Science.gov

Sample records for historical space psychology

  1. Historical space psychology: Early terrestrial explorations as Mars analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suedfeld, Peter

    2010-03-01

    The simulation and analogue environments used by psychologists to circumvent the difficulties of conducting research in space lack many of the unique characteristics of future explorations, especially the mission to Mars. This paper suggests that appropriate additional analogues would be the multi-year maritime and terrestrial explorations that mapped the surface of the Earth in previous centuries. These, like Mars, often involved a hazardous trek through unknown territory, flanked by extended, dangerous voyages to and from the exploration sites. Characteristic issues included interpersonal relationships under prolonged stress, stretches of boredom interspersed with intense work demands, the impossibility of rescue, resupply, or other help from home, chronic danger, physical discomfort and lack of privacy, and the crucial role of the leader. Illustrative examples of one important factor, leadership style, are discussed. The examination of such expeditions can help to identify the psychological stressors that are likely to be experienced by Mars explorers, and can also indicate countermeasures to reduce the damaging impact of those stressors.

  2. Historizing epistemology in psychology.

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Gordana

    2010-12-01

    The conflict between the psychometric methodological framework and the particularities of human experiences reported in psychotherapeutic context led Michael Schwarz to raise the question whether psychology is based on a methodological error. I take this conflict as a heuristic tool for the reconstruction of the early history of psychology, which bears witness to similar epistemological conflicts, though the dominant historiography of psychology has largely forgotten alternative conceptions and their valuable insights into complexities of psychic phenomena. In order to work against the historical amnesia in psychology I suggest to look at cultural-historical contexts which decisively shaped epistemological choices in psychology. Instead of keeping epistemology and history of psychology separate, which nurtures individualism and naturalism in psychology, I argue for historizing epistemology and for historical psychology. From such a historically reflected perspective psychology in contemporary world can be approached more critically. PMID:20514532

  3. Space psychology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  4. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  5. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  6. Historical Sign at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This sign, displayed on the grounds of Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, commemorates the designation of the Redstone Test Site as a National Historic Landmark. The site was inducted into the National Register of Historical Places in 1976.

  7. Puerto Rican Phenotype: Understanding Its Historical Underpinnings and Psychological Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Irene

    2008-01-01

    The following is a historically informed review of Puerto Rican phenotype. Geared toward educating psychologists, this review discusses how various psychological issues associated with phenotype may have arisen as a result of historical legacies and policies associated with race and racial mixing. It discusses how these policies used various…

  8. Historical annotated bibliography: Space Station documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Jessie E. (Compiler); Mckinley, Sarah L. (Compiler); Gates, Thomas G. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    Information is presented regarding documentation which has been produced in the Space Station program. This information will enable the researcher to locate readily documents pertinent to a particular study. It is designed to give the historian the necessary data from which to compile the written histories and to preserve records of historically significant aspects of Marshall's involvement in Space Shuttle and Space Station.

  9. Psychological and interpersonal issues in space.

    PubMed

    Kanas, N

    1987-06-01

    As future manned space missions become longer, and as crews become more heterogeneous, psychological and interpersonal factors will take on increasing importance in assuring mission success. On the basis of a review of more than 60 American and Soviet space simulation studies on Earth, along with reports from U.S. and Soviet space missions, the author identifies nine psychological and seven interpersonal issues, which are discussed along with pertinent research findings and examples from manned spaceflights. He concludes that more psychological and interpersonal research should be done under actual spaceflight conditions and offers suggestions.

  10. Psychological and interpersonal issues in space.

    PubMed

    Kanas, N

    1987-06-01

    As future manned space missions become longer, and as crews become more heterogeneous, psychological and interpersonal factors will take on increasing importance in assuring mission success. On the basis of a review of more than 60 American and Soviet space simulation studies on Earth, along with reports from U.S. and Soviet space missions, the author identifies nine psychological and seven interpersonal issues, which are discussed along with pertinent research findings and examples from manned spaceflights. He concludes that more psychological and interpersonal research should be done under actual spaceflight conditions and offers suggestions. PMID:2884888

  11. [Autism: exploring historical psychiatric and psychological concepts].

    PubMed

    Kumbier, E; Haack, K; Herpertz, S C

    2008-08-01

    Autism today is a widely used term, yet what is understood by autism has changed considerably since first being introduced in scientific discourse almost 100 years ago. Autism is one example for the influence of the psychoanalytic school of Sigmund Freud on scientific psychiatry at the beginning of the 20th century. In particular psychoanalysis had an impact on Eugen Bleuler's concept of schizophrenia. The Swiss psychiatrist did not only acknowledge and follow a biological, but also a psychological approach to psychiatry and thus opened up his subject to psychoanalytic thoughts. This paper provides insights into the term's conceptual history--or, more specifically and precisely--sheds light on the expansion of the term's scope, which has gotten to be used for more and more symptoms and phenomena. When Bleuler first presented the term autism, he used it to refer to a classical schizophrenic symptom. Since, however, Bleuler was not very specific and exclusive in his definition, the term was soon used for other phenomena as well, such as to describe a schizoid symptom in the sense of today's schizoid personality disorder (schizoid autism). The concepts of autistic hebephrenia and depressive autism are further examples how the term was used and give insight into how the contents behind the term changed, got less and less specific and widened its scope. Due to its growing vagueness its suitability and usability as a psychopathological term decreased. This process further was strengthened when the word autism got more and more widely used in colloquial language for different aspects of day-to-day routine and thinking. Thus in psychiatry today, autism is exclusively used in connection with the so-called autism spectrum disorders, but has, as other formerly exclusively technical terms, different and rather unspecific meanings in everyday communication. PMID:18677680

  12. [Autism: exploring historical psychiatric and psychological concepts].

    PubMed

    Kumbier, E; Haack, K; Herpertz, S C

    2008-08-01

    Autism today is a widely used term, yet what is understood by autism has changed considerably since first being introduced in scientific discourse almost 100 years ago. Autism is one example for the influence of the psychoanalytic school of Sigmund Freud on scientific psychiatry at the beginning of the 20th century. In particular psychoanalysis had an impact on Eugen Bleuler's concept of schizophrenia. The Swiss psychiatrist did not only acknowledge and follow a biological, but also a psychological approach to psychiatry and thus opened up his subject to psychoanalytic thoughts. This paper provides insights into the term's conceptual history--or, more specifically and precisely--sheds light on the expansion of the term's scope, which has gotten to be used for more and more symptoms and phenomena. When Bleuler first presented the term autism, he used it to refer to a classical schizophrenic symptom. Since, however, Bleuler was not very specific and exclusive in his definition, the term was soon used for other phenomena as well, such as to describe a schizoid symptom in the sense of today's schizoid personality disorder (schizoid autism). The concepts of autistic hebephrenia and depressive autism are further examples how the term was used and give insight into how the contents behind the term changed, got less and less specific and widened its scope. Due to its growing vagueness its suitability and usability as a psychopathological term decreased. This process further was strengthened when the word autism got more and more widely used in colloquial language for different aspects of day-to-day routine and thinking. Thus in psychiatry today, autism is exclusively used in connection with the so-called autism spectrum disorders, but has, as other formerly exclusively technical terms, different and rather unspecific meanings in everyday communication.

  13. Psychological considerations in future space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.; Wilhelm, J. A.; Runge, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Issues affecting human psychological adjustments to long space missions are discussed. Noting that the Shuttle flight crewmembers will not have extensive flight qualification requirements, the effects of a more heterogeneous crew mixture than in early space flights is considered to create possibilities of social conflicts. Routine space flight will decrease the novelty of a formerly unique experience, and the necessity of providing personal space or other mechanisms for coping with crowded, permanently occupied space habitats is stressed. Women are noted to display more permeable personal space requirements. The desirability of planning leisure activities is reviewed, and psychological test results for female and male characteristics are cited to show that individuals with high scores in both traditionally male and female attributes are most capable of effective goal-oriented behavior and interpersonal relationships. Finally, it is shown that competitiveness is negatively correlated with the success of collaborative work and the social climate of an environment.

  14. Studies in Historical Replication in Psychology I: Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tweney, Ryan D.

    2008-05-01

    This special issue reports a project in which the replication of historically meaningful studies was carried out by graduate students in a history of psychology course. In this introduction, I outline the nature of the project and its rationale, and briefly sketch the results. The subsequent five papers represent scholarly presentations of five selected replications written by students in the course. These are followed by a commentary on the project by an educational psychologist.

  15. Psychology and space: from the frying pan into the fire?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Fay Terris

    1986-08-01

    The needs of space colonization pose many questions relevant to psychology. What would be the psychological consequences of living in space? What personality characteristics would you wish in your companion colonists? How would you design a space colony to avoid undesirable psychological consequences? Are we ready to go? The answers to these and other questions could form an interesting psychology course.

  16. [The identity of medical psychology: a historical quest].

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Holger

    2014-11-01

    The starting point of this study is the current uncertainty in German-speaking medical psychology about its actual and very own natural area of expertise. The current study ventures to advance the hypothesis that part of this uncertainty is due to the fact that during the scientific area in its history (approx. 1850-1960) medical psychology abandoned its historical core competence as it emerged and developed during the age of enlightenment (end of 17(th)-18(th) centuries). To make this change clear, different examples of the 2 opposing conceptualisations of medical psychology are discussed, of course in a selected and maybe even provocative way. The change in concept also led to the fact that the interrelationships with and differentiation from its neighbouring disciplines are not clear and sharp either, since at times 2 or more disciplines declare themselves competent for one and the same thing. This is exemplified on the manifold overlappings with clinical psychology. Given the lack of resources now and in the future, this lack of a clear definition of competence might lead to continued uncertainty as well as to conflicts over distribution. On the other hand though, the look into the history of the subject reveals that at all times it has been a matter of individual approach or attitude as to what was regarded as core area of interest and competence of medical psychology and how far it overlapped with neighbouring disciplines. From the point of view of the history of psychiatry and on the basis of carefully selected historic material, this paper presents the core of 2 different concepts of medical psychology to elaborate this hypothesis.

  17. Psychological health maintenance on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    The scheduling of crew rotations at intervals of as much as 180 days on NASA's Space Station Freedom entails that the cumulative effects of psychological, emotional, and social stressors on astronauts be monitored. The Space Station's Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) will furnish preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic assistance for significant psychiatric and interpersonal problems. Mental health professionals must be part of the team of medical personnel charged with facilitating the physiological and phychological transition from earth to space and back. An account is presently given of the critical factors to be addressed by HMF personnel on extended-duration missions.

  18. Why the self is empty. Toward a historically situated psychology.

    PubMed

    Cushman, P

    1990-05-01

    This article presents a contextualized treatment of the current configuration of self, some of the pathologies that plague it, and the technologies that attempt to heal it. Of particular interest is the historical shift from the Victorian, sexually restricted self to the post-World War II empty self. The empty self is soothed and made cohesive by becoming "filled up" with food, consumer products, and celebrities. Its historical antecedents, economic constituents, and political consequences are the focus of this article. The two professions most responsible for healing the empty self, advertising and psychotherapy, find themselves in a bind: They must treat a psychological symptom without being able to address its historical causes. Both circumvent the bind by employing the life-style solution, a strategy that attempts to heal by covertly filling the empty self with the accoutrements, values, and mannerisms of idealized figures. This strategy solves an old problem but creates new ones, including an opportunity for abuse by exploitive therapists, cult leaders, and politicians. Psychology's role in constructing the empty self, and thus reproducing the current hierarchy of power and privilege, is examined.

  19. Applying Psychology in Outer Space: Unfulfilled Promises Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    Argues that research in personality and social psychology has an important role in the nation's spage program. Holds that psychologists' indifference and the structure of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have led to underutilization of psychological data in space exploration. Presents suggestions for increasing psychology's role…

  20. Space Psychology: A New Frontier. Implications for the Profession of Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Hayden, Davis C.

    As many of the physical problems of space travel are solved, scientists are beginning to address the psychological needs of the astronauts. While the last decade has produced technological advances making space travel and work a definite possibility, psychologists and the public are largely unaware of the psychological and socio-psychological…

  1. Space Station Live: Historic Vacuum Chamber to Test Webb Telescope

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot recently visited Johnson Space Center’s 400,000 cubic foot vacuum chamber, Chamber A, and spoke with Mary Cerimele, the lab manager for this historic facility.

  2. Racial Identity and Psychological Symptoms among African Americans Attending a Historically Black University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Stefanie C.; So, Dominicus; Russell, Tina Maria; Wessel, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research found racial identity predictive of psychological distress among African American students at predominantly White colleges. This study examined these relationships among 154 African American undergraduates attending a historically Black university. Racial identity was independent of psychological distress, suggesting that African…

  3. Historical overview of the US use of space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1961, the United States has successfully flown 35 space nuclear power sources on 20 space systems. These space systems have included the Apollo, Pioneer, Viking and Voyager spacecraft launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and navigation and communications satellites launched by the Department of Defense. These power sources performed as planned and i8n many cases exceeded their power requirements and/or lifetimes. All of the power sources met their safety requirements. This paper surveys past uses of space nuclear power in the US and thus serves as a historical framework for other papers in this Conference dealing with future US applications of space nuclear power.

  4. Historical intersections of psychology, religion, and politics in national contexts.

    PubMed

    Kugelmann, Robert; Belzen, Jacob A

    2009-08-01

    Various types of psychology have come into existence in and have been interacting with a plurality of contexts, contexts that have been radically varying in different states or nations. One important factor in the development of psychology has been the multiple relationships to the Christian religion, whether understood as an institution, a worldview, or a form of personal spirituality. The articles in this issue focus on the intertwinements between institutional religion and national political structures and on their influence on developing forms of psychology in four different national contexts: Spain, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Within these four settings, aspects of the ways in which varying forms of Christian religion coconstituted, facilitated, and shaped psychology, theoretically, practically, and institutionally, are examined. The formative power of the religions was not independent of the relationships between religion and political power, but rather mediated by these.

  5. [Space physiology and psychology: long missions].

    PubMed

    Lazorthes, G

    1989-06-01

    Until now spatial physiology and medicine concern mainly disturbances caused by life in microgravity during short stay (days, weeks). Neuro-sensorial, cardiovascular, osteo-muscular manifestations are well known; their prophylaxis is in great part established. It is shortly speak of them. Consequence of long stay (months or years) are not so well known; they are physiologic and psychologic. These long flights are now rare but they would probably be more numerous in next future. Authors present successively physics dangers: radiations, meteorites, composition of screw, number and selective tests, alimentation, fry time, habitation, biologic rhythms, psychism... We meet the same psychologic problems as great explorations have known.

  6. Telescopes Lofted to Space: An Historical Chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, Peter

    2005-01-01

    To become airborne was an early dream of humanity. It was a profound dream because of the meaningfulness of the perspective from aloft: the subject was able to observe the Earth and to become closer to heaven. In this context, a telescope is the most basic augmentation of the airborne experience: it expands the new perspective, allows measurement and analysis, and provides new forms of beauty. The first telescopes in space were anticipated by imaginative authors and by exacting engineers, whose dreams and proposals have a part in this story. The earliest telescopes to achieve space, the rocket-launched suborbital missions, both successes and failures, will be described, along with the effect they had on science and culture. Telescopes in orbit and in space probes are the current generation of instruments, a prelude to a future of lunar and planetary telescopes. Every success can be seen to have had a direct effect on the widening of horizons provided by the telescope. This paper will serve as an introduction to a very extensive subject.

  7. Rocks From Space: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    2013-10-01

    The notion that rocks could fall to Earth from space was not seriously considered until the early nineteenth century. The impact origin of the lunar craters reached a scientific consensus only in the mid twentieth century and a wide understanding that the Earth’s neighborhood is crowded with millions of near-Earth asteroids that could cause impact damage to Earth is less than a few decades old. In the late seventeenth century, even such notable scientists as Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton ruled out the existence of small bodies in space. In 1794, the German physicist and father of acoustics Ernst F.F. Chladni published a short list of fireball events and effectively argued that these events and the meteorites they dropped could not have been atmospheric and were likely due to cosmic rocks entering the Earth’s atmosphere. In 1802 the British chemist Edward Charles Howard showed that several meteoritic stones had similar chemical compositions and that nickel, which is seldom present in terrestrial rocks except in trace amounts, was common to all of them. These two pivotal works, along with a number of early nineteenth century falls, slowly strengthened the notion that fireball events and the stones they dropped were of celestial, rather than atmospheric, origin. Even so, it was well into the mid twentieth century before Meteor Crater in particular and the obvious lunar craters in general were widely considered as impact phenomena rather than being due to volcanic eruptions or steam generated explosions. It seems that despite Mother Nature’s best attempts to point out the importance of impact events in the solar system and the existence of a vast population of near-Earth asteroids, much of the scientific community reached these viewpoints rather late. Likely reasons for this slow acceptance of rocks from space will be discussed.

  8. Space reliability technology - A historical perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, H.

    1984-01-01

    The progressive improvements in reliability of launch vehicles is traced from the Vanguard rocket to the STS. The Vanguard, built with minimal redundancy and a high mass ratio, was used as an operational vehicle midway through its test program in an attempt to meet the perceived challenge represented by the Sputnik. The fourth Vanguard failed due to inadequate contamination prevention and lack of inspection ports. Automatic firing sequences were adopted for the Titan rockets, which were an order of magnitude larger than the Vanguard and therefore had room for interior inspections. Qualification testing and reporting were introduced for components, along with X ray inspection of fuel tank welds. Dual systems were added for flight critical components when the Titan became man-rated for the Gemini program. Designs incorporated full failure mode effects and criticality analyses for the Apollo program, which exposed the limits of applicability of numerical reliability models. Fault tree analyses and program milestone reviews were initiated. The worth of man-in-the-loop in space activities for reliability was demonstrated with the rescue of Skylab after solar panel and meteoroid shield failures. It is now the reliability of the payload, rather than the vehicle, that is questioned for Shuttle launches.

  9. The Lvov-Warsaw School: The forgotten tradition of historical psychology.

    PubMed

    Citlak, Amadeusz

    2016-05-01

    This article is an attempt to reconstruct the psychological achievements of the representatives of the Lvov-Warsaw School of historical psychology, virtually forgotten and unknown in the world's psychological literature. Kazimierz Twardowski (1866-1938), founder of the school, developed a philosophical and psychological program on the basis of (among other things) the theory of actions and products, including the research program that is now included in the thread of historical psychology. His student, Wladyslaw Witwicki (1878-1948), developed the cratism theory (the theory of power) on the basis Twardowski's assumptions, providing an alternative to Alfred Adler's theory of striving for superiority while also declaring it a few years before Adler. The consequence of Witwicki's theory and the methodological assumptions was the creation of psychobiography: the first nonpsychoanalytical psychobiography of Socrates (Witwicki, 1909, 1922) and the psychobiography of Jesus Christ (Witwicki, 1958). The school's activities weakened for political reasons, particularly the outbreak of the First World War. The members of the school dispersed after 1918, and they lost international connections with the world of science. Their significant achievements in the field of psychology remained unknown to psychologists for nearly a century. In this article, I would like to present the school's unique but unfinished program of reconstructing mental life through the psychological interpretation of cultural products (literature, arts, diaries), and its value for the practice of research in historical psychology. This program required additional development, but because of the war this never happened. Some of the school's theoretical findings and the first attempts to apply them have still significant value and show us the originality of Lvov-Warsaw School psychology. PMID:27100926

  10. The Lvov-Warsaw School: The forgotten tradition of historical psychology.

    PubMed

    Citlak, Amadeusz

    2016-05-01

    This article is an attempt to reconstruct the psychological achievements of the representatives of the Lvov-Warsaw School of historical psychology, virtually forgotten and unknown in the world's psychological literature. Kazimierz Twardowski (1866-1938), founder of the school, developed a philosophical and psychological program on the basis of (among other things) the theory of actions and products, including the research program that is now included in the thread of historical psychology. His student, Wladyslaw Witwicki (1878-1948), developed the cratism theory (the theory of power) on the basis Twardowski's assumptions, providing an alternative to Alfred Adler's theory of striving for superiority while also declaring it a few years before Adler. The consequence of Witwicki's theory and the methodological assumptions was the creation of psychobiography: the first nonpsychoanalytical psychobiography of Socrates (Witwicki, 1909, 1922) and the psychobiography of Jesus Christ (Witwicki, 1958). The school's activities weakened for political reasons, particularly the outbreak of the First World War. The members of the school dispersed after 1918, and they lost international connections with the world of science. Their significant achievements in the field of psychology remained unknown to psychologists for nearly a century. In this article, I would like to present the school's unique but unfinished program of reconstructing mental life through the psychological interpretation of cultural products (literature, arts, diaries), and its value for the practice of research in historical psychology. This program required additional development, but because of the war this never happened. Some of the school's theoretical findings and the first attempts to apply them have still significant value and show us the originality of Lvov-Warsaw School psychology.

  11. Differences and Deficits in Psychological Research in Historical Perspective: A Commentary on the Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This commentary traces discussions of psychological differences and deficits from the mid-1950s to the current day, positioning the disciplinary discussions in the social-historical context in which they took place. The challenges of assessing diagnoses of deficit and the potential harms that result when misdiagnosis is implemented as social…

  12. Differences and deficits in psychological research in historical perspective: a commentary on the special section.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This commentary traces discussions of psychological differences and deficits from the mid-1950s to the current day, positioning the disciplinary discussions in the social-historical context in which they took place. The challenges of assessing diagnoses of deficit and the potential harms that result when misdiagnosis is implemented as social policy pervade the discussion over time. PMID:23316775

  13. Psychological and psychiatric issues in space.

    PubMed

    Kanas, Nick

    2002-07-01

    Based on anecdotal reports from space and studies of space analog environments on Earth, a number of psychosocial and psychiatric issues have been identified that can lead to problems in space. We studied several of these issues during a series of Shuttle/Mir missions. We found support for decrements in commander support during the 2nd half of the missions and a novelty effect in U.S. astronauts at the beginning. Displacement of unpleasant emotions to outside individuals was found in both crewmember and mission control subjects. Americans were less happy with their work environment than Russians, and mission control personnel were more dysphoric than crewmembers. The subjects considered problems on-board the Mir to be major critical events. We found no evidence for the occurrence of asthenia during the missions, although our measure did not evaluate all of the features of this syndrome.

  14. Psychological and psychiatric issues in space.

    PubMed

    Kanas, Nick

    2002-07-01

    Based on anecdotal reports from space and studies of space analog environments on Earth, a number of psychosocial and psychiatric issues have been identified that can lead to problems in space. We studied several of these issues during a series of Shuttle/Mir missions. We found support for decrements in commander support during the 2nd half of the missions and a novelty effect in U.S. astronauts at the beginning. Displacement of unpleasant emotions to outside individuals was found in both crewmember and mission control subjects. Americans were less happy with their work environment than Russians, and mission control personnel were more dysphoric than crewmembers. The subjects considered problems on-board the Mir to be major critical events. We found no evidence for the occurrence of asthenia during the missions, although our measure did not evaluate all of the features of this syndrome. PMID:15002594

  15. Historical generations and psychology. The case of the Great Depression and World War II.

    PubMed

    Rogler, Lloyd H

    2002-12-01

    The author assembles a theory of historical generations from dispersed sources in the social and behavioral sciences and in the humanities, differentiates the theory from formulations of other generation concepts, and applies it to central features in the lives of persons in the generation of the Great Depression and World War II. The application of the theory to historical materials explains how a commitment to social interdependence emerged as the signature orientation of the generation of the Great Depression and World War II. Challenges to the perspective of contextualism stem from the theory's hypotheses about linkages that mediate between cataclysmic events and psychological processes, the influence of historical generations on many of psychology's everyday concerns, and instructive comparisons with a body of growing research on processes involving adaptations to different cultures. PMID:12613154

  16. Psychological aspects of living in space - architectural challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häuplik, Sandra; Lorenz, Susanne

    2002-10-01

    Space missions have generally involved crews, drawn from a highly homogeneous pool (such as white, educated, young adult males) and functioned for limited periods of time. Future missions may involve crews drawn from a more heterogeneous pool and missions could eventually last years. 3 to 5-person groups are considered appropriate for the Space Shuttle and the first interplanetry missions. In addition to the above mentioned topics the success of a mission will no longer be dependent only on safety issues due to technological progress, but sociological and psychological aspects will become important determinants off the success or failure of future space missions. To create and ensure the social and psychological balance an adequate spatial planning is essential. In the following essay notions for a conception basis of designing a space station will be described.

  17. Invulnerability, coping, salutogenesis, integration: four phases of space psychology.

    PubMed

    Suedfeld, Peter

    2005-06-01

    The relationship between NASA and the psychological research community has progressed through a number of phases during the past four decades. This paper summarizes how the relationship has developed as data have accumulated and space missions and crews have changed. In the beginning, most NASA astronauts and staff considered possible psychological problems during space missions to be a non-issue. It was assumed that people with "the right stuff" would not experience any such problems. A more realistic recognition of stress and its consequences has led to a concern with prevention and countermeasures, a concern that has come to dominate NASA's involvement with psychology. Very recently, space psychologists have started to import the concepts of positive psychology, and consider the benefits of participation in the space program, including the self-enhancing aspects of stressful experiences (salutogenesis). Both the agency and psychologists now need to broaden their thinking and their research to cover the gamut of empirical data and theoretical concepts. These include human strengths as well as vulnerabilities, both negative and positive impacts of spaceflight, long- as well as short-term effects, and the reactions not only of the astronauts themselves but also of ground personnel and the families of both groups.

  18. Psychology and culture during long-duration space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, N.; Sandal, G.; Boyd, J. E.; Gushin, V. I.; Manzey, D.; North, R.; Leon, G. R.; Suedfeld, P.; Bishop, S.; Fiedler, E. R.; Inoue, N.; Johannes, B.; Kealey, D. J.; Kraft, N.; Matsuzaki, I.; Musson, D.; Palinkas, L. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Sipes, W.; Stuster, J.; Wang, J.

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this paper is twofold: (a) to review the current knowledge of cultural, psychological, psychiatric, cognitive, interpersonal, and organizational issues that are relevant to the behavior and performance of astronaut crews and ground support personnel and (b) to make recommendations for future human space missions, including both transit and planetary surface operations involving the Moon or Mars. The focus will be on long-duration missions lasting at least six weeks, when important psychological and interpersonal factors begin to take their toll on crewmembers. This information is designed to provide guidelines for astronaut selection and training, in-flight monitoring and support, and post-flight recovery and re-adaptation.

  19. The role of work in psychological health and well-being: a conceptual, historical, and public policy perspective.

    PubMed

    Blustein, David L

    2008-01-01

    The primary theme of this article, which serves as the introductory contribution of a special section of the American Psychologist, is that work plays a central role in the development, expression, and maintenance of psychological health. The argument underlying this assumption is articulated at the outset of the article in conjunction with a historical review of vocational psychology and industrial/organizational psychology. The article follows with an overview of contemporary vocational psychology and a presentation of the psychology-of-working perspective, which has emerged from critiques of vocational psychology and from multicultural, feminist, and expanded epistemological analyses of psychological explorations of working. Three illustrative lines of inquiry in which research has affected the potential for informing public policy are presented. These three lines of scholarship (role of work in recovery from mental illness; occupational health psychology; and working, racism, and psychological health) are reviewed briefly to furnish exemplars of how the psychological study of working can inform public policy.

  20. Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderArk, Steve; Curtis, Kelly D.

    1999-01-01

    During the relatively short-duration Space Shuffle missions, a psychological support program for the astronauts has not been required. Such missions primarily require providing occasional communication with family members by means of audio, video or e-mail, and some diversions such as CD players. During the NASA-Mir Program, conducted from March 1995 through June 1998, mission duration increased to 4-6 months. As a result of these changes it was necessary for NASA to establish an operational Human Behavior and Performance Group (HBPG) to develop and implement a comprehensive program of psychological support. The Mir experience provided the opportunity to develop and implement a psychological support program for long-duration space missions. Many factors influence the support program, including individual preferences, mission duration, and environmental factors such as habitable and personal areas. Lessons learned from the Mir experience are being applied to improve the ISS psychological support program plan. This presentation will address which includes various preflight, in-flight, and post-flight support activities and tools that NASA's HBPG will provide to astronauts and their families for ISS missions.

  1. Antarctica natural laboratory and space analogue for psychological research.

    PubMed

    Suedfeld, P; Weiss, K

    2000-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue traces the history of psychosocial concerns related to Antarctic exploration, from the heroic age of early explorers through the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957 to 1958 to recent and current systematic research projects. The introduction discusses the organization and topics of international psychological investigations in polar stations and summarizes the articles that follow. Living in Antarctica imposes some unusual restrictions as well as opportunities, and it requires psychological adaptation to extreme environmental circumstances. The thrust of previous scientific and popular literature has been to focus on the negative effects of the situation and ignore the positive ones; however, ongoing studies are bringing about a more balanced view. Having an accurate understanding is important not only intrinsically and for appropriate application in the Antarctic itself but also in analogous extreme and unusual environments. These include extended space flight and space habitation, such as the projected voyage to Mars.

  2. Antarctica natural laboratory and space analogue for psychological research.

    PubMed

    Suedfeld, P; Weiss, K

    2000-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue traces the history of psychosocial concerns related to Antarctic exploration, from the heroic age of early explorers through the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957 to 1958 to recent and current systematic research projects. The introduction discusses the organization and topics of international psychological investigations in polar stations and summarizes the articles that follow. Living in Antarctica imposes some unusual restrictions as well as opportunities, and it requires psychological adaptation to extreme environmental circumstances. The thrust of previous scientific and popular literature has been to focus on the negative effects of the situation and ignore the positive ones; however, ongoing studies are bringing about a more balanced view. Having an accurate understanding is important not only intrinsically and for appropriate application in the Antarctic itself but also in analogous extreme and unusual environments. These include extended space flight and space habitation, such as the projected voyage to Mars. PMID:11542946

  3. Historically Black Colleges and University Students' and Faculties' Views of School Psychology: Implications for Increasing Diversity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Scott L., Jr.; Wright, Lynda Brown

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates Historically Black Colleges and University (HBCU) students' and faculties' knowledge related to school psychology. A total of 165 students and 14 faculty members completed inventories that assessed the understanding and views of various psychological disciplines. Results indicated that HBCU students rated their perceived…

  4. Current Psychological Support for US astronauts on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter; Fiedler, Edna

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the psychological support services that are offered to the United States astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS). The contents include: 1) Operational Psychology; 2) NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operation (NEEMO); and 3) ISS.

  5. A community psychology of men and masculinity: historical and conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Mankowski, Eric S; Maton, Kenneth I

    2010-03-01

    This paper introduces the special section by presenting a historical and conceptual review of theory and research on the psychology of men and masculinity and then introducing the section's papers. Men have power because of their gender, but differ in access to power based on other individual characteristics such as social class, income, education, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or physical strength. Men typically have been studied as generic rather than gendered beings in psychology. In contrast, a gendered analysis of men highlights the ways in which men's experience, masculinity, and behavior contribute to health and social problems and to resources commonly addressed by community psychologists. Our gendered analysis suggests ways of working with men in group, organizational, and community settings to create positive individual and social change. Crucial to this analysis is the paradox that enacting masculinity both privileges and damages men. A second paradox stems from men having power as a group over women while individual men feel powerless or victimized by women as a group. The papers in this volume illustrate key themes of our historical and conceptual review through studies of adolescent and adult men as fathers, patients, partner abusers, support group participants and community members, and through examination of the impact of their gendered identities and behavior on health, well being, and justice.

  6. Psychology in Spain: Its Historical and Cultural Roots, Instruction, Research and Future Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes-Berges, Beatriz; Aranda, Maria; Castillo-Mayen, Maria del Rosario

    2011-01-01

    Roots in Spanish Psychology dated back to Huarte de San Juan (1575). From this period to nowadays, Psychology has notably developed, branching in different areas such as psychology and sports and physical exercise, clinical and health psychology, educational psychology, psychology of social intervention, legal psychology, work and organisational…

  7. Sluggish cognitive tempo in abnormal child psychology: an historical overview and introduction to the special section.

    PubMed

    Becker, Stephen P; Marshall, Stephen A; McBurnett, Keith

    2014-01-01

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) as an important construct in the field of abnormal child psychology. Characterized by drowsiness, daydreaming, lethargy, mental confusion, and slowed thinking/behavior, SCT has primarily been studied as a feature of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and namely the predominately inattentive subtype/presentation. Although SCT is strongly associated with ADHD inattention, research increasingly supports the possibility that SCT is distinct from ADHD or perhaps a different mental health condition altogether, with unique relations to child and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. This introductory article to the Special Section on SCT provides an historical overview of the SCT construct and briefly describes the contributions of the eight empirical papers included in the Special Section. Given the emerging importance of SCT for abnormal psychology and clinical science, there is a clear need for additional studies that examine (1) the measurement, structure, and multidimensional nature of SCT, (2) SCT as statistically distinct from not only ADHD-inattention but also other psychopathologies (particularly depression and anxiety), (3) genetic and environmental contributions to the development of SCT symptoms, and (4) functional impairments associated with SCT. This Special Section brings together papers to advance the current knowledge related to these issues as well as to spur research in this exciting and expanding area of abnormal psychology.

