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Sample records for historical discourse analysis

  1. The Politics of Historical Discourse Analysis: A Qualitative Research Method?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesson, Ingolfur Asgeir

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the ways in which historical discourse analysis is at once different from and similar to research described as qualitative or quantitative. It discusses the consequences of applying the standards of such methods to historical discourse analysis. It is pointed out that although the merit of research using historical…

  2. Ancestors of two-spirits: Historical depictions of Native North American gender-crossing women through critical discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Hemmilä, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Letters written by Christian men of European origin during the sixteenth-nineteenth centuries contain brief descriptions of gender-crossing individuals among indigenous Americans. Although now considered ethnocentrically biased because of the etic positioning of their authors, these historical sources are invaluable because they offer a glimpse of the ancestors of modern-day two-spirits. An application of critical discourse analysis to three depictions of gender-crossing females from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries demonstrates that such women were favorably portrayed. These results differ dramatically from those obtained from my similar analysis of depictions of gender-crossing males. It also became evident that the three descriptions of gender-crossing women were not based on actual observations, but only on hearsay, which makes their use as primary sources questionable.

  3. A historical discourse analysis of the cancerous and non-cancerous body in secondary biology textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Neil Thomas

    This dissertation applies the archeological concepts developed by Michel Foucault to a study of thirteen biology textbooks (1993-2004) in order to develop an understanding of 'purchased truths' concerning cancer. This study focuses on the construction of the health/illness dialogue concerning cancer within the textbooks and not the meaning that the individual makes from reading the text; as such this study concerns itself with social truths rather than the search for an individual awareness of names, dates, or places. This study investigates the practices that allow the creation of dialogues that are inserted into a biology textbook and looks at how discursive formations create the 'truth regime' from which the biology textbook is said to speak. Using the Foucaultian themes of 'event', 'emergence', 'enunciation', and 'exteriority' a new reading of topics concerning cancer emerge from biology textbooks. Cancer is a disease that will impact the lives of countless individuals but coverage devoted to the pathology of cancer in secondary biology textbooks is very limited and no study textbook devoted a whole chapter to the discussion of cancer. There is an identified reduction in the number of pages and depth of coverage devoted to cancer in the newer biology texts compared to the older texts. Humans are pictured more than plants or animals in presentations concerning cancer with emphasis being placed on the digitalization of human cells via the scanning electron microscope. When the whole body is presented it is seldom located within the technology of disease diagnosis and treatment but rather is posed for specific social control. Just as each digitized picture of the cancerous cell in the texts is used to create a story so too are the pictures of the whole body in action. Possible story lines offered by the publishing houses concerning the reaction of the body to cancer are shown to intermingle with risk factor analysis to project a sense of Foucaultian

  4. A guide to discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Rose

    2008-01-01

    How can discourse analysis inform and help develop nursing practice? With reference to her study of the discourse of nursing home residents transferring to emergency departments, Rose McCloskey explains the concepts of discourse and discourse analysis and considers how they can contribute to an expansion of nursing knowledge.

  5. Discourse Analysis Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheu, Dagmar, Ed.; Lopez-Maestre, M. D., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introduction: Discourse Analysis Today" (Dagmar Schue and M.D. Lopez-Maestre); "The Metaphorical and Metonymic Understanding of the Trinitarian Dogma" (Antonio Barcelona); "Symmetry as Conceptual Metaphor in Walker's The Color Purple" (Elena Tapia); "And She's Like it's…

  6. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  7. Perezhivanie and classroom discourse: a cultural-historical perspective on "Discourse of design based science classroom activities"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Megan; March, Sue

    2015-06-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser challenge the `argumentation focus of science lessons' and propose that through a `design-based approach' emergent conversations with the teacher offer possibilities for different types of discussions to enhance pedagogical discourse in science classrooms. This important paper offers a "preliminary contribution to a general theory" regarding the link between activity types and discourse practices. Azevedo, Martalock and Keser offer a general perspective with a sociocultural framing for analysis of classroom discourse. Interestingly the specific concepts drawn upon are from conversation analysis; there are few sociocultural concepts explored in detail. Therefore, in this article we focus on a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky. The history and development of higher mental functions, vol 4. Plenum Press, New York, 1987; The Vygotsky reader. Black, Cambridge, 1994) methodology to explore, analyse and explain how we would use a different theoretical lens. We argue that a cultural historical reading of argumentation in science lessons and design based activity will expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's proposed general theory of activity types and discourse practices. Specifically, we use Lev Vygotksy's idea of perezhivanie as the unit of analysis to reconceptualise this important paper. We focus on the holistic category of students' emotional experience through discourse while developing scientific awareness.

  8. The Modes of Discourse: An Historical Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Robert J.

    Although first enunciated in 1827 by Samuel Newman, the modes of discourse--narration, description, exposition, and argument--were not very popular until formulated in 1866 and presented in the United States in a rhetoric textbook in 1885. After 1890, they were gradually accepted by the most influential rhetoricians of the day, and their use in…

  9. Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Michael

    The introduction to discourse analysis is intended specifically to inform second language teachers about aspects of discourse analysis that can be helpful in instruction. It presents the principles seen as relevant to the language teaching context and illustrates them with real spoken and written language data. The first chapter gives a historical…

  10. Discourse Analysis and the Translator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Margaret

    Discourse analysis, as an approach to text, provides the teacher, student, and professional translator with resources for achieving objectivity and for making and justifying translation decisions. It offers a strategy for relating the problems and processes and discourse and the specific concerns to the objectives of the translator. It can be…

  11. Citation Analysis and Discourse Analysis Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Howard D.

    2004-01-01

    John Swales's 1986 article "Citation analysis and discourse analysis" was written by a discourse analyst to introduce citation research from other fields, mainly sociology of science, to his own discipline. Here, I introduce applied linguists and discourse analysts to citation studies from information science, a complementary tradition not…

  12. Discourse and Identity in Cultural-Historical Activity Theory: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Harry

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a response to two of the papers in the collection. In doing so it takes up two issues: the conceptualization and analysis of discourse within Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) and notions of identity and subject positioning within CHAT. Bernstein [(2000). "Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity: Theory research…

  13. Ancient Greek "Logos": An Invitation to Historical-Comparative Discourse on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calogiannakis, Pella

    1998-01-01

    Presents aspects of the methodological and epistemological encounter of contemporary historical-comparative discourse on education with the ancient Greek historical comparative "logos": (1) technology/methodology; (2) historiology; (3) epistemology; and (4) synkritilogy. The historical context discourse of education can always be placed…

  14. Critical Discourse Analysis and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaza, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the need of infusing critical discourse analysis into the preparation and support of prospective school leaders. It argues that in the process of school transformation, the school leader must possess the ability to self-reflect on his/her language and understand the potential power of language as a means that may support or…

  15. Communicative Competence, Speech Acts and Discourse Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Terry; And Others

    Three papers intended as preliminary studies to bilingual professional curriculum development are included. "Speech Acts and Discourse Analysis," by Terry McCoy, represents an introduction to discourse analysis as a tool for the language teacher. The notion of a typology of speech acts is set forth, and models of discourse analysis by…

  16. Discourse Analysis in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane, Ed.

    The following papers and reports on discourse analysis are included here: (1) "Discourse Analysis, What's That?" by Hatch and Long; (2) "Contextual Analysis of English: Applications to TESL" by Celce-Murcia; (3) "Discourse and Second Language Acquisition of Yes/No Questions" by Vander Brook, Schlue, and Campbell; (4)…

  17. Governmentality as a Genealogical Toolbox in Historical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Janicke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how governmentality may be used to analyze historical events and discourses, and how this historical analysis can be used as a perspective to problematize contemporary discourses. The example used in this article is from my research on life-extension handbooks published in Sweden 1700-1930, and by this I stress…

  18. Understanding Teachers: The Potential and Possibility of Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Dean M.; Rossi, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the ways in which teachers make sense of what they do and why is critical to a broader understanding of pedagogy. Historically, teachers have been understood through the thematic and content analysis of their beliefs or philosophies. In this paper, we argue that discourse analysis (DA) involves a much finer-grained analysis of the…

  19. Discourse Analysis in Career Counseling and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stead, Graham B.; Bakker, Terri M.

    2010-01-01

    Discourse analysis can be used to understand and interpret culturally and socially produced meanings regarding work and to outline how specific rules and conventions can configure meaning production of work in context. The implications of some core concepts in discourse analysis pertinent to career counseling are explored, including discourse,…

  20. [Discourse analysis: research potentialities to gender violence].

    PubMed

    de Azambuja, Mariana Porto Ruwer; Nogueira, Conceição

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years we see the growing use of the terms 'discourse' and 'discourses analysis' in academic and research contexts, frequently without a precise definition. This fact opens space for critics and mistakes. The aim of this paper is to show a brief contextualization of discursive studies, as well as tasks/steps to Discourse Analysis process by the Social Construcionism perspective. As examples we used fragments of an interview with a Family Doctor about gender violence. In the results we detach the potential of Discourse Analysis to deconstruct the existing discourses to subsequently (re)construction in the way to a more holistic view about gender violence problem.

  1. Critical Instance Analysis of News English Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Hongmei; Wu, Sijun

    2009-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis (CDA) thought that the discourse was concrete social practice, and the language served for the potency, and the discourse embodied the ideology. Two presses about the case that the US Mattel Toy Company recalled toys "Made in China" in Washington Post (newspaper) and New York Times (newspaper) were taken as…

  2. A cultural historical theoretical perspective of discourse and design in the science classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Megan

    2015-06-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser have initiated an important conversation in science education as they use sociocultural theory to introduce design based scenarios into the science classroom. This response seeks to expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article The discourse of design- based science classroom activities by using a specific perspective within a sociocultural framework. Through using a cultural historical (Vygotsky in The history and development of higher mental functions, Plenum Press, New York, 1987) reading of design based activity and discourse in the science classroom, it is proposed that learning should be an integral part of these processes. Therefore, everyday and scientific concepts are explained and expanded in relation to Inventing Graphing and discourse presented in Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article. This response reports on the importance of teacher's being explicit in relation to connecting everyday and scientific concepts alongside design based activity and related science concepts when teaching students. It is argued that explicit teaching of concepts should be instigated prior to analysis of discourse in the science classroom as it is only with experience and understanding these processes that students have the resources to call upon to argue like practicing scientists.

  3. An Overview of Discourse Analysis and Its Usefulness in TESOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Geraldine Veronica

    This paper provides an overview of discourse analysis from a linguistic point of view, discussing why it is relevant to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL). It focuses on the following: discourse and discourse analysis; discourse analysis and TESOL; approaches to discourse analysis; systemic functional linguistics; theme and…

  4. Discourse Analysis: Why Do We Need It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jessica

    A discussion of discourse analysis focuses on its usefulness as a framework for analyzing and improving the communication skills of international teaching assistants (ITAs). The discussion is based on the transcript (appended) of a native Chinese-speaking ITA conducting an organic chemistry class in English. Using discourse analysis at one level,…

  5. Policy Discourse Analysis: Negotiating Gender Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    Conjoins policy questions, feminist theory, and discourse analysis to demonstrate the power of discourse in framing and managing gender policy that comes from marginal groups, challenges institutional privilege, and survives despite resistance and backlash. Descriptions of Australian gender policy were derived from participant observation,…

  6. Discourse Analysis in English Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyyssonen, Heikki

    Discourse is basically interactive. This is clear in conversation, but the concept can be extended to written language. Written text can be analyzed as spoken discourse. The methodology of English text studies has adhered too much to a textual approach and even extended it to spoken data. Another approach would be to begin with the spoken form of…

  7. Critical discourse analysis for nursing research.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jennifer L

    2007-03-01

    Critical discourse analysis is a useful and productive qualitative methodology but has been underutilized within nursing research. In order to redress this deficiency the research presented in this article represents an exploration of the way in which critical discourse analysis may be applied to the analysis of public debates around policy for nursing practice. In this article the author discusses the history of the application of critical discourse analysis and provides an example of its application to the debate around the use of nurse practitioners within the Australian healthcare system.

  8. A note on epistemics and discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Teun A

    2012-09-01

    Discursive Psychology has the great merit of having introduced discourse analysis (DA) to social psychology and to have contributed to DA itself by its study of the expression of 'psychological' notions in text and talk. Within this perspective, this paper presents some elements of a proposal to study the expression of knowledge in discourse. Beginning with a brief summary of our multidisciplinary approach to knowledge, followed by a summary of discourse structures that express knowledge, the main argument of the paper is that we not only need to take discourse seriously in the study of knowledge, but cannot ignore their cognitive underlying structures if we want to describe and explain many properties of discourse, such as all implicit or presupposed knowledge, as well as the interactional and contextual management of old and new knowledge in text and talk.

  9. Racialized Spaces in Teacher Discourse: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Place-Based Identities in Roche Bois, Mauritius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiehe, Elsa M.

    2013-01-01

    This eleven-month ethnographic study puts critical discourse analysis in dialogue with postmodern conceptualizations of space and place to explore how eight educators talk about space and in the process, produce racialized spaces in Roche Bois, Mauritius. The macro-historical context of racialization of this urban marginalized community informs…

  10. Discourse analysis and the experience of ECT.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Lucy; Frith, Hannah

    2005-06-01

    The authors present a discourse analysis of an influential paper on the experience of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). By focusing on how patients are construed in this article, they deconstruct the ways in which the case for ECT as 'helpful and not particularly frightening' is made. They argue that, as with all academic writing, a discourse of scientific objectivity can be used to privilege certain views and promote certain interests.

  11. Discourse Analysis and Language Learning [Summary of a Symposium].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Evelyn

    1981-01-01

    A symposium on discourse analysis and language learning is summarized. Discourse analysis can be divided into six fields of research: syntax, the amount of syntactic organization required for different types of discourse, large speech events, intra-sentential cohesion in text, speech acts, and unequal power discourse. Research on speech events and…

  12. Workplace Bullying Prevention: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    PubMed Central

    JOHNSON, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To analyze the discourses of workplace bullying prevention of hospital nursing unit managers and in the official documents of the organizations where they worked. Background Workplace bullying can be a self-perpetuating problem in nursing units. As such, efforts to prevent this behavior may be more effective than efforts to stop the behavior. There is limited research on how healthcare organizations characterize their efforts to prevent workplace bullying. Design This was a qualitative study. Method Critical discourse analysis and Foucault’s writings on governmentality and discipline were used to analyze data from interviews with hospital nursing unit managers (n=15) and organizational documents (n=22). Data were collected in 2012. Findings The discourse of workplace bullying prevention centered around three themes: prevention of workplace bullying through managerial presence, normalizing behaviors and controlling behaviors. All three are individual level discourses of workplace bullying prevention. Conclusion Current research indicates that workplace bullying is a complex issue with antecedents at the individual, departmental and organizational level. However, the discourse of the participants in this study only focused on prevention of bullying by moulding the behaviors of individuals. The effective prevention of workplace bullying will require departmental and organizational initiatives. Leaders in all types of organizations can use the results of this study to examine their organizations’ discourses of workplace bullying prevention to determine where change is needed. PMID:26010268

  13. The historical context in conversation: Lexical differentiation and memory for the discourse history.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Si On; Benjamin, Aaron S; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    When designing a definite referring expression, speakers take into account both the local context and certain aspects of the historical context, including whether similar referents have been mentioned in the past. When a similar item has been mentioned previously, speakers tend to elaborate their referring expression in order to differentiate the two items, a phenomenon called lexical differentiation. The present research examines the locus of the lexical differentiation effect and its relationship with memory for the discourse. In three experiments, we demonstrate that speakers differentiate to distinguish current from past referents; there was no evidence that speakers differentiate in order to avoid giving two items the same label. Post-task memory tests also revealed a high level of memory for the discourse history, a finding that is inconsistent with the view that failures of memory underlie low differentiation rates. Instead, memory for the discourse history, while necessary, is not sufficient for speakers to design language with respect to the historical context. Speakers must additionally view the discourse history as relevant to design language with respect to this broader context. Finally, measures of memory for past referents point to asymmetries between speakers and listeners in their memory for the discourse, with speakers typically remembering the discourse history better.

  14. 3. Photocopy of illustration from J. Smith Futhey's Historical Discourse....of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of illustration from J. Smith Futhey's Historical Discourse....of the Upper Octoraro Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, 1870 SHOWS CHURCH WITH SESSIONS HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Upper Octoraro Presbyterian Church Session House, State Route 10 & Octoraro Road (Sadsbury Township), Parkesburg, Chester County, PA

  15. Critical discourse analysis: new possibilities for scientific research in the mental health area.

    PubMed

    de Pinho, Leandro Barbosa; Kantorski, Luciane Prado; Bañon Hernández, Antonio Miguel

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to get to know the philosophical, conceptual and methodological aspects of Critical Discourse Analysis, as a theoretical-methodological framework for research in the mental health area. Initially, the study presents a reflection on psychiatric discourse in history and at present, with the goal of introducing concepts and presuppositions that would guide the analysis of discursive processes. Discussions are presented about the historical milestones of Critical Discourse Analysis as an analytical framework in social sciences. Finally, the study presents its conceptual and methodological applications to research in the mental health area.

  16. Greenpeace Greenspeak: A Transcultural Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Bettina; Cheng, Hsin-I; Inuzuka, Ako

    2007-01-01

    This cross-cultural discourse analysis examines the construction of environmental issues on Greenpeace web pages in China, Japan and Germany. To uncover the semantic representation of environmental activism on these sites, the authors sought to identify discursive homogeneity and divergence and to bring to light embedded cultural assumptions. The…

  17. Critical Discourse Analysis and Rhetoric and Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckin, Thomas; Andrus, Jennifer; Clary-Lemon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, critical discourse analysis has emerged as a major new multidisciplinary approach to the study of texts and contexts in the public sphere. Developed in Europe, CDA has lately become increasingly popular in North America, where it is proving especially congenial to new directions in rhetoric and composition. This essay…

  18. Partnering for Research: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Catherine J.; English, Leona M.

    2008-01-01

    Using a critical discourse analysis, informed by poststructuralist theory, we explore the research phenomenon of coerced partnership. This lens allows us to pay attention to the social relations of power operating in knowledge generation processes, especially as they affect feminist researchers in adult education. We propose an alternative vision…

  19. Critical Discourse Analysis, Adult Education and "Fitba"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Player, John

    2013-01-01

    In this article I will use an example of current adult education practice, the Glory and Dismay Football Literacies Programme (GDFLP) to appraise the value of critical discourse analysis (CDA) for adult learners, both individually and collectively, and for adult education practitioners with an interest in developing critical literacy skills. The…

  20. Feminist Poststructuralism and Discourse Analysis Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavey, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author tries to piece together the context in which she wrote "Feminist Poststructuralism and Discourse Analysis" (Gavey, 1989). The article grew out of her attempts to find a different way of doing psychology, after 8 or 9 years of studying and wrestling with the discipline. It is partly a personal story, but also a story…

  1. Analysing Cultural Models in Socio-Cultural Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Laura

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates how classroom discourse demands a multi-layered analysis. The first analysis focuses on classroom discourse and provides a picture of pupil participation in teacher-pupil interactions: who is inducted into discourse and who is not. However, this local micro-analysis does not afford interpretation at the level of the…

  2. Assessing the Validity of Discourse Analysis: Transdisciplinary Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaipal-Jamani, Kamini

    2014-01-01

    Research studies using discourse analysis approaches make claims about phenomena or issues based on interpretation of written or spoken text, which includes images and gestures. How are findings/interpretations from discourse analysis validated? This paper proposes transdisciplinary convergence as a way to validate discourse analysis approaches to…

  3. Discourse Analysis and the Study of Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary; Mungal, Angus Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current and past work using discourse analysis in the field of educational administration and of discourse analysis as a methodology. Design/Methodology/Approach: Authors reviewed research in educational leadership that uses discourse analysis as a methodology. Findings: While…

  4. Discourse on Discourse. Workshop Reports from the Macquarie Workshop on Discourse Analysis (Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, February 21-25, 1983). Occasional Papers Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Ruqaiya, Ed.

    Four group summary papers from an Australian national workshop on discourse analysis discuss verbal and written discourse and the classroom. Papers reflect the four workshop discussion groups of casual conversation, classroom discourse, expository discourse, and literary narrative. They include: "On Casual Conversation" (M. A. K.…

  5. Polarized Discourse in the Egyptian News: Critical Discourse Analysis Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eissa, Mohammed Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate ideological structures of polarized discourse coded in the reports of two online news websites: egyptindependent and ikwanweb. The study focuses on online news reports relating to three interrelated events: the issuing of a constitutional declaration by Egyptian president, the aftermath clashes outside…

  6. Analysis of Academic Discourse: Insights for Teaching Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashemi, Mohammad Reza

    Based on the premise that second language instruction at the college level should focus on the elements of academic discourse and not spend unnecessary time on less relevant grammatical structures, an analysis of discourse structures in subject-area textbooks was undertaken. Grammatical structures characteristic of academic discourse were analyzed…

  7. Discoursing Mathematically: Using Discourse Analysis to Develop a Sociocritical Perspective of Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razfar, Aria

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how the concepts of discourse and its methodological extension discourse analysis can help mathematics educators re-conceptualize their practices using a sociocultural view of learning. It provides conceptual and methodological tools as well as activities that can be helpful in mathematics methods courses and professional…

  8. Assessing the validity of discourse analysis: transdisciplinary convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaipal-Jamani, Kamini

    2014-12-01

    Research studies using discourse analysis approaches make claims about phenomena or issues based on interpretation of written or spoken text, which includes images and gestures. How are findings/interpretations from discourse analysis validated? This paper proposes transdisciplinary convergence as a way to validate discourse analysis approaches to research. The argument is made that discourse analysis explicitly grounded in semiotics, systemic functional linguistics, and critical theory, offers a credible research methodology. The underlying assumptions, constructs, and techniques of analysis of these three theoretical disciplines can be drawn on to show convergence of data at multiple levels, validating interpretations from text analysis.

  9. Manufacturing Consent: A Corpus-Based Critical Discourse Analysis of New Labour's Educational Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulderrig, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents selected findings from a historical analysis of change in the discursive construction of social identity in UK education policy discourse from 1972-2005. My chief argument is that through its linguistic forms of self-identification the government construes educational roles, relations and responsibilities not only for itself,…

  10. Application of discourse analysis to nursing inquiry.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jim; Arnold, Sheila

    2004-01-01

    Discourse analysis (DA) has frequently been misapplied within nursing research, demonstrating a lack of understanding among some nurse researchers of theoretical/ methodological approaches within DA. To date, there are few specific nursing examples illustrating the application of DA, which presents a further obstacle for the new researcher In this paper, Jim Campbell and Sheila Arnold outline a specific nursing example of DA research and describe the process of applying DA to nursing research via the personal experiences of the authors. Two different ways of 'coming to' a DA approach, will be described, one using a structured framework and the other a personal narrative.

  11. Talking Mathematically: An Analysis of Discourse Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imm, Kara; Stylianou, Despina A.

    2012-01-01

    Discourse has always been at the heart of teaching. In more recent years, the mathematics education community has also turned its attention towards understanding the role of discourse in mathematics teaching and learning. Using earlier classifications of discourse, in this paper, we looked at three types of classrooms: classrooms that engage in…

  12. A quoi peut servir l'analyse de discours? (Of What Use is Discourse Analysis?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumpf, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Presents a survey of opinions on the nature and usefulness of discourse analysis. The following topics are addressed: (1) discourse analysis and ideologies of power, (2) epistemological considerations, and (3) discourse analysis and interdisciplinary endeavors. (AMH)

  13. Psychoeducation for bipolar disorder: A discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Lynere; Crowe, Marie; Scott, Anne; Lacey, Cameron

    2017-03-16

    Psychoeducation has become a common intervention within mental health settings. It aims to increase people's ability to manage a life with a long-term illness. For people with bipolar disorder, psychoeducation is one of a range of psychosocial interventions now considered part of contemporary mental health practice. It has taken on a 'common sense' status that results in little critique of psychoeducation practices. Using a published manual on psychoeducation and bipolar disorder as its data, Foucauldian discourse analysis was used in the present study for a critical perspective on psychoeducation in order to explore the taken-for-granted assumptions on which it is based. It identifies that the text produces three key subject positions for people with bipolar disorder. To practice self-management, a person must: (i) accept and recognize the authority of psychiatry to know them; (ii) come to see that they can moderate themselves; and (iii) see themselves as able to undertake a reflexive process of self-examination and change. These findings highlight the circular and discursive quality to the construct of insight that is central to how psychoeducation is practiced. Using Foucault's construct of pastoral power, it also draws attention to the asymmetrical nature of power relations between the clinician and the person with bipolar disorder. An effect of the use of medical discourse in psychoeducation is to limit its ability to work with ambivalence and contradiction. A critical approach to psychotherapy and education offers an alternate paradigm on which to basis psychoeducation practices.

  14. An Analysis of Discourses of Writing and Writing Instruction in Curricula across Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shelley Stagg

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a deductive content analysis of the grade 6 specific and general objectives in the writing curricula across Canada's 10 provinces and two of its three territories. The analysis uses Ivanic's six discourses of writing and learning to write: skills discourse, creativity discourse, process discourse, genre discourse, social…

  15. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Tmall's Double Eleven Advertisement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chunyu; Luo, Mengxi

    2016-01-01

    From the 1990s, the multimodal turn in discourse studies makes multimodal discourse analysis a popular topic in linguistics and communication studies. An important approach to applying Systemic Functional Linguistics to non-verbal modes is Visual Grammar initially proposed by Kress and van Leeuwen (1996). Considering that commercial advertisement…

  16. Understanding Resistance: An Analysis of Discourses in Academic Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Using social realist theory and critical discourse analysis, this article examines a number of discourses which construct academic staff attitudes to teaching and learning in their disciplines. It seeks to explain academics' resistance to engaging in activities aimed at professionalising academic practice. The research described in the article…

  17. Self in Career Theory and Counselling: A Discourse Analysis Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stead, Graham B.; Bakker, Terri M.

    2010-01-01

    A rapidly changing postmodern working world demands revised conceptualisations of the self. Recent scholarship in discourse analysis invites an investigation into how selves are constructed and fabricated within a complex matrix of social discourses, and how this may impact on the field of career counselling and development. This paper examines…

  18. Critical Discourse Analysis Research Methods for the English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alford, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is an approach to analysing the discourses that operate in social contexts, such as classrooms in schools, and their material effects on people, such as teachers and learners. CDA offers a range of ways of engaging with the relationship between texts in context and the power they exercise. In this article, I…

  19. Ideology, Rationality and Reproduction in Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    In undertaking a critical discourse analysis of the professed aims and objectives of one of the most influential curricula in the teaching of thinking, this article foregrounds issues of power and ideology latent in curricular discourses of rationality. Specifically, it documents the subtle but powerful ways in which political and class…

  20. Discourses of Linguistic dominance: A Historical Consideration of French Language Ideology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Keisuke

    2001-07-01

    The paper offers a historical perspective on the linguistic and cultural imperialism embedded in the struggle to maintain French as a leading international language. France was the nation-state where the ideology of national language was first clearly formulated and directly extended to overseas colonies. This shows the close relationship between linguistic nationalism and imperialism. It was believed that French was the language of universal human reason and had the power to civilize people who spoke it. This myth of the "clarté française" and the "mission civilisatrice" had a strong influence on various kinds of metalinguistic discourses that created the taken-for-granted representation of French as dominant language. It is the essential strategy of language dominance to establish the hierarchy of languages as if it were natural order of things. When French was obliged to yield the status of international language to English, there emerged the ideology of "Francophonie" which tried to defend its privilege against the monopoly of English, but the same ideology is also directed against minorities' claims for their own linguistic human right. It could be said that these discourses form a recursive prototype of language dominance whose variations are to be found in other shapes almost all over the world.

  1. Discourse analysis in general practice: a sociolinguistic approach.

    PubMed

    Nessa, J; Malterud, K

    1990-06-01

    It is a simple but important fact that as general practitioners we talk to our patients. The quality of the conversation is of vital importance for the outcome of the consultation. The purpose of this article is to discuss a methodological tool borrowed from sociolinguistics--discourse analysis. To assess the suitability of this method for analysis of general practice consultations, the authors have performed a discourse analysis of one single consultation. Our experiences are presented here.

  2. Tweeting in the Agora: An Historical Documentary of Educational Structures and Discourse in Ancient Greece and in Modern Social Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maraldo, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the systems and structures of formal and informal education in Ancient Greece under the leadership of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle and the systems and structures of education and discourse on social media, specifically on blogs and Twitter. Using historical documentary research methodology of primary and secondary…

  3. An Integrated Theory of Discourse Analysis,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    adopted Ito delimit the space within which anaphoric binding is possible. That is, only if something is labeled with such a discourse marker can...subspace, the containing context space retains control. 5. Inter-sentential anaphoric binding is posible only with high focus items. Central to this...This level is the structure on which we interpret: 1. The bindings between discourse anaphors and deictic terms and their antecedents; that is, the

  4. Doing Foucault: inquiring into nursing knowledge with Foucauldian discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Springer, Rusla Anne; Clinton, Michael E

    2015-04-01

    Foucauldian discourse analysis (FDA) is a methodology that is well suited to inquiring into nursing knowledge and its organization. It is a critical analytic approach derived from Foucault's histories of science, madness, medicine, incarceration and sexuality, all of which serve to exteriorize or make visible the 'positive unconscious of knowledge' penetrating bodies and minds. Foucauldian discourse analysis (FDA) holds the potential to reveal who we are today as nurses and as a profession of nursing by facilitating our ability to identify and trace the effects of the discourses that determine the conditions of possibility for nursing practice that are continuously shaping and (re)shaping the knowledge of nursing and the profession of nursing as we know it. In making visible the chain of knowledge that orders the spaces nurses occupy, no less than their subjectivities, FDA is a powerful methodology for inquiring into nursing knowledge based on its provocation of deep critical reflection on the normalizing power of discourse.

  5. Perezhivanie and Classroom Discourse: A Cultural-Historical Perspective on "Discourse of Design Based Science Classroom Activities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Megan; March, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser challenge the "argumentation focus of science lessons" and propose that through a 'design-based approach' emergent conversations with the teacher offer possibilities for different types of discussions to enhance pedagogical discourse in science classrooms. This important paper offers a…

  6. Uniting postcolonial, discourse, and linguistic theory to explore participation of African Americans in cancer research as an effect of social and historical race relationships.

    PubMed

    Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates

    2014-01-01

    This article uses a historical framework of postcolonialism; discourse analytic concepts (significance, identity, and relationships); and 5 social and cultural linguistic principles of emergence, positionality, indexicality, relationality, and partialness as a theoretical and methodological triangulation approach to data analysis of focus group discussion. Exemplars of focus group data from a study exploring African American participation in research demonstrate the application of this combined framework as a useful tool for analysis. This approach allows for examination of identity and interaction and generates a more rigorous and complete understanding of how individuals use language to construct identity as participants or nonparticipants in research.

  7. Microethnographic Discourse Analysis in an Inquiry Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the relationship among theories related to classroom language and literacy events by first examining the researcher's theoretical perspective on discourse and sociocultural theories of learning development. The analytical heuristic for a microethnographic approach using a variety of theoretical tools is discussed and…

  8. Power in clinical teachers' discourses of a curriculum-in-action. Critical discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jennifer; Dornan, Tim

    2013-12-01

    "Curricula-in-action" generally differ from "official" curricula. That is particularly true of clerkship curricula because the practising doctors who supervise medical students' clinical activities are only secondarily educators. Clerkship education is evaluated, however, according to benchmarks set by official curricula. As a result, clerkship evaluations are important points of contact between clinical teachers and medical schools. We reasoned that an evaluation instrument is part of a medical school's official curriculum discourse and clinical teachers' reactions to it are a discourse of curriculum-in-action. We set out to answer the questions: What are clinical teachers' discourses of curriculum-in-action and how do they relate to an official curriculum discourse? Nineteen clerkship placement leads from two hospitals contributing to a single undergraduate medical programme participated. The evaluation instrument was the Manchester Clinical Placement Index, for which validity evidence has been published. Respondents were asked to say how they would react to junior students giving their placements low or high scores for each of 12 items from the Index. After transcription, we conducted a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of their audio-recorded answers. We purposefully selected the six items that elicited the widest spectrum of responses for analysis because quantity of material can compromise the quality of CDA. A dominant discourse of curriculum-in-action defined how teachers should "really" teach and junior students should learn. It deconstructed the need for teachers to be present when students performed clinical tasks because teachers' role was to give critical feedback on case presentations that were coincidental to clinical care. It positioned students at the bottom of a power hierarchy so they had to "struggle" to be taught. It placed respondents in a powerful position relative to "the hospital" and "the university", though there were tensions between

  9. Hugh Mehan's "Learning Lessons" Reconsidered: On the Differences between Naturalistic and Critical Analysis of Classroom Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macbeth, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Discusses Hugh Mehan's "Learning Lessons" in the development of the naturalistic study of classroom discourse studies and considers the emergence of an alternative program for classroom discourse studies in critical discourse analysis. Critiques some studies of classroom discourse and analyzes a fourth-grade lesson on fractions to show how the…

  10. Metaphor Analysis in the Educational Discourse: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Hong-bo; Song, Wen-juan

    2010-01-01

    Metaphor analysis is based on the belief that metaphor is a powerful linguistic device, because it extends and encapsulates knowledge about the familiarity and unfamiliarity. Metaphor analysis has been adopted in the educational discourse. The paper categorizes the previous relevant research into 3: interactions between learners and institutions,…

  11. Best research--for what? Best health--for whom? A critical exploration of primary care research using discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Sara E; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2008-06-01

    Health research is fundamental to the development of improved health and healthcare. Despite its importance, and the role of policy in guiding the kind of research that gets addressed, there are very few empirical studies of health research policy. This paper redresses this, exploring the means by which one area of health research policy is shaped, enabled and constrained. We ask: what are the historical, social and political origins of research policy in primary care in England? What are the key discourses that have dominated debate; and what are the tensions between discourses and the implications this raises for practitioners and policymakers? To answer these questions we employed a Foucauldian approach to discourse analysis to explicitly recognise the historical, social and ideological origins of policy texts; and the role of power and knowledge in policy development. We adapted Parker's framework for distinguishing discourses as a means of selecting and analysing 29 key policy documents; 16 narrative interviews with historical and contemporary policy stakeholders; and additional contextual documents. Our analysis involved detailed deconstruction and linking across texts to reveal prevailing storylines, ideologies, power relations, and tensions. Findings show how powerful policy discourses shaped by historical and social forces influence the type of research undertaken, by whom and how. For instance, recent policy has been shaped by discourse associated with the knowledge-based economy that emphasises microscopic 'discovery', exploitation of information and the contribution of highly technological activities to 'UK plc' and has re-positioned primary care research as a strategic resource and 'population laboratory' for clinical research. Such insights challenge apolitical accounts of health research and reveal how health research serves particular interests.

  12. Talk about talk: metacommentary and context in the analysis of psychotic discourse.

    PubMed

    Swartz, S; Swartz, L

    1987-12-01

    This paper presents an analysis of an interview with a manic patient at a time when her discourse seemed incoherent. It addresses itself to the interface between discourse and context, and argues that adequate contextualization of discourse can render incoherent speech more understandable. Appraisal of context and analysis of metacommentary--speakers' references to the ongoing talk--makes apparently incoherent discourse intelligible, and gives access to the patient's experience of her illness. The implications of discourse analysis for psychiatric research are explored. General goals for discourse analysis in psychiatric settings are suggested, and strengths and weaknesses of the approach discussed.

  13. The organising vision for telehealth and telecare: discourse analysis

    PubMed Central

    Procter, Rob; Wherton, Joe; Sugarhood, Paul; Shaw, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Objective To (1) map how different stakeholders understand telehealth and telecare technologies and (2) explore the implications for development and implementation of telehealth and telecare services. Design Discourse analysis. Sample 68 publications representing diverse perspectives (academic, policy, service, commercial and lay) on telehealth and telecare plus field notes from 10 knowledge-sharing events. Method Following a familiarisation phase (browsing and informal interviews), we studied a systematic sample of texts in detail. Through repeated close reading, we identified assumptions, metaphors, storylines, scenarios, practices and rhetorical positions. We added successive findings to an emerging picture of the whole. Main findings Telehealth and telecare technologies featured prominently in texts on chronic illness and ageing. There was no coherent organising vision. Rather, four conflicting discourses were evident and engaged only minimally with one another's arguments. Modernist discourse presented a futuristic utopian vision in which assistive technologies, implemented at scale, would enable society to meet its moral obligations to older people by creating a safe ‘smart’ home environment where help was always at hand, while generating efficiency savings. Humanist discourse emphasised the uniqueness and moral worth of the individual and tailoring to personal and family context; it considered that technologies were only sometimes fit for purpose and could create as well as solve problems. Political economy discourse envisaged a techno-economic complex of powerful vested interests driving commodification of healthcare and diversion of public funds into private business. Change management discourse recognised the complicatedness of large-scale technology programmes and emphasised good project management and organisational processes. Conclusion Introduction of telehealth and telecare is hampered because different stakeholders hold different assumptions

  14. A Jamesonian Analysis of "Flat World" Imagery in Education Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a discourse analysis of Kylene Beers' presidential address to the 2009 conference of the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE-USA). The address, titled "Sailing over the Edge: Navigating the Uncharted Waters of a World Gone Flat," calls teachers to reject the standardized education of the industrial order…

  15. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of a Yoruba Song-Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olateju, Moji. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a multimodal discourse analysis of a story that has been turned into a Yoruba song-drama, highlighting the ideational, interpersonal and textual aspects of the song-drama. The data is a short song-drama meant to teach children importunity, determination and hard work through persistence. The multimodal and narrative conventions…

  16. A Discourse Analysis of School Counseling Supervisory E-Mail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Melissa; Gordon, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    This article is a discourse analysis of weekly computer-mediated communications between 8 school counseling interns and their e-mail supervisor over a 16-week semester. Course-required e-mail supervision was provided as an adjunct to traditional face-to-face individual and group supervision. School counselor supervisees and supervisor enacted 3…

  17. Educator Discourses on ICT in Education: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladergroen, Moira; Chigona, Wallace; Bytheway, Andy; Cox, Sanet; Dumas, Chris; van Zyl, Izak

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) of Primary School Educators' dialogue on the use of ICT in an under-resourced schooling context. Educators play a pivotal role in the education system. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) interventions in schools will be effective only if educators are willing and able to…

  18. Competency Discourses: An Analysis of Secondary and Tertiary Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of a sample of assessment tasks used in New Zealand first-year clinical and final-year secondary school Biology and Chemistry National Certificate of Educational Achievement summative assessments was conducted to assess whether similarities and differences existed in secondary and tertiary competency discourses. Findings suggested…

  19. A Semiotic Reading and Discourse Analysis of Postmodern Street Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Postmodern street art operates under a set of references that requires art educators and researchers to adopt alternative analytical frameworks in order to understand its meanings. In this article, we describe social semiotics, critical discourse analysis, and postmodern street performance as well as the relevance of the former two in interpreting…

  20. Stochastic Process Analysis of Interactive Discourse in Early Counseling Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Phillips, Susan D.

    1984-01-01

    Examined patterns of interactive discourse to suggest how client and counselor establish a working alliance in their early interviews. Based on classification of 312 conversational turns from 14 dyads, a stochastic analysis was conducted. Results showed the sequences of talk were highly stable and predictable. (JAC)

  1. A Contrapuntal Analysis of Discourses of Desire in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Implicated in contributing to the problems youth today face in trying to claim an education, an informed active participation in the social order, dominant discourses of desire in education foreclose formal, critical analysis of social structures that construct, police, entreat, and deny desire. Looking at the ways in which desire is encoded in…

  2. Information Technology and Interests in Scholarly Communication: A Discourse Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Neil

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the concept of information technology and scholarly communication as meta-communication as well as journal articles focuses on discourse analysis based on three interview interactions. Highlights include technological determinism; a social constructivist approach to technology; the indexical category of research; and interest…

  3. A Frame-Reflective Discourse Analysis of Serious Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Igor; Warmelink, Harald; Zhou, Qiqi

    2016-01-01

    The authors explore how framing theory and the method of frame-reflective discourse analysis provide foundations for the emerging discipline of serious games (SGs) research. Starting with Wittgenstein's language game and Berger and Luckmann's social constructivist view on science, the authors demonstrate why a definitional or taxonomic approach to…

  4. Storytelling: Discourse Analysis for Understanding Collective Perceptions of Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vovides, Yianna; Inman, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Using discourse analysis, the goal of this exploratory project was to determine what practitioners of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa considered key achievements, within the scope of their Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) activities, after their initial two-year implementation efforts. To do so, a series of 58 video stories…

  5. Critical Narrative Analysis: The Interplay of Critical Discourse and Narrative Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souto-Manning, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I question the micro-macro separation in discourse analysis, the separation of personal and institutional discourses. I apply a mostly macroanalytic perspective (critical discourse analysis [CDA]) to inform a predominantly microanalytic perspective (analysis of conversational narratives) and vice versa. In the combination of these…

  6. Critical discourse analysis: understanding change in maternity services.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Meredith; Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne

    2012-02-01

    This paper provides an example of the use of critical discourse analysis (CDA) in the area of maternity care policy and describes the process of CDA as an effective research method for understanding the influences of change in the context of Australian maternity services. CDA is a methodological approach that examines how discourse is formed and given power, as a result of how power is used, who uses it and the context within which this usage takes place. The application of CDA is described in this study for the purpose of examining key-stakeholder use of knowledge and power for the purpose of influencing the direction of the maternity services reform. The CDA theoretical framework guided discourse identification and analysis of the purpose behind the discourse through examination of power relationships between key stakeholders. The use of a theoretical lens in the form of neoliberalism to supplement the theoretical framework facilitated the exposure of forces intrinsic to the maternity care context driving change.

