right to conscientious objection. Inappropriate use of EC could be resolved through a registry of user. This registry, of course, would not have the intention of persecution, but would only serve to detect possible cases of subjugation, exploitation and harassment.

  7. Debating Water Fluoridation Before Dr. Strangelove

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the 1930s, scientists learned that small amounts of fluoride naturally occurring in water could protect teeth from decay, and the idea of artificially adding fluoride to public water supplies to achieve the same effect arose. In the 1940s and early 1950s, a number of studies were completed to determine whether fluoride could have harmful effects. The research suggested that the possibility of harm was small. In the early 1950s, Canadian and US medical, dental, and public health bodies all endorsed water fluoridation. I argue in this article that some early concerns about the toxicity of fluoride were put aside as evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of water fluoridation mounted and as the opposition was taken over by people with little standing in the scientific, medical, and dental communities. The sense of optimism that infused postwar science and the desire of dentists to have a magic bullet that could wipe out tooth decay also affected the scientific debate. PMID:26066938

  8. Emphasizing history in communicating scientific debates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Communication to the public of the reality of anthropogenic climate change has been less successful than many expect. The scientists themselves, the media, special interest groups, or the complexity of modern society are often blamed. However a look at past scientific paradigm shifts, in particular the Copernican revolution and the discovery of relativity, shows close parallels with the modern situation. Common aspects include the gradual formation of a scientific consensus in advance of the public; a politically partisan backlash against the new theory that, paradoxically, occurs after the arrival of conclusive supporting evidence; the prevalence of convincing but invalid pseudo-scientific counterarguments; the general failure of "debates" to increase public acceptance of the scientists' position; and, in the case of the heliocentric solar system, a very long time scale to final public acceptance (> 100 years). Greater emphasis on the lessons from such historical parallels, and on the success so far of consensus predictions of global warming made up to and including the first IPCC report in 1990, might be one useful way of enhancing the public's trust in science and scientists and thereby accelerate acceptance of uncomfortable scientific findings.

  9. The abortion debate in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Faced with a situation in which an estimated 60,000 illegal abortions (a major cause of maternal mortality) were performed annually, the Dominican Republic has adopted a new Health Code which contains a chapter dedicated to maternal health. Included in the new code are cases in which abortion is allowed: 1) when 2 specialists affirm that the pregnancy or childbirth constitutes a risk to the mother's health or life; 2) if the medical history of the parents and 2 doctors confirm the likelihood of the baby being born seriously disabled or deformed; or 3) if the mother's mental health is put in jeopardy by continuing the pregnancy. Despite the disapproval of church representatives, the legalization of abortion was unanimously approved by the Congress. The debate which surrounded the process was increased by a petition signed by more than 260 women decrying the lack of input that women had in the decision-making process. Women's action groups have been trying to widen the context in which the political discussion is taking place to stress the importance of viewing abortion from a reproductive rights perspective. The women's groups wish to prevent a situation in which the discussion surrounding the issue will be limited to legislators and church leaders. The women have pointed out that women should make the decisions about their lives and their bodies. In the meantime, the president of the Congress predicts that illegal abortion will continue in the Dominican Republic regardless of the current provisions for legal abortion.

  10. Civil defense: nuclear debate's new element

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1982-06-04

    President Reagan's plans to build up US military forces include a seven-year $4.2 billion civil-defense program that will emphasize the removal of residents from urban centers and will match the Soviet capability. In the Soviet Union, cities of 100,000 have shelters for 10 to 20% of the population, but they lack the US transportation system, low-density suburbs, mild climate, and other factors. The House Armed Services Committee approved raising the current $133 million civil-defense budget to $252 million, but the Senate's May 14th vote limited the increase to $144 million. The civil-defense debate offers peace and anti-nuclear activists on opportunity to organize and coordinate their efforts. Peace activists were to demonstrate against the administration's plans during a special June 7-9 United Nations session because they feel the public will now be able to understand the implications of relocation in government planning for nuclear war. 17 references, 2 figures, 31 tables. (DCK)

  11. [Professional debate on shortage of physicians].

    PubMed

    Gérvas, Juan; Bonis, Julio

    2008-01-01

    We do not know the best answer to problems due to shortage of physicians (absolute number and by specialities) but perhaps what is important is the lack of a professional debate about what means 'to be' a physician. In this paper we address four key professional questions: 1/ the over-training of physicians when health demand now includes minor problems, 2/ predominance of physician-patient direct encounters in a world of telecommunications and indirect encounters, 3/ the need to delegate power and responsibilities to other health professionals as a consequence of new technology developments and changes in role-design, and 4/ too much emphasis in diagnosis with the danger to initiate cascades with its side-effects. Practical answers to these questions require changes in pre and postgraduate education, improvement in health services organization to profit the use of telecommunications and analysis and re-design of the limits in between professions, levels of care, institutions and health and social sectors.

  12. Linus Pauling and the scientific debate over fallout hazards.

    PubMed

    Jolly, J Christopher

    2002-12-01

    From 1954 to 1963, numerous scientists engaged in a public debate over the possible hazards from radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Nobel laureate Linus Pauling, a California Institute of Technology chemist, was one of the most prominent. His scientific papers relating to the fallout debate reveal many of the scientific, social and political issues involved in the controversy. Although the public controversy ended after the signing of the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty, many of the scientific questions about the possible hazards of low-level radiation remain under debate within the scientific community. Moreover, the fallout debate was a prototype of current controversies over environmental and public-health hazards.

  13. Comparing public discourses in stem cell policy debates.

    PubMed

    Lysaght, Tamra

    2007-05-01

    Public policy debates surrounding stem cell research are becoming increasingly more complex as governance considerations move beyond the moral status of human embryos. This complexity is evident in the public discourses surrounding these debates globally. This article draws on the results of an analysis conducted on the media coverage of a recent stem cell policy episode in the United States to demonstrate the complexity of public discourses surrounding stem cell research and to reflect upon similar debates in Australia. Observations made from the public discourses in California are reframed within the Australian context to discuss ways in which future public policy debates surrounding stem cell research may be enriched.

  14. The Elements of CEDA Debate Paradigms: An Investigation of Paradigm Accuracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudczak, Craig A.; And Others

    Debate judge philosophy statements have been part of the Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) National Debate Tournament since the tournament's inception. Judges are asked to identify their preferred debate paradigm in the statement. The practice has raised the question of whether debate critics understand the debate paradigms as they are…

  15. A Rationale for Developing a Nationally Competitive National Debate Tournament Oriented Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panetta, Edward M.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that National Debate Tournament (NDT) policy debate remains a feasible option for those establishing a debate program. Speculates on the causes of the transformation of competitive policy debate from traditional to specialized. Asserts that many of the critics of NDT debate fail to understand debate's function in training students in the…

  16. The Effects of CEDA and NDT Debate Training on Critical Thinking Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Kent R.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the relationship between debate training and critical thinking ability, and examines whether Cross-Examination Debate Association (CEDA) debaters, National Debate Tournament (NDT) debaters, and nondebaters differ significantly on the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal. Indicates no significant difference between NDT debaters and…

  17. At the Speed of Sound: Rate of Delivery as a Dividing Factor in Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudash, Elizabeth

    The rate of speech in intercollegiate debate has been increasing and might have contributed to the proliferation of divisions in debate. The American Debate Association (ADA), National Parliamentary Debate Association (NPDA), American Parliamentary Debate Association (APDA), Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA), National Education Debate…

  18. [Why a debate on nursing management?].

    PubMed

    Saiani, Luisa

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this monographic issue of Assistenza Infermieristica e Ricerca is to open a discussion on nursing management, its contents and contribution to the development of the nursing profession but also its scientific and evidence based bases, and specifically: to highlight the open questions that deserve more extended and further research; to compare problems and solutions adopted in practice, with the results of the main studies available to identify main trends and effective organizative nursing models to suggest the implementation of changes to improve working conditions and patients outcomes. The published contributions were produced by the students of the Specialistic Degree Course for Nurses and Midwifes of Verona University who selected the relevant topics, searched and critically appraised the literature. This monographic issue, that will be published in two parts (number 1 and 2 2006) is divided in three main areas: The first will deal with a fundamental question: whether a nursing management exists and when and how it should be taught. The second, selects a series of topics of relevant interest for nurses and summarises the main evidences available. Each contribution presents: the definition of the problem (i.e. what is the nursing shortage; its contributing factors, actual and future trends and possible solutions available); examples of relevant studies; a critical debate, focusing on hot questions, unresolved problems, issues that deserve further research. suggestions for further studies. Relevant articles and Mesh terms for independent literature search are suggested. In the third part, methodological contributions will be presented, with a critical appraisal of protocols of organizative research studies and an analysis of strengths and limitations of the studies on the organization of care.

  19. Reflections: ethics and the recombinant DNA debate.

    PubMed

    Robb, J W

    1982-01-01

    This essay is an attempt to apply a mode of ethical reflection to questions related to the recombinant DNA debate. The author suggests that adequate ethical analysis must include at least five aspects of a moral situation 1) the nature of the act itself; 2) consequences that result from an action or decision; 3) civil and criminal laws; 4) moral principles; and 5) motivation or intention. This paradigm for analysis is applied to the recombinant DNA scene, particularly as these factors relate to 1) risks vs benefits; 2) laws and regulations; 3) the marketplace; and 4) human genetic intervention. The analysis does not provide answers to these vexing questions, but attempts to raise the consciousness level of the reader concerning significant ethical issues. Undergirding the discussion is the humanistic theme of the primacy of the concern for the public good, and that freedom of inquiry can only survive in a socially conscious context. Fear of the unknown is no reason for prohibiting DNA research, but since the stakes are high as new developments emerge that pertain to the genetic restructuring of the human species, the author suggests that caution and responsible judgment are mandatory. Since ethics is concerned with ideal moral judgments, and applied ethics relates to the real world in which we function, the demand for clear and careful thought concerning the short-term and long-term consequences of our work is a primary ingredient of what it means to be responsible. In the final analysis, ethical responsibility rests on the individual; without a sense of personal integrity and what that implies about oneself and society, blatant opportunism can easily become the generally accepted mode of behavior and decision. If this occurs, traditional ethical concerns become irrelevant.

  20. Therapeutic use of cannabis: clarifying the debate.

    PubMed

    Gowing, L R; Ali, R L; Christie, P; White, J M

    1998-12-01

    The debate regarding therapeutic use of cannabis is being confused by a lack of distinction between therapeutic and social use of cannabis. Separate consideration of therapeutic and social use would enable strategies to minimise any negative social impact of therapeutic use. For therapeutic use of cannabis to be considered on its own merits, greater emphasis needs to be placed on scientific evidence of therapeutic efficacy. At present the evidence is limited, it mostly relates to the use of synthetic cannabinoids, and much of it fails to compare cannabis with the best therapies available for the conditions of interest. Claims of therapeutic efficacy tend to be based on opinion and anecdote rather than the results of controlled studies. Further research is needed to clarify the potential therapeutic benefits, to enable claims of therapeutic use to be objectively assessed and to enable informed decisions to be made about the relative risks and benefits for any individual using cannabis for therapeutic purposes. Further research is required to clarify the efficacy of pure, synthetic cannabinoids compared to cannabis, the most effective route of administration, and the importance of delivering a known dose. The most likely value of cannabis is as an adjunct, rather than a replacement for, current medical approaches. The potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis will be greatest for those conditions where long-term cannabis use, with its attendant health risks, is not an issue and where the patient has the capacity to titrate dose against symptoms. There is sufficient evidence of potential therapeutic benefit to justify the facilitation of further research.

  1. In the Barrios: Latinos and the Underclass Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Joan, Ed.; Pinderhughes, Raquel, Ed.

    This book includes nine articles that broaden current debates on the American urban "underclass" by assessing the circumstances of inner-city Latino communities. An introduction provides background information on the U.S. Latino population and addresses factors related to urban poverty and to the "underclass" debate, including…

  2. Judging Presidential Debaters: The Power of the TV Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipper, Philip

    To investigate whether television viewers respond differently to presidential debaters than radio listeners do (in other words, does visual content significantly shape the way audience members evaluate the candidates?), a study examined the first Ronald Reagan-Walter Mondale debate in 1984. Subjects, 66 adult volunteers (35 assigned to television…

  3. A Problem-Solving Analysis of Women in Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haffey, Deborah Bush

    The number of women participating in intercollegiate debate is proportionately lower than their representation on campuses. Furthermore, women's rate of success at the highest level of the Cross Examination Debate Association national competition is far lower than their representation in the organization. However, as women enter fields such as…

  4. Motivating a Productive Discussion of Normative Issues through Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a way of using in-class debates to discuss contentious issues and help students develop critical thinking skills. Three elements were incorporated into an undergraduate public finance course: a presentation of ethical approaches in order to formally discuss normative issues, class debates which required…

  5. Debating the Future: A Social Security Political Leadership Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rackaway, Chapman; Goertzen, Brent J.

    2008-01-01

    Students are well served by course simulations that employ active learning styles and student-driven interaction. For debate on political issues, particular public policies are quite effective in stimulating that discussion. We developed an in-class simulation of political debate on the issue of Social Security. We describe the simulation itself,…

  6. In the Barrios: Latinos and the Underclass Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Joan, Ed.; Pinderhughes, Raquel, Ed.

    This book includes nine articles that broaden current debates on the American urban "underclass" by assessing the circumstances of inner-city Latino communities. An introduction provides background information on the U.S. Latino population and addresses factors related to urban poverty and to the "underclass" debate, including…

  7. Stimulating Critical Thinking in the Undergrad Classroom: The Spanking Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan K.; Benson, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    To encourage critical thinking and expression of viewpoints by undergraduate students, an in-class debate on the issue of spanking as a disciplinary practice and its impact on children's development is presented as a class activity. Specific details on how the debate is conducted are provided. Evaluation results suggest that the activity is…

  8. The Effects of Debate Participation on Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Kent R.

    1993-01-01

    Finds that students with participation experience in competitive debate differ from those prior to such experience in the level of argumentativeness (ARG) and verbal aggression (VA). Reveals that policy and nonpolicy formats of debate, and male and female participants, differ significantly in levels of ARG and VA. (SR)

  9. Stimulating Critical Thinking in the Undergrad Classroom: The Spanking Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan K.; Benson, Lisa J.