  8. Urban Space as a Primary Source: Local History and Historical Thinking in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how local history can be used by teachers to help develop historical thinking skills such as source analysis, the collection of data, and the creation of historical arguments. Using New York City as a case study, this article argues that urban spaces and local communities provide historical evidence that can be read and…

  9. Psychological-Mindedness and American Indian Historical Trauma: Interviews with Service Providers from a Great Plains Reservation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, William E; Gone, Joseph P

    2016-03-01

    The concept of historical trauma (HT) was developed to explain clinical distress among descendants of Jewish Holocaust survivors and has since been ascribed new meanings to account for suffering in diverse contexts. In American Indian (AI) communities, the concept of AI HT has been tailored and promoted as an expanded notion of trauma that combines psychological injury with historical oppression to causally connect experiences with Euro-American colonization to contemporary behavioral health disparities. However, rather than clinical formulations emphasizing psychological injury, a focused content analysis of interviews with 23 AI health and human service providers (SPs) on a Great Plains reservation demonstrated strong preferences for socio-cultural accounts of oppression. Reflective of a local worldview associated with minimal psychological-mindedness, this study illustrates how cultural assumptions embedded within health discourses like HT can conflict with diverse cultural forms and promote "psychologized" perspectives on suffering that may limit attention to social, economic, and political determinants of health. PMID:27217325

  10. Places and Spaces: Environmental Psychology in Education. Fastback 112.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Mark

    The booklet discusses the concept of environmental psychology and suggests ways of applying environmental psychology principles to education. A new field of study, environmental psychology deals with influences of the physical environment on human attitudes and behavior. Of potential use to educators on all levels as they seek to use the physical…

  11. 41 CFR 102-73.115 - Must Federal agencies offer a price preference to space in historic properties when acquiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... offer a price preference to space in historic properties when acquiring leased space? 102-73.115 Section... Preference for Historic Properties § 102-73.115 Must Federal agencies offer a price preference to space in historic properties when acquiring leased space? Yes, Federal agencies must give a price preference...

  12. 41 CFR 102-73.115 - Must Federal agencies offer a price preference to space in historic properties when acquiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... offer a price preference to space in historic properties when acquiring leased space? 102-73.115 Section... Preference for Historic Properties § 102-73.115 Must Federal agencies offer a price preference to space in historic properties when acquiring leased space? Yes, Federal agencies must give a price preference...

  13. Postbaccalaureate Salaries of Psychology Majors from a Historically Black University: How Much Does a Master's Degree Add?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibulkin, Amy E.; Butler, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    A sample of predominantly African American psychology major baccalaureates from a historically Black university self-reported job types, salaries, and master's degree completion. For this pre-2009 recession sample, we found that (a) the rates of employment were quite high; (b) most jobs were related to health, mental health, social work, and…

  14. On the Emergence of Mental Space in Psychology: Interview With Lucas Albert Charles Derks

    PubMed Central

    Derks, Lucas Albert Charles; Manea, Alexandru Ioan

    2016-01-01

    In this interview we have the chance to talk with Lucas Albert Charles Derks, founder of the International Laboratory for Mental Space Research and of the Society for Mental Space Psychology and the creator of the Social Panorama approach, about the paradigm that evolved in the last 25 years, entitled Mental Space Psychology, with roots from Cognitive Linguistics, Spatial Cognition and Neuroscience. Today we shall explore the psychotherapeutic approaches which use the Mental Space Psychology, their applicability and their limitations, with a special focus on his own approach, entitled Social Panorama. PMID:27298638

  15. [Prevention of psychoemotional disorders on a prolonged space flight by psychological support means].

    PubMed

    Miasnikov, V I; Kozerenko, O P

    1981-01-01

    A number of supportive and rehabilitative measures forming so-called psychological support can be used to prevent potential psychoemotional disorders in crewmembers during prolonged space missions. The use of these measures in the Salyut--6--Soyuz 96--185-day space flights has shown their efficiency in terms of expansion of the "psychological living space" and maintenance of a high emotional and working tone of crewmembers. PMID:6115085

  16. The idea of Space Weather A historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, R. P.

    This paper reports the results of a search to determine who originated the concept and/or the term Space Weather. Though many people have been identified with an early use of the term "Space Weather", the first one to have introduced the term seems to be Thomas Gold of Harvard College Observatory, in a 1959 publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research.

  17. All the way up or all the way down?: Some historical reflections on theories of psychological continuity.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, John D

    2016-08-01

    In this paper I chart the history of the development of theories of psychological continuity in the modern period, beginning with the contrasting positions of René Descartes and Julian Offrey de la Mettrie during the period of the scientific revolution in Europe. In providing the logical geography of competing positions, I distinguish between two forms of strong psychological continuity and discontinuity, between theories of strong continuity and discontinuity between cognitive and associative processes and between theories of strong continuity and discontinuity between human and animal psychology and behavior. I note that both forms of strong continuity and discontinuity have tended to be affirmed or denied together, and have only rarely and recently been decoupled, opening up a new theoretical position in the debate, which affirms strong discontinuity between cognitive and associative processes but strong continuity between human psychology and some forms of animal psychology. Although the historical trend in the late 19th and early 20th century was to extend explanations in terms of association "all the way up" to the highest human cognitive processes, some contemporary theorists have tried to extend cognitive explanations "all the way down" to associative processes in both humans and nonhuman animals. I draw some tentative conclusions about the theoretical options in contemporary research on psychological continuity. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. All the way up or all the way down?: Some historical reflections on theories of psychological continuity.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, John D

    2016-08-01

    In this paper I chart the history of the development of theories of psychological continuity in the modern period, beginning with the contrasting positions of René Descartes and Julian Offrey de la Mettrie during the period of the scientific revolution in Europe. In providing the logical geography of competing positions, I distinguish between two forms of strong psychological continuity and discontinuity, between theories of strong continuity and discontinuity between cognitive and associative processes and between theories of strong continuity and discontinuity between human and animal psychology and behavior. I note that both forms of strong continuity and discontinuity have tended to be affirmed or denied together, and have only rarely and recently been decoupled, opening up a new theoretical position in the debate, which affirms strong discontinuity between cognitive and associative processes but strong continuity between human psychology and some forms of animal psychology. Although the historical trend in the late 19th and early 20th century was to extend explanations in terms of association "all the way up" to the highest human cognitive processes, some contemporary theorists have tried to extend cognitive explanations "all the way down" to associative processes in both humans and nonhuman animals. I draw some tentative conclusions about the theoretical options in contemporary research on psychological continuity. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26689447

  19. Chase Plane Video Of Historic SpaceX Splashdown

    NASA Video Gallery

    During the re-entry of SpaceX's Dragon capsule, NASA and the United States Navy flew a P-3 Orion Cast Glance aircraft to capture airborne views of the spacecraft's descent. The aircraft, based at t...

  20. Studies in Historical Replication in Psychology VII: The Relative Utility of ``Ancestor Analysis'' from Scientific and Educational Vantages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranney, Michael Andrew

    2008-05-01

    This article discusses, from various vantages, Ryan Tweney’s (this issue) pedagogical technique of employing historical replications of psychological experiments with graduate students in psychology. A prima facie perspective suggests great promise for this sort of academic “ancestor analysis,” particularly given the enthusiasm and skill represented in the activities that culminated in the replicators’ articles. It is suggested that such activities might be enhanced by requiring a contextualization that makes contact with more modern psychological research—particularly regarding expositions of the replications. From a scientific/cognitive methods perspective, the original experimenters’ inexplicit, ambiguous, descriptions provide both challenges and opportunities for students seeking to improve their understandings of their field. Three practical questions are posed herein regarding the general utility of this—or any—proposed instructional intervention. Ultimately, determining and integrating the diverse objectives that essential stakeholders have in graduate psychological training represent critical prerequisites in comprehensively assessing the relative advantages of such historical replications with respect to alternative experiences.

  1. Cold war historic properties of the 21st Space Wing Air Force Space Command

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffecker, J.F.; Whorton, M.; Buechler, C.R.

    1996-03-01

    A Legacy-funded inventory and evaluation of facilities dating to the Cold War era was conducted for the USAF 21{sup ST} Space Wing (AFSPC). The mission of the Wing includes early warning of missile launches and detection and tracking of space objects. The political and military strategic context for these facilities was developed through an overview of Cold War history, subdivided into four major periods: (1) origins of the conflict, (2) confrontation and crisis, (3) sustained superpower balance based on mutual deterrence, and (4) renewed confrontation and collapse of the Soviet Union. The enormous importance of early warning systems in maintaining the balance of power between the USA and the Soviet Union is discussed in more detail as a subset of the general context of the Cold War history to provide additional background for evaluating the 21{sup ST} Space Wing systems. In addition, a history of each installation was prepared and placed in the context of the broader history of the Cold War. For instance, the effort to develop a credible nuclear threat in the early 1950s is represented by the construction of Thule AB as a forward bomber base in 1951. The growing concern with a Soviet ICBM threat in the late 1950s is reflected in the construction of BMEWS at Thule AB and Clear AS during 1958-1961. Development of an antiballistic missile (ABM) system, subsequently abandoned during the 1970s, is represented by the Safeguard System at Cavalier AS. The U.S. response to the Soviet submarine-launched missile capability during the 1970s is embodied in the deployment of phased-array radar systems to cover the ocean flanks of North America at Cape Cod AS (and later at Eldorado AS). The establishment of AFSPC at Peterson AFB in 1982 reflects the increased strategic importance of space in the later phases of the Cold War. A set of recommendations regarding NRHP eligibility and management of Cold War historic properties was developed as part of the inventory.

  2. A Historical Review of Brayton and Stirling Power Conversion Technologies for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic power conversion technologies, such as closed Brayton and free-piston Stirling, offer many advantages for space power applications including high efficiency, long life, and attractive scaling characteristics. This paper presents a historical review of Brayton and Stirling power conversion technology for space and discusses on-going development activities in order to illustrate current technology readiness. The paper also presents a forecast of potential future space uses of these power technologies.

  3. Twenty-five years of psychology in the Journal of Sports Sciences: a historical overview.

    PubMed

    Williams, A Mark; Hardy, Lew; Mutrie, Nanette

    2008-02-15

    We provide an overview of some of the outstanding papers published in the Journal over the last 25 years within the discipline of psychology. Altogether, almost 300 papers had been published in the Journal under the psychology banner at the start of its silver anniversary year. The greatest contribution of papers has come from the motor control and learning and sport psychology sub-areas, with papers focusing on exercise psychology being a more recent addition. Prominent research themes that have emerged from each of the different sub-areas are reviewed and some notable omissions highlighted. Finally, some issues for sport and exercise psychologists to consider in coming years are briefly highlighted.

  4. 41 CFR 102-78.60 - When leasing space, are Federal agencies able to give preference to space in historic properties...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to locate in an urban area to give first consideration to space in historic buildings and districts... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When leasing space, are Federal agencies able to give preference to space in historic properties or districts? 102-78.60...

  5. Children's Rights and School Psychology: Historical Perspective and Implications for the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Stuart N.; Hart, Brannon W.

    2014-01-01

    School psychology and children's rights have great potential, well beyond what has been realized, for advancing the best interests of children, their communities, and societies. A child rights approach infused into school psychology can significantly contribute to the fulfillment of this potential. To respect and illuminate these factors and…

  6. An historical profile of American Indians and Alaska Natives in psychology.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Joseph E; Clearing-Sky, Mary

    2009-10-01

    The history of American Indian and Alaska Native psychology is a brief one in comparison with the rich histories of other U.S. ethnic groups. In the mid-1960s, there were probably 10 or so Indians and Natives with doctoral degrees in psychology; since then, that number has increased to about 350. The number of publications dealing with Indian and Native psychological topics also has increased significantly over the past 40 years. Appreciable gains have been made in the number of academic institutions that actively recruit and educate Indian and Native students in psychology and in the conduct of research and scholarly projects. The progress and developments generated and attained in Indian and Native psychology in the United States is summarized in this article. To add to the discussion, the voices and experiences of 5 notable American Indian elder psychologists also are featured.

  7. Studies in Historical Replication in Psychology IV: An Inquiry into the Psychological Research and Life of Gertrude Stein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirrine, Nicole K.; McCarthy, Shauna K.

    2008-05-01

    Gertrude Stein (1874 1946) is well known as an early twentieth century writer, but less well known is her involvement in automatic writing research. Critics of Stein’s literary works suggest that her research had a significant influence on her poetry and fiction, though Stein denied any influence. A partial replication of Stein’s 1896 study was conducted with the goal of addressing three historical questions: (1) What contributed to Stein’s involvement in automatic writing research?; (2) To what extent did Stein believe that she experienced automatic writing?; and (3) To what extent did her automatic writing research influence her later literary works?

  8. Psychological considerations of man in space: Problems & solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kass, J.; Kass, R.; Samaltedinov, I.

    With concrete plans for long duration flight taking form a new impetus is lent to preparing man for this hostile and unnatural environment. Cramped conditions, isolation from family and loved ones, work stress, fear, and incompatibility with fellow crew, are but a few of the problems suffered by astronauts and cosmonauts during their long missions in orbit about the earth. Although criteria for selection of crew is one aspect of attacking the problem, it has not solved it Notwithstanding good selection, team combination, and counselling before flight, problems have still occurred with unwanted consequences. Incompatibility of team members, far from being the exception, has been frequent. This has been detrímental both physiologically and psychologically for the individual as well as for the operational success and safety of the missions. Because problems will inevitably occur in future long duration missions, especially when they are of international and multi-cultural nature, the importance of dealing with them is underlined. This paper takes a different approach towards ameliorating these problems, namely that of psychological group training before a mission.

  9. [Historical connection between memory and testimony psychology by an experimental study of Seiichi Terada in Japan].

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Kosuke; Sato, Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    In Japan, Seiichi Terada (1884-1922) was the first psychologist who applied psychological knowledge to the field of law, working in collaboration with the law professor Eiich Makino (1878-1970). Terada's work was mainly in the tradition of clinical psychology, although in his 1915 paper titled "How useful are testimonies?" he described a set of seven experiments concerned with the empirical relationship between eyewitness testimony and memory. This is probably the first experimental study of law and psychology carried out in Japan. This article introduces Terada's history as a psychologist, and his collaboration with Makino, followed by explanation of their experiments. Finally, we discuss perspectives on testimony research in consideration of Terada's approach. PMID:23012818

  10. A Historical Review of "Contemporary Educational Psychology" from 1995 to 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anita Witt; McConnell, John Robert, III

    2012-01-01

    The major themes and trends represented by the articles published in "Contemporary Educational Psychology" (CEP) from 1995 to 2010 are reviewed in this paper. Included are the major topics, theoretical perspectives, participant characteristics, research methods and statistics used, and highly cited papers. The most frequently occurring topic…

  11. The Historical Emergence of Adolescence: Perspectives from Developmental Psychology and Adolescent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matter, Roxana Marie

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the literature from two distinct disciplines, developmental psychology and literature, reflecting the emergence of adolescence as a recognized stage in human development. Describes both cognitive and stage theories of adolescence and medieval concerns as well as twentieth century interest. (JAC)

  12. Psychology of Aging in America: A Historical Account of Theoretical Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Sharon; Luepnitz, Roy

    This document traces theoretical developments in the psychology of aging during the last 50 years. The concept of theory is discussed as well as the bringing together of theories to form a model. After summarizing the early beginnings of American interest in aging, the work of major theoreticians is explored including Hall (senescence), Thorndike…

  13. Practicing Critical Thinking in an Educational Psychology Classroom: Reflections from a Cultural-Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyutykh, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Present standards include creative and critical thinking among dispositions essential for the teaching profession. While teaching introductory courses in educational psychology, I have noticed that even though students can easily describe critical thinking in the abstract, they rarely and reluctantly engage in thinking critically about their own…

  14. The Social Pathology Model: Historical Bases for Psychology's Denial of the Existence of Negro Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratz, Joan C.; Baratz, Stephen S.

    The absence of a meaningful conception of Negro culture has forced the interpretation of almost all psychology's data on the Negro into two seemingly dichotomous categories: either that of biological incapacity, i.e., genetic inferiority, or social deviance and pathology, i.e., environmental deprivation. The cultural difference theory asserts that…

  15. NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 5; NASA Launch Systems, Space Transportation, Human Spaceflight and Space Science, 1979-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumerman, Judy A. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    In 1973, NASA published the first volume of the NASA Historical Data Book, a hefty tome containing mostly tabular data on the resources of the space agency between 1958 and 1968. There, broken into detailed tables, were the facts and figures associated with the budget, facilities, procurement, installations, and personnel of NASA during that formative decade. In 1988, NASA reissued that first volume of the data book and added two additional volumes on the agency's programs and projects, one each for 1958-1968 and 1969-1978. NASA published a fourth volume in 1994 that addressed NASA resources for the period between 1969 and 1978. This fifth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of four critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the development and operation of launch systems, space transportation, human spaceflight, and space science during this era. As such, it contains in-depth statistical information about the early Space Shuttle program through the return to flight in 1988, the early efforts to build a space station, the development of new launch systems, and the launching of seventeen space science missions. A companion volume will appear late in 1999, documenting the space applications, support operations, aeronautics, and resources aspects of NASA during the period between 1979 and 1988. NASA began its operations as the nation's civilian space agency in 1958 following the passage of the National Aeronautics and Space Act. It succeeded the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new organization was charged with preserving the role of the United States "as a leader in aeronautical and space science and technology" and in its application, with expanding our knowledge of the Earth's atmosphere and space, and with

  16. Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galarza, Laura

    1999-01-01

    During the upcoming manned International Space Station (ISS) missions, astronauts will encounter the unique conditions of living and working with a multicultural crew in a confined and isolated space environment. The environmental, social, and mission-related challenges of these missions will require crewmembers to emphasize effective teamwork, leadership, group living and self-management to maintain the morale and productivity of the crew. The need for crew members to possess and display skills and behaviors needed for successful adaptability to ISS missions led us to upgrade the tools and procedures we use for astronaut selection. The upgraded tools include personality and biographical data measures. Content and construct-related validation techniques were used to link upgraded selection tools to critical skills needed for ISS missions. The results of these validation efforts showed that various personality and biographical data variables are related to expert and interview ratings of critical ISS skills. Upgraded and planned selection tools better address the critical skills, demands, and working conditions of ISS missions and facilitate the selection of astronauts who will more easily cope and adapt to ISS flights.

  17. 41 CFR 102-78.60 - When leasing space, are Federal agencies able to give preference to space in historic properties...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When leasing space, are Federal agencies able to give preference to space in historic properties or districts? 102-78.60 Section...-78.60 When leasing space, are Federal agencies able to give preference to space in...

  18. Foundation of Curriculum in Ethiopia: Historical, Philosophical, Psychological and Sociological Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argaw, Aweke Shishigu

    2015-01-01

    Foundations are the forces that influence the minds of curriculum developers, which affect the content and structure of the curriculum. These forces are beliefs and orientations as well as conceptions of learning and the needs of society. Foundation of curriculum is rooted with the foundation of education. Historically, modern curriculum and…

  19. Psychology's Role in the Assessment of Erectile Dysfunction: Historical Precedents, Current Knowledge, and Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Mark D.; Carey, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the role of the psychologist in the evaluation of erectile dysfunction. Reviews current diagnostic criteria and provides a historical overview of the topic. Summarizes current epidemiologic knowledge, including data on prevalence and research on cognitive, affective, dydactic, and lifestyle etiologic risk factors. Discusses assessment…

  20. Psychological and Behavioral Health Issues of Long-Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eksuzian, Daniel J.

    1998-01-01

    It will be the responsibility of the long-duration space flight crew to take the actions necessary to maintain their health and well-being and to cope with medical emergencies without direct assistance from support personnel, including maintaining mental health and managing physiological and psychological changes that may impair decision making and performance. The Behavior and Performance Integrated Product Team at Johnson Space Center, working, within the Space Medicine, Monitoring, and Countermeasures Program, has identified critical questions pertaining to long-duration space crew behavioral health, psychological adaptation, human factors and habitability, and sleep and circadian rhythms. Among the projects addressing these questions are: the development of tools to assess cognitive functions during space missions; the development of a model of psychological adaptation in isolated and confined environments; tools and methods for selecting individuals and teams well-suited for long-duration missions; identification of mission-critical tasks and performance evaluation; and measures of sleep quality and correlation to mission performance.

  1. The psychology of home environments: a call for research on residential space.

    PubMed

    Graham, Lindsay T; Gosling, Samuel D; Travis, Christopher K

    2015-05-01

    Homes are important: People devote much of their thought, time, and resources to selecting, modifying, and decorating their living spaces, and they may be devastated when their homes must be sold or are destroyed. Yet the empirical psychological literature says virtually nothing about the roles that homes might play in people's lives. We argue that homes provide an informative context for a wide variety of studies examining how social, developmental, cognitive, and other psychological processes play out in a consequential real-world setting. The topic of homes is also well suited to collaborations with a diverse array of disciplines ranging from architecture and engineering to sociology and law. We illustrate the potential insights to be gained from studying homes with an exploratory study that maps the psychological ambiances (e.g., romance, comfort, togetherness) that people desire in their homes; we identify six broad ambiance dimensions (restoration, kinship, storage, stimulation, intimacy, productivity) that show mean differences across rooms. We connect these findings to existing work on situation selection in emotion regulation. These ideas provide only an initial foray into the domain of residential space, but they hint at the productive roles that homes and other spaces could play in psychological theorizing and research. PMID:25987512

  2. A space-for-time (SFT) substitution approach to studying historical phenological changes in urban environment.

    PubMed

    Buyantuyev, Alexander; Xu, Pengyan; Wu, Jianguo; Piao, Shunji; Wang, Dachuan

    2012-01-01

    Plant phenological records are crucial for predicting plant responses to global warming. However, many historical records are either short or replete with data gaps, which pose limitations and may lead to erroneous conclusions about the direction and magnitude of change. In addition to uninterrupted monitoring, missing observations may be substituted via modeling, experimentation, or gradient analysis. Here we have developed a space-for-time (SFT) substitution method that uses spatial phenology and temperature data to fill gaps in historical records. To do this, we combined historical data for several tree species from a single location with spatial data for the same species and used linear regression and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) to build complementary spring phenology models and assess improvements achieved by the approach. SFT substitution allowed increasing the sample size and developing more robust phenology models for some of the species studied. Testing models with reduced historical data size revealed thresholds at which SFT improved historical trend estimation. We conclude that under certain circumstances both the robustness of models and accuracy of phenological trends can be enhanced although some limitations and assumptions still need to be resolved. There is considerable potential for exploring SFT analyses in phenology studies, especially those conducted in urban environments and those dealing with non-linearities in phenology modeling.

  3. Residential exposure to visible blue space (but not green space) associated with lower psychological distress in a capital city.

    PubMed

    Nutsford, Daniel; Pearson, Amber L; Kingham, Simon; Reitsma, Femke

    2016-05-01

    As urbanisation escalates globally, urban neighbourhood features which may improve physical and mental health are of growing importance. Using a cross-sectional survey of adults and the application of novel geospatial techniques, this study investigated whether increased visibility of nature (green and blue space) was associated with lower psychological distress (K10 scores), in the capital city of Wellington, New Zealand. To validate, we also tested whether visibility of blue space was associated missing teeth in the same sample. Cluster robust, linear regression models were fitted to test the association between visibility of nature and K10 scores, adjusted for age, sex, personal income, neighbourhood population density, housing quality, crime and deprivation. Higher levels of blue space visibility were associated with lower psychological distress (β=-0.28, p<0.001). Importantly, blue space visibility was not significantly associated with tooth loss. Further research is needed to confirm whether increased visibility of blue space could promote mental well-being and reduce distress in other cities. PMID:26974233

  4. Residential exposure to visible blue space (but not green space) associated with lower psychological distress in a capital city.

    PubMed

    Nutsford, Daniel; Pearson, Amber L; Kingham, Simon; Reitsma, Femke

    2016-05-01

    As urbanisation escalates globally, urban neighbourhood features which may improve physical and mental health are of growing importance. Using a cross-sectional survey of adults and the application of novel geospatial techniques, this study investigated whether increased visibility of nature (green and blue space) was associated with lower psychological distress (K10 scores), in the capital city of Wellington, New Zealand. To validate, we also tested whether visibility of blue space was associated missing teeth in the same sample. Cluster robust, linear regression models were fitted to test the association between visibility of nature and K10 scores, adjusted for age, sex, personal income, neighbourhood population density, housing quality, crime and deprivation. Higher levels of blue space visibility were associated with lower psychological distress (β=-0.28, p<0.001). Importantly, blue space visibility was not significantly associated with tooth loss. Further research is needed to confirm whether increased visibility of blue space could promote mental well-being and reduce distress in other cities.

  5. Bridging two worlds that care about art: psychological and historical approaches to art appreciation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William Forde; Antliff, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Art appreciation often involves contemplation beyond immediate perceptual experience. However, there are challenges to incorporating such processes into a comprehensive theory of art appreciation. Can appreciation be captured in the responses to individual artworks? Can all forms of contemplation be defined? What properties of artworks trigger contemplation? We argue that such questions are fundamental to a psycho-historical framework for the science of art appreciation, and we suggest research that may assist in refining this framework.

  6. Genetic bottlenecks in time and space: reconstructing invasions from contemporary and historical collections.

    PubMed

    Dormontt, Eleanor E; Gardner, Michael G; Breed, Martin F; Rodger, James G; Prentis, Peter J; Lowe, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Herbarium accession data offer a useful historical botanical perspective and have been used to track the spread of plant invasions through time and space. Nevertheless, few studies have utilised this resource for genetic analysis to reconstruct a more complete picture of historical invasion dynamics, including the occurrence of separate introduction events. In this study, we combined nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite analyses of contemporary and historical collections of Senecio madagascariensis, a globally invasive weed first introduced to Australia c. 1918 from its native South Africa. Analysis of nuclear microsatellites, together with temporal spread data and simulations of herbarium voucher sampling, revealed distinct introductions to south-eastern Australia and mid-eastern Australia. Genetic diversity of the south-eastern invasive population was lower than in the native range, but higher than in the mid-eastern invasion. In the invasive range, despite its low resolution, our chloroplast microsatellite data revealed the occurrence of new haplotypes over time, probably as the result of subsequent introduction(s) to Australia from the native range during the latter half of the 20th century. Our work demonstrates how molecular studies of contemporary and historical field collections can be combined to reconstruct a more complete picture of the invasion history of introduced taxa. Further, our study indicates that a survey of contemporary samples only (as undertaken for the majority of invasive species studies) would be insufficient to identify potential source populations and occurrence of multiple introductions.

  7. Genetic Bottlenecks in Time and Space: Reconstructing Invasions from Contemporary and Historical Collections

    PubMed Central

    Dormontt, Eleanor E.; Gardner, Michael G.; Breed, Martin F.; Rodger, James G.; Prentis, Peter J.; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Herbarium accession data offer a useful historical botanical perspective and have been used to track the spread of plant invasions through time and space. Nevertheless, few studies have utilised this resource for genetic analysis to reconstruct a more complete picture of historical invasion dynamics, including the occurrence of separate introduction events. In this study, we combined nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite analyses of contemporary and historical collections of Senecio madagascariensis, a globally invasive weed first introduced to Australia c. 1918 from its native South Africa. Analysis of nuclear microsatellites, together with temporal spread data and simulations of herbarium voucher sampling, revealed distinct introductions to south-eastern Australia and mid-eastern Australia. Genetic diversity of the south-eastern invasive population was lower than in the native range, but higher than in the mid-eastern invasion. In the invasive range, despite its low resolution, our chloroplast microsatellite data revealed the occurrence of new haplotypes over time, probably as the result of subsequent introduction(s) to Australia from the native range during the latter half of the 20th century. Our work demonstrates how molecular studies of contemporary and historical field collections can be combined to reconstruct a more complete picture of the invasion history of introduced taxa. Further, our study indicates that a survey of contemporary samples only (as undertaken for the majority of invasive species studies) would be insufficient to identify potential source populations and occurrence of multiple introductions. PMID:25192006

  8. A Study on an Image of the "Ibasyo" or Psychologically Comfortable Space for the Children of Non-Attendant at School through the "Circle Triangle Square" Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yasuko

    This paper discusses the image of the "Ibasyo" or psychologically comfortable space of children not attending school. It suggests that psychological healthiness is dependent upon whether or not an individual has his or her individual space. The images of psychologically comfortable space through the "circle, triangle, and square" technique are…

  9. A Historical Overview and Contemporary Expansion of Psychological Theories of Determinism, Probabilistic Causality, Indeterminate Free Will, and Moral and Legal Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide a historical overview of the development of contemporary theories of counseling and psychology in relation to determinism, probabilistic causality, indeterminate free will, and moral and legal responsibility. They propose a unique model of behavioral causality that incorporates a theory of indeterminate free will, a concept…

  10. Psychological issues relevant to astronaut selection for long-duration space flight: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Collins, Daniel L

    2003-01-01

    This technical paper reviews the current literature on psychological issues relevant to astronaut selection for long-duration space flights. Interpersonal problems have been and remain a recurring problem for both short and long-duration space flights. Even after completion of the space mission, intense psychological aftereffects are reported. The specific behavioral problems experienced during United States and Soviet Union space flights are reviewed, specifically addressing contentious episodes and impaired judgments that occurred during the Mercury, Apollo, and Skylab missions. Psychological tests used in the selection process for the space program have focused primarily on the detection of gross psychopathologies in potential candidates. Although these psychological instruments excluded some people from becoming astronauts, the battery of tests failed to predict which individuals would manifest behavioral aberrations in judgment, cooperative functioning, overt irritability, or destructive interpersonal actions.

  11. Psychological issues relevant to astronaut selection for long-duration space flight: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Collins, Daniel L

    2003-01-01

    This technical paper reviews the current literature on psychological issues relevant to astronaut selection for long-duration space flights. Interpersonal problems have been and remain a recurring problem for both short and long-duration space flights. Even after completion of the space mission, intense psychological aftereffects are reported. The specific behavioral problems experienced during United States and Soviet Union space flights are reviewed, specifically addressing contentious episodes and impaired judgments that occurred during the Mercury, Apollo, and Skylab missions. Psychological tests used in the selection process for the space program have focused primarily on the detection of gross psychopathologies in potential candidates. Although these psychological instruments excluded some people from becoming astronauts, the battery of tests failed to predict which individuals would manifest behavioral aberrations in judgment, cooperative functioning, overt irritability, or destructive interpersonal actions. PMID:14552348

  12. Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  13. Future perspectives on space psychology: Recommendations on psychosocial and neurobehavioural aspects of human spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Torre, Gabriel G.; van Baarsen, Berna; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Kanas, Nick; Weiss, Karine; Schneider, Stefan; Whiteley, Iya

    2012-12-01

    Recently the psychological effects of space flight have gained in attention. In uncovering the psychological challenges that individuals and teams can face, we need research options that integrate psychosocial aspects with behavioral, performance, technical and environmental issues. Future perspectives in Space Psychology and Human Spaceflight are reviewed in this paper. The topics covered include psychosocial and neurobehavioural aspects, neurocognitive testing tools, decision making, autonomy and delayed communications, well being, mental health, situational awareness, and methodology. Authors were members of a European Space Agency (ESA) Research Topical Team on Psychosocial and Behavioral Aspects of Human Spaceflight. They discuss the different topics under a common perspective of a theoretical and practical framework, showing interactions, relationships and possible solutions for the different aspects and variables in play. Recommendations for every topic are offered and summarized for future research in the field. The different proposed research ideas can be accomplished using analogs and simulation experiments, short- and long-duration bed rest, and in-flight microgravity studies. These topics are especially important for future Moon and Mars mission design and training.

  14. Comparison of Historic Exploration with Contemporary Space Policy Suggests a Retheorisation of Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokely, J.; Rankin, W.; Heinrich, P.; McAuliffe, M.

    The 2008 NASA Astrobiology Roadmap provides one way of theorising this developing field, a way which has become the normative model for the discipline: science-and scholarship-driven funding for space. By contrast, a novel re-evaluation of funding policies is undertaken in this article to reframe astrobiology, terraforming and associated space travel and research. Textual visualisation, discourse and numeric analytical methods, and value theory are applied to historical data and contemporary sources to re-investigate significant drivers and constraints on the mechanisms of enabling space exploration. Two data sets are identified and compared: the business objectives and outcomes of major 15th-17th century European joint-stock exploration and trading companies and a case study of a current space industry entrepreneur company. Comparison of these analyses suggests that viable funding policy drivers can exist outside the normative science and scholarship-driven roadmap. The two drivers identified in this study are (1) the intrinsic value of space as a territory to be experienced and enjoyed, not just studied, and (2) the instrumental, commercial value of exploiting these experiences by developing infrastructure and retail revenues. Filtering of these results also offers an investment rationale for companies operating in, or about to enter, the space business marketplace.

  15. Land use and land cover change based on historical space-time model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiong; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Min; Zhang, Yongjing

    2016-09-01

    Land use and cover change is a leading edge topic in the current research field of global environmental changes and case study of typical areas is an important approach understanding global environmental changes. Taking the Qiantang River (Zhejiang, China) as an example, this study explores automatic classification of land use using remote sensing technology and analyzes historical space-time change by remote sensing monitoring. This study combines spectral angle mapping (SAM) with multi-source information and creates a convenient and efficient high-precision land use computer automatic classification method which meets the application requirements and is suitable for complex landform of the studied area. This work analyzes the histological space-time characteristics of land use and cover change in the Qiantang River basin in 2001, 2007 and 2014, in order to (i) verify the feasibility of studying land use change with remote sensing technology, (ii) accurately understand the change of land use and cover as well as historical space-time evolution trend, (iii) provide a realistic basis for the sustainable development of the Qiantang River basin and (iv) provide a strong information support and new research method for optimizing the Qiantang River land use structure and achieving optimal allocation of land resources and scientific management.