  7. Turning the Lens: Reflexivity in Research & Teaching with Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the use of Critical Discourse Analysis in truth-telling in education research. I argue that without critical reflexivity Critical Discourse Analysis can become a means of reinforcing and reinscribing some of the same dominant discourses that we critique. Here I suggest the recognition that in the role of teacher and…

  8. "Generation 1.5" and Its Discourses of Partiality: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benesch, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This is a critical discourse analysis of "generation 1.5," a term used to refer to students born outside the United States who received part, or most, of their formal education in the United States. The analysis reveals that surrounding "generation 1.5" are 3 interconnected discourses of partiality: a discourse of demographic partiality, a…

  9. Contrast and Critique of Two Approaches to Discourse Analysis: Conversation Analysis and Speech Act Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Nguyen Van

    2014-01-01

    Discourse analysis, as Murcia and Olshtain (2000) assume, is a vast study of language in use that extends beyond sentence level, and it involves a more cognitive and social perspective on language use and communication exchanges. Holding a wide range of phenomena about language with society, culture and thought, discourse analysis contains various…

  10. Counter-Memory and Race: An Examination of African American Scholars' Challenges to Early Twentieth Century K-12 Historical Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how African American scholars during the early twentieth century employed the genre of curriculum writing to challenge existing discourses of race. Drawing from the findings of a qualitative document analysis of textbooks created by Carter G. Woodson and Charles H. Wesley, this article illustrates how these authors used texts…

  11. Discourse analysis: what is it and why is it relevant to family practice?

    PubMed

    Shaw, Sara E; Bailey, Julia

    2009-10-01

    This paper aims to illustrate what discourse analysis is and how it can contribute to our understanding of family practice. Firstly, we describe what 'discourse analysis' is, mapping the discourse analysis terrain by discussing four studies relevant to primary care to illustrate different methodological approaches and key concepts. We then address the practicalities of how to actually do discourse analysis, providing readers with a worked example using one particular approach. Thirdly, we touch on some common debates about discursive research. We conclude by advocating that researchers and practitioners take up the challenge of understanding, utilizing and extending the field of discourse studies within family practice.

  12. Structure, Power, and Discourse: An Analysis of Discipline in an Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Heather

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at one instance of a teacher attempting to discipline students for sexually profane heteronormative language and the resulting events that demonstrate a discipline over all discourses in the school. Using Fairclough's critical discourse analysis (2005) to analyze the narrative, I argue that the discourse in the school reinforces…

  13. From Moves to Sequences: Expanding the Unit of Analysis in the Study of Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefstein, Adam; Snell, Julia; Israeli, Mirit

    2015-01-01

    What is the appropriate unit of analysis for the study of classroom discourse? One common analytic strategy employs individual discourse moves, which are coded, counted and used as indicators of the quality of classroom talk. In this article we question this practice, arguing that discourse moves are positioned within sequences that critically…

  14. Discourse Analysis of Navy Leaders’ Attitudes About Mental Health Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Wiley & Sons, Inc. Dreyfus, H. L., & Rabinow, P. (1982). Michel Foucault , beyond structuralism and hermeneutics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press...philosophy of discourses as the theoretical lens for conducting a discourse analysis (Dreyfus & Rabinow, 1982; Foucault , 1972; Foucault & Gordon, 1980... Foucault , Rabinow, & Rose, 2003). Foucault described discourses as groupings of signs or symbols (statements) that suggest a consistent pattern in how

  15. Acceptance of dying: a discourse analysis of palliative care literature.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Camilla

    2012-07-01

    The subject of death denial in the West has been examined extensively in the sociological literature. However, there has not been a similar examination of its "opposite", the acceptance of death. In this study, I use the qualitative method of discourse analysis to examine the use of the term "acceptance" of dying in the palliative care literature from 1970 to 2001. A Medline search was performed by combining the text words "accept or acceptance" with the subject headings "terminal care or palliative care or hospice care", and restricting the search to English language articles in clinical journals discussing acceptance of death in adults. The 40 articles were coded and analysed using a critical discourse analysis method. This paper focuses on the theme of acceptance as integral to palliative care, which had subthemes of acceptance as a goal of care, personal acceptance of healthcare workers, and acceptance as a facilitator of care. For patients and families, death acceptance is a goal that they can be helped to attain; for palliative care staff, acceptance of dying is a personal quality that is a precondition for effective practice. Acceptance not only facilitates the dying process for the patient and family, but also renders care easier. The analysis investigates the intertextuality of these themes with each other and with previous texts. From a Foucauldian perspective, I suggest that the discourse on acceptance of dying represents a productive power, which disciplines patients through apparent psychological and spiritual gratification, and encourages participation in a certain way to die.

  16. A Cultural Historical Theoretical Perspective of Discourse and Design in the Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Flavio Azevedo, Peggy Martalock and Tugba Keser have initiated an important conversation in science education as they use sociocultural theory to introduce design based scenarios into the science classroom. This response seeks to expand Azevedo, Martalock and Keser's article "The discourse of design-based science classroom activities" by…

  17. Deaf Culture and Competing Discourses in a Residential School for the Deaf: "Can Do" versus "Can't Do"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Catherine A.; Placier, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    From an ethnographic case study of a state-funded residential school for the Deaf, the authors employed Critical Discourse Analysis to identify competing discourses in the talk of educators. These discourses are embedded in the historical oppression and labeling of deaf people as disabled and the development of Deaf culture as a counter-discourse.…

  18. Discourse analysis and the impact of the philosophy of Enlightenment in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Beedholm, Kirsten; Lomborg, Kirsten; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2014-06-01

    Discourse analysis has been introduced into nursing research as an approach which has the potential to offer new perspectives and to pose new questions to taken-for-granted assumptions. However, critique has arisen that when applied to nursing studies, the epistemological foundation of the discourse analysis is often overlooked. It is furthermore claimed that the methodological inspiration does not lead to any new insights and that these studies can hardly be differentiated from more traditional studies. This study supports this critique, arguing that the challenges of implementing discourse analysis in nursing research reflect a dominant pattern of thought in the discourse of the nursing profession that have held sway throughout the last century. We argue that this pattern of thought stems from the Western philosophy of consciousness and the conception of the sovereign subject. By applying a discourse analytical perspective to the discourse of the nursing profession itself, this study elucidates the challenges of applying discourse analysis in nursing research.

  19. Critical Discourse Analysis and Science Education Texts: Employing Foucauldian Notions of Discourse and Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    This article supports critical, social justice oriented science education research by providing a theoretical and methodological basis for examining how subjectivities may be constituted through discourses found in science education texts. Such research explores how discourses orient teachers and students to the world, others, and themselves, as…

  20. Cohesive Devices in Written Discourse: A Discourse Analysis of a Student's Essay Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahaziq, Afnan

    2016-01-01

    Discourse is essential in communicating thoughts and ideas. People around the world communicate their ideas through stretches of language. In order to understand any discourse, it must achieve cohesion. The purpose of this paper is to define and describe the cohesive devices based on the work of Halliday and Hasan (1976). It also aims to emphasize…

  1. Discourse Analysis as Part of Translator Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosborg, Anna

    2000-01-01

    Presents an approach to textual analysis and its application in translator training for university students at advanced level at the Aarhus School of Business (Denmark). The approach emphasizes not only the quality of the product, but also how the process is administered. Hence, it is a process-oriented approach to translation. (Author/VWL)

  2. Nursing scholars appropriating new methods: the use of discourse analysis in scholarly nursing journals 1996-2003.

    PubMed

    Buus, Niels

    2005-03-01

    Nursing scholars appropriate the analysis of discourse. "Discourse analysis" covers a wide spectrum of approaches to analysing meaning and language and there is no widely accepted definition of either a concept or an analysis of discourse. A sample of the discourse analyses indexed in the CINAHL database was analysed in order to identify what notions of discourse and discourse analysis are preferred by nursing scholars. The results showed that nursing scholars prefer approaches to discourse that resemble mainstream qualitative research avoiding social life and interaction. Explanations for these findings are briefly outlined.

  3. Patient participation in palliative care decisions: An ethnographic discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Rodríguez, Charo; Groleau, Danielle; Légaré, France; MacDonald, Mary Ellen; Marchand, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The participation of patients in making decisions about their care is especially important towards the end of life because palliative care decisions involve extensive uncertainty and are heavily influenced by personal values. Yet, there is a scarcity of studies directly observing clinical interactions between palliative patients and their health care providers. In this study, we aimed to understand how patient participation in palliative care decisions is constructed through discourse in a community hospital-based palliative care team. This qualitative study combined ethnographic observations of a palliative care team with discourse analysis. Eighteen palliative care patients with cancer diagnoses, six family physicians, and two nurses were involved in the study. Multiple interactions were observed between each patient and health care providers over the course of 1 year, for a total of 101 consultations, 24 of which were audio-recorded. The analysis consisted in looking for the interpretive repertoires (i.e., familiar lines of argument used to justify actions) that were used to justify patient participation in decision-making during clinical interactions, as well as exploring their implications for decision roles and end-of-life care. Patients and their health care providers seldom addressed their decision-making roles explicitly. Rather, they constructed patient participation in palliative care decisions in a covert manner. Four interpretive repertoires were used to justify patient participation: (1) exposing uncertainty, (2) co-constructing patient preferences, (3) affirming patient autonomy, and finally (4) upholding the authority of health care providers. The results demonstrate how patients and health care providers used these arguments to negotiate their respective roles in decision-making. In conclusion, patients and health care providers used a variety of interpretive repertoires to covertly negotiate their roles in decision-making, and to legitimize

  4. Patient participation in palliative care decisions: An ethnographic discourse analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Rodríguez, Charo; Groleau, Danielle; Légaré, France; MacDonald, Mary Ellen; Marchand, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The participation of patients in making decisions about their care is especially important towards the end of life because palliative care decisions involve extensive uncertainty and are heavily influenced by personal values. Yet, there is a scarcity of studies directly observing clinical interactions between palliative patients and their health care providers. In this study, we aimed to understand how patient participation in palliative care decisions is constructed through discourse in a community hospital-based palliative care team. This qualitative study combined ethnographic observations of a palliative care team with discourse analysis. Eighteen palliative care patients with cancer diagnoses, six family physicians, and two nurses were involved in the study. Multiple interactions were observed between each patient and health care providers over the course of 1 year, for a total of 101 consultations, 24 of which were audio-recorded. The analysis consisted in looking for the interpretive repertoires (i.e., familiar lines of argument used to justify actions) that were used to justify patient participation in decision-making during clinical interactions, as well as exploring their implications for decision roles and end-of-life care. Patients and their health care providers seldom addressed their decision-making roles explicitly. Rather, they constructed patient participation in palliative care decisions in a covert manner. Four interpretive repertoires were used to justify patient participation: (1) exposing uncertainty, (2) co-constructing patient preferences, (3) affirming patient autonomy, and finally (4) upholding the authority of health care providers. The results demonstrate how patients and health care providers used these arguments to negotiate their respective roles in decision-making. In conclusion, patients and health care providers used a variety of interpretive repertoires to covertly negotiate their roles in decision-making, and to legitimize

  5. Automated Proposition Density Analysis for Discourse in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Greenhouse, Joel; Hou, Kaiyue; Russell, G. Austin; Cai, Xizhen; Forbes, Margaret; Holland, Audrey; MacWhinney, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates how proposition density can differentiate between persons with aphasia (PWA) and individuals in a control group, as well as among subtypes of aphasia, on the basis of procedural discourse and personal narratives collected from large samples of participants. Method Participants were 195 PWA and 168 individuals in a control group from the AphasiaBank database. PWA represented 6 aphasia types on the basis of the Western Aphasia Battery–Revised (Kertesz, 2006). Narrative samples were stroke stories for PWA and illness or injury stories for individuals in the control group. Procedural samples were from the peanut-butter-and-jelly-sandwich task. Language samples were transcribed using Codes for the Human Analysis of Transcripts (MacWhinney, 2000) and analyzed using Computerized Language Analysis (MacWhinney, 2000), which automatically computes proposition density (PD) using rules developed for automatic PD measurement by the Computerized Propositional Idea Density Rater program (Brown, Snodgrass, & Covington, 2007; Covington, 2007). Results Participants in the control group scored significantly higher than PWA on both tasks. PD scores were significantly different among the aphasia types for both tasks. Pairwise comparisons for both discourse tasks revealed that PD scores for the Broca's group were significantly lower than those for all groups except Transcortical Motor. No significant quadratic or linear association between PD and severity was found. Conclusion Proposition density is differentially sensitive to aphasia type and most clearly differentiates individuals with Broca's aphasia from the other groups. PMID:27657850

  6. A discourse analysis of male sexuality in the magazine Intimacy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The World Health Organization's publication, Developing sexual health programmes, states that the media is an important source of information about sexuality. Although the media can promote awareness of sexual health issues, it also acts as a vehicle for defining and regulating sex norms. In other words, the standards of ‘normal’ sex are in part defined by the media. Accordingly, it has become imperative to analyse the media's construction of sexual norms in order to reveal how they are related to specific ideological views. For the purposes of this study, the focus will be limited to analysing the South African publication Intimacy. Aim The study aims to reveal how the sex advice articles written in Intimacy for women in regard to their male partner's sexuality reflect patriarchal and phallocentric ideologies. Method A discourse analysis of the sex advice articles in the magazine Intimacy was conducted. It was informed by feminist theories of sexuality that seek to examine the ways in which texts are associated with male-centred versions of sexual pleasure. Results The discourse analysis identified a number of key themes regarding male sexuality. These include: (1) biological accounts of male sexuality; (2) phallocentric scripting of the sex act; and (3) the melodramatic penis. Conclusion Constructions of male sexuality require the inclusion of alternative modes of male erotic pleasure. This requires texts that encourage men to explore and also to experiment with pleasurable feelings associated with non-genital erogenous zones of the body. PMID:26245621

  7. Psychometrics and its discontents: an historical perspective on the discourse of the measurement tradition.

    PubMed

    Schoenherr, Jordan Richard; Hamstra, Stanley J

    2016-08-01

    Psychometrics has recently undergone extensive criticism within the medical education literature. The use of quantitative measurement using psychometric instruments such as response scales is thought to emphasize a narrow range of relevant learner skills and competencies. Recent reviews and commentaries suggest that a paradigm shift might be presently underway. We argue for caution, in that the psychometrics approach and the quantitative account of competencies that it reflects is based on a rich discussion regarding measurement and scaling that led to the establishment of this paradigm. Rather than reflecting a homogeneous discipline focused on core competencies devoid of consideration of context, the psychometric community has a history of discourse and debate within the field, with an acknowledgement that the techniques and instruments developed within psychometrics are heuristics that must be used pragmatically.

  8. Linguistic analysis of discourse in aphasia: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Lucy; Ferguson, Alison; Spencer, Elizabeth

    This review examined previous research applications of linguistic discourse analysis to assess the language of adults with aphasia. A comprehensive literature search of seven databases identified 165 studies that applied linguistic measures to samples of discourse collected from people with aphasia. Analysis of methodological applications revealed an increase in published research using linguistic discourse analysis over the past 40 years, particularly to measure the generalisation of therapy outcomes to language in use. Narrative language samples were most frequently subject to analysis though all language genres were observed across included studies. A total of 536 different linguistic measures were applied to examine language behaviours. Growth in the research use of linguistic discourse analysis and suggestions that this growth may be reflected in clinical practice requires further investigation. Future research directions are discussed to investigate clinical use of discourse analysis and examine the differences that exist between research and clinical practice.

  9. "Genre Means...": A Critical Discourse Analysis of Fourth Grade Talk about Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaenen, Inda

    2010-01-01

    This action research study investigates how genre theory can be integrated into the practice of a writing enrichment program and how the frameworks of Critical Discourse Analysis and Multimodal Analysis can help assess and improve both student learning and teacher practice. A multilayered exploration of teacher-student discourse in an urban public…

  10. Insights beyond Neo-Liberal Educational Practices: The Value of Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Rafferty, John

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, power and effects of neo-liberal rationale in educational settings. By introducing discourse analysis of two cases, the influence of neo-liberal ideology on contemporary curricula and school programs were examined. The analysis showed that dominant discourses based on neo-liberal rationale presented themselves as…

  11. Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

  12. Studying Agency in Literacy Teacher Education: A Layered Approach to Positive Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca; Wetzel, Melissa Mosley

    2013-01-01

    Critically oriented forms of discourse analysis have focused largely on oppression and injustice. Signaling a new turn in the field, scholars have called for an analytic focus on moments of liberation and agency, referring to this orientation as "positive discourse analysis" (PDA). In this research, we turn our attention to a case study of agency…

  13. The Return to Messages: Perspectives on Discourse Analysis and Conversational Coherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Stephanie

    Focusing on the increasing attention of communication scholars to the production of conversation, this paper outlines three broad perspectives on discourse analysis: (1) codification, which involves discrete categorizing of discourse and includes work in speech act theory, traditional interaction analysis, and message strategies; (2) coordination,…

  14. A Corpus-Based Discourse Analysis of the Vision and Mission Statements of Universities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efe, Ibrahim; Ozer, Omer

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a corpus-assisted discourse analysis of mission and vision statements of 105 state and 66 private/foundation universities in Turkey. The paper combines a corpus-based approach with critical discourse analysis to interpret the data in relation to its institutional as well as socio-political context. It argues…

  15. Knowledge Building Discourse Explorer: A Social Network Analysis Application for Knowledge Building Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, Jun; Oshima, Ritsuko; Matsuzawa, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    In recent studies of learning theories, a new methodology that integrates two prevailing metaphors of learning (acquisition and participation) has been discussed. However, current analytical techniques are insufficient for analyzing how social knowledge develops through learners' discourse and how individual learners contribute to this…

  16. The Discourses of Discourse Analysis: A Response to Ninnes and Burnett.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    The field of comparative education has been slow to incorporate poststructuralist concerns due to theoretical bias, the linguistic barrier of postmodernist discourses, and the critique of postmodernism as indifferent to social issues. Debates on key questions of epistemology, ontology, and ethics in social research are needed to further…

  17. 'Let's get wasted': A discourse analysis of teenagers' talk about binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Chainey, Timothy A; Stephens, Christine

    2016-05-01

    Teenage binge drinking is a significant health issue. To explore teenagers talk about binge drinking, four peer-group interviews were conducted with 20 teenagers, aged 16-18 years, with experience of excessive alcohol use. A discourse analysis showed that a 'drinking is cool' discourse constructed 'getting wasted' as an integral part of social life, while a 'drinking as a social lubricant' discourse described the behavioural functions of alcohol use. Participants also actively resisted an 'alcohol is bad' discourse, which acknowledges the risks of alcohol use. The findings illustrate how teenagers use these resources in sophisticated ways to position the teen drinker positively and negatively.

  18. Expanding the Notion of Historical Text through Historic Building Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Christine; Dobbs, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Among the disciplinary skills necessary for understanding in the social studies classroom is the ability to determine context and build meaning from past events. Historical buildings are an important component of historical study, and they serve as a type of nontraditional text that students can decode and use to construct meaning about multiple…

  19. The British and curriculum development in West Africa: A historical discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori-Attah, Kwabena Dei

    2006-09-01

    THE BRITISH AND CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN WEST AFRICA: A HISTORICAL STUDY - Only recently have African nations begun to make their way towards establishing genuinely autonomous education systems incorporating elements of indigenous culture. The present study examines the historical development of curriculum in British West Africa in its links with the educational activities of the early Christian missionaries and the imposition of British colonial rule. For over 300 years, the curriculum content was essentially European in nature. African interests and cultural practices were largely excluded, as "bookwork" was favored over "handwork". The colonial curriculum also helped introduce a new social order to West Africa, leading to the rise of new local elites reading, writing, and speaking foreign European languages. This study explores how the idea of a "civilized" person, promoted through the colonial school curriculum, developed new local elites with different sets of values and expectations that often made them strangers in their own societies. It also describes the connection between this curriculum and the repeated failure of education-reform efforts.

  20. Guidance Matters: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Race-Related Policy Vocabularies Shaping Leadership Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Bradley W.; Diem, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Despite the federal government's historical effort to ensure educational equity via policies targeting issues critical to U.S. urban cities, a transformation has taken place in the discourses shaping educational policy solutions. While policies targeting educational equity have not completely vanquished, they have been largely re-written by…

  1. Ideologies of English in a Chinese High School EFL Textbook: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiong, Tao; Qian, Yamin

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine ideologies of English in present-day China with a special focus on textbook discourse. The research framework is informed by critical theories on language and education. Critical discourse analysis is applied as a methodological approach characterized by a socially committed attitude in the explanation and interpretation…

  2. Discourse-Based Methods across Texts and Semiotic Modes: Three Tools for Micro-Rhetorical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oddo, John

    2013-01-01

    As the scope of rhetorical inquiry broadens to cover intersemiotic and intertextual phenomena, scholars are increasingly in need of new, defensible analytic procedures. Several scholars have suggested that methods of discourse analysis could enhance rhetorical criticism. Here, I introduce a discourse-based method that is empirical, delicate, and…

  3. Critical Discourse Analysis and Inclusive Educational Policies: The Power to Exclude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liasidou, Anastasia

    2008-01-01

    The legislative shift towards an inclusive education policy in Cyprus has allegedly been fragmented and contradictory. The textual hybridity of the ostensibly more inclusive policy documents prevents the realization of an inclusive discourse. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is proposed as an emancipatory research tool that has the potential to…

  4. Discourse Analysis and Development of English Listening for Non-English Majors in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Yinxiu

    2015-01-01

    Traditional approach of listening teaching mainly focuses on the sentence level and regards the listening process in a passive and static way. To compensate for this deficiency, a new listening approach, that is, discourse-oriented approach has been introduced into the listening classroom. Although discourse analysis is a comparatively new field…

  5. A Discourse Analysis of Master's Theses across Disciplines with a Focus on Introductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samraj, Betty

    2008-01-01

    There have been a growing number of discourse studies in recent years on written academic genres produced by students. However, the master's thesis has not received as much attention as the PhD dissertation. This investigation of master's theses from three disciplines, biology, philosophy and linguistics, employs both discourse analysis and…

  6. Critical Discourse Analysis of Religious Sermons in Egypt--Case Study of Amr Khalid's Sermons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldin, Ahmad Abdel Tawwab Sharaf

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide an ideological approach within a critical discourse analysis (CDA) in order to investigate the Islamic discourse and to trace the ideological devices in Amr Khalid's sermons. In so doing, this paper tries to show how language, employed in Khalid's sermons, reflects the common conceptual structures and…

  7. Intellectual Disabilities, Challenging Behaviour and Referral Texts: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunkoosing, Karl; Haydon-Laurelut, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The texts of referrals written by workers in residential services for people with learning difficulties constitute sites where contemporary discourses of intellectual disabilities are being constructed. This paper uses Critical Discourse Analysis to examine referrals made to a Community Learning Disability Team (CLDT). The study finds referral…

  8. Academic Discussions: An Analysis of Instructional Discourse and an Argument for an Integrative Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elizabeth, Tracy; Ross Anderson, Trisha L.; Snow, Elana H.; Selman, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the structure of academic discussions during the implementation of a literacy curriculum in the upper elementary grades. The authors examine the quality of academic discussion, using existing discourse analysis frameworks designed to evaluate varying attributes of classroom discourse. To integrate the overlapping qualities…

  9. Physical Education for Health and Wellbeing: A Discourse Analysis of Scottish Physical Education Curricular Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Nollaig; Verheul, Martine; Atencio, Matthew; Jess, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the discourses associated with physical education in Scotland's "Curriculum for Excellence". We implement a poststructural perspective in order to identify the discourses that underpin the physical education sections of the "Curriculum for Excellence" "health and well-being"…

  10. A Critical Discourse Analysis of the New Labour Discourse of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) across Schools in England and Wales: Conversations with Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Carl

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the New Labour (1997-2010) discourse of Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) in schools, and how it was understood and enacted by policymakers in England and in Wales within the context of devolved government across the UK. By SEL I mean universal school-based programs, located in the…

  11. Analyse linguistique du discours jauresien (A Linguistic Analysis of Jaures' Discourse).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauveau, Genevieve

    1978-01-01

    Traces the development of discourse analysis in modern linguistics, and presents a semantic analysis, based on a comparative word frequency count, of two political speeches made by the socialist Jean Jaures. (AM)

  12. Teaching Historical Analysis and Thinking Using the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2008-01-01

    Historical thinking and historical analysis have become significant themes within the ranks of social studies educators. In this article, the author talks about the importance of teaching historical analysis and historical thinking using the Internet. He presents websites that both explain the two concepts and also provide lesson plans,…

  13. Highlighting hybridity: A critical discourse analysis of teacher talk in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanrahan, Mary U.

    2006-01-01

    There is evidence that alienation from science is linked to the dominant discourse practices of science classrooms (cf. Lemke, J. L. (1990). Talking Science: Language, Learning, and Values. Norwood, NJ: Ablex). Yet, in secondary science education it is particularly hard to find evidence of curriculum reform that includes explicit changes in pedagogic discourses to accommodate the needs of students from a wide range of backgrounds. However, such evidence does exist and needs to be highlighted wherever it is found to help address social justice concerns in science education. In this article, I show how critical discourse analysis can be used to explore a way of challenging the dominant discourse in teacher - student interactions in science classrooms. My findings suggest a new way of moving toward more socially just science curricula in middle years and secondary classrooms by using hybrid discourses that can serve emancipatory purposes.

  14. Health promotion in nursing: a Derridean discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Dean

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the current position of health promotion in nursing as it relates to its practice, theory and policy and, where possible as a secondary aim, compare and contrast this against the health promotion position of other health professional groups. This was achieved using the framework of a Derridean-derived discourse analysis of existing health promotion literature specific to nurses and nursing practice. The overall process examined a 'corpus' of the literature considered exemplary texts of that kind and classification. A number of binary oppositions and tensions, in the Derridean tradition, were uncovered. Strong themes to emerge were that nursing has yet to clearly contextualize and differentiate health promotion and health education and the specific role and function of nursing. Also evident was the view that nursing-related clinical practice is yet to universally reflect the theory and language of 'general' health promotion. Furthermore, nursing has not yet demonstrated a clear and notable wider health policy/political role in formulating and implementing health promotion agendas. Although this state of affairs has existed for some time now, there is evidence that nursing knowledge and practice is changing-even if this is not a universal phenomenon. Studies, like this one, are part of the step towards a more widespread reform for health promotion in nursing.

  15. Comparative Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA): Interplay of discourses (D/D1) as third grade urban and suburban science students engage in hypothesis formulation and observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Carmen Irene Reyes

    This qualitative research project is a comparative analysis of Discourses (D/D1) while focused upon the science processes of hypothesis generation and observation in an urban versus suburban elementary science classroom. D designates the instructional and formal academic science Discourse and D1 represents the students' informal, social or home language D1iscourses. In particular, this research study is a critical discourse analysis that examines how the science processes of hypothesis formulation and observation are constituted through the interplay of classroom Discourses (D/D1) as two third grade science teachers teach the same kit-based, inquiry science lessons with their respective urban and suburban students. The research also considers ethnicity, social class, language, and the central role science teachers play mediating between children's everyday world and the world of science. Communicative approach and distinctive patterns of interaction between the European American teachers and their respective students are analyzed through a critical lens to examine underlying issues of equity and power embedded in the instructional Discourse of science. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) provides both the theoretical framework and analytical lens. The research informs development of linguistic-based "best" practices to contribute toward promoting greater science teacher awareness in creating linguistic environments that support all students' learning science Discourse and to serve as a springboard for future educational science researchers' use of CDA.

  16. Discourse analysis: a new methodology for understanding the ideologies of health and illness.

    PubMed

    Lupton, D

    1992-06-01

    Discourse analysis is an interdisciplinary field of inquiry which has been little employed by public health practitioners. The methodology involves a focus upon the sociocultural and political context in which text and talk occur. Discourse analysis is, above all, concerned with a critical analysis of the use of language and the reproduction of dominant ideologies (belief systems) in discourse (defined here as a group of ideas or patterned way of thinking which can both be identified in textual and verbal communications and located in wider social structures). Discourse analysis adds a linguistic approach to an understanding of the relationship between language and ideology, exploring the way in which theories of reality and relations of power are encoded in such aspects as the syntax, style and rhetorical devices used in texts. This paper argues that discourse analysis is pertinent to the concerns of public health, for it has the potential to lay bare the ideological dimension of such phenomena as lay health beliefs, the doctor-patient relationship, and the dissemination of health information in the entertainment mass media. This dimension is often neglected by public health research. The method of discourse analysis is explained, and examples of its use in the area of public health given.

  17. Unethical conduct by the nurse: a critical discourse analysis of Nurses Tribunal inquiries.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Kathleen A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to uncover and critically examine hidden assumptions that underpin the findings of nurses' unethical conduct arising from inquiries conducted by the Nurses Tribunal in New South Wales. This was a qualitative study located within a post-structural theoretical framework. Transcripts of five inquiries conducted between 1998 and 2003 were analysed using critical discourse analysis. The findings revealed two dominant discourses that were drawn upon in the inquiries to construct nurses' conduct as unethical. These were discourses of trust and accountability. The way the nurses were spoken about during the inquiries was shaped by normalising judgements that were used to discursively position the nurse through narrative.

  18. Exploring the discourse on communication modality after cochlear implantation: a Foucauldian analysis of parents' narratives.

    PubMed

    Bruin, Marieke; Nevøy, Anne

    2014-07-01

    After pediatric cochlear implantation, parents have to make decisions concerning which communication modality the child and the child's family will use. The choice has to be made against a background of opposing views on communication modality in follow-up after pediatric cochlear implantation. The opposing views form a discourse that has been a core issue in the international body of literature for a long time. For hearing parents caught up in this ongoing controversy, the choice can be a difficult one. The study reported in this article explores the discourse on communication modality and is based on 27 written parental accounts on experiences with follow-up. From the perspective of Foucault's thinking, discourses exert knowledge and power. Drawing on Foucault, the study explores how the discourse on communication modality is constructed, how it operates, and how it governs thinking and acting. The Foucauldian analysis brings to the fore the complex nature of the discourse and states that follow-up, which is intended to be helpful for parents, may induce insecurity and frustration. The study brings into conversation a broader understanding of the discourse on communication modality and addresses a need for increased awareness on how the discourse governs thinking and acting in follow-up.

  19. The Chronic Responsibility: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Danish Chronic Care Policies.

    PubMed

    Ravn, Iben M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-03-01

    This article reports on the results of a Fairclough-inspired critical discourse analysis aiming to clarify how chronically ill patients are presented in contemporary Danish chronic care policies. Drawing on Fairclough's three-dimensional framework for analyzing discourse, and using Dean's concepts of governmentality as an interpretative lens, we analyzed and explained six policies published by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority between 2005 and 2013. The analysis revealed that discourses within the policy vision of chronic care consider chronically ill patients' active role, lifestyle, and health behavior to be the main factors influencing susceptibility to chronic diseases. We argue that this discursive construction naturalizes a division between people who can actively manage responsible self-care and those who cannot. Such discourses may serve the interests of those patients who are already activated, while others remain subjugated to certain roles. For example, they may be labeled as "vulnerable."

  20. Text Me! Interpersonal Discourse Analysis of Egyptian Mobile Operators' SMSs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Falaky, Mai Samir

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the discourse of a number of Short Messaging Service (SMS). The selected data is analyzed according to the lexico-grammatical choices reflected in the interpersonal metafunction. Results are, then, interpreted for the purpose of deciding how service providers use language to convince a large number of customers of their…

  1. Disciplining Professionals: A Feminist Discourse Analysis of Public Preschool Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, Jamie Huff; Iverson, Susan V.

    2014-01-01

    Educational reforms across the globe have had implications for the work of preschool teachers and thus their professional identities. This article draws on a feminist discourse lens to examine data collected from a recent narrative inquiry focused on understanding the professional identities of five public preschool teachers in the USA. This…

  2. Graduates' Employment and the Discourse of Employability: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Marie-Pierre; Leathwood, Carole

    2006-01-01

    In a context of considerable changes in the labour market and higher education sector in the UK, a discourse of employability has become increasingly dominant. Universities are urged to ensure that they produce "employable" graduates, and graduates themselves are exhorted to continually develop their personal skills, qualities and…

  3. Graduate Students' Construction of Researcher Identities Explored through Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, C. Amelia; Lester, Jessica N.

    2016-01-01

    While many research methods courses challenge students to make sense of their own researcher identities as they relate to research paradigms and perspectives, there is a lack of research that examines how students actually go about constructing these identities, particularly at the level of discourse. In this study, we attended to graduate…

  4. A Discourse Analysis of "(the) same" in English Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jean; Celce-Murcia, Marianne

    This paper first briefly reviews what Halliday and Hasan (1976) said about "(the) same." The paper then examines the understanding of this form by qualitatively analyzing 259 naturally occurring spoken tokens of "(the) same" in their discourse contexts. It focuses on the following questions with reference to the data: (1) What…

  5. Presenting the Iterative Curriculum Discourse Analysis (ICDA) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Lars Laird

    2014-01-01

    The article presents a method for analysing recurring curriculum documents using discourse theory inspired by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe. The article includes a presentation of the method in seven practical steps, and is illustrated and discussed throughout using the author's recent case study on religion, identity and values in Norwegian…

  6. A Historical Analysis of the Relationship of Faith and Science and its Significance within Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yegge, John G.

    Science curriculum and pedagogy are at the center of a centuries-long debate concerning the appropriate relationship of faith and science. The difficulties that science educators face seem to be based in misinformation about the historical roots of this conflict. To address that conflict, the goals of this research were to separate myth from reality and to provide a necessary context to the current tensions that are disrupting science pedagogy and curriculum content within American public schools. Working within a theoretical framework of historical literacy, this qualitative, historical analysis was a comprehensive examination of the relationship of faith and science from ancient times through the Renascence to the emergence and development of Darwinism. The historical approach methodology was utilized as a means to document the systematic examination of past events, in order to illuminate and interpret the meaning of those events. The historical record revealed that science and religion are not necessarily incompatible and that the early Christian religion provided a fertile environment in which modern science could emerge. Also noted were many instances where the record was inconsistent with what educators have commonly taught as historical fact. Finally, the complex sources of tension between modern fundamentalist Christianity and Darwinism, which has appeared as a flashpoint in public discourse within science education, were examined in depth. Based on this analysis, the study includes recommendations for educators in their approach to addressing these challenges and teaching science. This analysis can produce positive social change for educators and their students, as this information is advanced as a means to enhance historical literacy among educators and their students.

  7. Media Reports of Links between MMR and Autism: A Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Lindsay; Brownlow, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    This paper details an analysis of BBC reporting of the proposed links between MMR and autism. The study aimed to identify main issues arising from the media reports into the link between MMR and the development of autism, and how these contribute to common understandings about people with autism. The study employed a form of discourse analysis to…

  8. David Coleman and the Technologisation of the Common Core: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lindy L.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on sociocultural perspectives and New Literacies Studies this study uses Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as a tool to closely analyse one way the Common Core State Standards in the United States are being produced, disseminated and consumed. The analysis focuses on a section of the CCSS, a model lesson given by one of the primary…

  9. Interpreting Feedback: A Discourse Analysis of Teacher Feedback and Student Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, J. T.; Anguiano, Carlos J.

    2016-01-01

    Feedback has typically been studied as a means of improving academic performance. Few studies inquire into the processes by which feedback shapes student identity. The authors carry out a discourse analysis of written comments to explore how feedback is discursively constructed by both teachers and students. Analysis of written feedback,…

  10. Designing CIS to improve decisions in depression disease management: a discourse analysis of front line practice.

    PubMed

    Mirel, Barbara; Ackerman, Mark S; Kerber, Kevin; Klinkman, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Clinical care management promises to help diminish the major health problem of depression. To realize this promise, front line clinicians must know which care management interventions are best for which patients and act accordingly. Unfortunately, the detailed intervention data required for such differentiated assessments are missing in most clinical information systems (CIS). To determine frontline clinicians' needs for these data and to identify the data that CIS should keep, we conducted an 18 month ethnographic study and discourse analysis of telehealth depression care management. Results show care managers need data-based evidence to choose best options, and discourse analysis suggests some personalized interventions that CIS should and can feasibly capture for evidence.

  11. Papers in Discourse and Contrastive Discourse Analysis. Jyvaskyla Contrastive Studies, 5. Reports from the Department of English, University of Jyvaskyla, No 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; Lehtonen, Jaakko, Ed.

    The following papers and reports are included: (1) "Prisoners of Code-Centred Privacy: Reflections on Contrastive Analysis and Related Disciplines" by Kari Sajavaara and Jaakko Lehtonen; (2) "The Methodology and Practice of Contrastive Discourse Analysis" by Sajavaara, Lehtonen, and Liisa Korpimies; (3) "Interactional Activities in Discourse…

  12. R. D. Laing and the British anti-psychiatry movement: a socio-historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Crossley, N

    1998-10-01

    In this paper I present a socio historical analysis of the rise of the British anti-psychiatry movement. I have three aims. Firstly, to establish what anti-psychiatry was. Secondly, to investigate and explain its emergence. Thirdly, to consider its relationship to other "new social movements". This analysis is important because criticism and opposition, such as that of the anti-psychiatrists, has been an integral element of the psychiatric field since its earliest developments but has seldom been studied by social scientists, particularly in relation to the post-war period. Power and dominant discourses have been the key focus of analysis, to the detriment of a proper consideration of resistance and counter-discourses. This omission is problematic and should be corrected as social movements introduce plurality, dynamism and the potential for change into the psychiatric field, thus contributing quite centrally to its constitution. Anti-psychiatry is, of course, only one of many movements which require analysis in this connection but it was an important movement and we must begin somewhere. In addition, an analysis of anti-psychiatry serves as an important case study for the sociology of social movements, and particularly for the concern with "new social movements" (NSMs). An analysis of it necessarily makes a contribution to our understanding of NSMs.

  13. Qualitative analysis in gay men's health research: comparing thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis.

    PubMed

    Aguinaldo, Jeffrey P

    2012-01-01

    Gay men's health typically relies on traditional forms of qualitative analysis, such as thematic analysis, and would benefit from a diversity of analytic approaches. Such diversity offers public health researchers a breadth of tools to address different kinds of research questions and, thus, substantiate different types of social phenomenon relevant to the health and wellbeing of gay men. In this article, I compare and contrast three qualitative analytic approaches: thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis. I demonstrate and distinguish their key analytic assumptions by applying each approach to a single data excerpt taken from a public health interview conducted for a broader study on gay men's health. I engage in a discussion of each approach in relation to three themes: its utility for gay men's health, its approach to dilemmas of voice, and its capacity for reflexivity. I advocate that qualitative researchers should capitalise on the full range of qualitative analytic approaches to achieve the goals of gay men's health. However, I specifically encourage qualitative researchers to engage with conversation analysis, not only because of its capacity to resolve dilemmas of voice and to achieve reflexivity, but also for its ability to capture forms of social life hitherto undocumented through thematic and critical discourse analysis.

  14. [Schizophrenia: pars pro toto for psychiatry? : A historical essay on the status of schizophrenia in psychiatric discourse].