    2010-01-01

    To encourage critical thinking and expression of viewpoints by undergraduate students, an in-class debate on the issue of spanking as a disciplinary practice and its impact on children's development is presented as a class activity. Specific details on how the debate is conducted are provided. Evaluation results suggest that the activity is…

  10. Information Processing in High School Debate: A Superior Emphasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frana, Adrian W.

    The style of high school debate should emphasize information processing above all other skills. Debate, as an intellectual educational activity with a basis in scholarship, is not an end in itself but a means to the acquisition and refinement of useful skills that deal with reflective thinking and critical decision making, on both personal and…

  11. Using Debate to Maximize Learning Potential: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Vaughn, Aaron; Dye, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Following a review of the literature, an educational case study is provided for the benefit of faculty preparing college courses. In particular, we provide a transcribed debate utilized in a General Psychology course as a best practice example of how to craft a debate which maximizes student learning. The work is presented as a model for the…

  12. Preparing Students in Online Debates with Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollison, Scott; Xie, Kui

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the effects of preparing students for an online debate through a worked example in terms of student perception, participation, and level of cognitive skills. The study found that students prepared for online debate through a worked example participated more frequently, wrote more words or phrases that encouraged the…

  13. The Pre-K Debates: Current Controversies and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Gilliam, Walter S., Ed.; Barnett, W. Steven, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted or universal pre-K? Direct instruction or learning through play? These and other debates are heating up as more and more young children across the country gain access to pre-K programs. Now there's a single volume that spotlights today's most urgent pre-K debates, explores each one from all sides, and paves the way for sound, educated…

  14. The Pre-K Debates: Current Controversies and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Gilliam, Walter S., Ed.; Barnett, W. Steven, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Targeted or universal pre-K? Direct instruction or learning through play? These and other debates are heating up as more and more young children across the country gain access to pre-K programs. Now there's a single volume that spotlights today's most urgent pre-K debates, explores each one from all sides, and paves the way for sound, educated…

  15. Motivating a Productive Discussion of Normative Issues through Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a way of using in-class debates to discuss contentious issues and help students develop critical thinking skills. Three elements were incorporated into an undergraduate public finance course: a presentation of ethical approaches in order to formally discuss normative issues, class debates which required…

  16. Futile debate on assessment of field dependence-independence.

    PubMed

    Tinajero, C; Páramo, M F; Guisande, A

    2007-10-01

    A long-standing debate on assessment has troubled research on field dependence-independence. The main arguments and a recent measurement proposal by Riding, et al., are revised to illustrate the futility of this debate and to defend the strength of the cognitive style dimension.

  17. The Use and Abuse of Risk Analysis in Policy Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbeck, Dale A.; Katsulas, John P.

    The best check on the preposterous claims of crisis rhetoric is an appreciation of the nature of risk analysis and how it functions in argumentation. The use of risk analysis is common in policy debate. While the stock issues paradigm focused the debate exclusively on the affirmative case, the advent of policy systems analysis has transformed…

  18. Preparing Students in Online Debates with Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollison, Scott; Xie, Kui

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigates the effects of preparing students for an online debate through a worked example in terms of student perception, participation, and level of cognitive skills. The study found that students prepared for online debate through a worked example participated more frequently, wrote more words or phrases that encouraged the…

  19. A Research-Based Justification for Debate across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellon, Joe

    2000-01-01

    Supports a call for Debate Across the Curriculum (DAC) by: (1) identifying the strongest arguments for Communication Across the Curriculum (CAC); (2) outlining the research concerning the benefits of participation in competitive debate; and (3) drawing on research in educational psychology. (NH)

  20. Credentials, Curriculum, and Access: The Debate Over Nurse Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Melinda Mechur; Jacobs, James; Hughes, Katherine L.

    The question of how to best prepare nurses for practice continues to be debated extensively. The crux of the debate is whether a bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) should be required of all registered nurses in the United States or whether an associate degree in nursing (ADN) and diploma programs adequately prepare novice nurses for practice.…

  1. The Nuclear Debate--A New Educational Package for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Henry; Addinall, Eric

    1981-01-01

    Designed for use with upper form secondary school and lower-tertiary level students, the three exercises described here each examine one aspect of the nuclear power debate in Great Britain. Each takes the form of a structured case study or debate. (LLS)

  2. Overlooked Issues of Religious Identity in the School Dinners Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twiner, Alison; Cook, Guy; Gillen, Julia

    2009-01-01

    The TV broadcast of "Jamie's school dinners" in 2005 prompted action throughout the UK to improve the standards of school meals. A public debate continues across the media around changes, resistance to them and consequences. This article draws upon the findings of a one-year ESRC-funded project on the English school dinners debate, which…

  3. Using Debate to Maximize Learning Potential: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Vaughn, Aaron; Dye, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    Following a review of the literature, an educational case study is provided for the benefit of faculty preparing college courses. In particular, we provide a transcribed debate utilized in a General Psychology course as a best practice example of how to craft a debate which maximizes student learning. The work is presented as a model for the…

  4. Deconstructing the Skills Training Debate in Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craswell, Gail

    2007-01-01

    The pressure being placed on universities to deliver skills training for the workplace has generated considerable debate. This paper deconstructs the broader employability discourse in which the debate is embedded in order to draw out its formative implications for skills training during candidature. The paper argues against erection of a…

  5. Credentials, Curriculum, and Access: The Debate Over Nurse Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Melinda Mechur; Jacobs, James; Hughes, Katherine L.

    The question of how to best prepare nurses for practice continues to be debated extensively. The crux of the debate is whether a bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) should be required of all registered nurses in the United States or whether an associate degree in nursing (ADN) and diploma programs adequately prepare novice nurses for practice.…

  6. Tracing the French Policy PISA Debate: A Policy Configuration Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of the French policy PISA debate from 2001 to 2014 by analysing the results of two original qualitative researches. Theoretically, this debate is the outcome of specific policy configurations, which predetermine its scope, content and effectiveness. These configurations are themselves described through their…

  7. A Research-Based Justification for Debate across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellon, Joe

    2000-01-01

    Supports a call for Debate Across the Curriculum (DAC) by: (1) identifying the strongest arguments for Communication Across the Curriculum (CAC); (2) outlining the research concerning the benefits of participation in competitive debate; and (3) drawing on research in educational psychology. (NH)

  8. Let's Debate: Active Learning Encourages Student Participation and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oros, Andrew L.

    2007-01-01

    Structured classroom debates (SCDs), whereby teams of students debate a question prepared outside of class, help advance two goals many political science instructors struggle to achieve with their students: classroom participation beyond the "usual suspects" present in every classroom and critical thinking and analysis of political issues. This…

  9. Petition may trigger parliamentary debate on regulator's fee.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    THE NURSING and Midwifery Council's (NMC) proposed registration fee increase to £120 is likely to be debated in parliament after a petition against the rise reached 100,000 signatures. The petition, started by mental health liaison nurse Steve Iwasyk, gained the necessary number of signatures to spark a debate.

  10. The Use of Legalese in Non-Policy Debate Resolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Linda M.

    This paper explores the use of "legalese" in non-policy debate resolutions. After defining legalese as legal jargon and terminology, the paper discusses how resolutional words and terms function within intercollegiate debate. It next deals with the purpose and practice of legal jargon within legal scholarship and practice, noting that…

  11. Presidential Debate Watching, Issue Knowledge, Character Evaluation, and Vote Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Hansen, Glenn J.

    2004-01-01

    This study employs NES (National Election Survey) data from several presidential elections to investigate the effects of presidential debate watching on voters' issue knowledge, character evaluation, and vote choice. Debates can instill issue knowledge; however, voters are less likely to learn about incumbent presidents seeking re-election after a…

  12. Tracing the French Policy PISA Debate: A Policy Configuration Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This article traces the evolution of the French policy PISA debate from 2001 to 2014 by analysing the results of two original qualitative researches. Theoretically, this debate is the outcome of specific policy configurations, which predetermine its scope, content and effectiveness. These configurations are themselves described through their…

  13. The Need for Rapproachment between NDT and CEDA Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    Contends that the split between NDT and CEDA threatens the educational function of debate because it limits the forms of debate open to students. Points out the value of both forms and suggests that rapprochement between the two organizations might be facilitated by joint topic selection. (PD)

  14. The Narrative Perspective in Academic Debate: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Robert H., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Offers a critique of the narrative perspective as it relates to the National Debate Tournament (NDT) and suggests that an alternative "expert" model would better satisfy the goals of the activity while simultaneously remedying the primary shortcomings of NDT debate. (MS)

  15. Forum--the National Debate Tournament: Bouquets and Brickbats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Frank; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents 4 personal essays about the National Debate Tournament (NDT), written by individuals who have been connected with it over the years: "The NDT and Me" (Frank Cross); "Reflections on the NDT at 50" (David Zarefsky); "The NDT and Intercollegiate Debate" (Bill Balthrop); and "Fifty Years of the National…

  16. Overlooked Issues of Religious Identity in the School Dinners Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twiner, Alison; Cook, Guy; Gillen, Julia

    2009-01-01

    The TV broadcast of "Jamie's school dinners" in 2005 prompted action throughout the UK to improve the standards of school meals. A public debate continues across the media around changes, resistance to them and consequences. This article draws upon the findings of a one-year ESRC-funded project on the English school dinners debate, which…

  17. Black Participation in Intercollegiate Debate: A Quantification and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loge, Peter

    A study investigated the level of black participation in the Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) to discover means of increasing and improving black student involvement in forensic activities. Of 64 schools reporting that they compete in CEDA, only 22 reported having black debaters on the team. Additionally, these schools reported a total…

  18. The Parameters of the Liberal-Communitarian Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Dinkelman, Todd

    This essay presents components of the debate between liberals and communitarians, discusses how this debate centers around policies affecting market economies and the role of government, and points out implications for school reform. The chief criticism communitarians aim at liberalism is that it promotes obsessive individualism, and in this…

  19. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Debate: Possibilities and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheckels, Theodore F., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Presents justifications for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in debate. Suggests programs that could be written. Discusses one CAI application: the use of CAI drills to train negative team members and to instruct in cross-examination skills. Includes the "Listing of CAI Drill for 1st Negative Debater." (PD)

  20. Fine Root Longevity Still Under Debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keel, S. G.; Blackburn, M.; Campbell, C.; Högberg, M. N.; Richter, A.; Wild, B.; Högberg, P.

    2008-12-01

    those slow turnover pools will be estimated by continuously monitoring the remaining 13C signals. Those MRTs are expected to offer more realistic fine root turnover estimates and could possibly end the root longevity debate.

  1. Historia and materia: the philosophical implications of Francis Bacon's natural history.

    PubMed

    Giglioni, Guido

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the philosophical implications underlying Bacon's views on historical knowledge, paying special attention to that variety of historical knowledge described by Bacon as "natural." More specifically, this article explores the interplay of history (historia) and fable (fabula). In the sphere of thought, fabula is the equivalent to materia in nature. Both are described by Bacon as being "versatile" and "pliant." In Bacon's system of knowledge, philosophy, as the domain of reason, starts from historiae and fabulae, once memory and the imagination have fulfilled their cognitive tasks. This means that, for Bacon, there is no such thing as a pure use of reason. He advocates a kind of reason that, precisely because it is involved with matter's inner motions (its "appetites," in Bacon's characteristic language), is constitutively 'impure'. The article shows how the terms historia and fabula cover key semantic areas in defining Bacon's philosophy: historia may mean "history" as well as "story,"fabula "myth" as well "story". In both cases, we can see significant oscillations from a stronger meaning (close to those of matter and nature) to a weaker one (connected to wit and imagination), as if the power of nature decreases moving from histories and myths to stories. On the other hand, there are cases in which Bacon seems to stick to a diachronic view of the meaning of fables and histories, such that the transition from myths to history, especially natural history, is described as a collective effort towards reality and enlightenment.

  2. Framing the policy debate over spirits excise tax in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zatoński, Mateusz; Hawkins, Benjamin; McKee, Martin

    2016-12-23

    Industry lobbying remains an obstacle to effective health-oriented alcohol policy. In 2013, an increase in excise tax on spirits was announced by the Polish government. This article presents a qualitative analysis of the public debate that ensued on the potential economic, health and social effects of the policy. It focuses on how competing groups, including industry actors, framed their position and sought to dominate the debate. Online archives of five Polish national newspapers, two spirits trade associations, and parliamentary and ministerial archives were searched. A thematic content analysis of the identified sources was conducted. The overall findings were compared with existing research on the framing of the Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) debate in the UK. A total of 155 sources were analysed. Two main frames were identified: health, and economic The spirits industry successfully promoted the economic frame in their own publications and in the media. The debate was dominated by arguments about potential growth of the grey market and losses in tax revenue that might result from the excise tax increase. The framing of the debate in Poland differed from the framing of the MUP debate in the United Kingdom. The Polish public health community was unsuccessful in making health considerations a significant element of the alcohol policy debate. The strategies pursued by UK health advocates offer lessons for how to make a more substantial impact on media coverage and promote health-oriented legislation.

  3. Best Way to Beat Back Zika a Matter of Debate

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162423.html Best Way to Beat Back Zika a Matter of Debate Analysis found conflicting evidence ... methods for controlling the mosquitoes that can transmit Zika and other diseases. The researchers, from the University ...

  4. Outcomes of modified formal online debating in graduate nursing education.

    PubMed

    Vandall-Walker, Virginia; Park, Caroline L; Munich, Kim

    2012-06-29

    Formal debating is a process for argumentation with a long history of use in classroom settings to promote students' development of skills associated with influencing others. In an online, 14-week, MN nursing course, modified formal debate procedures and rules were used to address contemporary issues in nursing. A qualitative descriptive study of student's reflections about engaging in the debate process was conducted involving 24 of 48 students representing three sections of this course taught by three professors during the 2009-2010 academic year. On analysis, the data revealed five categories of outcomes: 1) Risk Taking; 2) Defence of a Position; 3) Coverage of all Aspects; 4) Skill and Knowledge Transfer; and 5) Critical Thinking. Additionally, factors that influenced each of these outcomes are described. Study findings support the compelling benefits of debating in online learning environments using a format modified for use online.