  16. The Power of Place: Social Network Characteristics, Perceived Neighborhood Features, and Psychological Distress Among African Americans in the Historic Hill District in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Flórez, Karen R; Ghosh-Dastidar, Madhumita Bonnie; Beckman, Robin; de la Haye, Kayla; Duru, Obidiugwu Kenrik; Abraído-Lanza, Ana F; Dubowitz, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    African American neighborhoods have been historically targeted for urban renewal projects, which impact social composition and resident's health. The Hill District in Pittsburgh, PA is such a neighborhood. This research sought to investigate the extent to which social networks and perceived neighborhood social cohesion and safety were associated with psychological distress among residents in an African American neighborhood undergoing urban renewal, before the implementation of major neighborhood changes. Findings revealed a modest, significant inverse association between social network size and psychological distress (β = -0.006, p < .01), even after controlling for age, employment, education, and income. Perceived neighborhood safety predicted decreased psychological distress (β = -1.438, p < .01), but not social cohesion, which is consistent with past research. Findings suggest that social networks protect against psychological distress, but neighborhood perceptions are also paramount. PMID:27612324

  17. Validation of the Integrated Medical Model Using Historical Space Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric L.; Minard, Charles G.; FreiredeCarvalho, Mary H.; Walton, Marlei E.; Myers, Jerry G., Jr.; Saile, Lynn G.; Lopez, Vilma; Butler, Douglas J.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) utilizes Monte Carlo methodologies to predict the occurrence of medical events, utilization of resources, and clinical outcomes during space flight. Real-world data may be used to demonstrate the accuracy of the model. For this analysis, IMM predictions were compared to data from historical shuttle missions, not yet included as model source input. Initial goodness of fit test-ing on International Space Station data suggests that the IMM may overestimate the number of occurrences for three of the 83 medical conditions in the model. The IMM did not underestimate the occurrence of any medical condition. Initial comparisons with shuttle data demonstrate the importance of understanding crew preference (i.e., preferred analgesic) for accurately predicting the utilization of re-sources. The initial analysis demonstrates the validity of the IMM for its intended use and highlights areas for improvement.

  18. D Virtual Reconstruction of AN Urban Historical Space: a Consideration on the Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galizia, M.; Santagati, C.

    2011-09-01

    Urban historical spaces are often characterized by a variety of shapes, geometries, volumes, materials. Their virtual reconstruction requires a critical approach in terms of acquired data's density, timing optimization, final product's quality and slimness. The research team has focused its attention on the study on Francesco Neglia square (previously named Saint Thomas square) in Enna. This square is an urban space fronted by architectures which present historical and stylistic differences. For example you can find the Saint Thomas'church belfry (in aragounese-catalan stile dated XIV century) and the porch, the Anime Sante baroque's church (XVII century), Saint Mary of the Grace's nunnery (XVIII century) and as well as some civil buildings of minor importance built in the mid twentieth century. The research has compared two different modeling tools approaches: the first one is based on the construction of triangulated surfaces which are segmented and simplified; the second one is based on the detection of surfaces geometrical features, the extraction of the more significant profiles by using a software dedicated to the elaboration of cloud points and the subsequent mathematical reconstruction by using a 3d modelling software. The following step was aimed to process the virtual reconstruction of urban scene by assembling the single optimized models. This work highlighted the importance of the image of the operator and of its cultural contribution, essential to recognize geometries which generates surfaces in order to create high quality semantic models.

  19. 41 CFR 102-83.105 - What happens if there is no available space in non-historic buildings under the custody and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.105 What happens if there is no available space in non-historic buildings... no available space in non-historic buildings under the custody and control of the U.S. Postal...

  20. 41 CFR 102-83.105 - What happens if there is no available space in non-historic buildings under the custody and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Urban Areas § 102-83.105 What happens if there is no available space in non-historic buildings... no available space in non-historic buildings under the custody and control of the U.S. Postal...

  1. 41 CFR 102-73.115 - Must Federal agencies offer a price preference to space in historic properties when acquiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Must Federal agencies offer a price preference to space in historic properties when acquiring leased space? 102-73.115 Section 102-73.115 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...

  2. 41 CFR 102-73.115 - Must Federal agencies offer a price preference to space in historic properties when acquiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Must Federal agencies offer a price preference to space in historic properties when acquiring leased space? 102-73.115 Section 102-73.115 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations...

  3. English Vocabulary Learning with Word Lists, Word Cards and Computers: Implications from Cognitive Psychology Research for Optimal Spaced Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakata, Tatsuya

    2008-01-01

    The spacing effect is known to be one of the most robust phenomena in experimental psychology, and many attempts have been made to realize effective spaced learning for L2 vocabulary learning. This study compares vocabulary learning with word lists, word cards, and computers in order to identify which material leads to the most superior spaced…

  4. [Colors and their meaning in culture and psychology--a historical outline and contemporary status of color vision theories].

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Lewicka, Romana; Torlińska, Teresa; Stelcer, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    psychological analyses of patients. The paper outlines major historical concepts of color perception and the present usefulness of color vision tests in psychology. PMID:18669099

  5. [Colors and their meaning in culture and psychology--a historical outline and contemporary status of color vision theories].

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Lewicka, Romana; Torlińska, Teresa; Stelcer, Bogusław

    2008-01-01

    psychological analyses of patients. The paper outlines major historical concepts of color perception and the present usefulness of color vision tests in psychology.

  6. RESEARCH INTO PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION METHOD OF UNDERGROUND SPACE - CENTERING ON THE TOKYO METRO -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Naomi; Wake, Tenji; Mita, Takeshi; Wake, Hiromi

    This research is concerned with developing evaluation methods that can be useful for environmental design from the psychological perspective of QOL, that is comfort, in underground space. For this research, eight stations on the Tokyo Metro, including the Fukutoshin line, were selected and two types of questionnaires were carried out after respondents had walked through the station areas and the walkways connecting the stations. From the results of the first questionnaire, four factors, comfort/convenience, insecurity, visibility/noticeability, brightness/ease of walking, were extracted. From the results of the second questionnaire, three factors were extracted: visibility of noticeboards, overall atmosphere of underground space, visibility of fare chart/subway map. There was a strong correlation between the factors comfort/convenience and insecurity, extracted from the first questionnaire, and the overall atmosphere factor extracted from the second questionnaire. For visibility/noticeability, there was a strong correlation with notices, fares chart, and subway map.

  7. Performance assessment in a flight simulator test—Validation of a space psychology methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, B.; Salnitski, Vyacheslav; Soll, Henning; Rauch, Melina; Goeters, Klaus-Martin; Maschke, Peter; Stelling, Dirk; Eißfeldt, Hinnerk

    2007-02-01

    The objective assessment of operator performance in hand controlled docking of a spacecraft on a space station has 30 years of tradition and is well established. In the last years the performance assessment was successfully combined with a psycho-physiological approach for the objective assessment of the levels of physiological arousal and psychological load. These methods are based on statistical reference data. For the enhancement of the statistical power of the evaluation methods, both were actually implemented into a comparable terrestrial task: the flight simulator test of DLR in the selection procedure for ab initio pilot applicants for civil airlines. In the first evaluation study 134 male subjects were analysed. Subjects underwent a flight simulator test including three tasks, which were evaluated by instructors applying well-established and standardised rating scales. The principles of the performance algorithms of the docking training were adapted for the automated flight performance assessment. They are presented here. The increased human errors under instrument flight conditions without visual feedback required a manoeuvre recognition algorithm before calculating the deviation of the flown track from the given task elements. Each manoeuvre had to be evaluated independently of former failures. The expert rated performance showed a highly significant correlation with the automatically calculated performance for each of the three tasks: r=.883, r=.874, r=.872, respectively. An automated algorithm successfully assessed the flight performance. This new method will possibly provide a wide range of other future applications in aviation and space psychology.

  8. NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 6; NASA Space Applications, Aeronautics and Space Research and Technology, Tracking and Data Acquisition/Support Operations, Commercial Programs and

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumerman, Judy A.

    2000-01-01

    This sixth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of several critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the space applications effort, the development and operation of aeronautics and space research and technology programs, tracking and data acquisition/space operations, commercial programs, facilities and installations, personnel, and finances and procurement during this era. Special thanks are owed to the student research assistants who gathered and input much of the tabular material-a particularly tedious undertaking. There are numerous people at NASA associated with historical study, technical information, and the mechanics of publishing who helped in myriad ways in the preparation of this historical data book.

  9. Objective techniques for psychological assessment, phase 2. [techniques for measuring human performance during space flight stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortz, E. C.; Saur, A. J.; Nowlis, D. P.; Kendall, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of an initial experiment in a research program designed to develop objective techniques for psychological assessment of individuals and groups participating in long-duration space flights. Specifically examined is the rationale for utilizing measures of attention as an objective assessment technique. Subjects participating in the experiment performed various tasks (eg, playing matrix games which appeared on a display screen along with auditory stimuli). The psychophysiological reactions of the subjects were measured and are given. Previous research of various performance and psychophysiological methods of measuring attention is also discussed. The experiment design (independent and dependent variables) and apparatus (computers and display devices) are described and shown. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  10. Ares Launch Vehicles Development Awakens Historic Test Stands at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.; Burt, Richard K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper chronicles the rebirth of two national rocket testing assets located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center: the Dynamic Test Stand (also known as the Ground Vibration Test Stand) and the Static Test Stand (also known as the Main Propulsion Test Stand). It will touch on the historical significance of these special facilities, while introducing the requirements driving modifications for testing a new generation space transportation system, which is set to come on line after the Space Shuttle is retired in 2010. In many ways, America's journey to explore the Moon begins at the Marshall Center, which is developing the Ares I crew launch vehicle and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, along with managing the Lunar Precursor Robotic Program and leading the Lunar Lander descent stage work, among other Constellation Program assignments. An important component of this work is housed in Marshall's Engineering Directorate, which manages more than 40 facilities capable of a full spectrum of rocket and space transportation technology testing - from small components to full-up engine systems. The engineers and technicians who operate these test facilities have more than a thousand years of combined experience in this highly specialized field. Marshall has one of the few government test groups in the United States with responsibility for the overall performance of a test program from conception to completion. The Test Laboratory has facilities dating back to the early 1960s, when the test stands needed for the Apollo Program and other scientific endeavors were commissioned and built along the Marshall Center's southern boundary, with logistics access by air, railroad, and barge or boat on the Tennessee River. NASA and its industry partners are designing and developing a new human-rated system based on the requirements for safe, reliable, and cost-effective transportation solutions. Given below are summaries of the Dynamic Test Stand and the Static Test Stand capabilities

  11. The Psychology of Aging: Canadian Research in an International Context. [and] Commentary: A Historical Perspective on the US-Canada Connection in the Psychology of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Roger A.; Cohen, Anna-Lisa

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes a broad and inclusive model of the psychology of aging and highlights ways in which Canadian research and training reflects and advances scholarly agendas. Commentary by Neil Charness highlights differences in U.S. and Canadian perspectives and the cross-fertilization between the two research communities. Contains 131 references. (JOW)

  12. The Next Generation Science Standards: An Historic Opportunity for K-12 Earth and Space Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. M.; Passow, M. J.; Holzer, M. A.; Moore, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) provide an historic opportunity to significantly improve Earth and space science (ESS) education nationally at the K-12 level. The increased emphasis on ESS related topics in the NGSS relative to previous standards provides a real opportunity for ensuring all K-12 students in adopting states learn about the ESS - allowing us to reach many more students than are currently are exposed to our discipline. The new standards are also exciting in that they explicitly couple science and engineering practice, cross-cutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas in such a way that student must actively demonstrate their understanding through actions rather than through mere regurgitation of memorized responses. Achieving mastery of NGSS Performance Expectations will require practice with higher-order learning skills - with students engaging in the practices of scientists and engineers. Preparing students for this mastery will be a challenging task for teachers, since in many states professional development support is limited at best for the current curriculum - let alone the curricula that will be developed to address the NGSS. As adoption of the NGSS expands across the country, states will be at various levels of implementation of the new standards over the next several years - and there is real concern that teachers must have sufficient professional development to be able to be successful in preparing their students - particularly in view of likely coupled assessments and teacher evaluations. NESTA strongly supports implementation of the NGSS, and the rigorous and compelling ESS education it will engender, when coupled with a strong emphasis nationwide on teacher professional development. For the past two years, the National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA) has continued our leadership in K-12 ESS education through workshops, web seminars, events and publications that emphasize implementation of the NGSS in ESS

  13. Historical parallels of biological space experiments from Soyuz, Salyut and Mir to Shenzhou flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.; Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Human exploitation of space is a great achievement of our civilization. After the first space flights a development of artificial biological environment in space systems is a second big step. First successful biological experiments on a board of space station were performed on Salyut and Mir stations in 70-90th of last century such as - first long time cultivation of plants in space (wheat, linen, lettuce, crepis); - first flowers in space (Arabidopsis); - first harvesting of seeds in space (Arabidopsis); - first harvesting of roots (radish); - first full life cycle from seeds to seeds in space (wheat), Guinness recorded; - first tissue culture experiments (Panax ginseng L, Crocus sativus L, Stevia rebaundiana B; - first tree growing in space for 2 years (Limonia acidissima), Guinness recorded. As a new wave, the modern experiments on a board of Shenzhou Chinese space ships are performed with plants and tissue culture. The space flight experiments are now focused on applications of the space biology results to Earth technologies. In particular, the tomato seeds exposed 6 years in space are used in pharmacy industry in more then 10 pharmaceutical products. Tissue culture experiments are performed on the board of Shenzhou spaceship for creation of new bioproducts including Space Panax ginseng, Space Spirulina, Space Stetatin, Space Tomato and others products with unique properties. Space investments come back.

  14. The Role of Work in Psychological Health and Well-Being: A Conceptual, Historical, and Public Policy Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blustein, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The primary theme of this article, which serves as the introductory contribution of a special section of the "American Psychologist," is that work plays a central role in the development, expression, and maintenance of psychological health. The argument underlying this assumption is articulated at the outset of the article in conjunction with a…

  15. Jung in education: a review of historical and contemporary contributions from analytical psychology to the field of education.

    PubMed

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The available literature on the influence of Jungian thought on the theory and practice of education leaves the impression that although the work of Carl Jung and analytical psychology have much to offer the field of education, the Jungian influence has so far been slight. While this has certainly been true, the last decade or so has nevertheless witnessed an increased scholarly interest in exploring how analytical psychology may inform and inspire the field of education. As an explanation for this burgeoning interest in Jung, several of the contemporary contributors mention that analytical psychology has the potential of functioning as a counterbalance to the tendencies in Western societies to focus on measurable learning targets and increasingly standardized measures of teaching and assessment. It seems pertinent then to gain an overview of how analytical psychology has so far inspired the field of education and how it may fruitfully continue do so in the future. To this end this paper is structured chronologically, starting with the different phases of Jung's own engagement with the field of education and ending with later post-Jungian applications of his concepts and ideas to education.

  16. Jung in education: a review of historical and contemporary contributions from analytical psychology to the field of education.

    PubMed

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The available literature on the influence of Jungian thought on the theory and practice of education leaves the impression that although the work of Carl Jung and analytical psychology have much to offer the field of education, the Jungian influence has so far been slight. While this has certainly been true, the last decade or so has nevertheless witnessed an increased scholarly interest in exploring how analytical psychology may inform and inspire the field of education. As an explanation for this burgeoning interest in Jung, several of the contemporary contributors mention that analytical psychology has the potential of functioning as a counterbalance to the tendencies in Western societies to focus on measurable learning targets and increasingly standardized measures of teaching and assessment. It seems pertinent then to gain an overview of how analytical psychology has so far inspired the field of education and how it may fruitfully continue do so in the future. To this end this paper is structured chronologically, starting with the different phases of Jung's own engagement with the field of education and ending with later post-Jungian applications of his concepts and ideas to education. PMID:27192370

  17. Examining the Impact of Historical/Developmental, Sociodemographic, and Psychological Factors on Passive Suicide among African-American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Tameka M.

    2009-01-01

    Nationally published reports on death rates for substance abuse (drug-alcohol related), violence (homicide), and risky sexual behaviors (HIV/AIDS) among African-American men are deeply concerning. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between historical/developmental factors (masculine identity, racial identity, racism),…

  18. Urban green spaces' effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of noise pollution: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dzhambov, Angel Mario; Dimitrova, Donka Dimitrova

    2014-01-01

    Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. Little evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of psychological noise attenuation by urban green spaces, especially from the perspective of environmental medicine and, to the best of our knowledge, there is not a systematic analysis on this topic. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate whether there is conclusive scientific evidence for the effectiveness of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer for the negative impact of noise pollution on human health and to promote an evidence-based approach toward this still growing environmental hazard. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 in English and Spanish. Data was independently extracted in two step process by the authors. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies qualitative assessment was performed. We found moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of noise (supported with an electroencephalogram test in one of the experimental studies; consistent with the data from two epidemiological studies; one experiment found no effect and one was inconclusive about the positive effect). This review fills a gap in the literature and could help researchers further clarify the proper implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic noise pollution.

  19. The Exploration Ethic: Its Historical-Intellectual Basis. Outlook for Space (1980 - 2000)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priscoli, J. D.; Marney, M.

    1975-01-01

    Principle components of the exploration ethic are discussed. Attempts were made to justify both the historical and intellectual aspects of the concept. It was noted that intellectual justification is strongly grounded on: (1) the complementarity of objective and normative inquiry as to method, and (2) interdisciplinary alliance of ethics of adaptive systems with contemporary decision sciences, as a theoretical basis. Historical exploration justification was associated with: (1) periods of civilization transition, (2) changes in the process of exploration which cause change in types of rationals used, sponsors involved, and explorers interest, and (3) the incorrectness of proven prior cost/benefit calculations.

  20. The Soviet-Russian space suits a historical overview of the 1960's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; Abramov, Isaac P.; Stoklitsky, Anatoly Y.; Doodnik, Michail N.

    2002-07-01

    The development of protective suits for space use started with the Vostok-suit SK-1, first used by Yu. Gagarin on April 12, 1961, and then used on all subsequent Vostok-flights. The technical background for the design of these suits was the work on full pressure protective suits for military pilots and stratospheric flights in the 1930's through 50's. The Soviet-Russian space programme contains a large number of 'firsts', and one of the most well known is the first EVA by Leonov in 1965. This event is also the starting point for a long series of space suit development for Extravehicular Activities over the last 35 years. The next step to come was the transfer in void space of crew members between the two spacecraft Soyuz 4 and 5 in 1969. As has later become known this was an essential element in the planned Soviet lunar exploration programme, which in itself required a new space suit After the termination of the lunar programme in 1972, the space suit development concentrated on suits applicable to zero-gravity work around the manned space stations Salyut 6, Salyut 7 and MIR. These suits have become known as the ORLAN-family of suits, and an advanced version of this suit (ORLAN-M) will be used on the International Space Station together with the American EMU. This paper covers the space suit development in the Soviet Union in the 1960's and the experience used from the pre-space era.

  1. The Soviet-Russian space suits a historical overview of the 1960's.

    PubMed

    Skoog, A Ingemar; Abramov, Isaac P; Stoklitsky, Anatoly Y; Doodnik, Michail N

    2002-01-01

    The development of protective suits for space use started with the Vostok-suit SK-1, first used by Yu. Gagarin on April 12, 1961, and then used on all subsequent Vostok-flights. The technical background for the design of these suits was the work on full pressure protective suits for military pilots and stratospheric flights in the 1930's through 50's. The Soviet-Russian space programme contains a large number of 'firsts', and one of the most well known is the first EVA by Leonov in 1965. This event is also the starting point for a long series of space suit development for Extravehicular Activities over the last 35 years. The next step to come was the transfer in void space of crew members between the two spacecraft Soyuz 4 and 5 in 1969. As has later become known this was an essential element in the planned Soviet lunar exploration programme, which in itself required a new space suit. After the termination of the lunar programme in 1972, the space suit development concentrated on suits applicable to zero-gravity work around the manned space stations Salyut 6, Salyut 7 and MIR. These suits have become known as the ORLAN-family of suits, and an advanced version of this suit (ORLAN-M) will be used on the International Space Station together with the American EMU. This paper covers the space suit development in the Soviet Union in the 1960's and the experience used from the pre-space era.

  2. The past as prologue - A look at historical flight qualifications for space nuclear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    Currently the U.S. is sponsoring production of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) for the Cassini mission to Saturn; the SP-100 space nuclear reactor power system for NASA applications; a thermionic space reactor program for DoD applications as well as early work on nuclear propulsion. In an era of heightened public concern about having successful space ventures it is important that a full understanding be developed of what it means to 'flight qualify' a space nuclear system. As a contribution to the ongoing work this paper reviews several qualification programs, including the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generators (GPHS-RTGs) as developed for the Galileo and Ulysses missions, the SNAP-10A space reactor, the Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Applications (NERVA), the F-1 chemical engine used on the Saturn-V, and the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs). Similarities and contrasts are noted.

  3. Historical aspects of the early Soviet/Russian manned space program.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    2001-10-01

    Human spaceflight was one of the great physiological and engineering triumphs of the 20th century. Although the history of the United States manned space program is well known, the Soviet program was shrouded in secrecy until recently. Konstantin Edvardovich Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) was an extraordinary Russian visionary who made remarkable predictions about space travel in the late 19th century. Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (1907-1966) was the brilliant "Chief Designer" who was responsible for many of the Soviet firsts, including the first artificial satellite and the first human being in space. The dramatic flight of Sputnik 1 was followed within a month by the launch of the dog Laika, the first living creature in space. Remarkably, the engineering work for this payload was all done in less than 4 wk. Korolev's greatest triumph was the flight of Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934-1968) on April 12, 1961. Another extraordinary feat was the first extravehicular activity by Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov (1934-) using a flexible airlock that emphasized the entrepreneurial attitude of the Soviet engineers. By the mid-1960s, the Soviet program was overtaken by the United States program and attempts to launch a manned mission to the Moon failed. However, the early Soviet manned space program has a preeminent place in the history of space physiology.

  4. Historical aspects of the early Soviet/Russian manned space program.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    2001-10-01

    Human spaceflight was one of the great physiological and engineering triumphs of the 20th century. Although the history of the United States manned space program is well known, the Soviet program was shrouded in secrecy until recently. Konstantin Edvardovich Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) was an extraordinary Russian visionary who made remarkable predictions about space travel in the late 19th century. Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (1907-1966) was the brilliant "Chief Designer" who was responsible for many of the Soviet firsts, including the first artificial satellite and the first human being in space. The dramatic flight of Sputnik 1 was followed within a month by the launch of the dog Laika, the first living creature in space. Remarkably, the engineering work for this payload was all done in less than 4 wk. Korolev's greatest triumph was the flight of Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (1934-1968) on April 12, 1961. Another extraordinary feat was the first extravehicular activity by Aleksei Arkhipovich Leonov (1934-) using a flexible airlock that emphasized the entrepreneurial attitude of the Soviet engineers. By the mid-1960s, the Soviet program was overtaken by the United States program and attempts to launch a manned mission to the Moon failed. However, the early Soviet manned space program has a preeminent place in the history of space physiology. PMID:11568130

  5. Regime Switching State-Space Models Applied to Psychological Processes: Handling Missing Data and Making Inferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamaker, E. L.; Grasman, R. P. P. P.

    2012-01-01

    Many psychological processes are characterized by recurrent shifts between distinct regimes or states. Examples that are considered in this paper are the switches between different states associated with premenstrual syndrome, hourly fluctuations in affect during a major depressive episode, and shifts between a "hot hand" and a "cold hand" in a…

  6. The history and visions of African American psychology: multiple pathways to place, space, and authority.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Bertha Garrett

    2009-10-01

    The author describes the multiple pathways of events and strategies that served to nurture African American psychology in the United States. Special attention is given to strategies for inclusion and empowerment used in 4 psychological professional and scholarly associations: the American Counseling Association, the American Psychological Association, the Association of Black Psychologists, and the Society for Research in Child Development. In addition, the author describes 4 major intellectual traditions that informed not only the strategies of inclusion but also the theoretical, research, and intervention perspectives and other professional and academic efforts of African American psychologists. Those perspectives are the Afrocentric/African-centered tradition derived from longstanding nationalist/Pan-African and culturally centered traditions within African American communities; the social contextual/multidisciplinary research tradition of the University of Chicago School of Social Science; the empirical social science research tradition of the University of Michigan; and the Black scholar/activist tradition of Howard University. This article also presents a chronological timeline of major events in the history of African American psychology.

  7. Historical Review of Lower Body Negative Pressure Research in Space Medicine.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Mark R; Charles, John B

    2015-07-01

    Cephalad redistribution of intravascular and extravascular fluid occurs as a result of weightlessness during spaceflight. This provokes cardiovascular, cardiopulmonary, and autonomic nervous system responses. The resulting altered functional state can result in orthostatic hypotension and intolerance upon landing and return to a gravity environment. In-flight lower body negative pressure (LBNP) transiently restores normal body fluid distribution. Early in the U.S. space program, LBNP was devised as a way to test for orthostatic intolerance. With the development of the Skylab Program and longer duration spaceflight, it was realized that it could provide a method of monitoring orthostatic intolerance in flight and predicting the post-landing orthostatic response. LBNP was also investigated not only as an in-flight cardiovascular orthostatic stress test, but also as a countermeasure to cardiovascular deconditioning on Soviet space stations, Skylab, and the Shuttle. It is still being used by the Russian program on the International Space Station as an end-of-flight countermeasure.

  8. America's Space Program: Exploring a New Frontier. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Rita G.

    Several hundred thousand people converged on the Kennedy Space Center (Florida) on July 16, 1969, to view the launch of the "Saturn V" rocket that would propel "Apollo 11" to the moon. The engineers and technicians watching their computer screens may secretly have kept their fingers crossed, but at two minutes before launch, a reporter recorded…

  9. History and theoretical-methodological fundaments of Community Psychology in Ceará.

    PubMed

    Barros, João Paulo Pereira; Ximenes, Verônica Morais

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the historical and theoretical-methodological aspects of the Community Psychology that has been developed in the state of Ceará, in northeastern Brazil, based on the praxis initiated by Professor Cezar Wagner de Lima Góis and further developed by the Community Psychology Nucleus (NUCOM) at the Federal University of Ceará. Important aspects of the beginning of this Community Psychology are presented, highlighting its academic and social perspectives. NUCOM is a space for the development of teaching, research, and outreach activities, which allows the systematization and deepening of this proposal for a different Community Psychology. Community Psychology is constituted by five theoretical-methodological marks: Popular Education, Biodance, Carl Rogers' Humanistic Approach, Cultural-Historical Psychology, and Liberation Psychology. Finally, the article describes the methods comprising this proposal for working in communities, which are sustained by pillars such as participation and problematizing dialogue.

  10. History and theoretical-methodological fundaments of Community Psychology in Ceará.

    PubMed

    Barros, João Paulo Pereira; Ximenes, Verônica Morais

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the historical and theoretical-methodological aspects of the Community Psychology that has been developed in the state of Ceará, in northeastern Brazil, based on the praxis initiated by Professor Cezar Wagner de Lima Góis and further developed by the Community Psychology Nucleus (NUCOM) at the Federal University of Ceará. Important aspects of the beginning of this Community Psychology are presented, highlighting its academic and social perspectives. NUCOM is a space for the development of teaching, research, and outreach activities, which allows the systematization and deepening of this proposal for a different Community Psychology. Community Psychology is constituted by five theoretical-methodological marks: Popular Education, Biodance, Carl Rogers' Humanistic Approach, Cultural-Historical Psychology, and Liberation Psychology. Finally, the article describes the methods comprising this proposal for working in communities, which are sustained by pillars such as participation and problematizing dialogue. PMID:26697900

  11. Historical Review of Lower Body Negative Pressure Research in Space Medicine.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Mark R; Charles, John B

    2015-07-01

    Cephalad redistribution of intravascular and extravascular fluid occurs as a result of weightlessness during spaceflight. This provokes cardiovascular, cardiopulmonary, and autonomic nervous system responses. The resulting altered functional state can result in orthostatic hypotension and intolerance upon landing and return to a gravity environment. In-flight lower body negative pressure (LBNP) transiently restores normal body fluid distribution. Early in the U.S. space program, LBNP was devised as a way to test for orthostatic intolerance. With the development of the Skylab Program and longer duration spaceflight, it was realized that it could provide a method of monitoring orthostatic intolerance in flight and predicting the post-landing orthostatic response. LBNP was also investigated not only as an in-flight cardiovascular orthostatic stress test, but also as a countermeasure to cardiovascular deconditioning on Soviet space stations, Skylab, and the Shuttle. It is still being used by the Russian program on the International Space Station as an end-of-flight countermeasure. PMID:26102144

  12. Humanistic Psychology: How Realistic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riebel, Linda

    1982-01-01

    Overviews themes relating to humanistic psychology. Discusses the tendency of theorists to unconsciously externalize their own psyches. Examines the historical context of humanistic psychology. Discusses humanistic psychology's contribution to understanding the less healthy person. Provides instances of unrealistic thinking by humanistic…

  13. Psychology and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1987-01-01

    Psychology and literature focus on human behavior. There are several points where the interests of psychologists and literary scholars converge. This convergence is evident in the use of literature to test psychological theories and to understand human behavior in historical times, in the psychological analyses of literature, and in psychological…

  14. U.S. view of human problems to be addressed for long duration space flights. [physiological and psychological effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The Russian and American space programs have consisted of several thousands of hours of exposure of man to the space environment. In spite of numerous biological phenomena of adaptation observed, the space travellers have displayed, after their return, no enduring pathological effect. Although the usable data remain too limited to reflect fully the effects of space flight, it is possible to sketch the biological responses in the absence of gravity and to define the work bases for the future. Beyond its basic physiological effects, weightlessness has operational consequences in the daily life of the astronauts. These consequences will be still more evident during missions of long duration. The conclusions drawn in flight as well as on the ground are reviewed, and future requirements concerning prolonged flights are outlined. The gaps in actual knowledge are discussed and solutions are suggested. The problems of habitability are considered, particularly those which remain at present without satisfactory solutions: psychological responses to a confined life, cleaning, hygiene, and used material.

  15. Russian Education: Historical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, John C.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the evaluation of Russian educational concepts through six historical periods; stresses the significance of social, philosophical, political, and psychological factors that have affected Soviet educational policies used to instill Communist values. (JD)

  16. Salt balance: From space experiments to revolutionizing new clinical concepts on earth - A historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerzer, Rupert

    2014-11-01

    For a long time, sodium balance appeared to be a “done deal” and was thought to be well understood. However, experiments in preparation of space missions showed that the concept of osmotic sodium storage and close correlations of sodium with water balance are only part of the regulatory mechanisms of body salt. By now it has turned out that the human skin is an important storage place and regulator for sodium, that sodium storage involves macrophages which in turn salt-dependently co-regulate blood pressure, that body sodium also strongly influences bone and protein metabolism, and that immune functions are also strongly influenced by sodium. In addition, the aging process appears to lead to increased body sodium storage, which in turn might influence the aging process of the human body. The current review article summarizes the developments that have led to these revolutionizing new findings and concepts as well as consequences deriving from these findings. Therefore, it is not intended in this article to give a complete literature overview over the whole field but to focus on such key literature and considerations that led to the respective developments.

  17. Museum spaces as psychological affordances: representations of immigration history and national identity.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sahana; Salter, Phia S; Molina, Ludwin E

    2015-01-01

    The present research draws upon a cultural psychological perspective to consider how psychological phenomena are grounded in socio-cultural contexts. Specifically, we examine the association between representations of history at Ellis Island Immigration Museum and identity-relevant concerns. Pilot study participants (N = 13) took a total of 114 photographs of exhibits that they considered as most important in the museum. Results indicate that a majority of the photographs reflected neutral themes (n = 81), followed by nation-glorifying images (n = 24), and then critical themes that highlight injustices and barriers faced by immigrants (n = 9). Study 1 examines whether there is a preference for glorifying images, and if that preference is related to cultural-assimilationist conceptions of national identity (i.e., defining American identity in dominant group standards). We exposed a new sample of participants (N = 119) to photographs reflecting all three themes. Results indicate that participants expressed greater liking for glorifying images, followed by neutral images, and critical images. National identity moderated within-subject variation in liking scores. Study 2 included 35 visitors who completed a survey before engaging with the museum or after their visit. Results indicate that participants who had completed their visit, compared to participants who had not entered the museum, reported (i) higher endorsement of cultural-assimilationist identity, and (ii) increased support for exclusive immigration policies. Study 3 exposed participants (N = 257) to glorifying, critical, or neutral images. Results indicate that participants who were exposed to glorifying images, especially those endorsing cultural-assimilationist identity, demonstrate decreased perception of current-day racial injustice, and increased ethnocentric enforcement bias. We discuss how engagement with privileged narratives may serve dominant group ends and reproduce systems of privilege. PMID

  18. Museum spaces as psychological affordances: representations of immigration history and national identity.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sahana; Salter, Phia S; Molina, Ludwin E

    2015-01-01

    The present research draws upon a cultural psychological perspective to consider how psychological phenomena are grounded in socio-cultural contexts. Specifically, we examine the association between representations of history at Ellis Island Immigration Museum and identity-relevant concerns. Pilot study participants (N = 13) took a total of 114 photographs of exhibits that they considered as most important in the museum. Results indicate that a majority of the photographs reflected neutral themes (n = 81), followed by nation-glorifying images (n = 24), and then critical themes that highlight injustices and barriers faced by immigrants (n = 9). Study 1 examines whether there is a preference for glorifying images, and if that preference is related to cultural-assimilationist conceptions of national identity (i.e., defining American identity in dominant group standards). We exposed a new sample of participants (N = 119) to photographs reflecting all three themes. Results indicate that participants expressed greater liking for glorifying images, followed by neutral images, and critical images. National identity moderated within-subject variation in liking scores. Study 2 included 35 visitors who completed a survey before engaging with the museum or after their visit. Results indicate that participants who had completed their visit, compared to participants who had not entered the museum, reported (i) higher endorsement of cultural-assimilationist identity, and (ii) increased support for exclusive immigration policies. Study 3 exposed participants (N = 257) to glorifying, critical, or neutral images. Results indicate that participants who were exposed to glorifying images, especially those endorsing cultural-assimilationist identity, demonstrate decreased perception of current-day racial injustice, and increased ethnocentric enforcement bias. We discuss how engagement with privileged narratives may serve dominant group ends and reproduce systems of privilege.

  19. Museum spaces as psychological affordances: representations of immigration history and national identity

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sahana; Salter, Phia S.; Molina, Ludwin E.