    PubMed

    Maatz, A; Hoff, P

    2017-01-01

    In the history of psychiatry, "schizophrenia" has often been portrayed as the discipline's pars pro toto, which prototypically represents mental illness as such and which draws together the fundamental questions concerning psychiatric epistemology and practice. Taking a conceptual history approach, this essay examines how "schizophrenia" is represented in psychiatric discourse and what aspects of its representation account for the pars pro toto status. Three such aspects are identified: a pragmatic, an existential and a justificatory aspect. Following up these aspects in present day psychiatric discourse, it is concluded that "schizophrenia" is losing its special status as the representations of psychiatry and of mental illness have changed and become more diverse. Tentative conclusions regarding current debates about the abolition of "schizophrenia" are drawn.

  15. Sequestering of suffering: critical discourse analysis of natural disaster media coverage.

    PubMed

    Cox, Robin S; Long, Bonita C; Jones, Megan I; Handler, Risa J

    2008-05-01

    This article is a critical discourse analysis of the local print-news media coverage of the recovery process in two rural communities following a devastating forest fire. Two hundred and fifty fire-related articles from the North Thompson Star Journal (2003) were analyzed. Results revealed a neoliberal discursive framing of recovery, emphasizing the economic-material aspects of the process and a reliance on experts. A sequestering of suffering discourse promoted psychological functionalism and focused attention on a return to normalcy through the compartmentalization of distress. The dominant 'voice' was male, authoritative, and institutionalized. Implications for disaster recovery and potential health consequences are discussed.

  16. Taking a hard look at the Heart Truth campaign in Canada: A discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Marianne I; McGannon, Kerry R; Berry, Tanya R; Norris, Colleen M; Rodgers, Wendy M; Spence, John C

    2016-09-28

    The Canadian Heart and Stroke Foundation launched the Heart Truth campaign to increase women's awareness of heart disease. However, little is known about how such campaigns intersect with broader understandings of gender and health. This discourse analysis examined the construction of gender, risk, and prevention within campaign material. Two primary discourses emerged: one of acceptable femininity, which outlines whose risk, survivorship, and prevention matters, and another of selfless prevention. Women of diverse ethnic, sexual, and socio-economic background were largely absent. Prevention was portrayed as a personal choice, eclipsing conversations about social determinants of health and the socio-political context of heart disease.

  17. Othering the Chronically Ill: A Discourse Analysis of New Zealand Health Policy Documents.

    PubMed

    Walton, Jo Ann; Lazzaro-Salazar, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that chronic illnesses pose significant challenges for health care systems around the world. In response, most governments have set health policies in order to manage (or better, reduce) demand and improve the health of their populations. A discourse analysis of four policy documents that shape these strategies in New Zealand reveals that the policies construct the chronically ill as "others," that is, as deviant or different from the "normal" population. The discourse further serves to blame the chronically ill both for being sick, and for placing a serious financial burden on society. We identify problems that arise from this discourse. They relate to (a) the fact that chronic illnesses are so prevalent, (b) the fallacy of categorizing all chronic illnesses as the same,

  18. A Taiwanese Mandarin Main Concept Analysis (TM-MCA) for Quantification of Aphasic Oral Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Yeh, Chun-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various quantitative systems have been proposed to examine aphasic oral narratives in English. A clinical tool for assessing discourse produced by Cantonese-speaking persons with aphasia (PWA), namely Main Concept Analysis (MCA), was developed recently for quantifying the presence, accuracy and completeness of a narrative. Similar…

  19. A Critical Discourse Analysis of "No Promo Homo" Policies in US Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Brian; Bound, Arron M.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a critical discourse analysis of "no promo homo" policies and their effects in US schools. "No promo homo"--short for "no promotion of homosexuality" (Eskridge, 2000, p. 1329)--polices have been adopted across nine states and several local school districts in the United States. They direct…

  20. More Than a Game: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Racial Inequality Exercise in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Kay

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on a critical discourse analysis of Japanese English as a foreign language (EFL) students' written reflections on their experience of a simulated racial inequality exercise at a university in Japan. Initially, the reflections were compared thematically with previously published narratives by people who had experienced racism.…

  1. EFL (English as a Foreign Language) Classroom Discourse Analysis of a Vocational College and Some Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xin, Liu; Luzheng, Lou; Biru, Shi

    2011-01-01

    The application of classroom discourse analysis of foreign language teaching and learning can reveal much about how teachers perform in their teaching practice and how to make improvement. In this paper, the author tries to reveal the present state of EFL (English as a foreign language) classrooms in a vocational college from the angle of…

  2. Analysis of Narrative Discourse Structure as an Ecologically Relevant Measure of Executive Function in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannizzaro, Michael S.; Coelho, Carl A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the narrative discourse production and executive function (EF) abilities of 46 neuro-typical adults (18-98 years old). Two questions were addressed: Is the analysis of narrative structure sensitive to changes associated with aging? & What is the relationship between measures of narrative structure and EF? Narratives were…

  3. Defining and Measuring Parenting for Educational Success: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Parent Education Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson

    2008-01-01

    The Parent Education Profile (PEP) is an instrument used by family literacy programs to rate parents' support for children's literacy development. This article uses Critical Discourse Analysis to examine how the PEP constructs the ideal parent, the text's underlying assumptions about parenting and education, and its ideological effects. The…

  4. The Newfoundland School Society (1830-1840): A Critical Discourse Analysis of Its Religious Education Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Leona M.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the lens of critical discourse analysis to examine the religious education efforts of the Newfoundland School Society (NSS), the main provider of religious education in Newfoundland in the 19th century. Although its focus was initially this colony, the NSS quickly broadened its reach to the whole British empire, making it one of…

  5. A Discourse Analytic Approach to Video Analysis of Teaching: Aligning Desired Identities with Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schieble, Melissa; Vetter, Amy; Meacham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The authors present findings from a qualitative study of an experience that supports teacher candidates to use discourse analysis and positioning theory to analyze videos of their practice during student teaching. The research relies on the theoretical concept that learning to teach is an identity process. In particular, teachers construct and…

  6. Using Semantic Feature Analysis to Improve Contextual Discourse in Adults with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Jill Davis; Wright, Heather Harris; Marshall, Robert C.; Page, Judith L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Semantic feature analysis (SFA) was used to determine whether training contextually related words would improve the discourse of individuals with nonfluent aphasia in preselected contexts. Method: A modified multiple-probes-across-behaviors design was used to train target words using SFA in 3 adults with nonfluent aphasia. Pretreatment,…

  7. Critical Discourse Analysis of Martin Luther King's Speech in Socio-Political Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipra, Muhammad Aslam; Rashid, Athar

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) of the first part of King Martin Luther's speech "When I Have a Dream" in socio-political context. The study investigates how it lies on the basis of application of Fairclough version of CDA in the first part of the text. Moreover, it explicates the terms like social, cultural…

  8. Using Key Part-of-Speech Analysis to Examine Spoken Discourse by Taiwanese EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yen-Liang

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on a corpus analysis of samples of spoken discourse between a group of British and Taiwanese adolescents, with the aim of exploring the statistically significant differences in the use of grammatical categories between the two groups of participants. The key word method extended to a part-of-speech level using the web-based…

  9. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Gisela's Family Story: A Construal of Deportation, Illegal Immigrants, and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I use critical discourse analysis to analyze a student's narrative about the arrest, incarceration, and deportation of her mother to Mexico. The student, Gisela, was a fifth grader in my classroom during the 2008/2009 school year, and I encouraged the students to collect family stories from their relatives. Gisela created this…

  10. The Professional Identities of Mainstream Teachers of English Learners: A Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Adrian D.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the professional identities of four mainstream teachers of English learners (ELs). Four teachers in two school contexts (urban and suburban) were interviewed five times and observed during formal instruction four times. Adopting a sociocultural perspective on identity, the study employed discourse analysis to…

  11. Critical Discourse Analysis in Literacy Education: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda

    2014-01-01

    This article is a critical, integrative literature review of scholarship in literacy studies from 2004 to 2012 that draws on critical discourse analysis (CDA). We discuss key issues, trends, and criticisms in the field. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases to locate literacy-focused CDA…

  12. A Discourse Analysis of Collaboration between Academic and Student Affairs in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulley, Needham Yancey

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the nature of collaboration between academic affairs and student affairs units in the community college context from a qualitative perspective. A discourse analysis study was conducted to explore the ways in which collaborative practice was discussed and understood by chief and midlevel academic and…

  13. Exposing Ideology within University Policies: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Faculty Hiring, Promotion and Remuneration Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzuner-Smith, Sedef; Englander, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Using critical discourse analysis (CDA), this paper exposes the neoliberal ideology of the knowledge-based economy embedded within university policies, specifically those that regulate faculty hiring, promotion, and remuneration in two national contexts: Turkey and Mexico. The paper follows four stages of CDA: (1) focus upon a social wrong in its…

  14. The Critical Discourse Analysis of the Representation of Women and Men in Bozorg Alavi's Short Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashidi, Nasser; Khormaei, Alireza; Zarei, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    This study takes a critical discourse analysis approach to the investigation of the representation of men and women in Bozorg Alavi's short stories. The principal aim of this study is to find how different statuses of men and women are reflected in their languages. To this end, four short stories were selected and their discursive sentences were…

  15. Critical Discourse Analysis in Education: A Review of the Literature, 2004 to 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Rebecca; Schaenen, Inda; Schott, Christopher; O'Brien, Kathryn; Trigos-Carrillo, Lina; Starkey, Kim; Chasteen, Cynthia Carter

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews critical discourse analysis scholarship in education research from 2004 to 2012. Our methodology was carried out in three stages. First, we searched educational databases. Second, we completed an analytic review template for each article and encoded these data into a digital spreadsheet to assess macro-trends in the field.…

  16. Comparative Critical Discourse Analysis of Student and Teacher Editions of Secondary Christian American Literature Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agiro, Christa Preston

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative application of critical discourse analysis to student and teacher editions of the two most widely used high school American literature textbooks by Christian publishers, examining them through the lens of critical theory. The study examined all parts of the student and teacher editions, excepting literary…

  17. What We All (Supposedly) Know about the Poor: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Ruby Payne's "Framework"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworin, Joel E.; Bomer, Randy

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a professional development text by Ruby Payne that claims to inform teachers about the lives and minds of children from poor households. We use Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 1995; Gee, 2005; Rogers, Malancharuvil-Berkes, & Mosley, 2005) to examine how the author enlists readers' participation in deficit…

  18. Critical Discourse Analysis and Critical Thinking: An Experimental Study in an EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashemi, Mohammad Reza; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of critical discourse analysis (CDA) on TEFL students' critical thinking (CT) ability in "Reading Journalistic Texts" classes. In so doing, the study utilized an experimental design with 24 participants in the control group and 29 participants in the experimental group. The results of a pretest indicated…

  19. Analysing Complex Policy Change in Hong Kong: What Role for Critical Discourse Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Annie Y. N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The Hong Kong government recently reformed pre-primary education with the introduction of a voucher scheme. At the time this policy caused considerable opposition from across Hong Kong Society. This paper seeks to use Fairclough's model of critical discourse analysis to explore a key policy text and seeks to assess to what extent such an…

  20. Reproducing Gender Inequality: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Turkish Adult Literacy Textbook. Research Brief #7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Ramazan; Prins, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Adult education curricula such as literacy textbooks present blueprints for living, including different ways of being and relating as men and women. However, educators and scholars seldom consider the underlying assumptions about gender in literacy workbooks, especially in international settings. This study used Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)…

  1. Critical Discourse Analysis of Moderated Discussion Board of Virtual University of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perveen, Ayesha

    2015-01-01

    The paper critically evaluated the discursive practices on the Moderated Discussion Board (MDB) of Virtual University of Pakistan (VUP). The paramount objective of the study was to conduct a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of the MDB on the Learning Management System (LMS) of VUP. For this purpose, the academic power relations of the students…

  2. A New Tool for Discourse Analysis: The Vocabulary-Management Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youmans, Gilbert

    1991-01-01

    Proposes the Vocabulary-Management Profile, a tool for discourse analysis. The number of new words introduced in a moving interval of text 35 words long is counted and a curve created by plotting the number of new words in a successive interval at the midpoint of the interval. Analyses of text by George Orwell and James Joyce are presented. (JL)

  3. Accreditation and Power: A Discourse Analysis of a New Regime of Governance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Heggen, Kristin; Eilertsen, Heidi Annett

    2012-01-01

    This article studies discourses within the accreditation of Norwegian higher education conducted by the Norwegian Agency for Quality Assurance in Education (NOKUT), using one concrete case (the accreditation of bachelor programs in nursing). Analysis of policy documents and accreditation reports are influenced by two of Foucault's concepts of…

  4. Experiments in Discourse Analysis Impact on Information Classification and Retrieval Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morato, Jorge; Llorens, J.; Genova, G.; Moreiro, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of contextual information in indexing and retrieval systems to improve results and the ability to carry out text analysis by means of linguistic knowledge. Presents research that investigated whether discourse variables have an impact on information and retrieval and classification algorithms. (Author/LRW)

  5. From Choice to Change: An Analysis of the "Choice" Discourse in Canada's 2006 Federal Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Brooke; Langford, Rachel; Friendly, Martha; Rauhala, Ann

    2013-01-01

    A critical discourse analysis (CDA) was used to analyze the representation of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) in the 2006 federal election in Canada. Guided by Fairclough's approach to CDA, this study analyzed written documents including newspaper articles from "The Globe and Mail" and "The National Post", the policy…

  6. The Analysis of Demagogic Discourse: Huey Long's "Every Man a King" Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaske, Paul C.

    The characteristics of demagogic discourse and a methodology appropriate for its analysis can be illustrated by examining Huey Long's "Every Man a King" radio address on February 20, 1934. The demagogue is similar to the revered public figure in that both are mass leaders, charismatic, and heroic. But the demagogue elicits powerful…

  7. Postmodernism Debates and Comparative Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis. Essay Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Sonia; Ninnes, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Detailed discourse analysis is presented for two articles that suggest that postmodernism has little to offer comparative education and should be resisted. The two texts, focusing on postmodernism as the antithesis of comparative education and on the "lost promise" of postmodernism, demonstrate the use of language to convey messages that limit or…

  8. Naturalizing the Future in Factual Discourse: A Critical Linguistic Analysis of a Projected Event.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunmire, Patricia L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the linguistic processes through which a projected effect is constructed within factual discourse. Applies critical linguistic analysis to coverage of the 1990 Gulf War in the "New York Times" and "Washington Post." Expands on work in critical linguistics and demonstrates how political interests underlying newspaper…

  9. Experiences and Outcomes of Preschool Physical Education: An Analysis of Developmental Discourses in Scottish Curricular Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvilly, Nollaig

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of developmental discourses underpinning preschool physical education in Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence. Implementing a post-structural perspective, the article examines the preschool experiences and outcomes related to physical education as presented in the Curriculum for Excellence "health and…

  10. Discourse and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernsten, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This article contends that students whose discourses differ from the dominant academic discourses of school may develop negative writer identities as a result of their language struggles in the academy. Using Critical Discourse analysis, the study explores the writer identities of two college writers in order to understand how embedded ideologies…

  11. Problemes d'analyse du discours. Essai de description du discours francais sur la Chine (Problems in Discourse Analysis. An Attempt to Describe French Discourse on China).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marindin, Jean-Marie

    1979-01-01

    The following topics are developed: (1) the problematic aspect of the analysis of French discourse, an introduction to methods, theories and applications; (2) the proposals of M. Pecheux; (3) precisions to render operative definitions derived in the proposals; (4) the Macciocchi manner of speaking; and (5) the Peyrefitte manner of speaking. (AMH)

  12. A Sequential Analysis of Classroom Discourse in Italian Primary Schools: The Many Faces of the IRF Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, Luisa; Mameli, Consuelo; Gnisci, Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Background: A sequential analysis of classroom discourse is needed to investigate the conditions under which the triadic initiation-response-feedback (IRF) pattern may host different teaching orientations. Aim: The purpose of the study is twofold: first, to describe the characteristics of classroom discourse and, second, to identify and explore…

  13. How to Identify E-Learning Trends in Academic Teaching: Methodological Approaches and the Analysis of Scientific Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Helge; Heise, Linda; Heinz, Matthias; Moebius, Kathrin; Koehler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce methodology and findings of a trend study in the field of e-learning. The overall interest of the study was the analysis of scientific e-learning discourses. What comes next in the field of academic e-learning? Which e-learning trends dominate the discourse at universities? Answering such…

  14. Pushing up against the Limit-Horizon of Educational Change: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Popular Education Reform Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Ashlee; Aronson, Brittany; Ellison, Scott; Fairchild-Keyes, Sherrie

    2015-01-01

    With this article, we work to identify the limit-horizon of possible ideas, practices, and ways of talking about education reform and schooling via a critical discourse analysis of selected popular political and governmental texts. To do so, we explore the popular discourse of education reform in the United States through our analyses of three…

  15. Discourses of aggression in forensic mental health: a critical discourse analysis of mental health nursing staff records.

    PubMed

    Berring, Lene L; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels

    2015-12-01

    Managing aggression in mental health hospitals is an important and challenging task for clinical nursing staff. A majority of studies focus on the perspective of clinicians, and research mainly depicts aggression by referring to patient-related factors. This qualitative study investigates how aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised (SOAS-R), and Fairclough's critical discourse analysis was used to identify short narrative entries depicting patients and staffs in typical ways. The narratives contained descriptions of complex interactions between patient and staff that were linked to specific circumstances surrounding the patient. These antecedents, combined with the aggression incident itself, created stereotyping representations of forensic psychiatric patients as deviant, unpredictable and dangerous. Patient and staff identities were continually (re)produced by an automatic response from the staff that was solely focused on the patient's behavior. Such response might impede implementation of new strategies for managing aggression.

  16. Analysis of landfills with historic airphotos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erb, T. L.; Philipson, W. R.; Teng, W. L.; Liang, T.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the value of existing aerial photographs for waste management, including landfill monitoring. The value of historic aerial photographs for documenting landfill boundaries is shown in a graph in which the expansion of an active landfill is traced over a 40-year period. Historic aerial photographs can also be analyzed to obtain general or detailed land-use and land-cover information. In addition, the photographs provide information regarding other elements of the physical environment, including geology, soils, and surface and subsurface drainage. The value of historic photos is discussed, taking into account applications for inventory, assessing contamination/health hazards, planning corrective measures, planning waste collection and facilities, developing inactive landfills, and research concerning improved land-filling operations.

  17. Disciplining Leaders: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the ISLLC National Examination and Performance Standards in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gary L.

    2001-01-01

    Norman Fairclough's discourse analysis, a textual analysis technique, is employed to evaluate a set of national standards for certifying or licensing educational administrators developed by the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC). (PKP)

  18. Flood frequency analysis with historic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condie, Robert; Lee, Keith A.

    1982-08-01

    The series of annual peak flows obtained from a recent continuous flow record, together with any historic floods or information, are treated as a censored sample from a three-parameter lognormal population. The logarithmic likelihood function is derived in terms of the fully specified floods, the historic information with censoring threshold, and the distribution parameters to be determined. Maximum likelihood estimators of parameters are obtained as a set of three simultaneous transcendental equations and a solution method is given. Flood magnitudes for any required return period are then computed. The method is illustrated by its application to a river with historic data. Results are presented of a limited Monte Carlo experiment, the purpose of which was to compare this technique with the more conventional fitting method of historically weighted moments, in terms of bias and variability in estimates. Although both methods show bias to some degree, the maximum likelihood method gives estimates which are substantially less biassed, within the limits of the Monte Carlo experiment.

  19. Historical Analysis of Aircraft Flight Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Romanowski, Timothy P. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing and displaying one or more present flight parameter values (FP(t) of an aircraft in motion at a measurement time t(sub n), and for comparing the present flight parameter value with a selected percentage band, containing historical flight parameter data for similar conditions.

  20. Simple Analysis of Historical Lime Mortars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Joa~o

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described in which a simple characterization of a historical lime mortar is made by the determination of its approximate composition by a gravimetric method. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are also used for the qualitative characterization of the lime mortar components. These…

  1. Uncertainty Analysis of Historical Hurricane Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was conducted for historical hurricane data dating back to 1851 that was obtained from the U. S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The data set was chosen because it is a large, publicly available collection of information, exhibiting great variability which has made the forecasting of future states, from current and previous states, difficult. The availability of substantial, high-fidelity validation data, however, made for an excellent uncertainty assessment study. Several factors (independent variables) were identified from the data set, which could potentially influence the track and intensity of the storms. The values of these factors, along with the values of responses of interest (dependent variables) were extracted from the data base, and provided to a commercial software package for processing via the ANOVA technique. The primary goal of the study was to document the ANOVA modeling uncertainty and predictive errors in making predictions about hurricane location and intensity 24 to 120 hours beyond known conditions, as reported by the data set. A secondary goal was to expose the ANOVA technique to a broader community within NASA. The independent factors considered to have an influence on the hurricane track included the current and starting longitudes and latitudes (measured in degrees), and current and starting maximum sustained wind speeds (measured in knots), and the storm starting date, its current duration from its first appearance, and the current year fraction of each reading, all measured in years. The year fraction and starting date were included in order to attempt to account for long duration cyclic behaviors, such as seasonal weather patterns, and years in which the sea or atmosphere were unusually warm or cold. The effect of short duration weather patterns and ocean conditions could not be examined with the current data set. The responses analyzed were the storm

  2. The middle-class nature of identity and its implications for education: a genealogical analysis and reevaluation of a culturally and historically bounded concept.

    PubMed

    Matusov, Eugene; Smith, Mark Philip

    2012-09-01

    We consider identity as a historically emerging discourse that requires genealogical analysis - not to discover the roots of our identity but to commit [ourselves] to its dissipation (Foucault 1977, p. 162). We suggest analyzing identity through the history of socio-economic classes, their life struggles, ambitions, development, and reproduction. We see learning not as a project of transformation of identity, but rather as developing access to socially valuable practices and developing one's own voice within these practices (through addressing and responding to other voices). The access and voice projects free agents from unnecessary finalization and objectivization by oneself and others (Bakhtin 1999; Bakhtin 1990). In education, we should develop indigenous discourses of learning and develop a conceptual framework that makes analysis of diverse discourses possible. We argue that learning, as transformation of participation in a sociocultural practice to gain more access, is a better conceptual framework than learning as transformation of identity.

  3. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS: A USEFUL EDUCATIONAL TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An historical analysis that presents the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable educational tool for citizens, students, and environmental managers. In highly impacted areas, the cumulative impacts of multiple stressors can result in complex environmental condit...

  4. Successful ageing: a historical overview and critical analysis of a successful concept.

    PubMed

    Bülow, Morten Hillgaard; Söderqvist, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Since the late 1980s, the concept of 'successful ageing' has set the frame for discourse about contemporary ageing research. Through an analysis of the reception to John W. Rowe and Robert L. Kahn's launch of the concept of 'successful ageing' in 1987, this article maps out the important themes and discussions that have emerged from the interdisciplinary field of ageing research. These include an emphasis on interdisciplinarity; the interaction between biology, psycho-social contexts and lifestyle choices; the experiences of elderly people; life-course perspectives; optimisation and prevention strategies; and the importance of individual, societal and scientific conceptualisations and understandings of ageing. By presenting an account of the recent historical uses, interpretations and critiques of the concept, the article unfolds the practical and normative complexities of 'successful ageing'.

  5. Multi-level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumond Vieira, Rodrigo; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective, affords opportunities for analysts to perform a theoretically based detailed analysis of discourse events. Along with the presentation of analysis, we show and discuss how the articulation of different levels offers interpretative criteria for analyzing instructional conversations. We synthesize the results into a model for a teacher's practice and discuss the implications and possibilities of this approach for the field of discourse analysis in science classrooms. Finally, we reflect on how the development of teachers' understanding of their activity structures can contribute to forms of progressive discourse of science education.

  6. The discourse of aging.

    PubMed

    Madden, Connie L; Cloyes, Kristin G

    2012-01-01

    Historical and epistemological developments contribute to and reinforce the underlying framework that categorizes antiaging discourse and healthy aging discourse. This discourse creates the question "Can we live longer or better?" and encompasses issues of quality versus quantity, dependency versus autonomy, and risk versus benefit. By positing this discourse as a dichotomous tension, the development can be traced through the examination of select examples of influential studies in the field of aging. For nursing, the risk of these continued oppositions is potential oversimplification that may limit discernment of the complexities of care of older adults. Through understanding of the evolution and imposition of this dichotomizing discourse, nursing can provide older adult care within the reality of the aging experience, and develop frameworks, theories, and multidisciplinary discursive practice to optimize nursing care in the real-world spaces that exist between antiaging and healthy aging boundaries.

  7. Retrospective Analysis of Communication Events - Understanding the Dynamics of Collaborative Multi-Party Discourse

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Haack, Jereme N.; McColgin, Dave W.

    2006-06-08

    This research is aimed at understanding the dynamics of collaborative multi-party discourse across multiple communication modalities. Before we can truly make sig-nificant strides in devising collaborative communication systems, there is a need to understand how typical users utilize com-putationally supported communications mechanisms such as email, instant mes-saging, video conferencing, chat rooms, etc., both singularly and in conjunction with traditional means of communication such as face-to-face meetings, telephone calls and postal mail. Attempting to un-derstand an individual’s communications profile with access to only a single modal-ity is challenging at best and often futile. Here, we discuss the development of RACE – Retrospective Analysis of Com-munications Events – a test-bed prototype to investigate issues relating to multi-modal multi-party discourse.

  8. An Analysis of Argumentation Discourse Patterns in Elementary Teachers' Science Classroom Discussions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungho; Hand, Brian

    2015-04-01

    This multiple case study investigated how six elementary teachers' argumentation discourse patterns related to students' discussions in the science classroom. Four categories of classroom characteristics emerged through the analysis of the teachers' transcripts and recorded class periods: Structure of teacher and student argumentation, directionality, movement, and structure of student talk. Results showed that the differences between the teachers' discourse patterns were related to their modified reformed teaching observation protocol (RTOP) scores and to how the interaction of those differences affected student learning. Teachers with high RTOP scores were more likely to challenge their students' claims, explanations, and defenses and to provide less guidance and more waiting time for their students' responses than teachers with medium- and low-level RTOP scores. Students in the high-level teachers' classes challenged, defended, rejected, and supported each other's ideas with evidence and required less guidance than students in the medium-level and low-level teachers' classes.

  9. Industrial relations reform and the occupational transition of Australian workers: a critical discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Lo Bartolo, Luciano; Sheahan, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The 2005 WorkChoices legislation delivered a significant diminution of Australian workers' rights in the form of choice and control over numerous aspects of working life. WorkChoices extended previous neoliberal reforms and consolidated the negative impacts of those reforms on marginalized groups of workers, especially those in precarious employment. This paper reports on the findings of an occupational science-based, critical discourse analysis of a government newspaper advertisement that promotes the reforms. The construction of a WorkChoices discourse, one that was based on and sought to extend neoliberal hegemony, is identified by exploring the ways that particular ideas are presented as natural and mutually beneficial and, in response, the development of a counter-hegemonic argument, based on occupational justice theory, is discussed. The broader application of critical social research is also recommended in extending the occupational justice paradigm.

  10. A critical analysis of the concept and discourse of 'unborn child'.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A

    2008-07-01

    Despite its prominence in the abortion debate and in public policy, the discourse of 'unborn patient' has not been subjected to critical scrutiny. We provide a critical analysis in three steps. First, we distinguish between the descriptive and normative meanings of 'unborn child.' There is a long history of the descriptive use of 'unborn child.' Second, we argue that the concept of an unborn child has normative content but that this content does not do the work that opponents of abortion want it to do, namely, to establish the independent moral status of fetuses and their rights, the right to life in particular. Third, we argue that the normative content of 'unborn child' should be dependent moral status, not independent moral status. We conclude that the ethical concept of the fetus as a patient should replace the discourse of "unborn child" when that phrase is used normatively.

  11. Networks of Power and Privilege: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the US Next Generation Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satchithananthamoorthy, Hindurika

    Science holds significant power in shaping many of our everyday choices. Thus, it is important for science education to foster the development of scientific literacy for all students, so that they can navigate science-related issues in their daily lives. This study carries out a critical discourse analysis of the US Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) through an actor network theory framework to explore how the NGSS document is shaping the discourse of science education. The findings of this study show that the NGSS delivers a highly technocratic document that leaves little room for democratic engagement. It seems to place an emphasis on science education that is necessary for entry into STEM fields. The NGSS appears to have co-opted the notion of a "science for all" approach to push a neoliberal agenda of science education that serves to fuel the economic market and privileges a select few.

  12. 'Appeals to nature' in marriage equality debates: A content analysis of newspaper and social media discourse.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Cliodhna

    2017-02-27

    In May 2015, Ireland held a referendum to legalize same-sex marriage, which passed with 62% of the vote. This study explores the role played by 'appeals to nature' in the referendum debate. Little research has investigated how biological attributions are spontaneously generated in real-world discourse regarding sexual rights. Through content analysis of newspaper and Twitter discussion of the referendum, this study aims to (1) establish the frequency of appeals to nature and their distribution across the various 'sides' of the debate and (2) analyse the forms these natural claims took and the rhetorical functions they fulfilled. Appeals to nature occurred in a minority of media discussion of the referendum (13.6% of newspaper articles and .3% of tweets). They were more prominent in material produced by anti-marriage equality commentators. Biological attributions predominantly occurred in relation to parenthood, traditional marriage, gender, and homosexuality. The article analyses the rhetorical dynamics of these natural claims and considers the implications for marriage equality research and activism. The analysis suggests appeals to nature allow anti-marriage equality discourse adapt to a cultural context that proscribes outright disapproval of same-sex relationships. However, it also queries whether previous research has overemphasized the significance of biological attributions in discourse about groups' rights.

  13. Understanding the health of lorry drivers in context: A critical discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Caddick, Nick; Varela-Mato, Veronica; Nimmo, Myra A; Clemes, Stacey; Yates, Tom; King, James A

    2017-01-01

    This article moves beyond previous attempts to understand health problems in the lives of professional lorry drivers by placing the study of drivers' health in a wider social and cultural context. A combination of methods including focus groups, interviews and observations were used to collect data from a group of 24 lorry drivers working at a large transport company in the United Kingdom. Employing a critical discourse analysis, we identified the dominant discourses and subject positions shaping the formation of drivers' health and lifestyle choices. This analysis was systematically combined with an exploration of the gendered ways in which an almost exclusively male workforce talked about health. Findings revealed that drivers were constituted within a neoliberal economic discourse, which is reflective of the broader social structure, and which partly restricted drivers' opportunities for healthy living. Concurrently, drivers adopted the subject position of 'average man' as a way of defending their personal and masculine status in regards to health and to justify jettisoning approaches to healthy living that were deemed too extreme or irrational in the face of the constraints of their working lives. Suggestions for driver health promotion include refocusing on the social and cultural - rather than individual - underpinnings of driver health issues and a move away from moralistic approaches to health promotion.

  14. Exploring the communication between telenurse and caller—A critical discourse analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hakimnia, Roya; Holmström, Inger K.; Carlsson, Marianne; Höglund, Anna T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Telenursing is an expanding service in most Western societies. Sweden is a front-line country, with all of its 21 counties connected to Swedish Healthcare Direct (SHD) 1177. The intention of the service is twofold: to make health care more efficient, while also making it more accessible and safe for patients. Previous research has shown, however, that the service is not used equitably. Gender, age, socio-economic, and ethnicity differences have been reported as determining factors for the use of the service and the advice given. Aim The aim of the study was to explore the communication between telenurses and callers in authentic calls to SHD 1177. Methodology A qualitative method, using critical discourse analysis (CDA), was chosen. The approach was deductive, that is, the analysis was made in view of a predetermined framework of theory. Twenty calls were strategically chosen and included in the study. Results The CDA resulted in five types of calls, namely a gatekeeping call, a gendered call, a call marked by impersonal traits, a call with voices of the life world, and finally a counter discourse call. The dominating patterns in the calls were of gatekeeping and biomedical character. Patterns of the societal gender order were found, in that representations of the reluctant male caller and the ideal female caller were identified, but also a call representing a counter discourse. The service seemed difficult to use for patients with low language proficiency. Conclusion Telenursing could potentially challenge inequalities in health care. However, the discourse of telenursing is dialectically related to neoliberal ideology and the ideology of medicine. It is also situated in a gendered context of ideal femininity and hegemonic masculinity. Through better awareness of gender biases and the callers’ different resources for making themselves heard, the communication between telenurse and caller might become more equal and thereby better suitable for all

  15. Examining Bilingual Children's Gender Ideologies through Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Roldan, Carmen M.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a case study of young bilingual students' discussions of literature in a second-grade Spanish/English bilingual classroom in the US. Sociocultural, critical, and Chicana feminist perspectives informed an analysis of the ways the children worked at understanding, marking, and resisting gender boundaries. This critical…

  16. Vantage Points for the Analysis of Scientific Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ard, Josh

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the pedagogical concern of teaching students of English for special purposes (ESP) to interpret scientific and technological texts. Discovering the intentions of the author is not in accord with the actual practice of grammatical-rhetorical analysis. Rather the focus is on the message of the text itself. (SED)

  17. Tell me what's wrong with me: a discourse analysis approach to the concept of patient autonomy.

    PubMed Central

    Nessa, J; Malterud, K

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patient autonomy has gradually replaced physician paternalism as an ethical ideal. However, in a medical context, the principle of individual autonomy has different meanings. More knowledge is needed about what is and should be an appropriate understanding of the concept of patient autonomy in clinical practice. AIM: To challenge the traditional concept of patient autonomy by applying a discourse analysis to the issue. METHOD: A qualitative case study approach with material from one consultation. The discourse is interpreted according to pragmatic and text-linguistic principles and provides the basis of a theoretical discussion of different concepts of patient autonomy. RESULTS: The consultation transcript illustrates how the patient's wishes can be respected in real life. The patient, her husband and the doctor are all involved in the discourse dynamics, governed by the subject matter, namely her mental illness. CONCLUSION: We suggest a dynamic and dialogue-based conception of autonomy as adequate for clinical purposes. These perspectives, based on mutual understanding, take communication between patient and doctor as their starting point. According to this approach, autonomy requires a genuine dialogue, an interpersonal mode of being which we choose to call "authentic interaction". PMID:9873980

  18. Competing discourses of workplace health.

    PubMed

    Allender, Steven; Colquhoun, Derek; Kelly, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of workplace health programme discourses within an international information technology company. Discourse refers to a system of statements that share a common force and coherence and which are socially constitutive. The representation of entities such as workplace health can be subject to competition between discourses. A critical discourse analysis was undertaken on semi-structured interviews, participant observation and workplace health programme documents. Two competing discourses were identified: health as safety and health as lifestyle. Each discourse is described and shown to both implicitly and explicitly define health within this particular workplace. Lifestyle discourse encouraged moves towards linking of the employees' working and private lives while safety discourse defined health in the relationship between workers and their physical environment. Competition between discourses both constricts and opens spaces for alternative understandings of health in the workplace. The implications of this competition for workplace health policy and practice are discussed.

  19. A discourse on sensitivity analysis for discretely-modeled structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Howard M.; Haftka, Raphael T.

    1991-01-01

    A descriptive review is presented of the most recent methods for performing sensitivity analysis of the structural behavior of discretely-modeled systems. The methods are generally but not exclusively aimed at finite element modeled structures. Topics included are: selections of finite difference step sizes; special consideration for finite difference sensitivity of iteratively-solved response problems; first and second derivatives of static structural response; sensitivity of stresses; nonlinear static response sensitivity; eigenvalue and eigenvector sensitivities for both distinct and repeated eigenvalues; and sensitivity of transient response for both linear and nonlinear structural response.

  20. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore: (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  1. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity, and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  2. The use of historical records in flood frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcliffe, J. V.

    1987-12-01

    The inclusion of historical flood information in analysis can greatly increase the span of years sampled and should improve the reliability of estimation. Early flood level data may be obtained from physical marks, which are often found near historic cities. Early written records tend to be qualitative, but newspaper records can provide detailed level information. Verbal information that a recent flood was the highest in living memory, or that an earlier flood reached a certain level, can be used to extend a recent gauged record, particularly in countries with short written histories. Chinese historical flood records are especially long and could contribute valuable scientific information. The conversion of flood levels to discharges must involve extrapolation and should take full account of topography, not only in deriving realistic rating curves but in terms of the geological stability of the site. Two examples from the Nile show that some ratings can be assumed stable while others change significantly. Apparent trends must therefore be treated with caution and considered in relation to physical changes in the catchment, which could include deforestation, urban development or channel improvements as well as possible rainfall changes. Trends would be difficult to deduce from historic information, as the completeness of the records must change. The inclusion of historic records in single station analysis can be based on graphical or statistical methods. They can be given an appropriate plotting position in the graphical approach; examples are given for the Trent and the Yangtze rivers. Alternatively, maximum likelihood techniques can be adapted to censored samples, and examples are given of the inclusion of historic records in analysis. Flood records from a homogeneous region are often used in a combined analysis, and historical records can be included. Examples are given of envelope curves relating maximum flood values to basin area, where historical floods can be

  3. Structural Simulations and Conservation Analysis -Historic Building Information Model (HBIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, C.; Murphy, M.; McCarthy, S.; Brechin, F.; Casidy, C.; Dirix, E.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper the current findings to date of the Historic Building Information Model (HBIM) of the Four Courts in Dublin are presented. The Historic Building Information Model (HBIM) forms the basis for both structural and conservation analysis to measure the impact of war damage which still impacts on the building. The laser scan survey was carried out in the summer of 2014 of the internal and external structure. After registration and processing of the laser scan survey, the HBIM was created of the damaged section of the building and is presented as two separate workflows in this paper. The first is the model created from historic data, the second a procedural and segmented model developed from laser scan survey of the war damaged drum and dome. From both models structural damage and decay simulations will be developed for documentation and conservation analysis.

  4. Defining applied behavior analysis: An historical analogy

    PubMed Central

    Deitz, Samuel M.

    1982-01-01

    This article examines two criteria for a definition of applied behavior analysis. The criteria are derived from a 19th century attempt to establish medicine as a scientific field. The first criterion, experimental determinism, specifies the methodological boundaries of an experimental science. The second criterion, philosophic doubt, clarifies the tentative nature of facts and theories derived from those facts. Practices which will advance the science of behavior are commented upon within each criteria. To conclude, the problems of a 19th century form of empiricism in medicine are related to current practices in applied behavior analysis. PMID:22478557

  5. "The Emperor's new clothes": discourse analysis on how the patient is constructed in the new Swedish Patient Act.

    PubMed

    Dahlborg Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Pennbrant, Sandra; Boman, Åse

    2017-04-01

    The Swedish welfare debate increasingly focuses on market liberal notions and its healthcare perspective aims for more patient-centered care. This article examines the new Swedish Patient Act describing and analyzing how the patient is constructed in government documents. This study takes a Foucauldian discourse analysis approach following Willig's analysis guide. The act contains an entitlement discourse for patients and a requirement discourse for healthcare personnel. These two discourses are governed by a values-based healthcare discourse. Neo-liberal ideology, in the form of New Public Management discourse, focusing on the value of efficiency and competition, is given a hegemonic position as laws and regulations are used to strengthen it. The new Swedish Patient Act seems to further strengthen this development. The Act underlines the increased entitlement for patients, but it is not legally binding as it offers patients only indirect entitlement to influence and control their care. To safeguard the patient's entitlement under the Patient Act, healthcare personnel should be made aware of the contents of the Act, so that they can contribute to the creation of systems and working methods that facilitate respect of the Act's provisions in daily healthcare work.

  6. Dean of Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Story Left Untold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdlein, Richard; Cali, Christine Frezza; Dina, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    There is a paucity of historical discourse on the distinct contributions of African American women serving as deans of women at historically Black colleges and universities. Using historical research and the case study approach, the analysis focused on three deans of women: Lucy Diggs Slowe--Howard University, Owena Hunter Davis--Johnson C. Smith…

  7. "Confused by Multiple Deities, Ancient Egyptians Embraced Monotheism": Analysing Historical Thinking and Inclusion in Egyptian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdou, Ehaab D.

