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Sample records for history dependent parrondo

  1. Parrondo Games with Two-Dimensional Spatial Dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ethier, S. N.; Lee, Jiyeon

    Parrondo games with one-dimensional (1D) spatial dependence were introduced by Toral and extended to the two-dimensional (2D) setting by Mihailović and Rajković. MN players are arranged in an M × N array. There are three games, the fair, spatially independent game A, the spatially dependent game B, and game C, which is a random mixture or non-random pattern of games A and B. Of interest is μB (or μC), the mean profit per turn at equilibrium to the set of MN players playing game B (or game C). Game A is fair, so if μB ≤ 0 and μC > 0, then we say the Parrondo effect is present. We obtain a strong law of large numbers (SLLN) and a central limit theorem (CLT) for the sequence of profits of the set of MN players playing game B (or game C). The mean and variance parameters are computable for small arrays and can be simulated otherwise. The SLLN justifies the use of simulation to estimate the mean. The CLT permits evaluation of the standard error of a simulated estimate. We investigate the presence of the Parrondo effect for both small arrays and large ones. One of the findings of Mihailović and Rajković was that “capital evolution depends to a large degree on the lattice size.” We provide evidence that this conclusion is partly incorrect. A paradoxical feature of the 2D game B that does not appear in the 1D setting is that, for fixed M and N, the mean function μB is not necessarily a monotone function of its parameters.

  2. Beyond Parrondo's Paradox

    PubMed Central

    SHU, Jian-Jun; WANG, Qi-Wen

    2014-01-01

    The Parrondo's paradox is a counterintuitive phenomenon where individually-losing strategies can be combined in producing a winning expectation. In this paper, the issues surrounding the Parrondo's paradox are investigated. The focus is lying on testifying whether the same paradoxical effect can be reproduced by using a simple capital dependent game. The paradoxical effect generated by the Parrondo's paradox can be explained by placing all the parameters in one probability space. Based on this framework, it is able to generate other possible paradoxical effects by manipulating the parameters in the probability space. PMID:24577586

  3. Exact probability distribution functions for Parrondo's games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadourian, Rubina; Saakian, David B.; Klümper, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    We study the discrete time dynamics of Brownian ratchet models and Parrondo's games. Using the Fourier transform, we calculate the exact probability distribution functions for both the capital dependent and history dependent Parrondo's games. In certain cases we find strong oscillations near the maximum of the probability distribution with two limiting distributions for odd and even number of rounds of the game. Indications of such oscillations first appeared in the analysis of real financial data, but now we have found this phenomenon in model systems and a theoretical understanding of the phenomenon. The method of our work can be applied to Brownian ratchets, molecular motors, and portfolio optimization.

  4. Winning combinations of history-dependent games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Roland J.; Johnson, Neil F.

    2003-05-01

    The Parrondo effect describes the seemingly paradoxical situation in which two losing games can, when combined, become a winning game [Parrondo, Harmer, and Abbott, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 24 (2000)]. Here, we generalize this analysis to the case where both games are history dependent, i.e., there is an intrinsic memory in the dynamics of each game. Results are presented for the cases of both random and periodic switching between the two games.

  5. Parrondo's games with strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Broeck, Christian P.; Cleuren, Bart

    2004-05-01

    The notion of a strategy in the multi-player version of the Parrondo game is reviewed. We calculate the gain for the greedy strategy as a function of the number N of players, including exact analytic results for N < 4 and in the limit N-->∞. We show that the greedy strategy is optimal for N = 1 and N = 2 but not for N = 3. In the limit N-->∞ our analysis reveals a very rich behavior including the possibility of phase transitions as a function of the chosen strategy.

  6. Parrondo's games and the zipping algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amengual, Pau; Toral, Raul

    2004-05-01

    We study the relation between the discrete-time version of the flashing ratchet known as Parrondo's games and a compression technique used very recently with thermal ratchets for evaluating the transfer of information -- negentropy -- between the Brownian particle and the source of fluctuations. We present some results concerning different versions of Parrondo's games showing, for each case, a good qualitative agreement between the gain and the inverse of the entropy.

  7. Extended Parrondo's game and Brownian ratchets: strong and weak Parrondo effect.

    PubMed

    Wu, Degang; Szeto, Kwok Yip

    2014-02-01

    Inspired by the flashing ratchet, Parrondo's game presents an apparently paradoxical situation. Parrondo's game consists of two individual games, game A and game B. Game A is a slightly losing coin-tossing game. Game B has two coins, with an integer parameter M. If the current cumulative capital (in discrete unit) is a multiple of M, an unfavorable coin p(b) is used, otherwise a favorable p(g) coin is used. Paradoxically, a combination of game A and game B could lead to a winning game, which is the Parrondo effect. We extend the original Parrondo's game to include the possibility of M being either M(1) or M(2). Also, we distinguish between strong Parrondo effect, i.e., two losing games combine to form a winning game, and weak Parrondo effect, i.e., two games combine to form a better-performing game. We find that when M(2) is not a multiple of M(1), the combination of B(M(1)) and B(M(2)) has strong and weak Parrondo effect for some subsets in the parameter space (p(b),p(g)), while there is neither strong nor weak effect when M(2) is a multiple of M(1). Furthermore, when M(2) is not a multiple of M(1), a stochastic mixture of game A may cancel the strong and weak Parrondo effect. Following a discretization scheme in the literature of Parrondo's game, we establish a link between our extended Parrondo's game with the analysis of discrete Brownian ratchet. We find a relation between the Parrondo effect of our extended model to the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet. The slope of a ratchet potential can be mapped to the fair game condition in the extended model, so that under some conditions, the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet can provide a good predictor for the game performance of the extended model. On the other hand, our extended model suggests a design of a ratchet in which the potential is a mixture of two periodic potentials.

  8. Extended Parrondo's game and Brownian ratchets: Strong and weak Parrondo effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Degang; Szeto, Kwok Yip

    2014-02-01

    Inspired by the flashing ratchet, Parrondo's game presents an apparently paradoxical situation. Parrondo's game consists of two individual games, game A and game B. Game A is a slightly losing coin-tossing game. Game B has two coins, with an integer parameter M. If the current cumulative capital (in discrete unit) is a multiple of M, an unfavorable coin pb is used, otherwise a favorable pg coin is used. Paradoxically, a combination of game A and game B could lead to a winning game, which is the Parrondo effect. We extend the original Parrondo's game to include the possibility of M being either M1 or M2. Also, we distinguish between strong Parrondo effect, i.e., two losing games combine to form a winning game, and weak Parrondo effect, i.e., two games combine to form a better-performing game. We find that when M2 is not a multiple of M1, the combination of B (M1) and B (M2) has strong and weak Parrondo effect for some subsets in the parameter space (pb,pg), while there is neither strong nor weak effect when M2 is a multiple of M1. Furthermore, when M2 is not a multiple of M1, a stochastic mixture of game A may cancel the strong and weak Parrondo effect. Following a discretization scheme in the literature of Parrondo's game, we establish a link between our extended Parrondo's game with the analysis of discrete Brownian ratchet. We find a relation between the Parrondo effect of our extended model to the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet. The slope of a ratchet potential can be mapped to the fair game condition in the extended model, so that under some conditions, the macroscopic bias in a discrete ratchet can provide a good predictor for the game performance of the extended model. On the other hand, our extended model suggests a design of a ratchet in which the potential is a mixture of two periodic potentials.

  9. Optimal strategies in collective Parrondo games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinis, L.; Parrondo, J. M. R.

    2003-08-01

    We present a modification of the so-called Parrondo's paradox where one is allowed to choose in each turn the game that a large number of individuals play. It turns out that, by choosing the game which gives the highest average earnings at each step, one ends up with systematic losses, whereas a periodic or random sequence of choices yields a steadily increase of the capital. An explanation of this behavior is given by noting that the short-range maximization of the returns is "killing the goose that laid the golden eggs". A continuous model displaying similar features is analyzed using dynamic programming techniques from control theory.

  10. A Fokker-Planck description for Parrondo's games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toral, Raul; Amengual, Pau; Mangioni, Sergio

    2003-05-01

    We discuss in detail two recently proposed relations between the Parrondo's games and the Fokker-Planck equation describing the flashing ratchet as the overdamped motion of a particle in a potential landscape. In both cases it is possible to relate exactly the probabilities of the games to the potential in which the overdamped particle moves. We will discuss under which conditions current-less potentials correspond to fair games and vie versa.

  11. Winning in sequential Parrondo games by players with short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, K. W.; Ma, H. F.; Wu, D.; Lui, G. C.; Szeto, K. Y.

    2016-05-01

    The original Parrondo game, denoted as AB3, contains two independent games: A and B. The winning or losing of games A and B is defined by the change of one unit of capital. Game A is a losing game if played continuously, with winning probability p=0.5-ε , where ε =0.003 . Game B is also losing and has two coins: a good coin with winning probability {{p}\\text{g}}=0.75-ε is used if the player’s capital is not divisible by 3, otherwise a bad coin with winning probability {{p}\\text{b}}=0.1-ε is used. The Parrondo paradox refers to the situation where the mixture of games A and B in a sequence leads to winning in the long run. The paradox can be resolved using Markov chain analysis. We extend this setting of the Parrondo game to involve players with one-step memory. The player can win by switching his choice of A or B game in a Parrondo game sequence. If the player knows the identity of the game he plays and the state of his capital, then the player can win maximally. On the other hand, if the player does not know the nature of the game, then he is playing a (C, D) game, where either (C  =  A, D  =  B), or (C  =  B, D  =  A). For a player with one-step memory playing the AB3 game, he can achieve the highest expected gain with switching probability equal to 3/4 in the (C, D) game sequence. This result has been found first numerically and then proven analytically. Generalization to an AB mod(M) Parrondo game for other integers M has been made for the general domain of parameters {{p}\\text{b}}\\text{A}}<{{p}\\text{g}} . We find that for odd M the Parrondo effect does exist. However, for even M, there is no Parrondo effect for two cases: the initial game is A and the initial capital is even, or the initial game is B and the initial capital is odd. There is still a possibility of the Parrondo effect for the other two cases when M is even: the initial game is A and the initial capital is odd, or the initial game is B and the initial

  12. ''Illusion of control'' in Time-Horizon Minority and Parrondo Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satinover, J. B.; Sornette, D.

    2007-12-01

    Human beings like to believe they are in control of their destiny. This ubiquitous trait seems to increase motivation and persistence, and is probably evolutionarily adaptive [J.D. Taylor, S.E. Brown, Psych. Bull. 103, 193 (1988); A. Bandura, Self-efficacy: the exercise of control (WH Freeman, New York, 1997)]. But how good really is our ability to control? How successful is our track record in these areas? There is little understanding of when and under what circumstances we may over-estimate [E. Langer, J. Pers. Soc. Psych. 7, 185 (1975)] or even lose our ability to control and optimize outcomes, especially when they are the result of aggregations of individual optimization processes. Here, we demonstrate analytically using the theory of Markov Chains and by numerical simulations in two classes of games, the Time-Horizon Minority Game [M.L. Hart, P. Jefferies, N.F. Johnson, Phys. A 311, 275 (2002)] and the Parrondo Game [J.M.R. Parrondo, G.P. Harmer, D. Abbott, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 5226 (2000); J.M.R. Parrondo, How to cheat a bad mathematician (ISI, Italy, 1996)], that agents who optimize their strategy based on past information may actually perform worse than non-optimizing agents. In other words, low-entropy (more informative) strategies under-perform high-entropy (or random) strategies. This provides a precise definition of the “illusion of control” in certain set-ups a priori defined to emphasize the importance of optimization.