    2015-01-01

    The present research draws upon a cultural psychological perspective to consider how psychological phenomena are grounded in socio-cultural contexts. Specifically, we examine the association between representations of history at Ellis Island Immigration Museum and identity-relevant concerns. Pilot study participants (N = 13) took a total of 114 photographs of exhibits that they considered as most important in the museum. Results indicate that a majority of the photographs reflected neutral themes (n = 81), followed by nation-glorifying images (n = 24), and then critical themes that highlight injustices and barriers faced by immigrants (n = 9). Study 1 examines whether there is a preference for glorifying images, and if that preference is related to cultural-assimilationist conceptions of national identity (i.e., defining American identity in dominant group standards). We exposed a new sample of participants (N = 119) to photographs reflecting all three themes. Results indicate that participants expressed greater liking for glorifying images, followed by neutral images, and critical images. National identity moderated within-subject variation in liking scores. Study 2 included 35 visitors who completed a survey before engaging with the museum or after their visit. Results indicate that participants who had completed their visit, compared to participants who had not entered the museum, reported (i) higher endorsement of cultural-assimilationist identity, and (ii) increased support for exclusive immigration policies. Study 3 exposed participants (N = 257) to glorifying, critical, or neutral images. Results indicate that participants who were exposed to glorifying images, especially those endorsing cultural-assimilationist identity, demonstrate decreased perception of current-day racial injustice, and increased ethnocentric enforcement bias. We discuss how engagement with privileged narratives may serve dominant group ends and reproduce systems of privilege. PMID

  20. Enhancing Learning in Statistics Classes Through The Use of Concrete Historical Examples: The Space Shuttle Challenger, Pearl Harbor, and the RMS Titanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumm, Walter R.; Webb, Farrell J.; Castelo, Carlos S.; Akagi, Cynthia G.; Jensen, Erick J.; Ditto, Rose M.; Spencer Carver, Elaine; Brown, Beverlyn F.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of historical events as examples for teaching college level statistics courses. Focuses on examples of the space shuttle Challenger, Pearl Harbor (Hawaii), and the RMS Titanic. Finds real life examples can bridge a link to short term experiential learning and provide a means for long term understanding of statistics. (KDR)

  1. Study of the psychological adaptation of the crew during a 135 days space simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisabeth, Rosnet; Geneviève, Cazes; Alla, Venokhodova

    The purpose of this study is to examine human Actaptation of a three members' crew during a 135 days MIR flight simulation and to compare and validate psychological methods for monitoring and support in flight. The main findings showed that isolation was not a key factor for the subjects who were more concerned by recreational activities, family, and work. The individual reactions to stress of the crew members were to project their problems on the others. These reactions had some consequences upon the group: Although the three subjects developed a weak tendency to ≪ group think ≫, one of the crew members was considered as less integrated to the group by me other two subjects, who, however, acted to protect (successfully) the general cohesion and mood of the crew. From a methodological point of view, baseline data predicted the difficulties that occurred for one of the crew member. Bom quantitative and qualitative tools were adequate, although qualitative tests gave a closer approach to the actual situation that developed during the simulation.

  2. Psychological, emotional studies of Mir space station missions show Russians fared better than Americans.

    PubMed

    Boyd, K

    2001-06-01

    Weekly surveys gathered from crewmembers and mission control personnel during NASA missions to the Mir space station were used to rate mood, work environment, and interactions with the rest of the crew. Analysis of the surveys indicated that Americans were less satisfied with their group interactions and work environments than Russians. Also, mission control workers reported higher levels of tension, fatigue, confusion, and overall negative feelings than the astronauts and cosmonauts.

  3. Physiological and psychological responses of humans to the index of greenness of an interior space.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji-Young; Park, Sin-Ae; Jung, Soo-Jin; Lee, Ji-Young; Son, Ki-Cheol; An, Youn-Joo; Lee, Sang-Woo

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the optimal index of greenness in terms of psychophysiological responses and subjective preference. We recruited 103 adult (51 male, 52 female) participants, who were examined individually in an interior space (lab) setting at Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea. Participants observed plants in the space for 3min per experimental index of greenness (5%, 20%, 50%, and 80%). During this period, heart rate variability (HRV) and electroencephalographic (EEG) physiological responses were measured, and the participant's preference for index of greenness and subjective index of greenness was determined via surveys. HRV values were normal, and not significantly different, except that male participants showed higher mean variability between cardiac NN intervals and greater autonomic activity than female participants (P<0.05). EEG data were not significantly different, except that female participants had a significantly higher mean amplitude at the left occipital (O1) electrode than male participants (P<0.01). Subjectively, participants preferred the 50% index of greenness the most, though they consistently reported the subjective index of greenness to be ∼15% higher than the actual level. We conclude that given a limited interior space, even a small amount of greenery may exert a relaxing effect on people. PMID:27670868

  4. The Evaluation of Lithium Hydride for Use in a Space Nuclear Reactor Shield, Including a Historical Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    D. Poeth

    2005-12-09

    LiH was one of the five primary shield materials the NRPCT intended to develop (along with beryllium, boron carbide, tungsten, and water) for potential Prometheus application. It was also anticipated that {sup 10}B metal would be investigated for feasibility at a low level of effort. LiH historically has been selected as a low mass, neutron absorption material for space shields (Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP), Topaz, SP-100). Initial NRPCT investigations did not produce convincing evidence that LiH was desirable or feasible for a Prometheus mission due to material property issues (primarily swelling and hydrogen cover gas containment), and related thermal design complexity. Furthermore, if mass limits allowed, an option to avoid use of LiH was being contemplated to lower development costs and associated risks. However, LiH remains theoretically the most efficient neutron shield material per unit mass, and, with sufficient testing and development, could be an optimal material choice for future flights.

  5. Modeling Semantic Emotion Space Using a 3D Hypercube-Projection: An Innovative Analytical Approach for the Psychology of Emotions.

    PubMed

    Trnka, Radek; Lačev, Alek; Balcar, Karel; Kuška, Martin; Tavel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The widely accepted two-dimensional circumplex model of emotions posits that most instances of human emotional experience can be understood within the two general dimensions of valence and activation. Currently, this model is facing some criticism, because complex emotions in particular are hard to define within only these two general dimensions. The present theory-driven study introduces an innovative analytical approach working in a way other than the conventional, two-dimensional paradigm. The main goal was to map and project semantic emotion space in terms of mutual positions of various emotion prototypical categories. Participants (N = 187; 54.5% females) judged 16 discrete emotions in terms of valence, intensity, controllability and utility. The results revealed that these four dimensional input measures were uncorrelated. This implies that valence, intensity, controllability and utility represented clearly different qualities of discrete emotions in the judgments of the participants. Based on this data, we constructed a 3D hypercube-projection and compared it with various two-dimensional projections. This contrasting enabled us to detect several sources of bias when working with the traditional, two-dimensional analytical approach. Contrasting two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections revealed that the 2D models provided biased insights about how emotions are conceptually related to one another along multiple dimensions. The results of the present study point out the reductionist nature of the two-dimensional paradigm in the psychological theory of emotions and challenge the widely accepted circumplex model.

  6. Modeling Semantic Emotion Space Using a 3D Hypercube-Projection: An Innovative Analytical Approach for the Psychology of Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Trnka, Radek; Lačev, Alek; Balcar, Karel; Kuška, Martin; Tavel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The widely accepted two-dimensional circumplex model of emotions posits that most instances of human emotional experience can be understood within the two general dimensions of valence and activation. Currently, this model is facing some criticism, because complex emotions in particular are hard to define within only these two general dimensions. The present theory-driven study introduces an innovative analytical approach working in a way other than the conventional, two-dimensional paradigm. The main goal was to map and project semantic emotion space in terms of mutual positions of various emotion prototypical categories. Participants (N = 187; 54.5% females) judged 16 discrete emotions in terms of valence, intensity, controllability and utility. The results revealed that these four dimensional input measures were uncorrelated. This implies that valence, intensity, controllability and utility represented clearly different qualities of discrete emotions in the judgments of the participants. Based on this data, we constructed a 3D hypercube-projection and compared it with various two-dimensional projections. This contrasting enabled us to detect several sources of bias when working with the traditional, two-dimensional analytical approach. Contrasting two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections revealed that the 2D models provided biased insights about how emotions are conceptually related to one another along multiple dimensions. The results of the present study point out the reductionist nature of the two-dimensional paradigm in the psychological theory of emotions and challenge the widely accepted circumplex model. PMID:27148130

  7. Psychology Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderssen, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the University of Texas Austin's Seay Psychology and Child Development & Family Relationships building. With modern technique and materials, the Seay building adds to the established architectural language of the campus, offering a richly tactile structure and adjoining outdoor space embracing the tenets of successful…

  8. Preliminary report on social psychological factors in long duration space flights: Review and directions for future research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Group dynamics, sociological and psychological factors are examined. Crew composition and compatibility are studied. Group dynamics analysis includes: leadership; cohesiveness; conformity; and conflict.

  9. Historics of the Space Tracking And Data Acquisition Network (STADAN), the Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN), and the NASA Communications Network (NASCOM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corliss, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The historical and technical aspects of the major networks which comprise the NASA tracking and data acquisition system are considered in a complete reference work which traces the origin and growth of STADAN, MSFN, and NASCOM up to mid-1971. The roles of these networks in both the Gemini and Apollo programs are discussed, and the separate developmental trends are identified for each network.

  10. Is Vygotsky Relevant? Vygotsky's Marxist Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the connections between Vygotsky's psychology and Marxism, arguing that his was a "Marxist psychology" in its "historical foundation": a specific conception of history. This conception of history is evident in Vygotsky's analysis and diagnosis of the crisis in psychology. The creation of a Marxist, general psychology was the…

  11. Survey of historical incidences with Controls-Structures Interaction and recommended technology improvements needed to put hardware in space

    SciTech Connect

    Ketner, G.L.

    1989-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a survey for the Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) Office of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center. The purpose of the survey was to collect information documenting past incidences of problems with CSI during design, analysis, ground development, test and/or flight operation of space systems in industry. The survey was conducted to also compile recommended improvements in technology to support future needs for putting hardware into space. 3 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Historical perspectives - The role of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the national space nuclear power programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Sovie, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The history of the NASA Lewis Research Center's role in space nuclear power programs is reviewed. Lewis has provided leadership in research, development, and the advancement of space power and propulsion systems. Lewis' pioneering efforts in nuclear reactor technology, shielding, high temperature materials, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, mechanical and direct energy conversion, high-energy propellants, electric propulsion and high performance rocket fuels and nozzles have led to significant technical and management roles in many natural space nuclear power and propulsion programs.

  13. Historical perspectives: The role of the NASA Lewis Research Center in the national space nuclear power programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Sovie, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The history of the NASA Lewis Research Center's role in space nuclear power programs is reviewed. Lewis has provided leadership in research, development, and the advancement of space power and propulsion systems. Lewis' pioneering efforts in nuclear reactor technology, shielding, high temperature materials, fluid dynamics, heat transfer, mechanical and direct energy conversion, high-energy propellants, electric propulsion and high performance rocket fuels and nozzles have led to significant technical and management roles in many national space nuclear power and propulsion programs.

  14. Backlash against American psychology: an indigenous reconstruction of the history of German critical psychology.

    PubMed

    Teo, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    After suggesting that all psychologies contain indigenous qualities and discussing differences and commonalities between German and North American historiographies of psychology, an indigenous reconstruction of German critical psychology is applied. It is argued that German critical psychology can be understood as a backlash against American psychology, as a response to the Americanization of German psychology after WWII, on the background of the history of German psychology, the academic impact of the Cold War, and the trajectory of personal biographies and institutions. Using an intellectual-historical perspective, it is shown how and which indigenous dimensions played a role in the development of German critical psychology as well as the limitations to such an historical approach. Expanding from German critical psychology, the role of the critique of American psychology in various contexts around the globe is discussed in order to emphasize the relevance of indigenous historical research.

  15. Backlash against American psychology: an indigenous reconstruction of the history of German critical psychology.

    PubMed

    Teo, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    After suggesting that all psychologies contain indigenous qualities and discussing differences and commonalities between German and North American historiographies of psychology, an indigenous reconstruction of German critical psychology is applied. It is argued that German critical psychology can be understood as a backlash against American psychology, as a response to the Americanization of German psychology after WWII, on the background of the history of German psychology, the academic impact of the Cold War, and the trajectory of personal biographies and institutions. Using an intellectual-historical perspective, it is shown how and which indigenous dimensions played a role in the development of German critical psychology as well as the limitations to such an historical approach. Expanding from German critical psychology, the role of the critique of American psychology in various contexts around the globe is discussed in order to emphasize the relevance of indigenous historical research. PMID:23394178

  16. When do plant radiations influence community assembly? The importance of historical contingency in the race for niche space.

    PubMed

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Brandt, Angela J; Smissen, Rob D; Heenan, Peter B; Fukami, Tadashi; Lee, William G

    2015-07-01

    Plant radiations are widespread but their influence on community assembly has rarely been investigated. Theory and some evidence suggest that radiations can allow lineages to monopolize niche space when founding species arrive early into new bioclimatic regions and exploit ecological opportunities. These early radiations may subsequently reduce niche availability and dampen diversification of later arrivals. We tested this hypothesis of time-dependent lineage diversification and community dominance using the alpine flora of New Zealand. We estimated ages of 16 genera from published phylogenies and determined their relative occurrence across climatic and physical gradients in the alpine zone. We used these data to reconstruct occupancy of environmental space through time, integrating palaeoclimatic and palaeogeological changes. Our analysis suggested that earlier-colonizing lineages encountered a greater availability of environmental space, which promoted greater species diversity and occupancy of niche space. Genera that occupied broader niches were subsequently more dominant in local communities. An earlier time of arrival also contributed to greater diversity independently of its influence in accessing niche space. We suggest that plant radiations influence community assembly when they arise early in the occupancy of environmental space, allowing them to exclude later-arriving colonists from ecological communities by niche preemption.

  17. When do plant radiations influence community assembly? The importance of historical contingency in the race for niche space.

    PubMed

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Brandt, Angela J; Smissen, Rob D; Heenan, Peter B; Fukami, Tadashi; Lee, William G

    2015-07-01

    Plant radiations are widespread but their influence on community assembly has rarely been investigated. Theory and some evidence suggest that radiations can allow lineages to monopolize niche space when founding species arrive early into new bioclimatic regions and exploit ecological opportunities. These early radiations may subsequently reduce niche availability and dampen diversification of later arrivals. We tested this hypothesis of time-dependent lineage diversification and community dominance using the alpine flora of New Zealand. We estimated ages of 16 genera from published phylogenies and determined their relative occurrence across climatic and physical gradients in the alpine zone. We used these data to reconstruct occupancy of environmental space through time, integrating palaeoclimatic and palaeogeological changes. Our analysis suggested that earlier-colonizing lineages encountered a greater availability of environmental space, which promoted greater species diversity and occupancy of niche space. Genera that occupied broader niches were subsequently more dominant in local communities. An earlier time of arrival also contributed to greater diversity independently of its influence in accessing niche space. We suggest that plant radiations influence community assembly when they arise early in the occupancy of environmental space, allowing them to exclude later-arriving colonists from ecological communities by niche preemption. PMID:25771829

  18. The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center's 14 X 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, A.

    1994-01-01

    A history of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) George C. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) 14 x 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel is presented. Its early and continuing role in the United States space program is shown through highlights of the tunnel's history and the major programs tested in the tunnel over the past 40 years. The 14-Inch Tunnel has its beginning with the Army in the late 1950's under the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA). Such programs as the Redstone, Jupiter, Pershing, and early Saturn were tested in the 14-Inch Tunnel in the late 1950's. America's first launch vehicle, the Jupiter C, was designed and developed using the 14-Inch Wind Tunnel. Under NASA, the 14-Inch Wind Tunnel has made large contributions to the Saturn, Space Transportation System, and future launch vehicle programs such as Shuttle-C and the National Launch System. A technical description of the tunnel is presented for background information on the type and capabilities of the 14-Inch Wind Tunnel. The report concludes in stating: the 14-Inch Wind Tunnel as in speed of sound; transonic, at or near the speed of sound the past, will continue to play a large but unseen role in he development of America's space program.

  19. The Influence of Microbiology on Spacecraft Design and Controls: A Historical Perspective of the Shuttle and International Space Station Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Victoria A.; Bruce, Rebekah J.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, D. L.

    2006-01-01

    For over 40 years, NASA has been putting humans safely into space in part by minimizing microbial risks to crew members. Success of the program to minimize such risks has resulted from a combination of engineering and design controls as well as active monitoring of the crew, food, water, hardware, and spacecraft interior. The evolution of engineering and design controls is exemplified by the implementation of HEPA filters for air treatment, antimicrobial surface materials, and the disinfection regimen currently used on board the International Space Station. Data from spaceflight missions confirm the effectiveness of current measures; however, fluctuations in microbial concentrations and trends in contamination events suggest the need for continued diligence in monitoring and evaluation as well as further improvements in engineering systems. The knowledge of microbial controls and monitoring from assessments of past missions will be critical in driving the design of future spacecraft.

  20. Operational Psychology Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Al

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history of long duration spaceflight, and the changes in the International Space Station crew and the effect that this has had on the psychology of astronaut selection and training.

  1. Section 2--Psychology in Its Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, John

    2008-01-01

    In 1996, Graham Richards published "Putting Psychology in its Place: An introduction from a critical historical perspective." Here, I seek to consider what is or should be the "place" of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education, and not just from a historical perspective. This raises issues about several contexts in which…

  2. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy - Major Accomplishments and Lessons Learned Detail Historical Timeline Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, James K.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the Space Shuttle Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) and the people who developed and maintained this system. One theme is to provide quantitative data on software quality and reliability over a 30 year period. Consistent data relates to code break discrepancies. Requirements were supplied from external sources. Requirement inspections and measurements not implemented until later, beginning in 1985. Second theme is to focus on the people and organization of PASS. Many individuals have supported the PASS project over the entire period while transitioning from company to company and contract to contract. Major events and transitions have impacted morale (both positively and negatively) across the life of the project.

  3. Microevolution in time and space: SNP analysis of historical DNA reveals dynamic signatures of selection in Atlantic cod.

    PubMed

    Therkildsen, Nina O; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Als, Thomas D; Swain, Douglas P; Morgan, M Joanne; Trippel, Edward A; Palumbi, Stephen R; Meldrup, Dorte; Nielsen, Einar E

    2013-05-01

    Little is known about how quickly natural populations adapt to changes in their environment and how temporal and spatial variation in selection pressures interact to shape patterns of genetic diversity. We here address these issues with a series of genome scans in four overfished populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) studied over an 80-year period. Screening of >1000 gene-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified 77 loci that showed highly elevated levels of differentiation, likely as an effect of directional selection, in either time, space or both. Exploratory analysis suggested that temporal allele frequency shifts at certain loci may correlate with local temperature variation and with life history changes suggested to be fisheries induced. Interestingly, however, largely nonoverlapping sets of loci were temporal outliers in the different populations and outliers from the 1928 to 1960 period showed almost complete stability during later decades. The contrasting microevolutionary trajectories among populations resulted in sequential shifts in spatial outliers, with no locus maintaining elevated spatial differentiation throughout the study period. Simulations of migration coupled with observations of temporally stable spatial structure at neutral loci suggest that population replacement or gene flow alone could not explain all the observed allele frequency variation. Thus, the genetic changes are likely to at least partly be driven by highly dynamic temporally and spatially varying selection. These findings have important implications for our understanding of local adaptation and evolutionary potential in high gene flow organisms and underscore the need to carefully consider all dimensions of biocomplexity for evolutionarily sustainable management.

  4. State-Space Modeling of Dynamic Psychological Processes via the Kalman Smoother Algorithm: Rationale, Finite Sample Properties, and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hairong; Ferrer, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a state-space modeling (SSM) technique for fitting process factor analysis models directly to raw data. The Kalman smoother via the expectation-maximization algorithm to obtain maximum likelihood parameter estimates is used. To examine the finite sample properties of the estimates in SSM when common factors are involved, a…

  5. Uniform color space is not homogeneous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehni, Rolf G.

    2002-06-01

    Historical data of chroma scaling and hue scaling are compared and evidence is shown that we do not have a reliable basis in either case. Several data sets indicate explicitly or implicitly that the number of constant sized hue differences between unique hues as well as in the quadrants of the a*, b* diagram differs making what is commonly regarded as uniform color space inhomogeneous. This problem is also shown to affect the OSA-UCS space. A Euclidean uniform psychological or psychophysical color space appears to be impossible.

  6. Can Sea-Ice extent from the 1960s, be determined from reprocessed Nimbus and other historic space based data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallaher, D. W.; Wingo, D. R.; Meier, W.; Epps, A.

    2009-12-01

    (Apollo 7 and 9, October 19, 1968 and March 3-13 1969) as well as the Lunar Missions (Apollo 8, 10-12, 14-17) obtained high resolution, high quality visible light color and black and white images of the Earth. The co-authors are in the process of matching the timing between the Apollo images and the Nimbus images in order to provide quality data regarding the state of the Arctic and Antarctic ice pack during this era. The value of obtaining the original Nimbus images as well as the mixed Nimbus/Apollo imagery is to provide images and data to help move back in time the state of the Arctic and Antarctic ice pack to provide a longer term record of space based images of these regions of the Earth. Future efforts would also integrate these images with National Security spacecraft that also imaged these areas during that time period.

  7. Living in space: scientific, medical and cultural implications. A selection of papers presented at the 14th IAA Humans in Space Symposium.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    The Humans In Space 2003 symposium, entitled "Living in Space: Scientific, Medical and Cultural Implications," was sponsored by the Canadian Space Agency and held in Banff, Alberta, from May 18-22, 2003. There were 150 papers presented in six theme areas: education, missions, physiology, psychology, radiation, and technology. The 32 papers in this volume are organized into Education/Outreach, Medical Care (Bedrest), Medical Care (Countermeasures), Medical Care, Missions (Mars), Missions (Neurolab), Missions (Historical Lessons), Physiology, Psychology, Radiation, Technology (Human Factors), and Technology. PMID:15834992

  8. Self research in educational psychology: a cautionary tale of positive psychology in action.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jack

    2006-07-01

    Recent calls for a positive psychology that would deemphasize human pathology and dysfunction in favor of building an understanding of positive features of human life and human flourishing make two assumptions that the author questions in this article. First, he challenges the assumption that disciplinary psychology has been fixated on pathology and dysfunction by considering work in educational psychology that, both historically and currently, espouses the characteristics of positive psychology as articulated by its major advocates. Second, through a brief, critical consideration of research on the self in educational psychology, he contests the assumption that psychology has sufficient resources to develop into the positive psychology envisioned by its promoters. He argues that psychology's emphasis on the individual, whose core self resides in a deep, internal psyche, radically strips psychology of the historical and sociocultural resources that enable self-development, constrain self-understanding, and constitute the self. PMID:16967738

  9. Psychological Time and Sociology: A Research Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, H. Wayne

    1979-01-01

    Psychological time is hypothesized as potentially being both an independent and a dependent dimension associated with such sociological and psychological phenomena as social change, environmental design, personal space, esthetics, and color considerations. (Author)

  10. Counseling and Reading: Historically Considered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, William

    This paper argues that assessments of the correlation between emotional problems and reading have been, for the most part, products of particular historical periods and have been influenced by particular psychological theories--theories that also influenced education and counseling. The paper first traces the history of research investigations…

  11. Space basic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, Dexter

    1991-01-01

    In this education video series, 'Liftoff to Learning', astronauts (Bruce Melnick, Thomas Akers, William Shepherd, Robert Cabana, and Richard Richards) describe the historical beginnings of space exploration from the time of Robert H. Goddard (considered the Father of Rocketry), who, in 1929, invented the first propellant rocket, the prototype of modern liquid propellant rockets, up to the modern Space Shuttles. The questions - where is space, what is space, and how do astronauts get to, stay in, and come back from space are answered through historical footage, computer graphics, and animation. The space environment effects, temperature effects, and gravitational effects on the launching, orbiting, and descent of the Shuttles are discussed. Included is historical still photos and film footage of past space programs and space vehicles.

  12. Facility Focus: Historic Renovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Describes the renovation of historic buildings at Rice University (conversion of the Chemistry Building into space for the biophysics and bioengineering departments) and at Princeton University (renovation of the Dial Lodge eating club into a building for the Bendheim Center for Finance). Includes photographs. (EV)

  13. Historical and projected power requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Policy planning for projected space power requirements is discussed. Topics of discussion cover: (1) historical space power trends (prime power requirements and power system costs); and (2) two approaches to future space power requirements (mission/traffic model approach and advanced system scenario approach). Graphs, tables, and flow charts are presented.

  14. Historical Renovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Describes how two colleges are combining historical renovation with state-of-the-art design. The historic Thompson House on the campus of Austin College, Texas, is now a modern building adapted to the computer age with appropriate restoration to the aesthetic grandeur of the late 19th century. Yale University's Lillian Goldman Law Library now…

  15. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  16. Psychological Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Psychology has recently identified itself as a health care profession and codified this change in the bylaws of the American Psychological Association. Although psychologists make a number of contributions to the nation's health-and mental health-the most identifiable activity focuses on treating physical or psychological pathology with…

  17. Pharmaceutical Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolinsky, Donna

    1979-01-01

    Defines areas that could comprise pharmaceutical psychology. The discussion includes a review of literature, outline of areas in pharmacy in which psychologists could become involved, description of a project involving the application of psychology to pharmacy, and analysis of the concept of pharmaceutical psychology. A 99-item bibliography is…

  18. Reimagining community health psychology: maps, journeys and new terrains.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Catherine; Cornish, Flora

    2014-01-01

    This special issue celebrates and maps out the 'coming of age' of community health psychology, demonstrating its confident and productive expansion beyond its roots in the theory and practice of small-scale collective action in local settings. Articles demonstrate the field's engagement with the growing complexity of local and global inequalities, contemporary forms of collective social protest and developments in critical social science. These open up novel problem spaces for the application and extension of its theories and methods, deepening our understandings of power, identity, community, knowledge and social change - in the context of evolving understandings of the spatial, embodied, relational, collaborative and historical dimensions of health.

  19. What are Higher Psychological Functions?

    PubMed

    Toomela, Aaro

    2016-03-01

    The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena.

  20. What are Higher Psychological Functions?

    PubMed

    Toomela, Aaro

    2016-03-01

    The concept of Higher Psychological Functions (HPFs) may seem to be well know in psychology today. Yet closer analysis reveals that HPFs are either not defined at all or if defined, then by a set of characteristics not justified theoretically. It is not possible to determine whether HPFs exist or not, unless they are defined. Most commonly the idea of HPFs is related to Vygotsky's theory. According to him, HPFs are: (1) psychological systems, (2) developing from natural processes, (3) mediated by symbols, (4) forms of psychological cooperation, which are (5) internalized in the course of development, (6) products of historical development, (7) conscious and (8) voluntary (9) active forms of adaptation to the environment, (10) dynamically changing in development, and (11) ontogeny of HPFs recapitulates cultural history. In this article these characteristics are discussed together with the relations among them. It is concluded that HPFs are real psychological phenomena. PMID:26403987

  1. Psychological Anthropology: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module traces the history of psychological anthropology, introducing various schools and perspectives within the field of psychology. First, a discussion is provided of biological determinism, examining its historical development and the…

  2. Qualitative Research in Counseling Psychology: Conceptual Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Beginning with calls for methodological diversity in counseling psychology, this article addresses the history and current state of qualitative research in counseling psychology. It identifies the historical and disciplinary origins as well as basic assumptions and underpinnings of qualitative research in general, as well as within counseling…

  3. Humanistic psychology and contextual behavioral perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Steven C

    2012-12-01

    Humanistic psychology historically defined itself in part by its opposition to behavioral psychology, but the conditions now exist for a fundamental reconsideration of the relationship between these two traditions. Behavioral psychology includes contextualistic variants and is no longer limited to principles drawn from animal learning. Behavioral and cognitive therapies commonly address humanistic topics and have developed process accounts that cast new light on them. In that context, a reconsideration of this relationship could prove to be beneficial for both traditions.

  4. Keeping Track of Individuals: Insights from Developmental Psychology.

    PubMed

    Krøjgaard, Peter

    2016-06-01

    According to Mammen and Mironenko (2015) our sensitivity to objects' history (i.e., objects' whereabouts across space and time) has been neglected in much of contemporary psychology. In this paper I present evidence from a developmental psychological perspective indicating that although the terminology is different, some research concerning these important issues has actually been conducted. First, research primarily under the heading 'essentialism' has shown that children are sensitive to at least some aspects of an object's history. Second, research on object individuation has revealed that for infants spatiotemporal information appears to have primacy relative to featural information. Finally, research on episodic development has provided evidence that a continuous (hence historical) sense of 'me' may be a necessary, although not sufficient, precondition in order to have episodic memories. It is argued that the available evidence converges, which only underscores the relevance and importance of the issues raised by Mammen and Mironenko (2015).

  5. Psychological treatments.

    PubMed

    Barlow, David H

    2004-12-01

    Psychology has recently identified itself as a health care profession and codified this change in the bylaws of the American Psychological Association. Although psychologists make a number of contributions to the nation's health--and mental health--the most identifiable activity focuses on treating physical or psychological pathology with psychological interventions. Recently, health care policymakers have established that evidence supporting the efficacy of these interventions is more than sufficient for their inclusion in health care systems around the world. To promote faster and more widespread dissemination of these interventions specifically targeting problems severe enough to be included in health care systems and to solidify the identification of psychology as a health care profession, perhaps it is time for a change in terminology. It is proposed that psychologists label these procedures psychological treatments so as to differentiate them from more generic psychotherapy, which is often used outside of the scope of health care systems.

  6. Rethinking historical trauma.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Gone, Joseph P; Moses, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Recent years have seen the rise of historical trauma as a construct to describe the impact of colonization, cultural suppression, and historical oppression of Indigenous peoples in North America (e.g., Native Americans in the United States, Aboriginal peoples in Canada). The discourses of psychiatry and psychology contribute to the conflation of disparate forms of violence by emphasizing presumptively universal aspects of trauma response. Many proponents of this construct have made explicit analogies to the Holocaust as a way to understand the transgenerational effects of genocide. However, the social, cultural, and psychological contexts of the Holocaust and of post-colonial Indigenous "survivance" differ in many striking ways. Indeed, the comparison suggests that the persistent suffering of Indigenous peoples in the Americas reflects not so much past trauma as ongoing structural violence. The comparative study of genocide and other forms of massive, organized violence can do much to illuminate both common mechanisms and distinctive features, and trace the looping effects from political processes to individual experience and back again. The ethics and pragmatics of individual and collective healing, restitution, resilience, and recovery can be understood in terms of the self-vindicating loops between politics, structural violence, public discourse, and embodied experience. PMID:24855142

  7. [Psychological violences].

    PubMed

    Leray, M

    2014-12-01

    Among the various forms of violence inflicted on a child, psychological violence holds a significant place in terms of frequency, diversity and damage done, as serious and pervasive consequences can be observed on the child's development. This article highlights and assesses the psychological consequences provoked by psychological violences perpetrated by parents, teachers or other children in different situations, such as domestic violence, divorce and school bullying. It also gives some indications for intervention and prevention in those situations. PMID:25449447

  8. Board Certification in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Susan L.; Lichtenberg, James W.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Although specialty board certification by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) has been a valued standard for decades, the vast majority of counseling psychologists do not pursue board certification in the specialty. The present article provides a brief history of board certification in general and some historical information about…

  9. The Paradigms of Counseling Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteley, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of counseling psychology's theoretical models and their subsequent treatment by "The Counseling Psychologist" (TCP) in its early years through 1984. After outlining the founding of the journal, the author traces the history of the TCP and its relationship to the historical periods of the profession's development. (GCP)

  10. Psychological intimacy.

    PubMed

    Levine, S B

    1991-01-01

    Psychological intimacy develops between a speaker and a listener. Depending on how individuals fulfill these roles, intimacy may occur or be precluded. Intimacy quickly creates a bond and, if repeated, enhances psychological function. Psychological intimacy is the glue of all important relationships, including professional ones. It also is a powerful motivator of sexual expression and an enhancer of self-esteem. Because its effects are short-lived, psychological intimacy must be frequently reestablished. Mind reading and sexual intimacy, the short-cuts to the benefits of intimacy, are frequently employed to avoid telling about one's private experiences and listening respectfully.

  11. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  12. School Psychology's Place in the History of Specialty Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beeman N.

    This paper offers an historical perspective on the practices of school psychology. It briefly describes the mechanism currently in place to assess the competency of professional psychologists. Then, the beginnings of the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) are reviewed along with information on related school psychology developments.…

  13. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    PubMed Central

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  14. Adlerian Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Dinkmeyer, Don, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Gives history of Adlerian psychology, describing it as an often neglected yet significant precursor to many psychologies of the 1980s. Reviews Adlerian principles and their relationship to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, 1987. Describes different therapeutic techniques and present practices.…

  15. Historical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharlach, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a historical overview of four decades of scholarship and changing public policy on family and informal caregiving for older adults. Families are changing at a dizzying pace. Changes in family composition, cultural diversity, geographic mobility, and societal norms, coupled with increasing numbers of older…

  16. A Marxist approach to psychology and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Nahem, J

    1982-01-01

    Marxism considers psychology and psychiatry to be young and complex sciences which are powerfully affected by the nature of society. Marxism contributes to these sciences by applying dialectical and historical materialism to their study and development. The Marxist critique of psychology and psychiatry under capitalism identifies the immense harmful effect on them of capitalist class ideology in a number of areas: anti-working class theories, racism, national chauvinism, sexism, theories of fixed evil human nature, and false or one-sided theories. Socialism is held to provide a healthy environment for individual psychological development and to utilize psychology and psychiatry for scientific and humane ends.

  17. Sport Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  18. Educational Psychology--Theory, Research, and Teaching: A 25-Year Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief overview of developments in educational psychology over the last twenty-five years. It firstly presents an historical context by reviewing four basic emphases in educational psychology; cognitive psychology, behavioural psychology, social cognitive theory and humanism. The article then reviews the growth in cognitive…

  19. Astronautics and psychology. Recommendations for the psychological training of astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, Gerhard F.