  5. Current Debates in the Study of the Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of the literature on the debates surrounding the industrial revolution using four categories: (1) definition and characteristics; (2) context and causation; (3) impacts and scope; and (4) industrialization as a worldwide phenomenon. (CMK)

  6. Using Debate Skills to Engage Students in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsten, Anna

    2016-04-01

    To increase the excitement for the astronomy unit and to expose the subject in all of its weird glory, students debate each other in a bracket style tournament defending their idea of the coolest object in the universe. At the start of May, causing the name of this event to be called May Madness, students choose an object or concept in the universe to research and construct an opening argument on how it is the coolest object in the universe. Every student in the eighth grade selects an object and proceeds to debate its attributes in a head-to-head competition leading to a class winner. The class winners then debate in front of the grade with celebrity guest judges. In the four minute debate, two students defend, cross examine, and construct a rebuttal for their chosen object.

  7. Judging the Space/Time Case in Parliamentary Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses criteria for judging space/time cases in parliamentary debate and comments on the controversy with regard to issues of appropriateness and adjudication. Presents four short responses to the points raised in this article. (PA)

  8. Judging the Space/Time Case in Parliamentary Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses criteria for judging space/time cases in parliamentary debate and comments on the controversy with regard to issues of appropriateness and adjudication. Presents four short responses to the points raised in this article. (PA)

  9. The Great Nuclear Power Debate (1)--A Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, John H.

    1976-01-01

    Five issues concerning nuclear power--economics, danger from accidents, environmental effects, terrorism, and alternatives are debated, with one paragraph statements from opponents and advocates on each of the topics. (CP)

  10. Current Debates in the Study of the Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of the literature on the debates surrounding the industrial revolution using four categories: (1) definition and characteristics; (2) context and causation; (3) impacts and scope; and (4) industrialization as a worldwide phenomenon. (CMK)

  11. The Great Nuclear Power Debate (1)--A Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, John H.

    1976-01-01

    Five issues concerning nuclear power--economics, danger from accidents, environmental effects, terrorism, and alternatives are debated, with one paragraph statements from opponents and advocates on each of the topics. (CP)

  12. Reflections on the debate on disability and aid in dying.

    PubMed

    Krahn, Gloria L

    2010-01-01

    A policy resolution supporting physician aid in dying was proposed to the American Public Health Association (APHA) in 2007 that prompted a debate with the Disability Section on its meaning for people with disabilities. The present paper reflects on the issues revealed and lessons learned. The debate included subcommittee discussion; review of research, polls, administrative reports; discussion with disability rights organizations; and floor-debate and vote by the APHA Governing Council. Reflections on the process are summarized under the themes: we all have our own views; it's highly personal; confusion among key concepts; I might want it for myself; it's about control and not about pain; the slippery slope and other arguments; and undue burden on people with disabilities. The APHA resolution supporting aid in dying was passed in 2008 with some improvements in the language and a recommendation to measure pre-existing disability. Valuable lessons were learned through the debate process. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. How to depolarise the ethical debate over human embryonic stem cell research (and other ethical debates too!).

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Nicolas; Peterson, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The contention of this paper is that the current ethical debate over embryonic stem cell research is polarised to an extent that is not warranted by the underlying ethical conflict. It is argued that the ethical debate can be rendered more nuanced, and less polarised, by introducing non-binary notions of moral rightness and wrongness. According to the view proposed, embryonic stem cell research--and possibly other controversial activities too--can be considered 'a little bit right and a little bit wrong'. If this idea were to become widely accepted, the ethical debate would, for conceptual reasons, become less polarised.

  14. The State of College Debate According to a Survey of Its Coaches: Data to Ground the Discussion of Debate and Civic Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hlavacik, Mark; Lain, Brian; Ivanovic, Matea; Ontiveros-Kersch, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, prominent figures from the debate community gathered at Penn State for a Conference on Speech and Debate as Civic Education. Convened in response to a perceived decline in debate's contributions to civic education, the conference also aimed to start a conversation about the future of debate education. Although a great deal can be learned…

  15. A Separate Space Force: An Old Debate with Renewed Relevance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    SEPARATE SPACE FORCE: AN OLD DEBATE WITH RENEWED RELEVANCE BY COLONEL KURT S. STORY United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public...release. Distribution is unlimited USAWC CLASS OF 2002 Senior Service Fellow U.S. ARMY WAR COLLEGE, CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA 17013 20020806 180 SENIOR...SERVICE COLLEGE FELLOWSHIP PAPER A SEPARATE SPACE FORCE: AN OLD DEBATE WITH RENEWED RELEVANCE by COL Kurt S. Story United States Army Jerry G. Davis, Ph.D

  16. La historia orbital de Deimos y la oblicuidad de Marte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunini, A.; Yokoyama, T.

    Recientemente, se ha demostrado mediante extensas integraciones numéricas, que la rotación de Marte pasó repetidamente por estados caóticos de movimiento, debido al pasaje por zonas de resonancia spin - órbita. En dichas circunstancias, la oblicuidad marciana pudo haber sufrido grandes excursiones de varias decenas de grados. Las consecuencias de dichas variaciones son de extrema importancia en el contexto de la búsqueda de manifestaciones de vida fósil en dicho planeta. El estudio de la dinámica orbital del satélite más exterior de Marte, Deimos, nos ha permitido comprobar, en el marco de las distintas teorías sobre su orígen, que la oblicuidad de Marte dificilmente pudo haber sufrido variaciones que la aparten más de 10o respecto de actual valor. Este resultado parece ser mucho más robusto que las simulaciones numéricas de Touma y Wisdom asi como las de Laskar y Robutel, lo que permite poner cotas más severas a la evolución paleoclimática de Marte.

  17. Understanding the debate on medical education research: a sociological perspective.

    PubMed

    Albert, Mathieu

    2004-10-01

    Since the mid-1990s, a debate has taken place among medical education scholars regarding the forms that research should take and the roles it should play. Editors of major journals in medical education and prominent researchers in the domain have repeatedly addressed the issue and have attempted to define what medical education research should be. The goal of this article is to look at the debate from a sociological perspective and to outline the social factors shaping it. An analysis of the texts published since 1990 addressing the issue shows that the debates can be deconstructed in four topics: epistemology, methodology, the primary purpose of medical education research, and the "quality" of the projects carried out in the domain. However, the debates can also be amalgamated and synthesized using the concept of "field" as developed by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. A "field" refers to the configuration of power relations among individuals, social groups, or institutions within a domain of activities. Scientific fields are typically structured around a "bipolar" opposition pattern. At one pole stand those individuals who promote greater collaboration with nonscientists as well as research aimed at responding to practical needs. At the opposite pole stand those individuals who aspire to achieve independence of the field from such external constraints. The use of the concept of "field" allows us to understand the debate from a larger perspective and to establish parallels with similar debates in other scientific fields. In doing so, we will have the opportunity to learn from the experience of these other fields and be more reflective about the debate in which we engage.

  18. Consumer-mediated health information exchanges: the 2012 ACMI debate.

    PubMed

    Cimino, James J; Frisse, Mark E; Halamka, John; Sweeney, Latanya; Yasnoff, William

    2014-04-01

    The American College of Medical Informatics (ACMI) sponsors periodic debates during the American Medical Informatics Fall Symposium to highlight important informatics issues of broad interest. In 2012, a panel debated the following topic: "Resolved: Health Information Exchange Organizations Should Shift Their Principal Focus to Consumer-Mediated Exchange in Order to Facilitate the Rapid Development of Effective, Scalable, and Sustainable Health Information Infrastructure." Those supporting the proposition emphasized the need for consumer-controlled community repositories of electronic health records (health record banks) to address privacy, stakeholder cooperation, scalability, and sustainability. Those opposing the proposition emphasized that the current healthcare environment is so complex that development of consumer control will take time and that even then, consumers may not be able to mediate their information effectively. While privately each discussant recognizes that there are many sides to this complex issue, each followed the debater's tradition of taking an extreme position in order emphasize some of the polarizing aspects in the short time allotted them. In preparing this summary, we sought to convey the substance and spirit of the debate in printed form. Transcripts of the actual debate were edited for clarity, and appropriate supporting citations were added for the further edification of the reader.

  19. Beyond the realism debate: The metaphysics of 'racial' distinctions.

    PubMed

    Lemeire, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    The current metaphysical race debate is very much focused on the realism question whether races exist. In this paper I argue against the importance of this question. Philosophers, biologists and anthropologists expect that answering this question will tell them something substantive about the metaphysics of racial classifications, and will help them to decide whether it is justified to use racial categories in scientific research and public policy. I argue that there are two reasons why these expectations are not fulfilled. First of all, the realism question about race leads to a very broad philosophical debate about the semantics of general terms and the criteria for real kinds, rather than to a debate about the metaphysics of racial categories specifically. Secondly, there is a type of race realism that is so toothless that it is almost completely uninformative about the metaphysics of race. In response to these worries, I argue that the metaphysical race debate should rather be focused on the question in what way and to what extent 'racial' distinctions can ground the epistemic practices of various scientific disciplines. I spell out what I mean by this, and go on to demonstrate that trying to answer this question leads to a more fruitful metaphysical debate.

  20. Heteronormative consensus in the Norwegian same-sex adoption debate?

    PubMed

    Anderssen, Norman; Hellesund, Tone

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the Norwegian newspaper debate (1998-2002) on the right of homosexual couples to adopt children. It identifies two patterns of meaning within which both anti-adoption and pro-adoption sides of the debate were located: 1) the nuclear family as reference point; and 2) a focus on innate qualities. Parallell to a continuous liberalization of sexualities in Norway we seem to witness a consensus on heteronormativity in Norway on both sides of the debate as the basic axiom in public discussions on homosexuality and adoption. In this article, we explore the nature of the heteronormative arguments and the reason for their appearance in this particular debate. The two patterns of meaning reproduce a perception of lesbians and gays as either a worthy or unworthy minority. These findings may be seen as reflecting fundamental positions regarding the Norwegian modernization project, where both sides of the debate see homosexuality as a central symbol. State feminism may also have played the role of reinforcing gender categories and thereby served as an important condition of possibility for contemporary heteronormativity.

  1. A philosophical analysis of the evidence-based medicine debate

    PubMed Central

    Sehon, Scott R; Stanley, Donald E

    2003-01-01

    Background The term "evidence-based medicine" (or EBM) was introduced about ten years ago, and there has been considerable debate about the value of EBM. However, this debate has sometimes been obscured by a lack of conceptual clarity concerning the nature and status of EBM. Discussion First, we note that EBM proponents have obscured the current debate by defining EBM in an overly broad, indeed almost vacuous, manner; we offer a clearer account of EBM and its relation to the alternative approaches to medicine. Second, while EBM proponents commonly cite the philosophical work of Thomas Kuhn and claim that EBM is a Kuhnian 'paradigm shift,' we argue that such claims are seriously mistaken and unduly polarize the EBM debate. Third, we suggest that it is much more fruitful to understand the relationship between EBM and its alternatives in light of a different philosophical metaphor: W.V. Quine's metaphor of the web of belief. Seen in this way, we argue that EBM is an approach to medical practice that is indeed importantly different from the alternatives. Summary We can have a more productive debate about the value of EBM by being clearer about the nature of EBM and its relationship to alternative approaches to medicine. PMID:12873351

  2. Context and scale: Distinctions for improving debates about physician "rationing".

    PubMed

    Tilburt, Jon C; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2017-08-29

    Important discussions about limiting care based on professional judgment often devolve into heated debates over the place of physicians in bedside rationing. Politics, loaded rhetoric, and ideological caricature from both sides of the rationing debate obscure precise points of disagreement and consensus, and hinder critical dialogue around the obligations and boundaries of professional practice. We propose a way forward by reframing the rationing conversation, distinguishing between the scale of the decision (macro vs. micro) and its context (ordinary allocation vs. extraordinary re-allocation) avoiding the word "rationing." We propose to shift the terminology, using specific, descriptive words to defuse conflict and re-focus the debate towards substantive issues. These distinctions can clarify the real ethical differences at stake and facilitate a more constructive conversation about the clinical and social responsibilities of physicians to use resources ethically at the bedside and their role in allocating medical resources at a societal level.

  3. Science policy and society: the British debate over GM agriculture.

    PubMed

    Gaskell, George

    2004-06-01

    The outcome of 'GM Nation?'--a public debate on genetic modification and the commercial growing of GM crops in Britain--was published in 2003. The objective of this public consultation was 'to promote an innovative, effective and deliberative programme of debate, against the background of the possible commercial production of GM crops in the UK...[and] provide meaningful information to Government about the nature and spectrum of the public's views, particularly at the grass roots level, to inform decision making'. Complementing an independent evaluation of GM Nation?, this article puts the debate into context, comments on the legitimacy of this, and similar exercises in public consultation, and develops some ideas on the future of public consultation on technological innovation.

  4. Avoiding empty rhetoric: engaging publics in debates about nanotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Renee; Dodds, Susan

    2009-03-01

    Despite the amount of public investment in nanotechnology ventures in the developed world, research shows that there is little public awareness about nanotechnology, and public knowledge is very limited. This is concerning given that nanotechnology has been heralded as 'revolutionising' the way we live. In this paper, we articulate why public engagement in debates about nanotechnology is important, drawing on literature on public engagement and science policy debate and deliberation about public policy development. We also explore the significance of timing in engaging the public, and we make some suggestions concerning how to effectively engage publics. Our conclusions indicate the significance of scientific researchers, policy makers and representative consumer groupings in public reasoning towards a better public policy framework for debate about technological development.