    2016-01-01

    Egyptian history textbooks are examined through the prism of historical thinking dimensions and skills, utilizing a critical discourse analysis. The analysis focuses on how the textbooks portray two historically significant events: the advent of Christianity (ca. 33 CE) and Islam (ca. 641 CE) to Egypt. It reveals that the historical narrative…

  8. Factoring genetic determinism: An analysis of sociobiological discourse and debate and their presentations in biology textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schifellite, Carmen James

    This thesis is about Sociobiology, especially human sociobiological discourse, and its emergence as a paradigm especially through the formulations of E. O. Wilson. It asks two distinct and related questions. The first question asks why and how has the general project of Wilsonian or determinist human sociobiology has maintained its appeal and continued to garner popularity and support despite the many cogent and detailed critiques. The second question, covered in part two of this thesis, asks how the sociobiological controversy is presented in three Biology textbooks. Part one of this work examines the development of human sociobiology and its related disciplines and the debates that have arisen around this paradigm. It chronicles how this Wilsonian human sociobiological discourse constructs its legitimacy, the major issues critics have raised and recent developments in human sociobiology and related fields. It also suggests modified epistemological positions and avenues of critique. As such, this work utilizes theory developed within utilizes theory developed within science studies, hegemony studies, discourse theory, textual analysis, and science education. Part Two examines three textbooks used in Ontario Academic Courses (OAC's) in Biology in high school in grade thirteen in Ontario. These texts are similar if not identical to textbooks used in introductory biology courses in universities in North America. This textual analysis, examines how the textbooks portray sociobiology and the related fields of Genetics, Evolutionary theory and the Nature of Science itself. This analysis provides a way both to gauge the influence of Wilsonian human and non-human sociobiological discourse and to gauge the ways in which this controversial issue is handled by the texts. This analysis finds that all three textbooks fail to use sociobiology as an example of a scientific controversy to engage students in a discussion of this topic. They also fail to engage students in any of

  9. An Analysis of Teacher Discourse that Introduces Real Science Activities to High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2009-08-01

    Most academic science educators encourage teachers to provide their students with access to more authentic science activities. What can and do teachers say to increase students’ interests in participating in opportunities to do real science? What are the discursive resources they draw on to introduce authentic science to students? The purpose of this ethnographic and discourse-analytic study is to investigate the ways in which the activities of scientists are discursively presented to high school students in a biology/career preparation course. Data sources were collected by means of observation, field notes, interviews, and videotaped lessons in an eleventh-grade biology/career preparation course. Drawing on discourse analysis, we investigate the discursive resources—or, more specifically and technically, the interpretative repertoires—teachers used to explain and promote opportunities to engage students in real science activities. Our analysis identifies and characterizes six types of interpretative repertoires: specialized, a-stereotypical, relevant, empirical, emotive, and rare-opportunity. To better understand the “big picture” of how these discursive resources are drawn on in the classroom, we also report on the frequencies of the repertoires in the discourse and the ways in which repertoires changed in the course of teacher-student interactions. The findings of this case study offer teachers and researchers with a better understanding of how specific forms of discourse—i.e., the repertoires—can serve as resources to enhance teacher-introduction of authentic science to students and provide students a bridge between school and authentic science.

  10. Accounting for Accountability: A Discourse Analysis of Psychiatric Nurses’ Experience of a Patient Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Maggie; Paterson, Brodie; Lauder, Billy; Fenton, Rosemary; Gavin, John

    2010-01-01

    Whilst the experience of a patient suicide is likely to have a significant impact upon the nurses who had been providing care, little work has actually explored this experience in any depth. In this article we explore how two psychiatric nurses construct and orient to accountability when talking of their experiences of a patient suicide. Discourse analysis was used to explore particular phases that the nurses oriented to in their accounts: scene setting; risk assessment; attributing for the suicide. Findings highlight the different, sometimes contradictory, ways the nurses attended to interactional concerns relating to implicit accountability and potential inferences of blame. Analysis of the nurses’ talk can make a valuable contribution to understanding the nature and the impact of ‘accountability’ in a mental health setting and so help nurses and other professionals gain an insight into their practice. The results from this study suggest that as a consequence of internalising fundamentally unrealisable expectations regarding suicide prevention, nurses can hold themselves to blame raising significant concerns around their needs in terms of support, which may not be recognised. This paper also makes a valuable contribution to our methodological understanding and the value of using discourse analysis in this setting. PMID:20305746

  11. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Provincial Policies Impacting Shelter Service Delivery to Women Exposed to Violence.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Camille; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Berman, Helene; Ward-Griffin, Cathy; Wathen, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Shelters for abused women function within a broad context that includes intersecting social structures, policies, and resources, which may constrain and limit the options available to abused women and tacitly reinforce the cycle of abuse. This feminist, qualitative study combined in-depth interviews and focus groups conducted with 37 staff and four executive directors from four shelters in Ontario, Canada, along with a critical discourse analysis of salient policy texts. Together, the interviews and critical discourse analysis formed an integrated analysis of the dialectic between policy as written and enacted. The study findings illuminate the complexity of the system and its impact on women, shelters, and the community and highlight how specific types of social policies and various social system subsystems and structures, and system configuration, shape the day to day reality of shelter service delivery and impact outcomes for abused women and their children. Collectively, these findings offer direction regarding where these policies could be improved and provide a basis for shelters, policy makers, advocates, and the community to strengthen current services and policies, potentially enhancing outcomes for women.

  12. Normative Discourse and Persuasion: An Analysis of Ga'dang Informal Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walrod, Michael R.

    A study of the discourse of Ga'dang, a Philippine language, focuses on normative discourse and persuasion, especially the ways in which the former is used to accomplish the latter. The first five chapters outline the theoretical framework of the study, placing normative and persuasive discourse in a philosophical context and relating them to the…

  13. Use of historical information in extreme storm surges frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdi, Yasser; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Deville, Yves; Bardet, Lise; Rebour, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    The prevention of storm surge flood risks is critical for protection and design of coastal facilities to very low probabilities of failure. The effective protection requires the use of a statistical analysis approach having a solid theoretical motivation. Relating extreme storm surges to their frequency of occurrence using probability distributions has been a common issue since 1950s. The engineer needs to determine the storm surge of a given return period, i.e., the storm surge quantile or design storm surge. Traditional methods for determining such a quantile have been generally based on data from the systematic record alone. However, the statistical extrapolation, to estimate storm surges corresponding to high return periods, is seriously contaminated by sampling and model uncertainty if data are available for a relatively limited period. This has motivated the development of approaches to enlarge the sample extreme values beyond the systematic period. The nonsystematic data occurred before the systematic period is called historical information. During the last three decades, the value of using historical information as a nonsystematic data in frequency analysis has been recognized by several authors. The basic hypothesis in statistical modeling of historical information is that a perception threshold exists and that during a giving historical period preceding the period of tide gauging, all exceedances of this threshold have been recorded. Historical information prior to the systematic records may arise from high-sea water marks left by extreme surges on the coastal areas. It can also be retrieved from archives, old books, earliest newspapers, damage reports, unpublished written records and interviews with local residents. A plotting position formula, to compute empirical probabilities based on systematic and historical data, is used in this communication paper. The objective of the present work is to examine the potential gain in estimation accuracy with the

  14. Depression and mental health in neoliberal times: a critical analysis of policy and discourse.

    PubMed

    Teghtsoonian, Katherine

    2009-07-01

    Depression has received increasing attention as a significant public health issue over the past ten years, both in Canada and elsewhere in the industrialized west. During the same period, many of the social and economic policies adopted by governments in these jurisdictions have reflected neoliberal goals and orientations. The purpose of this article is to explore the points of contact between these two features of contemporary social and political life in the industrialized west, using the Canadian province of British Columbia as an empirical site. My analysis draws on the Foucauldian literature on governmentality in presenting a close reading of provincial government documents concerned with depression and mental health literacy that have been produced since the election of the Liberal Party to office in British Columbia in 2001. This analysis identifies discourses of "responsibilization" circulating in these documents, within which individuals, families, communities and workplaces - rather than publicly-funded services - appear as key resources in responding to experiences of mental distress. It also points to a number of strategies visible in the documents that work to align the interests of individuals and their practitioners in pursuing particular approaches to treatment with a governing interest in reducing public spending on services and supports. The article concludes by identifying a number of resistive discourses and proposing further research in a range of empirical contexts within which they may be evident.

  15. "That Racism Thing": A Critical Race Discourse Analysis of a Conflict over the Proposed Closure of a Black High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia M.; Khalifa, Muhammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Using critical race discourse analysis, this study examines descriptions of a heated controversy over the proposed closure of the only primarily black high school in a large urban city. Participants included community members and the district and school leaders who were key in the controversy. Based on Foucault's analysis of power we looked for…

  16. Perpetuating 'New Public Management' at the expense of nurses' patient education: a discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Bergh, Anne-Louise; Friberg, Febe; Persson, Eva; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the conditions for nurses' daily patient education work by focusing on managers' way of speaking about the patient education provided by nurses in hospital care. An explorative, qualitative design with a social constructionist perspective was used. Data were collected from three focus group interviews and analysed by means of critical discourse analysis. Discursive practice can be explained by the ideology of hegemony. Due to a heavy workload and lack of time, managers could 'see' neither their role as a supporter of the patient education provided by nurses, nor their role in the development of nurses' pedagogical competence. They used organisational, financial, medical and legal reasons for explaining their failure to support nurses' provision of patient education. The organisational discourse was an umbrella term for 'things' such as cost-effectiveness, which were prioritised over patient education. There is a need to remove managerial barriers to the professional development of nurses' patient education. Managers should be responsible for ensuring and overseeing that nurses have the prerequisites necessary for providing patient education as well as for enabling continuous reflective dialogue and opportunities for learning in practice.

  17. Balancing the good - a critical discourse analysis of home modification services.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Karin; Lilja, Margareta; Park, Melissa; Josephsson, Staffan

    2010-05-01

    Today an increasing number of people with functional limitations are ageing in their homes. Although the home has become an arena for assessment and implementation of services, little is known about how the interrelationships between ideological and practical circumstances influence the allocation of such welfare services. This explorative study applied a combination of critical discourse analysis and a narrative approach to closely examine such relationships in home modification services to older persons in Sweden. Data consisted of focus group discussions with street-level bureaucrats from two institutional contexts in the organisational field of home modification services and official documents related to such services. Findings showed that the attempts of street-level bureaucrats to allocate resources in accordance with the good were complicated by competing local definitions of 'the good'. The process of forming local perceptions of the good included complex balancing acts between hegemonic discourses within the organisational field which influenced and shaped how 'the good' was practised. Understanding the moral dimensions that enter into the complexity of allocation of home modification services across institutional settings has implications for the policies of and practices for the allocation of welfare resources.

  18. Analysis of Historical Artillery Expenditures (AHART) Study - CY 87

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-30

    attack rates are greater than protracted combat (3) Also as expected, expenditure rates are greater for defense operations than for either prolonged or...Casualties to Tactics and Ammunition Expenditures : 2nd US Infantry Division Korea, 1 Feb 1953 - 31 Mar 1953, Defense Department, 1954. 132 pages (UL504.3...STUDOY REPORT ADF 86 -0140 ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL ARTILLERY EXPENDITURES 04 (AHART) STUDY -CY 87 0)JUNE 1987 D.TIC PREPARED BY MAJOR FRANCIS L

  19. Appendix E: Research papers. Analysis of landfills with historic airphotos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, T.; Philipson, W. R. (Principal Investigator); Erb, T. L.; Teng, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    The nature of landfill-related information that can be derived from existing, or historic, aerial photographs, is reviewed. This information can be used for conducting temporal assessments of landfill existence, land use and land cover, and the physical environment. As such, analysis of low cost, readily available aerial photographs can provide important, objective input to landfill inventories, assessing contamination or health hazards, planning corrective measures, planning waste collection and facilities, and developing on inactive landfills.

  20. How nurses understand and care for older people with delirium in the acute hospital: a Critical Discourse Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Irene; Tolson, Debbie; Fleming, Valerie

    2012-06-01

    Delirium is a common presentation of deteriorating health in older people. It is potentially deleterious in terms of patient experience and clinical outcomes. Much of what is known about delirium is through positivist research, which forms the evidence base for disease-based classification systems and clinical guidelines. There is little systematic study of nurses' day-to-day practice of nursing patients with delirium. The aim was to uncover the kinds of knowledge that informs nurses' care and to explicate the basis of that knowledge. Critical Discourse Analysis is underpinned by the premise that powerful interests within society mediate how social practices are constructed. Links were made between the grammatical and lexical features of nurses' language about care in interviews and naturalistic settings, and the healthcare context. Care focused on the continuous surveillance of patients with delirium by nurses themselves or vicariously through other patients, and containment. Nurses influenced by major discourses of risk reduction and safety, constructed patients with delirium as risk objects. The philosophy of person-centred and dignified care advocated in nursing literature and government policy is an emerging discourse, though little evident in the data. The current dominant discourses on safety must give space to discourses of dignity and compassion.

  1. Masculinities, 'guy talk' and 'manning up': a discourse analysis of how young men talk about sexual health.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rod; Shoveller, Jean A; Oliffe, John L; Gilbert, Mark; Frank, Blye; Ogilvie, Gina

    2012-11-01

    Sexually transmitted infection testing rates among young men remain low, and their disengagement from sexual health services has been linked to enactments of masculinity that prohibit or truncate discussions of sexual health. Understanding how men align with multiple masculinities is therefore important for tailoring interventions that appropriately respond to their needs. We draw on 32 in-depth interviews with 15-24-year-old men to explore the discourses that facilitate or shut down sexual health communication with peers and sex partners. We employ a critical discourse analysis to explore how men's conversations about sexual health are constituted by masculine hierarchies (such as the ways in which masculinities influence men's ability to construct or challenge and contest dominant discourses about sexual health). Men's conversations about sexual health focused primarily around their sexual encounters - something frequently referred to as 'guy talk'. Also described were situations whereby participants employed a discourse of 'manning up' to (i) exert power over others with disregard for potential repercussions and (ii) deploy power to affirm and reify their own hyper-masculine identities, while using their personal (masculine) power to help others (who are subordinate in the social ordering of men). By better understanding how masculine discourses are employed by men, their sexual health needs can be advanced.

  2. A Construal Model Perspective on Discourse Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Discourse coherence is a common phenomenon in linguistic studies, and plays an important role in discourse analysis. As a common and extremely important type of language phenomena, discourse coherence has drawn more and more scholars' attention, but they emphasis on partial discourse coherence, paying a little attention to holistic coherence. The…

  3. Islamists in the Headlines: Critical Discourse Analysis of the Representation of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egyptian Newspapers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasha, Talaat

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how Islamists are socially, discursively and linguistically represented in the Egyptian newspaper "al-Ahram." The main question of this study is what would the Egyptian government do to halt the Brothers' political growth and potential threat? To answer this question, the study uses Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)…

  4. Calling Integration into Question: A Discourse Analysis of English and "Humash" Classes at a Modern Orthodox Yeshiva High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Devra

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on discourse analysis and critical literacy, this study calls into question prevailing assumptions about integration by examining talk in English and "Humash" classrooms as windows into the two worlds of a Modern Orthodox high school. The study found that the two subjects presented very different models of teaching and learning. "Humash"…

  5. Critical Discourse Analysis on Chinese Racial Pride Underlying the Malaysian National Identity in "Proud to Be Born a Chinese"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyn, Khoo Wei; Ganapathy, Malini

    2016-01-01

    The ideology of Chinese racial pride in an online essay "Proud to be born a Chinese" by Dr. Chan-Lui Lee is described and analysed by using the sociocognitive approach to critical discourse analysis (CDA). The research design is based on the notion that Chinese racial pride is a tool to persuade Chinese Malaysians to prioritise their…

  6. Multi-Level Discourse Analysis in a Physics Teaching Methods Course from the Psychological Perspective of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieira, Rodrigo Drumond; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a multi-level method for discourse analysis in science classrooms. This method is based on the structure of human activity (activity, actions, and operations) and it was applied to study a pre-service physics teacher methods course. We argue that such an approach, based on a cultural psychological perspective,…

  7. What Is Normal, True, and Right: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Students' Written Resistance Strategies on LGBTQ Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaekel, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how students perform resistance to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer topics in their written reflections in a higher education diversity course. Using a three-tiered critical discourse analysis , this article maps students' resistant textual devices in their written reflections, analyzes the institutional setting…

  8. About Your Color, That's Personal: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Race and Resistance in Urban Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutro, Elizabeth; Kazemi, Elham; Balf, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a critical discourse analysis of a classroom event in which fourth and fifth grade students in a highly diverse urban school interpreted, discussed and responded to a district survey intended to illuminate the social climate of the city's schools, with a particular focus on race and racism. We drew on the three-dimensional…

  9. Questioning Question 2: A Critical Discourse Analysis Project on the Campaign against Bilingual Education in Massachusetts in 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Thao Thi Kim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the practice of the ballot initiative has shifted the role of policymaking from legislators and experts to voters generating propositions--including in the area of education policy. This critical discourse analysis project examines the English for the Children group's discursive strategies in their efforts to dismantle bilingual…

  10. A Critical Discourse Analysis of ELT Materials in Gender Representation: A Comparison of "Summit" and "Top Notch"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samadikhah, Mehran; Shahrokhi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the crucial importance of textbooks, their increasing development day by day, and their significant effects on saving time, energy, and budgets, only few studies have been done on textbooks evaluation from a critical discourse analysis perspective. This study aimed to analyze and compare the gender representation in "Top…

  11. Public Discourse on HIV and AIDS: An Archival Analysis of National Newspaper Reporting in Uganda, 1996-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagone, Elizabeth; Mathur, Sanyukta; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John

    2014-01-01

    Uganda is recognised as an early success story in the HIV epidemic at least in part due to an open and vigorous national dialogue about HIV prevention. This study examined the national discourse about HIV, AIDS, and young people in New Vision, Uganda's leading national newspaper between 1996 and 2011, building from a previous archival analysis of…

  12. Politeness Strategies in Healthcare Communication at "Difficult Times": A Pragmatic Analysis of the "Manga" Discourse in "Nurse Aoi"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuoka, Rieko; Poole, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which healthcare professionals interact with patients' family members, and/or colleagues. The data are from healthcare discourses at difficult times found in the manga series entitled Nurse AOI. As the first step, we selected several communication scenes for analysis in terms of politeness strategies. From these…

  13. a Psycholinguistic Model for Simultaneous Translation, and Proficiency Assessment by Automated Acoustic Analysis of Discourse.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaghi, Hussein M.

    Two separate but related issues are addressed: how simultaneous translation (ST) works on a cognitive level and how such translation can be objectively assessed. Both of these issues are discussed in the light of qualitative and quantitative analyses of a large corpus of recordings of ST and shadowing. The proposed ST model utilises knowledge derived from a discourse analysis of the data, many accepted facts in the psychology tradition, and evidence from controlled experiments that are carried out here. This model has three advantages: (i) it is based on analyses of extended spontaneous speech rather than word-, syllable-, or clause -bound stimuli; (ii) it draws equally on linguistic and psychological knowledge; and (iii) it adopts a non-traditional view of language called 'the linguistic construction of reality'. The discourse-based knowledge is also used to develop three computerised systems for the assessment of simultaneous translation: one is a semi-automated system that treats the content of the translation; and two are fully automated, one of which is based on the time structure of the acoustic signals whilst the other is based on their cross-correlation. For each system, several parameters of performance are identified, and they are correlated with assessments rendered by the traditional, subjective, qualitative method. Using signal processing techniques, the acoustic analysis of discourse leads to the conclusion that quality in simultaneous translation can be assessed quantitatively with varying degrees of automation. It identifies as measures of performance (i) three content-based standards; (ii) four time management parameters that reflect the influence of the source on the target language time structure; and (iii) two types of acoustical signal coherence. Proficiency in ST is shown to be directly related to coherence and speech rate but inversely related to omission and delay. High proficiency is associated with a high degree of simultaneity and

  14. Metaphors of Distress: Photo-Elicitation Enhances a Discourse Analysis of Parents' Accounts.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Vandermause, Roxanne

    2016-07-01

    In research on sensitive topics, photo-elicitation can be a profound aid to data collection and interpretation processes. Photo-elicitation methods were used in this manner in a discourse analysis of parents' distress at least 6 months after preterm birth. After an initial interview, participants were asked to take digital photographs representing their distress and to return for a second interview to discuss the photographs. The elicited photo representations supported participants' engagement with their current or past distress and generated new meanings from the reappraisal of old photographs. Photo-elicitation demonstrated the embodiment of parents' distress in the child and the placement of distress in specific locations. Photographs of documents showed the power of the written word in generating and maintaining distress. Participants used existing photographs from their child's photo history to generate rich metaphors for their distress as parents. These findings have implications for enhancing interpretive health research by incorporating photo-elicitation methods.

  15. Food security and food insecurity in Europe: An analysis of the academic discourse (1975-2013).

    PubMed

    Borch, Anita; Kjærnes, Unni

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we address the academic discourse on food insecurity and food security in Europe as expressed in articles published in scientific journals in the period 1975 to 2013. The analysis indicates that little knowledge has been produced on this subject, and that the limited research that has been produced tends to focus on the production of food rather than on people's access to food. The lack of knowledge about European food insecurity is particularly alarming in these times, which are characterised by increasing social inequalities and poverty, as well as shifting policy regimes. More empirical, comparative and longitudinal research is needed to survey the extent of food security problems across European countries over time. There is also a need to identify groups at risk of food insecurity as well as legal, economic, practical, social, and psychological constraints hindering access to appropriate and sufficient food.

  16. Towards responsible system development in health services: a discourse analysis study of design conflict resolution tactics.

    PubMed

    Irestig, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas

    2010-02-01

    We set out to examine design conflict resolution tactics used in development of large information systems for health services and to outline the design consequences for these tactics. Discourse analysis methods were applied to data collected from meetings conducted during the development of a web-based system in a public health context. We found that low risk tactics were characterized by design issues being managed within the formal mandate and competences of the design group. In comparison, high risk tactics were associated with irresponsible compromises, i.e. decisions being passed on to others or to later phases of the design process. The consequence of this collective disregard of issues such as responsibility and legitimacy is that the system design will be impossible to implement in factual health service contexts. The results imply that downstream responsibility issues have to be continuously dealt with in system development in health services.

  17. Home healthcare and family responsibility: a critical discourse analysis of talk and text.

    PubMed

    Funk, Laura M

    2013-10-01

    This paper addresses how families' roles and responsibility for care are constructed within home health (in contrast to the responsibility of home health). A discourse analysis informed by a critical theoretical approach was used to analyze qualitative interviews with 13 home health managers and clinical leaders in British Columbia, alongside home care documents. When referring to family involvement, there was an emphasis on the importance of supporting a client's choice to stay at home. Government and agency documents describe family members as primary providers, with home health having a supplementary role. Agencies seek to avoid "substituting" for family care. Family responsibility is characterized as having both moral and structural value. Nonetheless, some participants advocated flexibility and recognized potential caregiving challenges. Data provide examples of how agency expectations are communicated to clients and families and become embedded within practice and policy. Findings are viewed within the broader organizational context as representing the "responsibilization" of support.

  18. An Analysis of the Discourses on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in US Special Education Textbooks, with Implications for Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Justin E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the discourses on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found in textbooks used in pre-service special education programmes in the USA. Five textbooks are examined with the intent of discovering how ADHD is portrayed to future teachers. A discourse analysis framework is utilised, revealing five…

  19. A Quantitative Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Teaching and Learning in a Web-Conferencing Environment--The Efficacy of Student-Centred Learning Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Hedberg, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative approach to multimodal discourse analysis for analyzing online collaborative learning. The coding framework draws together the fields of systemic functional linguistics and Activity Theory to analyze interactions between collaborative-, content- and technology-related discourse. The approach is used to examine…

  20. Use of cartography in historical seismicity analysis: a reliable tool to better apprehend the contextualization of the historical documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, Fradet; Grégory, Quenet; Kevin, Manchuel

    2014-05-01

    Historical studies, including historical seismicity analysis, deal with historical documents. Numerous factors, such as culture, social condition, demography, political situations and opinions or religious ones influence the way the events are transcribed in the archives. As a consequence, it is crucial to contextualize and compare the historical documents reporting on a given event in order to reduce the uncertainties affecting their analysis and interpretation. When studying historical seismic events it is often tricky to have a global view of all the information provided by the historical documents. It is also difficult to extract cross-correlated information from the documents and draw a precise historical context. Use of cartographic and geographic tools in GIS software is the best tool for the synthesis, interpretation and contextualization of the historical material. The main goal is to produce the most complete dataset of available information, in order to take into account all the components of the historical context and consequently improve the macroseismic analysis. The Entre-Deux-Mers earthquake (1759, Iepc= VII-VIII) [SISFRANCE 2013 - EDF-IRSN-BRGM] is well documented but has never benefited from a cross-analysis of historical documents and historical context elements. The map of available intensity data from SISFRANCE highlights a gap in macroseismic information within the estimated epicentral area. The aim of this study is to understand the origin of this gap by making a cartographic compilation of both, archive information and historical context elements. The results support the hypothesis that the lack of documents and macroseismic data in the epicentral area is related to a low human activity rather than low seismic effects in this zone. Topographic features, geographical position, flood hazard, roads and pathways locations, vineyards distribution and the forester coverage, mentioned in the archives and reported on the Cassini's map confirm this

  1. A New Measure of Text Formality: An Analysis of Discourse of Mao Zedong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Haiying; Graesser, Arthur C.; Conley, Mark; Cai, Zhiqiang; Pavlik, Philip I., Jr.; Pennebaker, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Formality has long been of interest in the study of discourse, with periodic discussions of the best measure of formality and the relationship between formality and text categories. In this research, we explored what features predict formality as humans perceive the construct. We categorized a corpus consisting of 1,158 discourse samples published…

  2. Childcare Workforce Reform in England and "The Early Years Professional": A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osgood, Jayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the ways in which nursery workers are constructed through government discourse in England. This is done by offering a deconstruction of key policy texts. The discursive construction of "the nursery worker" within government discourses has shifted over time but currently occupies a highly politicised position.…

  3. Expanding discourse repertoires with hybridity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Gregory J.

    2012-09-01

    In "Hybrid discourse practice and science learning" Kamberelis and Wehunt present a theoretically rich argument about the potential of hybrid discourses for science learning. These discourses draw from different forms of "talk, social practice, and material practices" to create interactions that are "intertextually complex" and "interactionally dynamic." The hybrid discourse practices are described as involving the dynamic interplay of at least three key elements: "the lamination of multiple cultural frames, the shifting relations between people and their discourse, and the shifting power relations between and among people." Each of these elements requires a respective unit of analysis and are often mutually reinforcing. The authors present a theoretically cogent argument for the study of hybrid discourse practices and identify the potential such discourses may have for science education. This theoretical development leads to an analysis of spoken and written discourse around a set of educational events concerning the investigation of owl pellets by two fifth grade students, their classmates, and teacher. Two discourse segments are presented and analyzed by the authors in detail. The first is a discourse analysis of the dissection of the owl pellet by two students, Kyle and Max. The second analysis examines the science report of these same two students. In this article, I pose a number of questions about the study with the hope that by doing so I expand the conversation around the insightful analysis presented.

  4. Physicians and euthanasia: a Canadian print-media discourse analysis of physician perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David Kenneth; Karsoho, Hadi; Sandham, Sarah; Macdonald, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent events in Canada have mobilized public debate concerning the controversial issue of euthanasia. Physicians represent an essential stakeholder group with respect to the ethics and practice of euthanasia. Further, their opinions can hold sway with the public, and their public views about this issue may further reflect back upon the medical profession itself. Methods We conducted a discourse analysis of print media on physicians’ perspectives about end-of-life care. Print media, in English and French, that appeared in Canadian newspapers from 2008 to 2012 were retrieved through a systematic database search. We analyzed the content of 285 articles either authored by a physician or directly referencing a physician’s perspective. Results We identified 3 predominant discourses about physicians’ public views toward euthanasia: 1) contentions about integrating euthanasia within the basic mission of medicine, 2) assertions about whether euthanasia can be distinguished from other end-of-life medical practices and 3) palliative care advocacy. Interpretation Our data showed that although some medical professional bodies appear to be supportive in the media of a movement toward the legalization of euthanasia, individual physicians are represented as mostly opposed. Professional physician organizations and the few physicians who have engaged with the media are de facto representing physicians in public contemporary debates on medical aid in dying, in general, and euthanasia, in particular. It is vital for physicians to be aware of this public debate, how they are being portrayed within it and its potential effects on impending changes to provincial and national policies. PMID:26389090

  5. Non-destructive compositional analysis of historic organ reed pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manescu, A.; Fiori, F.; Giuliani, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Kasztovszky, Z.; Rustichelli, F.; Straumal, B.

    2008-03-01

    In order to be able to reproduce historic organ reed pipes, a bulk non-destructive chemical composition analysis was performed on the tongues and shallots, focusing mainly on the ratio between copper and zinc and on the presence of lead. Prompt gamma activation analysis results allowed us to observe for the first time that the ratio between the two main components of the brass alloy changed from Cu:Zn = 3:1 for the old tongues and shallots to Cu:Zn = 2:1 around the middle of the 18th century, which is typical also for the modern alloys offered to the organ builders nowadays. We also discovered that the Pb content in the old historic brass alloy diminished until the middle of 18th century when the brass alloy became mainly Pb free. The non-uniform lead distribution inside one of the shallots obtained from a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) experiment was studied by neutron tomography. It gave us a three-dimensonal (3D) distribution of the lead inclusions inside the shallots. The lead particles are concentrated towards the base of the shallot.

  6. Image, measure, figure: a critical discourse analysis of nursing practices that develop children.

    PubMed

    Einboden, Rochelle; Rudge, Trudy; Varcoe, Colleen

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by discourses that link early child development and health, nurses engage in seemingly benign surveillance of children. These practices are based on knowledge claims and technologies of developmental science, which remain anchored in assumptions of the child body as an incomplete form with a universal developmental trajectory and inherent potentiality. This paper engages in a critical discursive analysis, drawing on Donna Haraway's conceptualizations of technoscience and figuration. Using a contemporary developmental screening tool from nursing practice, this analysis traces the effects of this tool through production, transformation, distribution, and consumption. It reveals how the techniques of imaging, abstraction, and measurement collide to fix the open, transformative child body in a figuration of the developing child. This analysis also demonstrates how technobiopower infuses nurses' understandings of children and structures developmentally appropriate expectations for children, parents, and nurses. Furthermore, it describes how practices that claim to facilitate healthy child development may inversely deprive children of agency and foster the production of normal or ideal children. An alternative ontological perspective is offered as a challenge to the individualism of developmental models and other dominant ideologies of development, as well as practices associated with these ideologies. In summary, this analysis argues that nurses must pay closer attention to how technobiopower infuses practices that monitor and promote child development. Fostering a critical understanding of the harmful implications of these practices is warranted and offers the space to conceive of human development in alternate and exciting ways.

  7. Discourse functions and hemispheric asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Osiejuk, E

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the main results of an application of discourse analysis in aphasics with the left hemisphere damages and in the right hemisphere damaged (RHD) patients. Research findings indicate that aphasics have marked deficits on the level of microstructure, especially cohesion of discourse, whereas the coherence and superstructure of their texts are relatively well preserved. RHD patients show difficulties at the microstructure of discourse but not so marked as that of aphasic subjects. The main impairments of RHD patients' discourse can be observed at the level of text coherence. The both populations have also preserved cognitive representation concerned with script knowledge. Discourse processing at macrostructural level of discourse is affected in aphasics as well as in RHD patients. These results suggest that both hemispheres are necessary for normal discourse processes.

  8. Constructing the 'gender-specific body': A critical discourse analysis of publications in the field of gender-specific medicine.

    PubMed

    Annandale, Ellen; Hammarström, Anne

    2011-11-01

    Gender-specific medicine, a new and increasingly influential ethos within medical research and practice, has received little critical attention to date. The objective of this article is to critically examine the attributes of gender-specific medicine as imparted by its advocates. Through a critical discourse analysis of its two leading academic journals, we identify five interrelated discourses: of male/female difference; of hegemonic biology; of men's disadvantages; of biological and social reductionism; and of the fragmented body. Together these comprise a master discourse of the 'gender-specific body'. The discourse of the 'gender-specific body' is discussed in relation to the current neoliberal political agenda which frames healthcare as a market good and locates health and illness in individual bodies rather than in the wider social arrangements of society. We argue that the 'gender-specific body' threatens not only to turn back the clock to a vision of the biological body as fixed and determinate, but to extend this ever deeper into the social imagination. Lost in the process is any meaningful sense of the human body as a relatively open system which develops in interaction with its social world. We propose that, as it gains momentum, the 'gender-specific body' is likely progressively to circumscribe our thinking about the health of women and men in potentially problematic ways.

  9. Deconstructing the Myths About Intimate Partner Violence: A Critical Discourse Analysis of News Reporting in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Leung, Lai-Ching

    2016-07-20

    This article depicts the dominant discourses on intimate partner violence (IPV) in newspaper reports and discusses how the myths about IPV are perpetuated in news reporting in Hong Kong. The myths about IPV consist of a set of prevalent assumptions in society that adversely affect the help-seeking behavior of survivors and impede social change. It is sometimes assumed that the victims cause the abuse and are personally responsible for solving the problem. This study reveals how news reporting in Hong Kong perpetuates the myths about IPV by engendering unequal power relations through the language and text used in newspapers. A critical discourse analysis is performed to depict the language used in the text and the embedded meanings in discourses on IPV in two popular local newspapers, Apple Daily and Ming Pao The findings indicate that the two newspapers tend to use five major discursive frameworks in their reporting on IPV, namely, (a) gender symmetry, (b) stereotyping the abuser, (c) labeling the abused, (d) blaming the victim, and (e) ignoring women's rights. The study reveals evidence of the systematic stereotyping of IPV abusers and blaming of survivors in newspaper reporting. These powerful discourses may perpetuate the myths about IPV and marginalize IPV survivors in society.

  10. Mapping Mathematics in Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.; Otten, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a particular analytic method from systemic functional linguistics, "thematic analysis," which reveals the mathematical meaning potentials construed in discourse. Addressing concerns that discourse analysis is too often content-free, thematic analysis provides a way to represent semantic structures of mathematical content,…

  11. Terahertz analysis of an East Asian historical mural painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunaga, K.; Hosako, I.; Kohdzuma, Y.; Koezuka, T.; Kim, M.-J.; Ikari, T.; Du, X.

    2010-05-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and THz and imaging techniques are expected to have great potential for the non-invasive analysis of artworks. We have applied THz imaging to analyse the historic mural painting of a Lamaism temple by using a transportable time-domain THz imaging system; such an attempt is the first in the world. The reflection image revealed that there are two orange colours in the painting, although they appear the same to the naked eye. THz imaging can also estimate the depth of cracks. The colours were examined by X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy, and the results were found to be in good agreement. This work proved that THz imaging can contribute to the non-invasive analysis of cultural heritage.

  12. The Historical Necessity for--and Difficulties with--New Historical Analysis in Introductory Literature Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Brook

    1987-01-01

    Reflects on the role of New Historicism in teaching literature and remarks on the lack of historical awareness in students today. Offers suggestions for connecting history, as well as other disciplines, to literature to combat currently fragmented college educations. (JC)

  13. Mitochondrial Genome Analysis Reveals Historical Lineages in Yellowstone Bison.

    PubMed

    Forgacs, David; Wallen, Rick L; Dobson, Lauren K; Derr, James N

    2016-01-01

    Yellowstone National Park is home to one of the only plains bison populations that have continuously existed on their present landscape since prehistoric times without evidence of domestic cattle introgression. Previous studies characterized the relatively high levels of nuclear genetic diversity in these bison, but little is known about their mitochondrial haplotype diversity. This study assessed mitochondrial genomes from 25 randomly selected Yellowstone bison and found 10 different mitochondrial haplotypes with a haplotype diversity of 0.78 (± 0.06). Spatial analysis of these mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes did not detect geographic population subdivision (FST = -0.06, p = 0.76). However, we identified two independent and historically important lineages in Yellowstone bison by combining data from 65 bison (defined by 120 polymorphic sites) from across North America representing a total of 30 different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from one of the Yellowstone lineages represent descendants of the 22 indigenous bison remaining in central Yellowstone in 1902. The other mitochondrial DNA lineage represents descendants of the 18 females introduced from northern Montana in 1902 to supplement the indigenous bison population and develop a new breeding herd in the northern region of the park. Comparing modern and historical mitochondrial DNA diversity in Yellowstone bison helps uncover a historical context of park restoration efforts during the early 1900s, provides evidence against a hypothesized mitochondrial disease in bison, and reveals the signature of recent hybridization between American plains bison (Bison bison bison) and Canadian wood bison (B. b. athabascae). Our study demonstrates how mitochondrial DNA can be applied to delineate the history of wildlife species and inform future conservation actions.

  14. Mitochondrial Genome Analysis Reveals Historical Lineages in Yellowstone Bison

    PubMed Central

    Derr, James N.

    2016-01-01

    Yellowstone National Park is home to one of the only plains bison populations that have continuously existed on their present landscape since prehistoric times without evidence of domestic cattle introgression. Previous studies characterized the relatively high levels of nuclear genetic diversity in these bison, but little is known about their mitochondrial haplotype diversity. This study assessed mitochondrial genomes from 25 randomly selected Yellowstone bison and found 10 different mitochondrial haplotypes with a haplotype diversity of 0.78 (± 0.06). Spatial analysis of these mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes did not detect geographic population subdivision (FST = -0.06, p = 0.76). However, we identified two independent and historically important lineages in Yellowstone bison by combining data from 65 bison (defined by 120 polymorphic sites) from across North America representing a total of 30 different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from one of the Yellowstone lineages represent descendants of the 22 indigenous bison remaining in central Yellowstone in 1902. The other mitochondrial DNA lineage represents descendants of the 18 females introduced from northern Montana in 1902 to supplement the indigenous bison population and develop a new breeding herd in the northern region of the park. Comparing modern and historical mitochondrial DNA diversity in Yellowstone bison helps uncover a historical context of park restoration efforts during the early 1900s, provides evidence against a hypothesized mitochondrial disease in bison, and reveals the signature of recent hybridization between American plains bison (Bison bison bison) and Canadian wood bison (B. b. athabascae). Our study demonstrates how mitochondrial DNA can be applied to delineate the history of wildlife species and inform future conservation actions. PMID:27880780

  15. Discourses of Education and Constitutions of Class: Public Discourses on Education in Swedish PBS Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimers, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on post-structural perspectives and analysis of television programs on education, the article investigates the public educational discourse in Sweden. It shows how a dominant neoliberal educational discourse is articulated together with a discourse of equal education, where the two discourses influence and subvert each other so that…

  16. Reality and discourse: a critical analysis of the category of 'delusions'.

    PubMed

    Georgaca, E

    2000-06-01

    Delusions are seen in psychiatric research and practice as central indicators of the psychotic loss of contact with reality. In this paper the psychiatric concept of 'delusions' is critically examined both theoretically and through the analysis of extracts from interviews with individuals diagnosed as 'delusional'. The diagnostic criteria for delusions, implausibility, idiosyncrasy, conviction and incorrigibility, are scrutinized, and the notion of reality that underlies the concept of delusions is deconstructed through the use of social constructionist approaches. The main arguments pursued in the paper are: first, that delusions are meaningful, not because they express something about the world or the speaker, but rather because they employ culturally available discourses and discursive strategies for their construction; second, that delusions are claims which are argued and negotiated in speech with similar strategies to those used by 'non-delusional' individuals; and third, that delusions are statements about the self and the world whose truth and falsity cannot be definitely settled in speech. All three claims are discussed through the analysis of extracts from two interviews with 'delusional' individuals, which focuses on the assumptions underlying the negotiation of claims on reality, the discursive strategies adopted in this negotiation and the way disputes on reality are conversationally produced and settled.

  17. A critical methodological review of discourse and conversation analysis studies of family therapy.

    PubMed

    Tseliou, Eleftheria

    2013-12-01

    Discourse (DA) and conversation (CA) analysis, two qualitative research methods, have been recently suggested as potentially promising for the study of family therapy due to common epistemological adherences and their potential for an in situ study of therapeutic dialog. However, to date, there is no systematic methodological review of the few existing DA and CA studies of family therapy. This study aims at addressing this lack by critically reviewing published DA and CA studies of family therapy on methodological grounds. Twenty-eight articles in total are reviewed in relation to certain methodological axes identified in the relevant literature. These include choice of method, framing of research question(s), data/sampling, type of analysis, epistemological perspective, content/type of knowledge claims, and attendance to criteria for good quality practice. It is argued that the reviewed studies show "glimpses" of the methods' potential for family therapy research despite the identification of certain "shortcomings" regarding their methodological rigor. These include unclearly framed research questions and the predominance of case study designs. They also include inconsistencies between choice of method, stated or unstated epistemological orientations and knowledge claims, and limited attendance to criteria for good quality practice. In conclusion, it is argued that DA and CA can add to the existing quantitative and qualitative methods for family therapy research. They can both offer unique ways for a detailed study of the actual therapeutic dialog, provided that future attempts strive for a methodologically rigorous practice and against their uncritical deployment.

  18. 'Risk or Right': a discourse analysis of midwifery and obstetric colleges' homebirth position statements.