    The methods presently applied in the psychological training of astronauts are based on the principle of ensuring maximum performance of astronauts during missions. The shortcomings are obvious since those undergoing training provide nothing but the best ability to cope with Earth problem situations and add simply an experience of space problem situations as they are presently conceived. Earth attitudes and Earth behaviour remain and are simply modified. Through the utilization of interdisciplinary space knowledge a much higher degree of problem anticipation could be achieved and the astronaut be psychologically transformed into a space-being. This would at the same time stimulate interdisciplinary space research. The interdisciplinary space knowledge already available suggests that space requires not only physical and mental adjustments, but a profoundly new relationship with life.

  20. Women in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Chiaki

    Since 1963 women have successfully flown and worked in space so much so that having a female aboard the shuttle, on Soyuz or on the International Space Station is considered commonplace. We do know that women have historically been virturally equal in capabilities and performance with their male counterparts. For example, there have been superb shuttle pilots, shuttle commanders, EVA participants as well as mission specialists and payload specialists. Thus, gender is not an issue within the ranks, rather a simple fact. In addition, there is a positive psychological factor that has been noted in that a mixed crew seems to have better intercommunications dynamics. JAXA has conducted the experiments on 7 subjects on bone mineral density in short duration of space flight and noticed a slight decrease in that density in both male and female. Lean body mass was also examined and found to be reduced by 3.0 % on average. There was no significant difference between male and female subjects in short duration of space flight. Unfortunately, only 1 of the 7 subjects was a woman. In fact, only 48 women have flown in total, some more than once, and science is still discovering the effects of the space experience. This is due to the limited exposure on orbit and in microgravity and the limited number of potential subjects. Time in space is beginning to increase with the continued progress of the ISS, thereby creating a demand for more knowledge on what effects long term exposure will have on the female of the species. The presentation will address these and other concerns involved with women in space from the perspective of a female scientist and an astronaut.

  1. Ecological psychology and social psychology: continuing discussion.

    PubMed

    Charles, Eric P

    2012-06-01

    What form would an ideal merger of ecological and social psychology take? Is that ideal attainable? Many researchers and theorists are working to answer these questions. Charles (2009, 2011a) offered insights from E. B. Holt, one of James J. Gibson's mentors, who argued that minds-mental kinds, processes, states, etc.-are observable aspects of the environment. Phrasing that in Ecological terms, the minds of other organisms are specified in the structure of ambient energy extended over time and space; they are directly perceivable by a properly attuned organism. Ecological Psychology enhances Holt's story, by brining to the table a sophisticated theory of direct perception; Holt enhances the Ecological story by brining to the table a sophisticated theory about the nature of minds. The two combine to form the long-sought ideal merger. Thus, I claimed, Ecological Psychology will either rediscover its roots, or go through the trouble of re-creating them. This paper further develops those ideas, by presenting a simpler version of the argument, suggesting easy ways of dismissing that argument, and addressing the concerns expressed by Castro and Lafuente (2011).

  2. Historical seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dengler, L.

    1992-01-01

    The North Coast region of California in the vicinity of Cape Mendocino is one of the state's most seismically active areas, accounting for 25 percent of seismic energy release in California during the last 50 years. the region is located in a geologically dynamic are surrounding the Mendocino triple junction where three of the Earth's tectonic plates join together ( see preceding article by Sam Clarke). In the historic past the North Coast has been affected by earthquakes occurring on the San Andreas fault system to the south, the Mendocino fault to the southwest, and intraplate earthquakes within both the Gorda and North American plates. More than sixty of these earthquakes have caused damage since the mid-1800's. Recent studies indicate that California's North Coast is also at risk with respect to very large earthquakes (magnitude >8) originating along the Cascadia subduction zone. Although the subduction zone has not generated great earthquakes in historic time, paleoseismic evidence suggests that such earthquakes have been generated by the subduction zone in the recent prehistoric past. 

  3. Birth of space plant growing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mashinskiy, A.; Nechitaylo, G.

    1983-01-01

    The attempts, and successes, to grow plants in space, and get them to fully develop, bloom and produce seeds using orchids are presented. The psychological advantages of the presence of plants onboard space vehicles and space stations is indicated.

  4. Understanding Historical Thinking at Historic Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the interpretive processes historians engage in when "reading" historic buildings and examines what qualifies as historical thinking about historic buildings and sites. To gather evidence of what historical thinking looks like as it pertains to buildings, 5 practicing historians were recorded as they toured the Old North…

  5. Children's Rights in Education: An Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Stuart N.; Pavlovic, Zoran

    1991-01-01

    Major historical themes of the childrens rights movement dealing with education are briefly traced. The meaning and significance of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child are considered as they relate to education. The roles of school psychology in future advances in children's rights are discussed. (SLD)

  6. Psychology Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Ken; Tew, Mark D.; Williams, John E.

    2001-01-01

    A goal of the PsychExperiments project was to reduce the financial burden on psychology departments for hardware/software used in their laboratories. In its third year, the PsychExperiments site now hosts 39 experiments. Over 200 classrooms worldwide have signed up as official site users and there have been nearly 10,000 data sessions conducted.…

  7. Adult Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bischof, Ledford J.

    This volume comprehensively reviews the research on the psychology of the middle aged (ages 40-65). Topics include the concept of maturity and maturation models, the measurement and influences of adult self image; marriage and sexual patterns; intergenerational relationships between and children; vocations and avocations (work, retirement, play,…

  8. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  9. Psychological Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Robyn M.

    1994-01-01

    L. L. Thurstone's revolutionary article resulted in the development of many representational measurement models, but the introduction of "true measurement" in social, attitudinal, and personality psychology did not yield the progress Thurstone envisioned. This specific model is seldom used in these areas today. (SLD)

  10. The psychology of suicide terrorism.

    PubMed

    Post, Jerrold M; Ali, Farhana; Henderson, Schuyler W; Shanfield, Steven; Victoroff, Jeff; Weine, Stevan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews current understandings of the psychology of suicide terrorism for psychiatrists and other mental health professionals to help them better understand this terrifying phenomenon. After discussing key concepts and definitions, the paper reviews both group and individual models for explaining the development of suicide terrorists, with an emphasis on "collective identity." Stressing the importance of social psychology, it emphasizes the "normality" and absence of individual psychopathology of the suicide bombers. It will discuss the broad range of terrorisms, but will particularly emphasize terrorism associated with militant Islam. The article emphasizes that comprehending suicide terrorism requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes anthropological, economic, historical, and political factors as well as psychological ones. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for research, policy, and prevention, reviewing the manner in which social psychiatric knowledge and understandings applied to this phenomenon in an interdisciplinary framework can assist in developing approaches to counter this deadly strategy.

  11. Space habitats. [prognosis for space colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    Differences between space industrialization and space colonization are outlined along with the physiological, psychological, and esthetic needs of the inhabitants of a space habitat. The detrimental effects of zero gravity on human physiology are reviewed, and the necessity of providing artificial gravity, an acceptable atmosphere, and comfortable relative humidity and temperature in a space habitat is discussed. Consideration is also given to social organization and governance, supply of food and water, and design criteria for space colonies.

  12. Historical problem areas lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackheim, Bob; Fester, Dale A.

    1991-01-01

    Historical problem areas in space transportation propulsion technology are identified in viewgraph form. Problem areas discussed include materials compatibility, contamination, pneumatic/feed system flow instabilities, instabilities in rocket engine combustion and fuel sloshing, exhaust plume interference, composite rocket nozzle failure, and freeze/thaw damage.

  13. Historical Superbolides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamora, S.; Ocaña, F.; Tapia, C.; de Burgos, A.; Herráiz, G.; Petrova, M.

    2015-05-01

    The amount of impacts of 50 m -- 1 cm asteroid with the Earth is a typical issue of controversy. Explosions in upper atmosphere and lunar impacts suggest that could have more impacts than is currently accepted. A ``new'' information source data can be fireballs appeared in historical press. Some of these reports indicate the presence of pressure waves or damage that may help estimate the energy of the event. We analysed more than 50 years of the archive of the New York Times and found a number of abnormally clustered events that can not be explained by a Poisson distribution. We have found at least two big concentrations not associated to any major meteor shower. One around the actual 23rd of July and other on the 14th of February. This second major concentration it is really close to the Chelyabinsk event date, so it is probable that there they are related. The preliminary results were published in Sánchez de Miguel, A., Ocaña, F., Zamora, S., et al. 2014, in Garzón Guerrero J. A., López Sánchez A. R., eds, Libro de Actas del XXI Congreso Estatal de Astronomía. Granada, Spain.

  14. Reintroducing the Concept of Complementarity into Psychology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Busemeyer, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Central to quantum theory is the concept of complementarity. In this essay, we argue that complementarity is also central to the emerging field of quantum cognition. We review the concept, its historical roots in psychology, and its development in quantum physics and offer examples of how it can be used to understand human cognition. The concept of complementarity provides a valuable and fresh perspective for organizing human cognitive phenomena and for understanding the nature of measurements in psychology. In turn, psychology can provide valuable new evidence and theoretical ideas to enrich this important scientific concept.

  15. Reintroducing the Concept of Complementarity into Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Busemeyer, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Central to quantum theory is the concept of complementarity. In this essay, we argue that complementarity is also central to the emerging field of quantum cognition. We review the concept, its historical roots in psychology, and its development in quantum physics and offer examples of how it can be used to understand human cognition. The concept of complementarity provides a valuable and fresh perspective for organizing human cognitive phenomena and for understanding the nature of measurements in psychology. In turn, psychology can provide valuable new evidence and theoretical ideas to enrich this important scientific concept. PMID:26640454

  16. Cultural psychology.

    PubMed

    Heine, Steven J; Ruby, Matthew B

    2010-03-01

    Humans are a cultural species, constantly navigating a complex web of culturally bound practices, norms, and worldviews. This article provides a brief overview of the relatively young field of cultural psychology, which investigates the many ways psychology and culture interweave with one another. Highlighting the cultural nature of the human species, it draws upon research on cultural evolution, enculturation, and developmental processes. This review further summarizes a number of cultural differences in how people perceive the self, and the behavioral consequences that follow from these differences, in the domains of internal and external attribution styles, motivations for self-enhancement, approach/avoidance, primary and secondary control, as well as motivations for distinctiveness and conformity. Additionally, the review discusses research on the intersection of culture and emotion, as well as cultural differences in cognition, perception, and reasoning. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  17. KSC Employees Assemble for Historic Photo

    NASA Video Gallery

    Employees at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, Fla., took a few moments to assemble for a historic aerial photo Friday outside Kennedy’s Vehicle Assembly Building. Thousands of workers stood side-b...

  18. An overview of South African psychology.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Saths; Nicholas, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    This overview of psychology in South Africa presents a concise and historical account of its science and practice, from its early origins in the late nineteenth century to the present, and traces seminal influences on the discipline. It is a review of how psychology in South Africa developed over more than a century to become one of the most popular subjects in universities and an established and recognized profession, whose members play a variety of roles in the South African polity and larger society. The impact that apartheid racism had on key aspects of psychology's development is traversed, and the influences that previous ruling party politics had on professional psychological organizations are delineated. The unification of psychology under the Psychological Society of South Africa, a few months before the advent of democracy in South Africa, is explicated. The protection of the title of psychologist in law and certain other changes in the legislative environment, enabling a greater role for psychologists, are reported. The primary research sites for psychology and its funding and the main university psychology programs are described, as are the requirements for registration and licensure. The genesis and the importance of the work of internationally acclaimed South African psychologists, such as J. Wolpe and A. A. Lazarus, are contextualized. With the increased participation of progressive black psychologists in leadership and research in the past two decades, a transformed psychology has the potential to play a significant role in addressing human issues confronting South Africa.

  19. An overview of South African psychology.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Saths; Nicholas, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    This overview of psychology in South Africa presents a concise and historical account of its science and practice, from its early origins in the late nineteenth century to the present, and traces seminal influences on the discipline. It is a review of how psychology in South Africa developed over more than a century to become one of the most popular subjects in universities and an established and recognized profession, whose members play a variety of roles in the South African polity and larger society. The impact that apartheid racism had on key aspects of psychology's development is traversed, and the influences that previous ruling party politics had on professional psychological organizations are delineated. The unification of psychology under the Psychological Society of South Africa, a few months before the advent of democracy in South Africa, is explicated. The protection of the title of psychologist in law and certain other changes in the legislative environment, enabling a greater role for psychologists, are reported. The primary research sites for psychology and its funding and the main university psychology programs are described, as are the requirements for registration and licensure. The genesis and the importance of the work of internationally acclaimed South African psychologists, such as J. Wolpe and A. A. Lazarus, are contextualized. With the increased participation of progressive black psychologists in leadership and research in the past two decades, a transformed psychology has the potential to play a significant role in addressing human issues confronting South Africa. PMID:22432681

  20. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  1. Coverage of Russian psychological contributions in American psychology textbooks.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert García for reviewing and

  2. A Jigsaw Puzzle Approach To Learning History in Introductory Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Judith

    1999-01-01

    Believes that it may be daunting for some students to learn about the history of psychology. Describes a teaching strategy that uses jigsaw puzzles to teach about the historical terms of structuralism, functionalism, and gestalt psychology. Finds that students performed better on test questions related to these three concepts after using this…

  3. Counseling Psychology's Focus on Positive Aspects of Human Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Shane J.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.; Petersen, Stephanie E.; Ryder, Jamie A.; Krieshok, Thomas S.; O'Byrne, Kristin Koetting; Lichtenberg, James W.; Fry, Nancy A.

    2006-01-01

    The Major Contribution aims to provide interrelated articles that examine how counseling psychology's past and the complex world we live and work in bear on our professional understanding of human strengths and positive life outcomes. In this article, the authors examine the historical underpinnings of the positive in psychology, analyze the focus…

  4. Intelligence Testing and the Emergence of School Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickman, David L.

    School psychology, defined as the study and application of psychological principles to the educational setting, encompasses the study of learning and cognition, development, social behavior, individual differences, and measurement and statistics. The purpose of this paper is to provide an historical account of the origins of educational psychology…

  5. Using Irony in Teaching the History of Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, B. Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examines historical ironies and stories with surprise endings about Rene Descartes and Wilhelm Wundt that can enliven history of psychology lectures and make certain concepts more memorable. Explains that this approach does not trivialize psychology's history but adds humor to a subject that students sometimes find dull. (CMK)

  6. Counseling Psychology's Commitment to Strengths: Rhetoric or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstein, Lawrence H.

    2006-01-01

    A positive psychology framework is consistent with counseling psychology's historic claim of focusing on strengths and optimal human functioning. The major articles in this issue of The Counseling Psychologist introduced many innovative, provocative, pragmatic, and useful ideas, strategies, and models related to this framework. For the most part,…

  7. Integrating Positive Psychology into Counseling: Why and (When Appropriate) How

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Alex H. S.; Thoresen, Carl E.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2007-01-01

    Counseling psychology has a historical commitment to enhancing human strengths, a focus that has enjoyed broader interest with the recent emergence of positive psychology. However, theory and evidence linking strength enhancement to counseling goals are still relatively nascent. The authors outline rationales and practical strategies for…

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald Comedy, Photographer July, 1969 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald Comedy, Photographer July, 1969 SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION - 811 Market Space Northwest (Commercial Building), Square 408, Lot 803, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Researching Race within Educational Psychology Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Schutz, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we question why race as a sociohistorical construct has not traditionally been investigated in educational psychology research. To do so, we provide a historical discussion of the significance of race as well as present current dilemmas in the exploration of race, including an examination of the incidence and prevalence of…

  10. Counseling Psychology and Professional School Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a historical, political, and organizational analysis regarding counseling psychology's involvement in professional school counseling. Issues discussed include collaboration, curriculum and training, and professional identity, as well as the commonalities that bind counselor education/professional school counseling and…

  11. The history specialist in psychology: From avocation to professionalization.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marissa E; Greer, Scott

    2016-08-01

    This article focuses on the history of psychology as a core area in the field of psychology. Does the discipline recognize the contributions of historical research, or does the history of psychology only serve a pedagogical function in the discipline? Our concerns center on the relationship (or lack thereof) between pedagogy and research in the academy. This stems from the fact that historical research is not viewed as contributing to the advancement of the field both professionally and pedagogically. We summarize the pedagogical function that the history of psychology serves in the academic discipline, as well as its status for professionalism in psychology. Moving from the U.S. and Canadian context, we address the status of the history and philosophy of psychology within Britain and Ireland. This comparative analysis allows us to remark more broadly on the issue of professionalism for psychologists as it pertains to the requirement of the history of psychology for advancement in the field (from undergraduate student to practitioner in the field). We also discuss the issue of professionalism for historians of psychology. Specifically, what does it mean to identify as a historian of psychology, and what challenges emerge from specializing in this area? We conclude with remarks suggesting that strength in this area is derived from a combination of both teaching and research activities. We suggest that the development of a stronger community among historical researchers (despite epistemological differences) may be a way forward, and suggest where future work might head on these topics. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Counterfactual Thinking in the History of Psychology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, David W.

    2013-01-01

    History of psychology students wrote essays about historical figures and counterfactual events. A linguistic analysis of the essays revealed that counterfactual assignments included more auxiliary verbs and more references to tentativeness and the future. More important, scores on the counterfactual assignments but not the historical figure…

  13. A Coaching Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In "Psychology in its place" (2008), John Radford considers "what is or should be the "place" of Psychology in education, more particularly Higher Education". In this article, the author looks at the possible inclusion of coaching psychology within undergraduate psychology programmes. Coaching psychology as an applied area of psychology…

  14. Polycultural psychology.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness. PMID:25251481

  15. Polycultural psychology.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  16. 18. HISTORIC VIEW OF MAX VALIER, FOUNDING MEMBER OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. HISTORIC VIEW OF MAX VALIER, FOUNDING MEMBER OF THE VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT (GERMAN SOCIETY FOR SPACE TRAVEL), DRIVES HIS ROCKET CAR IN 1931. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. Psychology and death. Meaningful rediscovery.

    PubMed

    Feifel, H

    1990-04-01

    The place of death in psychology is reviewed historically. Leading causes for its being slighted as an area of investigation during psychology's early years are presented. Reasons for its rediscovery in the mid-1950s as a legitimate sector for scientific inquiry are then discussed, along with some vicissitudes encountered in carrying out research in the field. This is followed by a description of principal empirical findings, clinical perceptions, and perspectives emerging from work in the thanatological realm. The probability that such urgent social issues as abortion, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and euthanasia, and such destructive behaviors as drug abuse, alcoholism, and certain acts of violence are associated with attitudes toward death offers a challenge to psychology to enhance the vitality of human response to maladaptive conduct and loss. Recognition of personal mortality is a major entryway to self-knowledge. Although death is manifestly too complex to be the special sphere of any one discipline, psychology's position as an arena in which humanist and physicist-engineer cultures intersect provides us with a meaningful opportunity to advance our comprehension of how death can serve life. PMID:2186680

  18. NASA Initiatives with Historically Black Colleges & Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This publication outlines the involvement of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) programs in aeronautics and space research. NASA aims to assist HBCUs in science, engineering, and technology programs and also to encourage greater participation of minorities in its…

  19. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  20. Determining the Magnitude of Neutron and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) Fluxes at the Moon using the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector during the Historic Space-Age Era of High GCR Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Boynton, W. V.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Milikh, G. M.; Su, J. J.; Livengood, T. A.; McClanahan, T. P.; Evans, L.; Starr, R. D.; litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) was launched June 18, 2009 during an historic space-age era of minimum solar activity [1]. The lack of solar sunspot activity signaled a complex set of heliospheric phenomena [2,3,4] that also gave rise to a period of unprecedentedly high Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) flux [5]. These events coincided with the primary mission of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND, [6]), onboard LRO in a nominal 50-km circular orbit of the Moon [7]. Methods to calculate the emergent neutron albedo population using Monte Carlo techniques [8] rely on an estimate of the GCR flux and spectra calibrated at differing periods of solar activity [9,10,11]. Estimating the actual GCR flux at the Moon during the LEND's initial period of operation requires a correction using a model-dependent heliospheric transport modulation parameter [12] to adjust the GCR flux appropriate to this unique solar cycle. These corrections have inherent uncertainties depending on model details [13]. Precisely determining the absolute neutron and GCR fluxes is especially important in understanding the emergent lunar neutrons measured by LEND and subsequently in estimating the hydrogen/water content in the lunar regolith [6]. LEND is constructed with a set of neutron detectors to meet differing purposes [6]. Specifically there are two sets of detector systems that measure the flux of epithermal neutrons: a) the uncollimated Sensor for Epi-Thermal Neutrons (SETN) and b) the Collimated Sensor for Epi-Thermal Neutrons (CSETN). LEND SETN and CSETN observations form a complementary set of simultaneous measurements that determine the absolute scale of emergent lunar neutron flux in an unambiguous fashion and without the need for correcting to differing solar-cycle conditions. LEND measurements are combined with a detailed understanding of the sources of instrumental back-ground, and the performance of CSETN and SETN. This comparison allows us to calculate a constant scale factor

  1. Is psychological science a-cultural?

    PubMed

    Gone, Joseph P

    2011-07-01

    The history of psychological science, as it has intersected with ethnoracial, cultural, and other marginalized domains of group difference, is replete with disinterest, dismissal, or denigration of these diverse forms of psychological experience. This has led some to wonder whether psychological science is a-cultural, or even anti-cultural in orientation. Assessment of this provocative proposition first requires exploration of three composite questions: (1) What is culture?, (2) What is science?, and (3) What is psychological science? Based on brief consideration of these composite questions--which are remarkably complex in their own right--I argue that psychological science is not, has never been, and indeed cannot in principle be a-cultural. Instead, like all forms of knowing, psychological science emerges at particular historical moments to achieve particular goals that are motivated by particular interests. Throughout much of the history of psychological science, these goals and interests were tied to ideologically suspect agendas that contemporary psychologists are right to repudiate. The interesting question becomes whether psychology's knowledge practices can be disentangled from this earlier ideological contamination to furnish the discipline with viable methods. I propose that psychological science can in fact be so disentangled; nevertheless, the resulting methods are never adopted or deployed outside of culturally constituted interests, objectives, and motivations, thereby requiring ongoing critical engagement with the subtexts of disciplinary knowledge production. In fact, there seem to be important ways in which psychology's scientific aspirations hobble disciplinary inquiry into the human condition that has motivated multicultural psychologists to consider alternative paradigms of inquiry.

  2. "Community Psychology Is for Poor, Black People": Pedagogy and Teaching of Community Psychology in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolissen, Ronelle; Rohleder, Poul; Bozalek, Vivienne; Swartz, Leslie; Leibowitz, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The term "community" holds historical connotations of political, economic, and social disadvantage in South Africa. Many South African students tend to interpret the term "community" in ways that suggest that community and community psychology describe the experiences of exclusively poor, black people. Critical pedagogies that position the…

  3. Introduction to Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lesley

    Designed for community students interested in learning about psychology as a field of study, this module offers group and individual activities to involve the beginning student in research, experimentation and discussion. Unit 1, "What Is Psychology?," includes the use of animals in psychology, ethics, the history of psychology, an overview of…

  4. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  5. [Human nature--understanding psychology in Nietzsche].

    PubMed

    Dieckhöfer, K

    1980-01-01

    It was tried to show some decisive and essential points of the psychological analyses contained in the complex work of the philosopher Nietzsche. The extent of his knowledge of man and his changeability constitutes here the field of an understanding, "unmasking" psychology with a sociological-historical touch. The thorough, slow ("lento") study of the original sources on the part of the master of a "connaisseurship of the word" seems to be indispensable for any reader trying to occupy himself with Nietzsche in a work of his own and the questions arising therefrom.

  6. Psychological and interpersonal adaptation to Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, A. A.; Connors, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The crucial importance of a thorough understanding of the psychological and interpersonal dimensions of Mars flights is indicated. This is necessary both to reduce the chances that psychological problems or interpersonal frictions will threaten the success of Mars missions and to enhance the quality of life of the people involved. Adaptation to interplanetary flight will depend on an interplay of the psychological stresses imposed by the missions and the psychological strengths and vulnerabilities of the crewmembers involved. Stresses may be reduced through environmental engineering, manipulating crew composition, and the structuring of situations and tasks. Vulnerabilities may be reduced through improving personnel selection procedures, training personnel in psychological and group dynamics, and providing mechanisms for emotional support. It is essential to supplement anecdotal evidence regarding the human side of space travel with the results of carefully conducted scientific research.

  7. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, C. S. (Editor); Donnelly, K. L. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Research in exobiology, life sciences technology, space biology, and space medicine and physiology, primarily using data gathered on the Salyut 6 orbital space station, is reported. Methods for predicting, diagnosing, and preventing the effects of weightlessness are discussed. Psychological factors are discussed. The effects of space flight on plants and animals are reported. Bioinstrumentation advances are noted.

  8. USSR space life sciences digest

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, C.S.; Donnelly, K.L.

    1980-01-01

    Research in exobiology, life sciences technology, space biology, and space medicine and physiology, primarily using data gathered on the Salyut 6 orbital space station, is reported. Methods for predicting, diagnosing, and preventing the effects of weightlessness are discussed. Psychological factors are discussed. The effects of space flight on plants and animals are reported. Bioinstrumentation advances are noted.

  9. Psychological Usability of Layered Application Software Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhiarik, John

    1999-01-01

    This grant provided Graduate Research Fellowship Program support to James Michael Herold to obtain a graduate degree from the Department of Psychology at Kansas State University and conduct usability testing of graphical user interfaces the Kennedy Space Center. The student independently took an additional internship at Boll Laboratories without informing his graduate advisor or the Department of Psychology. Because he was NOT making progress toward his degree, he elected not to pursue his graduate studies at Kansas State University and self-terminated from the program (spin without informing his advisor or the Department of Psychology]. What he accomplished for NASA in terms of usability testing at the Kennedy Space Center is unclear. NASA terminated support for the project: 07/30/99, including a $4,000 commitment to provide infrastructure support to the Department of Psychology.

  10. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection.

    PubMed

    Vicianova, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God's judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System), functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception.

  11. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection

    PubMed Central

    Vicianova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God’s judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System), functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception. PMID:27247675

  12. Historical Techniques of Lie Detection.

    PubMed

    Vicianova, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Since time immemorial, lying has been a part of everyday life. For this reason, it has become a subject of interest in several disciplines, including psychology. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature and thinking to date about the evolution of lie detection techniques. The first part explores ancient methods recorded circa 1000 B.C. (e.g., God's judgment in Europe). The second part describes technical methods based on sciences such as phrenology, polygraph and graphology. This is followed by an outline of more modern-day approaches such as FACS (Facial Action Coding System), functional MRI, and Brain Fingerprinting. Finally, after the familiarization with the historical development of techniques for lie detection, we discuss the scope for new initiatives not only in the area of designing new methods, but also for the research into lie detection itself, such as its motives and regulatory issues related to deception. PMID:27247675

  13. Psychology and health after apartheid: Or, Why there is no health psychology in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Yen, Jeffery

    2016-05-01

    As part of a growing literature on the histories of psychology in the Global South, this article outlines some historical developments in South African psychologists' engagement with the problem of "health." Alongside movements to formalize and professionalize a U.S.-style "health psychology" in the 1990s, there arose a parallel, eclectic, and more or less critical psychology that contested the meaning and determinants of health, transgressed disciplinary boundaries, and opposed the responsibilization of illness implicit in much health psychological theorizing and neoliberal discourse. This disciplinary bifurcation characterized South African work well into the postapartheid era, but ideological distinctions have receded in recent years under a new regime of knowledge production in thrall to the demands of the global market. The article outlines some of the historical-political roots of key trends in psychologists' work on health in South Africa, examining the conditions that have impinged on its directions and priorities. It raises questions about the future trajectories of psychological research on health after 20 years of democracy, and argues that there currently is no "health psychology" in South Africa, and that the discipline is the better for it.

  14. Further reflections on the humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators.

  15. Psychological factors in the antarctic.

    PubMed

    Rothblum, E D

    1990-05-01

    For the people who live and work in the Antarctic, isolation and extreme physical conditions cause considerable stress. This article reviews psychological research on Antarctic residents, focusing on factors related to the isolation (effective personnel selection, positive adjustment, conflict, and reintegration into the home environment) and factors related to the physical environment (the extreme cold, high altitude, increased radiation, sensory deprivation, and seasonal changes in activity level). Finally, Antarctic research has been applied to the study of future space travel and space station habitation.

  16. Psychological stress measurement through voice output analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Older, H. J.; Jenney, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    Audio tape recordings of selected Skylab communications were processed by a psychological stress evaluator. Strip chart tracings were read blind and scores were assigned based on characteristics reported by the manufacturer to indicate psychological stress. These scores were analyzed for their empirical relationships with operational variables in Skylab judged to represent varying degrees of situational stress. Although some statistically significant relationships were found, the technique was not judged to be sufficiently predictive to warrant its use in assessing the degree of psychological stress of crew members in future space missions.

  17. Rideshare programs: a historical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horais, Brian J.

    2000-11-01

    comparing what has been done historically and currently in the international space payload integration community versus what the current practices are in the U.S.. Observations and recommendations are made that reflect a reduced timeline approach and that acknowledge the close coupling between the technology base, the space systems industry, infrastructure and educational processes.

  18. Space educators' handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodfill, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    The Space Educators' Handbook is a collection of space exploration information available on Hypercard as a space education reference book. Ranging from early dreams of space ships to current manned missions, the more than four thousand cards include entries of statistics, historical facts and anecdotes, technical articles, accounts of NASA missions from Mercury through the space shuttle, biographical information on women and men who have contributed to space exploration, scientific facts, and various other space-related data. The means of presenting the data range from cartoons and drawings to lists and narratives, some briefly quoted and some reproduced in full.

  19. Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke. Primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  20. Psychology in Action: Psychology in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Sigmund

    1977-01-01

    "Psychologists in the People's Republic of China are engaged in research concerning theory, Chinese language, child development, vision, audition, and areas of physiological psychology including acupuncture, pain, memory, and central nervous system functioning. The Institute of Psychology within the Chinese Academy of Sciences represents the…

  1. Humanistic Psychology and Morality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders Richards, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The place of the encounter group within the framework of humanistic psychology is examined and an assessment of the moral significance of the humanistic psychology movement and the encounter group technique is attempted. (Editor)

  2. The Trait Psychology Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William P.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)

  3. Historical Lessons: The Value of Pluralism in Psychological Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turiel, Elliot

    2004-01-01

    Psychologists tend to proclaim that their favored theoretical approach is the wave of the future that will replace existing paradigms. Typically, these proclamations, dating back to the early part of the 20th century, include the assertion that the new ideas will be resisted. However, opposing perspectives are often proclaimed to be the wave of…

  4. Field Dependence Research: A Historical Analysis of a Psychological Construct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haaken, Janice

    1988-01-01

    Cultural and political biases in social science research contribute to bias in study methodology, as well as interpretations and conclusions. The work of Herman Witkin and Solomon Asch are discussed and used to demonstrate the effects and limitations of the environment versus ego on male and female perceptions. (AO)

  5. Historical Reflection on Advocacy in the Psychology of Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routh, Donald K.

    2005-01-01

    Advocacy by psychologists has often been portrayed as requiring immersion in the processes of public policy. In the area of intellectual disability, many relevant laws have been passed, court cases fought, and administrative decisions made. These policy decisions have, however, sometimes been based on a division of labor, with psychologists doing…

  6. 41 CFR 102-83.125 - Are Executive agencies required to give preference to historic properties when acquiring leased...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... required to give preference to historic properties when acquiring leased space? 102-83.125 Section 102-83...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Preference to Historic Properties § 102-83.125 Are Executive agencies required to give preference to historic properties...

  7. Pavlov's influence on American psychology: completing the puzzle.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Gabriel; Sánchez, Natividad; Gonzalo De la Casa, Luis

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a historical approach to the influence of Pavlov on American psychology is presented. After consider what we call the "received view": Pavlov's influence on American psychology is seen mainly, perhaps solely, as related to behaviorism, we present an alternative view in which the influence of the Russian is interpreted in relation to Florence Edna Mateer (1887-1961), William Horsley Gantt (1892-1980) and Howard Scott Liddell (1895-1962).

  8. Pavlov's influence on American psychology: completing the puzzle.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Gabriel; Sánchez, Natividad; Gonzalo De la Casa, Luis

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a historical approach to the influence of Pavlov on American psychology is presented. After consider what we call the "received view": Pavlov's influence on American psychology is seen mainly, perhaps solely, as related to behaviorism, we present an alternative view in which the influence of the Russian is interpreted in relation to Florence Edna Mateer (1887-1961), William Horsley Gantt (1892-1980) and Howard Scott Liddell (1895-1962). PMID:19238772

  9. Personality theory, abnormal psychology, and psychological measurement. A psychological behaviorism.

    PubMed

    Staats, A W

    1993-01-01

    Behaviorism, because it has not had a theory of personality, has been separated from the rest of psychology, unable in large part to draw from or contribute to it. Traditional psychology has not had a theory of personality that says what personality is, how it comes about, or how it functions. An antagonism has resulted that weakens rather than complements each tradition. Psychological behaviorism presents a new type of theory of personality. Derived from experimentation, it is constructed from basic theories of emotion, language, and sensory-motor behavior. It says personality is composed of learned basic behavioral repertoires (BBRs) that affect behavior. Personality measurement instruments are analyzed in terms of the BBRs, beginning the behaviorization of this field and calling for much additional research. These multilevel developments are then basic in psychological behaviorism's theory of abnormal behavior and of clinical treatment. The approach opens many new avenues of empirical and theoretical work. PMID:8439278

  10. Space stations: Living in zero gravity, developmental task for psychologists and space environmental experts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, E.

    1984-01-01

    The recent advances in the psychological aspects of space station design are discussed, including the impact of the increase in awareness of both the public in general as well as space environmental experts of the importance of psychological factors when designing space stations and training astronauts.