  5. E-cigarettes: a need to broaden the debate.

    PubMed

    Latif, E; Nair, M

    2016-11-01

    The unregulated market for e-cigarettes continues to grow, with debates on their efficacy and impact on global public health. E-cigarettes, or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDs), are marketed as a 'safe' alternative to tobacco products and a tool for 'harm reduction'. Some public health experts are calling it a 'game changer' and favour the 'harm reduction' strategy, while others dispute this claim. In our opinion, the debate needs to be broadened to encompass other related concerns and effects on non-users and affected stakeholders. As with tobacco control, a holistic approach is needed to build a raft of policies that effectively address the issue from all angles and look beyond the direct health implications of e-cigarette use to explore the social, economic, political and environmental aspects of this debate, putting 'harm reduction' in context.

  6. Epilogue: continuing points of contention in the recovered memory debate.

    PubMed

    Belli, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Four contentious issues in the recovered memory debate are explored. Volume contributors offer differing perspectives on the generalizability of laboratory research, on the role of emotion in memory, on the prevalence of false recoveries, and on the motivations that underlie differences in opinion, especially with regard to whether the debate ought to be framed within a larger sociopolitical context. The recovered memory debate is argued to center on two ethical concerns that happen to be in conflict, equality among groups on one hand and due process protections on the other. Additional movement toward reconciliation is possible with a fair assessment of all available evidence, with a mutual understanding of differing perspectives, and with civil discourse.

  7. Debating the Effectiveness and Necessity of Tenure in Pharmacy Education.

    PubMed

    Asbill, Scott; Moultry, Aisha Morris; Policastri, Anne; Sincak, Carrie A; Smith, Lisa S; Ulbrich, Timothy R

    2016-08-25

    Academic tenure is a controversial and highly debated topic. Is tenure truly outdated or does it simply need to be reformed? On one hand, the tenure system has shortcomings including deincentivizing productive faculty members, inconsistent application of tenure policies and procedures, and the potential for discrimination during tenure decisions. On the other hand, the tenure system is a long held tradition in the academy, essential in higher education to ensure academic standards and values are upheld in the best interest of students. It provides faculty members with the academic freedom to try innovative teaching strategies and conduct research and assists with faculty retention and recruitment. Regardless of one's opinion, the tenure debate is not going away and warrants further discussion. This paper represents the work of a group of academic leaders participating in the 2014-2015 AACP Academic Leadership Fellowship Program. This work was presented as a debate at the 2015 AACP Interim Meeting in Austin, TX in February 2015.

  8. Fotometria WHBY |o lll|/HB de Regiones H 11 Y la HISTORIA de la Formacion ESTELAR Reciente EN la PEQUENA NUBE de Magallanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copetti, M. V. F.; Dottori, H. A.

    1987-05-01

    El ancho equivalente WHβ de la linea de Hβ en emisión y la razón [0 III]/Hβ del par λλ4959, 50 7 A del [0111], fueron medidos en 23 regiones HII de la Peque˜a Nube de Magallanes, por medio de la fotometría fotoeléctrica a través de un sistema de tres filtros interferenciales: dos Hβ , con bandas pasantes de 100 y 30 A, y un [0111] centrado en 5000 A y con banda pasante de 50 A. Las observaciones fueron realizadas con los telescopios de 1.60-m y 0.60-m del Laboratorio Nacional de Astrofísica, Brasópolis, Brasil. Fueron escogidos diafragmas suficientemente grandes para captar la radiación integrada de cada región HII. Las medidas fueron calibradas por comparación a un conjunto de nebulosas planetarias con flujos absolutos bien definidos. A través de la comparación entre los datos observacionales y modelos evolutivos de WHβ y [0 III] /Hβ (Copetti et al.1986', Astr. and Ap., 156, 111), las edades de las regiones HIl fueron estimadas. Basada en la distribución espacial de las edades de regiones HIl, la historia de la formación estelar reciente en la Pequeña Nube de Magallanes es analizada. La similitud de las medidas de WH&beta y [OIII]/WHβ entre las regiones H II observadas sugiere que hubo una explosión de formación estelar a 4±1 x106 años en la Pequeña Nube de Magallanes. (Parcialmente financiado por CNPq).

  9. A Value Analysis of the 1980 Presidential Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochel, Sandra

    Although Democrat Jimmy Carter and Republican Ronald Reagan appealed to many of the same basic American values in the 1980 presidential campaign debate, there were some subtle but major differences in their value appeals. Other than attempting to convince his audience that his policies had been and would be successful and that Reagan's policies…

  10. Critical Environmental Education Research: Re-Engaging the Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robottom, Ian

    2005-01-01

    The field of research in environmental education has experienced several changes in orientation in its first 25 or so years. In the period of the 70s and 80s, the most visible approach to environmental education research was clearly applied science in nature. From the late 80s/early 90s there has been a period of intense debate about research in…

  11. Ideology and Interaction: Debating Determinisms in Literacy Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross; Street, Brian V.

    2014-01-01

    In this exchange, Street and Collin debate the merits of the interaction model of literacy that Collin outlined in a recent issue of Reading Research Quarterly. Built as a complement and a counter to Street's ideological model of literacy, Collin's interaction model defines literacies as technologies that coevolve with sociocultural…

  12. Catastrophic Versus Uniformitarian Geology: Outline for Classroom Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, James D.; O'Brien, Neal R.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the two positions of the geological debate, as presented in 1796, between the Wernerians (uniformitarians) and the Huttonians (catastrophic supporters). Presentations stress importance of earth heat, the origin of granite and basalt, and the cyclic theme of Hutton's earth. (RR)

  13. Quality of Work Life: The Issues in the Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Al

    Diverse opinions are held by workers, union officials, and labor researchers about the importance of the quality of working life to workers. Major issues in this debate focus on the following questions: (1) Is there a workers' movement to improve the quality of working life? (2) Do workers seek meaning and self-fulfillment in their jobs? (3) Can…

  14. A Children's Place? The School Playground Debate in Postwar Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Starting from theoretical issues concerning places for children and from historical studies of childhood and education, the present article deals with the history of the school playground in a Swedish context. The focus is on a school playground debate in the 1970s, in which school playgrounds were the subject of lively discussion and the object…

  15. Engaging in the Debate: A Critique of "Blueprint III"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Joel; Roach, Andrew T.; Meyers, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to engage in the debate about "Blueprint III" regarding practice and graduate education in school psychology. We use school-based consultation as a lens to uncover meaning and context in the "Blueprint" and give particular attention to the "Blueprint" authors' foregrounding of prevention…

  16. Echo chamber and trench warfare dynamics in online debates

    PubMed Central

    Karlsen, Rune; Steen-Johnsen, Kari; Wollebæk, Dag; Enjolras, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we take issue with the claim by Sunstein and others that online discussion takes place in echo chambers, and suggest that the dynamics of online debates could be more aptly described by the logic of ‘trench warfare’, in which opinions are reinforced through contradiction as well as confirmation. We use a unique online survey and an experimental approach to investigate and test echo chamber and trench warfare dynamics in online debates. The results show that people do indeed claim to discuss with those who hold opposite views from themselves. Furthermore, our survey experiments suggest that both confirming and contradicting arguments have similar effects on attitude reinforcement. Together, this indicates that both echo chamber and trench warfare dynamics – a situation where attitudes are reinforced through both confirmation and disconfirmation biases – characterize online debates. However, we also find that two-sided neutral arguments have weaker effects on reinforcement than one-sided confirming and contradicting arguments, suggesting that online debates could contribute to collective learning and qualification of arguments. PMID:28690351

  17. Delimiting Democratic Debate: The Fordham Institute's Attack on Democratic Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahey, Christopher R.

    2005-01-01

    Reflecting on the current debate on how to teach about the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent U.S. invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, this article examines Thomas B. Fordham Institute's Terrorists, Despots, and Democracy: What Our Children Need to Know, one of the several publications produced by the Fordham Institute that…

  18. Language Policy, In-Migration and Discursive Debates in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Catrin Wyn

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on theory from critical language policy literature, this article explores the impact of discourses on in-migration on Welsh language policy. By focussing on discursive debates surrounding the subject of in-migration, the article analyses how a range of actors produce and reproduce discourses on in-migration in Wales and how these…

  19. Native Advertising: Trickery or Technique? An Ethics Project and Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzosa, Jennifer; Fischbach, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Sponsored content, in-feed ads, and advertorials are innovative ways to promote brands. However, there are limited resources on how to use these advertising techniques. The Native Advertising project and debate helps students (a) gain knowledge and experience with current advertising practices and (b) engage in deliberation regarding a promotional…

  20. Delimiting Democratic Debate: The Fordham Institute's Attack on Democratic Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahey, Christopher R.

    2005-01-01

    Reflecting on the current debate on how to teach about the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent U.S. invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, this article examines Thomas B. Fordham Institute's Terrorists, Despots, and Democracy: What Our Children Need to Know, one of the several publications produced by the Fordham Institute that…

  1. Leading on Inclusion: Dilemmas, Debates and New Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwall, John, Ed.; Graham-Matheson, Lynne, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Leading on Inclusion: Dilemmas, debates and new perspectives" critically examines the current theory and legislative context of special educational needs and disability, and explores the enduring issues and opportunities that will affect future practice in all schools. The central theme throughout the book asks the inevitable question "What…

  2. The Nature-Nurture Debate and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The contentious nature-nurture debate in developmental psychology is poised to reach a rapprochement with contemporary concepts of gene-environment interaction, transaction, and fit. Discoveries over the past decade have revealed how neither genes nor the environment offers a sufficient window into human development. Rather, the most important…

  3. Issues in Sociobiology: The Nature vs. Nurture Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzen, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Explains the two theories on the origins of human and animal behavior. Introduces the new discipline of sociobiology, a merging of biology and sociology. Describes the central dogma of sociobiology and its societal implications, and discusses criticism of sociobiology. Presents the nature vs. nurture debate. (YDS)

  4. Interaction Rescaled: How Monastic Debate Became a Diasporic Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lempert, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Rather than assume the relevance of "a priori" scalar distinctions (micro-, macro-, meso-), this article examines scale as an emergent dimension of sociospatial practice in educational institutions. Focusing on Buddhist debate at Tibetan monasteries in India, I describe how this educational practice has been placed as a rite of…

  5. Guns on Campus: A Current Debate. E-Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Almost all U.S. college campuses ban concealed weapons. But in the aftermath of the tragic shooting deaths at Virginia Tech in 2007, the debate on whether guns should be permitted at colleges and universities has intensified. Dozens of states have considered proposals to lift bans on concealed weapons at colleges and universities, but so far none…

  6. Catastrophic Versus Uniformitarian Geology: Outline for Classroom Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, James D.; O'Brien, Neal R.

    1970-01-01

    Presents the two positions of the geological debate, as presented in 1796, between the Wernerians (uniformitarians) and the Huttonians (catastrophic supporters). Presentations stress importance of earth heat, the origin of granite and basalt, and the cyclic theme of Hutton's earth. (RR)

  7. The Great Diversity Debate: Embracing Pluralism in School and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppelman, Kent

    2011-01-01

    Based on research from multiple disciplines, "The Great Diversity Debate" describes the presence and growth of diversity in the United States from its earliest years to the present. The author describes the evolution of the concept of pluralism from a philosophical term to a concept used in many disciplines and with global significance. Rather…

  8. Coping with Information Overload as Adaptive Behavior in Competitive Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudczak, Craig A.

    When the amount of available information exceeds the ability of the user to process it, "information overload" is created. In an attempt to maintain some control over the quantity of arguments they may face, debaters have developed adaptive behavior, primarily through the generic argument--any argument within a "deliverative"…

  9. Rewriting of States' Standards on Social Studies Stirs Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    As debate continues around the development and adoption of common standards in English and mathematics, several states are independently wrestling with rewrites of standards in a content area largely absent from that national discussion--social studies--and encountering their own shares of controversy. Flash points in the social studies debates…

  10. Debate for the Economics Class--And Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernecky, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Describes a technique for teaching economics that incorporates debate on economic policy proposals, including such topics as flat tax, welfare reform, affirmative action, industrial policy, balanced budget amendment, monetary policy, foreign currency bailout, minimum wage hikes, immigration policy, health care reform. The approach excites…

  11. Who Won the Debate in Women Education? Rousseau or Wollstonecraft?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Gyamfi, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    Curriculum framework in the education of children became debatable during the enlightenment. Jean-Jacque Rousseau's treatise, "Emile," outlined an educational curriculum based on natural rights. Rousseau thought education should be based on espousing and exploring the natural abilities of a person. Therefore, since women have a natural…

  12. Memorandum about the First Nixon-Kennedy Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, David L.

    2010-01-01

    On the morning of September 1, 1960, Herb Klein and Pierre Salinger met in the Mayflower Hotel in Washington, D.C., to discuss the details of what would be the first televised presidential debate. Klein was press secretary for Republican candidate Vice President Richard Nixon and Salinger was press secretary for Democratic candidate Senator John…

  13. The Debate on Dominant Culture and Cultural Imperialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    In this commentary, the author reviews in depth Roland S. Persson's (2012a) target article. According to him Persson (2012a) presents a convincing argument as he wove through examples and explanations. The idea of superculture connects well with the established neocolonial literature and the North-South/Centre-Periphery debate. From general to…

  14. Echo chamber and trench warfare dynamics in online debates.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Rune; Steen-Johnsen, Kari; Wollebæk, Dag; Enjolras, Bernard

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we take issue with the claim by Sunstein and others that online discussion takes place in echo chambers, and suggest that the dynamics of online debates could be more aptly described by the logic of 'trench warfare', in which opinions are reinforced through contradiction as well as confirmation. We use a unique online survey and an experimental approach to investigate and test echo chamber and trench warfare dynamics in online debates. The results show that people do indeed claim to discuss with those who hold opposite views from themselves. Furthermore, our survey experiments suggest that both confirming and contradicting arguments have similar effects on attitude reinforcement. Together, this indicates that both echo chamber and trench warfare dynamics - a situation where attitudes are reinforced through both confirmation and disconfirmation biases - characterize online debates. However, we also find that two-sided neutral arguments have weaker effects on reinforcement than one-sided confirming and contradicting arguments, suggesting that online debates could contribute to collective learning and qualification of arguments.