    PubMed

    Licqurish, Sharon; Evans, Alicia

    2016-03-01

    Within the context of global debates about safety and ethics of supporting women to give birth at home, it is important to analyse documents governing midwifery and obstetric practice and influence decision-making around place of birth. In Australia, the United States and the United Kingdom, relatively small numbers of women choose to give birth at home despite their midwifery colleges' support. In the United States and Australia, the obstetric colleges do not support homebirth and these countries have lower numbers of women who birth at home, compared with the United Kingdom. There are numerous regulatory and industry challenges for midwives attending homebirths. This paper reports on a Foucauldian analysis of Australian obstetric and midwifery colleges' position statements about homebirth, who have conflicting views, with the view to understanding their arguments and underlying assumptions. The documents highlighted tensions between competing discourses of risk and autonomy and differences in academic argument. Opportunities for strengthening their statements are highlighted. The methodology is applicable for future analysis of similar documents governing practice in other countries.

  19. [Discourses on the nursing and psychiatric nurse models, published in the Annals of Nursing (1933-1951)].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Michelle de Macedo; Padilha, Maria Itayra; de Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Filho, Antonio José de Almeida; Peres, Maria Angélica de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Social-historical study aimed at discussing the nursing and psychiatric nurse models, from the discourses published in the Annals of Nursing.The historical sources were articles published in the Annals of Nursing journal, from 1933 to 1951. An analysis of the discourse was subsidized by the genealogy of power by Michel Foucault.The analysis showed that the discourse on nursing and the psychiatric nurse, in the first half of the 20th century, is set, on one side, by the propositions used by psychiatrists, who sought to reiterate stereotypes and vocations to practice nursing, and, on the other side, by the active participation of nurses seeking to legitimize expertise for psychiatric nursing. It was concluded that the discourses analyzed defined a psychiatric care focused on the nurse and not the rest of the nursing staff, at that time.

  20. Analysis of Historical Coins by X-ray Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddell, Mark; Manukyan, Khatchatur; Aprahamian, Ani; Jordan, Louis

    2016-09-01

    Using different setups of the EDAX Orbis Micro X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyzer, we have learned more about the limitations and optimizations of the XRF method and collected data about early British and Spanish colonial silver coins. XRF spectrometry was used to study Mexican, Bolivian, and Massachusetts silver coins from the University of Notre Dame's Rare Books and Special Collections Department. Runs were performed in both air and vacuum conditions, and the x-ray beam diameter was compared between 1 and 0.03 mm. Using these methods we were able to contribute to the understanding of the historical coinage as well as learn about the best ways to use the method. During analysis we found significant differences in the spectra for silver L shell excitation and silver K shell excitation when switching from 0.03 to 1mm x-ray beam widths. Our data trends also fit with the historical theory that the coinage from the Massachusetts' mint were created by melting down Spanish silver coins (like the ones made from Mexico and Bolivia) and adding a small percent more of copper. We have the intent to build on what we have learned by also studying some Roman Denarii in the future, and by trying to create a custom designed version of the XRF which can be moved more easily and provide quick scans for a larger number of artifacts.

  1. Riflessioni e Proposte sulle Unita' di Analisi per l'Analisi del Discorso (Didattico) (Reflections and Suggestions Concerning the Units of Analysis for Discourse Analysis).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolfi, Liliana

    1995-01-01

    After reviewing units of discourse analysis generally used by sociolinguists, this article reports on a study conducted in university English-as-a-Second-Language classes in Los Angeles to show differences between interactions in and outside of class and proposes a broader frame of analysis to include both the turn and the exchange systems. (CFM)

  2. Discourse-voice regulatory strategies in the psychotherapeutic interaction: a state-space dynamics analysis.

    PubMed

    Tomicic, Alemka; Martínez, Claudio; Pérez, J Carola; Hollenstein, Tom; Angulo, Salvador; Gerstmann, Adam; Barroux, Isabelle; Krause, Mariane

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to provide evidence of the dynamics associated with the configurations of discourse-voice regulatory strategies in patient-therapist interactions in relevant episodes within psychotherapeutic sessions. Its central assumption is that discourses manifest themselves differently in terms of their prosodic characteristics according to their regulatory functions in a system of interactions. The association between discourse and vocal quality in patients and therapists was analyzed in a sample of 153 relevant episodes taken from 164 sessions of five psychotherapies using the state space grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the dynamic systems theory (DST). The results showed eight recurrent and stable discourse-voice regulatory strategies of the patients and three of the therapists. Also, four specific groups of these discourse-voice strategies were identified. The latter were interpreted as regulatory configurations, that is to say, as emergent self-organized groups of discourse-voice regulatory strategies constituting specific interactional systems. Both regulatory strategies and their configurations differed between two types of relevant episodes: Change Episodes and Rupture Episodes. As a whole, these results support the assumption that speaking and listening, as dimensions of the interaction that takes place during therapeutic conversation, occur at different levels. The study not only shows that these dimensions are dependent on each other, but also that they function as a complex and dynamic whole in therapeutic dialog, generating relational offers which allow the patient and the therapist to regulate each other and shape the psychotherapeutic process that characterizes each type of relevant episode.

  3. Towards proteomic analysis of milk proteins in historical building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuckova, S.; Crhova, M.; Vankova, L.; Hnizda, A.; Hynek, R.; Kodicek, M.

    2009-07-01

    The addition of proteinaceous binders to mortars and plasters has a long tradition. The protein additions were identified in many sacral and secular historical buildings. For this method of peptide mass mapping, three model mortar samples with protein additives were prepared. These samples were analysed fresh (1-2 weeks old) and after 9 months of natural ageing. The optimal duration of tryptic cleavage (2 h) and the lowest amount of material needed for relevant analysis of fresh and weathered samples were found; the sufficient amounts of weathered and fresh mortars were set to 0.05 and 0.005 g. The list of main tryptic peptides coming from milk additives (bovine milk, curd, and whey), their relative intensities and theoretical amino acid sequences assignment is presented. Several sequences have been "de novo" confirmed by mass spectrometry.

  4. 'I just want to be normal': An analysis of discourses of normality among recovering heroin users.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Sarah; Neale, Joanne; Pickering, Lucy

    2013-03-01

    Research that has explored the lives of men and women recovering from heroin addiction has reported that users often claim that they 'just want to be normal'. Working within a Foucauldian tradition, we argue in this article that the notions of 'governmentality' and the 'norm' are especially apposite to understanding the ubiquity of this aspiration. Here we focus not on the formal institutions of governance that encourage individuals to adhere to social, cultural and political norms, but rather seek to explore recovering users' accounts of normality as they are envisaged and expressed. The reported empirical data were generated from interviews with 40 men and women in England at various stages of recovery from heroin use. The analytic focus is upon the accounts of normality articulated during the interviews in order to identify the ways in which being normal is presented by the participants. In keeping with the methodological tradition of discourse analysis we identify six discursive repertoires of 'normality talk' that transcend the accounts. It is concluded that the negotiation of normality is a precarious route for this social group. Articulations of a desire to be normal are replete with tensions; there are expressions of both resistance and resignation. Despite claims by some contemporary social theorists that diversity is the 'new normality', the accepted bounds of 'difference' are limited for those who have been addicted to heroin.

  5. Applying Critical Discourse Analysis in Health Policy Research: Case Studies in Regional, Organizational, and Global Health.

    PubMed

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Johnson, Susan; Liu, Fuqin; Boutain, Doris M

    2016-08-01

    Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is a promising methodology for policy research in nursing. As a critical theoretical methodology, researchers use CDA to analyze social practices and language use in policies to examine whether such policies may promote or impede social transformation. Despite the widespread use of CDA in other disciplines such as education and sociology, nursing policy research employing CDA methodology is sparse. To advance CDA use in nursing science, it is important to outline the overall research strategies and describe the steps of CDA in policy research. This article describes, using exemplar case studies, how nursing and health policy researchers can employ CDA as a methodology. Three case studies are provided to discuss the application of CDA research methodologies in nursing policy research: (a) implementation of preconception care policies in the Zhejiang province of China, (b) formation and enactment of statewide asthma policy in Washington state of the United States, and (c) organizational implementation of employee antibullying policies in hospital systems in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Each exemplar details how CDA guided the examination of policy within specific contexts and social practices. The variations of the CDA approaches in the three exemplars demonstrated the flexibilities and potentials for conducting policy research grounded in CDA. CDA provides novel insights for nurse researchers examining health policy formation, enactment, and implementation.

  6. General practitioners' perspectives of education and collaboration with physiotherapists in Primary Health Care: a discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Paz-Lourido, Berta; Kuisma, Raija M E

    2013-05-01

    This paper explores the educational factors that underlie the poor collaboration between general practitioners (GPs) and physiotherapists (PTs) in Primary Health Care (PHC), from the GP's perspective. This study was conducted in Majorca, the Balearic Islands (Spain). Participants were nine GPs who graduated from different universities in mainland Spain. A discourse analysis study was developed employing the social-critical paradigm as theoretical framework and in-depth interviews for data collection. The perceived lack of knowledge about physiotherapy was considered by the interviewees as a major factor in the current poor communication between GPs and PTs. The individual learning during medical studies and poor interprofessional learning during clinical residency influenced their gatekeeper role, putting at risk the equity of the health system. Collaboration was considered beneficial for patients but challenging to improve in context due to multiple factors ranging from individual to systemic. The latter encompasses inadequate resources and organization for interprofessional learning. There is a need to further explore other factors influencing the poor collaboration, including PTs' views on this process.

  7. Environmental assessment in The Netherlands: Effectively governing environmental protection? A discourse analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Runhaar, Hens; Laerhoven, Frank van; Driessen, Peter; Arts, Jos

    2013-02-15

    Environmental assessment (EA) aims to enhance environmental awareness and to ensure that environmental values are fully considered in decision-making. In the EA arena, different discourses exist on what EA should aim for and how it functions. We hypothesise that these discourses influence its application in practice as well as its effectiveness in terms of achieving the above goals. For instance, actors who consider EA as a hindrance to fast implementation of their projects will probably apply it as a mandatory checklist, whereas actors who believe that EA can help to develop more environmentally sound decisions will use EIA as a tool to design their initiatives. In this paper we explore discourses on EA in The Netherlands and elaborate on their implications for EA effectiveness. Based on an innovative research design comprising an online survey with 443 respondents and 20 supplementary semi-structured interviews we conclude that the dominant discourse is that EA is mainly a legal requirement; EAs are conducted because they have to be conducted, not because actors choose to do so. EA effectiveness however seems reasonably high, as a majority of respondents perceive that it enhances environmental awareness and contributes to environmental protection. However, the 'legal requirement' discourse also results in decision-makers seldom going beyond what is prescribed by EA and environmental law. Despite its mandatory character, the predominant attitude towards EA is quite positive. For most respondents, EA is instrumental in providing transparency of decision-making and in minimising the legal risks of not complying with environmental laws. Differences in discourses seldom reflect extreme opposites. The 'common ground' regarding EA provides a good basis for working with EA in terms of meeting legal requirements but at the same time does not stimulate creativity in decision-making or optimisation of environmental values. In countries characterised by less consensual

  8. "Behind the Doors of Learning": The Transmission of Racist and Sexist Discourses in a History Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmot, Mark; Naidoo, Devika

    2011-01-01

    Now that the doors of historically white schools have officially been opened to Black learners, this paper presents a critical analysis of discourses of domination transmitted behind the doors of learning in a History classroom. While the official History curriculum (NCS, 2002) advocates multi-perspectival epistemological approaches, this paper…

  9. A Guide to Commonplaces: On The Use of "Loci" in Educators' Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Maurice, Henry

    1991-01-01

    Raises questions about an aspect of rhetoric called the commonplace. Suggests how commonplaces may be applied to educational topics in innovative ways. Shows historical analysis can highlight assumed concepts and values in discourse, policy, and practices. Argues educators must increase awareness of the interrelated arts of rhetoric in teaching by…

  10. Finding Inquiry in Discourses of Audit and Reform in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julian; Corbin, Brian; McNamara, Olwen

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine the discourses of Primary school numeracy coordinators responsible for auditing, monitoring and supporting their colleagues in relation to the introduction and embedding of the National Numeracy Strategy (NNS) in the UK. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) focuses our analysis on the contradictory coupling of…

  11. The (Bio)politics of Engagement: Shifts in Singapore's Policy and Public Discourse on Civics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weninger, Csilla; Kho, Ee Moi

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a historical overview of civic educational policy and political discourse in Singapore from 1959 to 2011, focusing on changes in the role attributed to students in the education process. A review of educational programmes and analysis of political speeches reveals that an earlier transmissionist approach that focused on value…

  12. Reproducing social inequality and unequal treatment in the National Health Information Infrastructure: a discourse analysis of Institute of Medicine executive summaries.

    PubMed

    Trigg, Lisa J

    2009-01-01

    This research analyzes how discourse constituting the currently proposed National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) may reproduce existing social inequality in healthcare. Textually oriented critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics methods compare 3 executive summaries from the Institute of Medicine reports: the Quality Chasm and Insuring Health series, and the stand-alone report Unequal Treatment. These methods proved effective in studying the social action of language used in those summaries and will be useful in studying a larger corpus of discourse constituting the NHII. Further research will provide information to prevent or mitigate the reproduction of social inequality in healthcare through the proposed NHII.

  13. Opening up animal research and science–society relations? A thematic analysis of transparency discourses in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Carmen; Hobson-West, Pru

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in scientific research represents an interesting case to consider in the context of the contemporary preoccupation with transparency and openness in science and governance. In the United Kingdom, organisations critical of animal research have long called for more openness. More recently, organisations involved in animal research also seem to be embracing transparency discourses. This article provides a detailed analysis of publically available documents from animal protection groups, the animal research community and government/research funders. Our aim is to explore the similarities and differences in the way transparency is constructed and to identify what more openness is expected to achieve. In contrast to the existing literature, we conclude that the slipperiness of transparency discourses may ultimately have transformative implications for the relationship between science and society and that contemporary openness initiatives might be sowing the seeds for change to the status quo. PMID:26009149

  14. How language flows when movements don't: An automated analysis of spontaneous discourse in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    García, Adolfo M; Carrillo, Facundo; Orozco-Arroyave, Juan Rafael; Trujillo, Natalia; Vargas Bonilla, Jesús F; Fittipaldi, Sol; Adolfi, Federico; Nöth, Elmar; Sigman, Mariano; Fernández Slezak, Diego; Ibáñez, Agustín; Cecchi, Guillermo A

    2016-11-01

    To assess the impact of Parkinson's disease (PD) on spontaneous discourse, we conducted computerized analyses of brief monologues produced by 51 patients and 50 controls. We explored differences in semantic fields (via latent semantic analysis), grammatical choices (using part-of-speech tagging), and word-level repetitions (with graph embedding tools). Although overall output was quantitatively similar between groups, patients relied less heavily on action-related concepts and used more subordinate structures. Also, a classification tool operating on grammatical patterns identified monologues as pertaining to patients or controls with 75% accuracy. Finally, while the incidence of dysfluent word repetitions was similar between groups, it allowed inferring the patients' level of motor impairment with 77% accuracy. Our results highlight the relevance of studying naturalistic discourse features to tap the integrity of neural (and, particularly, motor) networks, beyond the possibilities of standard token-level instruments.

  15. Opening up animal research and science-society relations? A thematic analysis of transparency discourses in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Carmen; Hobson-West, Pru

    2016-10-01

    The use of animals in scientific research represents an interesting case to consider in the context of the contemporary preoccupation with transparency and openness in science and governance. In the United Kingdom, organisations critical of animal research have long called for more openness. More recently, organisations involved in animal research also seem to be embracing transparency discourses. This article provides a detailed analysis of publically available documents from animal protection groups, the animal research community and government/research funders. Our aim is to explore the similarities and differences in the way transparency is constructed and to identify what more openness is expected to achieve. In contrast to the existing literature, we conclude that the slipperiness of transparency discourses may ultimately have transformative implications for the relationship between science and society and that contemporary openness initiatives might be sowing the seeds for change to the status quo.

  16. Teaching ethics in engineering education through historical analysis.

    PubMed

    Billington, David P

    2006-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to stress the significance of ethics for engineering education and to illustrate how it can be brought into the mainstream of higher education in a natural way that is integrated with the teaching objectives of enriching the core meaning of engineering. Everyone will agree that the practicing engineer should be virtuous, should be a good colleague, and should use professional understanding for the common good. But these injunctions to virtue do not reach closely enough the ethic of the engineer as engineer, as someone acting in a uniquely engineering situation, and it is to such conditions that I wish to speak through a set of specific examples from recent history. I shall briefly refer to four controversies between engineers. Then, in some detail I shall narrate three historical cases that directly involve the actions of one engineer, and finally I would like to address some common contemporary issues. The first section, Engineering Ethics and the History of Innovation, includes four cases involving professional controversy. Each controversy sets two people against each other in disputes over who invented the telegraph, the radio, the automobile, and the airplane. In each dispute, it is possible to identify ethical and unethical behavior or ambiguous ethical behavior that serves as a basis for educational discussion. The first two historical cases described in "Crises and the Engineer" involve the primary closure dam systems in The Netherlands, each one the result of the actions of one engineer. The third tells of an American engineer who took his political boss, a big city mayor, to court over the illegal use of a watershed. The challenges these engineers faced required, in the deepest sense, a commitment to ethical behavior that is unique to engineering and instructive to our students. Finally, the cases in "Professors and Comparative Critical Analysis" illuminate the behavior of engineers in the design of structures and also how

  17. Discourse-voice regulatory strategies in the psychotherapeutic interaction: a state-space dynamics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tomicic, Alemka; Martínez, Claudio; Pérez, J. Carola; Hollenstein, Tom; Angulo, Salvador; Gerstmann, Adam; Barroux, Isabelle; Krause, Mariane

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to provide evidence of the dynamics associated with the configurations of discourse-voice regulatory strategies in patient–therapist interactions in relevant episodes within psychotherapeutic sessions. Its central assumption is that discourses manifest themselves differently in terms of their prosodic characteristics according to their regulatory functions in a system of interactions. The association between discourse and vocal quality in patients and therapists was analyzed in a sample of 153 relevant episodes taken from 164 sessions of five psychotherapies using the state space grid (SSG) method, a graphical tool based on the dynamic systems theory (DST). The results showed eight recurrent and stable discourse-voice regulatory strategies of the patients and three of the therapists. Also, four specific groups of these discourse-voice strategies were identified. The latter were interpreted as regulatory configurations, that is to say, as emergent self-organized groups of discourse-voice regulatory strategies constituting specific interactional systems. Both regulatory strategies and their configurations differed between two types of relevant episodes: Change Episodes and Rupture Episodes. As a whole, these results support the assumption that speaking and listening, as dimensions of the interaction that takes place during therapeutic conversation, occur at different levels. The study not only shows that these dimensions are dependent on each other, but also that they function as a complex and dynamic whole in therapeutic dialog, generating relational offers which allow the patient and the therapist to regulate each other and shape the psychotherapeutic process that characterizes each type of relevant episode. PMID:25932014

  18. Genetic analysis of modern and historical burned human remains.

    PubMed

    von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Ringleb, Arne; Gebühr, Michael; Simeoni, Eva

    2005-03-01

    Burning of corpses is a well-known funeral procedure that has been performed for a long time in many cultures. Nowadays more and more corpses are burned in crematories and buried in urns, often for practical and financial reasons. In some scientific, criminal or civil cases even after cremation there is the need of genetic investigations for identification or paternity testing. Furthermore, burned remains are the only remains left in North Europe from 1200 BC to 500 AD. This makes genetic investigation of those materials interesting for anthropological reasons. We present on one hand a systematic investigation of 10 corpses before and after the cremation and on the other hand the analysis of seven historical remains representing the bronze age. We chose the ground bone powder and the less destroyed bone parts respectively and employed a slightly modified commercially available DNA extraction method. The presence of human nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was tested by a simple but highly sensitive Duplex-PCR. DNA quantification was done using real time PCR, and genetic typing was tried out using the AmpFISTR Identifiler Multiplex Kit, followed by an automatic analysis on an AbiPrism310.

  19. Producing children in the 21st century: a critical discourse analysis of the science and techniques of monitoring early child development.

    PubMed

    Einboden, Rochelle; Rudge, Trudy; Varcoe, Colleen

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the implications of commonly held ideologies within theories of child development. Despite critiques to doing so, developmental theory assumes that children's bodies are unitary, natural and material. The recent explosion of neuroscience illustrates the significance of historical, social and cultural contexts to portrayals of brain development, offering the opportunity for a critical departure in thinking. Instead, this neuroscience research has been taken up in ways that align with biomedical traditions and neoliberal values. This article uses a critical discursive approach, supported by Haraway's ideas of technoscience, to analyse a population-based early child development research initiative. This initiative organises a large-scale surveillance of children's development, operating from the premise that risks to development are best captured early to optimise children's potential. The analysis in this article shows an intermingling of health and economic discourses and clarifies how the child is a figure of significant contemporary social and political interests. In a poignant example of technobiopolitics, the collusion between health research, technologies and the state enrols health professionals to participate in the production of children as subjects of social value, figured as human capital, investments in the future, or alternatively, as waste. The analysis shows how practices that participate in what has become a developmental enterprise also participate in the marginalisation of the very children they intend to serve. Hence, there is the need to rethink practices critically and move towards innovative conceptualisations of child development that hold possibilities to resist these figurations.

  20. Gendered Discourse about Family Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…

  1. Citizenship Discourses: Production and Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Maria; Fejes, Andreas; Dahlstedt, Magnus; Nicoll, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores citizenship discourses empirically through upper secondary school student's understandings, as these emerge in and through their everyday experiences. Drawing on a post-structuralist theorisation inspired by the work of Michel Foucault, a discourse analysis of data from interviews with students is carried out. This analysis…

  2. ICT and Language Teacher Development in the Global South: A New Materialist Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I present insights from a discourse analytic study in which I examined publications that emerged from a teacher development program in Bangladesh. The program, known as English in Action, utilizes information and communication technologies to deliver professional development activities to English-language teachers. Now in its 8th…

  3. Managing Victim Status in Group Therapy for Men: A Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zverina, Michaela; Stam, Henderikus J.; Babins-Wagner, Robbie

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the abundance of research on women victims, this article sheds light on the discourse of men who are self-identified as victims of their female partners' abuse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the most salient identity constructions and abuse conceptualizations among participants of group psychotherapy for men who have…

  4. Transgender People at Four Big Ten Campuses: A Policy Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks, Doris Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the language used to discuss transgender people on university campuses. This study asks how, despite seemingly benefitting transgender people, the discourses carried by the documents that discuss trans people may actually undermine the intended goals of policy initiatives. For example, a report on the status of transgender…

  5. Making Explicit the Analysis of Students' Mathematical Discourses--Revisiting a Newly Developed Methodological Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryve, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Sfard and Kieran [Kieran, C., Educational Studies in Mathematics 46, 2001, 187-228; Sfard, A., Educational Studies in Mathematics 46, 2001, 13-57; Sfard, A. and Kieran, C., Mind, Culture, and Activity 8, 2001, 42-76] have developed a methodological framework, which aims at characterizing the students' mathematical discourses while they are working…

  6. Contrastive Analysis of Turkish and English in Turkish EFL Learners' Spoken Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at finding whether L1 Turkish caused interference errors on Turkish EFL learners' spoken English discourse. Whether English proficiency level had any effect on the number of errors learners made was further investigated. The participants were given the chance to choose one of the two alternative topics to speak about. The…

  7. Identification and Disidentification in Organizational Discourse: A Metaphor Analysis of E-Mail Communication at Enron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnage, Anna K.

    2010-01-01

    This project is situated within the interpretive tradition in organizational communication research, focusing on organizational discourse. It goes further by bringing the discussion into the 21st century through examining how communication technology--specifically e-mail--plays a role in the linguistic practices that help create, maintain and…

  8. Semio-Pragmatic Analysis of Cartoons Discourse: A Step towards Semiotranslation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlBzour, Naser Naif

    2011-01-01

    The primary concern of this study is to explore the subtle implications of the "Semiotranslation Approach vis-a-vis" analyzing the semiotic elements of discourse in Jordanian cartoons as creative artistic texts in which various signs manifest simultaneous interaction, thus achieving both entertainment and purposeful satire. Therefore,…

  9. Structural Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Language: A Comparative Analysis of InterChange Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Kwang-Kyu

    1996-01-01

    Compares one form of synchronous computer-mediated communication, Daedalus InterChange, with analogous spoken and written corpora. Finds that the InterChange discourse mode is not merely intermediate between speaking and writing; rather the electronic medium uniquely fosters some behaviors and inhibits others, in support of the view that physical…

  10. Americans in Paris: A Discourse Analysis of Student Accounts of Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Timothy Paul

    2010-01-01

    In this study, I provide a discourse analytical and narrative-theoretical examination of four American undergraduate students' interview accounts of study abroad in France. The key finding is that all of these students accounted for the significance of their experiences studying abroad in terms that transcended the institutionally sanctioned…

  11. Speak, Review, Change, Repeat: An Analysis of Discourse Surrounding Dilemmas at Admission, Review and Dismissal Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews-Perez, Amy Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the ways in which three parents of students with disabilities and three public school campus administrators negotiated dilemmas through discourse during Admission, Review, and Dismissal (ARD) meetings in a South Texas public school district. The participants in this study included the stakeholders in ARD…

  12. Researching Writing Events: Using Mediated Discourse Analysis to Explore How Students Write Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rish, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses how mediated discourse theory and related analytical tools can be used to explore how students write together. Considered within a sociocultural framework that conceptualises writing as involving distributed, mediated and dialogic processes of invention, this article presents an investigation of how three high school…

  13. Disrupting Neoliberal Discourse in Critical Sustainability Education: A Qualitative Analysis of Intentional Language Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachelin, Adrienne; Rose, Jeff; Paisley, Karen

    2015-01-01

    While education for sustainability is a critical task that is gaining ground in a plethora of educational contexts, it is frequently rendered ineffective in the face of neoliberal practice and discourse. Here we examine the pervasive impacts of neoliberalism on education for sustainability, looking specifically at discursive formations that shape…

  14. Students' Experiences in Interdisciplinary Problembased Learning: A Discourse Analysis of Group Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imafuku, Rintaro; Kataoka, Ryuta; Mayahara, Mitsuori; Suzuki, Hisayoshi; Saiki, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary problem-based learning (PBL) aims to provide students with opportunities to develop the necessary skills to work with different health professionals in a collaborative manner. This discourse study examined the processes of collective knowledge construction in Japanese students in the tutorials. Analyses of video-recorded data…

  15. Discourse Analysis of Interpersonal Meaning to Understand the Discrepancy between Teacher Knowing and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilhan, Emine Gül Çelebi; Erbas, Ayhan Kürsat

    2016-01-01

    As is well known, bridging teacher knowledge or learning with practice is not a straightforward task. This paper aims to explore this discrepancy between a mathematics teacher's knowing and practices and to offer ways of alignment between the two based on the social/interpersonal meanings and their realization through teacher's discourse. In this…

  16. Aligning Academic Task and Participation Status through Revoicing: Analysis of a Classroom Discourse Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary Catherine; Michaels, Sarah

    1993-01-01

    Revoicing as a classroom technique is considered. Three examples illustrate the potential of the classroom discourse strategy revoicing to position students with regard to propositions and allow them to claim or reject the positions; share reformulations to credit students with teacher inferences; and scaffold and recast problem-solution…

  17. The Analysis of Classroom Discourse: Elementary School Science Curricula Advancing Reasoning with Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ilonca; Kloetzer, Birgit; Moeller, Kornelia; Sodian, Beate

    2010-01-01

    Students' ability to participate in scientific discourse and to appropriately use empirical evidence to support beliefs or conclusions has been consistently stated as a core goal of science education. In the present study, we analyzed the quality of scientific reasoning in elementary school science classrooms, using the Evidence-Based Reasoning…

  18. Stylistics Analysis in Advertising Discourse: A Case of the Dangote Cement Advertisement in Bamenda--Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fomukong, Seino Evangeline Agwa

    2016-01-01

    There are many purposes for using language which determine how the writer or speaker chooses words, syntactic expressions and figurative language. This is as a result of the fact that language has a very powerful effect over people, their actions and thoughts. This is seen in the use of language in various discourse types which include…

  19. Frames, Content Organization, and Themes in Student Expository Essays: An Analysis of Discourse Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hult, Christine A.

    To examine the relationship between writers' knowledge of expository frames--conventions accepted by both writers and readers in association with a particular type of discourse--and writing skill, 60 persuasive essays were analyzed for content organization. The essays, evaluated as either above average or average on a high school writing…

  20. Earning One's Inheritance: Rhetorical Criticism, Everyday Talk, and the Analysis of Public Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Samuel

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes a transcribed speech in which an African American community member engaged a panel of school board officials on the topic of racial stereotypes in an elementary school science experiment. Concludes that the force of public discourse may reside less in a speaker's ability to persuade an audience than in an audience's willingness to recycle…

  1. A Discourse-Analysis Based Critical Approach to Contextual Interpretation of Heteroglossic Situation in the Novel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseka, Edirisingha Arachchige Gamini

    2014-01-01

    According to the theory of dialogism propounded by Mikhail Bakhtin, all discourse in the novel is a product of a process of dialogic imagination. Yet heteroglossic situation in the novel differs from general narration, as it involves interaction among two or more characters speaking in their respective voices to represent different aspects of…

  2. Literacy Models and the Reconstruction of History Education: A Comparative Discourse Analysis of Two Lesson Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin, Ross; Reich, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents discourse analyses of two lesson plans designed for secondary school history classes. Although the plans focus on the same topic, they rely on different models of content area literacy: disciplinary literacy, or reading and writing like experts in a given domain, and critical literacy, or reading and writing to address…

  3. Citizenship and Citizenship Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Zimbabwe Presidential Commission Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigauke, Aaron T.

    2011-01-01

    Educational discourse, like other fields, is not neutral. Through policy documents it has ideological functions of transmitting dominant cultures and serving certain sectional interest groups. In Zimbabwe 1998 was characterized by radical political discontent as witnessed by a rise in student activism and the formation of the main political…

  4. Teacher Education and Development Policies: Critical Discourse Analysis from a Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pini, Monica E.; Gorostiaga, Jorge M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore teacher education policies in different countries of Latin America and North America through the comparison of policy documents. The training of teachers, a key component of education, faces educational challenges as a result of various reform policies in different countries. Critical discourse analysis…

  5. Framing and Face: The Relevance of "The Presentation of Self" to Linguistic Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannen, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Although Erving Goffman did not turn his analytic focus specifically toward language until later in his career, his work, beginning with "The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life," has been crucial for discourse analysts and interactional sociolinguists who study language in social context. Perhaps most influential have been his concepts of…

  6. Investigating the Geometry Curriculum in Palestinian Textbooks: Towards Multimodal Analysis of Arabic Mathematics Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshwaikh, Jehad

    2016-01-01

    The analytical scheme used in the project The Evolution of the Discourse of School Mathematics (EDSM) was developed to analyse the change over time in examination texts. An adapted version of the EDSM scheme has been deployed to analyse the nature of mathematics construed in Palestinian schools' textbooks and the mathematical activity expected of…

  7. Pedagogising Poverty Alleviation: A Discourse Analysis of Educational and Social Policies in Argentina and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambla, Xavier; Veger, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    For the past decades international organisations and governments have promoted and implemented analogous education policies on the grounds that education is the key factor to foster development and fight poverty. This article sets the context of these educational programmes and analyses their discourse on poverty in Argentina and Chile. Then, it…

  8. Analysis of the Discourse of Power in Etel Adnan's Play "Like a Christmas Tree"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alashqar, Hossam Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to investigate the sources of power in the discourse of an Arab-American writer, Etel Adnan's one act play, "Like a Christmas Tree." The play represents a heated argument between two figures who stand for two different ideologies and who fall within the frame of "binary opposition," transcultural…

  9. Perfect harmony: A mathematical analysis of four historical tunings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Michael F.

    2004-10-01

    In Western music, a musical interval defined by the frequency ratio of two notes is generally considered consonant when the ratio is composed of small integers. Perfect harmony or an ``ideal just scale,'' which has no exact solution, would require the division of an octave into 12 notes, each of which would be used to create six other consonant intervals. The purpose of this study is to analyze four well-known historical tunings to evaluate how well each one approximates perfect harmony. The analysis consists of a general evaluation in which all consonant intervals are given equal weighting and a specific evaluation for three preludes from Bach's ``Well-Tempered Clavier,'' for which intervals are weighted in proportion to the duration of their occurrence. The four tunings, 5-limit just intonation, quarter-comma meantone temperament, well temperament (Werckmeister III), and equal temperament, are evaluated by measures of centrality, dispersion, distance, and dissonance. When all keys and consonant intervals are equally weighted, equal temperament demonstrates the strongest performance across a variety of measures, although it is not always the best tuning. Given C as the starting note for each tuning, equal temperament and well temperament perform strongly for the three ``Well-Tempered Clavier'' preludes examined. .

  10. Perfect harmony: a mathematical analysis of four historical tunings.

    PubMed

    Page, Michael F

    2004-10-01

    In Western music, a musical interval defined by the frequency ratio of two notes is generally considered consonant when the ratio is composed of small integers. Perfect harmony or an "ideal just scale," which has no exact solution, would require the division of an octave into 12 notes, each of which would be used to create six other consonant intervals. The purpose of this study is to analyze four well-known historical tunings to evaluate how well each one approximates perfect harmony. The analysis consists of a general evaluation in which all consonant intervals are given equal weighting and a specific evaluation for three preludes from Bach's "Well-Tempered Clavier," for which intervals are weighted in proportion to the duration of their occurrence. The four tunings, 5-limit just intonation, quarter-comma meantone temperament, well temperament (Werckmeister III), and equal temperament, are evaluated by measures of centrality, dispersion, distance, and dissonance. When all keys and consonant intervals are equally weighted, equal temperament demonstrates the strongest performance across a variety of measures, although it is not always the best tuning. Given C as the starting note for each tuning, equal temperament and well temperament perform strongly for the three "Well-Tempered Clavier" preludes examined.

  11. Going South: Analysis of an Historic Project Engineering Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's successful conduct of the Apollo Program greatly enhanced the prestige of the United States and remains broadly accepted as America's gift to all Mankind. NASA's accomplishments continue to amaze the world. With the Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) Americans once again tasked NASA to carry out a project that is expected to provide inspiration and economic stimulus to the United States and to the world. In preparation NASA has thoroughly examined space program precedents. There is, however, another precedent which has not been examined in this context but whose scope and environment in many ways parallel the VSE. This project was initiated by a team that had, ten years before, successfully completed an effort that, at a cost of $173 billion (in 2008 dollars), had pushed the envelope of technology, brought economic growth, established their country as the world leader in engineering, and been broadly accepted as that country's gift to all Mankind. The new project was again inspired by popular desire to enhance national prestige and make yet another major contribution to Humanity. This effort was predicted to require eight years and $156 billion (2008 dollars). However, after nine years and expenditures of 96% beyond the baseline, the project collapsed amid bankruptcy, political scandal, and criminal prosecution. This paper applies current project management metrics, such as earned value analysis, to review the strategic decisions in this historic failure and describe its ultimate collapse. Key mistakes are identified, and lessons are drawn which may prove useful in guiding the VSE.

  12. A critical discourse analysis of British national newspaper representations of the academic level of nurse education: too clever for our own good?

    PubMed

    Gillett, Karen

    2012-12-01

    This critical discourse analysis examines articles about the academic level of nurse education that appeared in British national newspapers between 1999 and 2009. British newspaper journalists regularly attribute problems with recruitment into nursing and nursing care to the increasing academic nature of nurse education. It is impossible to separate discourse about nurse education from the wider nursing discourse. Many journalists laud a traditional and stereotypical construct of nurse identity and suggest that increasing nurse education produces nurses who are 'too clever to care'. This article argues that whilst nurses lack a voice in the National press, they have little input into the construction of newspaper discourse about nurse education and subsequently, limited influence on resulting public opinion, government policy and the morale of nurses.

  13. Discourse Cohesion in Sign and Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development of discourse cohesion in bilingual children through an analysis of narrative discourses produced by hearing children of deaf parents (HCDP) in both British Sign Language (BSL) and spoken English. Reference mechanisms in both languages are described in the context of recent work on narrative and discourse organization…

  14. Flood Frequency Analysis With Historical and Paleoflood Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedinger, Jery R.; Cohn, Timothy A.

    1986-05-01

    An investigation is made of flood quantile estimators which can employ "historical" and paleoflood information in flood frequency analyses. Two categories of historical information are considered: "censored" data, where the magnitudes of historical flood peaks are known; and "binomial" data, where only threshold exceedance information is available. A Monte Carlo study employing the two-parameter lognormal distribution shows that maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) can extract the equivalent of an additional 10-30 years of gage record from a 50-year period of historical observation. The MLE routines are shown to be substantially better than an adjusted-moment estimator similar to the one recommended in Bulletin 17B of the United States Water Resources Council Hydrology Committee (1982). The MLE methods performed well even when floods were drawn from other than the assumed lognormal distribution.

  15. Discourse, Complexity, Normativity: Tracing the Elaboration of Foucault's Materialist Concept of Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olssen, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I want to suggest that it is through the elaboration of the concept of discourse that the differences between Foucault and thinkers like Habermas, Hegel and Marx can best be understood. Foucault progressively develops a conception of discourse as a purely historical category that resists all reference to transcendental principles…

  16. Dealing with pollution from conflict: Analysis of discourses around the 2006 Lebanon oil spill.

    PubMed

    Takshe, Aseel A; Huby, Meg; Frantzi, Sofia; Lovett, Jon C

    2010-01-01

    In July 2006 a war between Lebanon and Israel resulted in severe environmental damage in Lebanon from Israeli bombing raids. An attack on the Lebanese Jiyyeh Power Plant released 15,000 tons of heavy fuel oil into the Mediterranean Sea. Remarkably, a clean-up operation was effected despite a continued state of war and lack of capacity in the Lebanese government. Civil society environmentalists played a key role in dealing with the pollution and complying with pollution-control legislation. In this study we use Q-methodology to analyse discourses on the effectiveness of pollution legislation during times of conflict using the Jiyyeh oil spill as an example. We interviewed 35 people from eight different stakeholder groups involved in environmental issues. Five distinct discourses were generated covering compensation schemes, need for new legislation, role of stakeholders during wartime and strengthening government ministries.

  17. [Concept of clientele: discourse analysis of the benevolence in the context of the Brazilian psychiatrich reform].

    PubMed

    de Pinho, Leandro Barbosa; Hernández, Antonio Miguel Bañon; Kantorski, Luciane Prado

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to know the dynamic and controversial which is the practice in mental health. For that, it's analyzes the discourse of workers of mental health about the concept of on the concept of the clientele of the service. The corpus of this work is composed for interviews applied to 17 of the 25 professionals of mental health who work in a service substitute of a city of the Brazilian South Region. The theoretical-philosophical referential was the Critical Discourse Análisis. The methodological device was the "axiologic-discursive diagram". The results demonstrate that the workers assume relations of benevolence because the clientele conceptual undefinition, fruit of the difficulty in establishing what is normal and pathological in mental health. We wait that the study it contributes to problematize the process of consolidation of the Brazilian psychiatric reform.