  13. Parrondo-like behavior in continuous-time random walks with memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, Miquel

    2011-11-01

    The continuous-time random walk (CTRW) formalism can be adapted to encompass stochastic processes with memory. In this paper we will show how the random combination of two different unbiased CTRWs can give rise to a process with clear drift, if one of them is a CTRW with memory. If one identifies the other one as noise, the effect can be thought of as a kind of stochastic resonance. The ultimate origin of this phenomenon is the same as that of the Parrondo paradox in game theory.

  14. Impact of HIV and a history of marijuana dependence on procedural learning among individuals with a history of substance dependence.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul; Schuster, Randi M; Vassileva, Jasmin; Martin, Eileen M

    2011-08-01

    Marijuana (MJ) use and HIV infection are both associated with neurocognitive deficits, yet there is little research to date examining their interactions, specifically how they pertain to procedural learning (PL). We examined a sample of 86 individuals with a history of dependence for multiple substances who underwent a comprehensive evaluation including measures of mental health, substance use history, and three measures of PL: the photoelectric Rotary Pursuit Task (RPT), the Star Mirror Tracing Task (SMT), and the Weather Prediction Task (WPT). We found that a positive HIV serostatus and a history of marijuana dependence were both independently associated with overall poorer performance on the SMT and RPT in this sample of individuals with a history of dependence for multiple substances. Rate of improvement across trial blocks did not differ as a function of HIV serostatus or history of marijuana dependence. Although we found no significant HIV × MJ interaction for any of the PL tasks, we did observe evidence of additive negative effects from HIV and a history of marijuana dependence on overall performance on the SMT and RPT, but not the WPT. The findings suggest that complex motor skills are adversely affected among abstinent polysubstance users with a history of marijuana dependence and that such deficits are compounded by HIV.

  15. Random Walks in the Presence of Absorbing Barriers in Parrondo's Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Zheng, Kai-Xuan; Xie, Neng-Gang; Ye, Ye; Wang, Lu

    2015-10-01

    For a multi-agent spatial Parrondo's model that it is composed of games A and B, we use the discrete time Markov chains to derive the probability transition matrix. Then, we respectively deduce the stationary distribution for games A and B played individually and the randomized combination of game A + B. We notice that under a specific set of parameters, two absorbing states instead of a fixed stationary distribution exist in game B. However, the randomized game A + B can jump out of the absorbing states of game B and has a fixed stationary distribution because of the "agitating" role of game A. Moreover, starting at different initial states, we deduce the probabilities of absorption at the two absorbing barriers.

  16. Sex differences amongst dependent heroin users: histories, clinical characteristics and predictors of other substance dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shand, Fiona L; Degenhardt, Louisa; Slade, Tim; Nelson, Elliot C

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and aims To examine differences in the characteristics and histories of male and female dependent heroin users, and in the clinical characteristics associated with multiple substance dependence diagnoses. Design and methods 1513 heroin dependent participants underwent an interview covering substance use and dependence, psychiatric history, child maltreatment, family background, adult violence and criminal history. Family background, demographic and clinical characteristics were analysed by sex. Ordinal regression was used to test for a relationship between number of substance dependence diagnoses and other clinical variables. Results Women were more likely to experience most forms of child maltreatment, to first use heroin with a boyfriend or partner, to experience ongoing adult violence at the hands of a partner, and to have a poorer psychiatric history than men. Males had more prevalent lifetime substance dependence diagnoses and criminal histories and were more likely to meet criteria for ASPD. Predictors of multiple substance dependence diagnoses for both sexes were mental health variables, antisocial behaviour, childhood sexual abuse, victim of adult violence, younger age at first cannabis use and overdose. As the number of dependence diagnoses increased, clinical and behavioural problems increased. Childhood emotional neglect was related to increasing dependence diagnoses for females but not males, whereas PTSD was a significant predictor for males but not females. Discussion and conclusions Mental health problems, other substance dependence, childhood and adult trauma were common in this sample, with sex differences indicating different treatment needs and possible different pathways to heroin dependence for men and women. PMID:20833480

  17. Viscoplastic constitutive relationships with dependence on thermomechanical history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. N.; Bartolotta, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental evidence of thermomechanical history dependence in the cyclic hardening behavior of some common high-temperature structural alloys is presented with special emphasis on dynamic metallurgical changes. The inadequacy of formulating nonisothermal constitutive equations solely on the basis of isothermal testing is discussed. A representation of thermoviscoplasticity is proposed that qualitatively accounts for the observed hereditary behavior. This is achieved by formulating the scalar evolutionary equation in an established viscoplasticity theory to reflect thermomechanical path dependence. To assess the importance of accounting for thermomechanical history dependence in practical structural analyses, two qualitative models are specified: (1) formulated as if based entirely on isothermal information; (2) to reflect thermomechanical path dependence using the proposed thermoviscoplastic representation. Predictions of the two models are compared and the impact the calculated differences in deformation behavior may have on subsequent lifetime predictions is discussed.

  18. History dependent quantum random walks as quantum lattice gas automata

    SciTech Connect

    Shakeel, Asif E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu Love, Peter J. E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu; Meyer, David A. E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu

    2014-12-15

    Quantum Random Walks (QRW) were first defined as one-particle sectors of Quantum Lattice Gas Automata (QLGA). Recently, they have been generalized to include history dependence, either on previous coin (internal, i.e., spin or velocity) states or on previous position states. These models have the goal of studying the transition to classicality, or more generally, changes in the performance of quantum walks in algorithmic applications. We show that several history dependent QRW can be identified as one-particle sectors of QLGA. This provides a unifying conceptual framework for these models in which the extra degrees of freedom required to store the history information arise naturally as geometrical degrees of freedom on the lattice.

  19. Dependence of CdTe response of bias history

    SciTech Connect

    Sites, J.R.; Sasala, R.A.; Eisgruber, I.L.

    1995-11-01

    Several time-dependent effect have been observed in CdTe cells and modules in recent years. Some appear to be related to degradation at the back contact, some to changes in temperature at the thin-film junction, and some to the bias history of the cell or module. Back-contact difficulties only occur in some cases, and the other two effects are reversible. Nevertheless, confusion in data interpretation can arise when these effects are not characterized. This confusion can be particularly acute when more than one time-dependent effect occurs during the same measurement cycle. The purpose of this presentation is to help categorize time-dependent effects in CdTe and other thin-film cells to elucidate those related to bias history, and to note differences between cell and module analysis.

  20. ``Illusion of control" in Time-Horizon Minority and Parrondo Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satinover, J. B.; Sornette, D.

    2008-03-01

    Human beings like to believe they are in control of their destiny. This ubiquitous trait seems to increase motivation and persistence, and is probably evolutionarily adaptive. But how good really is our ability to control? How successful is our track record in these areas? There is little understanding of when and under what circumstances we may over-estimate or even lose our ability to control and optimize outcomes, especially when they are the result of aggregations of individual optimization processes. Here, we demonstrate analytically using the theory of Markov Chains and by numerical simulations in two classes of games, the Minority game and the Parrondo Games, that agents who optimize their strategy based on past information actually perform worse than non-optimizing agents. In other words, low-entropy (more informative) strategies under-perform high-entropy (or random) strategies. This provides a precise definition of the "illusion of control" in set-ups a priori defined to emphasize the importance of optimization.

  1. Evidence for history-dependence of influenza pandemic emergence

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Edward M.; Tildesley, Michael J.; House, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A viruses have caused a number of global pandemics, with considerable mortality in humans. Here, we analyse the time periods between influenza pandemics since 1700 under different assumptions to determine whether the emergence of new pandemic strains is a memoryless or history-dependent process. Bayesian model selection between exponential and gamma distributions for these time periods gives support to the hypothesis of history-dependence under eight out of nine sets of modelling assumptions. Using the fitted parameters to make predictions shows a high level of variability in the modelled number of pandemics from 2010–2110. The approach we take here relies on limited data, so is uncertain, but it provides cheap, safe and direct evidence relating to pandemic emergence, a field where indirect measurements are often made at great risk and cost. PMID:28252671

  2. Evidence for history-dependence of influenza pandemic emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Edward M.; Tildesley, Michael J.; House, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Influenza A viruses have caused a number of global pandemics, with considerable mortality in humans. Here, we analyse the time periods between influenza pandemics since 1700 under different assumptions to determine whether the emergence of new pandemic strains is a memoryless or history-dependent process. Bayesian model selection between exponential and gamma distributions for these time periods gives support to the hypothesis of history-dependence under eight out of nine sets of modelling assumptions. Using the fitted parameters to make predictions shows a high level of variability in the modelled number of pandemics from 2010–2110. The approach we take here relies on limited data, so is uncertain, but it provides cheap, safe and direct evidence relating to pandemic emergence, a field where indirect measurements are often made at great risk and cost.

  3. Evidence for history-dependence of influenza pandemic emergence.

    PubMed

    Hill, Edward M; Tildesley, Michael J; House, Thomas

    2017-03-02

    Influenza A viruses have caused a number of global pandemics, with considerable mortality in humans. Here, we analyse the time periods between influenza pandemics since 1700 under different assumptions to determine whether the emergence of new pandemic strains is a memoryless or history-dependent process. Bayesian model selection between exponential and gamma distributions for these time periods gives support to the hypothesis of history-dependence under eight out of nine sets of modelling assumptions. Using the fitted parameters to make predictions shows a high level of variability in the modelled number of pandemics from 2010-2110. The approach we take here relies on limited data, so is uncertain, but it provides cheap, safe and direct evidence relating to pandemic emergence, a field where indirect measurements are often made at great risk and cost.

  4. A DEM contact model for history-dependent powder flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashibon, Adham; Schubert, Raphael; Breinlinger, Thomas; Kraft, Torsten

    2016-11-01

    Die filling is an important part of the powder handling process chain that greatly influences the characteristic structure and properties of the final part. Predictive modelling and simulation of the die-filling process can greatly contribute to the optimization of the part and the whole production procedure, e.g. by predicting the resulting powder compaction structure as a function of filling process parameters. The rheology of powders can be very difficult to model especially if heterogeneous agglomeration or time-dependent consolidation effects occur. We present a new discrete element contact force model that enables modelling complex powder flow characteristics including direct time-dependent consolidation effects and load history-dependent cohesion to describe the filling process of complex, difficult to handle powders. The model is demonstrated for simple flow and an industrial powder flow.