  15. Competitive Speech and Debate: How Play Influenced American Educational Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartanen, Michael D.; Littlefield, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors identify competitive speech and debate as a form of play that helped democratize American citizenship for the poor, who used what they learned through the practice to advance their personal social and economic goals. In addition, this competitive activity led to the development of speech communication as an academic discipline and…

  16. Teaching Critical Thinking in World Regional Geography through Stakeholder Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sziarto, Kristin M.; McCarthy, Linda; Padilla, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Using a stakeholder debate based on a real-world case of regional construction--that of Turkey's application to join the European Union--improved students' critical thinking in an introductory world regional geography course. Such courses are a staple offering among US geography departments, and often the only exposure of non-majors to geographic…

  17. The Seven Great Debates in the Media Literacy Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Renee

    As the media literacy movement gains momentum in the United States, the increasingly diverse community of educators, community organizers and activists, scholars, social service and media professionals have a lot of issues to debate because media literacy can take many different forms. Moreover, the techniques of media analysis can be relevant to…

  18. A Sociohistorical View of Reason and Emotion in Academic Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Phillip

    This paper examines the potential of sociohistorical theory for the study of academic debate. The essay describes sociohistorical theory (noting that it is most often attributed to the work of Lev Vygotsky and that contemporary scholars influenced by it include Jerome Bruner and James Wertsch), the relationship between reason and emotion from a…

  19. The nuclear debate: Deterrence and the lapse of faith

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This essay examines the growth of skepticism about the present system of nuclear deterrence. Tucker resists predicting the ultimate outcome, but he views the nuclear debate of this decade as an important ''lapse of faith'' in deterrence and he doubts there will ever be a full restoration of confidence.

  20. Safe Spaces: California Children Enter a Policy Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meucci, Sandra; Redmon, Jim

    1997-01-01

    Discusses how adolescents are defining their need for "safe spaces" in ways useful to the current policy debate about community safety. It reveals adolescent's greater interest in preserving public spaces and youth programs and offers new insights into the causes of youth crime. Reasons for cooperative efforts to define and explore…

  1. Debates about the Future of Media Literacy in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakmak, Ebubekir; Tuzel, Sait

    2015-01-01

    Media literacy has been widely debated in Turkey since the early 2000s and has been in the curriculum of the secondary schools as an optional subject for nearly a decade. During this time period, about four million students have received media literacy education. The multidisciplinary structure of media literacy has contributed to the interest of…

  2. Cultural Literacy: Is It Time to Revisit the Debate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweizer, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The author went to graduate school during the height of the culture wars, when the debate over the place of cultural literacy in the curriculum and the legitimacy of the great books approach was still raging. The first college class that he taught was structured around the theme "education and the making of knowledge," with E.D. Hirsch and Paulo…

  3. Outcomes of Adult Learning: Taking the Debate Forward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Huw, Ed.; Mace, Jackie, Ed.

    The four papers in this collection are intended to stimulate debate in the adult education sector and to set the agenda for further development work. "Learning Outcomes: Towards a Synthesis of Progress" (Peter Lavender) provides a summary of recent efforts to identify, record, and value learning that does not lead to qualifications.…

  4. Citizenship Education and the Dutch National Identity Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of dramatic demographic changes during the last half century as well as a series of recent events surrounding prominent personas, the Dutch have been engaged in an intense debate about their national identity and how citizenship education can contribute to the integration of Muslim immigrants in particular. This article analyses the…

  5. The National Debate Tournament: A Test of the AFA's Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegelmueller, George; Baron, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Notes that for two decades issues related to the National Debate Tournament (NDT) consumed major portions of the American Forensic Association's (AFA) annual business meetings. Reviews the circumstances leading to the AFA's vote to sponsor the NDT; examines the association's role in overseeing the NDT; and judges the significance of the…

  6. Computational Models in the Debate over Language Learnability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Frederic; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Bergen, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Computational models have played a central role in the debate over language learnability. This article discusses how they have been used in different "stances", from generative views to more recently introduced explanatory frameworks based on embodiment, cognitive development and cultural evolution. By digging into the details of certain specific…

  7. Memorandum about the First Nixon-Kennedy Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, David L.

    2010-01-01

    On the morning of September 1, 1960, Herb Klein and Pierre Salinger met in the Mayflower Hotel in Washington, D.C., to discuss the details of what would be the first televised presidential debate. Klein was press secretary for Republican candidate Vice President Richard Nixon and Salinger was press secretary for Democratic candidate Senator John…

  8. Math Wars: A Rhetorical Analysis of the Terms of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzaffar, Irfan

    2009-01-01

    This study concerns itself with the conflict in mathematics education--popularly known as "math wars"--in the United States. More specifically, it investigates the "terms of debate" in this conflict to develop insights into the varied, and sometimes conflicting, relationships between the perceived nature of mathematics and its…

  9. Practice Led Research: Creative Activity, Academic Debate, and Intellectual Rigour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Josie

    2012-01-01

    By focussing on PhD supervision as well as creativity, this paper explores how the artefact and exegesis PhD offers an opportunity to bring creative activity together with academic debate and intellectual rigour. In this context, the latter does not justify the former nor interpret it in an academic and theoretical way. Rather, acting together,…

  10. The Rhetorical Case: Its Roman Precedent and the Current Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a debate among Roman rhetoricians over declamation, an early case study method. Appraises contemporary concerns about the value of case study as a stimulant to problem-solving skills, its ability to imitate realistic circumstances of business and technical writing, and its emphasis on persona and audience along with its deemphasis of the…

  11. Debate-Creating vs. Accounting References in French Medical Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salager-Meyer, Francoise

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the quantitative and qualitative evolution of debate-creating vs. accounting references in 90 French medical articles published between 1810 and 1995. Suggests that nineteenth-century French academic writing tends to be more polemical or oppositional than cooperative by contrast to its twentieth-century counterpart. Suggests that the…

  12. Citizenship Education and the Dutch National Identity Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2010-01-01

    As a result of dramatic demographic changes during the last half century as well as a series of recent events surrounding prominent personas, the Dutch have been engaged in an intense debate about their national identity and how citizenship education can contribute to the integration of Muslim immigrants in particular. This article analyses the…

  13. Teaching Critical Thinking and Writing through Debates: An Experimental Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Charles S., III; Klug, Hadley G.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments with active and cooperative learning techniques designed to develop critical thinking and writing skills in large introductory level sociology courses. Finds debate and essay writing effectively modify students' opinions on social issues and help students develop these skills. Notes ethical issues involved in teaching critical…

  14. Teaching Critical Thinking in World Regional Geography through Stakeholder Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sziarto, Kristin M.; McCarthy, Linda; Padilla, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Using a stakeholder debate based on a real-world case of regional construction--that of Turkey's application to join the European Union--improved students' critical thinking in an introductory world regional geography course. Such courses are a staple offering among US geography departments, and often the only exposure of non-majors to geographic…

  15. Interaction Rescaled: How Monastic Debate Became a Diasporic Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lempert, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Rather than assume the relevance of "a priori" scalar distinctions (micro-, macro-, meso-), this article examines scale as an emergent dimension of sociospatial practice in educational institutions. Focusing on Buddhist debate at Tibetan monasteries in India, I describe how this educational practice has been placed as a rite of…

  16. Reframing the Student Loan Costing Debate: The Benefits of Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Fred; Wilson, Hoke

    2005-01-01

    As debate in Washington heats up regarding congressional reauthorization of the Higher Education Act, a central question involves what to do about the continued coexistence of the two student loan programs--the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) and the Direct Loan Program (DLP). With hundreds of millions of dollars at stake for banks,…

  17. Cultural Literacy: Is It Time to Revisit the Debate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweizer, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    The author went to graduate school during the height of the culture wars, when the debate over the place of cultural literacy in the curriculum and the legitimacy of the great books approach was still raging. The first college class that he taught was structured around the theme "education and the making of knowledge," with E.D. Hirsch and Paulo…

  18. The Great Diversity Debate: Embracing Pluralism in School and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppelman, Kent

    2011-01-01

    Based on research from multiple disciplines, "The Great Diversity Debate" describes the presence and growth of diversity in the United States from its earliest years to the present. The author describes the evolution of the concept of pluralism from a philosophical term to a concept used in many disciplines and with global significance. Rather…

  19. Debate over Social Studies Shows Little Sign of Abating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    The Texas board of education which consists of 15-member elected body drew national attention as a bloc of staunch conservatives largely succeeded in putting its stamp on a revised set of social studies standards. The debate was marked by tussles over such matters as the separation of church and state, the representation of minority figures and…

  20. Classroom Debate as an Experiential Activity across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Thomas K.; Pack, Gaylen N.

    Educational practices often concentrate on rote knowledge of facts while neglecting problem solving skills. When students are encouraged to think critically, analyze, and question they are far better prepared to deal with the future. Classroom debate can be an effective method in all subject areas to achieve this end, helping the student to move…

  1. Debating Professional Designations for Evaluators: Reflections on the Canadian Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, J. Bradley; Cullen, Jim; Malik, Sumbal; Maicher, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a reflective account of a consultation process on professional designations for evaluators initiated and coordinated by the Canadian Evaluation Society (CES). Described are: (1) the forces leading CES to generate discussion and debate about professional designations for Canadian evaluators, (2) the process of developing and…

  2. Debates about the Future of Media Literacy in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakmak, Ebubekir; Tuzel, Sait

    2015-01-01

    Media literacy has been widely debated in Turkey since the early 2000s and has been in the curriculum of the secondary schools as an optional subject for nearly a decade. During this time period, about four million students have received media literacy education. The multidisciplinary structure of media literacy has contributed to the interest of…

  3. Debates as a Business and Society Teaching Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Hal; Ebert, David G.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that the use of debates as a teaching method in a Business and Society course can provide students a way to see both sides of a controversial issue. Describes the procedures to be used and discusses benefits and limitations. (JOW)

  4. Language Study in Secondary Education--The Debate Continues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stork, F. C.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Three educators--F. C. Stork, Peter Doughty, and Tony Burgess--continue the debate begun in a previous issue of this journal (see EJ 221 441 and EJ 221 442) regarding the place of language study in the secondary English curriculum. (GT)

  5. The Nature-Nurture Debate and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    The contentious nature-nurture debate in developmental psychology is poised to reach a rapprochement with contemporary concepts of gene-environment interaction, transaction, and fit. Discoveries over the past decade have revealed how neither genes nor the environment offers a sufficient window into human development. Rather, the most important…

  6. Issues in Sociobiology: The Nature vs. Nurture Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzen, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Explains the two theories on the origins of human and animal behavior. Introduces the new discipline of sociobiology, a merging of biology and sociology. Describes the central dogma of sociobiology and its societal implications, and discusses criticism of sociobiology. Presents the nature vs. nurture debate. (YDS)

  7. Using Structured Debate to Achieve Autonomous Student Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musselman, Elizabeth Green

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a technique she uses to achieve an autonomous student discussion. The technique involves setting up highly structured debates, whose content is informed by coherent sets of primary sources and whose form models one aspect of how professional historians work. Students are required to read about twenty to…

  8. Old and new ethics in the stem cell debate.

    PubMed

    Doerflinger, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    The debate about embryonic stem cell research is a conflict not between "religion" and "science," but between two ethical approaches to the dignity of human beings. The newer, more pragmatic ethic is not necessarily more conducive to rapid medical progress as is often assumed.

  9. On the "Uses" of Rubrics: Reframing the Great Rubric Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Eric D.; Gallagher, Chris W.

    2008-01-01

    Reframing the Great Rubric Debate beyond the taking of sides, Eric D. Turley and Chris W. Gallagher propose a set of questions designed to help educators assess the value of rubrics: (1) What is the tool for?; (2) In what context is it used?; (3) Who decides:; and (4) What ideological agenda drives those decisions? They contend that these four…

  10. The Debate about Delayed Memories of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enns, Carolyn Zerbe; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the current debate regarding the veracity of delayed memories of child sexual abuse, describes the historical context in which this controversy occurs, discusses the growth and development of psychotherapy for trauma survivors, and reviews the theoretical and empirical literature relevant to abuse memories. Presents recommendations for…

  11. Contextualised Performance: Reframing the Skills Debate in Research Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Jim

    2010-01-01

    In Australia, as in the UK, much of the skills debate in research education has reflected a deficit model, whereby candidates are deemed to be in need of supplementary training. In response to the demands of employers and governments, most universities have added employability skills to postgraduate curricula, while simultaneously boosting their…

  12. The Participation of Sociologists in the Nuclear Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Elise

    Sociologists have much to contribute to the nuclear debate, yet they have remained largely unorganized and hesitant about their potential contribution to this crucial issue. While physical scientists and social scientists from other disciplines have developed numerous organizations to address the threat of war, especially nuclear war, since the…

  13. Special Section: A Debate on Research Techniques in Economic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, George G.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Dawson introduces three articles which debate merits of research techniques in undergraduate economic education. William E. Becker criticizes John C. Soper's models, multicollinearity argument, and student incentives in a research project; Soper replies; Robert Highsmith critically analyzes strengths and weaknesses of each argument. (AV)

  14. Math Wars: A Rhetorical Analysis of the Terms of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muzaffar, Irfan

    2009-01-01

    This study concerns itself with the conflict in mathematics education--popularly known as "math wars"--in the United States. More specifically, it investigates the "terms of debate" in this conflict to develop insights into the varied, and sometimes conflicting, relationships between the perceived nature of mathematics and its…

  15. The Boussinesq Debate: Reversibility, Instability, and Free Will.

    PubMed

    Michael Mueller, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    In 1877, a young mathematician named Joseph Boussinesq presented a mémoire to the Académie des sciences which demonstrated that some differential equations may have more than one solution. Boussinesq linked this fact to indeterminism and to a possible solution to the free will versus determinism debate. Boussinesq's main interest was to reconcile his philosophical and religious views with science by showing that matter and motion do not suffice to explain all there is in the world. His argument received mixed criticism that addressed both his philosophical views and the scientific content of his work, pointing to the physical "realisticness" of multiple solutions. While Boussinesq proved to be able to face the philosophical criticism, the scientific objections became a serious problem, thus slowly moving the focus of the debate from the philosophical plane to the scientific one. This change of perspective implied a wide discussion on topics such as instability, the sensitivity to initial conditions, and the conservation of energy. The Boussinesq debate is an example of a philosophically motivated debate that transforms into a scientific one, an example of the influence of philosophy on the development of science.