  18. Innocent Victims, Fighter Cells, and White Uncles: A Discourse Analysis of Children's Books about AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenreich, Megan; Siegel, Marjorie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we examine a set of 26 children's books on HIV/AIDS published between 1989-1999 to identify the ways in which these texts construct HIV/AIDS and people living with HIV/AIDS. We explore how this marginalized group is depicted in these books, and how well-meaning teachers may in fact be reproducing dominant discourses about HIV/AIDS…

  19. Capitalizing on Synergies—A Discourse Analysis of the Process of Collaboration Among Providers of Integrative Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Andermo, Susanne; Sundberg, Tobias; Forsberg, Christina; Falkenberg, Torkel

    2015-01-01

    Background Integrative health care (IHC) combines therapies and providers from complementary and conventional health care. Previous studies on IHC have shown power relations between providers but few studies have explored how the interaction develops over time. The objective of this study was to explore the development of IHC collaboration and interaction among participating providers during a series of consensus case conferences for managing patients with back and neck pain. Methods This qualitative study was conducted within a pragmatic randomized controlled clinical trial in primary care. Patients' treatment plans were developed based on IHC provider consensus conferences (n = 26) of which 15 (5 of the first, 5 in the middle, and 5 of the last in the clinical trial) were selected for analysis. Findings were derived by means of discourse analysis, focusing on the participants’ use of subject positions during the conferences. Findings The IHC team in this study gradually formed a group identity, moving their subject positions from individual treating subjects to members of a team and were able to make consensus-based decisions about patients’ individual treatment plans. In the discourse, the IHC team identified collaborative shortcomings and problematized the provision of IHC. They were able to capitalize on the synergies in their collaboration and developed a shared vision of IHC provision. Conclusions The process of IHC collaboration involved the gradual formation of an IHC team identity, which facilitated interdisciplinary, non-hierarchical consensus-based decision-making in the team. The discourse further suggests that a reform of some legal and organizational health sector barriers might be needed to realize sustainable implementation of IHC services in Sweden. PMID:25793967

  20. Choice and compassion at the end of life: A critical analysis of recent English policy discourse.

    PubMed

    Borgstrom, Erica; Walter, Tony

    2015-07-01

    End of life care in England has recently been framed by two very different discourses. One (connected to advance care planning) promotes personal choice, the other promotes compassionate care; both are prominent in professional, policy and media settings. The article outlines the history of who promoted each discourse from 2008 to early 2015, when, why and how and this was done. Each discourse is then critically analysed from a standpoint that takes account of bodily decline, structural constraints, and human relationality. We focus on the biggest group of those nearing the end of their life, namely frail very old people suffering multiple conditions. In their care within contemporary healthcare organisations, choice becomes a tick box and compassion a commodity. Informed choice, whether at the end of life or in advance of it, does not guarantee the death the person wants, especially for those dying of conditions other than cancer and in the absence of universally available skilled and compassionate care. Enabling healthcare staff to provide compassionate, relational care, however, implies reversing the philosophical, political and financial direction of healthcare in the UK and most other Anglophone countries.

  1. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS, A VALUABLE TOOL IN COMMUNITY-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A historical analysis of the ecological consequences of development can be a valuable tool in community-based environmental protection. These studies can engage the public in environmental issues and lead to informed decision making. Historical studies provide an understanding of...

  2. Towards a Synthesis of Organizational Theory and Historical Analysis: The Case of Academic Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kathryn M.

    1982-01-01

    A brief history of academic women in the nineteenth century illustrates the potential for creatively merging historical analysis and contemporary social theory to examine higher education as an organization. Concepts of power, influence, and organizational change are used to give new perspectives to traditional historical study. (MSE)

  3. Identity-Forming Discourses: A Critical Discourse Analysis on Policy Making Processes Concerning English Language Teaching in Colombia (Discursos que forjan identidades: un análisis crítico de discursos en la formulación de políticas sobre la enseñanza del inglés en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar Alméciga, Wilder Yesid

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses a critical problem about asymmetrical power relationships and uneven conditions in English language education exerted via identity shaping discourses in the document Educación: "Visión 2019" issued by the Colombian Ministry of National Education. The study follows the critical discourse analysis method. It…

  4. Disclosing discourses: biomedical and hospitality discourses in patient education materials.

    PubMed

    Öresland, Stina; Friberg, Febe; Määttä, Sylvia; Öhlen, Joakim

    2015-09-01

    Patient education materials have the potential to strengthen the health literacy of patients. Previous studies indicate that readability and suitability may be improved. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze discourses inherent in patient education materials since analysis of discourses could illuminate values and norms inherent in them. Clinics in Sweden that provided colorectal cancer surgery allowed access to written information and 'welcome letters' sent to patients. The material was analysed by means of discourse analysis, embedded in Derrida's approach of deconstruction. The analysis revealed a biomedical discourse and a hospitality discourse. In the biomedical discourse, the subject position of the personnel was interpreted as the messenger of medical information while that of the patients as the carrier of diagnoses and recipients of biomedical information. In the hospitality discourse, the subject position of the personnel was interpreted as hosts who invite and welcome the patients as guests. The study highlights the need to eliminate paternalism and fosters a critical reflective stance among professionals regarding power and paternalism inherent in health care communication.

  5. A Discourse Approach to Theorising HRD: Opening a Discursive Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Aileen; Sambrook, Sally; Garavan, Tom; Valentin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how a discourse approach to theorising human resource development (HRD) can open a "discursive space" to challenge dominant discourses within the field; enabling a more critical discourse to emerge. Design/methodology/approach: Discusses two approaches to discourse analysis, a "practice" and a…

  6. Teacher Recertification: A Historical Analysis of the Illinois Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodbeck, Nancy Negley

    2009-01-01

    License renewal and recertification have long been standard practice in service professions. Ten years ago, a new law called for policy revision and mandated that Illinois teachers acquire continuing professional development to maintain certification. This study provides a historical perspective of the Illinois teacher recertification process,…

  7. The Historical Development of Affirmative Action: An Aggregated Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Shawn

    2002-01-01

    Reconstructs the development of equal employment opportunities for African Americans after the Civil War, recapitulating historical accounts of the integration of African Americans into mainstream society, beginning with the Civil War and including legal precedents such as Brown v. Board of Education. Racial discrimination in employment was…

  8. Feral and Isolated Children: Historical Review and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Mary Charles; And Others

    1984-01-01

    An historical review of the documented cases of feral and other environmentally deprived children is presented. Discussion focuses on four groups of atypically reared children: animal-reared children, children isolated in wilderness, children confined in isolation, and children confined with limited human contact. (Author/CL)

  9. The Private Military Firms: Historical Evolution and Industry Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT The Private Military Firms – Historical Evolution and...Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 2007 Authors: _____________________________________ Yusuf Alabarda

  10. The Critical Policy Discourse Analysis Frame: Helping Doctoral Students Engage with the Educational Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyatt, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses an issue of increasing significance in the context of taught educational doctorates and argues that this may have wider applicability for doctoral students across a range of social science disciplines. It identifies the need to engage with policy analysis as a key element of such programmes and attempts to address students'…

  11. History of Science in the Physics Curriculum: A Directed Content Analysis of Historical Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seker, Hayati; Guney, Burcu G.

    2012-05-01

    Although history of science is a potential resource for instructional materials, teachers do not have a tendency to use historical materials in their lessons. Studies showed that instructional materials should be adaptable and consistent with curriculum. This study purports to examine the alignment between history of science and the curriculum in the light of the facilitator model on the use of history of science in science teaching, and to expose possible difficulties in preparing historical materials. For this purpose, qualitative content analysis method was employed. Codes and themes were defined beforehand, with respect to levels and their sublevels of the model. The analysis revealed several problems with the alignment of historical sources for the physics curriculum: limited information about scientists' personal lives, the difficulty of linking with content knowledge, the lack of emphasis on scientific process in the physics curriculum, differences between chronology and sequence of topics, the lack of information about scientists' reasoning. Based on the findings of the analysis, it would be difficult to use original historical sources; educators were needed to simplify historical knowledge within a pedagogical perspective. There is a need for historical sources, like Harvard Case Histories in Experimental Science, since appropriate historical information to the curriculum objectives can only be obtained by simplifying complex information at the origin. The curriculum should leave opportunities for educators interested in history of science, even historical sources provides legitimate amount of information for every concepts in the curriculum.

  12. The Discourse of "Environmentalist Hysteria."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killingsworth, M. Jimmie; Palmer, Jacqueline S.

    1995-01-01

    Fleshes out a model of hysterical discourse, and applies it to an analysis of the charges and countercharges of "environmentalist hysteria." Gives special attention to the book that drew the earliest accusations of hysteria, Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring." (SR)

  13. Mises au point et perspectives a propos de l'analyse automatique du discours (Focuses and Perspectives with Regard to Machine Discourse Analysis)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecheux, Michel; Fuchs, Catherine

    1975-01-01

    Part One discusses social formation, language, discourse, and ideology, and linguistics as a theory of syntactic mechanisms and processes of enunciation. Part Two deals with new criticisms of program design, linguistic analysis, and discursive process analysis. (Text is in French.) (Author/MSE)

  14. Historical analysis of Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics

    PubMed Central

    Bondeson, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article makes use of digitized historic newspapers to analyze Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics, and fur colour variations over time. The results indicate that contrary to the accepted view, the ‘Solid’ gene was introduced into the British population of Newfoundland dogs in the 1840s. Prior to that time, the dogs were white and black (Landseer) or white and brown, and thus spotted/spotted homozygotes. Due to ‘Solid’ being dominant over ‘spotted’, and selective breeding, today the majority of Newfoundland dogs are solid black. Whereas small white marks on the chest and/or paw appears to be a random event, the historical data supports the existence of an ‘Irish spotted’ fur colour pattern, with white head blaze, breast, paws and tail tip, in spotted/spotted homozygotes. PMID:26623371

  15. Discourse as Social Interaction. Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dijk, Teun A., Ed.

    The collection of essays on discourse as a form of social interaction includes: "Discourse as Interaction in Society" (Teun A. van Dijk); "Discourse Pragmatics" (Shoshana Blum-Kulka); "Conversation Analysis: An Approach to the Study of Social Action as Sense Making Practices" (Anita Pomerantz, B. J. Fehr); "Institutional Dialogue" (Paul Drew,…

  16. Multifractal analysis for the historic set in topological dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoyao; Chen, Ercai

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the historic set is divided into different level sets and we use topological pressure to describe the size of these level sets. We give an application of these results to dimension theory. Our primary focus is using topological pressure to describe the relative multifractal spectrum of ergodic averages and to give a positive answer to the conjecture posed by Olsen (2003 J. Math. Pures Appl. 82 1591-649).

  17. The world as the new local clinic: a critical analysis of three discourses of global medical competency.

    PubMed

    Martimianakis, Maria Athina Tina; Hafferty, Frederic W

    2013-06-01

    The effects of globalization on health are the focus of administrators, educators, policy makers and researchers as they work to consider how best to train and regulate health professionals to practice in a globalized world. This study explores what happens to constructs such as medical competence when the context of medical practice is discursively expanded to include the whole world. An archive of texts was assembled (1970-2011) totaling 1100 items and analyzed using a governmentality approach. Texts were included that articulated rationales for pursuing global education activities, and/or that implicitly or explicitly took a position on medical competencies in relation to practicing medicine in international or culturally diverse contexts, or in dealing with health issues as global concerns. The analysis revealed three distinct visions, representative of a primarily western mentality, for preparing physicians to practice in a globalized world: the universal global physician, the culturally versed global physician and the global physician advocate. Each has its own epistemological relationship to globalization and is supported by an evidence base. All three discourses are active and productive, sometimes within the same context. However, the discourse of the universal global physician is currently the most established. The challenge to policy makers and educators in evolving regulatory frameworks and curricula that are current and relevant necessitates a better understanding of the socio-political effects of globalization on medical education, and the ethical, political, cultural and scientific issues underlying efforts to prepare students to practice competently in a globalized world.

  18. Public discourse on HIV/AIDS: an archival analysis of national newspaper reporting in Uganda, 1996–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lagone, Elizabeth; Mathur, Sanyukta; Nakyanjo, Neema; Nalugoda, Fred; Santelli, John

    2014-01-01

    Uganda is recognised as an early success story in the HIV epidemic at least in part due to an open and vigorous national dialogue about HIV prevention. This study examined the national discourse about HIV, AIDS, and young people in New Vision, Uganda's leading national newspaper between 1996 and 2011, building from a previous archival analysis of New Vision reporting by Kirby (1986-1995). We examined the continuing evolution in the public discourse in Uganda, focusing on reporting about young people. An increase in reporting on HIV and AIDS occurred after 2003, as antiretroviral treatment was becoming available. While the emphasis in newspaper reporting about adults and the population at large evolved to reflect the development of new HIV treatment and prevention methods, the majority of the articles focused on young people did not change. Articles about young people continued to emphasise HIV acquisition due to early and premarital sexual activity and the need for social support services for children affected by HIV and AIDS. Articles often did not report on the complex social conditions that shape HIV-related risk among young people, or address young people who are sexually active, married, and/or HIV infected. With HIV prevalence now increasing among young people and adults in Uganda, greater attention to HIV prevention is needed. PMID:25132802

  19. 'Binge drinking? It's good, it's harmless fun': a discourse analysis of accounts of female undergraduate drinking in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Guise, Jennifer M F; Gill, Jan S

    2007-12-01

    Binge drinking in young people, particularly females and students, is a source of some concern to those engaged in health education. The concept is usually defined in terms of quantities of alcohol consumed within a relatively short space of time. Research suggests that reasons for drinking are varied, and are likely to be influenced by culture and context. This study aimed to explore issues important to female undergraduate students in Scotland. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 19 participants who were asked to describe what they understand by the term 'binge drinking', why they drink and what might trigger excessive consumption. Discourse analysis was used to explore the possible 'functions' of what was said, as well as the content. Participants showed sensitivity to how others might interpret their responses. They described binge drinking in terms of its behavioural effects rather than quantities consumed. Crucially, they positioned themselves outside the categories of 'serious' or 'anti-social' drinkers. These findings have important implications for our understanding of factors influencing drinking behaviour in this group of people, which in turn impacts on the potential design of health-enhancing interventions. The study also demonstrates the usefulness of a discourse analytic approach to accounts of drinking behaviour.

  20. Explanation, motivation and question posing routines in university mathematics teachers' pedagogical discourse: a commognitive analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viirman, Olov

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates the teaching practices used by university mathematics teachers when lecturing, a topic within university mathematics education research which is gaining an increasing interest. In the study, a view of mathematics teaching as a discursive practice is taken, and Sfard's commognitive framework is used to investigate the teaching practices of seven Swedish university mathematics teachers on the topic of functions. The present paper looks at the discourse of mathematics teaching, presenting a categorization of the didactical routines into three categories - explanation, motivation and question posing routines. All of these are present in the discourses of all seven teachers, but within these general categories, a number of different sub-categories of routines are found, used in different ways and to different extent by the various teachers. The explanation routines include known mathematical facts, summary and repetition, different representations, everyday language, and concretization and metaphor; the motivation routines include reference to utility, the nature of mathematics, humour and result focus; and the question posing routines include control questions, asking for facts, enquiries and rhetorical questions. This categorization of question posing routines, for instance, complements those already found in the literature. In addition to providing a valuable insight into the teaching of functions at the university level, the categorizations presented in the study can also be useful for investigating the teaching of other mathematical topics.

  1. Politics and technology in health information systems development: a discourse analysis of conflicts addressed in a systems design group.

    PubMed

    Irestig, Magnus; Timpka, Toomas

    2008-02-01

    Different types of disagreements must be managed during the development of health information systems. This study examines the antagonisms discussed during the design of an information system for 175,000 users in a public health context. Discourse analysis methods were used for data collection and analysis. Three hundred and twenty-six conflict events were identified from four design meetings and divided into 16 categories. There were no differences regarding the types of conflicts that the different participants brought into the design discussions. Instead, conflict occurrence was primarily affected by the agendas that set the stage for examinations and debates. The results indicate that the selection of design method and the structure used for the meetings are important factors for the manner in which conflicts are brought into consideration during health information system design. Further studies comparing participatory and non-participatory information system design practices in health service settings are warranted.

  2. Between negative stigma (cultural deprivation) and positive stigma (learning disability): the historical development of two special education tracks.

    PubMed

    Katchergin, Ofer

    2012-12-01

    This article posits an updated, broader perspective on the concept of learning disabilities (LDs) than that accepted in the local Israeli literature, revealing how it is immersed in class, ethnicity, and culture. This is shown through historical description, accreditation, and contrasting of the two special education discourses: the "cultural deprivation" discourse and the "LDs" discourse. There are three sections. Part One presents the theoretical, conceptual, and methodological background of the sociological and discursive debate about LDs. The social-constructivist model used in an analysis of the two categories is proposed as an alternative to the clinical-medical model. The definitions of LDs and cultural deprivation accepted in the Israeli discourse are presented in Part Two. The metamorphoses in the discourse about the category of LDs are uncovered through reference to their conceptual and historical antecedents. This part discusses the various understandings and constructions of learning difficulties. Part Three examines the textual representation of parents of children with disabilities in both cases, exploring the meanings of guilt, responsibility, and agency in each discourse. The conclusion clarifies the social and political significance of the distinct textual and rhetorical representations. It becomes evident that the discourse on LDs and the discourse on cultural deprivation are two special education tracks directed at different target audiences: the culturally enriched audience, well-off and educated on the one hand, and the Mizrahi audience of limited means and education on the other hand.

  3. Professional caregivers' work with the dying in nursing homes--a Foucault-inspired analysis of discourses in the last decade in a Danish context.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Karen T; Glasdam, Stinne

    2013-12-01

    International studies on the death of elderly nursing home residents show the complexity in the understanding of the professionals who care for the dying. The aim of this study is to explore the discourses about professional caregivers caring for those dying in Denmark in the last decade. A discourse analysis inspired by Foucault was constructed. The material consists of different source documents: research articles, newspaper articles, theses, books, websites - 35 sources in total. There are constructed six positions of speech, five discourses and three themes: (1) 'the work of the professional caregivers - a complex low-status work'; (2) 'the education of the professionals - the way to ensure a good death or possessing the right qualifications' and (3) 'the vulnerable professionals'. The study concludes that an economical/political discourse is dominating and sets up the frames within which the professionals care for dying residents, although the medical, the social/critical and the religious discourses attempt to speak against it. All positions articulate that the professional caregivers' job has a low status and that it is not possible to provide an optimal care due to lack of time, resources and education. Psychical or mental demands make the professionals vulnerable. The meaning of optimal care varies according to the positions of speech.

  4. SI Engine Trends: A Historical Analysis with Future Projections

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowski, Alexander; Splitter, Derek A

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 80 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined unadjusted fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio and specific output have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number. However, over the last 15 years the sales weighted averages of compression ratios, specific output, and fuel economy have increased, while the fuel octane number requirement has remained largely unchanged. Using the developed correlations, 10-year-out projections of engine performance, design, and fuel economy are estimated for various fuel octane numbers, both with and without turbocharging. The 10-year-out projection shows that only by keeping power neutral while using 105 RON fuel will allow the vehicle fleet to meet CAFE targets if only the engine is relied upon to decrease fuel consumption. If 98 RON fuel is used, a power neutral fleet will have to reduce vehicle weight by 5%.

  5. Uncertainty Analysis of Historic Water Resources Availability in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, A.; Arsenault, K. R.; Narapusetty, B.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    Seeing how current agrometerological conditions measure up to historic events helps analysts and decision-makers judge the potential impact that anomalous rainfall and temperatures will have on the availability and accessibility of food and water resources. We present results from the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) Land Data Assimilation System (FLDAS), which is used to produce multi-model and rainfall ensembles of the water balance over semi-arid Africa from 1982-2014. The ensemble approach allows us to assess confidence in our estimates, which is critical given that food and water insecure regions in Africa are data-poor are characterized by complex interactions and feedbacks that cause deterministic hydrologic modeling approaches to fall short. We then use the ensemble of water balance estimates to calculate drought severity (derived from modeled soil moisture), and the Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (a function of atmospheric water demand). We compare these indices to the GIMMS 30-year vegetation data product from AVHRR, and the ESA ECV 30 year microwave soil moisture. These historical time series (with confidence bounds) allow us to improve our quantitative understanding of drought thresholds, to explore sources of parameter and model uncertainty, and to better contextualize current operational drought monitoring efforts in Africa.

  6. Analysis of Student-Instructor Interaction Patterns in Real-Time, Scientific Online Discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epp, Erik M.; Green, Kellie F.; Rahman, Aliya M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.

    2010-02-01

    The characteristics of the online environment alter how students and instructors interact. Scientific discourse among students and instructors in an online text-only synchronous environment was analyzed. In converting dialogue to text, many of the nonverbal cues, such as facial expression and tone of voice, which instructors use to gauge student understanding are lost. The participants adapt their communication style to the medium, and we present a new interaction pattern for student-instructor communication found prevalent in the synchronous, text-only, online environment. This study has implications for instructors who use synchronous, text-based communication for their courses, namely the value of posing additional questions from the instructor to verify student understanding.

  7. Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

  8. The Challenges of Contrastive Discourse Analysis: Reflecting on a Study into the Influence of English on Students' Written Spanish on a Bilingual Education Program in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell-Reid, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses challenges involved in contrastive discourse analysis that emerged while carrying out a follow-up study into a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) program in Spain. Reversing the focus on English of much contrastive rhetoric work, the study investigates the effect of second-language-English on…

  9. Preserving Respectability or Blatant Disrespect? A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Morehouse Appropriate Attire Policy and Implications for Intersectional Approaches to Examining Campus Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Lori D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I conduct a critical discourse analysis of the Morehouse College Appropriate Attire Policy and discuss how issues of race, gender, and sexuality converge to reveal both overt and hidden meanings embedded in the policy. I also consider how power is used towards "other" black college men who neither fit neatly into…

  10. The Normalization of School Fundraising in Ontario: An Argumentative Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Fundraising is common in Canada's public schools despite objections from some parents, educators, and other citizens who argue that the practice perpetuates inequities between schools and communities. In this article I first situate school fundraising in North America within its broader socio-historical contexts. I then describe Hajer's (1997)…

  11. The Neo-Liberal Turn in Understanding Teachers' and School Leaders' Work Practices in Curriculum Innovation and Change: A Critical Discourse Analysis of a Newly Proposed Reform Policy in Lower Secondary Education in the Republic of Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmie, Geraldine Mooney

    2014-01-01

    The study in this article involved a critical discourse analysis of five policy documents in relation to a curriculum reform proposed for lower secondary education in the Republic of Ireland. It examined the (re)positioning of governance in relation to curriculum and teacher education. Findings indicate a predominant clinical discourse closely…

  12. A Corpus-Based Analysis of Discourse Anaphora in English and Korean: A Neo-Gricean Pragmatic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sok-Hun

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores discourse anaphora in English and Korean by using a neo-Gricean pragmatic approach with corpus-based data. Very little study of Korean discourse anaphora has yet taken place at the inter-sentential level, except works looking at zero anaphor and a logophoric reflexive pronoun "caki" "self." This…

  13. Islam Hadhari: An Ideological Discourse Analysis of Selected Speeches by UMNO President and Malaysia Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahaya, Azlan R.

    2012-01-01

    This research study explored the problem the Malay identity and society in the discourse of Malay politics. The purpose of this study was to understand how the discourse of Islam "Hadhari" as spoken by prime minister and UMNO president Abdullah Ahmad Badawi in the years 2004-2008 demonstrated the hegemony of his administration and party.…

  14. Language and Discourse Analysis with Coh-Metrix: Applications from Educational Material to Learning Environments at Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowell, Nia M. M.; Graesser, Arthur\tC.; Cai, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this article is to preserve and distribute the information presented at the LASI (2014) workshop on Coh-Metrix, a theoretically grounded, computational linguistics facility that analyzes texts on multiple levels of language and discourse. The workshop focused on the utility of Coh-Metrix in discourse theory and educational practice. We…

  15. Role Models or Normalizing Agents? A Genealogical Analysis of Popular Written News Media Discourse regarding Male Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternod, Brandon M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author examines popular written news media discourse from the United States concerning the "boy crisis," the gender gap, and male teachers as role models employing genealogical methodologies and theoretical concepts suggested by Foucault (1984, 1990, 1995). It is argued that such discourses reveal how "common…

  16. Textual Silences and the (Re)Presentation of Black Undergraduate Women in Higher Education Journals: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Kimberly Deion

    2015-01-01

    Academic journals serve as a discipline's official discourse reflecting what has been deemed important in that discipline at a specific point in time. For the better part of 20 years, discourses in the field of student affairs have constructed Black men as a population in need of specific attention. The proliferation of scholarship on Black men…

  17. An Analysis of Discourse-Pragmatic and Grammatical Constraints on the Acquisition and Development of Referential Choice in Child English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how discourse-pragmatics informs children's choice of referential forms. Three studies utilizing naturalistic data examine the role that six discourse-pragmatic features play in the acquisition of referential forms in a non-null subject language, English. The influence of child-directed speech on development is also…

  18. Analyses des discours non strictement mathematiques accompagnant des cours de mathematiques (Analysis of Not Strictly Mathematical Discourse in Mathematics Classes).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Aline

    1995-01-01

    Examines discourse, not strictly mathematical, that teachers might adopt in a mathematics class and presents three major functions of such discourse: communication; structuring and labeling; and reflection. Develops lines for further inquiry, notably on the third function, the most likely focus for specific preparation by the teacher. (13…

  19. The Discourse of Parent Involvement in Special Education: A Critical Analysis Linking Policy Documents to the Experiences of Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Yuan; Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Parent involvement is acknowledged as a crucial aspect of the education of students with special needs. However, the discourse of parent involvement represents parent involvement in limited ways, thereby controlling how and the extent to which parents can be involved in the education of their children. In this article, critical discourse analysis…

  20. The Cultural Politics of National Testing and Test Result Release Policy in South Korea: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Youl-Kwan; Kang, Mi Ok

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ideological construction of educational discourses embedded within the South Korean print media. Significantly, these discourses have recently promoted the resurrection of a sweeping national testing and test results release policy. Through careful examination of the "test plus release" policy, the authors show…

  1. A Cultural Analysis of the Achievement Gap Discourse: Challenging the Language and Labels Used in the Work of School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Roderick L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I critique the labels and terms used to frame practices aimed at closing the achievement gap. I examine how an unacknowledged "achievement gap Discourse" has emerged from the language that informs practices and policies of contemporary school reform. I use Gee's uppercase "Discourse" and a cultural analytic…

  2. Historical Material Analysis of DC745U Pressure Pads

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse

    2012-07-30

    As part of the Enhance Surveillance mission, it is the goal to provide suitable lifetime assessment of stockpile materials. This report is an accumulation of historical publication on the DC745U material and their findings. It is the intention that the B61 LEP program uses this collection of data to further develop their understanding and potential areas of study. DC745U is a commercially available silicone elastomer consisting of dimethyl, methyl-phenyl, and methyl-vinyl siloxane repeat units. Originally, this material was manufactured by Dow Corning as Silastic{reg_sign} DC745U at their manufacturing facility in Kendallville, IN. Recently, Dow Corning shifted this material to the Xiameter{reg_sign} brand product line. Currently, DC745U is available through Xiameter{reg_sign} or Dow Corning's distributor R. D. Abbott Company. DC745U is cured using 0.5 wt% vinyl-specific peroxide curing agent known as Luperox 101 or Varox DBPH-50. This silicone elastomer is used in numerous parts, including two major components (outer pressure pads and aft cap support) in the W80 and as pressure pads on the B61. DC745U is a proprietary formulation, thus Dow Corning provides limited information on its composition and properties. Based on past experience with Dow Corning, DC745U is at risk of formulation changes without notification to the costumer. A formulation change for DC745U may have a significant impact because the network structure is a key variable in determining material properties. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of historical DC745U studies and identify gaps that need to be addressed in future work. Some of the previous studies include the following: 1. Spectroscopic characterization of raw gum stock. 2. Spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical studies on cured DC745U. 3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and solvent swelling studies on DC745U with different crosslink densities. 4. NMR, solvent swelling, thermal, and mechanical studies on thermally aged

  3. A Community-Based Treatment for Native American Historical Trauma: Prospects for Evidence-Based Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gone, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    Nineteen staff and clients in a Native American healing lodge were interviewed regarding the therapeutic approach used to address the legacy of Native American historical trauma. On the basis of thematic content analysis of interviews, 4 components of healing discourse emerged. First, clients were understood by their counselors to carry pain,…

  4. Data fusion of ultrasound and GPR signals for analysis of historic walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, A.; Gosalbez, J.; Safont, G.; Vergara, L.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an application of ultrasounds and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for analysis of historic walls. The objectives are to characterize the deformation of a historic wall under different levels of load weights and to obtain an enhanced image of the wall. A new method that fuses data from ultrasound and GPR traces is proposed which is based on order statistics digital filters. Application results are presented for non destructive testing (NDT) of two replicates of historic ashlars' masonry walls: the first one homogeneous and the second one containing controlled defects such as cracks and nooks. The walls are measured separately using ultrasounds and GPR at different load steps. Time and frequency parameters extracted from the signals and different B-Scans for each of the NDT techniques are obtained. After this, a new fused representation is obtained, which results demonstrate the improvement of characterization and defect detection in historic walls using data fusion.

  5. Spatially resolved element analysis of historical violin varnishes by use of muPIXE.

    PubMed

    von Bohlen, Alex; Röhrs, Stefan; Salomon, Joseph

    2007-02-01

    External muPIXE has been used for characterisation of small samples of varnish from historical violins, and pieces of varnished wood from historical and modern stringed instruments. To obtain spatially resolved information about the distribution of elements across the varnish layers single-spot analysis, line-scans, and area-mapping were performed. Local resolution of approximately 20 mum was obtained from the 3 MeV, 1 nA proton micro-probe. Results from simultaneous multi-element determination of Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Cd, Sn, Ba, and Pb in historical varnishes are presented. Semi-quantitative evaluation of line-scans recorded on diverse historical varnishes is reported. The applied method is discussed in detail and the results obtained are critically reviewed and compared with those in the literature.

  6. Pap smear brochures, misogyny and language: a discourse analysis and feminist critique.

    PubMed

    Lane, V; Lawler, J

    1997-12-01

    Text from a public health brochure on pap smears was analysed with particular reference to ways in which the language used conveys particular messages about women and their bodies. In the text, 'humans' were found to be excluded as such. Both the pap smear service provider and the women who are the recipients of this service--and at whom such brochures are targeted--are objectified and their characteristics of human existence (i.e. ontological capacities) were restricted. The language of the pamphlet invokes an image for women associated with vaginal (penile penetrative) sex. The discourse also is found to be didactic, biomedical and written in the voice of the service provider. Further, the encounter of pap smear events is contextualized as procedural such that not only is the woman 'done to' in the process of having a cervical smear test but the woman's and provider's experiences of the encounter are silenced. It is concluded that the texts may be viewed as misogynist and that such texts do not take account of the complexity of women's decisions to 'submit to' or comply with cervical cancer screening.

  7. A causal analysis relating previous achievement, attitudes, discourse, and intervention to achievement in biology and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, C. Thomas; Swift, J. Nathan; Schell, Robert E.; Swift, Patricia R.; McCroskery, James H.

    This study described the relationship of 38 variates to achievement in high school biology and chemistry classes. Forty-four teachers prepared audio tape recordings of discussions throughout a nine-month period. Equal-sized groups received treatment consisting of wait time feedback and/or supportive intervention, a form of peer coaching. Other variables were initial measures, which included the variates of class size and previous science grade, pre- and posttest scores on student attitudes and perceptions, and prediscourse and discourse analyses, which included the variates of wait times, actions, and response durations. While previous research has shown that wait time feedback and supportive intervention are effective means of changing teacher behavior, the results of the present study revealed that previous student achievement and the attitudes of students accounted for 70% of the variation in the final examination scores (New York State Regents) on the basis of only the first three weeks of data collection on the variables assessed. Generally, little emphasis on higher-level thinking, wait time, or problem solving was found at the beginning of the school year, and only minimal changes resulted from the application of the treatment variables. Pressures for content coverage and preparation for externally imposed statewide examinations that emphasize memory-level learning augured against the changes that the independent variables were designed to produce.

  8. From Citizenship of God's Kingdom to Liberal Individualism? A Critical Historical Analysis of Finnish Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulter, Saila

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the history of Finnish religious education (RE) from the perspective of civic education. The research is based on a historical and content analysis of the data, which consist of written pedagogical and curricular material on Lutheran RE from the last 150 years. The analysis, which employs the Foucauldian concept…

  9. A Theory of Direct Discourse: Its Semantics and Pragmatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsusaka, Youichi

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation presents a new account of how direct discourse works in natural language. After presenting preliminary discussions of the views of quotation given by Tarski, Quine, and Davidson in Chapter 1, Chapter 2 is devoted to historical investigations into Frege's theory of quotation and direct discourse. Although Frege's theory is often…

  10. Practical discourse in nursing: going beyond empiricism and historicism.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J L

    1985-07-01

    This discussion presents a critical appraisal of recent works in Advances in Nursing Science that have dealt with metatheoretical concerns. In metatheoretical analysis, such as that presented by Silva and Rothbart, nurses are beginning to focus on the traditions that have guided research. This process should be extended by reviewing historical stages of development in empiricist and postempiricist philosophy. Recent work in postempiricist philosophy is especially important since it can help nursing transcend historicist insights. Continental philosophy goes beyond historicist critique by focusing on practical discourse within a community of investigators. This is a stage of development that can be rationally decisive for the scientific development of nursing.

  11. [Industrial first aid equipment: a historical analysis (1840-1914) ].

    PubMed

    Porro, Alessandro; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Falconi, Bruno

    2015-01-09

    Even if references to the tools required to intervene after an accident can be found in the works of Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) or Johann Peter Frank (1745-1821), it was only with the development of industrial manufacturing that the need to study means to prevent and intervene in cases of accident became evident. In October 1894 the III Congrés International des Accidents du Travail et des Assurances Sociales was held in Milan. The following year, the Milanese trade union movement acknowledged the necessity to address the problem of industrial accidents. In 1896 the Association for Medical Assistance in  Industrial Accidents was founded in Milan. A specific medical institute was set up, appropriate first aid tools were collected and first aid rooms in the main Milanese factories were inaugurated. Nevertheless, few data seem to be available regarding the manufacture and use of this equipment in industry. We analyzed more than fifty catalogs of European industrial products, between 1843 and 1914, to study the evolution of first aid equipment for industrial use. They reflect and attest to the evolution of medicine and surgery, although some models seem to be related to certain industrial categories (railways, electrical appliances), some were similar to ordinary first aid boxes, others were strictly related to surgery; some could only be used by physicians, and others only by workers. Identification, conservation, and reappraisal of these tools is essential for historians of occupational health because these objects were normally not preserved. The catalogues of industrial production are also precious sources, since they are rarely preserved in public libraries and deserve to be used for historical studies.

  12. Tractographic Analysis of Historical Lesion Surgery for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Schoene-Bake, Jan-Christoph; Parpaley, Yaroslav; Weber, Bernd; Panksepp, Jaak; Hurwitz, Trevor A; Coenen, Volker A

    2010-01-01

    Various surgical brain ablation procedures for the treatment of refractory depression were developed in the twentieth century. Most notably, key target sites were (i) the anterior cingulum, (ii) the anterior limb of the internal capsule, and (iii) the subcaudate white matter, which were regarded as effective targets. Long-term symptom remissions were better following lesions of the anterior internal capsule and subcaudate white matter than of the cingulum. It is possible that the observed clinical improvements of these various surgical procedures may reflect shared influences on presently unspecified brain affect-regulating networks. Such possibilities can now be analyzed using modern brain connectivity procedures such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography. We determined whether the shared connectivities of the above lesion sites in healthy volunteers might explain the therapeutic effects of the various surgical approaches. Accordingly, modestly sized historical lesions, especially of the anatomical overlap areas, were ‘implanted' in brain-MRI scans of 53 healthy subjects. These were entered as seed regions for probabilistic DTI connectivity reconstructions. We analyzed for the shared connectivities of bilateral anterior capsulotomy, anterior cingulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy, and stereotactic limbic leucotomy (a combination of the last two lesion sites). Shared connectivities between the four surgical approaches mapped onto the most mediobasal aspects of bilateral frontal lobe fibers, including the forceps minor and the anterior thalamic radiations that contacted subgenual cingulate regions. Anatomically, convergence of these shared connectivities may derive from the superolateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB), a structure that connects these frontal areas to the origin of the mesolimbic dopaminergic ‘reward' system in the midbrain ventral tegmental area. Thus, all four surgical anti-depressant approaches may be promoting positive

  13. Changing gender relations in Thailand: a historical and cultural analysis.

    PubMed

    Tantiwiramanond, D

    1997-01-01

    In response to the stereotyping of Thai women in the media as either modern businesswomen or victims of male oppression, this article studies the changing gender roles and status of women in Thailand to identify the various roles played by Thai women and the ways these roles are linked to key cultural, economic, and political mechanisms in Thai society. After an introduction, the first section of the paper analyzes pre-modern Thai history from the mid-13th century with a look at the traditional social, political, and economic structure of feudal society to determine how women's status was affected by Thai Buddhism, absolute monarchy (the affect of the legal system on upper-class women), and matrifocal kinship (the effect of subsistence agriculture on lower-class women). This section also compares the historic status of upper- and lower-class Thai women. The second section of the article considers the effects of 1) the encroachment of Western colonialism in Southeast Asia during the period 1850-1925 and attendant criticisms of polygamy, 2) the post-1932 revolution that resulted in a constitutional monarchy, and 3) the post 1950s period of economic nationalism that has resulted in globalization. The article concludes that lower-class women have certain rights under the feudal system (before 1932) but were forced into certain roles by economic necessity and motherhood. Upper-class women enjoyed high status, but all women were victims of the Buddhist patriarchy and hierarchical systems. Western modernization caused a decline in polygamy and new opportunities for educated women but the status of Thai women has not changed substantially, and class-specific forms of female oppression continues unabated making lower-class women vulnerable to sexual exploitation.

  14. Provider ambivalence about using forensic medical evaluation to respond to child abuse: A content and discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Morris, Marian; Rivaux, Stephanie; Faulkner, Monica

    2017-03-01

    Forensic medical evaluation rates for child abuse victims in Texas are low relative to national rates. In exploring reasons, researchers collected quantitative and qualitative interview and focus group data from multidisciplinary child abuse response team members across the state. This paper presents results of a secondary analysis of (N=19) health care providers' interview and focus group transcripts, looking specifically at experiences with conducting forensic evaluations - thoughts, struggles, and ethical issues. The analysis was conducted from a critical realist perspective using content and discourse analysis. A theme of ambivalence was identified and explored. Three discursive themes were identified: ambivalence about the legal role, the health care role, and about unintended outcomes of evaluations. Extra-discursive elements related to the physical body, resource distribution, and funding policy were examined for their interaction with discursive patterns. Implications of findings include addressing issues in the current approach to responding to child abuse (e.g., uniting around common definitions of abuse; refining parameters for when FME is helpful; shoring up material resources for the abuse response infrastructure) and considering modification of providers' roles and activities relative to forensic work (e.g., deploying providers for prevention activities versus reactive activities).

  15. How do 'Public' Values Influence Individual Health Behaviour? An Empirical-Normative Analysis of Young Men's Discourse Regarding HIV Testing Practices.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rod; Small, Will; Shoveller, Jean

    2016-11-01

    Philosophical arguments stemming from the public health ethics arena suggest that public health interventions ought to be subject to normative inquiry that considers relational values, including concepts such as solidarity, reciprocity and health equity. As yet, however, the extent to which 'public' values influence the 'autonomous' decisions of the public remains largely unexplored. Drawing on interviews with 50 men in Vancouver, Canada, this study employs a critical discourse analysis to examine participants' decisions and motivations to voluntarily access HIV testing and/or to accept a routine HIV test offer. Within a sub-set of interviews, a transactional discourse emerged in which the decision to test features an arrangement of 'giving and receiving'. Discourses related to notions of solidarity emphasize considerations of justice and positions testing as a 'public' act. Lastly, 'individualistic' discourses focused on individual-level considerations, with less concern for the broader public 'good'. These findings underscore how normative dimensions pertaining to men's decisions to test are dialectically interrelated with the broader social and structural influences on individual and collective health-related behaviour, thereby suggesting a need to advance an explicit empirical-normative research agenda related to population and public health intervention research.

  16. Pedagogic discourse in introductory classes: Multi-dimensional analysis of textbooks and lectures in biology and macroeconomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carkin, Susan

    The broad goal of this study is to represent the linguistic variation of textbooks and lectures, the primary input for student learning---and sometimes the sole input in the large introductory classes which characterize General Education at many state universities. Computer techniques are used to analyze a corpus of textbooks and lectures from first-year university classes in macroeconomics and biology. These spoken and written variants are compared to each other as well as to benchmark texts from other multi-dimensional studies in order to examine their patterns, relations, and functions. A corpus consisting of 147,000 words was created from macroeconomics and biology lectures at a medium-large state university and from a set of nationally "best-selling" textbooks used in these same introductory survey courses. The corpus was analyzed using multi-dimensional methodology (Biber, 1988). The analysis consists of both empirical and qualitative phases. Quantitative analyses are undertaken on the linguistic features, their patterns of co-occurrence, and on the contextual elements of classrooms and textbooks. The contextual analysis is used to functionally interpret the statistical patterns of co-occurrence along five dimensions of textual variation, demonstrating patterns of difference and similarity with reference to text excerpts. Results of the analysis suggest that academic discourse is far from monolithic. Pedagogic discourse in introductory classes varies by modality and discipline, but not always in the directions expected. In the present study the most abstract texts were biology lectures---more abstract than written genres of academic prose and more abstract than introductory textbooks. Academic lectures in both disciplines, monologues which carry a heavy informational load, were extremely interactive, more like conversation than academic prose. A third finding suggests that introductory survey textbooks differ from those used in upper division classes by being

  17. Getting behind Discourses of Love, Care and Maternalism in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanian, Teresa K.