  5. Incorporating history dependence and texture in models of mantle convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wookey, J.; Walker, A. M.; Davies, R.; Davies, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Solid state deformation processes permitting convection of Earth's rocky mantle necessarily lead to strong feedbacks between the deformation history and the instantaneous flow field. Mechanisms leading to the history dependence include the alignment of mineral grains with the attendant generation of elastic and rheological anisotropy, as well as processes operating at larger and smaller length scales (e.g. phase separation, grain size reduction, changes to the defect chemistry and dislocation multiplication and entanglement). Despite their sophistication, current models of mantle dynamics frequently ignore history dependent rheologies, and the feedback between deformation, grain size, crystal orientation, chemistry and viscosity. These processes have huge effects on viscosity: in the crust, they lead to the development of shear-zones and highly localised deformation, whilst, in the mantle, they are nearly always ignored. Here we describe an approach intended to introduce the consequences of history dependence into models of whole-mantle convection. We make use of existing technology that exists in several convection codes: the ability to track markers, or particles, through the evolving flow field. Tracers have previously been used to track attributes such as the bulk chemical composition or trace element ratios. Our modification is to use this technology to track a description of the current state of the texture and microstructure (encompassing an orientation distribution function, grain size parameters and dislocation density) such that we can advance models of polycrystalline deformation for many particles alongside and in sync with models of mantle convection. Our approach is intended to be reasonably generic, coupling one of several mantle convection engines with a choice of polycrystalline deformation models, but the initial implementation uses the TERRA convection code (Baumgardner, J. Stat. Phys. 39:501-511, 1985; Davies and Davies, EPSL 278:50-54, 2009) to

  6. History-dependent dissipative vortex dynamics in superconducting arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Durkin, Malcolm; Mondragon-Shem, Ian; Eley, Serena Merteen; ...

    2016-07-14

    In this study, we perform current (I)-voltage (V) measurements on low resistance superconductor-normal-superconductor arrays in finite magnetic fields, focusing on the dilute vortex population regime. We observe significant deviations from predicted behavior, notably the absence of a differential resistance peak near the vortex depinning current, and a broad linear I-V region with an extrapolated I intercept equal to the depinning current. Comparing these results to an overdamped molecular vortex model, we find that this behavior can be explained by the presence of a history-dependent dissipative force. Lastly, this approach has not been considered previously, to our knowledge, yet it ismore » crucial for obtaining a correct description of the vortex dynamics in superconducting arrays.« less

  7. History-dependent dissipative vortex dynamics in superconducting arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durkin, Malcolm; Mondragon-Shem, Ian; Eley, Serena; Hughes, Taylor L.; Mason, Nadya

    2016-07-01

    We perform current (I )-voltage (V ) measurements on low resistance superconductor-normal-superconductor arrays in finite magnetic fields, focusing on the dilute vortex population regime. We observe significant deviations from predicted behavior, notably the absence of a differential resistance peak near the vortex depinning current, and a broad linear I -V region with an extrapolated I intercept equal to the depinning current. Comparing these results to an overdamped molecular vortex model, we find that this behavior can be explained by the presence of a history-dependent dissipative force. This approach has not been considered previously, to our knowledge, yet it is crucial for obtaining a correct description of the vortex dynamics in superconducting arrays.

  8. History-dependent dissipative vortex dynamics in superconducting arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Durkin, Malcolm; Mondragon-Shem, Ian; Eley, Serena Merteen; Hughes, Taylor L.; Mason, Nadya

    2016-07-14

    In this study, we perform current (I)-voltage (V) measurements on low resistance superconductor-normal-superconductor arrays in finite magnetic fields, focusing on the dilute vortex population regime. We observe significant deviations from predicted behavior, notably the absence of a differential resistance peak near the vortex depinning current, and a broad linear I-V region with an extrapolated I intercept equal to the depinning current. Comparing these results to an overdamped molecular vortex model, we find that this behavior can be explained by the presence of a history-dependent dissipative force. Lastly, this approach has not been considered previously, to our knowledge, yet it is crucial for obtaining a correct description of the vortex dynamics in superconducting arrays.

  9. History dependence of vital capacity in constricted lungs.

    PubMed

    Olson, Thomas P; Wilson, Theodore A; Johnson, Bruce D; Hyatt, Robert E

    2010-07-01

    Measurements of dynamic force-length behavior of maximally activated strips of smooth muscle during oscillatory length changes show that force decreases well below the isometric force during the shortening phase of the oscillation. The magnitude of the decrease depends on the rate of shortening; for slower shortening, the decrease is smaller and force is larger. Modeling of expiratory flow, based on these data, predicts that vital capacity in constricted lungs depends on the rate of expiration. In maximally constricted lungs, forced vital capacity (FVC) is predicted to be 16% smaller than control, and vital capacity for a very slow expiration (SVC), 31% less than control. These predictions were tested by measuring FVC and SVC in constricted normal subjects. In the first group of 9 subjects, four maneuvers were made following the delivery of two doses of methacholine in the order: SVC, FVC, FVC, SVC. In a second group of 11 subjects, two maneuvers were performed at each dose in the order: FVC, SVC. At the highest dose of methacholine, FVC for both trials in group 1 and for the one trial in group 2 were all approximately 13% less than control, a slightly smaller decrease than predicted. SVC for the 1st trial in group 1 was 27% less than control, also slightly smaller than predicted. The difference between FVC and SVC for this trial, 13%, was close to the predicted difference of 15%. However, SVC for the 2nd trial in group 1 (preceded by 3 vital capacity maneuvers) and for group 2 (preceded by 1) were no different from FVC. We conclude that vital capacity in constricted lungs depends on the dynamic force-length properties of smooth muscle and that the history dependence of the dynamic properties of smooth muscle is more complicated than has been inferred from oscillatory force-length behavior.

  10. A History of Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Markram, Henry; Gerstner, Wulfram; Sjöström, Per Jesper

    2011-01-01

    How learning and memory is achieved in the brain is a central question in neuroscience. Key to today’s research into information storage in the brain is the concept of synaptic plasticity, a notion that has been heavily influenced by Hebb's (1949) postulate. Hebb conjectured that repeatedly and persistently co-active cells should increase connective strength among populations of interconnected neurons as a means of storing a memory trace, also known as an engram. Hebb certainly was not the first to make such a conjecture, as we show in this history. Nevertheless, literally thousands of studies into the classical frequency-dependent paradigm of cellular learning rules were directly inspired by the Hebbian postulate. But in more recent years, a novel concept in cellular learning has emerged, where temporal order instead of frequency is emphasized. This new learning paradigm – known as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) – has rapidly gained tremendous interest, perhaps because of its combination of elegant simplicity, biological plausibility, and computational power. But what are the roots of today’s STDP concept? Here, we discuss several centuries of diverse thinking, beginning with philosophers such as Aristotle, Locke, and Ribot, traversing, e.g., Lugaro’s plasticità and Rosenblatt’s perceptron, and culminating with the discovery of STDP. We highlight interactions between theoretical and experimental fields, showing how discoveries sometimes occurred in parallel, seemingly without much knowledge of the other field, and sometimes via concrete back-and-forth communication. We point out where the future directions may lie, which includes interneuron STDP, the functional impact of STDP, its mechanisms and its neuromodulatory regulation, and the linking of STDP to the developmental formation and continuous plasticity of neuronal networks. PMID:22007168

  11. Dynamics of history-dependent epidemics in temporal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunny, Albert; Kotnis, Bhushan; Kuri, Joy

    2015-08-01

    The structural properties of temporal networks often influence the dynamical processes that occur on these networks, e.g., bursty interaction patterns have been shown to slow down epidemics. In this paper, we investigate the effect of link lifetimes on the spread of history-dependent epidemics. We formulate an analytically tractable activity-driven temporal network model that explicitly incorporates link lifetimes. For Markovian link lifetimes, we use mean-field analysis for computing the epidemic threshold, while the effect of non-Markovian link lifetimes is studied using simulations. Furthermore, we also study the effect of negative correlation between the number of links spawned by an individual and the lifetimes of those links. Such negative correlations may arise due to the finite cognitive capacity of the individuals. Our investigations reveal that heavy-tailed link lifetimes slow down the epidemic, while negative correlations can reduce epidemic prevalence. We believe that our results help shed light on the role of link lifetimes in modulating diffusion processes on temporal networks.

  12. A Review of the History of Field Dependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heesacker, Martin

    This paper reviews 35 studies important in the historical development of field dependence, a popular research topic in psychology. The first section involves antecedents of the concept of field dependence, such as the influence of Kurt Lewin. Part two deals with the development of field dependence as an individual differences variable. Part three…

  13. Time-dependent regulation of yeast glycolysis upon nitrogen starvation depends on cell history.

    PubMed

    van Eunen, K; Dool, P; Canelas, A B; Kiewiet, J; Bouwman, J; van Gulik, W M; Westerhoff, H V; Bakker, B M

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the authors investigated how the glycolytic flux was regulated in time upon nitrogen starvation of cells with different growth histories. We have compared cells grown in glucose-limited chemostat cultures under respiratory conditions (low dilution rate of 0.1/h) to cells grown under respirofermentative conditions (high dilution rate of 0.35/h). The fermentative capacity was lower in cells grown under respiratory conditions than in cells grown under respirofermentative conditions, yet more resilient to prolonged nitrogen starvation. The time profiles revealed that the fermentative capacity even increased in cells grown under respiratory conditions during the first hours of nitrogen starvation. In cells grown under respirofermentative conditions the fermentative capacity decreased from the onset of nitrogen starvation. We have applied time-dependent Regulation Analysis to follow the fermentative capacity during nitrogen starvation. In both experiments, diverse categories of regulation were found. However, in the cells grown under respiratory conditions regulation was predominantly metabolic, whereas in the cells grown under respirofermentative conditions hierarchical regulation was dominant. To study the metabolic regulation, concentrations of intracellular metabolites, including allosteric regulators, were measured. The obtained results can explain some aspects of the metabolic regulation, but not all.

  14. Evolutionary history and distance dependence control survival of dipterocarp seedlings.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Robert; Press, Malcolm C; Scholes, Julie D

    2010-01-01

    One important hypothesis to explain tree-species coexistence in tropical forests suggests that increased attack by natural enemies near conspecific trees gives locally rare species a competitive advantage. Host ranges of natural enemies generally encompass several closely related plant taxa suggesting that seedlings should also do poorly around adults of closely related species. We investigated the effects of adult Parashorea malaanonan on seedling survival in a Bornean rain forest. Survival of P. malaanonan seedlings was highest at intermediate distances from parent trees while heterospecific seedlings were unaffected by distance. Leaf herbivores did not drive this relationship. Survival of seedlings was lowest for P. malaanonan, and increased with phylogenetic dissimilarity from this species, suggesting that survival of close relatives of common species is reduced. This study suggests that distance dependence contributes to species coexistence and highlights the need for further investigation into the role of shared plant enemies in community dynamics.

  15. Life history dependent morphometric variation in stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Letcher, B.H.