  11. Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sushma, B.; Padmaja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology forms the basis of every human activity. The scope of psychology is increasingly widening in various economic, political, social, cultural and technological aspects. Though the application of psychology is extending to various aspects of life, it needs to be indigenised to address the dynamic needs in the various socio-economic contexts…

  12. Arbitrary Metrics in Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James

    2006-01-01

    Many psychological tests have arbitrary metrics but are appropriate for testing psychological theories. Metric arbitrariness is a concern, however, when researchers wish to draw inferences about the true, absolute standing of a group or individual on the latent psychological dimension being measured. The authors illustrate this in the context of 2…

  13. Psychology in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Eleonora Rubio

    2011-01-01

    The first formal psychology course taught in Mexico was in 1896 at Mexico's National University; today, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM in Spanish). The modern psychology from Europe and the US in the late 19th century were the primary influences of Mexican psychology, as well as psychoanalysis and both clinical and experimental…

  14. What is Political Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  15. Psychology: Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This book published in 1986 introduces students to psychology and its related subject areas. Students learn that psychology has matured through the centuries from its taboo beginnings in supernatural beliefs and magic to its current status as a scientific discipline. Sections of the book include: (1) "What is Psychology?"; (2) "Human Development";…

  16. Taking a historical turn: possible points of connection between social pyschology and history.

    PubMed

    Knights, Mark

    2012-12-01

    The article confronts methodological differences between (and among) social psychologists and historians about how far the social psychologist should be interested only in contemporary or very recent history and how far general conclusions can be drawn about human behaviour across time and space. The article suggests that social psychology need not be present-centric and might take different forms of a 'historical turn'. In turn, it is suggested, historians can benefit from approaches developed by social psychologists. Seven possible points of connection with the discipline of history are put forward in the hope of fostering future collaborations. These are: the nature of modernity; collective memory and the uses of the past; political discourse and ideologies; partisanship; the public sphere; stereotypes; and languages and images. Indeed, just as they can encourage closer collaboration between historians and social psychologists, these themes might also open a wider inter-disciplinary discussion with anthropologists, sociologists, literary scholars, art historians and scholars of political discourse.

  17. Taking a historical turn: possible points of connection between social pyschology and history.

    PubMed

    Knights, Mark

    2012-12-01

    The article confronts methodological differences between (and among) social psychologists and historians about how far the social psychologist should be interested only in contemporary or very recent history and how far general conclusions can be drawn about human behaviour across time and space. The article suggests that social psychology need not be present-centric and might take different forms of a 'historical turn'. In turn, it is suggested, historians can benefit from approaches developed by social psychologists. Seven possible points of connection with the discipline of history are put forward in the hope of fostering future collaborations. These are: the nature of modernity; collective memory and the uses of the past; political discourse and ideologies; partisanship; the public sphere; stereotypes; and languages and images. Indeed, just as they can encourage closer collaboration between historians and social psychologists, these themes might also open a wider inter-disciplinary discussion with anthropologists, sociologists, literary scholars, art historians and scholars of political discourse. PMID:22832918

  18. Bridging history and social psychology: what, how and why.

    PubMed

    Glăveanu, Vlad; Yamamoto, Koji

    2012-12-01

    This special issue aims to bridge history and social psychology by bringing together historians and social psychologists in an exercise of reading and learning from each other's work. This interdisciplinary exercise is not only timely but of great importance for both disciplines. Social psychologists can benefit from engaging with historical sources by being able to contextualise their findings and enrich their theoretical models. It is not only that all social and psychological phenomena have a history but this history is very much part of present-day and future developments. On the other hand historians can enhance their analysis of historical sources by drawing upon the conceptual tools developed in social psychology. They can "test" these tools and contribute to their validation and enrichment from completely different perspectives. Most important, as contributions to this special issue amply demonstrate, psychology's "historical turn" has the potential to shed a new light on striking, yet underexplored, similarities between contemporary public spheres and their pre-modern counterparts. This issue thereby calls into question the dichotomy between traditional and de-traditionalized societies-a distinction that lies at the heart of many social psychology accounts of the world we live in. The present editorial will introduce and consider this act of bridging history and social psychology by focusing on three main questions: What is the bridge made of? How can the two disciplines be bridged? and Why we cross this interdisciplinary bridge? In the end a reflection on the future of this collaboration will be offered.

  19. The history specialist in psychology: From avocation to professionalization.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marissa E; Greer, Scott

    2016-08-01

    This article focuses on the history of psychology as a core area in the field of psychology. Does the discipline recognize the contributions of historical research, or does the history of psychology only serve a pedagogical function in the discipline? Our concerns center on the relationship (or lack thereof) between pedagogy and research in the academy. This stems from the fact that historical research is not viewed as contributing to the advancement of the field both professionally and pedagogically. We summarize the pedagogical function that the history of psychology serves in the academic discipline, as well as its status for professionalism in psychology. Moving from the U.S. and Canadian context, we address the status of the history and philosophy of psychology within Britain and Ireland. This comparative analysis allows us to remark more broadly on the issue of professionalism for psychologists as it pertains to the requirement of the history of psychology for advancement in the field (from undergraduate student to practitioner in the field). We also discuss the issue of professionalism for historians of psychology. Specifically, what does it mean to identify as a historian of psychology, and what challenges emerge from specializing in this area? We conclude with remarks suggesting that strength in this area is derived from a combination of both teaching and research activities. We suggest that the development of a stronger community among historical researchers (despite epistemological differences) may be a way forward, and suggest where future work might head on these topics. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27442030

  20. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory: Vygotsky's Forgotten and Suppressed Legacy and Its Implication for Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory--with historical roots in dialectical materialism and the social psychology to which it has given rise--has experienced exponential growth in its acceptance by scholars interested in understanding knowing and learning writ large. In education, this theory has constituted something like a well kept secret that is…

  1. Psycho-logic: some thoughts and after-thoughts.

    PubMed

    Smedslund, J

    2012-08-01

    The main features of the system of psycho-logic and its historical origins, especially in the writings of Heider and Piaget, are briefly reviewed. An updated version of the axioms of psycho-logic, and a list of the semantic primitives of Wierzbicka are presented. Some foundational questions are discussed, including the genetically determined limitations of human knowledge, the constructive, moral, and political nature of the approach, the role of fortuitous events, the ultimate limitations of psychological knowledge (the "balloon" to be inflated from the inside), the role of the subjective unconscious, and the implications of the approach for practice. PMID:22612565

  2. Historic Denver for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara A.

    Although the directory to Denver's historic sites has been compiled particularly for the use of teachers and their classes, it will be useful to all individuals and groups of any age who are interested in exploring the history of the Denver area. Seventy historic sites are listed alphabetically. Information for each provides address, phone, price…

  3. Creating Historical Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassler, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Describes creating for the National Archives Public Education Department a historical drama, "Second in the Realm," based on the story of the Magna Carta. Demonstrates the effectiveness of historical drama as a teaching tool. Explains the difficulties of writing such dramas and provides guidelines for overcoming these problems. (NL)

  4. Layers of Historical Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Kieran

    1989-01-01

    Discusses four types of historical understanding and argues for a developmental sequence in historical understanding. Suggests two frameworks: (1) the story-form framework (ages up to 8) and; (2) a romantic framework (ages 8-15), sketching a curriculum based on each. Argues that these forms are necessary for acquiring more sophisticated levels of…

  5. Choice: The Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagoner, Jennings L., Jr.

    The issue of choice in U.S. education is traced historically. Consideration is given to the purposes of publicly supported education and reasons underlying the historic distinction between public and private education. It is suggested that the issue of choice concerns the rights and obligations of the individual and the state. The relationship…

  6. INDIAN CASTE SYSTEM: HISTORICAL AND PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWS.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Madhusudana Rao

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the historical origins and transformations of India's caste system. Surveying the complex developments over many centuries, it points out that three positions have been taken in this regard. One suggests that the caste one is born into can be transcended within one's lifetime by performing good deeds. The other declares caste to be immutable forever. And, the third says that one can be reborn into a higher caste if one lives a virtuous life. Moving on to the sociopolitical realm, the paper notes how these positions have been used and exploited. The paper then attempts to anchor the existence and purpose of the Hindu caste system in Freud's ideas about group psychology and Klein's proposals of splitting and projective identification. The paper also deploys the large group psychology concepts of Volkan and the culturally nuanced psychoanalytic anthropology of Roland and Kakar. It concludes with delineating some ameliorative strategies for this tragic problem in the otherwise robust democratic society of India.

  7. Critical psychology: A geography of intellectual engagement and resistance.

    PubMed

    Teo, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Critical psychology has become a generative and international movement in the last 5 decades, with self-identifying critical psychologists emerging from around the globe with publications and contributions, both theoretical and practical, in many areas of psychology. This article provides an overview of current trends in critical psychology and elucidates historical sources and theoretical tenets. Presented are the relationship between individual subjectivity and society, the role of power in the discipline, the problem of subjectification, the importance of reflexivity and intersubjectivity in the context of research practices, methodologies of change for different contexts, and the ethical-political positions from which critical psychologists operate. Challenges to critical psychology, which include engagements with indigenous psychologies, new forms of internationalization, and advancing transdisciplinary work, are discussed. PMID:25621493

  8. Ethnography in community psychology: promises and tensions.

    PubMed

    Case, Andrew D; Todd, Nathan R; Kral, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Community psychology recognizes the need for research methods that illuminate context, culture, diversity, and process. One such method, ethnography, has crossed into multiple disciplines from anthropology, and indeed, community psychologists are becoming community ethnographers. Ethnographic work stands at the intersection of bridging universal questions with the particularities of people and groups bounded in time, geographic location, and social location. Ethnography is thus historical and deeply contextual, enabling a rich, in-depth understanding of communities that is aligned with the values and goals of community psychology. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the potential of ethnography for community psychology and to encourage its use within the field as a method to capture culture and context, to document process, and to reveal how social change and action occur within and through communities. We discuss the method of ethnography, draw connections to community psychology values and goals, and identify tensions from our experiences doing ethnography. Overall, we assert that ethnography is a method that resonates with community psychology and present this paper as a resource for those interested in using this method in their research or community activism.

  9. Can Virtual Environments Enhance the Learning of Historical Chronology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Nigel; Boyd-Davis, Stephen; Moar, Magnus; Korallo, Liliya; Chappell, Emma

    2008-01-01

    Historical time and chronological sequence are usually conveyed to pupils via the presentation of semantic information on printed worksheets, events being rote-memorised according to date. We explored the use of virtual environments in which successive historical events were depicted as "places" in time-space, encountered sequentially in a…

  10. Historic Sites and Your Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Academics debate the veracity of historic sites and what they represent, but no one that has visited historic places as a student, or traveled with students to historic places, can deny their power to teach. Every community has historic sites. Historic sites are, by definition, primary sources. They are artifacts of the past that often contain a…

  11. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks. PMID:23163473

  12. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks.

  13. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum San Francisco, California Circa 1868 MAGUIRES MUSIC HALL - Maguires Music Hall, Historic View, Pine Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum San Francisco, California - Wright's or Miner's Exchange Bank, Historic View, Montgomery & Jackson Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum San Francisco, California BUSINESS BLOCKS OF SAN FRANCISCO - Roos Brothers Store, Historic View, Post & Kearny Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum, S.F. After Fire of 1859 SOUTHEAST CORNER CLAY AND MONTGOMERY - San Francisco Daily Morning Call, Historic View, Clay & Montgomery Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum San Francisco, California PHOTO TAKEN 1865 - Clay Street Bank, Historic View, 35 Clay Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum 1880s GENERAL VIEW (From Russian Hill to West Side of Telegraph Hill) - Telegraph Hill, Historic View, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum, San Francisco, California ca. 1865 KING OF WILLIAM BANK - EXTREME LEFT - James King of William Banking House, Historic View, Montgomery & Commercial Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 41. HISTORIC VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM THE FLAME TRENCH AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. HISTORIC VIEW LOOKING SOUTH FROM THE FLAME TRENCH AT THE TEST STAND AND LOOKING INTO THE FLAME DEFLECTOR. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  1. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald Comedy, Photographer July 1969 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald Comedy, Photographer July 1969 WEST ELEVATION - Perry Building, 819-821 Market Space Northwest, Square 408, Corner Lot 805, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald Comedy, Photographer July 1969 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald Comedy, Photographer July 1969 SOUTH ELEVATION IN ITS SETTING - Perry Building, 819-821 Market Space Northwest, Square 408, Corner Lot 805, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  3. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald Comedy, Photographer July 1969 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Ronald Comedy, Photographer July 1969 DETAIL OF SOUTH FRONT - Hume Building, 807 Market Space Northwest, Square 408, Lot 802, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 43. HISTORIC VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. HISTORIC VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND WITH A REDSTONE ROCKET BEING FUELED AND PREPARED FOR TESTING. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  5. 42. HISTORIC VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING A REDSTONE ROCKET BEING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. HISTORIC VIEW LOOKING WEST SHOWING A REDSTONE ROCKET BEING WORKED ON IN THE TEST STAND PRIOR TO A TEST FIRING. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  6. 51. HISTORIC GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. HISTORIC GENERAL VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE TEST STAND WITH THE MERCURY REDSTONE ROCKET FULLY ASSEMBLED AND BEING PREPARED FOR TESTING. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  7. 31. HISTORIC VIEW OF TEST STAND NO. 1 AT PEENEMUENDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. HISTORIC VIEW OF TEST STAND NO. 1 AT PEENEMUENDE A-4 ENGINE AND ROCKET PROPULSION TEST STAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  8. 32. HISTORIC VIEW OF GERMAN ROCKET SOCIETY VETERAN KURT HEINISCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. HISTORIC VIEW OF GERMAN ROCKET SOCIETY VETERAN KURT HEINISCH IN CONTROL ROOM AT TEST STAND NO. 1, PEENEMUENDE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. 34. HISTORIC VIEW OF GROUP PHOTO OF THE GERMAN ROCKET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. HISTORIC VIEW OF GROUP PHOTO OF THE GERMAN ROCKET DESIGN TEAM SHORTLY AFTER THEIR ARRIVAL AT THE REDSTONE ARSENAL IN 1950. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. 50. HISTORIC CLOSEUP VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. HISTORIC CLOSE-UP VIEW OF THE MERCURY CAPSULE ON THE GROUND BEFORE BEING HOISTED ON TOP OF THE REDSTONE ROCKET. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  11. 45. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. HISTORIC AERIAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT THE TEST STAND AND THE SURROUNDING ELECTRONICS AND EQUIPMENT TRAILERS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  12. 23. HISTORIC VIEW OF ONE STICK REPULSOR OF RAKETENFLUGPLATZ GROUP. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. HISTORIC VIEW OF ONE STICK REPULSOR OF RAKETENFLUGPLATZ GROUP. POSSIBLY 1931, THE STAND IS FOR LAUNCHING NOT FOR STATIC TESTS. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  13. 33. HISTORIC VIEW OF WERNHER VON BRAUN LOOKS THROUGH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC VIEW OF WERNHER VON BRAUN LOOKS THROUGH THE PERISCOPE FROM THE CONTROL ROOM AT TEST STAND NO. 1, PEENEMUENDE. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. Canadian Innovation: A Brief History of Canada's First Online School Psychology Graduate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drefs, Michelle A.; Schroeder, Meadow; Hiebert, Bryan; Panayotidis, E. Lisa; Winters, Katherine; Kerr, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a brief historical review and survey of the current landscape of online graduate psychology programs within the Canadian context. Specific focus is given to outlining the establishment and evolution of the first Canadian online professional specialization program in school psychology. The article argues that given the virtual…

  15. The Concept of Situation and the Microgenesis of the Conscious Purpose in Cultural Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clara M.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the specific environment for understanding the microgenesis of psychological processes is well documented. It can be argued, however, that the theoretical framework of cultural psychology which is usually referred to as cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) underconceptualizes this aspect, thereby hampering its ability to…

  16. Investigation of Social Cognitive Career Theory for Minority Recruitment in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocanegra, Joel O.; Gubi, Aaron A.; Cappaert, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less…

  17. Exploring the Relevance of Feminist Pedagogy to Community Psychology: Continuing the Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Germaine-Small, Melissa; Walsh-Bowers, Richard; Mitchell, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychology has made advances in rectifying its historical negation of women's perspectives, as evidenced by a steady increase in women's scholarship and distinctly feminist works. However, in community psychology, the scope and magnitude of works generated both by and about women from a feminist framework have not kept pace with discourse on the…

  18. Designing Collaborative Learning Places: Psychological Foundations and New Frontiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graetz, Ken A.; Goliber, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Considering the modern context of collaborative learning and information technology, details implications for space design, primarily from the field of environmental psychology--the study of the relationship between people and their physical environment. (EV)

  19. From computers to cultivation: reconceptualizing evolutionary psychology.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Louise; Pollet, Thomas V; Stulp, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Does evolutionary theorizing have a role in psychology? This is a more contentious issue than one might imagine, given that, as evolved creatures, the answer must surely be yes. The contested nature of evolutionary psychology lies not in our status as evolved beings, but in the extent to which evolutionary ideas add value to studies of human behavior, and the rigor with which these ideas are tested. This, in turn, is linked to the framework in which particular evolutionary ideas are situated. While the framing of the current research topic places the brain-as-computer metaphor in opposition to evolutionary psychology, the most prominent school of thought in this field (born out of cognitive psychology, and often known as the Santa Barbara school) is entirely wedded to the computational theory of mind as an explanatory framework. Its unique aspect is to argue that the mind consists of a large number of functionally specialized (i.e., domain-specific) computational mechanisms, or modules (the massive modularity hypothesis). Far from offering an alternative to, or an improvement on, the current perspective, we argue that evolutionary psychology is a mainstream computational theory, and that its arguments for domain-specificity often rest on shaky premises. We then go on to suggest that the various forms of e-cognition (i.e., embodied, embedded, enactive) represent a true alternative to standard computational approaches, with an emphasis on "cognitive integration" or the "extended mind hypothesis" in particular. We feel this offers the most promise for human psychology because it incorporates the social and historical processes that are crucial to human "mind-making" within an evolutionarily informed framework. In addition to linking to other research areas in psychology, this approach is more likely to form productive links to other disciplines within the social sciences, not least by encouraging a healthy pluralism in approach.

  20. From computers to cultivation: reconceptualizing evolutionary psychology

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Louise; Pollet, Thomas V.; Stulp, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Does evolutionary theorizing have a role in psychology? This is a more contentious issue than one might imagine, given that, as evolved creatures, the answer must surely be yes. The contested nature of evolutionary psychology lies not in our status as evolved beings, but in the extent to which evolutionary ideas add value to studies of human behavior, and the rigor with which these ideas are tested. This, in turn, is linked to the framework in which particular evolutionary ideas are situated. While the framing of the current research topic places the brain-as-computer metaphor in opposition to evolutionary psychology, the most prominent school of thought in this field (born out of cognitive psychology, and often known as the Santa Barbara school) is entirely wedded to the computational theory of mind as an explanatory framework. Its unique aspect is to argue that the mind consists of a large number of functionally specialized (i.e., domain-specific) computational mechanisms, or modules (the massive modularity hypothesis). Far from offering an alternative to, or an improvement on, the current perspective, we argue that evolutionary psychology is a mainstream computational theory, and that its arguments for domain-specificity often rest on shaky premises. We then go on to suggest that the various forms of e-cognition (i.e., embodied, embedded, enactive) represent a true alternative to standard computational approaches, with an emphasis on “cognitive integration” or the “extended mind hypothesis” in particular. We feel this offers the most promise for human psychology because it incorporates the social and historical processes that are crucial to human “mind-making” within an evolutionarily informed framework. In addition to linking to other research areas in psychology, this approach is more likely to form productive links to other disciplines within the social sciences, not least by encouraging a healthy pluralism in approach. PMID:25161633

  1. A Psycho-logic of Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogborn, Jon; Bliss, Joan

    1990-01-01

    Offers a theory of how commonsense reasoning about motion may develop. Takes as fundamental the basic categories: action, object, space, cause, time, and movement. Suggests that very primitive elements could combine to provide schemes of motion recognizable in psychological accounts of infancy and generate prototypes of and rules for motion. (DK)

  2. A Model of Classical Space-Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maudlin, Tim

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some historically important reference systems including those by Newton, Leibniz, and Galileo. Provides models illustrating space-time relationship of the reference systems. Describes building models. (YP)

  3. Space Station engineering and technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Historical background, costs, organizational assignments, technology development, user requirements, mission evolution, systems analyses and design, systems engineering and integration, contracting, and policies of the space station are discussed.

  4. Public Spaces and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    The questions of how and where to do moral education have been with us since antiquity. But, over the past couple of hundred years we have sent moral education to the margins within higher education. Using the historical analysis of Julie Reuben, the moral psychological work of Augusto Blasi, and the educational philosophical work of John Dewey, I…

  5. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Courtesy of California Historical Society ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Courtesy of California Historical Society San Francisco, California Photo: ca. 1885 MIRROR PANELED BALLROOM - Ralston Hall, Ralston Avenue, Belmont, San Mateo County, CA

  6. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Courtesy of California Historical Society ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Courtesy of California Historical Society San Francisco, California Photo: ca. 1875 MIRROR PANELED BALLROOM - Ralston Hall, Ralston Avenue, Belmont, San Mateo County, CA

  7. Positive Psychology: Considerations and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollen, Debra; Ethington, Lanaya L.; Ridley, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    Why has the specialty of counseling psychology been overlooked in the larger conversation about positive psychology? Is it reasonable that counseling psychology claims positive psychology as its own? What are some of the problems in defining "positive psychology," and how does the lack of consensus around operationalization thwart discourse on…

  8. Energy Conservation and Historic Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Donna

    1986-01-01

    Explains some of the finer details in the requirements and the responsibilities grantees of Institutional Conservation Program's (ICP) funding have to building preservation of historic or potentially historic buildings under the National Historic Preservation Act. (MD)

  9. The Educational Inadequacy of Conceptions of Self in Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Disciplinary and professional psychology have exercised considerable influence over the ways in which Western individuals and societies understand what it is to be a person. During the last half of the 20th century, educational psychologists advanced scientific and humanistic conceptions of the self that removed personhood from the historical,…

  10. Development of Dialectics and Development of Humanistic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Allan R.

    1976-01-01

    The historical development of the dialectic is briefly traced from Hegel to Marx. Certain aspects of both Hegelian and Marxian dialects are brought to bear on a critical assessment as to how the development of a humanistic psychology should proceed. (MS)

  11. Pluralistic Inquiry for the History of Community Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, James G.; Chang, Janet

    2008-01-01

    The authors present the case not only for studying the history of community psychology but also of adopting a pluralistic approach to historical inquiry, using multiple methods and access to resources from other disciplines (e.g., historians of science and social historians). Examples of substantive topics and methods, including social network and…

  12. Using Psychology's Feminist Voices in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Laura C.; Bazar, Jennifer L.; MacKay, Jenna; Rodkey, Elissa N.; Rutherford, Alexandra; Young, Jacy L.

    2013-01-01

    In this teaching brief, the authors state that during the course of their regular studies, psychology students typically do not learn about the historical, political, and cultural contexts that deeply affect, and at times make possible, certain lines of scientific inquiry and even whole fields of study. To help students appreciate that psychology…

  13. PSYCHOLOGY IN COMMUNITY SETTINGS--CLINICAL, EDUCATIONAL, VOCATIONAL, SOCIAL ASPECTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SARASON, SEYMOUR B.; AND OTHERS

    IN THIS DESCRIPTION OF THE PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL CLINIC IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY AT YALE UNIVERSITY, THE CLINIC'S HISTORICAL AND PROFESSIONAL ORIGINS ARE REVIEWED, AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THE SCHOOLS THAT IT SERVES DISCUSSED. SPECIFIC TOPICS CONSIDERED ARE (1) THE APPROACH TO THE SCHOOLS, (2) TEACHING IS A LONELY PROFESSION, (3) HELPING TO…

  14. Thinking in Action: Some Insights from Cognitive Sport Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    Historically, cognitive researchers have largely ignored the domain of sport in their quest to understand how the mind works. This neglect is due, in part, to the limitations of the information processing paradigm that dominated cognitive psychology in its formative years. With the emergence of the embodiment approach to cognition, however, sport…

  15. Digital methods for the history of psychology: Introduction and resources.

    PubMed

    Fox Lee, Shayna

    2016-02-01

    At the York University Digital History of Psychology Laboratory, we have been working on projects that explore what digital methodologies have to offer historical research in our field. This piece provides perspective on the history and theory of digital history, as well as introductory resources for those who are curious about incorporating these methods into their own work. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Fundamentalism in Psychological Science. The Publication Manual as "Bible."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh-Bowers, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the content of the fourth edition of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" (1994) as if it were a biblical text. Draws on socio-historical studies and critical feminist perspectives to discuss the manual's function as a fundamentalist "bible" in relation to psychologists' culture. (SLD)

  17. Temperament and the Pursuit of an Integrated Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothbart, Mary K.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, developmental psychology has been split into the areas of social development and cognitive development, with the cognitive area most recently dominating the field. Nevertheless, basic questions about development often require more integrative approaches, cutting across social and cognitive areas, while taking advantage of recent…

  18. Challenges of Adolescent Psychology in the European Identity Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Barbot, Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, the question of identity and youth civic engagement constitutes a challenge both for the European Union (EU) and for research on adolescent psychology. In this article, we discuss the European historical context and the current initiatives from the EU that aim to encourage civic engagement among young people. Then, we suggest some…

  19. Assessment of Exceptional Students: Educational and Psychological Procedures. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald L.

    This book provides information on the assessment of students with disabilities. It is divided into six major parts. Part 1, "Introduction to Assessment: Issues and Concerns," discusses the historical, philosophical, and legal foundations of assessment, introduces psychological assessments, and proposes an assessment model. Part 2, "Informal…

  20. Space Station Habitability Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  1. Space Station habitability research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Y. A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Cente is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  2. Swamp to Space exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The menacing-looking alligator is really harmless. It is one of the realistic props to help convince visitors that the feel of the swamp is real in StenniSphere's Swamp to Space exhibit at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss. The historical section of the Swamp to Space exhibit tells the story of why and how Stennis Space Center came to be. It also pays tribute to the families who moved their homes to make way for the space age in Mississippi.

  3. Smocks and Jocks outside the Box: The Paradigmatic Evolution of Sport and Exercise Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vealey, Robin S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the historical development of sport and exercise psychology, with a particular emphasis on the construction and evolution of the "box" through history. The box represents the dominant paradigm that serves as the model for research and application as it evolves through successive historical eras (Kuhn,…

  4. Historical market data

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Historical financial data is provided for the uranium market in graphic and tabular form. Market data includes restricted and unrestricted uranium price ranges; exchange, transaction, uranium hexafluoride, conversion, and separative work values; and annual world uranium production and requirements. Selected historical economic indicators are listed for Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United States. Natural uranium deliveries to the European Union and U.S. uranium marketing data are provided.

  5. Teaching about Disability in Psychology: An Analysis of Disability Curricula in U.S. Undergraduate Psychology Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Nicole M.; Bogart, Kathleen R.; Bonnett, Amy K.; Estill, Mariah C.; Colton, Cassandra E.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, psychology education about disability focused narrowly on psychiatric and cognitive disabilities. Furthermore, disability tends to be viewed from the medical model, rather than the social model endorsed by disability scholars, which describes disability as primarily socially constructed. Course offerings for the psychology…

  6. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology.

  7. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology. PMID:27117799

  8. Forty Years of Psychological and Psychiatric Selection of NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Albert W.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to chronicle the history and development of the psychological selection process for NASA astronauts. For over 40 years, astronaut applicants have undergone rigorous medical testing to qualify for candidacy. Psychological selection has an equally long history, dating back to 1958, when psychological requirements were established for astronauts during the Mercury program. However, for many years, psychological selection consisted of psychiatric screening for psychopathology. As we approach the day in which the first ISS crew will live and work in space for months at a time, it becomes clear that both the psychological criteria and the selection system to detect said criteria have changed. This presentation discusses the events that led to the current, dual-phase selection system that is used to select individuals into the astronaut corps. Future directions for psychological selection will also be addressed.

  9. Space nursing. A professional challenge.

    PubMed

    Perrin, M M

    1985-09-01

    The challenge is to have man living and working in a permanently based space station. Nursing is on the threshold of expanding the health care role to man's adaptation in outer space. Elements of man's physiologic and psychologic responses are involved in determining the most productive use of man and machines in the space environment. Curricular considerations for a career in space nursing are being explored. The projection of possibilities for practice of space nursing can produce effective contributions toward health care maintenance of the space station personnel. The challenge for nursing is to become a collaborating team participant in the exploration of living and working in space.

  10. Historical Planetary Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, T. A.

    1995-12-01

    Historical planetary astronomy refers to attempts to use archival physical descriptions and depictions of the Moon and planets to help solve modern problems in planetary science. These data are usually qualitative in nature, most often coming to us in the form of telescopic observers' reports and drawings made in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. For this reason, such data must be treated differently from more-modern photographic and digital imagery. Most useful historical records come from the telescopic (but pre-photographic) era. However, the eyewitness account, in the year 1178, of what may have been a large, crater-producing impact on the Moon, dates as the earliest historical datum applied to lunar science. The studies of lunar transient phenomena (LTPs), and of the "ashen light" on Venus, also benefit from a body of historical records. Other examples that I will discuss include attempts to determine if a periodicity exists in the appearance of major dust storms on Mars and attempts to understand the seeming periodicity of the appearance of large, white spots in the northern latitudes of Saturn. I also will discuss my own attempts to use the historical record to search for past jovian features similar to those produced by the collision of comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 and Jupiter in 1994. I will conclude by listing a number of "filters" through which historical data necessarily pass before becoming of use to modern astronomers. These considerations are: 1) resolution, 2) instrumentation, 3) observing conditions, 4) observing technique, 5) observers' experience, 6) observers' purpose, 7) language, and 8) observer objectivity. Recognition of them is necessary to assess the quality of historical records and their applicability to a given astronomical problem. These "filters" will be illustrated by applying them to the example problems described above.

  11. Psychological Abstracts/BRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Donna R.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses particular problems and possible solutions in searching the Psychological Abstracts database, with special reference to its loading on BRS. Included are examples of typical searches, citations (with or without abstract/annotation), a tabulated searchguide to Psychological Abstracts on BRS and specifications for the database. (Author/JD)

  12. Techniques in Adlerian Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jon, Ed.; Slavik, Steven, Ed.

    This book is a collection of classic and recent papers (published between 1964 and 1994) reprinted from the "Journal of Juvenile Psychology""Individual Psychologist," and "Individual Psychology." Each of the five sections is introduced by the editor's comments. "General Techniques" contains the following articles: (1) "I-Thou Relationship Versus…

  13. Teaching Anomalistic Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Warren; Zusne, Leonard

    1981-01-01

    Discusses need for anomalistic psychology courses (the occult, astrology, ESP, or those phenomena inexplicable in terms of orthodox science) in the college psychology curriculum. A study of an anomalistics course indicates that student belief in the paranormal was associated with greater learning which was then followed by significant reductions…

  14. Language and Psychological Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Jean Berko

    Input language may have an effect on child development that goes far beyond language development alone. Language is the medium by which children acquire at least a portion of their sex role and social class or group characteristics, world view, and emotional and psychological well-being. Existing theories of psychological development ignore…

  15. Psychological Aspects of Sequencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    Examines various kinds of linguistic and psychological information for their pertinence to the arrangement of grammatical information in teaching beginners in English as a Second Language. It is claimed that the psychological information on learning processes is as important as linguistic analysis of the target language. (Author/AMH)

  16. Psychologism and Instructional Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Bekir S.; Wiley, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Little of the work in critical and hermeneutical psychology has been linked to instructional technology (IT). This article provides a discussion in order to fill the gap in this direction. The article presents a brief genealogy of American IT in relation to the influence of psychology. It also provides a critical and hermeneutical framework for…

  17. Psychology and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsterburg, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    This essay considers the discipline of psychology as distinct from history, defining it as a science within philosophy dedicated to the study of the causal structure of the human mind. Although Hugo Munsterburg was considered an important figure in applied psychology, this essay represents an earlier epistemology. (SLD)

  18. Transpersonal Psychology in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Thomas Bradford; Clark, Frances Vaughan

    The introduction to this booklet states that transpersonal psychology focuses attention on the human capacity for self-transcendence as well as self-realization, and is concerned with the optimum development of consciousness. This booklet attempts to illustrate the value of this psychology in education, not as a complete substitute for traditional…

  19. The Psychology of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangaswamy, A.; Balasubramanian, P.; Nirmala, R. Sweety

    2007-01-01

    Psychology plays a significant role in the life of each and every human being. Starting from childhood, if psychology of learning is utilized positively it would play a vital role in the building up of a bright career of a child. The explosion of information technology has been exercising far reaching influence on the area of educational…

  20. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  1. Psychological Dynamics of Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Diane L.

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the branch of sport and exercise science that focuses on the psychological aspects of human behavior. Part I presents a general orientation to the field, including an introduction and description of sport psychology and a discussion of the history and current status of the field. Individual differences…

  2. Competencies in Professional Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaslow, Nadine J.

    2004-01-01

    There has been a burgeoning interest in competency-based education and credentialing in professional psychology. This movement gained momentum at the Competencies Conference: Future Directions in Education and Credentialing in Professional Psychology. After defining professional competence, the author focuses on the identification and delineation…

  3. Avian psychology and communication.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-07-22

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the integration of theoretical ideas from psychology into studies of communication has been relatively slow. However, recent operant experiments are starting to address how birds perceive and respond to complex natural signals in an attempt to answer evolutionary problems in communication. This review outlines how a psychological approach to understanding communication is useful, and we hope that it stimulates further research addressing the role of psychological mechanisms in signal evolution.