    2015-01-01

    Discourses of love, care and maternalism affect the everyday lives of children enrolled in early childhood education. These discourses bear witness to the ontological transformation that has occurred since the Romantic era that birthed the kindergarten movement to today. Reflecting on historical discourses of love, care and maternalism from the…

  18. Cohesion in Everyday Discourse: The Role of Paraphrase. Sociolinguistic Working Paper Number 97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    Analysis of the role of paraphrase in the cohesion of everyday oral discourse suggests that combining two methodological approaches to discourse analysis, using distribution of specific discourse elements and sequential relationships within discourse, creates a more empirical foundation for analysis, leading to a more accurate formulation of the…

  19. A Historical Analysis of the Biennial Budget Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    at the results of reports and studies of the PPB system prepared by sapients in the field of defense analysis. I0M IlL=ý o = -- CHAPIER IWU...and strategy Issties . It seems theŽ members of the congressional Military Reform Caucus would formn an excellent core of attuned, sapient politicians

  20. Historical remarks on exponential product and quantum analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Masuo

    2015-03-10

    The exponential product formula [1, 2] was substantially introduced in physics by the present author [2]. Its systematic applications to quantum Monte Carlo Methods [3] were preformed [4, 5] first in 1977. Many interesting applications [6] of the quantum-classical correspondence (namely S-T transformation) have been reported. Systematic higher-order decomposition formulae were also discovered by the present author [7-11], using the recursion scheme [7, 9]. Physically speaking, these exponential product formulae play a conceptual role of separation of procedures [3,14]. Mathematical aspects of these formulae have been integrated in quantum analysis [15], in which non-commutative differential calculus is formulated and a general quantum Taylor expansion formula is given. This yields many useful operator expansion formulae such as the Feynman expansion formula and the resolvent expansion. Irreversibility and entropy production are also studied using quantum analysis [15].

  1. Historical analysis of US pipeline accidents triggered by natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, or lightning, can initiate accidents in oil and gas pipelines with potentially major consequences on the population or the environment due to toxic releases, fires and explosions. Accidents of this type are also referred to as Natech events. Many major accidents highlight the risk associated with natural-hazard impact on pipelines transporting dangerous substances. For instance, in the USA in 1994, flooding of the San Jacinto River caused the rupture of 8 and the undermining of 29 pipelines by the floodwaters. About 5.5 million litres of petroleum and related products were spilled into the river and ignited. As a results, 547 people were injured and significant environmental damage occurred. Post-incident analysis is a valuable tool for better understanding the causes, dynamics and impacts of pipeline Natech accidents in support of future accident prevention and mitigation. Therefore, data on onshore hazardous-liquid pipeline accidents collected by the US Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) was analysed. For this purpose, a database-driven incident data analysis system was developed to aid the rapid review and categorization of PHMSA incident reports. Using an automated data-mining process followed by a peer review of the incident records and supported by natural hazard databases and external information sources, the pipeline Natechs were identified. As a by-product of the data-collection process, the database now includes over 800,000 incidents from all causes in industrial and transportation activities, which are automatically classified in the same way as the PHMSA record. This presentation describes the data collection and reviewing steps conducted during the study, provides information on the developed database and data analysis tools, and reports the findings of a statistical analysis of the identified hazardous liquid pipeline incidents in terms of accident dynamics and

  2. Improved Processing, Analysis and Use of Historical Photography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    11 Figure 4. New Mexico and Texas study site locations ......................................................... 15 Figure 5...Mexico and two sites were located in Texas . The sites provided a wide range of sizes, spanning from 1 to 774 square miles. A comparative analysis of...demonstration. Six of the sites were located in New Mexico, and two were in Texas . Figure 4 presents a map of the study site locations. These sites

  3. Reconstruals of the Past: Settlement or Invasion? The Role of JUDGEMENT Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Caroline

    While little attention has been given in historiography to the language of historical narrative, and the role language plays in portraying history, the discipline of linguistics, and particularly the subdisciplines of discourse analysis and functional linguistics, have given increasing attention to the discourse of history. Recently, a group of…

  4. The Historical and Situated Nature Design Experiments--Implications for Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krange, I.; Ludvigsen, Sten

    2009-01-01

    This article is a methodological contribution to the use of design experiments in educational research. We will discuss the implications of a historical and situated interpretation to design experiments, the consequences this has for the analysis of the collected data and empirically based suggestions to improve the designs of the computer-based…

  5. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Domain Analysis: Metatheoretical Implications for Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…

  6. A network-base analysis of CMIP5 "historical" experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, A.; Foudalis, I.; Dovrolis, C.

    2012-12-01

    In computer science, "complex network analysis" refers to a set of metrics, modeling tools and algorithms commonly used in the study of complex nonlinear dynamical systems. Its main premise is that the underlying topology or network structure of a system has a strong impact on its dynamics and evolution. By allowing to investigate local and non-local statistical interaction, network analysis provides a powerful, but only marginally explored, framework to validate climate models and investigate teleconnections, assessing their strength, range, and impacts on the climate system. In this work we propose a new, fast, robust and scalable methodology to examine, quantify, and visualize climate sensitivity, while constraining general circulation models (GCMs) outputs with observations. The goal of our novel approach is to uncover relations in the climate system that are not (or not fully) captured by more traditional methodologies used in climate science and often adopted from nonlinear dynamical systems analysis, and to explain known climate phenomena in terms of the network structure or its metrics. Our methodology is based on a solid theoretical framework and employs mathematical and statistical tools, exploited only tentatively in climate research so far. Suitably adapted to the climate problem, these tools can assist in visualizing the trade-offs in representing global links and teleconnections among different data sets. Here we present the methodology, and compare network properties for different reanalysis data sets and a suite of CMIP5 coupled GCM outputs. With an extensive model intercomparison in terms of the climate network that each model leads to, we quantify how each model reproduces major teleconnections, rank model performances, and identify common or specific errors in comparing model outputs and observations.

  7. Technology's Role in Shaping Literacy Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Deborah Stephens

    2009-01-01

    Philosophical examinations untie question "What is literacy?" lie at the center of many, if not most, educational debates. Current Discourse surrounding literacy practices is a result of the history and theories surrounding reading instruction. This philosophical inquiry examines, through the careful examination of historical events and theories…

  8. Particles as Fundaments of Discourse Structuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Vest, M. M. Jocelyne

    A serious study of discourse particles (DIPs) must be founded on the analysis of orality in its two main dimensions: oral communication in its ordinary functioning (i.e., discourse, conversation, enunciation), but also in expression ritualized by the oral tradition of cultures that do not have a writing system. The association of the two…

  9. Monitoring of historical frescoes by timed infrared imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadelano, G.; Bison, P.; Bortolin, A.; Ferrarini, G.; Peron, F.; Girotto, M.; Volinia, M.

    2015-03-01

    The subflorescence and efflorescence phenomena are widely acknowledged as the major causes of permanent damage to fresco wall paintings. They are related to the occurrence of cycles of dry/wet conditions inside the walls. Therefore, it is essential to identify the presence of water on the decorated surfaces and inside the walls. Nondestructive testing in industrial applications have confirmed that active infrared thermography with continuous timed images acquisition can improve the outcomes of thermal analysis aimed to moisture identification. In spite of that, in cultural heritage investigations these techniques have not been yet used extensively on a regular basis. This paper illustrates an application of these principles in order to evaluate the decay of fresco mural paintings in a medieval chapel located in North-West of Italy. One important feature of this study is the use of a robotic system called aIRview that can be utilized to automatically acquire and process thermal images. Multiple accurate thermal views of the inside walls of the building have been produced in a survey that lasted several days. Signal processing algorithms based on Fast Fourier Transform analysis have been applied to the acquired data in order to formulate trustworthy hypotheses about the deterioration mechanisms.

  10. Persuasive Discourse Impairments in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ghayoumi, Zahra; Yadegari, Fariba; Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari, Behrooz; Fakharian, Esmaeil; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Rasouli, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considering the cognitive and linguistic complexity of discourse production, it is expected that individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) should face difficulties in this task. Therefore, clinical examination of discourse has become a useful tool for studying and assessment of communication skills of people suffering from TBI. Among different genres of discourse, persuasive discourse is considered as a more cognitively demanding task. However, little is known about persuasive discourse in individuals suffering from TBI. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of adults with TBI on a task of spoken persuasive discourse to determine the impaired linguistic measures. Patients and Methods: Thirteen TBI nonaphasic Persian speaking individuals, ranged between 19 to 40 years (Mean = 25.64 years; SD = 6.10) and 59 healthy adults matched by age, were asked to perform the persuasive discourse task. The task included asking the participants to express their opinion on a topic, and after the analysis of the produced discourse, the two groups were compared on the basis of their language productivity, sentential complexity, maze ratio and cohesion ratio. Results: The TBI group produced discourses with less productivity, sentential complexity, cohesion ratio and more maze ratio compared the control group. Conclusions: As it is important to consider acquired communication disorders particularly discourse impairment of brain injured patients along with their other clinical impairments and regarding the fact that persuasive discourse is crucial in academic and social situations, the persuasive discourse task presented in this study could be a useful tool for speech therapists, intending to evaluate communication disorders in patients with TBI. PMID:25798418

  11. Research into Practice: The Influence of Discourse Studies on Language Descriptions and Task Design in Published ELT Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Discourse studies is a vast, multidisciplinary, and rapidly expanding area of research, embracing a range of approaches including discourse analysis, corpus analysis, conversation analysis, interactional sociolinguistics, critical discourse analysis, genre analysis and multimodal discourse analysis. Each approach offers its own unique perspective…

  12. Analyzing Public Discourse: Using Media Content Analysis to Understand the Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraisky, Nancy Green

    2016-01-01

    One of the most basic and obvious sources of data for education policy analysis is text. This article discusses content analysis as an important part of the methodological toolbox for elucidating patterns and trends about education policy. Focusing specifically on media, I show how media content analysis can produce nuanced insights about the ways…

  13. Predominant discourses in Swedish nursing.

    PubMed

    Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Pilhammar-Anderson, Ewa

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the predominant discourse in the field of Swedish nursing in 2000, 25 years after nursing was introduced as an academic discipline in Sweden. The method used was content analysis and deconstructive analysis of discourses. Laws, statutes, regulations, and examination requirements, including official reports, recruitment campaigns, and media coverage, were analyzed. The findings uncovered competing discourses striving to gain hegemony. In the public sector, official requirements competed against the media fixation on gender stereotypes and the realities of local recruitment campaigns. Media has a major role in disseminating prevailing conceptions and conventions pertaining to the nursing profession. As a result, decision makers, students, patients, and family members could get lower expectations of the professional competence of nursing practitioners than would otherwise have been the case in the absence of media exposure.

  14. Livelihood security, vulnerability and resilience: a historical analysis of Chibuene, southern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Ekblom, Anneli

    2012-07-01

    A sustainable livelihood framework is used to analyse livelihood security, vulnerability and resilience in the village of Chibuene, Vilanculos, southern Mozambique from a historical and contemporary perspective. Interviews, assessments, archaeology, palaeoecology and written sources are used to address tangible and intangible aspects of livelihood security. The analysis shows that livelihood strategies for building resilience, diversification of resource use, social networks and trade, have long historical continuities. Vulnerability is contingent on historical processes as long-term socio-environmental insecurity and resultant biodiversity loss. These contingencies affect the social capacity to cope with vulnerability in the present. The study concludes that contingency and the extent and strength of social networks should be added as a factor in livelihood assessments. Furthermore, policies for mitigating vulnerability must build on the reality of environmental insecurity, and strengthen local structures that diversify and spread risk.

  15. Photogrammetric Analysis of Historical Image Repositories for Virtual Reconstruction in the Field of Digital Humanities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiwald, F.; Vietze, T.; Schneider, D.; Henze, F.; Münster, S.; Niebling, F.

    2017-02-01

    Historical photographs contain high density of information and are of great importance as sources in humanities research. In addition to the semantic indexing of historical images based on metadata, it is also possible to reconstruct geometric information about the depicted objects or the camera position at the time of the recording by employing photogrammetric methods. The approach presented here is intended to investigate (semi-) automated photogrammetric reconstruction methods for heterogeneous collections of historical (city) photographs and photographic documentation for the use in the humanities, urban research and history sciences. From a photogrammetric point of view, these images are mostly digitized photographs. For a photogrammetric evaluation, therefore, the characteristics of scanned analog images with mostly unknown camera geometry, missing or minimal object information and low radiometric and geometric resolution have to be considered. In addition, these photographs have not been created specifically for documentation purposes and so the focus of these images is often not on the object to be evaluated. The image repositories must therefore be subjected to a preprocessing analysis of their photogrammetric usability. Investigations are carried out on the basis of a repository containing historical images of the Kronentor ("crown gate") of the Dresden Zwinger. The initial step was to assess the quality and condition of available images determining their appropriateness for generating three-dimensional point clouds from historical photos using a structure-from-motion evaluation (SfM). Then, the generated point clouds were assessed by comparing them with current measurement data of the same object.

  16. Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William; Santi, Peter; Swinhoe, Martyn; Bonner, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

  17. Genetic therapy in gliomas: historical analysis and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Tobias Alécio; Ramina, Ricardo; Miura, Flavio Key; Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Valiengo, Leandro da Costa

    2005-03-01

    High-grade gliomas are relatively frequent in adults, and consist of the most malignant kind of primary brain tumor. Being resistant to standard treatment modalities such as surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, it is fatal within 1 to 2 years of onset of symptoms. Although several gene therapy systems proved to be efficient in controlling or eradicating these tumors in animal models, the clinical studies performed so far were not equally successful. Most clinical studies showed that methodologies that increase tumor infection/transduction and, consequently confer more permanent activity against the tumor, will lead to enhanced therapeutic results. Due to the promising practical clinical benefits that can be expected for the near future, an exposition to the practicing neurosurgeon about the basic issues in genetic therapy of gliomas seems convenient. Among the main topics, we shall discuss anti-tumoral mechanisms of various genes that can be transfected, the advantages and drawbacks of the different vectors utilized, the possibilities of tumor targeting by modifications in the native tropism of virus vectors, as well as the different physical methods for vector delivery to the tumors. Along with the exposition we will also review of the history of the genetic therapy for gliomas, with special focus on the main problems found during the advancement of scientific discoveries in this area. A general analysis is also made of the present state of this promising therapeutic modality, with reference to the problems that still must be solved and the new paradigms for future research in this area.

  18. Spatial Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis of the Historical Extreme Streamflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, M. R.; Moradkhani, H.

    2012-04-01

    Analysis of the climate change impact on extreme hydro-climatic events is crucial for future hydrologic/hydraulic designs and water resources decision making. The purpose of this study is to investigate the changes of the extreme value distribution parameters with respect to time to reflect upon the impact of climate change. We develop a statistical model using the observed streamflow data of the Columbia River Basin in USA to estimate the changes of high flows as a function of time as well as other variables. Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) is used to model the upper 95% flows during December through March for 31 gauge stations. In the process layer of the model the covariates including time, latitude, longitude, elevation and basin area are considered to assess the sensitivity of the model to each variable. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is used to estimate the parameters. The Spatial Hierarchical Bayesian technique models the GPD parameters spatially and borrows strength from other locations by pooling data together, while providing an explicit estimation of the uncertainties in all stages of modeling.

  19. Networks, narratives and territory in anthropological race classification: towards a more comprehensive historical geography of Europe's culture.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to integrate discourse analysis of politically instrumental imagined identity geographies with the relational and territorial geography of the communities of praxis and interpretation that produce them. My case study is the international community of nationalist scientists who classified Europe's biological races in the 1820s-1940s. I draw on network analysis, relational geography, historical sociology and the historical turn to problematize empirically how spatial patterns of this community's shifting disciplinary and political coalitions, communication networks and power relations emerged, were structured, persisted, changed, interacted and disappeared. I focus especially on core-periphery relations. I argue that if local historical spatial patterns affect those of later phenomena, geographies like that of European integration should be understood in the context of Europe's complex historical cultural geography. Unlike discourse deconstruction alone, this complementary relational de-essentialization of geography can identify large-scale, enduring associations of cultural patterns as well as cultural flux and ambiguity.

  20. Clinicians as Communication Partners: Developing a Mediated Discourse Elicitation Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hengst, Julie A.; Duff, Melissa C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development and piloting of a mediated discourse elicitation protocol. Grounded in situated theories of communication and informed by mediated discourse analysis, this protocol selectively samples familiar discourse types in a manner designed to preserve interactional aspects of communication. Critically, the mediated…

  1. Discourse Connectives in L1 and L2 Argumentative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chunyu; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Discourse connectives (DCs) are multi-functional devices used to connect discourse segments and fulfill interpersonal levels of discourse. This study investigates the use of selected 80 DCs within 11 categories in the argumentative essays produced by L1 and L2 university students. The analysis is based on the International Corpus Network of Asian…

  2. Conversation Analysis--A Discourse Approach to Teaching Oral English Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores a pedagocial approach to teaching oral English---Conversation Analysis. First, features of spoken language is described in comparison to written language. Second, Conversation Analysis theory is elaborated in terms of adjacency pairs, turn-taking, repairs, sequences, openings and closings, and feedback. Third, under the…

  3. Discourses of Power: Feminine Centers of Electronic Discourse Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Hallie S.

    Analysis of the difference between male-centered and female-centered electronic discourse communities identifies patterns which may exclude or privilege individual females. This paper characterizes female-centered electronic dialogue through studying the roles of Sarah and Rachel, women in two separate sections of first-year English who became the…

  4. An Integrated 3S and Historical Materials Analysis of the Keriya Paleoriver, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Lei; Wang, Xinyuan; Cai, Heng

    2014-03-01

    Combining analysis of 3S (RS, GIS and GPS) and historical materials (historical records, ancient map and academic and literary writings) allows mapping of the Keriya Paleoriver of Southern Xinjiang, NW China. Keriya Paleoriver, one of the ancient Four Green Corridors which passes through the Taklimakan Desert from south to north in the Tarim Basin, recorded changes of the climate-environment in the ancient Silk Road of the region. According to the archaeological data, historical materials and paleoclimates information, its eco-environment and climate have had great changes since the 1.09Ma B.P., especially during the last 2,000 years, which has led to many famous ancient cities to be abandoned and the route of the ancient Silk Road to be moved southward. Using RS (optical and radar imagery), GIS (mapping and spatial analysis) and GPS (study area investigation), we mapped a major paleodrainage system of Keriya River, which have linked the Kunlun Mountains to the Tienshan Mountains through the Taklimakan Desert, possibly as far back as the early Pleistocene. This study illustrates the capability of the 3S and historical materials, in mapping the Keriya Paleoriver drainage networks and archaeological study on the ancient Silk Road.

  5. A Historical Analysis of Desegregation and Racism in a Racially Polarized Region: Implications for the Historical Construct, a Diversity Problem, and Transforming Teacher Education toward Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, K. Dara

    2009-01-01

    This study chronicles the historical divisions of race and class between Detroit and its suburban neighbor as an explanation for current tensions in the communities and schools. This analysis poses implications for educational apartheid and stark disparities between urban and suburban boundaries and consequent discomfort among practitioners when…

  6. HPLC-APCI-MS analysis of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in historical pharmaceutical ointments from the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Saliu, Francesco; Modugno, Francesca; Orlandi, Marco; Colombini, Maria Perla

    2011-10-01

    The lipid fractions of residues from historical pharmaceutical ointments were analysed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and mass spectrometer detection. The residues were contained in a series of historical apothecary jars, dating from the eighteenth century and conserved at the "Aboca Museum" in Sansepolcro (Arezzo, Italy) and at the pharmacy of the "Real Cartuja de Valldemossa" in Palma de Majorca (Spain). The analytical protocol was set up using a comparative study based on the evaluation of triacylglycerol (TAG) compositions in raw natural lipid materials and in laboratory-reproduced ointments. These ointments were prepared following pharmaceutical recipes reported in historical treatises and used as reference materials. The reference materials were also subjected to stress treatments in order to evaluate the modification occurring in the TAG profiles as an effect of ageing. TAGs were successfully detected in the reproduced formulations even in mixtures of up to ten ingredients and after harsh degradative treatments, and also in real historical samples. No particular interferences were detected from other non-lipid ingredients of the formulations. The TAG compositions detected in the historical ointments indicated a predominant use of olive oil and pig adipose material as lipid ingredients. The detection of a high level of tristearine and myristyl-palmitoyl-stearyl glycerol in two of the samples suggested the presence of a fatty material of a different origin (maybe a ruminant). On the basis of the positional isomer ratio, sn-PPO/sn-POP, it was possible to hypothesize an exclusive use of pig fat in one sample. We also evaluated the application of principal component analysis of TAG profiles as an approach for the multivariate statistical comparison of the reference and historical ointments.

  7. Taking Care, Bringing Life: A Post-structuralist Feminist Analysis of Maternal Discourses of Mothers and Dais in India.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Vinita

    2017-02-03

    My post-structuralist feminist reading of the antenatal and birthing practices of women (N = 25) living in a basti in India makes visible how the meanings of maternal experiences constituted as our ways open discursive spaces for the mothers and dais as procreators to: challenge (i.e., question the authority of), co-opt (i.e., conditionally adopt), and judge (i.e., employ sanctioned criteria to regulate) competing knowledge production forms. In critiquing maternal knowledge as feminist discourse, the women's strategies contribute theoretically to an integrative construction of care by reclaiming displaced knowledge discourses and diversity in meaning production. Pragmatically, consciousness-raising collectives comprising the mothers and dais can cocreate narratives of our ways of maternal experiences articulated in public discourse to sustain equitability of knowledge traditions in migrant urban Third World contexts.

  8. The Representation of Women in Street Songs: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Egyptian Mahraganat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Falaky, Mai Samir

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the representation of male and female gender identities in Egyptian street songs called "Mahraganat." The study discusses the issue with reference to two common songs spreading among young commoners. Since the songs are written by writers who descend from low-standard social group, the analysis exhibits both…

  9. Linguistic Reflections of Social Engagement in Asperger Discourse and Narratives: A Quantitative Analysis of Two Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Jussi; Otsa, Lidia; Evtyukova, Aleksandra; Lehtoaro, Laura; Niemi, John

    2010-01-01

    The present linguistic analyses of two children (aged 8 and 10) with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and their two matched controls are based on dyadic therapist-child conversations and on picture description tasks. The circa 100 analysis features covering aspects of (i) lexicon (e.g. prominalization), (ii) structural characteristics of turns, (iii)…

  10. The Main Concept Analysis in Cantonese Aphasic Oral Discourse: External Validation and Monitoring Chronic Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The 1st aim of this study was to further establish the external validity of the main concept (MC) analysis by examining its relationship with the Cantonese Linguistic Communication Measure (CLCM; Kong, 2006; Kong & Law, 2004)--an established quantitative system for narrative production--and the Cantonese version of the Western Aphasia…

  11. Measuring Discourse-Level Processes with Verbal Protocols and Latent Semantic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millis, Keith; Magliano, Joseph; Todaro, Stacey

    2006-01-01

    The present study used latent semantic analysis (LSA) to analyze verbal protocols that were collected while participants read expository passages. In the study, participants were asked to type their thoughts after reading each sentence of 2 scientific texts. The semantic similarity between the protocols and the current sentence and prior causal…

  12. Coquetting Females versus Males of Manners: Critical Discourse Analysis of Egyptian Street Songs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Falaky, Mai Samir; Ahmed, Al-Shaymaa Mohamed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The study explores gender differences and the role of the ideological background in portraying the roles of the males and the females. Socio-economic statuses affect the description of gender differences and this is proclaimed within the analysis of a recent phenomenon of poor quality street songs. The study represents a detailed description of…

  13. Re-Framing Teacher Evaluation Discourse in the Media: An Analysis and Narrative-Based Proposal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulmer, Jasmine B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent publications by major newspapers in the USA have reinforced the perception that teacher quality represents a national crisis. By releasing individual teacher evaluation data in online, searchable databases, several newspapers have influenced public perceptions of teachers and teaching. A framing analysis of selected media events and…

  14. Haiku as a Discourse Regulation Device: A Stanza Analysis of Japanese Children's Personal Narratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minami, Masahiko; McCabe, Allyssa

    1991-01-01

    Stanza analysis of the conversational narratives of Japanese children, aged five to nine, reveals that they are succinct and usually consist of free-standing collections of three experiences and that stanzas usually consist of three lines. The similarity between these narratives and the Japanese literacy forms of "haiku" and…

  15. Application of Critical Classroom Discourse Analysis (CCDA) in Analyzing Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Sima; Ketabi, Saeed; Tavakoli, Mansoor; Sadeghi, Moslem

    2012-01-01

    As an area of classroom research, Interaction Analysis developed from the need and desire to investigate the process of classroom teaching and learning in terms of action-reaction between individuals and their socio-cultural context (Biddle, 1967). However, sole reliance on quantitative techniques could be problematic, since they conceal more than…

  16. Wildlife-Based Recreation as Economic Windfall: A Rhetorical Analysis of Public Discourse on Birding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Steven G.; Cable, Ted T.; Scott, David

    2010-01-01

    Symbolic convergence theory posits that groups of like-minded people use linguistic symbols to construct a shared reality and form rhetorical visions (ways of viewing and communicating about an issue). To see how rhetorical visions might help shape public tourism policy, the authors used fantasy theme analysis to examine 206 Kansas newspaper…

  17. Selling patients and other metaphors: a discourse analysis of the interpretive frames that shape emergency department admission handoffs.

    PubMed

    Hilligoss, Brian

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports a discourse analysis of the language doctors used as they talked about and engaged in patient handoffs between the emergency department (ED) and various inpatient services at one highly specialized academic tertiary teaching and referral hospital in the Midwest United States. Although interest in handoff improvement has grown considerably in recent years, progress has been hampered, perhaps in part, because of a widely used but limiting conceptual model of handoff as an information transmission. The purpose of the study reported here is to analyze the way doctors make sense of handoff interactions, including uncovering the interpretive frames they use, in order to provide empirical findings to expand conceptual models of handoff. All data reported were drawn from a two-year ethnographic study (2009-2011) and include semi-structured interviews (n = 48), non-participant observations (349 h), and recorded telephone handoff conversations (n = 48). A total of eighty-six individuals participated, including resident and attending doctors from the ED, internal medicine and surgical services, as well as hospital administrators. Findings are organized around four metaphors doctors used: sales, sports and games, packaging, and teamwork. Each metaphor, in turn, reveals an underlying interpretive frame that appears to be influenced by organizational and social structures and to shape the possibilities for action that doctors perceive. The four underlying interpretive frames are: handoff as persuasion, handoff as competition, handoff as expectation matching, and handoff as collaboration. Taken together, these interpretive frames highlight the complex, socially interactive nature of handoff and provide an empirical basis for grounding and enriching the conceptual model of handoff that guides research and practice improvement efforts.

  18. Some historical relationships between science and technology with implications for behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between science and technology is examined in terms of some implications for behavior analysis. Problems result when this relationship is seen as one in which science generally begets technology in a one-way, or hierarchical, relationship. These problems are not found when the relationship between science and technology is seen as two-way, or symmetrical, within a larger context of relationships. Some historical examples are presented. Collectively, these and other examples in the references weaken the case for a prevailing one-way, hierarchical relationship and strengthen the case for a two-way, symmetrical relationship. In addition to being more accurate historically, the symmetrical relationship is also more consistent with the principles of behavior analysis. PMID:22478016

  19. Hector Berlioz and his Vesuvius: an analysis of historical evidence from an epileptological perspective.

    PubMed

    Altenmüller, Dirk-Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The epileptologically informed in-depth analysis of auto- and heteroanamnestic historical sources supports the hypothesis that Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) might have suffered from a photosensitive idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome with absences, absence status, myoclonic seizures, and bilateral tonic-clonic seizures. The study outlines the possible influence of the composer's probable epilepsy on his literary and musical oeuvre, including the Symphonie fantastique en cinq parties.

  20. Analysis of natural red dyes (cochineal) in textiles of historical importance using HPLC and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Ana; Sousa, Micaela M; Hallett, Jessica; Lopes, João A; Oliveira, M Conceição

    2011-08-01

    A new analytical approach based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and multivariate data analysis was applied and assessed for analyzing the red dye extracted from cochineal insects, used in precious historical textiles. The most widely used method of analysis involves quantification of specific minor compounds (markers), using HPLC-DAD. However, variation in the cochineal markers concentration, use of aggressive dye extraction methods and poor resolution of HPLC chromatograms can compromise the identification of the precise insect species used in the textiles. In this study, a soft extraction method combined with a new dye recovery treatment was developed, capable of yielding HPLC chromatograms with good resolution, for the first time, for historical cochineal-dyed textiles. After principal components analysis (PCA) and mass spectrometry (MS), it was possible to identify the cochineal species used in these textiles, in contrast to the accepted method of analysis. In order to compare both methodologies, 7 cochineal species and 63 historical cochineal insect specimens were analyzed using the two approaches, and then compared with the results for 15 historical textiles in order to assess their applicability to real complex samples. The methodology developed here was shown to provide more accurate and consistent information than the traditional method. Almost all of the historical textiles were dyed with Porphyrophora sp. insects. These results emphasize the importance of adopting the proposed methodology for future research on cochineal (and related red dyes). Mild extraction methods and HPLC-DAD/MS(n) analysis yield distinctive profiles, which, in combination with a PCA reference database, are a powerful tool for identifying red insect dyes.

  1. Participation in Knowledge-Building Discourse: An Analysis of Online Discussions in Mainstream and Honours Social Studies Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Hui; van Aalst, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Questions about the suitability of cognitively-oriented instructional approaches for students of different academic levels are frequently raised by teachers and researchers. This study examined student participation in knowledge-building discourse in two implementations of a short inquiry unit focusing on environmental problems. Participants in…

  2. An Analysis of Peer Interaction Patterns as Discoursed by On-Line Small Group Problem-Solving Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2008-01-01

    Currently, numerous on-line discussion forums have been developed for educational purposes; therefore, a better understanding about peer student discussion or discourse interactions is quite important. Through gathering peer learning interactions on 57 college computer science students, who were randomly assigned into 14 small groups for solving…

  3. Social Aspects of Classroom Learning: Results of a Discourse Analysis in an Inquiry-Oriented Physical Chemistry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in classroom discourse offers opportunities for students to participate in the construction of joint understandings, to negotiate relationships between different types of evidence, and to practice making evidence-based claims about science content. However, close attention to social aspects of learning is critical to creating…

  4. Troubled families and individualised solutions: an institutional discourse analysis of alcohol and drug treatment practices involving affected others.

    PubMed

    Selbekk, Anne Schanche; Sagvaag, Hildegunn

    2016-09-01

    Research shows that members of the families with patients suffering from alcohol and other drug-related issues (AOD) experience stress and strain. An important question is, what options do AOD treatment have for them when it comes to support? To answer this, we interviewed directors and clinicians from three AOD treatment institutions in Norway. The study revealed that family-oriented practices are gaining ground as a 'going concern'. However, the relative position of family-orientation in the services, is constrained and shaped by three other going concerns related to: (i) discourse on health and illness, emphasising that addiction is an individual medical and psychological phenomenon, rather than a relational one; (ii) discourse on rights and involvement, emphasising the autonomy of the individual patient and their right to define the format of their own treatment; and (iii) discourse on management, emphasising the relationship between cost and benefit, where family-oriented practices are defined as not being cost-effective. All three discourses are connected to underpin the weight placed on individualised practices. Thus, the findings point to a paradox: there is a growing focus on the needs of children and affected family members, while the possibility of performing integrated work on families is limited.

  5. First-Year College Student Beliefs about Writing Embedded in Online Discourse: An Analysis and Its Implications for Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkart, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Online discourse has become a common mode of communication for the Twenty-First Century. Many businesses now use electronic networking sites such as Facebook to communicate with customers through online posts and electronic updates through Twitter. With these recent trends in electronic communication, some educators have begun implementing…

  6. Exploring the Discourse on Communication Modality after Cochlear Implantation: A Foucauldian Analysis of Parents' Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruin, Marieke; Nevøy, Anne

    2014-01-01

    After pediatric cochlear implantation, parents have to make decisions concerning which communication modality the child and the child's family will use. The choice has to be made against a background of opposing views on communication modality in follow-up after pediatric cochlear implantation. The opposing views form a discourse that has…

  7. Keeping up with the Class: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Teacher Interactions in a Co-Teaching Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Jennifer Randhare

    2016-01-01

    Co-teaching is a model of inclusive instruction that has become increasingly popular throughout schools as a way to meet the needs of students with disabilities in general education settings. Despite being the focus of significant educational research for more than two decades, traditional deficit discourses of disability persist in educational…

  8. Towards an Analysis of the Discourse of Arabic Song: A Case Study--Umm Kulthoum's Song "AlAtlal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussein, Gameel Abdelmageed

    2015-01-01

    Arabic song has always played an important role in the life of Arabs. It reflects cultural attitudes and influences them. However, this major expressive discourse has been almost completely neglected in Arabic literary and critical studies. For this reason, this paper focuses on Arabic song, in the hope that my study will encourage other scholars…

  9. Organ donation agency: A discourse analysis of correspondence between donor and organ recipient families.

    PubMed

    Galasiński, Dariusz; Sque, Magi

    2016-11-01

    Studies about the psychosocial issues concerning organ donation and transplantation tend to focus on the experiences of donor or recipient families. Little is known about the part played by correspondence exchanged between these two groups; in particular how they perceive the agency of organ donation. This is the first analysis to address the representation of the act of donation from the viewpoint of both donor and recipient families through interrogation of archived correspondence data, using linguistic techniques. The data was drawn from a collection of letters, from four USA organ procurement organisations, exchanged between donor and transplant recipient families. Donor families consistently linguistically ascribed agency and accountability for donation to the person who died, the donor. For the recipient families, on the other hand, the 'giver' was mainly implied, ambiguous or ascribed to the donor family.

  10. Constructing the experience of chronic pain through discourse.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katie; Kennedy, Norelee; Harmon, Dominic

    2013-03-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the discourses used by people with chronic pain. Using qualitative interview data from five Irish people with a variety of chronic pain conditions, Foucauldian discourse analysis was undertaken to identify the discourses in operation in participants' accounts. Three discourses were identified: a moral discourse, a discourse of pain as personal tragedy, and a biomedical discourse. A moral discourse was used to construct participants as moral individuals experiencing real pain who try to accomplish activities and fulfil social roles without burdening others. The discourse of chronic pain as personal tragedy describes the multiple negative consequences of chronic pain including activity, relationship, physical, financial, and emotional consequences, and changed expectations of the future. This discourse bolsters the moral discourse through rejecting any benefits associated with chronic pain. Participants rejected a biomedical discourse by proposing their own explanatory models of pain, resisting psychosocial understandings of pain, criticizing medical professionals and healthcare services, and challenging medical expertise, professionalism, and power. These practices allow participants to reject the patient subject-position with its attendant passivity and requirements for adherence and compliance.

  11. The problematic messages of nutritional discourse: A case-based critical media analysis.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Antonia; Chamberlain, Kerry

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional science has assumed a fundamental importance in shaping food meanings and practices in the developed world. This study critically analysed the content of one weekly nutrition column written by a nutritional expert in a popular New Zealand magazine, from a social constructionist perspective, to investigate how nutritional advice constructs food, food practices and eaters. The analysis identified a range of ways in which the nutrition information communicated in the articles was potentially problematic for readers. The articles advocated eating for health with recommendations based on nutritional science, but depicted nutritional information as inconclusive, changeable and open to interpretation. Fear-based messages were used to motivate making 'healthy' food choices, through linking 'unhealthy' food choices with fatness and chronic ill health. Unhealthy foods were portrayed as more enjoyable than healthy foods, social occasions involving food were constructed as problematic, and exercise was defined only as a way to negate food consumption. Healthy eating was portrayed as a matter of personal choice, obscuring the situational factors that impact on food choice and health. We conclude that the nutritional advice analysed in this study constructs a way of understanding food that, if internalised by eaters, may evoke anxiety, confusion and dissatisfaction around food and eating.

  12. Discourse complexity of college writers with and without disabilities: a multidimensional analysis.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Noel; Coleman, Chris; Stennett, Robert B; Davis, Mark

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine specific word- and sentence-level features most frequently used in the expository writing of four groups of college writers. Three groups were writers who demonstrated disabilities. Group 1 students (n = 87) demonstrated learning disabilities (LD); Group 2 (n = 50), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); and Group 3 (n = 58), combined LD and ADHD. Group 4 consisted of writers with no history of a documented disability (n = 92). Computer-based analysis and structural equation modeling were used to group specific linguistic features identified in the expository essays across all four groups. The frequency of linguistic features, not errors, was analyzed. Four communication dimensions (factors) were identified for the four groups of writers, but the factor loadings and correlations were significantly different across groups. Furthermore, the relationships of specific linguistic features were studied as to their impact on the verbosity, quality, and lexical complexity of students' expository essays. It is interesting to note that very high correlations were found between verbosity, quality, and lexical complexity, suggesting that these constructs are not as separate in their functioning as might be supposed. Implications for assessment and instruction are provided.

  13. Historical data review and source analysis of PCBs/Arochlors in the Lower Leon Creek Watershed.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Heather J; Sokoly, Diana; Johnson, Drew W

    2017-02-01

    PCBs have been banned since the late 1970s, but concentrations still exist in sediments and riverine fish and continue to exceed regulatory limits which can result in negative health effects. This study looks at historical records of PCB and Arochlor concentrations in surface water, sediments, and fish tissue for the Lower Leon Creek, Bexar County in Texas. Temporal analysis on the concentrations of PCBs and Arochlors was conducted for detection and exceedance of selected screening criteria. In addition, the half-lives of select PCB congeners were calculated for 2007-2012 data to ascertain differences in PCB concentrations with their hydrophobicity. Source analysis was conducted to determine the potential contributing sources of PCB contamination using source data (landfills, outfalls, etc.) and the PCB exceedance data. For sediment and fish tissue sampling results, historic data shows high concentrations of PCB/Arochlors over the course of several decades. The historical data is characterized as being widely variable for detections in Arochlors and concentrations between years, with a dramatic drop in concentrations detected starting in 2009. Overall, the sampling locations adjacent to and downstream from the former Kelly Air Force Base have the highest concentrations of PCB/Arochlors over the longest period of time. The results of this work will aid regulatory agencies in addressing impairment.

  14. Nondestructive analysis and dating of historical paper based on IR spectroscopy and chemometric data evaluation.

    PubMed

    Trafela, Tanja; Strlic, Matija; Kolar, Jana; Lichtblau, Dirk A; Anders, Manfred; Mencigar, Danijela Pucko; Pihlar, Boris

    2007-08-15

    Sampling restrictions in analysis of cultural heritage materials narrow the choice of appropriate analytical methods considerably. In this work, near- and mid-FT-IR reflectance data were related to paper properties determined with classical analytical methods using partial least-squares. Nondestructive determination of properties, which are of importance for evaluation of the long-term stability of historical paper, i.e., ash content, lignin content, degree of polymerization of cellulose, pH, and aluminum content, is possible. With the use of a considerable sample set, satisfactory reliability was achieved for all properties but aluminum content. Considering that with age, chemical properties of paper change, dating of historical documents was attempted for the first time, also with success.

  15. The climatic effect of explosive volcanic activity: Analysis of the historical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, R. A.; Goodman, B. M.

    1982-01-01

    By using the most complete available records of direct beam radiation and volcanic eruptions, an historical analysis of the role of the latter in modulating the former was made. A very simple fallout and dispersion model was applied to the historical chronology of explosive eruptions. The resulting time series explains about 77 percent of the radiation variance, as well as suggests that tropical and subpolar eruptions are more important than mid-latitude eruptions in their impact on the stratospheric aerosol optical depth. The simpler climatic models indicate that past hemispheric temperature can be stimulated very well with volcanic and CO2 inputs and suggest that climate forecasting will also require volcano forecasting. There is some evidence that this is possible some years in advance.

  16. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-06-01

    Historical records are an important source of information on extreme and rare floods and fundamental to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historical records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 yr flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their contribution within hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations in flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators, and (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, which incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency

  17. Flood frequency analysis of historical flood data under stationary and non-stationary modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. J.; Botero, B. A.; López, J.; Francés, F.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Benito, G.