    2003-01-01

    The time course of morphometric variation among life histories for stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr (age-0+ to age-2+) was analyzed. Possible life histories were combinations of parr maturity status in the autumn (mature or immature) and age at outmigration (smolt at age-2+ or later age). Actual life histories expressed with enough fish for analysis in the 1997 cohort were immature/age-2+ smolt, mature/age-2 +smolt, and mature/age-2+ non-smolt. Tagged fish were assigned to one of the three life histories and digital pictures from the field were analyzed using landmark-based geometric morphometrics. Results indicated that successful grouping of fish according to life history varied with fish age, but that fish could be grouped before the actual expression of the life histories. By March (age-1+), fish were successfully grouped using a descriptive discriminant function and successful assignment ranged from 84 to 97% for the remainder of stream residence. A jackknife of the discriminant function revealed an average life history prediction success of 67% from age-1+ summer to smolting. Low sample numbers for one of the life histories may have limited prediction success. A MANOVA on the shape descriptors (relative warps) also indicated significant differences in shape among life histories from age-1+ summer through to smolting. Across all samples, shape varied significantly with size. Within samples, shape did not vary significantly with size for samples from December (age-0+) to May (age-1+). During the age-1+ summer however, shape varied significantly with size, but the relationship between shape and size was not different among life histories. In the autumn (age-1+) and winter (age-2+), life history differences explained a significant portion of the change in shape with size. Life history dependent morphometric variation may be useful to indicate the timing of early expressions of life history variation and as a tool to explore temporal and

  16. History dependent effects on phenotypic expression of a newly emerged gene.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takao; Kashiwagi, Akiko; Mori, Kotaro; Urabe, Itaru; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2004-11-01

    In this study, we investigate the history dependence of the penetrance of a newly emerged gene. Penetrance is defined as the percentage of individuals with a given genotype who exhibit the phenotype associated with that particular genotype. Here, we used the glutamine synthetase gene and its mutants with lower fitness as model genes. They were introduced into host cells of Escherichia coli deprived of the gene, and their penetrance was measured using the host having a different history: either with or without glutamine starvation. Results show that for all genes tested, the value of penetrance was higher when they were introduced into the host cell without starvation than that when introduced into the starved cell, demonstrating the history dependence of the penetrance of a newly emerged gene. In addition, genes with lower fitness showed lower penetrance, and the effect of the difference in fitness on gene penetrance also depended on the history of the host cell.

  17. History-Dependent Problems with Applications to Contact Models for Elastic Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bartosz, Krzysztof; Kalita, Piotr; Migórski, Stanisław; Ochal, Anna; Sofonea, Mircea

    2016-02-15

    We prove an existence and uniqueness result for a class of subdifferential inclusions which involve a history-dependent operator. Then we specialize this result in the study of a class of history-dependent hemivariational inequalities. Problems of such kind arise in a large number of mathematical models which describe quasistatic processes of contact. To provide an example we consider an elastic beam in contact with a reactive obstacle. The contact is modeled with a new and nonstandard condition which involves both the subdifferential of a nonconvex and nonsmooth function and a Volterra-type integral term. We derive a variational formulation of the problem which is in the form of a history-dependent hemivariational inequality for the displacement field. Then, we use our abstract result to prove its unique weak solvability. Finally, we consider a numerical approximation of the model, solve effectively the approximate problems and provide numerical simulations.

  18. Thermomagnetic history dependence of magnetocaloric effect in Ni50Mn34In16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Sharma, V. K.; Roy, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    A large inverse magnetocaloric effect has been reported to be associated with the austenite to martensite phase transition in Ni50Mn34In16. It is shown here that the magnitude of the observed magnetocaloric effect as well as effective refrigerant capacity depend significantly on the thermo-magnetic history of the sample.

  19. Enhanced intensity dependence and aggression history indicate previous regular ecstasy use in abstinent polydrug users.

    PubMed

    Wan, Li; Baldridge, Robyn M; Colby, Amanda M; Stanford, Matthew S

    2009-11-13

    Intensity dependence is an electrophysiological measure of intra-individual stability of the augmenting/reducing characteristic of N1/ P2 event-related potential amplitudes in response to stimuli of varying intensities. Abstinent ecstasy users typically show enhanced intensity dependence and higher levels of impulsivity and aggression. Enhanced intensity dependence and high impulsivity and aggression levels may be due to damage in the brain's serotonergic neurons as a result of ecstasy use. The present study investigated whether intensity dependence, impulsivity and aggression history can be used as indicators of previous chronic ecstasy usage. Forty-four abstinent polydrug users (8 women; age 19 to 61 years old) were recruited. All participants were currently residents at a local substance abuse facility receiving treatment and had been free of all drugs for a minimum of 21 days. The study found significantly enhanced intensity dependence of tangential dipole source activity and a history of more aggressive behavior in those who had previously been involved in chronic ecstasy use. Intensity dependence of the tangential dipole source and aggressive behavior history correctly identified 73.3% of those who had been regular ecstasy users and 78.3% of those who had not. Overall, 76.3% of the participants were correctly classified.

  20. Correcting the initialization of models with fractional derivatives via history-dependent conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Maolin; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-04-01

    Fractional differential equations are more and more used in modeling memory (history-dependent, non-local, or hereditary) phenomena. Conventional initial values of fractional differential equations are defined at a point, while recent works define initial conditions over histories. We prove that the conventional initialization of fractional differential equations with a Riemann-Liouville derivative is wrong with a simple counter-example. The initial values were assumed to be arbitrarily given for a typical fractional differential equation, but we find one of these values can only be zero. We show that fractional differential equations are of infinite dimensions, and the initial conditions, initial histories, are defined as functions over intervals. We obtain the equivalent integral equation for Caputo case. With a simple fractional model of materials, we illustrate that the recovery behavior is correct with the initial creep history, but is wrong with initial values at the starting point of the recovery. We demonstrate the application of initial history by solving a forced fractional Lorenz system numerically.

  1. Computational studies of history dependence in nematic liquid crystals in random environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjkesh, Amid; Ambrožič, Milan; Kralj, Samo; Sluckin, Timothy J.

    2014-02-01

    Glassy liquid crystalline systems are expected to show significant history-dependent effects. Two model glassy systems are the RAN and SSS (sprinkled silica spin) lattice models. The RAN model is a Lebwohl-Lasher lattice model with locally coupled nematic spins, together with uncorrelated random anisotropy fields at each site, while the SSS model has a finite concentration of impurity spins frozen in random directions. Here Brownian simulation is used to study the effect of different sample histories in the low temperature regime in a three-dimensional (d =3) model intermediate between SSS and RAN, in which a finite concentration p histories (TQH and FQH, respectively), as well as for temperature-annealed histories (AH). The first two of these limits represent extreme histories encountered in typical experimental studies. Using long-time averages for equilibrated systems, we calculate orientational order parameters and two-point correlation functions. Finite-size scaling was used to determine the range of the orientational ordering, as a function of coupling strength W ,p and sample history. Sample history plays a significant role; for given concentration p, as disorder strength W is increased, TQH systems sustain quasi-long-range order (QLRO) and short-range order (SRO). The data are also consistent with a long-range order (LRO) phase at very low disorder strength. By contrast, for FQH and p ≤0.1, only LRO and QLRO occur within the range of parameters investigated. The crossover between regimes depends on history, but in general, the FQH phase is more ordered than the AH phase, which is more ordered than the TQH phase. However, at temperatures close to the isotropic-nematic phase transition of pure samples

  2. Quantifying the history dependency of muscle recovery from a fatiguing intermittent task.

    PubMed

    Rashedi, Ehsan; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2017-01-25

    Muscle fatigue and recovery are complex processes influencing muscle force generation capacity. While fatigue reduces this capacity, recovery acts to restore the unfatigued muscle state. Many factors can potentially affect muscle recovery, and among these may be a task dependency of recovery following an exercise. However, little has been reported regarding the history dependency of recovery after fatiguing contractions. We examined the dependency of muscle recovery subsequent to four different histories of fatiguing muscle contractions, imposed using two cycle times (30 and 60s) during low to moderate levels (15% and 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC)) of intermittent static exertions involving index finger abduction. MVC and low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFES) measures (i.e., magnitude, rise and relaxation rates) of muscle capacity were used, all of which indicated a dependency of muscle recovery on the muscle capacity state existing immediately after fatiguing exercise. This dependency did not appear to be modified by either the cycle time or exertion level leading to that state. These results imply that the post-exercise rate of recovery is primarily influenced by the immediate post-exercise muscle contractile status (estimated by MVC and LFES measures). Such results may help improve existing models of muscle recovery, facilitating more accurate predictions of localized muscle fatigue development and thereby helping to enhance muscle performance and reduce the risk of injury.

  3. Memory in microbes: quantifying history-Dependent behavior in a bacterium.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Denise M.; Fontaine-Bodin, Lisa; Bischofs, Ilka; Price, Gavin; Keaslin, Jay; Arkin, Adam P.

    2007-11-15

    Memory is usually associated with higher organisms rather than bacteria. However, evidence is mounting that many regulatory networks within bacteria are capable of complex dynamics and multi-stable behaviors that have been linked to memory in other systems. Moreover, it is recognized that bacteria that have experienced different environmental histories may respond differently to current conditions. These"memory" effects may be more than incidental to the regulatory mechanisms controlling acclimation or to the status of the metabolic stores. Rather, they may be regulated by the cell and confer fitness to the organism in the evolutionary game it participates in. Here, we propose that history-dependent behavior is a potentially important manifestation of memory, worth classifying and quantifying. To this end, we develop an information-theory based conceptual framework for measuring both the persistence of memory in microbes and the amount of information about the past encoded in history-dependent dynamics. This method produces a phenomenological measure of cellular memory without regard to the specific cellular mechanisms encoding it. We then apply this framework to a strain of Bacillus subtilis engineered to report on commitment to sporulation and degradative enzyme (AprE) synthesis and estimate the capacity of these systems and growth dynamics to 'remember' 10 distinct cell histories prior to application of a common stressor. The analysis suggests that B. subtilis remembers, both in short and long term, aspects of its cell history, and that this memory is distributed differently among the observables. While this study does not examine the mechanistic bases for memory, it presents a framework for quantifying memory in cellular behaviors and is thus a starting point for studying new questions about cellular regulation and evolutionary strategy.