  16. UK parliamentary debate analysis: bombing ISIL in Syria.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the arguments presented for and against the UK government's motion for the UK to intervene militarily in Syria in the House of Commons debate on ISIL in Syria that took place on 2 December 2015. It considers what the most common arguments were in favour of and in opposition to the motion as well as which arguments were given the most emphasis, in order to understand the prime justifications given that led to the decision to approve the motion. It suggests that due to the shadow of the 2003 Iraq war, politicians in the debate placed a considerable emphasis on the legal justification for military intervention. It argues that the focus on the national security of the UK and its allies in this particular debate seems to contrast with previous military interventions where humanitarian motives were more widely stated. This paper calls for further comparative research of parliamentary debates in order to track such changes in the rhetoric used by UK politicians to defend their support for military intervention.

  17. Institutional Diversity in Ontario's University Sector: A Policy Debate Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piché, Pierre G.; Jones, Glen A.

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the demands in a cost-effective manner of an emerging knowledge society that is global in scope, structural higher education policy changes have been introduced in many countries with a focus on systemic and programmatic diversity. There has been an ongoing debate about institutional diversity in Ontario higher education,…

  18. Hippocampus minor, calcar avis, and the Huxley-Owen debate.

    PubMed

    Owen, Christopher M; Howard, Allyson; Binder, Devin K

    2009-12-01

    On the bicentennial of Darwin's birth, we describe the origin of the calcar avis and summarize the debate around this structure, which played a central role in the evolution debate in the mid-19th century. We performed a comprehensive review of relevant neuroanatomic literature, bibliographic sources, and 19th century primary sources. Once known as the hippocampus minor, the structure now known as the calcar avis is an involution of the ventricular wall produced by the calcarine fissure. A heated debate raged between 2 prominent scientific theorists, Sir Richard Owen and Thomas Henry Huxley, over the presence of the hippocampus minor in apes versus humans. Owen put forward the lack of an identifiable hippocampus minor in humans as part of an attempt to debunk evolution. A bitter personal and academic rivalry ensued, as Huxley conducted his own dissections to refute Owen's claims. Huxley ultimately dismantled Owen's premises, securing the epithet "Darwin's bulldog" for his defense of the theory of evolution. Thus, this relatively obscure neuroanatomic landmark served as a pivotal point of contention in the most popularized and acrimonious evolutionary debate of the 19th century.

  19. Leading on Inclusion: Dilemmas, Debates and New Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornwall, John, Ed.; Graham-Matheson, Lynne, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Leading on Inclusion: Dilemmas, debates and new perspectives" critically examines the current theory and legislative context of special educational needs and disability, and explores the enduring issues and opportunities that will affect future practice in all schools. The central theme throughout the book asks the inevitable question "What…

  20. [The parliamentary debate on immigration and health in Spain].

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Gil-González, Diana; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Ronda-Pérez, Elena

    2009-08-01

    Describing and analysing the Spanish Parliamentary debate on immigration and health. A systematic search regarding parliamentary initiatives (PI) on immigration and immigration and health was conducted from the beginning of the Spanish democratic period (1979 to 2007). A protocol for collecting information was used to identify the parliamentary debate's main characteristics and the main topics related to PI concerning immigration and health. The PI immigration rate was calculated regarding the total rate of PI about the immigrant population based on the Spanish population per year. 4,022 PI concerning "immigration" were identified. The main content concerned statistical information about the immigrant population (57.2 %). 116 PI about "immigration and health" were analysed. The most frequently recurring topics were health-care strategies (25 %), health-service access (24.1 %) and epidemiological information (19.8 %). Most PI concerned questions related to the function of government control (94 %). No decisions were taken in 113 PI (97.4 %). Immigrant population rates increased per year; however, notable changes in PI regarding immigration were not observed until 1996 and PI about immigration and health until 1999. The immigration and health debate on the parliamentary agenda is heterogeneous. It would seem necessary to increase parliamentary debate about strategies and action for promoting immigrant-based needs in health.

  1. Debating Professional Designations for Evaluators: Reflections on the Canadian Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousins, J. Bradley; Cullen, Jim; Malik, Sumbal; Maicher, Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a reflective account of a consultation process on professional designations for evaluators initiated and coordinated by the Canadian Evaluation Society (CES). Described are: (1) the forces leading CES to generate discussion and debate about professional designations for Canadian evaluators, (2) the process of developing and…

  2. The 'political correctness' debate and caring in psychiatric nursing.

    PubMed

    Hopton, J

    1995-10-01

    In recent years the controversy over so-called 'political correctness' has figured prominently in discourses of higher education. In terms of nursing, the issue of 'political correctness' cannot be confined to intellectual word-games, but is of key significance in the debate around the nature of professional caring. This paper is a discussion of the relevance of the controversy around 'political correctness' to the practice of psychiatric nursing. It placed the 'political correctness' debate in the context of the current debate within nursing about definitions of 'caring', and discusses the connections between both these debates and the theoretical imperatives of person-centered psychology. After discussing the particular problems which arise when the three issues of 'political correctness', 'caring' and humanistic psychology are brought together in this way; it proposes a politically focused strategy for the future development of psychiatric nursing. Although it is written from the perspective of psychiatric nursing in Britain and is very much concerned with the use of a particular language; the arguments put forward are equally appropriate to other English-speaking countries, and perhaps also to non-English speaking countries.

  3. Rainbow: A Framework for Analysing Computer-Mediated Pedagogical Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; Andriessen, Jerry; Lund, Kristine; van Amelsvoort, Marie; Quignard, Matthieu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for analysing when and how students engage in a specific form of interactive knowledge elaboration in CSCL environments: broadening and deepening understanding of a space of debate. The framework is termed "Rainbow," as it comprises seven principal analytical categories, to each of which a colour is assigned,…

  4. Young People and Sexuality Education: Rethinking Key Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    This book innovatively re-envisions the possibilities of sexuality education. Utilizing student critiques of programs it reconfigures key debates in sexuality education including: Should pleasure be part of the curriculum? Who makes the best educators? Do students prefer single or mixed gender classes?

  5. Higher Education and the Debate on Key/Generic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehralizadeh, Yadollah; Salehi, Ebrahim; Marashi, Sid Mansur

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses current questions about the importance of key/generic skills in higher education, based on a Meta-evaluation methodology. It is argued that key skills are a matter of debate among educators and other researchers in the Noe- and post-Ford economy. The article also analyzes questions that relate to the rationality of…

  6. Impossible Dreams, Impossible Choices, and Thoughts about Depolarizing the Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Susan L.; Beckstead, A. Lee; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Haldeman, Douglas C.

    2004-01-01

    The titles of the reactions to this major contribution alone set the stage for further exploration of the issues regarding the hopes and dreams of same-sex attracted (SSA) clients in religious conflict and their therapists, issues of choice, and whether or not it is possible - or even appropriate - to depolarize the current debate (Gonsiorek,…

  7. Rainbow: A Framework for Analysing Computer-Mediated Pedagogical Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; Andriessen, Jerry; Lund, Kristine; van Amelsvoort, Marie; Quignard, Matthieu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a framework for analysing when and how students engage in a specific form of interactive knowledge elaboration in CSCL environments: broadening and deepening understanding of a space of debate. The framework is termed "Rainbow," as it comprises seven principal analytical categories, to each of which a colour is assigned,…

  8. Cost Estimates for Federal Student Loans: The Market Cost Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In an ongoing debate about the relative costs of the federal government's direct and guaranteed student loan programs, some budget experts and private lenders have argued for the use of "market cost" estimates. They assert that official government cost estimates for federal student loans differ from what private entities would likely charge…

  9. You, Too, Can be a Legislator! English, Debate, American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Barbara R.; Biesekerski, Joan

    The purpose of this quinmester course is to engage secondary students into acting out the role of legislators, requiring them to practice effective extemporaneous speaking, prepared public speaking, and congressional debating techniques. A full understanding of specific parliamentary procedures and methods used in the federal legislative branch is…

  10. The Baby, the Bathwater, and the "Language Instinct" Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowley, Stephen J.

    2001-01-01

    Reviewing the language instinct debate, this article identifies generativist views with the baby's proverbial bathwater. Suggests that instead of analyzing language into form-based units, it should be treated as an aspect of social life deriving from a capacity to contextualize experience. (Author/VWL)

  11. Young People and Sexuality Education: Rethinking Key Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    This book innovatively re-envisions the possibilities of sexuality education. Utilizing student critiques of programs it reconfigures key debates in sexuality education including: Should pleasure be part of the curriculum? Who makes the best educators? Do students prefer single or mixed gender classes?

  12. The National Debate Tournament: A Test of the AFA's Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegelmueller, George; Baron, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Notes that for two decades issues related to the National Debate Tournament (NDT) consumed major portions of the American Forensic Association's (AFA) annual business meetings. Reviews the circumstances leading to the AFA's vote to sponsor the NDT; examines the association's role in overseeing the NDT; and judges the significance of the…

  13. Using the Subjective Probability Model to Evaluate Academic Debate Arguments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mike; Kellermann, Kathy

    1988-01-01

    Explores the worth of high impact/low probability arguments as "real world" policy arguments. Evaluates four National Debate Tournament (NDT) final round disadvantages by students using the subjective probability model. Finds that although NDT disadvantages were perceived to be a technically sound form of argumentation, they were not…

  14. Toward a Broader Perspective in the Evolutionism-Creationism Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strahler, Arthur N.

    1983-01-01

    Examines creationism/evolution debate in context of philosophy using ontological models in which reality is assigned to one or both natural or transnatural (supernatural) realms. The six models (theistic-teleological dualism; deistic-mechanistic dualism; fundamentalist creationism; atheistic monism; theistic monism; mechanistic monism) deal with…

  15. Reel Reform: Documentaries Spur Debate about Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Three new American documentaries including "Waiting for Superman," "The Lottery, Race to Nowhere" and one British entry, "We are the People We've Been Waiting For," have animated school reform debates. Each of these documentaries seeks to disturb the entrenched thinking by claiming that our educational institutions…

  16. The Use and Misuse of Evidence in Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulrich, Walter

    There is a tendency for debaters and judges to view a single quote or opinion as conclusive evidence proving a point. But evidence can only point toward a conclusion; it cannot prove a conclusion conclusively. Experts may offer their opinions (sometimes as fact) but these opinions are only educated guesses. This is not to say that evidence from…

  17. The Perceptual Distortion of Height in Intercollegiate Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Wayne E.; Angoli, Marilyn

    Both balance and reinforcement theories were used in an examination of the perceptual distortion of height among 146 college debaters. Balance theory predicted that losers would distort winners' heights upward; reinforcement theory predicted that winners would distort losers' heights upward. The results confirmed both predictions. The possibility…

  18. Debate for the Economics Class--And Others.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pernecky, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Describes a technique for teaching economics that incorporates debate on economic policy proposals, including such topics as flat tax, welfare reform, affirmative action, industrial policy, balanced budget amendment, monetary policy, foreign currency bailout, minimum wage hikes, immigration policy, health care reform. The approach excites…

  19. How To Debate. Revised Edition. (A Speak Out, Write On! Book).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Robert E.

    Intended for the young person who is interested in learning the fine points of debate, this handbook states that debate can influence people, sharpen the mind, and enhance a person's speaking abilities. The handbook covers a range of subjects of interest to the young debater--for example, (1) how debates are judged; (2) how to prepare for a…

  20. The Benevolent Technocrat: Michael Dukakis' Strategy in the 1988 Presidential Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbeck, Dale A.

    Michael Dukakis lost the presidential campaign debates of 1988 (or at least failed to capitalize as much as he might have) because he understood the debates to be genuine debates. Consequently, Dukakis acted as a debater generating an image of himself as a "benevolent technocrat," which was an error. It must be pointed out that the…

  1. Classroom Debate Format: Effect on Student Learning and Revelations about Student Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessier, Jack T.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the effect of debate format on learning, four formats were separately employed in an environmental issues course. Learning was greatest when students wrote about a debate they witnessed, the teacher provided debate questions, and students received a reward for winning. Students valued debates for developing their arguing skills, used the…

  2. CEDA vs NDT: The Fact-Value Dichotomy Emerges in Educational Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Anway

    To eliminate the rapid pace, heavy reliance on evidence cards, and professional jargon associated with the debate style of the National Debate Topic (NDT), the Cross Examination Debate Association (CEDA) proposed the use of a value topic--instead of a policy topic--to restore balance among argument, analysis, and evidence in debate. Initial…

  3. Designing for students' science learning using argumentation and classroom debate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Philip Laverne

    1998-12-01

    This research investigates how to design and introduce an educational innovation into a classroom setting to support learning. The research yields cognitive design principles for instruction involving scientific argumentation and debate. Specifically, eighth-grade students used a computer learning environment to construct scientific arguments and to participate in a classroom debate. The instruction was designed to help students integrate their science understanding by debating: How far does light go, does light die out over distance or go forever until absorbed? This research explores the tension between focusing students' conceptual change on specific scientific phenomena and their development of integrated understanding. I focus on the importance of connecting students' everyday experiences and intuitions to their science learning. The work reported here characterizes how students see the world through a filter of their own understanding. It explores how individual and social mechanisms in instruction support students as they expand the range of ideas under consideration and distinguish between these ideas using scientific criteria. Instruction supported students as they engaged in argumentation and debate on a set of multimedia evidence items from the World-Wide-Web. An argument editor called SenseMaker was designed and studied with the intent of making individual and group thinking visible during instruction. Over multiple classroom trials, different student cohorts were increasingly supported in scientific argumentation involving systematic coordination of evidence with theoretical ideas about light. Students' knowledge representations were used as mediating "learning artifacts" during classroom debate. Two argumentation conditions were investigated. The Full Scope group prepared to defend either theoretical position in the debate. These students created arguments that included more theoretical conjectures and made more conceptual progress in understanding

  4. Understanding conservationists' perspectives on the new-conservation debate.

    PubMed

    Holmes, George; Sandbrook, Chris; Fisher, Janet A

    2017-04-01

    A vibrant debate about the future direction of biodiversity conservation centers on the merits of the so-called new conservation. Proponents of the new conservation advocate a series of positions on key conservation ideas, such as the importance of human-dominated landscapes and conservation's engagement with capitalism. These have been fiercely contested in a debate dominated by a few high-profile individuals, and so far there has been no empirical exploration of existing perspectives on these issues among a wider community of conservationists. We used Q methodology to examine empirically perspectives on the new conservation held by attendees at the 2015 International Congress for Conservation Biology (ICCB). Although we identified a consensus on several key issues, 3 distinct positions emerged: in favor of conservation to benefit people but opposed to links with capitalism and corporations, in favor of biocentric approaches but with less emphasis on wilderness protection than prominent opponents of new conservation, and in favor of the published new conservation perspective but with less emphasis on increasing human well-being as a goal of conservation. Our results revealed differences between the debate on the new conservation in the literature and views held within a wider, but still limited, conservation community and demonstrated the existence of at least one viewpoint (in favor of conservation to benefit people but opposed to links with capitalism and corporations) that is almost absent from the published debate. We hope the fuller understanding we present of the variety of views that exist but have not yet been heard, will improve the quality and tone of debates on the subject.