  4. Avian psychology and communication.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Candy; Skelhorn, John

    2004-01-01

    The evolution of animal communication is a complex issue and one that attracts much research and debate. 'Receiver psychology' has been highlighted as a potential selective force, and we review how avian psychological processes and biases can influence the evolution and design of signals as well as the progress that has been made in testing these ideas in behavioural studies. Interestingly, although birds are a focal group for experimental psychologists and behavioural ecologists alike, the integration of theoretical ideas from psychology into studies of communication has been relatively slow. However, recent operant experiments are starting to address how birds perceive and respond to complex natural signals in an attempt to answer evolutionary problems in communication. This review outlines how a psychological approach to understanding communication is useful, and we hope that it stimulates further research addressing the role of psychological mechanisms in signal evolution. PMID:15306314

  5. Historical Contingency in Controlled Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A basic question in evolution is dealing with the nature of an evolutionary memory. At thermodynamic equilibrium, at stable stationary states or other stable attractors the memory on the path leading to the long-time solution is erased, at least in part. Similar arguments hold for unique optima. Optimality in biology is discussed on the basis of microbial metabolism. Biology, on the other hand, is characterized by historical contingency, which has recently become accessible to experimental test in bacterial populations evolving under controlled conditions. Computer simulations give additional insight into the nature of the evolutionary memory, which is ultimately caused by the enormous space of possibilities that is so large that it escapes all attempts of visualization. In essence, this contribution is dealing with two questions of current evolutionary theory: (i) Are organisms operating at optimal performance? and (ii) How is the evolutionary memory built up in populations?

  6. Pivotal Transitions - Historical and Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, M.

    2008-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to enable readers to better "design" successful transitions that move Science and Technology or Research and Development (S&T/R&D) technologies and systems into operational capabilities for users. Transitions from S&T/R&D into acquisition and operations are challenging and critical to providing capab ilities to end users. Two historical examples, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), are explored. Two current examples are also explored, including one from Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) which is in th e early stages of transition. While transitions are necessary, transition periods are inherently challenging and dynamically changing situations. These situations must be carefully managed and led in order to succeed. Characteristics, approaches, and incentives that foster effective transitions are discussed. Understanding the transition process and the communities involved allows one to maximize the chance of successfully moving an S&T/R&D development into an operational capability supporting end users.

  7. Feminism and/in/as psychology: The public sciences of sex and gender.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alexandra; Pettit, Michael

    2015-08-01

    In our introduction to this special issue on the histories of feminism, gender, sexuality, and the psy-disciplines, we propose the tripartite framework of "feminism and/in/as psychology" to conceptualize the dynamics of their conjoined trajectories and relationship to gender and sexuality from the late 19th through the late 20th centuries. "Feminism and psychology" highlights the tensions between a political movement and a scientific discipline and the efforts of participants in each to problematize the other. "Feminism in psychology" refers to those historical moments when self-identified feminists intervened in psychology to alter its content, methodologies, and populations. We propose, as have others, that these interventions predate the 1970s, the period most commonly associated with the "founding" of feminist psychology. Finally, "feminism as psychology/psychology as feminism" explores the shared ground between psychology and feminism-the conceptual, methodological, and (more rarely) epistemological moments when psychology and feminism made common cause. We suggest that the traffic between feminism and psychology has been persistent, continuous, and productive, despite taking different historically and geographically contingent forms. PMID:26375152

  8. Feminism and/in/as psychology: The public sciences of sex and gender.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Alexandra; Pettit, Michael

    2015-08-01

    In our introduction to this special issue on the histories of feminism, gender, sexuality, and the psy-disciplines, we propose the tripartite framework of "feminism and/in/as psychology" to conceptualize the dynamics of their conjoined trajectories and relationship to gender and sexuality from the late 19th through the late 20th centuries. "Feminism and psychology" highlights the tensions between a political movement and a scientific discipline and the efforts of participants in each to problematize the other. "Feminism in psychology" refers to those historical moments when self-identified feminists intervened in psychology to alter its content, methodologies, and populations. We propose, as have others, that these interventions predate the 1970s, the period most commonly associated with the "founding" of feminist psychology. Finally, "feminism as psychology/psychology as feminism" explores the shared ground between psychology and feminism-the conceptual, methodological, and (more rarely) epistemological moments when psychology and feminism made common cause. We suggest that the traffic between feminism and psychology has been persistent, continuous, and productive, despite taking different historically and geographically contingent forms.

  9. Four Social Psychological Lenses for Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zittoun, Tania; Perret-Clermont, Anne-Nelly

    2009-01-01

    How can the advances of social and developmental psychology be integrated? This conceptual paper proposes to examine four basic theoretical models of social situations through which learning and development have been observed in the post-piagetian tradition: the psychosocial triangle, the frame, models of transfer and transitions, and models…

  10. Leaving behind our preparadigmatic past: Professional psychology as a unified clinical science.

    PubMed

    Melchert, Timothy P

    2016-09-01

    The behavioral and neurosciences have made remarkable progress recently in advancing the scientific understanding of human psychology. Though research in many areas is still in its early stages, knowledge of many psychological processes is now firmly grounded in experimental tests of falsifiable theories and supports a unified, paradigmatic understanding of human psychology that is thoroughly consistent with the rest of the natural sciences. This new body of knowledge poses critical questions for professional psychology, which still often relies on the traditional theoretical orientations and other preparadigmatic practices for guiding important aspects of clinical education and practice. This article argues that professional psychology needs to systematically transition to theoretical frameworks and a curriculum that are based on an integrated scientific understanding of human psychology. Doing so would be of historic importance for the field and would result in major changes to professional psychology education and practice. It would also allow the field to emerge as a true clinical science. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Sixty years of the Interamerican Society of Psychology (SIP): origins and development.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a historical overview of the Interamerican Society of Psychology, which was founded on December 17, 1951, in Mexico City. Firstly, the historical circumstances of the foundation period are presented, as well as the people who made this organization possible, and the state of psychology on the American continent at that time. Secondly, the most important activities that the Interamerican Society of Psychology has developed during its 60 years are mentioned, such as the publication of books and scientific journals, the creation of several task forces and the Interamerican Congresses of Psychology. Basically, the purpose of this paper is to review the history of the Interamerican Society of Psychology through the recovery and use of various documentary sources.

  12. Discursive social psychology now.

    PubMed

    Parker, Ian

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today. PMID:21790666

  13. Discursive social psychology now.

    PubMed

    Parker, Ian

    2012-09-01

    This paper reviews the progress of discourse-analytic approaches in social psychology from the late 1980s to the present day, with a particular focus on the way conceptual and methodological contributions from within the Discourse and Rhetoric Group at Loughborough University have negotiated a positive role for innovative studies of language in the discipline of psychology. Social psychology has become a key site for the accumulation of a series of empirical studies that have seen the flourishing of a distinctive form of 'discursive social psychology' that has succeeded in moving from the margins of the discipline to a more accepted position. The paper traces this trajectory of discourse analysis from the limits to the centre of social psychology attending to five features that now characterise its contribution to psychology; an emphasis on everyday conversation, a concern with interpersonal interaction, explication of formal sequences; an insistence on empirical claims; and fidelity to the ethos of its host discipline. The paper concludes with some comments on the wider context of this new approach inside psychology today.

  14. 41 CFR 102-73.30 - What historic preservation provisions must Federal agencies comply with prior to acquiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... leasing space, Federal agencies must comply with the provisions of section 110(a) of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended (16 U.S.C. 470h-2(a)), regarding the use of historic properties....

  15. SIB health psychology in Brazil: The challenges for working in public health settings.

    PubMed

    Spink, Mary-Jane P; Brigagão, Jacqueline M; Menegon, Vera M; Vicentin, Maria-Cristina G

    2016-03-01

    Considering the diversity of theoretical approaches and settings for psychological practice, this editorial provides a background for the articles that have been included in this special issue concerning health psychology in the context of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saude). We addressed issues concerning the national curricular outline for undergraduate training in psychology and historical data on the social movements that led to the creation of the Sistema Unico de Saude and the Psychiatric Reform which created an important area for psychological work absorbing a considerable number of psychologists.

  16. International School Psychology: Psychology's Worldwide Portal to Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas D.

    2003-01-01

    International school psychology is discussed in reference to scholarly and professional development within psychology, the emergence of an international association of school psychology, its efforts to promote school psychology, prevailing characteristics of school psychologists, and additional efforts needed to further enhance its development.…

  17. Photographs as Historical Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Rodney; Felton, Randall G.

    1991-01-01

    Classifies types of photographs, describing which are most effective in social studies and history instruction. Explores problems in textbooks' use of photographs. Outlines a six-step question model to help students make inferences when analyzing photographs. Develops three lessons using historical photographs to discover more about a photo's time…

  18. America's Historic West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    Settlers who pushed west over the Great Divide to the shores of the Pacific Ocean found the American West to be an expanse of extreme differences in time, topography, and ways of life. This paper elaborates on several historic sites in the American West. The purpose of the paper is to introduce a series of places to the students and teachers of…

  19. [Abnormal movements. Historical notes].

    PubMed

    García-Ruiz, P J

    Most of the knowledge about movement disorders comes from the last fifty years. However, the ancients made some remarkable neurological depictions. We still can find some neurological descriptions including Parkinson's disease in the Bible, and the ancient writings of Atreya and Susruta. In addition, classic tests provide us of valuable information on historical personages, including the dystonia of Alexander the Great.

  20. Fort Myers Historical Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee County School District, Fort Myers, FL.

    Materials for secondary school students to supplement a tour of the Fort Myers (Florida) Historical Museum are presented. Background information on the history of Southwest Florida is provided, and the rest of the materials consist of specific questions and suggested class activities on many of the major actors and activities in the area's…

  1. Teaching With Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Ronald M., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Designed for social studies educators, this theme issue presents 11 articles about historic places that feature a variety of ideas for elementary and secondary lesson plans, curricula, and program development. The articles are: (1) "Where did History Happen?" (Beth M. Boland); (2) "Creating a Partnership" (Carol D. Shull); (3) "Heritage Education:…

  2. Historical Collage Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billington, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Helping students learn how to interpret and analyze imagery is an important skill. With last year's historical election of the first African American president, it was an opportune time to explore where Americans are going as a nation and what kind of future they envision. Middle-school students are eager to give their opinions, but learning to…

  3. Recommended Historical Fiction (Booksearch).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Journal, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Provides a brief description of nine works of historical fiction which teachers have found successful in skillfully weaving the facts of history into fictional presentations capable of drawing the reader into the time period. Deals with chronological periods ranging from the old stone age to the mid-twentieth century. (RS)

  4. Acoustics of Italian Historical Opera Houses.

    PubMed

    Prodi, Nicola; Pompoli, Roberto; Martellotta, Francesco; Sato, Shin-ichi

    2015-08-01

    Opera houses represent a large group of performance spaces characterized by great complexity and, at the same time, versatility with respect to different usage (from opera to symphonic music and ballet). This kind of building originated in Italy during the 17th century and later spread across the country and then Europe and the rest of the world, slowly evolving into modern theatre shapes. As a consequence of the changes undergone by the interior space, the original acoustic features, which likely influenced many composers, experienced important variations. Thanks to acoustic measurement campaigns inside Italian Historical Opera Houses, promoted by National and Regional Projects, the distinctive features of these spaces were investigated in comparison to modern spaces. In this work, the newly acquired data are merged with data in the literature in order to present and discuss some of the distinctive acoustic features of historical spaces as regards their original function. Moreover, specific issues such as listening in stalls and boxes and the criteria governing the preference judgment of listeners are considered. The concept and the crucial role of the balance between stage and pit sources are also discussed by means of previous literature studies.

  5. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  6. Darwin and Evolutionary Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghiselin, Michael T.

    1973-01-01

    Darwin's views on various psychological behaviors were significant. Basing his conclusions on empirical research, he wrote extensively on the phylogeny of behavior, emotional expression, sexual selection, instincts, evolution of morals, ontogeny of behavior, and genetics of behavior. (PS)

  7. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    PubMed

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies. PMID:25343628

  8. Diet and psychological health.

    PubMed

    Miller, M

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews research that suggests a relationship between diet and psychological symptoms. Mind-body dualism (as it relates to clinical practice) and the limited role of nutrition in mainstream biomedical training and treatment are discussed as background issues. Two areas of inquiry that have generated relevant research findings in this area are reviewed: (1) orthomolecular theory and vitamin deficiencies, and (2) clinical ecology/environmental medicine theory and the impact of "food allergies." Although clinical case reports and promising research findings have been reported, the impact of diet on psychological health is neither widely accepted nor integrated into mental health treatment methods. Ongoing research findings in brain biochemistry and psychoneuroimmunology point to communication pathways that can provide a clearer understanding of the links between nutritional intake, central nervous system and immune function, and psychological health status. These findings may lead to greater acceptance of dietary treatment approaches among health practitioners addressing psychological disorders. PMID:8795935

  9. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    PubMed

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  10. Social Psychology as History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gergen, Kenneth J.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of theory and research in social psychology reveals that while methods of research are scientific in character, theories of social behavior are primarily reflections of contemporary history. (Author)

  11. The psychology of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Chang, S C

    1978-01-01

    All psychologic phenomena occur in consciousness. However, "consciousness" has two meanings: the faculty and the content of awareness. Traditional psychologies have largely concerned themselves with the content, neglecting the problem of the faculty, thus, limiting our understanding of human psyche. Study of meditation is a viable approach to the exploration of both meanings of consciousness. Meditation aims at a "cleansing" of the mind to reach, thereby, a content-free and conflict-free state--pure consciousness.

  12. Giving Psychology Away Is Expensive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Richard L.; Wallace, William L.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Does Psychology make a significant difference in our lives?" by P. Zimbardo. We deeply appreciate the documentation and inspiration provided by Zimbardo on how psychology is reaching out to the public by "giving psychology away" (p. 340). We totally agree that psychology has much, much more to offer that could be…

  13. Introduction to Psychology. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalat, James W.

    Chapters in this textbook for college students in introductory psychology courses are: (1) What is Psychology?; (2) Scientific Methods in Psychology; (3) Biological Psychology; (4) Sensation and Perception; (5) Altered States; (6) Learning; (7) Memory; (8) Cognition and Language; (9) Intelligence and Its Measurement; (10) Development; (11)…

  14. Sleep in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traon, A. Pavy-le; Roussel, B.

    1993-09-01

    Manned space flights have shown it is possible to sleep in microgravity. However, some sleep disturbances have been reported which influence performance of the crew and safety of space flight. This paper reviews the main studies of in-flight sleep in animal and man. Most disturbances are related to phase lags due to operational requirements. Factors which can disturb in-flight sleep are analysed: • environmental factors. Some of them are secondary to space flight ergonomics. Conversely, effects of microgravity on light-dark alternance are less known and lead to interesting problems of fundamental research, • psychological factors, especially during long duration flights.

  15. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original from Pennsylvania Historical and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original from Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission; Overlay, See Catalog of Graphic Material #8, MAP OF FORT MIFFLIN, c.1778. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original from Pennsylvania Historical and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original from Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, See Catalog of Graphic Material #8, MAP OF FORT MIFFLIN, c.1778. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum San Francisco, California BANK OF CALIFORNIA & COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS - Bank Building, California & Liedesdorff Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey California Historical Society Original: About ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey California Historical Society Original: About 1860's Re-photo: January 1940 VIEW FROM NORTHWEST 1797 - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Courtesy of Historical Society of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Courtesy of Historical Society of Montana, Rephoto: 1963 EARLY PHOTOGRAPH OF BUILDING (From Northwest) - Madison County Courthouse, Wallace Street, Virginia City, Madison County, MT

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Courtesy of Historical Society of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Courtesy of Historical Society of Montana, Rephoto: 1963 VIRGINIA CITY - MONTANA TERRITORY 1866 - Content Corner, Southwest corner of Wallace & Jackson Streets, Virginia City, Madison County, MT

  1. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photo from Painting California Historical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Photo from Painting California Historical Society Original: 1868 (Painting) Re-photo: January 1940 VIEW FROM WEST (AFTER EARTHQUAKE OF 1868) - Mission San Jose de Guadalupe, Mission & Washington Boulevards, Fremont, Alameda County, CA

  2. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Illinois State Historical Library, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Illinois State Historical Library, Photographer SECOND FLOOR HALL LOOKING SOUTH INTO STUDY - David Davis Mansion, Monroe & Davis Streets, Bloomington, McLean County, IL

  3. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, New York Historical Society, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy, New York Historical Society, ca. 1972 DRAWING, GROUND-FLOOR PLAN, March 20, 1901 McKim, Mead and White, Architects - Patterson House, 15 Dupont Circle Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey New York Historical Society, Photocopy, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey New York Historical Society, Photocopy, ca. 1972 DRAWING, FIRST-SECOND- FLOOR PLAN by McKIM, MEAD, AND WHITE, ARCHITECTS Mar. 19, 1901 - Patterson House, 15 Dupont Circle Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Optical Asymmetry of Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebscher, Kurt; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Repetition of a historical experiment in a school project threw new light on the question of absolute rest. The student experiment investigated whether a particular direction in space could be singled out by a purely terrestrial procedure, while the original experiment investigated the drag coefficient of a solid medium. (JN)

  6. Psychological training of German science astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzey, Dietrich; Schiewe, Albrecht

    Although the significance of psychosocial issues of manned space flights has been discussed very often in recent literature, up to now, very few attempts have been made in North-America or Europe to provide astronaut candidates or spacecrew members with some kind of psychological training. As a first attempt in this field, a psychological training program for science astronauts is described, which has been developed by the German Aerospace Research Establishment and performed as part of the mission-independent biomedical training of the German astronauts' team. In contrast to other training concepts, this training program focused not only on skills needed to cope with psychosocial issues regarding long-term stays in space, but also on skills needed to cope with the different demands during the long pre-mission phase. Topics covered in the training were "Communication and Cooperation", "Stress-Management", "Coping with Operational Demands", "Effective Problem Solving in Groups", and "Problem-Oriented Team Supervision".

  7. Contributions of object relations theory and self psychology to relational psychology and group psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schermer, V L

    2000-04-01

    Object relations theory and self psychology are psychoanalytic perspectives that are especially concerned with interpersonal relations and their mental representations. Object relations theory began as an intrapsychic "singleton" psychology with the work of Freud and Melanie Klein. It subsequently evolved into a multi-person psychology with the work of Bion on groups, as well as the clinical and theoretical contributions of Winnicott and Fairbairn. Kohutian self psychology, which emerged later, has been interested in the relations between the self and significant others as mirroring and idealizing "self-objects." Stolorow's "inter-subjective perspective" emerged from self psychology as a full-fledged multi-person point of view. This article considers the significance of contemporary object relations theory and self psychology as relational, multi-person perspectives in terms of their application to group psychotherapy, focusing upon the group-as-a-whole, projective identification, transitional space and object, and self/self-object relations as particularly useful constructs. A clinical vignette is provided.

  8. Contributions of object relations theory and self psychology to relational psychology and group psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schermer, V L

    2000-04-01

    Object relations theory and self psychology are psychoanalytic perspectives that are especially concerned with interpersonal relations and their mental representations. Object relations theory began as an intrapsychic "singleton" psychology with the work of Freud and Melanie Klein. It subsequently evolved into a multi-person psychology with the work of Bion on groups, as well as the clinical and theoretical contributions of Winnicott and Fairbairn. Kohutian self psychology, which emerged later, has been interested in the relations between the self and significant others as mirroring and idealizing "self-objects." Stolorow's "inter-subjective perspective" emerged from self psychology as a full-fledged multi-person point of view. This article considers the significance of contemporary object relations theory and self psychology as relational, multi-person perspectives in terms of their application to group psychotherapy, focusing upon the group-as-a-whole, projective identification, transitional space and object, and self/self-object relations as particularly useful constructs. A clinical vignette is provided. PMID:10778012

  9. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Courtesy Chicago Historical Society ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Courtesy Chicago Historical Society LOBBY LOOKING TOWARD BALCONY Permission to reproduce is given providing the following appears on the same page with the reproduction: Courtesy Chicago Historical Society - Rookery Building, 209 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  10. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Courtesy Chicago Historical Society ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Courtesy Chicago Historical Society EXTERIOR FROM NORTHEAST IN THE LATE 1880's Permission to reproduce is given providing the following appears on the same page with the reproduction: Courtesy Chicago Historical Society - Rookery Building, 209 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  11. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Courtesy Chicago Historical Society ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Courtesy Chicago Historical Society 'Office Building, Being Erected by the Central Safety Deposit Company,' Published in The Inland Architect and Builder, Vol. VII No. 9 Permission to reproduce is given providing the following appears on the same page with the reproduction: Courtesy Chicago Historical Society - Rookery Building, 209 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Courtesy Chicago Historical Society ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Courtesy Chicago Historical Society The 'Rookery' Lobby, copyright by S. L. Stein Publishing Co., c. 1893. Permission to reproduce is given providing the following appears on the same page with the reproduction: Courtesy Chicago Historical Society - Rookery Building, 209 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  13. The Lack of Representation of Educational Psychology and School Psychology in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Jennifer L.; Blazek, Melissa A.; Raley, Amber B.; Washington, Christi

    2005-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to look at the representation of educational and school psychology in introductory psychology textbooks. Research into the representation of other sub-fields of psychology has been conducted but no research has looked specifically at educational or school psychology. The second goal was to compare the…

  14. Investigation of social cognitive career theory for minority recruitment in school psychology.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra, Joel O; Gubi, Aaron A; Cappaert, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less knowledge and exposure to school psychology than for counseling and clinical psychology, and that students with greater exposure or knowledge of school psychology reported significantly greater choice intentions for school psychology. The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in explaining minority undergraduate psychology students' choice intentions for school psychology. This study is an analysis of existing data and is based on a national sample of 283 minority undergraduate psychology students. All instruments used in this study were found to have internal consistency ranging from .83 to .91. Students' learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and choice intentions for school psychology were evaluated by way of a mediator analysis. Results from a path analysis suggest that outcome expectations mediated the relationship between exposure and choice intentions for school psychology. Implications for minority recruitment practices are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243246

  15. Investigation of social cognitive career theory for minority recruitment in school psychology.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra, Joel O; Gubi, Aaron A; Cappaert, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    School psychology trainers have historically struggled to adequately increase the number of professionals from diverse backgrounds. An increase in diverse providers is important in meeting the needs of a burgeoning racial/ethnic minority student population. Previous research suggests that minority undergraduate psychology students have less knowledge and exposure to school psychology than for counseling and clinical psychology, and that students with greater exposure or knowledge of school psychology reported significantly greater choice intentions for school psychology. The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) in explaining minority undergraduate psychology students' choice intentions for school psychology. This study is an analysis of existing data and is based on a national sample of 283 minority undergraduate psychology students. All instruments used in this study were found to have internal consistency ranging from .83 to .91. Students' learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and choice intentions for school psychology were evaluated by way of a mediator analysis. Results from a path analysis suggest that outcome expectations mediated the relationship between exposure and choice intentions for school psychology. Implications for minority recruitment practices are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Narrative psychological content analysis as a tool for psychological status monitoring of crews in isolated, confined and extreme settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehmann, B.; Balázs, L.; Fülöp, É.; Hargitai, R.; Kabai, P.; Péley, B.; Pólya, T.; Vargha, A.; László, J.

    2011-05-01

    This paper is about a pilot application of narrative psychological content analysis in the psychological status monitoring of Crew 71 of a space analog simulation environment, the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). Both the method and its theoretical framework, Scientific Narrative Psychology, are original developments by Hungarian psychologists [5] (László, 2008). The software was NooJ, a multilingual linguistic development environment [11] (Silberztein, 2008). Three measures were conceptualized and assessed: emotional status, team spirit and subjective physical comfort. The results showed the patterns of these three measures on a daily basis at group level, and allowed for detecting individual differences as well. The method is adaptable to languages involved in space psychology, e.g. Russian, French and German in addition to English.

  17. On the failed institutionalization of German comparative psychology prior to 1940.

    PubMed

    Kressley-Mba, Regina A

    2006-02-01

    Despite an illustrious history marked by the work of Wolfgang Köhler and Mathilde Hertz, among others-the significance of which still resonates in different fields of animal behavior research-and the fact that interesting work in the field continues, comparative psychology has no official status within German psychology. A partial explanation for this lack of official representation might derive from unsuccessful attempts historically to secure institutional status. "Gifted" animals served as much of the impetus for the beginning of a scientific animal psychology in Germany and contributed to its institutionalization by providing the incentive for the establishment of organizations dealing with animal psychology. Although initially serving as a catalyst for an interdisciplinary exchange on animal psychology, the case of Clever Hans was also exploited to help psychology gain institutional status in the field, albeit without lasting success.

  18. The Historical Justification of Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huttunen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    The article deals with various aspects of justifying music historically. In Matti Huttunen's opinion Western music culture has been strongly historical since the nineteenth century. The article attempts to elucidate the historical nature of music, as well as the canon of music, the selective nature of music history, and the influence of aesthetic…

  19. Tactile hallucinations: conceptual and historical aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Berrios, G E

    1982-01-01

    A brief historical analysis of the general concept of hallucination is presented and the suggestion is made that it emerged as the unwarranted generalisation of a perceptual model that was meant to apply only to vision and the "distance senses". Against this background the evolution of tactile hallucinations is considered and its interaction with 19th century psychological theory explored. It is concluded that tactile hallucinations are sui generis phenomena which do not fit the conventional model and whose clinical identification rests on criteria so far unclear. A brief review of their taxonomy and diagnostic usefulness is presented. Some wider implications are drawn which should be relevant to the general concept of hallucination. PMID:7042917

  20. Historical and social aspects of halitosis.

    PubMed

    Elias, Marina Sá; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Buccal odors have always been a factor of concern for society. This study aims to investigate the historical and social base of halitosis, through systematized research in the database BVS (biblioteca virtual em saúde - virtual library in health) and also in books. Lack of knowledge on how to prevent halitosis allows for its occurrence, limiting quality of life. As social relationships are one of the pillars of the quality of life concept, halitosis needs to be considered a factor of negative interference. Education in health should be accomplished with a view to a dynamic balance, involving human beings' physical and psychological aspects, as well as their social interactions, so that individuals do not become jigsaw puzzles of sick parts.

  1. Assessing historical abuse allegations and damages.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, David A; Jaffe, Peter G; Leschied, Alan W; Legate, Barbara L

    2010-03-01

    Practitioners may be called upon to assess adults who have alleged child abuse as a minor and are seeking reparations. Such assessments may be used by the courts to determine harm and assess damages related to their claim or testimony. Our clinical/research team has conducted many such evaluations and reported the findings pertaining to the psychological harm stemming from historical abuse in published studies. We use the opportunity provided by this new section on Practical Strategies to describe the role of the assessor, and to provide details concerning our methods for preparing these assessments and reporting the findings for the purpose of civil or criminal actions. Specific recommendations for wording of written reports are provided.

  2. Diabetic patients: Psychological aspects.

    PubMed

    Adili, Fatemeh; Larijani, Bagher; Haghighatpanah, Mohammadreza

    2006-11-01

    This study was undertaken to consider the psychological aspect of diabetes with regard to improving clinical outcomes. The review was limited to literature reports on the causes, solutions, and treatments of some common psychological problems known to complicate diabetes management. A literature search was undertaken using Pub-Med, CINAHL, Proquest, Elsevier, Blackwell Synergy, Ovid, Ebsco, Rose net, and Google websites, including studies published in English journals between 1995 and 2006. Therefore about 88 articles were selected based on the inclusion criteria. In earlier studies, relatively little empirical research was found to substantiate the effect of psychological counseling in complicated diabetes. The greatest deficits were seen in areas of mental health, self-esteem parent impact, and family cohesion. There were some different factors, which influence the psychological aspect of diabetic patients, such as age, gender, place of living, familial and social support, motivation, energy, life satisfaction, and lifestyle. There are various types of solutions for coping with the psychological problems in diabetic clients. The most essential solution lies in educating the patients and healthcare providers on the subject. Before initiating each educational intervention, a thorough assessment would be crucial. Treatment plans may benefit from cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), behavior family therapy, improving family communication, problem-solving skills, and providing motivation for diabetic patients. Moreover, it seems that the close collaboration between diabetologists and psychologists would be fruitful.

  3. [Human castration: historical notes].

    PubMed

    Serarcangeli, C; Rispoli, G

    2001-01-01

    Human castration has been performed from early times for different reasons: to punish and revenge, to display one's religious fanaticism, to protect or to control women, for eunuchs' trade, for therapeutical purposes. In early modern times men were castrated to obtain sopranos voices, or for eugenic or racial reasons. Nowadays chemical castration is used as a therapeutic treatment or as a way to punish rape and other criminal behaviours. Castration is surgical or chemical act that may obviously cause serious physical and psychological consequences. PMID:12375586

  4. The Imperialism of Historical Arrogance: Where Is the Past in the DSM's Idea of Sexuality?

    PubMed

    Goldhill, Simon

    2015-07-01

    This article questions the historical awareness of the DSM-5 by investigating first the treatment of prostitution from the Victorian period to today as a means of medicalizing desire; and second, by looking at the category of hebephilia, where modern medicalizing classifications are criticized for ignoring ancient evidence. By this comparative method, the article shows how ignoring historical evidence allows the social and ideological elements in the work of defining psychological sexual diseases to remain concealed.

  5. The foundational principles as psychological lodestars: Theoretical inspiration and empirical direction in rehabilitation psychology.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Dana S; Ehde, Dawn M; Wegener, Stephen T

    2016-02-01

    Historically, the Foundational Principles articulated by Wright (1983) and others guided theory development, research and scholarship, and practice in rehabilitation psychology. In recent decades, these principles have become more implicit and less explicit or expressive in the writings and work of rehabilitation professionals. We believe that the Foundational Principles are essential lodestars for working with people with disabilities that can guide inquiry, practice, and service. To introduce this special issues, this commentary identifies and defines key Foundational Principles, including, for example, Lewin's (1935) person-environment relation, adjustment to disability, the malleability of self-perceptions of bodily states, and the importance of promoting dignity for people with disabilities. We then consider the role the Foundational Principles play in the articles appearing in this special issue. We close by considering some new principles and their potential utility in rehabilitation settings. Readers in rehabilitation psychology and aligned areas (e.g., social-personality psychology, health psychology, rehabilitation therapist, psychiatry, and nursing) are encouraged to consider how the Foundational Principles underlie and can shape their research and practice. PMID:26881302

  6. The artful mind meets art history: toward a psycho-historical framework for the science of art appreciation.

    PubMed

    Bullot, Nicolas J; Reber, Rolf

    2013-04-01

    Research seeking a scientific foundation for the theory of art appreciation has raised controversies at the intersection of the social and cognitive sciences. Though equally relevant to a scientific inquiry into art appreciation, psychological and historical approaches to art developed independently and lack a common core of theoretical principles. Historicists argue that psychological and brain sciences ignore the fact that artworks are artifacts produced and appreciated in the context of unique historical situations and artistic intentions. After revealing flaws in the psychological approach, we introduce a psycho-historical framework for the science of art appreciation. This framework demonstrates that a science of art appreciation must investigate how appreciators process causal and historical information to classify and explain their psychological responses to art. Expanding on research about the cognition of artifacts, we identify three modes of appreciation: basic exposure to an artwork, the artistic design stance, and artistic understanding. The artistic design stance, a requisite for artistic understanding, is an attitude whereby appreciators develop their sensitivity to art-historical contexts by means of inquiries into the making, authorship, and functions of artworks. We defend and illustrate the psycho-historical framework with an analysis of existing studies on art appreciation in empirical aesthetics. Finally, we argue that the fluency theory of aesthetic pleasure can be amended to meet the requirements of the framework. We conclude that scientists can tackle fundamental questions about the nature and appreciation of art within the psycho-historical framework.

  7. Alternative probability theories for cognitive psychology.

    PubMed

    Narens, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Various proposals for generalizing event spaces for probability functions have been put forth in the mathematical, scientific, and philosophic literatures. In cognitive psychology such generalizations are used for explaining puzzling results in decision theory and for modeling the influence of context effects. This commentary discusses proposals for generalizing probability theory to event spaces that are not necessarily boolean algebras. Two prominent examples are quantum probability theory, which is based on the set of closed subspaces of a Hilbert space, and topological probability theory, which is based on the set of open sets of a topology. Both have been applied to a variety of cognitive situations. This commentary focuses on how event space properties can influence probability concepts and impact cognitive modeling.

  8. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    PubMed

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research.

  9. Sociogenomic Personality Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Brent W.; Jackson, Joshua J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology. PMID:19012657

  10. Embodiment in social psychology.

    PubMed

    Meier, Brian P; Schnall, Simone; Schwarz, Norbert; Bargh, John A

    2012-10-01

    Psychologists are increasingly interested in embodiment based on the assumption that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are grounded in bodily interaction with the environment. We examine how embodiment is used in social psychology, and we explore the ways in which embodied approaches enrich traditional theories. Although research in this area is burgeoning, much of it has been more descriptive than explanatory. We provide a critical discussion of the trajectory of embodiment research in social psychology. We contend that future researchers should engage in a phenomenon-based approach, highlight the theoretical boundary conditions and mediators involved, explore novel action-relevant outcome measures, and address the role of individual differences broadly defined. Such research will likely provide a more explanatory account of the role of embodiment in general terms as well as how it expands the knowledge base in social psychology.

  11. Sociogenomic personality psychology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brent W; Jackson, Joshua J

    2008-12-01

    In this article, we address a number of issues surrounding biological models of personality traits. Most traditional and many contemporary biological models of personality traits assume that biological systems underlying personality traits are causal and immutable. In contrast, sociogenomic biology, which we introduce to readers in this article, directly contradicts the widely held assumption that something that is biological, heritable, or temperamental, is unchangeable. We provide examples of how seemingly unchanging biological systems, such as DNA, are both dependent on environments for elicitation and can be modified by environmental changes. Finally, we synthesize sociogenomic biology with personality psychology in a model of personality traits that integrates this more modern perspective on biology, physiology, and environment that we term sociogenomic personality psychology. We end the article with a discussion of the future directions of sociogenomic personality psychology.