  4. History-Dependent Excitability as a Single-Cell Substrate of Transient Memory for Information Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Baroni, Fabiano; Torres, Joaquín J.; Varona, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    Neurons react differently to incoming stimuli depending upon their previous history of stimulation. This property can be considered as a single-cell substrate for transient memory, or context-dependent information processing: depending upon the current context that the neuron “sees” through the subset of the network impinging on it in the immediate past, the same synaptic event can evoke a postsynaptic spike or just a subthreshold depolarization. We propose a formal definition of History-Dependent Excitability (HDE) as a measure of the propensity to firing in any moment in time, linking the subthreshold history-dependent dynamics with spike generation. This definition allows the quantitative assessment of the intrinsic memory for different single-neuron dynamics and input statistics. We illustrate the concept of HDE by considering two general dynamical mechanisms: the passive behavior of an Integrate and Fire (IF) neuron, and the inductive behavior of a Generalized Integrate and Fire (GIF) neuron with subthreshold damped oscillations. This framework allows us to characterize the sensitivity of different model neurons to the detailed temporal structure of incoming stimuli. While a neuron with intrinsic oscillations discriminates equally well between input trains with the same or different frequency, a passive neuron discriminates better between inputs with different frequencies. This suggests that passive neurons are better suited to rate-based computation, while neurons with subthreshold oscillations are advantageous in a temporal coding scheme. We also address the influence of intrinsic properties in single-cell processing as a function of input statistics, and show that intrinsic oscillations enhance discrimination sensitivity at high input rates. Finally, we discuss how the recognition of these cell-specific discrimination properties might further our understanding of neuronal network computations and their relationships to the distribution and functional

  5. Environmental History Modulates Arabidopsis Pattern-Triggered Immunity in a HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE1-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant; Yekondi, Shweta; Chen, Po-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Hong; Yu, Chun-Wei; Wu, Keqiang; Zimmerli, Laurent

    2014-06-01

    In nature, plants are exposed to a fluctuating environment, and individuals exposed to contrasting environmental factors develop different environmental histories. Whether different environmental histories alter plant responses to a current stress remains elusive. Here, we show that environmental history modulates the plant response to microbial pathogens. Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to repetitive heat, cold, or salt stress were more resistant to virulent bacteria than Arabidopsis grown in a more stable environment. By contrast, long-term exposure to heat, cold, or exposure to high concentrations of NaCl did not provide enhanced protection against bacteria. Enhanced resistance occurred with priming of Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity (PTI)-responsive genes and the potentiation of PTI-mediated callose deposition. In repetitively stress-challenged Arabidopsis, PTI-responsive genes showed enrichment for epigenetic marks associated with transcriptional activation. Upon bacterial infection, enrichment of RNA polymerase II at primed PTI marker genes was observed in environmentally challenged Arabidopsis. Finally, repetitively stress-challenged histone acetyltransferase1-1 (hac1-1) mutants failed to demonstrate enhanced resistance to bacteria, priming of PTI, and increased open chromatin states. These findings reveal that environmental history shapes the plant response to bacteria through the development of a HAC1-dependent epigenetic mark characteristic of a primed PTI response, demonstrating a mechanistic link between the primed state in plants and epigenetics.

  6. History dependence of human muscle-fiber conduction velocity during voluntary isometric contractions

    PubMed Central

    Lateva, Zoia C.

    2011-01-01

    The conduction velocity (CV) of a muscle fiber is affected by the fiber's discharge history going back ∼1 s. We investigated this dependence by measuring CV fluctuations during voluntary isometric contractions of the human brachioradialis muscle. We recorded electromyogram (EMG) signals simultaneously from multiple intramuscular electrodes, identified potentials belonging to the same motor unit using EMG decomposition, and estimated the CV of each discharge from the interpotential interval. In 12 of 14 subjects, CV increased by ∼10% during the first second after recruitment and then fluctuated by about ±2% in a way that mirrored the fluctuations in the instantaneous firing rate. The CV profile could be precisely described in terms of the discharge history by a simple mathematical model. In the other two subjects, and one subject retested after cooling the arm, the CV fluctuations were inversely correlated with instantaneous firing rate. In all subjects, CV was additionally affected by very short interdischarge intervals (<25 ms): it was increased in doublets at recruitment, but decreased in doublets during continuous firing and after short interdischarge intervals in doubly innervated fibers. CV also exhibited a slow trend of about −0.05%/s that did not depend on the immediate discharge history. We suggest that measurements of CV fluctuations during voluntary contractions, or during stimulation protocols that involve longer and more complex stimulation patterns than are currently being used, may provide a sensitive approach for estimating the dynamic characteristics of ion channels in the human muscle-fiber membrane. PMID:21565985

  7. Sense of control under uncertainty depends on people's childhood environment: a life history theory approach.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Chiraag; Griskevicius, Vladas

    2014-10-01

    Past research found that environmental uncertainty leads people to behave differently depending on their childhood environment. For example, economic uncertainty leads people from poor childhoods to become more impulsive while leading people from wealthy childhoods to become less impulsive. Drawing on life history theory, we examine the psychological mechanism driving such diverging responses to uncertainty. Five experiments show that uncertainty alters people's sense of control over the environment. Exposure to uncertainty led people from poorer childhoods to have a significantly lower sense of control than those from wealthier childhoods. In addition, perceptions of control statistically mediated the effect of uncertainty on impulsive behavior. These studies contribute by demonstrating that sense of control is a psychological driver of behaviors associated with fast and slow life history strategies. We discuss the implications of this for theory and future research, including that environmental uncertainty might lead people who grew up poor to quit challenging tasks sooner than people who grew up wealthy.

  8. Memory in Microbes: Quantifying History-Dependent Behavior in a Bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Denise M.; Fontaine-Bodin, Lisa; Bischofs, Ilka; Price, Gavin; Keasling, Jay; Arkin, Adam P.

    2007-11-15

    Memory is usually associated with higher organisms rather than bacteria. However, evidence is mounting that many regulatory networks within bacteria are capable of complex dynamics and multi-stable behaviors that have been linked to memory in other systems. Moreover, it is recognized that bacteria that have experienced different environmental histories may respond differently to current conditions. These"memory" effects may be more than incidental to the regulatory mechanisms controlling acclimation or to the status of the metabolic stores. Rather, they may be regulated by the cell and confer fitness to the organism in the evolutionary game it participates in. Here, we propose that history-dependent behavior is a potentially important manifestation of memory, worth classifying and quantifying. To this end, we develop an information-theory based conceptual framework for measuring both the persistence of memory in microbes and the amount of information about the past encoded in history-dependent dynamics. This method produces a phenomenologicalmeasure of cellular memory without regard to the specific cellular mechanisms encoding it. We then apply this framework to a strain of Bacillus subtilis engineered to report on commitment to sporulation and degradative enzyme (AprE) synthesisand estimate the capacity of these systems and growth dynamics to"remember" 10 distinct cell histories prior to application of a common stressor. The analysis suggests that B. subtilis remembers, both in short and long term, aspects of its cellhistory, and that this memory is distributed differently among the observables. While this study does not examine the mechanistic bases for memory, it presents a framework for quantifying memory in cellular behaviors and is thus a starting point for studying new questions about cellular regulation and evolutionary strategy.

  9. Critical current characteristics and history dependence in superconducting SmFeAsOF bulk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, B.; Ge, J.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E. S.; Gao, Z.; Wang, L.; Qi, Y.; Zhang, X.; Ma, Y.

    2010-06-01

    The superconducting SmFeAsO1-xFx (x=0.2) polycrystalline bulks were prepared by the powder-in-tube (PIT) method. The magnetic field and temperature dependences of critical current densities in the samples were investigated by resistive and ac inductive (Campbell's) methods. It was found that a fairly large shielding current density over 109 A/m2, which is considered to correspond to the local critical current density, flows locally with the perimeter size similar to the average grain size of the bulk samples, while an extremely low transport current density of about 105 A/m2 corresponding to the global critical current density flows through the whole sample. Furthermore, a unique history dependence of global critical current density was observed, i.e., it shows a smaller value in the increasing-field process than that in the decreasing-field process. The history dependence of global critical current characteristic in our case can be ascribed to the existence of the weak-link property between the grains in SmFeAsO1-xFx bulk.

  10. History-dependent changes in entrainment of the activity rhythm in the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Juan J; Anglès-Pujolràs, Montserrat; Díez-Noguera, Antoni; Cambras, Trinitat

    2006-02-01

    The authors have studied the activity rhythm of Syrian hamsters exposed to square LD cycles with a 22-h period (T22) with the aim of testing the effects of the previous history on the rhythmic pattern. To do so, sequential changes of different lighting environments were established, followed by the same LD condition. Also, the protocol included T22 cycles with varying lighting contrasts to test the extent to which a computational model predicts experimental outcomes. At the beginning of the experiment, exposure to T22 with 300 lux and dim red light occurring respectively at photophase and scotophase (LD300/dim red) mainly generated relative coordination. Subsequent transfer to cycles with approximately 0.1-lux dim light during the scotophase (LD300/0.1) promoted entrainment to T22. However, a further reduction in light intensity to 10 lux during the photophase (LD10/0.1) generated weak and unstable T22 rhythms. When, after that, animals were transferred again to the initial LD300/dim red cycles, the amplitude of the rhythm still remained very low, and the phases were very unstable. Exposure to constant darkness partially restored the activity rhythm, and when, afterwards, the animals were submitted again to LD300/dim red cycles, a robust T22 rhythm appeared. The results demonstrate history-dependent changes in the hamster circadian system because the locomotor activity pattern under the same T22 cycle can show relative coordination or unstable or robust entrainment depending on the prior lighting condition. This suggests that the circadian system responds to environmental stimuli depending on its previous history. Moreover, computer simulations allow the authors to predict entrainment under LD300/0.1 cycles and indicate that most of the patterns observed in the animals due to the light in the scotophase can be explained by different degrees of coupling among the oscillators of the circadian system.

  11. History Dependent Magnetoresistance in Lightly Doped LaZxSrxCuO4Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Bozovic I.; Shi, X.; Popovic, D.; Panagopoulos, C.; Logvenov, G.; Bollinger, A.T.

    2012-06-01

    The in-plane magnetoresistance (MR) in atomically smooth La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} thin films grown by molecular-beam-epitaxy was measured in magnetic fields B up to 9 T over a wide range of temperatures T. The films, with x = 0.03 and x = 0.05, are insulating, and the positive MR emerges at T < 4 K. The positive MR exhibits glassy features, including history dependence and memory, for all orientations of B. The results show that this behavior, which reflects the onset of glassiness in the dynamics of doped holes, is a robust feature of the insulating state.

  12. History of sexual, emotional or physical abuse and psychiatric comorbidity in substance-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Daigre, Constanza; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Tarifa, Núria; Rodríguez-Martos, Lola; Grau-López, Lara; Berenguer, Marta; Casas, Miguel; Roncero, Carlos

    2015-10-30

    Sexual, emotional or physical abuse history is a risk factor for mental disorders in addicted patients. However, the relationship between addiction and abuse lifespan is not well known. This study aims to compare clinical and psychopathological features of addicted patients according to the experience of abuse and to the number of different types of abuse suffered. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. 512 addicted patients seeking treatment were included, 45.9% reported abuse throughout life (38.9% emotional, 22.3% physical and 13.5% sexual abuse). It was found that female gender; depressive symptoms and borderline personality disorder were independently associated with history of any abuse throughout life. As well, it was found that 14% have been suffered from all three types of abuse (sexual, emotional and physical), 34.5% from two and 55.5% from one type. Female gender and borderline personality disorder were independently associated independently with a greater number of different types of abuse. Results suggest that history of abuse is frequent among substance-dependent patients and these experiences are more prevalent in women and are associated with more psychiatric comorbidity.