  5. Dialogic and Direct Instruction: Two Distinct Models of Mathematics Instruction and the Debate(s) Surrounding Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munter, Charles; Stein, Mary Kay; Smith, Margaret Austin

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Which ideas should be included in the K-12 curriculum, how they are learned, and how they should be taught have been debated for decades in multiple subjects. In this article, we offer mathematics as a case in point of how new standards-related policies may offer an opportunity for reassessment and clarification of such…

  6. Dialogic and Direct Instruction: Two Distinct Models of Mathematics Instruction and the Debate(s) Surrounding Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munter, Charles; Stein, Mary Kay; Smith, Margaret Austin

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Which ideas should be included in the K-12 curriculum, how they are learned, and how they should be taught have been debated for decades in multiple subjects. In this article, we offer mathematics as a case in point of how new standards-related policies may offer an opportunity for reassessment and clarification of such…

  7. Poinsinet's Edition of the Naturalis historia (1771-1782) and the Revival of Pliny in the Sciences of the Enlightenment.

    PubMed

    Loveland, Jeff; Schmitt, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the revival of Pliny's Naturalis historia within the scientific culture of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, focusing on a French effort to produce an edition with annotations by scientists and scholars. Between the Renaissance and the early eighteenth century, the Naturalis historia had declined in scientific importance. Increasingly, it was relegated to the humanities, as we demonstrate with a review of editions. For a variety of reasons, however, scientific interest in the Naturalis historia grew in the second half of the eighteenth century. Epitomizing this interest was a plan for a scientifically annotated, Latin-French edition of the Naturalis historia. Initially coordinated by the French governmental minister Malesherbes in the 1750s, the edition was imperfectly realized by Poinsinet a few decades later. It was intended to rival two of the period's other distinguished multi-volume books of knowledge, Diderot and D'Alembert's Encyclopédie and Buffon's Histoire naturelle, to which we compare it. Besides narrating the scientific revival of the Historia naturalis during this period, we examine its causes and the factors contributing to its end in the first half of the nineteenth century.

  8. [The medical world of Juan Gil de Zamora's Historia Naturalis (ca. 1275-1296)].

    PubMed

    García Ballester, L; Domínguez, A

    1994-01-01

    The article describes the authors and works which were quoted by the Franciscan Juan Gil de Zamora in his Historia naturalis, a scientific encyclopaedia written between c. 1275 and before 1296, probably in the Franciscan monastery of Zamora (Kingdom of Castille). Juan Gil made wide use of the Avicenna's Canon, Gilbertus de Aquila (Anglicus)'s Compendium medicine, and Salernitan medical literature. His work contributed to the diffusion of these medical authors and works throughout the Christian intellectual milieu of late medieval Castille. This diffusion was not without problems.

  9. The French bioethics debate: norms, values and practices.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Véronique; Spranzi, Marta

    2013-02-01

    In 1994, France passed bioethics laws regulating assisted reproductive technologies, organ donations and prenatal diagnosis. These laws were based upon a few principles considered as fundamental: the anonymity and gratuity of all donations concerning the elements of the human body, free and informed consent, and the interdiction of all commercial transactions on the human body. These laws have been the object of heated debates which continue to this day. On the basis on a few clinical ethics studies conducted by the Center for clinical ethics at the Cochin Hospital in Paris, the articles presented in this special issues explore several aspects of the bioethics debate, and relate it to the more general question of the complex relationship between norms, practices and values.

  10. Qualitative inquiry and the debate between hermeneutics and critical theory.

    PubMed

    Shaw, James A; DeForge, Ryan T

    2014-11-01

    Two issues have been central to ongoing disputes about judgments of quality in qualitative inquiry: (a) the ways in which paradigmatic orientations are understood to guide procedural decisions and (b) the meaning and intelligibility of paradigmatic incommensurability. In this article, we address these two key issues through an exploration of the debates between hermeneutics and critical social theory, including the exchanges between Hans-Georg Gadamer and Jurgen Habermas, and between Richard Rorty and Thomas McCarthy. We suggest that the key epistemological issue addressed in these debates is the nature of interpretation, separating the two philosophical camps based on beliefs about whether foundational knowledge is possible to achieve. We conclude the article by discussing the implications of these different positions for beliefs about quality in qualitative inquiry, and comment on the role of judgment in assessments of the value and quality of different approaches to qualitative research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Relevance of the nature vs nurture debate to clinical nursing.

    PubMed

    McVicar, A; Clancy, J

    The philosophy of holistic care underpins nurse education, and the 'nature-nurture debate' is frequently used to facilitate discussion regarding the influence of interactions with the environment in 'shaping' the individual. A limitation to this approach is that much of the work cited in the literature relates primarily to psychosocial interactions. This conveys a narrow perspective on holism, and creates an impression that the debate cannot be applied to other aspects of health and wellbeing, yet models of nursing care emphasize the need for nurses to appreciate the interactional basis of health. This article uses examples from mental health, physical health and the influence of ageing, to argue that interactions must be viewed from a much wider perspective. Only in doing so can the principles and application of holistic care, and an understanding of the bases of health education practices, be appreciated.

  12. Distributing responsibility in the debate on sustainable biofuels.

    PubMed

    Landeweerd, Laurens; Osseweijer, Patricia; Kinderlerer, Julian

    2009-12-01

    In the perception of technology innovation two world views compete for domination: technological and social determinism. Technological determinism holds that societal change is caused by technological developments, social determinism holds the opposite. Although both were quite central to discussion in the philosophy, history and sociology of technology in the 1970s and 1980s, neither is seen as mainstream now. They do still play an important role as background philosophies in societal debates and offer two very different perspectives on where the responsibilities for an ethically sound development of novel technologies lie. In this paper we will elaborate on these to two opposing views on technology development taking the recent debate on the implementation of biofuels as a case example.

  13. The heterogeneity of mental representation: Ending the imagery debate

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Joel; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    The possible ways that information can be represented mentally have been discussed often over the past thousand years. However, this issue could not be addressed rigorously until late in the 20th century. Initial empirical findings spurred a debate about the heterogeneity of mental representation: Is all information stored in propositional, language-like, symbolic internal representations, or can humans use at least two different types of representations (and possibly many more)? Here, in historical context, we describe recent evidence that humans do not always rely on propositional internal representations but, instead, can also rely on at least one other format: depictive representation. We propose that the debate should now move on to characterizing all of the different forms of human mental representation. PMID:26175024

  14. The acid rain debate. Scientific, economic, and political dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Yanarella, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of essays focuses on the political and legal aspects of the acid rain debate, the policy options for resolving the controversy, and the international dimensions of acid rain control. The contributors highlight concerns drawn primarily from the developing study of acid rain in political science, economics, public administration, and policy analysis - concerns that are the focal point of the public debate over the nature, impact, and cost of acid rain and the mitigation of its effects. The book complements the body of research from the natural sciences and responds to the need for applied study to help resolve the current policy stalemate on this environmental issue. The essays are supplemented by a comprehensive annotated bibliography on acid rain and relevant social science research.

  15. Understanding the debate around regulation of support workers.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Suzanne; Melling, Karen; O'Reilly, Lynn; Cooper, Denise

    While much is written about the regulation of healthcare support workers (HCSWs), many authors and policy makers do not distinguish between assumption and evidence. As calls for compulsory regulation of HCSWs grow louder, it is crucial that the evidence underpinning the debate on both sides is considered carefully and critically. The authors reviewed journal articles and policy documents with the specific aim of clarifying the arguments for and against further regulation from an evidence-based perspective. The majority of material recommended HCSW regulation, however, the mechanisms by which regulation would deliver better patient care were often missing and were rarely evidence-based. This article provides clear definitions of the key terms and processes needed to engage in the debate, followed by a summary of the arguments for and against the regulation of support workers.

  16. ADHD drugs: values that drive the debates and decisions.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Susan

    2007-06-01

    Use of medication for treatment of ADHD (or its historical precursors) has been debated for more than forty years. Reasons for the ongoing differences of opinion are analyzed by exploring some of the arguments for and against considering ADHD a mental disorder. Relative to two important DSM criteria - that a mental disorder causes some sort of harm to the individual and that a mental disorder is the manifestation of a dysfunction in the individual - ADHD's classification as a mental disorder is found to be contentiously value-laden. The disagreements spill over to reasoning regarding appropriate management, because justification for a drug prescription is in part predicated on the idea that the drugs manage mental disorders. These debates do not appear to be nearing resolution, so individuals offering advice, or trying to decide whether ADHD drugs are appropriate for themselves or their children, may find it helpful to compare the values underlying various perspectives with their own.

  17. Gain-of-function experiments: time for a real debate.

    PubMed

    Duprex, W Paul; Fouchier, Ron A M; Imperiale, Michael J; Lipsitch, Marc; Relman, David A

    2015-01-01

    According to the WHO, dual use research of concern (DURC) is "life sciences research that is intended for benefit, but which might easily be misapplied to do harm". Recent studies, particularly those on influenza viruses, have led to renewed attention on DURC, as there is an ongoing debate over whether the benefits of gain-of-function (GOF) experiments that result in an increase in the transmission and/or pathogenicity of potential pandemic pathogens (PPPs) are outweighed by concerns over biosecurity and biosafety. In this Viewpoint article, proponents and opponents of GOF experiments discuss the benefits and risks associated with these studies, as well as the implications of the current debate for the scientific community and the general public, and suggest how the current discussion should move forward.

  18. Metaphors, stigma and the 'Alzheimerization' of the euthanasia debate.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports the findings of an unobtrusive research inquiry investigating the possible use and misuse of Alzheimer's disease in public policy debate on the legalization of euthanasia. The component of the study being reported identified the problematic use of five key metaphors: the Alzheimer metaphor, which in turn was reinforced by three additional metaphors--the epidemic metaphor, the military metaphor, and the predatory thief metaphor; and the euthanasia metaphor. All metaphors were found to be morally loaded and used influentially to stigmatize Alzheimer's disease and mediate public opinion supporting the legalization of euthanasia as an end-of-life 'solution' for people with the disease. It is contended that, in the interests of promoting intellectual honesty and giving proper recognition to the extraordinary complexity of the issue, the problematic use and influence of metaphoric thinking in the public debate about Alzheimer's disease and euthanasia needs to be made transparent, questioned and challenged.

  19. The heterogeneity of mental representation: Ending the imagery debate.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Joel; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2015-08-18

    The possible ways that information can be represented mentally have been discussed often over the past thousand years. However, this issue could not be addressed rigorously until late in the 20th century. Initial empirical findings spurred a debate about the heterogeneity of mental representation: Is all information stored in propositional, language-like, symbolic internal representations, or can humans use at least two different types of representations (and possibly many more)? Here, in historical context, we describe recent evidence that humans do not always rely on propositional internal representations but, instead, can also rely on at least one other format: depictive representation. We propose that the debate should now move on to characterizing all of the different forms of human mental representation.

  20. Ssk or Esw? -- the Bloor-Lynch Debate Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kai-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    Philosophical discussions of rule-following in the later Wittgenstein (1953, 1967) are an important source of inspiration for the development of views on the social nature of scientific knowledge. Two major opposing views in this inquiry -- Bloor's sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) (1983, 1991, 1992, 1997) and Lynch's (1992, 1993) ethnomethodological studies of work (ESW) -- represent two positions derived from two different readings of Wittgenstein's later writings on rule-following. The aim of this paper is two-fold. One is to re-examine the noted Bloor-Lynch debate by considering Kusch's (2004) recent discussion of this debate. Another is to show that a new semantic framework of rule-following ascriptions based on a cognitive approach to the study of generics can be provided such that SSK and ESW are compatible in it (Leslie, 2009; Cheng, 2011).

  1. Embryo research in Italy: the bioethical and biojuridical debate.

    PubMed

    Palazzani, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the discussion on the status of the human embryo in Italy on a philosophical, socio-ethical and juridical level before, during and after the law (n. 40/2004). Different lines of thought are outlined and critically discussed. The focus is the debate over the so-called embryonic stem cells, pointing out the ethical premises and the juridical implications. The regulations in Italy are analysed in detail, referring to legislation and jurisprudence (showing analogies and differences). In particular the author includes evidence for the debate after the law came in, with specific attention on the question of the use of imported embryonic stem cells and public financing for research and the problem of the use of frozen and non-implantable embryos.

  2. Stem cell plasticity: the debate begins to clarify.

    PubMed

    Spyridonidis, Alexandros; Zeiser, Robert; Follo, Marie; Metaxas, Yannis; Finke, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    The stem cell story begins with the recognition of the regenerative powers of the head of the Lernean Hydra and the human liver (Prometheus) by the ancient Greeks. In modern times, the adult human stem cell has been epitomized by the hematopoietic stem cell in the bone marrow. More recently, bone marrow derived cells were reported to contribute to nonhematopoietic organs, suggesting a level of plasticity not previously expected. However, other reports failed to repeat some of these results, resulting in a heated debate on the plasticity of adult stem cells that has crossed over into the public domain and become a matter of political impact on the use of embryonic vs adult stem cells for organ regeneration or gene therapy. This review discusses the current status of the "plasticity" debate and presents existing data on detection methodology, underlying mechanisms, physiological implications, and clinical significance.