    2015-01-01

    Historical records are an important source of information about extreme and rare floods with a great value to establish a reliable flood return frequency. The use of long historic records for flood frequency analysis brings in the question of flood stationarity, since climatic and land-use conditions can affect the relevance of past flooding as a predictor of future flooding. In this paper, a detailed 400 year flood record from the Tagus River in Aranjuez (Central Spain) was analysed under stationary and non-stationary flood frequency approaches, to assess their implications on hazard studies. Historical flood records in Aranjuez were obtained from documents (Proceedings of the City Council, diaries, chronicles, memoirs, etc.), epigraphic marks, and indirect historical sources and reports. The water levels associated with different floods (derived from descriptions or epigraphic marks) were computed into discharge values using a one-dimensional hydraulic model. Secular variations on flood magnitude and frequency, found to respond to climate and environmental drivers, showed a good correlation between high values of historical flood discharges and a negative mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation index (NAO index). Over the systematic gauge record (1913-2008), an abrupt change on flood magnitude was produced in 1957 due to constructions of three major reservoirs in the Tagus headwaters (Bolarque, Entrepeñas and Buendia) controlling 80% of the watershed surface draining to Aranjuez. Two different models were used for the flood frequency analysis: (a) a stationary model estimating statistical distributions incorporating imprecise and categorical data based on maximum likelihood estimators; (b) a time-varying model based on "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS) modelling, that incorporates external covariates related to climate variability (NAO index) and catchment hydrology factors (in this paper a reservoir index; RI). Flood frequency

  18. A Historical Analysis of the Relationship Between Rice Production and PDSI Values in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, J. H.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    As world population grows, there are ever increasing demands being placed on the food production systems throughout the world. Climate change is complicating these stressors even further through more frequent severe weather events. In the developing world, where there are fewer resources to mitigate the effects of climate change, the combination of these two factors can have drastic consequences. In Sri Lanka, farmers in major rice production areas of the country are already struggling to produce enough rice, a staple food of the local diet, and a severe wet or dry spell could be ruinous. Faced with a changing climate and a growing demand for rice, it is important to be able to anticipate how climatic changes will affect rice production. By examining how extreme wet and dry spells have historically affected rice production, decision makers may be better able to predict and prepare for potential food shortages. We conducted an analysis of historic temperature, precipitation, and rice production statistics in order to determine the effects of extreme wet and dry spells on rice production. We also created a timeline of major developments in Sri Lankan agriculture in order to compare effects on rice production due to changes in agricultural practices with meteorological changes. Historical temperature and precipitation data were used to calculate the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for a number of stations distributed throughout the Mahaweli river basin. The basin, the largest in the country, contains three different climatic regions - dry, intermediate, and wet - that all receive different amounts of annual precipitation. The PDSI values were used to quantify drought and wetness during the Yala (April-September) and Maha (October-March) growing seasons. Analysis of historical PDSI values, agricultural advances, and rice production statistics shows great promise for anticipating and mitigating future food shortages.

  19. Captive on a carousel: discourses of 'new' in medical education 1910-2010.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Cynthia R; Hodges, Brian D; Austin, Zubin

    2013-10-01

    Medical educators aim to train physicians with sound scientific knowledge, expert clinical skills and an ability to work effectively with patients, colleagues and health systems. Over the past century, educators have devoted considerable thought and effort to how medical education might be improved. Analysing the language used to describe these initiatives provides insight into assumptions and practices. The authors conducted a Foucauldian critical discourse analysis of prominent recurrent themes in the North American medical education literature. The assembled archive of texts included works of Abraham Flexner, articles from the journal Academic Medicine (including its predecessor journals) and major medical education reports. A series of recurring themes were identified, including the need to avoid over-specialization, the importance of generalism, and the need to broaden criteria for medical student selection. Analysis of these recurring themes allowed identification of a prominent and recurrent discourse of 'new.' This discourse places focus on the future, ignores the ongoing historical nature of issues, suggests a sense of urgency and enables the proposal of modest solutions. It emphasizes changes for individual future doctors, thereby limiting consideration of institutional and systemic factors. Using the image of a carousel, the regular return of themes can be seen as carousel ponies circling around repeatedly in medical education. Identification of this medical education carousel provides an opportunity for medical educators to understand the historical nature of calls for change, and to consider what kinds of reform might be required if they wish to avoid this repetition in the future.

  20. A Declaration on Learning--A Commentary Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, John S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper subjects "A Declaration on Learning" published in the UK in 2000 to a critical review. A brief synopsis of the text is followed by a commentary discourse drawing upon critical discourse analysis (Fairclough 2001) and incorporating meta content analysis, rhetorical analysis and genre analysis. Conclusions are drawn related to the…

  1. Streamflow Flashiness in the Mid-Atlantic Region: A Historical Analysis of Flashiness and Population Density, Imperviousness and Urban Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between stream flashiness and watershed-scale estimates of percent imperviousness, urban development, and population density were used in an historic landscape analysis at the individual watershed spatial scale. GIS technology was employed to spatially associate...

  2. Representation, archaeology and genealogy: Three "spatial metaphors" for inquiring into nursing phenomena with Foucauldian discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Clinton, Michael E; Springer, Rusla Anne

    2017-02-14

    Foucault used the "Quadrilateral of Language" metaphor to describe how language functioned in what the French called the Classic Age, roughly 1650 to 1800, the period from Descartes to Kant. His purpose was to show how the functions of language changed radically with the arrival of the Modern Age (~1800). Foucault developed his archaeological methods to investigate the impact of this change, but later revised his methods to introduce genealogical strategies to conduct "histories of the present". Our purpose in this paper is to clarify Foucault's thinking about ruptures in the functions of language and to show their implications for analyzing nursing discourse. Our account provides an overview of radical changes in both the functions of language and in Foucault's analytical methods. Drawing on Foucault's "Quadrilateral of Language", his anthropological quadrilateral, and our spatialized conception of his genealogical methods, we critique advanced nursing practice (APN) discourse and invite others to inquire into nursing phenomena with spatialized thinking.

  3. Peer Online Discourse Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ke; Carr-Chellman, Ali

    Research shows that learning in groups improves students' achievement of learning objectives. Some indicate that a facilitator will smooth the process of collaboration (Johnson et al, 1987; Hooper, 1992; Moore and Kearsley, 1996; Brandon & Hollingshead, 1999; Bernard et al, 2000). Advocates for peer-controlled collaboration claim that learners…

  4. Wintering and breeding bird monitoring data analysis 2010-2013: San Antonio Missions National Historical Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Following guidance issued within the Avian Inventory and Monitoring in National Parks of the Gulf Coast Network: Gulf Coast Network Avian Monitoring Plan, 40 point locations were established and monitored within San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. During three breeding seasons (May – Jun) and winters (Dec – Feb) between 2010 and 2013, birds were monitored at 20 or 30 of these point locations via time-distance point counts (breeding) or area searches (winter). To ensure data from all 40 random locations were included in analyses, monitoring data from two consecutive years were combined. As a result, some points were monitored twice during the period of analysis. Even so, I have treated each survey as an independent monitoring event, thereby assuming each visit to be equally representative of the bird community for the entirety of San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. When translating avian densities to park-wide populations, I used an area of 334 ha to represent San Antonio Missions National Historical Park including the Rancho de las Cabras unit.

  5. Computational analyses of multilevel discourse comprehension.

    PubMed

    Graesser, Arthur C; McNamara, Danielle S

    2011-04-01

    The proposed multilevel framework of discourse comprehension includes the surface code, the textbase, the situation model, the genre and rhetorical structure, and the pragmatic communication level. We describe these five levels when comprehension succeeds and also when there are communication misalignments and comprehension breakdowns. A computer tool has been developed, called Coh-Metrix, that scales discourse (oral or print) on dozens of measures associated with the first four discourse levels. The measurement of these levels with an automated tool helps researchers track and better understand multilevel discourse comprehension. Two sets of analyses illustrate the utility of Coh-Metrix in discourse theory and educational practice. First, Coh-Metrix was used to measure the cohesion of the text base and situation model, as well as potential extraneous variables, in a sample of published studies that manipulated text cohesion. This analysis helped us better understand what was precisely manipulated in these studies and the implications for discourse comprehension mechanisms. Second, Coh-Metrix analyses are reported for samples of narrative and science texts in order to advance the argument that traditional text difficulty measures are limited because they fail to accommodate most of the levels of the multilevel discourse comprehension framework.

  6. Post-ecological discourse in the making.

    PubMed

    Zeyer, Albert; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the discourse of 15- to16-year-old Swiss junior high school students in order to understand public discourse on the environment and environmental protection. Discourse analysis reveals four interpretive repertoires as the building blocks for the so-called post-ecological discourse, which can be used to describe important aspects of current ways of talking about ecological issues in Europe. We show that 10 theoretically identifiable dimensions of this discourse can be understood in terms of a mutual interplay between the four interpretive repertoires. Post-ecological discourse in today's (Swiss) society appears to be at its core a loss-of-control-discourse, which leads (in our students) to a latent eco-depression. Thus, the public understanding of science can be affected by unintended consequences of the talk itself (in this case an unintended environmental depression), that is, by the inherent characteristics of the involved repertoires, here especially the so-called folk science repertoire. Fostering public understanding of science is thus not merely a question of providing the public with scientific 'facts'. It is also an issue of paying attention to the available discursive repertoires. If necessary, viable alternative repertoires may have to be offered. In school, for example, conversations about the nature of science, and about complexity and applied ethics might help students learn new interpretive repertoires and how to mobilize these in talking about the environment and environmental protection.

  7. Introduction. Types de discours, ou fonctionnement discursif (Introduction. Types of Discourse, or Discursive Function)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guespin, L.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the limits of Harris' and Chomsky's models for discourse analysis and questions their epistemological basis. Also discusses the "French school of discourse analysis." (Text is in French.) (AM)

  8. Men and talk about legal abortion in South Africa: equality, support and rights discourses undermining reproductive 'choice'.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Catriona Ida; Hansjee, Jateen

    2013-01-01

    Discursive constructions of abortion are embedded in the social and gendered power relations of a particular socio-historical space. As part of research on public discourses concerning abortion in South Africa where there has been a radical liberalisation of abortion legislation, we collected data from male group discussions about a vignette concerning abortion, and newspaper articles written by men about abortion. Our analysis revealed how discourses of equality, support and rights may be used by men to subtly undermine women's reproductive right to 'choose' an abortion. Within an Equal Partnership discourse, abortion, paired with the assumption of foetal personhood, was equated with violating an equal heterosexual partnership and a man's patriarchal duty to protect a child. A New Man discourse, which positions men as supportive of women, was paired with the assumption of men as rational and women as irrational in decision-making, to allow for the possibility of men dissuading women from terminating a pregnancy. A Rights discourse was invoked to suggest that abortion violates men's paternal rights.

  9. [Thoughts on modern aphasic discourse studies].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ke-rong

    2006-04-01

    This article gives a brief introduction to the content of aphasic discourse analysis, the theoretical frameworks applied, and critical findings . It also points out the problem that faces the study, the variety of study methods that arises, and the future trend. The structuralists tend to focus on the micro aspects of the discourse while the functionalists on its general structure and the meaning. The study in the future shall address the connection of these two levels.

  10. Adolescent pregnancies and girls' sexual and reproductive rights in the amazon basin of Ecuador: an analysis of providers' and policy makers' discourses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescent pregnancies are a common phenomenon that can have both positive and negative consequences. The rights framework allows us to explore adolescent pregnancies not just as isolated events, but in relation to girls' sexual and reproductive freedom and their entitlement to a system of health protection that includes both health services and the so called social determinants of health. The aim of this study was to explore policy makers' and service providers' discourses concerning adolescent pregnancies, and discuss the consequences that those discourses have for the exercise of girls' sexual and reproductive rights' in the province of Orellana, located in the amazon basin of Ecuador. Methods We held six focus-group discussions and eleven in-depth interviews with 41 Orellana's service providers and policy makers. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis, specifically looking for interpretative repertoires. Results Four interpretative repertoires emerged from the interviews. The first repertoire identified was "sex is not for fun" and reflected a moralistic construction of girls' sexual and reproductive health that emphasized abstinence, and sent contradictory messages regarding contraceptive use. The second repertoire -"gendered sexuality and parenthood"-constructed women as sexually uninterested and responsible mothers, while men were constructed as sexually driven and unreliable. The third repertoire was "professionalizing adolescent pregnancies" and lead to patronizing attitudes towards adolescents and disregard of the importance of non-medical expertise. The final repertoire -"idealization of traditional family"-constructed family as the proper space for the raising of adolescents while at the same time acknowledging that sexual abuse and violence within families was common. Conclusions Providers' and policy makers' repertoires determined the areas that the array of sexual and reproductive health services should include

  11. Reason and protest in the new urban public health movement: an observation on the sociological analysis of political discourse in the 'healthy city'.

    PubMed

    Milewa, T; de Leeuw, E

    1996-12-01

    The urban environment represents an important social and geographical focus for the international new urban public health movement in general and the World Health Organization's 'Healthy Cities' project in particular. Existing and new policies of relevance to urban health are however infused with notions of cause, effect and ideas of appropriate intervention that reflect highly malleable and more or less conscious expressions of rationality, self-interest and organizational purpose--factors central to sociological analysis of the political discourse and objectives associated with the new urban public health movement. This article begins to develop a research agenda in this respect through consideration of the 'language' of policy and reference to Habermas' idea of 'communicative reason'. It is argued that case-study based research into the discourse of the new urban public health movement has to balance empirical accounts with analysis of the 'policy ontologies' that confront and underpin the mobilizations and has, secondly, to consider the 'communicative capacity and orientation' of such initiatives.

  12. Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of 'Post-Devolution' Public Policy in the UK 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy - thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities - such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision - policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance.

  13. Envisioning the Third Sector's Welfare Role: Critical Discourse Analysis of ‘Post-Devolution’ Public Policy in the UK 1998–2012

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, Paul; Wincott, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Welfare state theory has struggled to come to terms with the role of the third sector. It has often categorized welfare states in terms of the pattern of interplay between state social policies and the structure of the labour market. Moreover, it has frequently offered an exclusive focus on state policy – thereby failing to substantially recognize the role of the formally organized third sector. This study offers a corrective view. Against the backdrop of the international shift to multi-level governance, it analyses the policy discourse of third sector involvement in welfare governance following devolution in the UK. It reveals the changing and contrasting ways in which post-devolution territorial politics envisions the sector's role as a welfare provider. The mixed methods analysis compares policy framing and the structural narratives associated with the development of the third sector across the four constituent polities of the UK since 1998. The findings reveal how devolution has introduced a new spatial policy dynamic. Whilst there are elements of continuity between polities – such as the increasing salience of the third sector in welfare provision – policy narratives also provide evidence of the territorialization of third sector policy. From a methodological standpoint, this underlines the distinctive and complementary role discourse-based analysis can play in understanding contemporary patterns and processes shaping welfare governance. PMID:25574063

  14. Modeling Narrative Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elson, David K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes new approaches to the formal modeling of narrative discourse. Although narratives of all kinds are ubiquitous in daily life, contemporary text processing techniques typically do not leverage the aspects that separate narrative from expository discourse. We describe two approaches to the problem. The first approach considers…

  15. Discourse and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Joseph

    The metaphor of community has become central to discussions about reading, writing, and teaching. According to this metaphor, an individual learns a discourse through entering into the community that uses it, and by accepting the practices and values of those already in it. Yet an argument can be raised for a definition of discourse that is not…

  16. [Micro and nondestructive analysis of blue dyes from silk fabrics and decorative painting of historic building].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Wei, Xi-Ning; Lei, Yong; Cheng, Xiao-Lin; Zhou, Yang

    2010-12-01

    Dye analysis is important to the understanding of fabric color degradation and technical development of ancient printing and dyeing. In the present study, thin layer chromatography and Raman spectroscopy were used for the analysis of blue dyes from 6 silk fabric of Tang dynasty and decorative painting of Jian Fu Gong, Forbidden City. The applicability of these two methods in the cultural heritages was also studied. The results indicate that all these blue substances are indigo; indigo was not only used as dye in ancient fabrics, but also as pigment in decorative painting of historic building, so it is used widely. Both analytic methods have advantages and disadvantages; Raman spectroscopy is nondestructive analysis; thin layer chromatography needs small amount of sample, but could give more information.

  17. Meeting the health and social needs of pregnant asylum seekers, midwifery students' perspectives: part 1; dominant discourses and midwifery students.

    PubMed

    Haith-Cooper, Melanie; Bradshaw, Gwendolen

    2013-09-01

    Current literature has indicated a concern about standards of maternity care experienced by pregnant women who are seeking asylum. As the next generation of midwives, it is important that students are educated in a way that prepares them to effectively care for these women. To understand how this can be achieved, it is important to explore what asylum seeking means to midwifery students. This article is the first of three parts and reports on one objective from a wider doctorate study. It identifies dominant discourses that influenced the perceptions of a group of midwifery students' about the pregnant asylum seeking woman. The study was designed from a social constructivist perspective, with contextual knowledge being constructed by groups of people, influenced by underpinning dominant discourses, depending on their social, cultural and historical positions in the world. In a United Kingdom University setting, during year two of a pre-registration midwifery programme, eleven midwifery students participated in the study. Two focus group interviews using a problem based learning scenario as a trigger for discussion were conducted. In addition, three students were individually interviewed to explore issues in more depth and two students' written reflections on practice were used to generate data. Following a critical discourse analysis, dominant discourses were identified which appeared to influence the way in which asylum seekers were perceived. The findings suggested an underpinning ideology around the asylum seeker being different and of a criminal persuasion. Although the pregnant woman seeking asylum was considered as deserving of care, the same discourses appeared to influence the way in which she was constructed. However, as the study progressed, through reading alternative sources of literature, some students appeared to question these discourses. These findings have implications for midwifery education in encouraging students to challenge negative discourses

  18. The Statement: Foundation of Foucault's Historical Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Carole

    1987-01-01

    Presents an overview of Michel Foucault's approach to the study of historical systems of thought, arguing that Foucault's view of historical criticism and language-in-use have much to offer rhetorical theory and criticism. Discusses the nature of discourse for Foucault and examines the characteristics of the fundamental discursive datum, the…

  19. Application of LC-MS to the analysis of dyes in objects of historical interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xian; Laursen, Richard

    2009-07-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array and mass spectrometric detection permits dyes extracted from objects of historical interest or from natural plant or animal dyestuffs to be characterized on the basis of three orthogonal properties: HPLC retention time, UV-visible spectrum and molecular mass. In the present study, we have focused primarily on yellow dyes, the bulk of which are flavonoid glycosides that would be almost impossible to characterize without mass spectrometric detection. Also critical for this analysis is a method for mild extraction of the dyes from objects (e.g., textiles) without hydrolyzing the glycosidic linkages. This was accomplished using 5% formic acid in methanol, rather than the more traditional 6 M HCl. Mass spectroscopy, besides providing the molecular mass of the dye molecule, sometimes yields additional structural data based on fragmentation patterns. In addition, coeluting compounds can often be detected using extracted ion chromatography. The utility of mass spectrometry is illustrated by the analysis of historical specimens of silk that had been dyed yellow with flavonoid glycosides from Sophora japonica (pagoda tree) and curcumins from Curcuma longa (turmeric). In addition, we have used these techniques to identify the dye type, and sometimes the specific dyestuff, in a variety of objects, including a yellow varnish from a 19th century Tibetan altar and a 3000-year-old wool mortuary textiles, from Xinjiang, China. We are using HPLC with diode array and mass spectrometric detection to create a library of analyzed dyestuffs (>200 so far; mostly plants) to serve as references for identification of dyes in objects of historical interest.

  20. Physiotherapy: a historical analysis of the transformation from an occupation to a profession in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ana L. O.; Nunes, Everardo D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Analyzing the historical and social path of an occupation using the sociology of professions and the perspective of scientific knowledge promotes an understanding of the origin of physical therapy in Brazil and of discussions of the profession in its contemporary context. Objective: The aim of this paper was to discuss the professionalization process of physical therapy in São Paulo. The authors tried to analyze bath therapy, massage therapy, and physical therapy as occupations involving distinct expertise and as part of the group of occupations that evolved into the profession of physiotherapy in the first half of the twentieth century. Method: The analysis undertaken was a qualitative study based on an analysis of historical documents. Eighty-six professional records from the Service of Inspection of Professional Practice in the state of São Paulo and healthcare legislation from the 1930s and 1940s were analyzed. Results: The distinction between physical therapy practitioner and profession of physiotherapy can be seen by examining registration requirements for rank-and-file nurses with expertise in interactions; this distinction suggests the emergence of specialized expertise that was clearly a part of neither medicine nor nursing and contributed to expertise in physical therapy since the 1950s. Conclusion: The regulation of physiotherapy practices, the recognition of expertise, the accreditation of practical nurses by the State, and the institutionalization of a course for physical therapy practitioners in 1951 are key elements of the professionalization process for the physical therapy profession in Brazil. PMID:26443976

  1. Health risks, social relations and class: an analysis of occupational health discourse in Finnish newspaper and women's magazine articles 1961-2008.

    PubMed

    Varje, Pekka; Väänänen, Ari

    2016-03-01

    In this article we examine the treatment of psychosocial risks in public occupational health discourse in Finnish newspaper and magazine articles between the 1960s and 2000s, using discourse analysis. Building on class theories, our aim is to investigate how class expectations have been linked with the redefinition of occupational health risks during this period. Our results suggest that as social relations at the workplace became problematised in the occupational health discussions after the 1970s, the image of the hierarchical and naturally conflictual organisation was replaced by idealised middle-class notions of smoothly functioning, harmonious organisations that offered rewarding work experiences. However, this same period since the late 1970s has also been characterised by increasing economic competition and neoliberal market ideology. We conclude that the concern about work-related psychosocial risks and health problems expressed in Finnish newspaper and magazine articles during the last three decades has been shaped in many respects by a collision between the dominant middle-class expectations of harmony and equality and the neoliberal production of competition and inequality.

  2. Age transcended: a semiotic and rhetorical analysis of the discourse of agelessness in North American anti-aging skin care advertisements.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Kirsten L

    2014-04-01

    Drawing from a collection of over 160 North American print advertisements for anti-aging skin care products from January to December of 2009, this paper examines the discourse of agelessness, a vision of esthetic perfection and optimal health that is continually referred to by gerontologists, cultural theorists, and scientific researchers as a state of being to which humankind can aspire. Employing critical discourse analysis through the use of semiotics and visual rhetoric, this paper explores the means through which anti-aging skin care advertisements present to their viewers a particular object of desire, looking, more specifically, at how agelessness is presented as a way out and ultimate transcendence of age. Through the analytical tools of semiotics and visual rhetoric, four visions of agelessness are identified and explored in this paper: Agelessness as Scientific Purity, Agelessness as Genetic Impulse, Agelessness as Nature's Essence, and Agelessness as Myth. Whether found in the heights of scientific purity, the inner core of our genetic impulse, the depths of nature's essence, or whether agelessness itself has reached its own, untouchable, mythic status, the advertisements in this study represent one of the most pervasive vehicles through which our current vision(s) of ageless perfection are reflected, reinforced, and suspended in a drop of cream.

  3. Quantitative analysis of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems-A historical perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; Goodman, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Although much progress has been made toward the mathematical description of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems since the late 19th century, the advective and dispersive mechanisms involved are still incompletely understood. This article documents the major historical advances in this subject and summarizes the major direction of current studies. From the time of Badon Ghyben and Herzberg, it has been recognized that density is important in mathematically describing saltwater-freshwater systems. Other mechanisms, such as hydrodynamic dispersion, were identified later and are still not fully understood. Quantitative analysis of a saltwater-freshwater system attempts to mathematically describe the physical system and the important mechanisms using reasonable simplifications and assumptions. This paper, in developing the history of quantitative analysis discusses many of these simplifications and assumptions and their effect on describing and understanding the phenomenon. ?? 1985.

  4. Effects of Using Historical Microworlds on Conceptual Change: A P-Prim Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Steve; Legendre, Marie-Francoise

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effects of using historical microworlds on conceptual change in mechanics. Historical microworlds combine history of science and microworld through a computer based interactive learning environment that respects and represents historic conceptions or theories. Six grade 5 elementary students participated individually to…

  5. Science Pedagogy as a Category of Historical Analysis: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesko, Kathryn M.

    2006-11-01

    Historical studies of science pedagogy have flourished in recent years. This essay offers an assessment of the literature on science pedagogy from the 1930s to the present. It argues that rather than focusing on the work of Thomas Kuhn and Michel Foucault, historians of science pedagogy could with profit turn to the work of Ludwik Fleck. Fleck offers three categories of historical analysis - experience, sensation, and cognition - that are embedded in science pedagogy. He furthermore argues unequivocally for the central importance of considering the cultural context of science pedagogy. Fleck’s interpretation of the role of publishing in science is used in the final section of this essay to assess scientific publishing and textbook culture, topics that are the principal concern of the articles in this volume. Among the novelties of the articles in this volume on textbooks are (1) the connections they draw between textbooks and social structure; (2) the relationships they suggest between textbooks and the public sphere; and (3) their identification of the eighteenth century as the crucial transformative century in textbook production.

  6. Historical flood analysis of the Eistlenbach and Farnigraben torrents in the Hasli Valley (Bernese Alps) inferred from sedimentary records, historical maps and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monterrubio, Glòria; Schulte, Lothar

    2016-04-01

    Historical sources report that in 1624 the village of Hofstetten was ravaged by a major debris flow from the Eistlenbach torrent, and in 1797 another event erupted from the Lammbach, Schwanderbach and Eistlenbach torrents, demolishing 37 buildings (Eisbacher and Clague,1984). Years later there occurred more debris flows and floods in the area, which also affected buildings and farmlands in the valley. Every debris flow and flood leaves its footprint and shapes the morphology of the landscape causing aggradation in the distal area. The knowledge how landforms such as alluvial fans develop and which areas have been repeatedly affected by geomorphic dynamics is crucial for the assessment and management of hydrological hazards in mountain regions. The study aims to reconstruct historical floods and changes in the geomorphology of the distal areas of Eistlenbach and Farnigraben fans. First results show distinct flood layers which can be related to debris flow and flood events during the last 700 years. Peaks of Log (Zr/Ti) and Ca/Ti correlate with coarse-grained flood layers which can be compared with historical sources, whereas the organic-rich beds and soils indicate higher land surface stability and lower flood activity. In addition a spatial analysis is conducted to identify geomorphological dynamics and changes of the alluvial fan, particularly those which are related to the village of Hofstetten. Thus, survey of aerial photographs and satellite images as well as the interpolation of historical maps from 1797 to present, provide essential information of landform (e.g channels, levees and debris flow lobes) and land cover changes (vegetation, land-use, reforestation). For example, one of the most remarkable observations is the flow change of the Eistlenbach torrent. Previously to 1949 the channel path was straight to the watercourse of Fulbach in the valley bottom and was blocked by the rock drumlin Ballenberg in the south. But since then the channel started to

  7. "I Wanted to Rebel, But There They Hit Me Even Harder": Discourse Analysis of Israeli Women Offenders' Accounts of Their Pathways to Substance Abuse and Crime.

    PubMed

    Gueta, Keren; Chen, Gila

    2016-05-01

    This study examined women offenders' accounts of their pathways to substance abuse and crime and the intersection between them, to reach a holistic understanding that captures the dynamics of victimization, agency, and gender. Discourse analyses of the accounts of 11 Israeli women offenders indicated differential use of two discourses. Five participants used the victimization discourse, which viewed substance abuse as an attempt to medicate the self that was injured following victimization experiences; two used the agency discourse, which viewed substance abuse as a way to experience pleasure, leisure, and control over their destiny. Four of the participants used these two contradictory discourses simultaneously. The findings indicate the absence of a cultural discourse that encompasses women's complex experience of gender, victimization, and agency. Possible implications for intervention are discussed.

  8. Social aspects of classroom learning: Results of a discourse analysis in an inquiry-oriented physical chemistry class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Nicole M.

    Engaging students in classroom discourse offers opportunities for students to participate in the construction of joint understandings, to negotiate relationships between different types of evidence, and to practice making evidence-based claims about science content. However, close attention to social aspects of learning is critical to creating inquiry-oriented classroom environments in which students learn with understanding. This study examined the social influences that contribute to classroom learning in an inquiry-oriented undergraduate physical chemistry class using the Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) approach. A qualitative approach to analyzing classroom discourse derived from Toulmin's (1968) model of argumentation was used to document patterns in classroom reasoning that reflect normative aspects of social interaction. Adapting the constructs of social and sociomathematical norms from the work of Yackel and Cobb (1996), I describe social aspects of the classroom environment by discussing normative aspects of social interaction (social norms) and discipline-specific criteria related to reasoning and justification in chemistry contexts, referred to here as sociochemical norms. This work discusses four social norms and two sociochemical norms that were documented over a five-week period of observation in Dr. Black's POGIL physical chemistry class. In small group activities, the socially established expectations that students explain reasoning, negotiate understandings of terminology and symbolic representations, and arrive at a consensus on critical thinking questions shaped small group interactions and reasoning. In whole class discussion, there was an expectation that students share reasoning with the class, and that the instructor provide feedback on student reasoning in ways that extended student contributions and elaborated relationships between macroscopic, particulate, and symbolic-level ideas. The ways in which the class constructed

  9. Science learning in the context of discourse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Nascimento, Silvania Sousa

    2013-06-01

    The original article by Kamberelis and Wehunt (2012) discusses an interesting and important research subject in science education as it focus on classroom interactions and the characteristics of the discourse production of interlocutors. The authors start from the premise that discourse heterogeneity is constitutive of social activities, which is supported by others like Mikhail Bakhtin (Speech genres and other late essays. University of Texas Press, Austin, 1981) and Erving Goffman (Frame analysis: an essay on the organization of experience. Harper and Row, London, 1974). They also present the definitions of three key elements that organize hybrid discourse: (a) lamination of multiple cultural frames, (b) shifting relations between people and their discourse, and (c) shifting power relations between people. Finally, the authors analyze how these three elements organize students' science discourse in the classroom and how it contributes to the creation of a micro-community of practice capable of helping the emergence of a disciplinary knowledge that is legitimized by and strengthens the identity of the group. In the present commentary, I discuss how Michael Foucault's (1970) concept of discursive procedure may help us to analyze the (often neglected) teacher's role in the development of hybrid discourse practices.

  10. Talk in Interaction in the Speech-Language Pathology Clinic: Bringing Theory to Practice through Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaby, Margaret M.; Walsh, Irene P.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of learning about and applying clinical discourse analysis to enhance the talk in interaction in the speech-language pathology clinic is discussed. The benefits of analyzing clinical discourse to explicate therapy dynamics are described.

  11. Historical Analysis and Charaterization of Ground Level Ozone for Canada and United State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Li, H.; Auld, H.

    2003-12-01

    Ground-level ozone has long been recognized as an important health and ecosystem-related air quality concern in Canada and the United States. In this work we seek to understand the characteristics of ground level ozone conditions for Canada and United States to support the Ozone Annex under the Canada-U.S. Air Quality Agreement. Our analyses are based upon the data collected by Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS, the NAPS database has also been expanded to include U.S. EPA ground level ozone data) network. Historical ozone data from 1974 to 2002 at a total of 538 stations (253 Canadian stations and 285 U.S. stations) were statistically analyzed using several methodologies including the Canada Wide Standard (CWS). A more detailed analysis including hourly, daily, monthly, seasonally and yearly ozone concentration distributions and trends was undertaken for 54 stations.

  12. A Raman, IR and XRD analysis of the deterioration on historical monuments: Case study from Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrooumov, Mikhail

    2009-08-01

    Raman, infrared and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of deterioration on historical monuments (Morelia, Mexico). Forty-three samples pyroclastic volcanic rocks (ignimbrites) have been studied, all originating from two ex-convents San Francisco and San Agustin, which were the first architectonic complexes in the city of Morelia. Several new mineral neoformation such as sulfates, carbonates, halides, and phosphates were identified in these samples with spectrometric and XRD technique. The observed Raman and infrared spectra are reported and some mineral compound assignments in unaltered and deteriorated volcanic rocks have been made. This survey is the first Raman and infrared spectrometric examination of the environmental mineralogy in Mexico under conditions of urban weathering that are characterized mainly by one secondary alteration formations of low scale.

  13. Substitute decision making in medicine: comparative analysis of the ethico-legal discourse in England and Germany.

    PubMed

    Jox, Ralf J; Michalowski, Sabine; Lorenz, Jorn; Schildmann, Jan

    2008-06-01

    Health care decision making for patients without decisional capacity is ethically and legally challenging. Advance directives (living wills) have proved to be of limited usefulness in clinical practice. Therefore, academic attention should focus more on substitute decision making by the next of kin. In this article, we comparatively analyse the legal approaches to substitute medical decision making in England and Germany. Based on the current ethico-legal discourse in both countries, three aspects of substitute decision making will be highlighted: (1) Should there be a legally predefined order of relatives who serve as health care proxies? (2) What should be the respective roles and decisional powers of patient-appointed versus court-appointed substitute decision-makers? (3) Which criteria should be determined by law to guide substitute decision-makers?

  14. Reporting the Rhetoric, Implementation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Represented in Ireland's Second Report to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiersey, Rachel A.; Hayes, Noirin

    2010-01-01

    Ireland's second periodic report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) presents the government's case that it is succeeding in protecting and promoting the rights of all children in Ireland. This article presents a critical discourse analysis of the government's Report to the CRC. Using a refined critical discourse…

  15. Historical analysis and visualization of the retreat of Findelengletscher, Switzerland, 1859-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastner, P.; Joerg, P. C.; Huss, M.; Zemp, M.

    2016-10-01

    Since the end of the Little Ice Age around 1850, glaciers in Europe have strongly retreated. Thanks to early topographic surveys in Switzerland, accurate maps are available, which enable us to trace glacier changes back in time. The earliest map for all of Switzerland that is usable for a detailed analysis is the Dufour map from around 1850 with subsequent topographic maps on a 20 year interval. Despite the large public and scientific interest in glacier changes through time, this historic dataset has not yet been fully utilized for topographic change assessment or visualization of historic glacier extents. In this study, we use eleven historical topographic maps and more recent digital datasets for the region of Zermatt to analyze geometric changes (length, area and volume) of Findelengletscher as well as for creating animations of glacier evolution through time for use in public communication. All maps were georeferenced, the contour lines digitized, and digital elevation models (DEMs) created and co-registered. Additional digital data like the SRTM X-band DEM and high resolution laser scanning data were used to extend the analysis until 2010. Moreover, one independent DEM from aerial photogrammetry was used for comparison. During the period 1859-2010, Findelengletscher lost 3.5 km of its length (6.9 km in 2010), 4.42 ± 0.13 km2 of its area (15.05 ± 0.45 km2 in 2010) and 1.32 ± 0.52 km3 of its volume. The average rate of thickness loss is 0.45 ± 0.042 m yr- 1 for the 151 years period. Four periods with high thickness change from - 0.56 m ± 0.28 yr- 1 (1859-1881), - 0.40 ± 0.08 m yr- 1 (1937-1965), - 0.90 ± 0.31 m yr- 1 (1995-2000) and - 1.18 ± 0.02 m yr- 1 (2000-2005) have been identified. Small positive thickness changes were found for the periods 1890-1909 (+ 0.09 ± 0.46 m yr- 1) and 1988-1995 (+ 0.05 ± 0.24 m yr- 1). During its retreat with intermittent periods of advance, the glacier separated into three parts. The above changes are demonstrated

  16. Historical Epidemics Cartography Generated by Spatial Analysis: Mapping the Heterogeneity of Three Medieval "Plagues" in Dijon

    PubMed Central

    Galanaud, Pierre; Galanaud, Anne; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This work was designed to adapt Geographical Information System-based spatial analysis to the study of historical epidemics. We mapped "plague" deaths during three epidemics of the early 15th century, analyzed spatial distributions by applying the Kulldorff's method, and determined their relationships with the distribution of socio-professional categories in the city of Dijon. Materials and Methods Our study was based on a database including 50 annual tax registers (established from 1376 to 1447) indicating deaths and survivors among the heads of households, their home location, tax level and profession. The households of the deceased and survivors during 6 years with excess mortality were individually located on a georeferenced medieval map, established by taking advantage of the preserved geography of the historical center of Dijon. We searched for clusters of heads of households characterized by shared tax levels (high-tax payers, the upper decile; low-tax payers, the half charged at the minimum level) or professional activities and for clusters of differential mortality. Results High-tax payers were preferentially in the northern intramural part, as well as most wealthy or specialized professionals, whereas low-tax payers were preferentially in the southern part. During two epidemics, in 1400–1401 and 1428, areas of higher mortality were found in the northern part whereas areas of lower mortality were in the southern one. A high concentration of housing and the proximity to food stocks were common features of the most affected areas, creating suitable conditions for rats to pullulate. A third epidemic, lasting from 1438 to 1440 had a different and evolving geography: cases were initially concentrated around the southern gate, at the confluence of three rivers, they were then diffuse, and ended with residual foci of deaths in the northern suburb. Conclusion Using a selected historical source, we designed an approach allowing spatial analysis of

  17. Object-oriented analysis of multi-temporal panchromatic images for creation of historical landslide inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martha, Tapas R.; Kerle, Norman; van Westen, Cees J.; Jetten, Victor; Vinod Kumar, K.

    2012-01-01

    Object-oriented analysis (OOA) has been demonstrated to produce more accurate results than pixel-based image processing. Studies carried out by previous researchers have shown how landslide inventories can be prepared from multispectral satellite images using OOA. However, panchromatic images are frequently the only data available after a landslide event. Furthermore, preparation of historical inventories relies on the analysis of satellite images and aerial photographs acquired over past few decades that are also mostly only available in black and white. In such cases the methodology developed using multispectral data cannot be used directly due to limited spectral information, in particular in near-infrared bands. In this paper we present a new methodology that addresses some of these issues. Using high resolution panchromatic images from Cartosat-1 (2.5 m) and IRS-1D (5.8 m), and a 10 m gridded DTM extracted from Cartosat-1, we developed a new approach which uses change detection techniques and a global contextual criteria in an object-based environment to detect and classify landslides into five different types. Continuous time series images from 1998 to 2006 were used to prepare annual landslide inventories in a highly rugged Himalayan terrain. The maximum and minimum detection percentages achieved for all landslides are 96.7% and 71.5%, respectively, with corresponding quality percentages of 88.1% and 55.3%, respectively. However, the lack of spectral information proved to be a hurdle resulting in a high branching factor that indicates that further work is required to eliminate false positives. Nevertheless, the method was able to create much needed historical landslide inventories, which are critical for landslide hazard and risk assessment studies.

  18. The HIV/AIDS caregiver identity as a double-edged sword: a discourse analysis on HIV/AIDS caregiving in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Vania

    2014-09-01

    This article discusses the identity of HIV/AIDS caregivers as constructed by a group of HIV/AIDS caregivers at a non-profit organisation in South Africa. During a 12-month period data were collected through interviews with the organisation's staff and volunteers. Using discourse analysis, the study identified a caregiver identity constructed by participants. This caregiving identity acts as a double-edged sword: while the rewards of caregiving act as a buffer against stressful experiences, the prescriptive nature of the caregiver identity is taxing, and may explain burnout among HIV/AIDS caregivers. The study concludes that for support systems for HIV/AIDS caregivers to be effective, the social culture and identity of HIV/AIDS caregivers must be considered.

  19. The role of genes in talking about overweight: An analysis of discourse on genetics, overweight and health risks in relation to nutrigenomics.

    PubMed

    Komduur, Rixt; Te Molder, Hedwig

    2014-11-01

    This study examines whether the assumptions embedded in nutrigenomics, especially the alleged relation between information about personal health risks and healthy behaviour, match how people account for the relation between food, health and genes in everyday life. We draw on discourse analysis to study accounts of overweight in six group interviews with people who are and who are not overweight. The results show potentially contradictory normative orientations towards behavioural explanations of (over)weight. Overt gene accounts are interactionally problematic (in contrast to more indirect accounts such as 'build'), indicating that participants treat 'behaviour' as the normatively appropriate explanation for overweight. At the same time, however, healthy behaviour is an accountable matter, i.e. it is dealt with in interaction as behaviour that is not self-evidently right but requires an explanation. It is discussed how bringing these interactional concerns to the surface is essential for understanding future users' response to nutrigenomics and emergent technologies more in general.

  20. Integrating Social Activity Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis: A Multilayered Methodological Model for Examining Knowledge Mediation in Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becher, Ayelet; Orland-Barak, Lily

    2016-01-01

    This study suggests an integrative qualitative methodological framework for capturing complexity in mentoring activity. Specifically, the model examines how historical developments of a discipline direct mentors' mediation of professional knowledge through the language that they use. The model integrates social activity theory and a framework of…