  13. History of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and opioid dependence: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Davids, Eugen; von Bünau, Ulla; Specka, Michael; Fischer, Barbara; Scherbaum, Norbert; Gastpar, Markus

    2005-02-01

    The co-occurrence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders has received considerable attention in recent clinical and scientific investigations. These two disorders are linked to one another in a variety of ways. The core symptoms of ADHD may be mimicked by the effects of psychoactive substance use, making it difficult to diagnose one disorder in the presence of the other. Individuals with ADHD may demonstrate earlier onset of the substance abuse and a pattern of more frequent or intense use. ADHD symptoms were explored as possible antecedents of opioid dependence. A total of 109 adult opioid-dependent, treatment-seeking male and female outpatients were investigated with an extended clinical semistructured interview to collect sociodemographic, drug-related, and clinical data. The results indicate that ADHD alone does not predispose the development of opioid dependence in our sample. Childhood ADHD symptoms may nevertheless be found more frequently related to school performance problems and difficulties in social adaptation, which was identified in more than half of our population. Patients with ADHD history seemed to experience a drug abuse career with more complications which need to be recognized with focused attention in order to start earlier treatment strategies.

  14. Dynamic history-dependent variational-hemivariational inequalities with applications to contact mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migórski, Stanislaw; Ogorzaly, Justyna

    2017-02-01

    In the paper we deliver a new existence and uniqueness result for a class of abstract nonlinear variational-hemivariational inequalities which are governed by two operators depending on the history of the solution, and include two nondifferentiable functionals, a convex and a nonconvex one. Then, we consider an initial boundary value problem which describes a model of evolution of a viscoelastic body in contact with a foundation. The contact process is assumed to be dynamic, and the friction is described by subdifferential boundary conditions. Both the constitutive law and the contact condition involve memory operators. As an application of the abstract theory, we provide a result on the unique weak solvability of the contact problem.

  15. Age-dependent flea (Siphonaptera) parasitism in rodents: a host's life history matters.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Boris R; Stanko, Michal; Morand, Serge

    2006-04-01

    We studied age-dependent patterns of flea infestation in 7 species of rodents from Slovakia (Apodemus agrarius, A. flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis, Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus arvalis, and M. subterraneus). We estimated the age of the host from its body mass and expected the host age-dependent pattern of flea abundance, the level of aggregation, and prevalence to be in agreement with theoretical predictions. We expected that the mean abundance and the level of aggregation of fleas would be lowest in hosts of smallest and largest size classes and highest in hosts of medium size classes, whereas pattern of variation of prevalence with host age would be either convex or asymptotic. In general, mean abundance and species richness of fleas increased with an increase in host age, although the pressure of flea parasitism in terms of number of fleas per unit host body surface decreased with host age. We found 2 clear patterns of the change in flea aggregation and prevalence with host age. The first pattern demonstrated a peak of flea aggregation and a trough of flea prevalence in animals of middle age classes (Apodemus species and C. glareolus). The second pattern was an increase of both flea aggregation and flea prevalence with host age (both Microtus species). Consequently, we did not find unequivocal evidence for the main role of either parasite-induced host mortality or acquired resistance in host age-dependent pattern of flea parasitism. Our results suggest that this pattern can be generated by various processes and is strongly affected by natural history parameters of a host species such as dispersal pattern, spatial distribution, and structure of shelters.

  16. An exact solution for the history-dependent material and delamination behavior of laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Todd O

    2009-01-01

    The exact solution for the history-dependent behavior of laminated plates subjected to cylindrical bending is presented. The solution represents the extension of Pagano's solution to consider arbitrary types of constitutive behaviors for the individual lamina as well as arbitrary types of cohesive zones models for delamination behavior. Examples of the possible types of material behavior are plasticity, viscoelasticity, viscoplasticity, and damaging. Examples of possible CZMs that can be considered are linear, nonlinear hardening, as well as nonlinear with softening. The resulting solution is intended as a benchmark solution for considering the predictive capabilities of different plate theories. Initial results are presented for several types of history-dependent material behaviors. It is shown that the plate response in the presence of history-dependent behaviors can differ dramatically from the elastic response. These results have strong implications for what constitutes an appropriate plate theory for modeling such behaviors.

  17. Single DNA molecule jamming and history-dependent dynamics during motor-driven viral packaging

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Nicholas; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J.; Smith, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    In many viruses molecular motors forcibly pack single DNA molecules to near-crystalline density into ~50–100 nm prohead shells1, 2. Unexpectedly, we found that packaging frequently stalls in conditions that induce net attractive DNA-DNA interactions3. Here, we present findings suggesting that this stalling occurs because the DNA undergoes a nonequilibrium jamming transition analogous to that observed in many soft-matter systems, such as colloidal and granular systems4–8. Experiments in which conditions are changed during packaging to switch DNA-DNA interactions between purely repulsive and net attractive reveal strongly history-dependent dynamics. An abrupt deceleration is usually observed before stalling, indicating that a transition in DNA conformation causes an abrupt increase in resistance. Our findings suggest that the concept of jamming can be extended to a single polymer molecule. However, compared with macroscopic samples of colloidal particles5 we find that single DNA molecules jam over a much larger range of densities. We attribute this difference to the nanoscale system size, consistent with theoretical predictions for jamming of attractive athermal particles.9, 10 PMID:27540410

  18. Single DNA molecule jamming and history-dependent dynamics during motor-driven viral packaging.

    PubMed

    Keller, Nicholas; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J; Smith, Douglas E

    2016-08-01

    In many viruses molecular motors forcibly pack single DNA molecules to near-crystalline density into ~50-100 nm prohead shells(1, 2). Unexpectedly, we found that packaging frequently stalls in conditions that induce net attractive DNA-DNA interactions(3). Here, we present findings suggesting that this stalling occurs because the DNA undergoes a nonequilibrium jamming transition analogous to that observed in many soft-matter systems, such as colloidal and granular systems(4-8). Experiments in which conditions are changed during packaging to switch DNA-DNA interactions between purely repulsive and net attractive reveal strongly history-dependent dynamics. An abrupt deceleration is usually observed before stalling, indicating that a transition in DNA conformation causes an abrupt increase in resistance. Our findings suggest that the concept of jamming can be extended to a single polymer molecule. However, compared with macroscopic samples of colloidal particles(5) we find that single DNA molecules jam over a much larger range of densities. We attribute this difference to the nanoscale system size, consistent with theoretical predictions for jamming of attractive athermal particles.(9, 10).

  19. Single DNA molecule jamming and history-dependent dynamics during motor-driven viral packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Nicholas; Grimes, Shelley; Jardine, Paul J.; Smith, Douglas E.

    2016-08-01

    In many viruses, molecular motors forcibly pack single DNA molecules to near-crystalline density into ~50-100 nm prohead shells. Unexpectedly, we found that packaging frequently stalls in conditions that induce net attractive DNA-DNA interactions. Here, we present findings suggesting that this stalling occurs because the DNA undergoes a nonequilibrium jamming transition analogous to that observed in many soft-matter systems, such as colloidal and granular systems. Experiments in which conditions are changed during packaging to switch DNA-DNA interactions between purely repulsive and net attractive reveal strongly history-dependent dynamics. An abrupt deceleration is usually observed before stalling, indicating that a transition in DNA conformation causes an abrupt increase in resistance. Our findings suggest that the concept of jamming can be extended to a single polymer molecule. However, compared with macroscopic samples of colloidal particles we find that single DNA molecules jam over a much larger range of densities. We attribute this difference to the nanoscale system size, consistent with theoretical predictions for jamming of attractive athermal particles.

  20. Thermal-history dependent magnetoelastic transition in (Mn,Fe){sub 2}(P,Si)

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, X. F. Dijk, N. H. van; Brück, E.; Caron, L.; Gercsi, Z.; Daoud-Aladine, A.

    2015-07-27

    The thermal-history dependence of the magnetoelastic transition in (Mn,Fe){sub 2}(P,Si) compounds has been investigated using high-resolution neutron diffraction. As-prepared samples display a large difference in paramagnetic-ferromagnetic (PM-FM) transition temperature compared to cycled samples. The initial metastable state transforms into a lower-energy stable state when the as-prepared sample crosses the PM-FM transition for the first time. This additional transformation is irreversible around the transition temperature and increases the energy barrier which needs to be overcome through the PM-FM transition. Consequently, the transition temperature on first cooling is found to be lower than on subsequent cycles characterizing the so-called “virgin effect.” High-temperature annealing can restore the cycled sample to the high-temperature metastable state, which leads to the recovery of the virgin effect. A model is proposed to interpret the formation and recovery of the virgin effect.

  1. Age-dependent genetic variance in a life-history trait in the mute swan.

    PubMed

    Charmantier, Anne; Perrins, Christopher; McCleery, Robin H; Sheldon, Ben C

    2006-01-22

    Genetic variance in characters under natural selection in natural populations determines the way those populations respond to that selection. Whether populations show temporal and/or spatial constancy in patterns of genetic variance and covariance is regularly considered, as this will determine whether selection responses are constant over space and time. Much less often considered is whether characters show differing amounts of genetic variance over the life-history of individuals. Such age-specific variation, if present, has important potential consequences for the force of natural selection and for understanding the causes of variation in quantitative characters. Using data from a long-term study of the mute swan Cygnus olor, we report the partitioning of phenotypic variance in timing of breeding (subject to strong natural selection) into component parts over 12 different age classes. We show that the additive genetic variance and heritability of this trait are strongly age-dependent, with higher additive genetic variance present in young and, particularly, old birds, but little evidence of any genetic variance for birds of intermediate ages. These results demonstrate that age can have a very important influence on the components of variation of characters in natural populations, and consequently that separate age classes cannot be assumed to be equivalent, either with respect to their evolutionary potential or response.

  2. Measuring Temperaturelike State Variables in History-Dependent Jammed Granular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bililign, Ephraim; Daniels, Karen

    Granular systems are athermal, thus a complete statistical mechanics framework must be based on a set of macroscopic state variables which excludes temperature. One leading theory incorporates a stress-based ensemble, and predicts a Boltzmann-like distribution of the force-moment tensor with respect to the conjugate, temperature-like variable, angoricity. We experimentally test this theory on a static, bidisperse, two-dimensional packing of discs. Basal friction is eliminated by floating the discs on a sub-fluidizing upflow of air, and the packings are subjected to either uniaxial compression or simple shear. We simultaneously measure the contact forces acting on each disc using photoelasticity. These measurements are repeated over many configurations of discs by dilating and rearranging the system, and the angoricity is computed as a function of the confining pressure. In particular, we test the predicted linear relationship between angoricity and pressure. Comparison to prior results and numerical simulations also suggests a history-dependent angoricity, an undesirable feature in the proposed state variable.

  3. Mechanical History Dependence in Carbon Black Suspensions for Flow Batteries: A Rheo-Impedance Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We studied the effects of shear and its history on suspensions of carbon black (CB) in lithium ion battery electrolyte via simultaneous rheometry and electrical impedance spectroscopy. Ketjen black (KB) suspensions showed shear thinning and rheopexy and exhibited a yield stress. Shear step experiments revealed a two time scale response. The immediate effect of decreasing the shear rate is an increase in both viscosity and electronic conductivity. In a much slower secondary response, both quantities change in the opposite direction, leading to a reversal of the initial change in the conductivity. Stepwise increases in the shear rate lead to similar responses in the opposite direction. This remarkable behavior is consistent with a picture in which agglomerating KB particles can stick directly on contact, forming open structures, and then slowly interpenetrate and densify. The fact that spherical CB particles show the opposite slow response suggests that the fractal structure of the KB primary units plays an important role. A theoretical scheme was used to analyze the shear and time-dependent viscosity and conductivity. Describing the agglomerates as effective hard spheres with a fractal architecture and using an effective medium approximation for the conductivity, we found the changes in the derived suspension structure to be in agreement with our qualitative mechanistic picture. This behavior of KB in flow has consequences for the properties of the gel network that is formed immediately after the cessation of shear: both the yield stress and the electronic conductivity increase with the previously applied shear rate. Our findings thus have clear implications for the operation and filling strategies of semisolid flow batteries. PMID:28122184

  4. THE MASS-DEPENDENT STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF DISK GALAXIES: INFALL MODEL VERSUS OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R. X.; Hou, J. L.; Shen, S. Y.; Shu, C. G.