  3. The visible politics of the privatization debate in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Abelson, Julia; Lamarche, Paul; Bohémier, Katia

    2012-08-01

    This paper analyzes the debates surrounding the privatization of health services financing in Quebec. The objective is to clarify policy-making processes with regard to this important issue and, more generally, to provide a realistic understanding of health-related policy processes in Canada. The analysis is based on a large and continuous sample of mass media and National Assembly debates on the question during the four-and-a-half years following the Chaoulli ruling of the Supreme Court of Canada. These data are used to test four hypotheses about relationships among the types of political actors involved, their policy preferences, the rhetoric they use and the anticipated policy effects they assert. The results are applied to a discussion of questions about the factors that influence the effectiveness of political communication. Copyright © 2012 Longwoods Publishing.

  4. The Visible Politics of the Privatization Debate in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Abelson, Julia; Lamarche, Paul; Bohémier, Katia

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the debates surrounding the privatization of health services financing in Quebec. The objective is to clarify policy-making processes with regard to this important issue and, more generally, to provide a realistic understanding of health-related policy processes in Canada. The analysis is based on a large and continuous sample of mass media and National Assembly debates on the question during the four-and-a-half years following the Chaoulli ruling of the Supreme Court of Canada. These data are used to test four hypotheses about relationships among the types of political actors involved, their policy preferences, the rhetoric they use and the anticipated policy effects they assert. The results are applied to a discussion of questions about the factors that influence the effectiveness of political communication. PMID:23968604

  5. Shifting ethics: debating the incentive question in organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Joralemon, D.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews the discussion within transplantation medicine about the organ supply and demand problem. The focus is on the evolution of attitudes toward compensation plans from the early 1980s to the present. A vehement rejection on ethical grounds of anything but uncompensated donation—once the professional norm—has slowly been replaced by an open debate of plans that offer financial rewards to persons willing to have their organs, or the organs of deceased kin, taken for transplantation. The paper asks how this shift has occurred and what it tells us about the dynamics of bioethical debates, both within professional circles and in wider public arenas. Key Words: Organ transplantation • financial incentives • donation PMID:11233375

  6. The Story of California. Student Workbook. Teacher's Edition = Libro de Trabajo de La Historia de California. Edicion del Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray (Naomi) Associates, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    The workbook is designed to accompany a textbook, "The Story of California," a Spanish-English bilingual history and geography of the state intended for classroom use by limited-English-proficient, native Spanish-speaking students in California's urban middle schools. The teacher's edition, presented here, consists of reproductions of 51…

  7. The Story of California. Student Workbook. Teacher's Edition = Libro de Trabajo de La Historia de California. Edicion del Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray (Naomi) Associates, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    The workbook is designed to accompany a textbook, "The Story of California," a Spanish-English bilingual history and geography of the state intended for classroom use by limited-English-proficient, native Spanish-speaking students in California's urban middle schools. The teacher's edition, presented here, consists of reproductions of 51…

  8. Lowest Price Technically Acceptable: Why All the Debate?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    perceived overuse by the Department of Defense (DoD) of the Lowest Priced Technically Accept-able (LPTA) source-selection process. In appropriate...pressure on price . Furthermore, industry contends, overusing LPTA in the long haul will erode the DoD technological edge through low-cost/low-performance...contracting missions. Lowest Price Technically Acceptable Why All the Debate? Scott R. Calisti Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188

  9. Advancing animal welfare science: sharing knowledge, debating issues.

    PubMed

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-07-23

    Established animal welfare scientists and others at the beginning of their career gathered in York last month to discuss recent advances in animal welfare science. Organised by the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, the meeting aimed to provide a forum for sharing knowledge and practice, discussion and debate. Rachel Orritt, a PhD researcher at the University of Lincoln, reports on proceedings. British Veterinary Association.

  10. Defense Economics Conference (2004). Military Compensation: Informing the Debate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-09

    the Debate 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Institute for Defense Analyses 4850 Mark Center Drive Alexandria, VA 22311-1882 8. PERFORMING...ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT

  11. Debating the Effectiveness and Necessity of Tenure in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Asbill, Scott; Moultry, Aisha Morris; Policastri, Anne; Sincak, Carrie A.; Smith, Lisa S.

    2016-01-01

    Academic tenure is a controversial and highly debated topic. Is tenure truly outdated or does it simply need to be reformed? On one hand, the tenure system has shortcomings including deincentivizing productive faculty members, inconsistent application of tenure policies and procedures, and the potential for discrimination during tenure decisions. On the other hand, the tenure system is a long held tradition in the academy, essential in higher education to ensure academic standards and values are upheld in the best interest of students. It provides faculty members with the academic freedom to try innovative teaching strategies and conduct research and assists with faculty retention and recruitment. Regardless of one’s opinion, the tenure debate is not going away and warrants further discussion. This paper represents the work of a group of academic leaders participating in the 2014-2015 AACP Academic Leadership Fellowship Program. This work was presented as a debate at the 2015 AACP Interim Meeting in Austin, TX in February 2015. PMID:27667831

  12. Debate on the legalization of abortion in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    In Zimbabwe, where over 70,000 illegal abortions are performed each year and complications from clandestine abortion are a leading cause of maternal mortality, the abortion law debate has been re-opened. Under the present law, abortion is legal only to save the life of the mother and women who undergo illegal abortion face strict criminal sanctions. Timothy Stamps, the Minister of Health and Child Welfare, has stated, "The first rights of a child are to be desired, to be wanted, and to be planned." Dr. Illiff, of the University of Zimbabwe's Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, has noted, "We cannot stop abortion. The choice is how safe it is." Illiff pointed out that urban Zimbabwe women run a 262 times greater risk of dying of abortion complications than their counterparts in the UK where abortion is legal. As the Women's Action Group has observed, men have dominated the current debate on abortion. The group has issued an appeal to women to enter into this debate that concerns their bodies to ensure that another law is not imposed on them. The group's appeal for action states: "We as Women's Action Group believe that every woman should decide what's right and what's wrong in her life. She and only she should be the master of her destiny. Her voice should be heard louder than anyone else's."

  13. The historical debate on brain and legal responsibility--revisited.

    PubMed

    Kroeber, Hans-Ludwig

    2007-01-01

    The actual discussion on brain research, free will, and legal responsibility repeats all the arguments of a very similar discussion in central Europe 100 years ago, around 1900. Already back then the idea that human perception, emotions, thinking and behavior have a material basis was not new. It is conditioned and limited by the structure and workings of the brain. This applies to sane and sick brains alike. In this debate criminality was made a topic of biology by interpreting it as a symptom of genetic "degeneration". In regard to brain damage in humans with socially deviant behavior, psychiatry claimed responsibility for a large proportion of criminals. This article lays out some important positions of psychiatry and jurisprudence in this debate on the foundations of legal responsibility and their impact up to now. The debate leads to the conclusion that human behavior cannot be described adequately in physical terms of cause and effect. The psychological approach to describe reasons, motives and intentions is substantially more appropriate. This method is also accepted by criminal law. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Personal genomics: are we debating the right Issues?].

    PubMed

    Vayena, E; Mauch, F

    2012-07-25

    The debate about personal genomics and their role in personalized medicine has been, to some extent, hijacked by the controversy about commercially available genomic tests sold directly to consumers. The clinical validity and utility of such tests are currently limited and most medical associations recommend that consumers refrain from testing. Conversely, DTC genomics proponents and particularly the DTC industry argue that there is personal utility in acquiring genomic information. While it is necessary to debate risks and benefits of DTC genomics, we should not lose sight of the increasingly important role that genomics will play in medical practice and public health. Therefore, and in anticipation of this shift we also need to focus on important implications from the use of genomics information such as genetic discrimination, privacy protection and equitable access to health care. Undoubtedly, personal genomics will challenge our social norms maybe more than our medicine. Sticking to the polarization of «to have or not to have DTC genomics» risks to takes us away from the critical issues we need to be debating.

  15. Current debate in the oncologic management of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Trish; Kunk, Paul R; Ramsdale, Erika; Rahma, Osama E

    2016-01-01

    Despite the considerable amount of research in the field, the management of locally advanced rectal cancer remains a subject to debate. To date, effective treatment centers on surgical resection with the standard approach of total mesorectal resection. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy have been incorporated in order to decrease local and systemic recurrence. While it is accepted that a multimodality treatment regimen is indicated, there remains significant debate for how best to accomplish this in regards to order, dosing, and choice of agents. Preoperative radiation is the standard of care, yet remains debated with the option for chemoradiation, short course radiation, and even ongoing studies looking at the possibility of leaving radiation out altogether. Chemotherapy was traditionally incorporated in the adjuvant setting, but recent reports suggest the possibility of improved efficacy and tolerance when given upfront. In this review, the major studies in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer will be discussed. In addition, future directions will be considered such as the role of immunotherapy and ongoing trials looking at timing of chemotherapy, inclusion of radiation, and non-operative management. PMID:27795811

  16. MMR and autism: an overview of the debate to date.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Anastasia T

    The ongoing controversial debate about the measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccine and its links to regressional autism and specific bowel disorders appears to experience 'peaks and table troughs' of public interest correlated with specific media attention at any one time. It is not the intention of this article to either refute or substantiate the ongoing controversy, as this is obviously a scientific debate, but rather to offer an overview of the studies to date in the interest of helping practitioners in the frontline to engage in informed debate with concerned parents. The conclusions from this review stem from two major studies conducted by the Institute of Medicine (IoM, 2001) in the USA, and Medical Research Council (MRC, 2001) in the UK. Both conclude that although epidemiological studies so far do not support a link between MMR and autism, nonetheless the studies have been too imprecise to rule out the prospect of the vaccination being involved in a small number of cases, and the need for further research has been pointed out.

  17. Current debate in the oncologic management of rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Millard, Trish; Kunk, Paul R; Ramsdale, Erika; Rahma, Osama E

    2016-10-15

    Despite the considerable amount of research in the field, the management of locally advanced rectal cancer remains a subject to debate. To date, effective treatment centers on surgical resection with the standard approach of total mesorectal resection. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy have been incorporated in order to decrease local and systemic recurrence. While it is accepted that a multimodality treatment regimen is indicated, there remains significant debate for how best to accomplish this in regards to order, dosing, and choice of agents. Preoperative radiation is the standard of care, yet remains debated with the option for chemoradiation, short course radiation, and even ongoing studies looking at the possibility of leaving radiation out altogether. Chemotherapy was traditionally incorporated in the adjuvant setting, but recent reports suggest the possibility of improved efficacy and tolerance when given upfront. In this review, the major studies in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer will be discussed. In addition, future directions will be considered such as the role of immunotherapy and ongoing trials looking at timing of chemotherapy, inclusion of radiation, and non-operative management.

  18. Methylprednisolone for acute spinal cord injury: an increasingly philosophical debate.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Christian A; Kundu, Bornali; Hawryluk, Gregory W J

    2016-06-01

    Following publication of NASCIS II, methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) was hailed as a breakthrough for patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). MPSS use for SCI has since become very controversial and it is our opinion that additional evidence is unlikely to break the stalemate amongst clinicians. Patient opinion has the potential to break this stalemate and we review our recent findings which reported that spinal cord injured patients informed of the risks and benefits of MPSS reported a preference for MPSS administration. We discuss the implications of the current MPSS debate on translational research and seek to address some misconceptions which have evolved. As science has failed to resolve the MPSS debate we argue that the debate is an increasingly philosophical one. We question whether SCI might be viewed as a serious condition like cancer where serious side effects of therapeutics are tolerated even when benefits may be small. We also draw attention to the similarity between the side effects of MPSS and isotretinoin which is prescribed for the cosmetic disorder acne vulgaris. Ultimately we question how patient autonomy should be weighed in the context of current SCI guidelines and MPSS's status as a historical standard of care.

  19. Why the debate over minimal risk needs to be reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Binik, Ariella; Weijer, Charles

    2014-08-01

    Minimal risk is a central concept in the ethical analysis of research with children. It is defined as the risks ". . . ordinarily encountered in daily life . . . ." But the question arises: who is the referent for minimal risk? Commentators in the research ethics literature often answer this question by endorsing one of two possible interpretations: the uniform interpretation (which is also known as the absolute interpretation) or the relative interpretation of minimal risk. We argue that describing the debate over minimal risk as a disagreement between the uniform and the relative interpretation impedes progress on the identification of a justifiable referent for minimal risk. There are two main problems with this approach: (1) constructing the debate over minimal risk as a disagreement between a uniform and a relative interpretation misconstrues the main difference between competing interpretations and (2) neither the uniform nor the relative interpretation identifies one unique and consistent group of children as the referent for minimal risk. We conclude that progress on the debate over minimal risk requires that we abandon the uniform and relative interpretations and address the main moral problem at stake: whether healthy children or the subjects of the research should be the referent for minimal risk.

  20. On the German debate on human embryonic stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Jan

    2004-10-01

    Germany since 1990 has one of the strictest human embryo protection laws, yet according to the Stem Cell Act of 2002 allows, under strict conditions, the import and use of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) for high priority research goals. The author tries to show how this is taken to be coherent by the parliamentary majority (though not necessarily by the general public) in Germany. In doing so, he firstly looks into the chronicle of the debate in Germany showing its different stages since 1999, then dwells upon the relation between the law and the role of ethics in this issue, and thirdly presents the two fundamentally different positions of the German debate, that is, that the human embryo created for IVF purposes is a human being and stands from its very beginnings under the constitutional principles of respect for, and protection of, human life versus the position that before being implanted the human embryo may become a human being and therefore belongs to the human species only potentially, so that its right to life protection may be assessable over against other high priority goals, such as research aiming at possible help for patients with life-endangering diseases. In spite of the Stem Cell Act of 2002, the debate of the German general public goes on, especially due to the recent EU 6th Research Framework Program which plans to also fund hESC research.