  12. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    PubMed

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. PMID:21992501

  13. Psychological Factors in Asthma

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Asthma has long been considered a condition in which psychological factors have a role. As in many illnesses, psychological variables may affect outcome in asthma via their effects on treatment adherence and symptom reporting. Emerging evidence suggests that the relation between asthma and psychological factors may be more complex than that, however. Central cognitive processes may influence not only the interpretation of asthma symptoms but also the manifestation of measurable changes in immune and physiologic markers of asthma. Furthermore, asthma and major depressive disorder share several risk factors and have similar patterns of dysregulation in key biologic systems, including the neuroendocrine stress response, cytokines, and neuropeptides. Despite the evidence that depression is common in people with asthma and exerts a negative impact on outcome, few treatment studies have examined whether improving symptoms of depression do, in fact, result in better control of asthma symptoms or improved quality of life in patients with asthma. PMID:20525122

  14. INDIAN CASTE SYSTEM: HISTORICAL AND PSYCHOANALYTIC VIEWS.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Madhusudana Rao

    2015-12-01

    This paper elucidates the historical origins and transformations of India's caste system. Surveying the complex developments over many centuries, it points out that three positions have been taken in this regard. One suggests that the caste one is born into can be transcended within one's lifetime by performing good deeds. The other declares caste to be immutable forever. And, the third says that one can be reborn into a higher caste if one lives a virtuous life. Moving on to the sociopolitical realm, the paper notes how these positions have been used and exploited. The paper then attempts to anchor the existence and purpose of the Hindu caste system in Freud's ideas about group psychology and Klein's proposals of splitting and projective identification. The paper also deploys the large group psychology concepts of Volkan and the culturally nuanced psychoanalytic anthropology of Roland and Kakar. It concludes with delineating some ameliorative strategies for this tragic problem in the otherwise robust democratic society of India. PMID:26611129

  15. Mindfulness and clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Childs, David

    2011-09-01

    Does mindfulness offer more to psychology than a useful therapeutic technique? This paper argues that it can also establish a state of presence which is understood in relation to the practice of phenomenology. Mindfulness is then both linked to a Western intellectual tradition and offers that tradition a systematic method. This is an opening for psychological investigation of the non-conceptual basis of everyday experience. The combination of this theoretical stance with the increasingly widespread practical training of clinical psychologists in mindfulness has broad implications for clinical practice; this is illustrated in relation to the descriptive approach to clinical problems, qualitative research, and reflective practice.

  16. Gender and Psychological Essentialism

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Gail D.; Giles, Jessica W.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY When individuals reason in an essentialist way about social categories, they assume that group differences reflect inherently different natures (Gelman, 2003; Rothbart & Taylor, 1992). This paper describes the psychological and social implications of essentialist beliefs, and examines the extent to which children exhibit psychological essentialism when reasoning about gender. The authors discuss reasons young children as well as older children show essentialist reasoning in some contexts, but not in others. Finally, the authors suggest directions for future research, and discuss a primary challenge to many working in this field: reduction of rigid gender beliefs. PMID:21528097

  17. Psychological essentialism in children.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Susan A

    2004-09-01

    Psychological essentialism is the idea that certain categories, such as "lion" or "female", have an underlying reality that cannot be observed directly. Where does this idea come from? This article reviews recent evidence suggesting that psychological essentialism is an early cognitive bias. Young children look beyond the obvious in many converging ways: when learning words, generalizing knowledge to new category members, reasoning about the insides of things, contemplating the role of nature versus nurture, and constructing causal explanations. These findings argue against the standard view of children as concrete thinkers, instead claiming that children have an early tendency to search for hidden, non-obvious features. PMID:15350241

  18. Psychological models of suicide.

    PubMed

    Barzilay, Shira; Apter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is highly complex and multifaceted. Consequent to the pioneering work of Durkheim and Freud, theoreticians have attempted to explain the biological, social, and psychological nature of suicide. The present work presents an overview and critical discussion of the most influential theoretical models of the psychological mechanisms underlying the development of suicidal behavior. All have been tested to varying degrees and have important implications for the development of therapeutic and preventive interventions. Broader and more in-depth approaches are still needed to further our understanding of suicidal phenomena.

  19. Applied Historical Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, F. Richard

    2014-01-01

    F. Richard Stephenson has spent most of his research career -- spanning more than 45 years -- studying various aspects of Applied Historical Astronomy. The aim of this interdisciplinary subject is the application of historical astronomical records to the investigation of problems in modern astronomy and geophysics. Stephenson has almost exclusively concentrated on pre-telescopic records, especially those preserved from ancient and medieval times -- the earliest reliable observations dating from around 700 BC. The records which have mainly interested him are of eclipses (both solar and lunar), supernovae, sunspots and aurorae, and Halley's Comet. The main sources of early astronomical data are fourfold: records from ancient and medieval East Asia (China, together with Korea and Japan); ancient Babylon; ancient and medieval Europe; and the medieval Arab world. A feature of Stephenson's research is the direct consultation of early astronomical texts in their original language -- either working unaided or with the help of colleagues. He has also developed a variety of techniques to help interpret the various observations. Most pre-telescopic observations are very crude by present-day standards. In addition, early motives for skywatching were more often astrological rather than scientific. Despite these drawbacks, ancient and medieval astronomical records have two remarkable advantages over modern data. Firstly, they can enable the investigation of long-term trends (e.g. in the terrestrial rate of rotation), which in the relatively short period covered by telescopic observations are obscured by short-term fluctuations. Secondly, over the lengthy time-scale which they cover, significant numbers of very rare events (such as Galactic supernovae) were reported, which have few -- if any-- counterparts in the telescopic record. In his various researches, Stephenson has mainly focused his attention on two specific topics. These are: (i) long-term changes in the Earth's rate of

  20. The window on psychology's literature: a history of Psychological Abstracts.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Ludy T; Vandenbos, Gary R

    2006-12-01

    With the rapid expansion of scientific information at the end of the 19th century, disciplines sought ways to keep their members abreast of the relevant research. Those pressures were felt in the science of psychology in the United States, where psychologists developed a bibliographic aid, The Psychological Index, in 1895 only a little more than a decade after G. Stanley Hall opened America's first psychology laboratory. The Index was useful but was only a listing of titles. More information was needed, which led to the development of a journal of abstracts, first published in 1927. This article traces the history of Psychological Abstracts from its origins in the Index to the evolution of the American Psychological Association's electronic information system known as PsycINFO, of which Psychological Abstracts has become an outmoded part. Nevertheless, for most of its 80 years, Psychological Abstracts was psychology's window on the world of research. PMID:17154720

  1. Psychology Seminar: Careers and Graduate Study in Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Jerry P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes a course for junior and senior psychology majors which informs them about career options and graduate school opportunities in psychology. Discusses details about course planning and organization. Survey results indicate that student response has been consistently positive. (MJP)

  2. Einstein: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormos-Buchwald, Diana

    2015-04-01

    In late 1915, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) completed as series of papers on a generalized theory of gravitation that were to constitute a major conceptual change in the history of modern physics and the crowning achievement of his scientific career. But this accomplishment came after a decade of intense intellectual struggle and was received with muted enthusiasm. Einstein's previously unpublished writings and massive correspondence, edited by the Einstein Papers Project, provide vivid insights into the historical, personal, and scientific context of the formulation, completion, and reception of GR during the first decades of the 20th century.

  3. [Pain. Evaluation of the developing pain theories. The psychological factor].

    PubMed

    Mavrakos, A; Niamonitos, K; Vrotsos, I A

    1990-06-01

    In this paper we presented the different theories and opinions regarding the development of pain. After a very brief historical review including the ideas of Homer, Hippocrates, Aristoteles, St. Thomas Aquinas, we reviewed the 19th century's theories including Whytt, Brodie, Inman and Austie. From the modern period we emphasized the "gate theory" introduced originally by Melzack and Well. The psychological aspects has been also examined and the patient as "a dental patient" also described.

  4. Psychological adjustment to physical disability: trends in theories.

    PubMed

    Shontz, F C

    1978-06-01

    Explanations of psychological reactions to physical disability have recently tended to ascribe maladjustment to environmental rather than to personal causes. Historically, common-sense theories were first replaced by metalistic doctrines. These, in turn, were later supplemented by theories that integrated mentalism with environmentalism and by approaches that recognized only environmental causes of behavior. Each theory makes a unique contribution to rehabilitation. Consequently, unification rather than elimination should be the goal of future theoretical development. PMID:149525

  5. Psychological adjustment to physical disability: trends in theories.

    PubMed

    Shontz, F C

    1978-06-01

    Explanations of psychological reactions to physical disability have recently tended to ascribe maladjustment to environmental rather than to personal causes. Historically, common-sense theories were first replaced by metalistic doctrines. These, in turn, were later supplemented by theories that integrated mentalism with environmentalism and by approaches that recognized only environmental causes of behavior. Each theory makes a unique contribution to rehabilitation. Consequently, unification rather than elimination should be the goal of future theoretical development.

  6. The trials of theory: psychology and institutionalist economics, 1910-1931.

    PubMed

    Bycroft, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The rise of the institutionalist school of economics, in the 1910s and 1920s, has recently been given the historical attention it deserves. However, historical studies of the school have left two questions unanswered. First, to what extent was the institutionalist's interest in academic psychology (frequently declared in their meta-economic writings) realized in their economic writings? Second, what evidence of a fruitful collaboration with institutional economics can be found in the work of psychologists? In this paper I consider the meta-economic statements of three key institutionalists, Wesley C. Mitchell, John M. Clark, and Walton H. Hamilton, and two key economic works by Mitchell and Clark. I contend that these works show little systematic engagement of academic psychology. A study of psychological literature of the period yields the same conclusion; in particular, industrial psychology did not come into fruitful contact with institutional economics, despite the parallel interests of the two fields and their parallel rise after World War I.

  7. The Representation of Applied Psychology Areas in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselhuhn, Charlotte W.; Clopton, Kerri L.

    2008-01-01

    Many psychology majors indicate helping others as a reason for majoring in psychology, yet many enter positions not closely related to the field. This discrepancy may be due to a lack of student knowledge of the applied areas of psychology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the coverage of clinical, counseling,…

  8. Broadening the Boundaries of Psychology through Community Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues for community psychology to be included within the discipline boundaries of psychology. In doing this, it will enable psychology to begin to address some of the large scale social issues affecting people's well-being. It will be necessary, however, to incorporate aspects of other disciplines, make explicit the political…

  9. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  10. Sport Psychology: An Emerging Domain in the Counseling Psychology Profession?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Trent A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Surveyed counseling psychologists on their involvement in sport psychology research, training, and practice; their affiliation with sport psychology professional organizations; and their attitudes toward current professional sport psychology issues. Found that counseling psychologists were minimally involved, and had received little formal…

  11. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing of Manned Spacecraft: Historical Precedent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Paul R.; Tuma, Margaret L.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    For the first time in nearly 30 years, NASA is developing a new manned space flight launch system. The Ares I will carry crew and cargo to not only the International Space Station, but onward for the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Ares I control system and structural designs use complex computer models for their development. An Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT) will validate the efficacy of these computer models. The IVGVT will reduce the technical risk of unexpected conditions that could place the vehicle or crew in jeopardy. The Ares Project Office's Flight and Integrated Test Office commissioned a study to determine how historical programs, such as Saturn and Space Shuttle, validated the structural dynamics of an integrated flight vehicle. The study methodology was to examine the historical record and seek out members of the engineering community who recall the development of historic manned launch vehicles. These records and interviews provided insight into the best practices and lessons learned from these historic development programs. The information that was gathered allowed the creation of timelines of the historic development programs. The timelines trace the programs from the development of test articles through test preparation, test operations, and test data reduction efforts. These timelines also demonstrate how the historical tests fit within their overall vehicle development programs. Finally, the study was able to quantify approximate staffing levels during historic development programs. Using this study, the Flight and Integrated Test Office was able to evaluate the Ares I Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test schedule and workforce budgets in light of the historical precedents to determine if the test had schedule or cost risks associated with it.

  12. Alchemical hermeneutics of the Vesica Piscis: Symbol of depth psychology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, Linda Kay

    The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the Vesica Piscis as the symbolic frame for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship. The method of inquiry was hermeneutics and alchemical hermeneutics, informed theoretically by depth psychology. A theoretical description of the nature of the Vesica Piscis as a dynamic template and symbol for depth psychology and the therapeutic relationship resulted. Gathering the components of the therapeutic relationship into the shape of the Vesica Piscis, gave opportunity to explore what might be happening while treatment is taking place: somatically, psychologically, and emotionally. An investigation into the study of Soul placed the work of psychology within the central, innermost sacred space between—known symbolically as the Vesica Piscis. Imbued with a connectedness and relational welcoming, this symbol images the Greek goddess Hekate (Soul), as mediatrix between mind and matter. Psyche (soul), namesake of "psychology," continues her journey of finding meaning making, restitution, and solace in the therapeutic space as imaged by the Vesica Piscis. Her journey, moving through the generations, becomes the journey of the therapeutic process—one that finds resolution in relationship. Psyche is sought out in the macrocosmic archetypal realm of pure energy, the prima material that forms and coalesces both in response and likewise, creates a response through symbols, images, and imagination. The field was explored from the depth psychological perspective as: the unconscious, consciousness, and archetypal, and in physics as: the quantum field, morphic resonance, and the holographic field. Gaining an understanding of the underlying qualities of the field placed the symbol in its embedded context, allowing for further definition as to how the symbol potentially was either an extension of the field, or served as a constellating factor. Depth psychology, as a scientific discipline, is in need of a symbol that

  13. American Psychologists and Psychology Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Virginia Staudt; Misiak, Henryk

    1984-01-01

    Describes the roots and consequences of the isolationism of American psychology. Argues that, as undergraduates, American psychology students should be enabled to develop a world view through exposure to foreign research and practices. Suggests means of implementing such exposure. (KH)

  14. Psychological Treatments to Avoid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…

  15. Evolutionary Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; Bjorklund, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Describes evolutionary developmental psychology as the study of the genetic and ecological mechanisms that govern the development of social and cognitive competencies common to all human beings and the epigenetic (gene-environment interactions) processes that adapt these competencies to local conditions. Outlines basic assumptions and domains of…

  16. Psychology and "the Babe".

    PubMed

    Fuchs, A H

    1998-01-01

    Psychologists and baseball players were among those Americans who formed professional associations in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Psychologists used laboratory tasks to quantify mental and behavioral processes while sportswriters and baseball organizers measured individual and team performance. The most popular baseball player of the 1920s, George Herman "Babe" Ruth, possessed superior batting skills that were evident in the statistical indices of baseball performance. In 1921, he was brought to the psychological laboratory at Columbia University to perform standard laboratory tasks in an effort to discover the basis for his success in hitting home runs and to suggest the potential of tests for identifying future baseball stars. Baseball's addiction to quantitative indices of performance was thus brought together with a new science devoted to quantitative assessment and a desire to make such assessments useful. The attempt to analyze the basis of Ruth's batting skills is part of the history of applied psychology, sport psychology, and popular interest in the science of psychology. PMID:9580977

  17. Giftedness and Psychological Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, John

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of the psychological types, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), of 966 students at a public residential magnet high school for academically talented students with other gifted and traditional high school students found both magnet school students and gifted students showed a particular MBTI distribution. (DB)

  18. PSYCHOLOGICAL CORRELATES IN DIALECTOLALIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HURST, CHARLES G.; AND OTHERS

    A TOTAL OF 1,209 HOWARD UNIVERSITY FRESHMEN REPRESENTING 42 STATES WERE ADMINISTERED (1) A STANDARD AUDIOMETRIC EXAMINATION, (2) A SPEECH BATTERY, (3) A BATTERY OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, (4) A SPEECH AND LANGUAGE ATTITUDE INVENTORY IN THE FORM OF A 25-ITEM, LIKERT-TYPE SCALE, AND (5) A SOCIOECONOMIC ASSESSMENT INVENTORY CONTAINING 42 OPEN-ENDED AND…

  19. Rediscovering Differential Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takooshian, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Many forms of culture," by A. B. Cohen. Cohen offered an eye-opening review of how culture means much more than ethnicity within a nation or differences between nations. After developing a much-expanded definition of culture, he concluded, "I have lamented the fact that psychology has focused on some important…

  20. Is Psychology a Profession?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Donald R.

    1976-01-01

    Identifies commonly accepted characteristics of professions and proposes as the most important defining property of a profession the availability of a useful, communicable technology based in a reasonably coherent intellectual discipline. The qualifications of psychology as a profession, with special emphasis on clinical applications of…

  1. Psychology of Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Nine conference papers discuss the psychology of deafness. They include seven papers from the United States: "Deafness: The Interdependent Variable" by M. Vernon and D. A. Rothstein, "The Reliability and Construct Validity of the Self-Concept of Academic Ability Scale-Form D for Hearing Impaired Students" by L. M. JOINER, "Studies of the…

  2. APA Educational Psychology Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Karen R., Ed.; Graham, Steve, Ed.; Urdan, Tim, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "APA Educational Psychology Handbook" reflects the broad nature of the field today, with state-of-the-science reviews of the diverse critical theories driving research and practice; in-depth investigation of the range of individual differences and cultural/contextual factors that affect student achievement, motivation, and beliefs; and close…

  3. Beyond Positive Psychology?

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036

  4. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  5. Psychology and "the Babe".

    PubMed

    Fuchs, A H

    1998-01-01

    Psychologists and baseball players were among those Americans who formed professional associations in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Psychologists used laboratory tasks to quantify mental and behavioral processes while sportswriters and baseball organizers measured individual and team performance. The most popular baseball player of the 1920s, George Herman "Babe" Ruth, possessed superior batting skills that were evident in the statistical indices of baseball performance. In 1921, he was brought to the psychological laboratory at Columbia University to perform standard laboratory tasks in an effort to discover the basis for his success in hitting home runs and to suggest the potential of tests for identifying future baseball stars. Baseball's addiction to quantitative indices of performance was thus brought together with a new science devoted to quantitative assessment and a desire to make such assessments useful. The attempt to analyze the basis of Ruth's batting skills is part of the history of applied psychology, sport psychology, and popular interest in the science of psychology.

  6. Psychologically Correct Race Baiting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kenneth R.; Wubbolding, Robert E.; Jackson, Morris L.

    2005-01-01

    It is commonplace these days for those with axes to grind to hijack the organs of professional associations with diatribes on pet issues. When the American Psychological Association bestowed one of its most prestigious awards recently, the recipient launched into vitriol about past and continuing mistreatment of minorities to a degree that moved…

  7. Civility and Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Media in the '70s stressed the importance of self and popularized psychology. Amidst self-help best sellers, encounter sessions, and special interest groups, the author asks, "What has happened to civility?" and "Can a culture without civility call itself civilized?" Condensed and reprinted from "Daedalus," Summer 1980. (Editor)

  8. Introductory Psychology. Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darien Public Schools, CT.

    This one-semester Psychology course for high school juniors and seniors is divided into five major units, each covered in three weeks. The overall conceptual objective is to help the interested and academically capable student to develop a more comprehensive and accurate understanding of human nature. Sub-objectives are stated within each unit.…

  9. Psychological Component of Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... that they have: a graduate degree in a mental health profession a license to practice and/or state registration clinical training in the psychological aspects of infertility experience in the medical and ... to a competent mental health professional, you can check the ASRM website ...

  10. Brain-Body Pathways Linking Psychological Stress and Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    Gianaros, Peter J.; Wager, Tor D.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological stress is thought to arise from appraisal processes that ascribe threat-related meaning to experiences that tax or exceed our coping ability. Neuroimaging research indicates that these appraisal processes originate in brain systems that also control physiological stress reactions in the body. Separate lines of research in health psychology and behavioral medicine indicate that these physiological stress reactions confer risk for physical disease. Accordingly, integrative research that cuts across historically separated disciplines may help to define the brain-body pathways linking psychological stress to physical health. We describe recent studies aimed at this goal, focusing on studies of the brain bases of stressor-evoked cardiovascular system reactions and heart disease risk. We also outline an interpretive framework for these studies, as well as needs for next-generation models and metrics to better understand how the brain encodes and embodies stress in relation to health. PMID:26279608

  11. Cultural psychology as a bridge between anthropology and cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Fryberg, Stephanie A

    2012-07-01

    The theory and methods of cultural psychology begin with the assumption that psychological processes are socioculturally and historically grounded. As such, they offer a new approach for understanding the diversity of human functioning because they (a) question the presumed neutrality of the majority group perspective; (b) take the target's point-of-view (i.e., what it means to be a person in a particular context); (c) assume that there is more than one viable way of being a competent or effective person; and (d) provide a road map for understanding and reducing social inequities. As illustrated in this essay, a cultural psychological approach provides a bridge between anthropology and the cognitive sciences, and in so doing it offers an alternative set of explanations and interventions for group differences.

  12. Internationalism in psychology: we need it now more than ever.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael

    2006-11-01

    A concern with international cooperation in psychology has been present since the beginnings of psychology as a science. In this article, the author traces the development of international cooperation from the late 19th century to the present day to document the interesting ways in which the forms of collaboration have always been related to the large social and political contexts of which they are a part. This historical material is followed by an autobiographical account of the author's own involvement in cooperative international research to illustrate how such activity can play out. A few selected collaborative enterprises are then described to emphasize the point that psychology stands to benefit enormously from continued international cooperation, especially in times of international conflict such as that being experienced at the present time. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Voluntarism in early psychology: the case of Hermann von Helmholtz.

    PubMed

    De Kock, Liesbet

    2014-05-01

    The failure to recognize the programmatic similarity between (post-)Kantian German philosophy and early psychology has impoverished psychology's historical self-understanding to a great extent. This article aims to contribute to recent efforts to overcome the gaps in the historiography of contemporary psychology, which are the result of an empiricist bias. To this end, we present an analysis of the way in which Hermann von Helmholtz's theory of perception resonates with Johann Gottlieb Fichte's Ego-doctrine. It will be argued that this indebtedness is particularly clear when focusing on the foundation of the differential awareness of subject and object in perception. In doing so, the widespread reception of Helmholtz's work as proto-positivist or strictly empiricist is challenged, in favor of the claim that important elements of his theorizing can only be understood properly against the background of Fichte's Ego-doctrine.

  14. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science.

    PubMed

    2015-08-28

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams. PMID:26315443

  15. PSYCHOLOGY. Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science.

    PubMed

    2015-08-28

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams.

  16. Experiences of Psychological and Physical Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Links to Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Garrido, Edward; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined links between adolescents' experiences of psychological and physical relationship aggression and their psychological distress. Experiences of psychological and physical aggression were expected to correlate positively with symptoms of psychological distress, but experiences of psychological aggression were…

  17. Historical change and evolutionary theory.

    PubMed

    Masters, Roger D

    2007-09-01

    Despite advances in fields like genetics, evolutionary psychology, and human behavior and evolution--which generally focus on individual or small group behavior from a biological perspective--evolutionary biology has made little impact on studies of political change and social history. Theories of natural selection often seem inapplicable to human history because our social behavior is embedded in language (which makes possible the concepts of time and social identity on which what we call "history" depends). Peter Corning's Holistic Darwinism reconceptualizes evolutionary biology, making it possible to go beyond the barriers separating the social and natural sciences. Corning focuses on two primary processes: "synergy" (complex multivariate interactions at multiple levels between a species and its environment) and "cybernetics" (the information systems permitting communication between individuals and groups over time). Combining this frame of reference with inclusive fitness theory, it is possible to answer the most important (and puzzling) question in human history: How did a species that lived for millennia in hunter-gatherer bands form centralized states governing large populations of non-kin (including multi-ethnic empires as well as modern nation-states)? The fragility and contemporary ethnic violence in Kenya and the Congo should suffice as evidence that these issues need to be taken seriously. To explain the rise and fall of states as well as changes in human laws and customs--the core of historical research--it is essential to show how the provision of collective goods can overcome the challenge of self-interest and free-riding in some instances, yet fail to do so in others. To this end, it is now possible to consider how a state providing public goods can--under circumstances that often include effective leadership--contribute to enhanced inclusive fitness of virtually all its members. Because social behavior needs to adapt to ecology, but ecological

  18. Historical change and evolutionary theory.

    PubMed

    Masters, Roger D

    2007-09-01

    Despite advances in fields like genetics, evolutionary psychology, and human behavior and evolution--which generally focus on individual or small group behavior from a biological perspective--evolutionary biology has made little impact on studies of political change and social history. Theories of natural selection often seem inapplicable to human history because our social behavior is embedded in language (which makes possible the concepts of time and social identity on which what we call "history" depends). Peter Corning's Holistic Darwinism reconceptualizes evolutionary biology, making it possible to go beyond the barriers separating the social and natural sciences. Corning focuses on two primary processes: "synergy" (complex multivariate interactions at multiple levels between a species and its environment) and "cybernetics" (the information systems permitting communication between individuals and groups over time). Combining this frame of reference with inclusive fitness theory, it is possible to answer the most important (and puzzling) question in human history: How did a species that lived for millennia in hunter-gatherer bands form centralized states governing large populations of non-kin (including multi-ethnic empires as well as modern nation-states)? The fragility and contemporary ethnic violence in Kenya and the Congo should suffice as evidence that these issues need to be taken seriously. To explain the rise and fall of states as well as changes in human laws and customs--the core of historical research--it is essential to show how the provision of collective goods can overcome the challenge of self-interest and free-riding in some instances, yet fail to do so in others. To this end, it is now possible to consider how a state providing public goods can--under circumstances that often include effective leadership--contribute to enhanced inclusive fitness of virtually all its members. Because social behavior needs to adapt to ecology, but ecological

  19. A Positive Psychology That Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Shane L.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.

    2006-01-01

    The Major Contribution intended to situate positive psychology in counseling psychology's past and future and in the complex world we live and work in today. The four reactions (Frazier, Lee,& Steger; Gerstein; Linley; Mollen, Ethington,& Ridley) provide new insights into how counseling psychology has and will contribute to the study of human…

  20. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  1. Educational Psychology: The Distinctive Contribution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…

  2. Social Justice and School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite attention in other social sciences and within other areas of psychology, social justice has received minimal attention in school psychology literature. The two studies by Shriberg et al. (2008) and McCabe and Rubinson (2008) represent significant developments in exploring school psychology's commitment to social justice. In this…

  3. Positive Psychology: The Emerging Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2000-01-01

    Discusses positive psychology, which focuses on health and well-being utilizing the elements of belief, hope, self-esteem, responsibility, elation, and wisdom as the basis of psychological theory and practice. Describes efforts to change the psychology field, including identifying promising young professionals, establishing monetary prizes, and…

  4. Transpersonal: The New Educational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Thomas Bradford

    This article lists some of the major ideas and topics of interest in transpersonal psychology and illustrates them with examples of transpersonal education applied to schools. Transpersonal psychology includes psychological aspects of such things as new world views, altered states of consciousness, an impulse toward higher states, self-realization…

  5. Evolutionary Psychology and Intelligence Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to unify two subfields of psychology that have hitherto stood separately: evolutionary psychology and intelligence research/differential psychology. I suggest that general intelligence may simultaneously be an evolved adaptation and an individual-difference variable. Tooby and Cosmides's (1990a) notion of random quantitative…

  6. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  7. The Process of Psychological Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Anna; Moreland, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Consultation is a key means of service delivery in many psychological services. However, the "process" of consultation is little explored in Educational Psychology literature, particularly in the United Kingdom (UK). This paper focuses on a small-scale qualitative research study of psychological consultation provided by educational…

  8. Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendler, Howard H.

    2005-01-01

    Controversies are rampant in contemporary psychology concerning the appropriate method for observing consciousness and the role inner experience should play in psychological theorizing. These conflicting orientations reflect, in part, methodological differences between natural science and human science interpretations of psychology. Humanistic…

  9. Manitoba's School Psychology, Circa 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallin, Barry; Bednarczyk, George; Hanson, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    While the geographic landscape of Manitoba has changed very little since the last review of school psychology in Manitoba was published 15 years ago, the school psychology landscape here has changed considerably, and we continue to be alive, well, and flourishing. Two previous articles in the "Canadian Journal of School Psychology"…

  10. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  11. Behavioral Strategies for Psychological Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines. Div. of Pupil Personnel Services.

    Ten papers contributed by school psychologists or university educators working with school psychology programs review psychological theory and research on behavioral strategies for psychological intervention. Following an overview on the effective use of behavior modification in the school, nine behavior change methods are examined in terms of…

  12. 41 CFR 102-73.30 - What historic preservation provisions must Federal agencies comply with prior to acquiring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What historic... Provisions Historic Preservation § 102-73.30 What historic preservation provisions must Federal agencies... leasing space, Federal agencies must comply with the provisions of section 110(a) of the National...

  13. 41 CFR 102-79.60 - Are agencies required to use historic properties available to the agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use historic properties available to the agency? 102-79.60 Section 102-79.60 Public Contracts and... Utilization of Space § 102-79.60 Are agencies required to use historic properties available to the agency? Yes, Federal agencies must assume responsibility for the preservation of the historic properties they own...

  14. The Psychology of Cost Estimating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Cost estimation for large (and even not so large) government programs is a challenge. The number and magnitude of cost overruns associated with large Department of Defense (DoD) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs highlight the difficulties in developing and promulgating accurate cost estimates. These overruns can be the result of inadequate technology readiness or requirements definition, the whims of politicians or government bureaucrats, or even as failures of the cost estimating profession itself. However, there may be another reason for cost overruns that is right in front of us, but only recently have we begun to grasp it: the fact that cost estimators and their customers are human. The last 70+ years of research into human psychology and behavioral economics have yielded amazing findings into how we humans process and use information to make judgments and decisions. What these scientists have uncovered is surprising: humans are often irrational and illogical beings, making decisions based on factors such as emotion and perception, rather than facts and data. These built-in biases to our thinking directly affect how we develop our cost estimates and how those cost estimates are used. We cost estimators can use this knowledge of biases to improve our cost estimates and also to improve how we communicate and work with our customers. By understanding how our customers think, and more importantly, why they think the way they do, we can have more productive relationships and greater influence. By using psychology to our advantage, we can more effectively help the decision maker and our organizations make fact-based decisions.

  15. Antarctic Space Analog Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Gunderson, E. K. Eric; Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Holland, Albert W.

    1998-01-01

    The primary aim of this project was to examine group dynamics and individual performance in extreme, isolated environments and identify human factors requirements for long-duration space missions using data collected in an analog environment. Specifically, we wished to determine: 1) the characteristics of social relations in small groups of individuals living and working together in extreme, isolated environments, and 2) the environmental, social and psychological determinants of performance effectiveness in such groups. These two issues were examined in six interrelated studies using data collected in small, isolated research stations in Antarctica from 1963 to the present. Results from these six studies indicated that behavior and performance on long-duration space flights is likely to be seasonal or cyclical, situational, social, and salutogenic in nature. The project responded to two NASA program emphases for FY 1997 as described in the NRA: 1) the primary emphasis of the Behavior and Performance Program on determining long-term individual and group performance responses to space, identifying critical factors affecting those responses and understanding underlying mechanisms involved in behavior and performance, and developing and using ground-based models and analogs for studying space-related behavior and performance; and 2) the emphasis of the Data Analysis Program on extended data analysis. Results from the study were used to develop recommendations for the design and development of pre-flight crew training and in-flight psychological countermeasures for long-duration manned space missions.

  16. Historical development of vegetarianism.

    PubMed

    Whorton, J C

    1994-05-01

    Vegetarianism pursued for reasons of physical health is a recent practice historically. Before the 19th century, avoidance of animal food was justified with moral and metaphysical arguments. During the early 1800s, however, an intensified desire for improved health combined with the ascendance of science to a position of cultural authority helped to promote the formulation of physiological arguments for vegetarianism. Theories of the nutritional superiority of a vegetable diet were nevertheless shaped by moral convictions, giving vegetarian spokesmen such as Sylvester Graham and John Harvey Kellogg the appearance of being dietary fanatics. Only as nutritional science expanded from the mid-20th century onward did vegetarianism acquire general recognition as a healthful dietary alternative. But because that alternative is still often selected for moral or other nonscientific reasons, nutritional education of vegetarians remains an essential activity.

  17. DSM-5: historical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Halter, Margaret Jordan; Rolin-Kenny, Donna; Grund, Faye

    2013-04-01

    The first major attempts to categorize psychiatric disorders in the United States occurred in the mid-1800s, when census data were collected that included "insanity" and "idiocy" of household members. In Europe, Florence Nightingale promoted the use of non-fatal disease classification for morbidity and treatment in 1860. By the late 1800s, Kraepelin categorized disorders, and his sixth edition of the Compendium der Psychiatrie was widely adopted by both Europeans and Americans. In 1952, the American Psychiatric Association published the first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Since then, the manual has been periodically updated, expanded, and edited to reflect social and scientific beliefs about the etiology and categorization of psychiatric illness and care. In this article, we explore the historical and ongoing development of the DSM and its implications for psychiatric nurses.

  18. The Historical Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. H.; Stephenson, F. R.

    1982-11-01

    A survey was made of pretelescopic astronomical records from Europe, China, Korea, Japan, Babylon, and the Arab countries to search for historical evidence of supernovae. A Roman, Claudian, reported a new star in 393 AD, the same year that Chinese astronomers noted a new star, together with its location and duration. Most European records were made in monasteries after 1000 AD, and one supernova was sighted in 1006 AD. A similar sighting was made in the Arab world at the same time. A total of twenty candidate events were found in the nearly 2000 yr of Chinese records. An analysis of the recorded events characteristics indicates that in 185, 393, 1006, 1054, 1181, 1572, and 1604 AD supernovae were seen. The 1054 AD explosion was corroborated by Arab records, while all others (except for the 393 AD and 1006 AD supernovae) were confined to Oriental observations.

  19. Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and Domain Analysis: Metatheoretical Implications for Information Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cultural-historical activity theory is an important theory in modern psychology. In recent years, it has drawn more attention from related disciplines including information science. Argument: This paper argues that activity theory and domain analysis which uses the theory as one of its bases could bring about some important…

  20. Today's IQ Tests: Are They Really Better Than Their Historical Predecessors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esters, Irvin G.; Ittenbach, Richard F.; Han, Kyunghee

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the extent to which newer IQ tests represent an improvement over their historical predecessors, the Binet and Wechsler scales, in terms of the potential for improved educational and psychological service delivery. Discusses three conceptually relevant criteria: theoretical foundations, psychometric integrity, and implications for…