    2010-10-10

    We introduce a simple model to explore the star formation histories of disk galaxies. We assume that the disk originate and grows by continuous gas infall. The gas infall rate is parameterized by the Gaussian formula with one free parameter: the infall-peak time t{sub p} . The Kennicutt star formation law is adopted to describe how much cold gas turns into stars. The gas outflow process is also considered in our model. We find that, at a given galactic stellar mass M{sub *}, the model adopting a late infall-peak time t{sub p} results in blue colors, low-metallicity, high specific star formation rate (SFR), and high gas fraction, while the gas outflow rate mainly influences the gas-phase metallicity and star formation efficiency mainly influences the gas fraction. Motivated by the local observed scaling relations, we 'construct' a mass-dependent model by assuming that the low-mass galaxy has a later infall-peak time t{sub p} and a larger gas outflow rate than massive systems. It is shown that this model can be in agreement with not only the local observations, but also with the observed correlations between specific SFR and galactic stellar mass SFR/M{sub *} {approx} M{sub *} at intermediate redshifts z < 1. Comparison between the Gaussian-infall model and the exponential-infall model is also presented. It shows that the exponential-infall model predicts a higher SFR at early stage and a lower SFR later than that of Gaussian infall. Our results suggest that the Gaussian infall rate may be more reasonable in describing the gas cooling process than the exponential infall rate, especially for low-mass systems.

  5. Opposite Cannabis-Cognition Associations in Psychotic Patients Depending on Family History

    PubMed Central

    González-Pinto, Ana; González-Ortega, Itxaso; Alberich, Susana; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Bernardo, Miguel; Bioque, Miquel; Cabrera, Bibiana; Corripio, Iluminada; Arango, Celso; Lobo, Antonio; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M.; Cuesta, Manuel J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate cognitive performance in a first-episode psychosis sample, when stratifying the interaction by cannabis use and familial or non-familial psychosis. Hierarchical-regression models were used to analyse this association in a sample of 268 first-episode psychosis patients and 237 controls. We found that cannabis use was associated with worse working memory, regardless of family history. However, cannabis use was clearly associated with worse cognitive performance in patients with no family history of psychosis, in cognitive domains including verbal memory, executive function and global cognitive index, whereas cannabis users with a family history of psychosis performed better in these domains. The main finding of the study is that there is an interaction between cannabis use and a family history of psychosis in the areas of verbal memory, executive function and global cognition: that is, cannabis use is associated with a better performance in patients with a family history of psychosis and a worse performance in those with no family history of psychosis. In order to confirm this hypothesis, future research should explore the actual expression of the endocannabinoid system in patients with and without a family history of psychosis. PMID:27513670

  6. Opposite Cannabis-Cognition Associations in Psychotic Patients Depending on Family History.

    PubMed

    González-Pinto, Ana; González-Ortega, Itxaso; Alberich, Susana; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Bernardo, Miguel; Bioque, Miquel; Cabrera, Bibiana; Corripio, Iluminada; Arango, Celso; Lobo, Antonio; Sánchez-Torres, Ana M; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate cognitive performance in a first-episode psychosis sample, when stratifying the interaction by cannabis use and familial or non-familial psychosis. Hierarchical-regression models were used to analyse this association in a sample of 268 first-episode psychosis patients and 237 controls. We found that cannabis use was associated with worse working memory, regardless of family history. However, cannabis use was clearly associated with worse cognitive performance in patients with no family history of psychosis, in cognitive domains including verbal memory, executive function and global cognitive index, whereas cannabis users with a family history of psychosis performed better in these domains. The main finding of the study is that there is an interaction between cannabis use and a family history of psychosis in the areas of verbal memory, executive function and global cognition: that is, cannabis use is associated with a better performance in patients with a family history of psychosis and a worse performance in those with no family history of psychosis. In order to confirm this hypothesis, future research should explore the actual expression of the endocannabinoid system in patients with and without a family history of psychosis.

  7. Assessing the risks and benefits of benzodiazepines for anxiety disorders in patients with a history of substance abuse or dependence.

    PubMed

    Posternak, M A; Mueller, T I

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors reevaluate the traditional position that benzodiazepines should be avoided in anxiety disorder patients with a history of substance abuse or dependence. The efficacy of benzodiazepines in each of the anxiety disorders is reviewed, as are their side effects and toxicity. The definitions of benzodiazepine abuse and dependence are discussed, and relevant animal, experimental, and clinical data are reviewed and analyzed. A manual and computerized (MEDLINE) search was performed from 1966 to the present to examine the English-language literature published on benzodiazepines, substance abuse, and each of the anxiety disorders listed in DSM-IV. The authors found that benzodiazepines have demonstrated efficacy in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and agoraphobia; they are promising agents in the treatment of social phobia and alcohol-induced anxiety disorders. They are generally well tolerated. There is much ambiguity over appropriate definitions for benzodiazepine abuse and dependence: although most benzodiazepine abusers concurrently abuse other substances, there is little evidence to indicate that a history of substance abuse is a major risk factor for future benzodiazepine abuse or dependence. Furthermore, benzodiazepines do not appear to induce relapse of substance abuse in these patients. The authors conclude that the position that benzodiazepines are contraindicated in former substance abusers appears to lack empirical justification. Benzodiazepines may be indicated in certain patients with anxiety disorders and a history of substance abuse or dependence.

  8. A Family History of Substance Dependence Obscures the Group Differences in Brain Function Associated with HIV-1 and ART

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, L.O.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recently, the NIH called for additional research on the topic of viral and host factors contributing to impaired cognitive and neural function in HIV/AIDS patients and their response to antiretroviral treatment. This investigation responds to that call by examining a host factor, a family history of substance dependence, often overlooked in cognitive and neuroimaging studies of HIV/AIDS. METHODS We categorized 146 HIV-1 seropositive patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 92 seronegative volunteers by the presence or absence of alcohol, cocaine, or heroin dependence affecting a biological parent. Seropositive patients were further categorized by the estimated ability of their individual ART regimens to penetrate the CNS. The indicator of brain function was a 3–7 Hz oscillatory electroencephalographic response (theta ERO) evoked by target stimuli presented during a simple selective attention task. RESULTS The analysis revealed that the presence of a family history of substance dependence obscured the reduction in frontal theta ERO power accompanying the presence of HIV-1 as well as the improvement in frontal theta ERO power accompanying treatment with ART agents estimated to have greater (n=41) versus lesser (n=105) CNS penetrance. Secondary analyses employing sLORETA source localization techniques revealed that the source of the theta ERO response was similarly reduced by the presence of either HIV-1 or a family history of substance dependence. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that a family history of substance dependence complicates and obscures the subtle neurophysiological changes which typically accompany HIV/AIDS and ART. Studies of new therapeutic agents for HIV-1-associated cognitive and neurophysiological impairments must consider this complication and exclude or control it. PMID:22749564

  9. The history dependence of force production in mammalian skeletal muscle following stretch-shortening and shortening-stretch cycles.

    PubMed

    Herzog, W; Leonard, T R

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the history dependence of force production during and following stretch-shortening and shortening-stretch cycles in mammalian skeletal muscle. Thirty-three different isometric, stretch, shortening, stretch-shortening and shortening-stretch experiments were preformed in cat soleus (n=8) using previously established methods. Stretch-shortening and shortening-stretch cycles are not commutative with respect to the isometric forces following the length changes. Whereas force depression following shortening is virtually unaffected by previous stretching of the muscle, force enhancement following stretch depends in a dose-dependent manner on the amount of muscle shortening preceding the stretch. The history dependence of isometric force following shortening-stretch cycles can conveniently be modelled using an elastic (compressive and tensile) element that engages at the length of muscle activation. Such an "elastic" mechanism has been proposed by Edman and Tsuchiya (1996) (Edman, K.A. P., Tsuchiya, T., 1996. Strain of passive elements during force enhancement by stretch in frog mucle fibres. Journal of Physiology 490. 1, 191-205) based on experimental observations, and has been implemented theoretically in a rheological model of muscle (Forcinito et al., 1997) (Forcinito, M., Epstein, M., Herzog, W., 1997. Theoretical considerations on myofibril stiffness. Biophysics Journal 72, 1278-1286). The history dependence of isometric force following stretch-shortening cycles appears independent of the stretch preceding the shortening, except perhaps, if stretching occurs at very high speeds (i.e. 6-10 times fibre length per second). The results of this study are hard to reconcile with the two major mechanisms associated with history dependence of force production: sarcomere length non-uniformity (Edman et al., 1993) and stress-induced cross-bridge inhibition (Maréchal and Plaghki, 1979) (Maréchal, G., Plaghki, L., 1979. The deficit of

  10. Carbon sequestration potential of grazed pasture depends on prior management history

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazed pastures are often assumed to be net sinks for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and thus, are promoted as a management practice that can help mitigate climate change. The ability to serve as a C sink is especially pronounced following a history of tillage and row crop production. I...

  11. Trait assembly in grasslands depends on habitat history and spatial scale.

    PubMed

    Saar, Liina; de Bello, Francesco; Pärtel, Meelis; Helm, Aveliina

    2017-01-19

    During the past century, grasslands in Europe have undergone marked changes in land-use, leading to a decline in plant diversity both at local and regional scales, thus possibly also affecting the mechanisms of species sorting into local communities. We studied plant species assembly in grasslands with differing habitat history and hypothesised that trait divergence prevails in historical grasslands due to niche differentiation and trait convergence prevails in more dynamic grasslands due to competitive exclusion and dispersal limitation. We tested these hypotheses in 35 grassland complexes in Estonia, containing neighbouring grassland habitats with different land-use histories: continuously managed open historical grassland, currently overgrown former grassland and young developing grassland. We assessed species assembly patterns in each grassland type for finer scale-a 2 × 2 m plot scale from a local community pool and for broader scale-a local community from the habitat species pool for that grassland stage and observed changes in trait means at finer scale. We found that grasslands with long management history are assembled differently from former grasslands or young developing grasslands. In historical grasslands, divergence or random patterns prevailed at finer scale species assembly while in former or developing grasslands, mostly convergence patterns prevailed. With increasing scale convergence patterns become more prevalent in all grassland types. We conclude that land-use history is an important factor to consider when assessing grassland functional trait assembly, particularly at small scales. Understanding the mechanisms behind species assembly and their relationship with land-use history is vital for habitat conservation and restoration.

  12. Theory of the dependence of population levels on environmental history for semelparous species with short reproductive seasons.

    PubMed

    Coleman, B D; Hsieh, Y H

    1979-10-01

    A population that is strongly self-regulating through density-dependent effects is expected to be such that, if many generations have elapsed since its establishment, its present size should not be sensitive to its initial size but should instead be determined by the history of the variables that describe the influence of the environment on fecundity, mortality, and dispersal. Here we discuss the dependence of abundance on environmental history for a semelparous population in which reproduction is synchronous. It is assumed that at each instant t: (i) the rate of loss of members of age a by mortality and dispersal is given by a function rho of t, a, and the present number x = x(a,t) of such members; and (ii) the number x(0,t) of members born in the population is given by a function F of t and the number of x(a(f),t) at a specified age a(f) of fecundity. It is further assumed that the functions rho and F have the forms rho(x,a,t) = pi(1)(a,t)x + pi(2)(a,t)x(2) and F(x(a(f),t),t) = nu(t)x(a(f),t). For such a population, a change in the environment is significant only if it results in a change in nu(t) pi(1)(a,t), or pi(2)(a,t), and, hence, the history of the environment up to time t is described by giving nu(tau), pi(1)(a,tau), and pi(2)(a,tau) for each tau dependence of x on the history of the environment can be calculated explicitly and has certain properties of "fading memory"; i.e., environmental events that occurred in the remote past have less effect upon the present abundance than comparable events in the recent past.

  13. Illusion of control in a Brownian game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satinover, J. B.; Sornette, D.

    2007-12-01

    Both single-player Parrondo games (SPPG) and multi-player Parrondo games (MPPG) display the Parrondo effect (PE) wherein two or more individually fair (or losing) games yield a net winning outcome if alternated periodically or randomly. (There is a more formal, less restrictive definition of the PE.) We illustrate that, when subject to an elementary optimization rule, the PG displays degraded rather than enhanced returns. Optimization provides only the illusion of control, when low-entropy strategies (i.e., which use more information) under-perform random strategies (with maximal entropy). This illusion is unfortunately widespread in many human attempts to manage or predict complex systems. For the PG, the illusion is especially striking in that the optimization rule reverses an already paradoxical-seeming positive gain-the Parrondo effect proper-and turns it negative. While this phenomenon has been previously demonstrated using somewhat artificial conditions in the MPPG [L. Dinis, J.M.R. Parrondo, Europhys. Lett. 63 (2003) 319; J.M.R. Parrondo, L. Dinis, J. Buceta, K. Lindenberg, Advances in Condensed Matter and Statistical Mechanics, E. Korutcheva, R. Cuerno (Eds.), Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2003], we demonstrate it in the natural setting of a history-dependent SPPG.

  14. A History of Alcohol Dependence Augments HIV-associated Neurocognitive Deficits in Persons Aged 60 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Gongvatana, Assawin; Morgan, Erin E.; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Letendre, Scott L.; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use is common among people living with HIV. Given the growing prevalence of older HIV+ adults, and observations indicating higher risk for neurocognitive impairment in older adults with either HIV infection or alcoholism, an increased understanding of their combined impact in the context of this increasingly aged population is crucial. Methods We conducted comprehensive neurocognitive assessment in 112 older HIV+ individuals aged 50 to 69 years. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the interaction between age and the presence of lifetime alcohol dependence on neurocognitive measures, controlling for years of education, hepatitis C serostatus, and lifetime non-alcohol substance use disorder. Results Significant interactions of age and alcohol dependence history were found for global neurocognitive function, which was driven by the domains of executive function, processing speed, and semantic memory. Follow-up analyses indicated adverse effects of alcohol use history on neurocognitive measures that were evident only in HIV+ individuals 60 years and older. Conclusions While mounting evidence in younger cohorts indicates adverse synergistic HIV/alcohol effects on neurocognitive function, our novel preliminary findings in this elderly HIV+ cohort demonstrated the importance of even a relatively distant alcohol use history on the expression of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders that may not become apparent until much later in life. PMID:25201556

  15. The viscoelastic properties of processed cheeses depend on their thermal history and fat polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Gliguem, Hela; Lopez, Christelle; Michon, Camille; Lesieur, Pierre; Ollivon, Michel

    2011-04-13

    Both the composition and the thermal kinetics that are applied to processed cheeses can affect their texture. This study investigated the effect of the storage conditions and thermal history on the viscoelastic properties of processed cheese and the physical properties of the fat phase. The microstructure of processed cheese has been characterized. Using a combination of physical techniques such as rheometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction, the partial crystallization of fat and the polymorphism of triacylglycerols (TG; main constituents of milk fat) were related to changes in the elastic modulus and tan δ as a function of temperature. In the small emulsion droplets (<1 μm) dispersed in processed cheeses, the solid fat phase was studied at a molecular level and showed differences as a function of the thermal history. Storage of processed cheese at 4 °C and its equilibration at 25 °C lead to partial crystallization of the fat phase, with the formation of a β' 2 L (40.9 Å) structure; on cooling at 2 °C min(-1), the formation of an α 3 L (65.8 Å) structure was characterized. The cooling of processed cheese from 60 to -10 °C leads to the formation of a single type of crystal: α 3 L (72 Å). Structural reorganizations of the solid fat phase characterized on heating allowed the interpretation of the elastic modulus evolution of processed cheese. This study evidenced polymorphism of TG in a complex food product such as processed cheese and allowed a better understanding of the viscoelastic properties as a function of the thermal history.

  16. Roles of density-dependent growth and life history evolution in accounting for fisheries-induced trait changes

    PubMed Central

    Eikeset, Anne Maria; Dunlop, Erin S.; Heino, Mikko; Storvik, Geir; Stenseth, Nils C.; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The relative roles of density dependence and life history evolution in contributing to rapid fisheries-induced trait changes remain debated. In the 1930s, northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), currently the world’s largest cod stock, experienced a shift from a traditional spawning-ground fishery to an industrial trawl fishery with elevated exploitation in the stock’s feeding grounds. Since then, age and length at maturation have declined dramatically, a trend paralleled in other exploited stocks worldwide. These trends can be explained by demographic truncation of the population’s age structure, phenotypic plasticity in maturation arising through density-dependent growth, fisheries-induced evolution favoring faster-growing or earlier-maturing fish, or a combination of these processes. Here, we use a multitrait eco-evolutionary model to assess the capacity of these processes to reproduce 74 y of historical data on age and length at maturation in northeast Arctic cod, while mimicking the stock’s historical harvesting regime. Our results show that model predictions critically depend on the assumed density dependence of growth: when this is weak, life history evolution might be necessary to prevent stock collapse, whereas when a stronger density dependence estimated from recent data is used, the role of evolution in explaining fisheries-induced trait changes is diminished. Our integrative analysis of density-dependent growth, multitrait evolution, and stock-specific time series data underscores the importance of jointly considering evolutionary and ecological processes, enabling a more comprehensive perspective on empirically observed stock dynamics than previous studies could provide. PMID:27940913

  17. Sweet preference, sugar addiction and the familial history of alcohol dependence: shared neural pathways and genes.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Jeffrey L

    2010-06-01

    Contemporary research has shown that a high number of alcohol-dependent and other drug-dependent individuals have a sweet preference, specifically for foods with a high sucrose concentration. Moreover, both human and animal studies have demonstrated that in some brains the consumption of sugar-rich foods or drinks primes the release of euphoric endorphins and dopamine within the nucleus accumbens, in a manner similar to some drugs of abuse. The neurobiological pathways of drug and "sugar addiction" involve similar neural receptors, neurotransmitters, and hedonic regions in the brain. Craving, tolerance, withdrawal and sensitization have been documented in both human and animal studies. In addition, there appears to be cross sensitization between sugar addiction and narcotic dependence in some individuals. It has also been observed that the biological children of alcoholic parents, particularly alcoholic fathers, are at greater risk to have a strong sweet preference, and this may manifest in some with an eating disorder. In the last two decades research has noted that specific genes may underlie the sweet preference in alcohol- and drug-dependent individuals, as well as in biological children of paternal alcoholics. There also appears to be some common genetic markers between alcohol dependence, bulimia, and obesity, such as the A1 allele gene and the dopamine 2 receptor gene.

  18. Associations between psychedelic use, abuse, and dependence and lifetime panic attack history in a representative sample.

    PubMed

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Bernstein, Amit; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the associations between lifetime psychedelic use, abuse, and dependence and panic attacks. The study consisted of a representative epidemiological sample from a state wide survey of the Colorado general adult population (n=4745; 52% female). Consistent with prediction, after controlling for theoretically relevant variables, psychedelic abuse and dependence, but not use, were significantly related to an increased lifetime risk of panic attacks. The results are discussed in terms of better understanding the role of psychedelic use in relation to the occurrence of panic attacks.

  19. Vital capacities in acute and chronic airway obstruction: dependence on flow and volume histories.

    PubMed

    Brusasco, V; Pellegrino, R; Rodarte, J R

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether measurements of vital capacity (VC) are affected by the direction of the manoeuvre (inspiratory vs expiratory) and by the rate of expiratory flow. The study was performed on 25 individuals with chronic airway obstruction (CAO) and a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (expressed in standardized residuals (SR)) of -2.0+/-1.4 SD (CAO group), and 10 asthmatic subjects with methacholine (MCh)-induced bronchoconstriction (FEV1 -23+/-1.02 SR) (MCh group). VCs were measured during fast inspiration following both slow (FIVCse) and forced (FIVCfe) expiration from end-tidal inspiration to residual volume (RV), and during slow (EVC) or forced (FVC) expiration from total lung capacity (TLC). In the CAO group, FVC was the smallest volume (3.75+/-1.03 L) and significantly different from the other three estimates of VC; FIVCse (4.03+/-0.91 L) was the largest volume and significantly different from FVC and FIVCfe (3.83+/-0.98 L). In the MCh group, FVC (4.16+/-0.94 L) and EVC (4.19+/-0.89 L) were the largest volumes, although only the difference between FVC and FIVCfe (3.76+/-0.81 L) reached statistical significance. These data suggest that both flow and volume histories contribute to decreased vital capacities during bronchoconstriction. However, whereas increasing expiratory flow always tends to decrease vital capacity, the volume history of full inflation has different effects in chronic and acute bronchoconstriction, probably due to different effects on airway calibre. These results stress the importance of using standardized manoeuvres in order to obtain comparable values of vital capacity.

  20. A Short History of cGMP, Guanylyl Cyclases, and cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Kots, Alexander Y.; Martin, Emil; Sharina, Iraida G.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we review the early studies on cGMP, guanylyl cyclases, and cGMP-dependent protein kinases to facilitate understanding of development of this exciting but complex field of research encompassing pharmacology, biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology of these important regulatory molecules. PMID:19089322

  1. What shall I do now? State-dependent variations of life-history traits with aging in Wandering Albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Deborah; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-02-01

    Allocation decisions depend on an organism's condition which can change with age. Two opposite changes in life-history traits are predicted in the presence of senescence: either an increase in breeding performance in late age associated with terminal investment or a decrease due to either life-history trade-offs between current breeding and future survival or decreased efficiency at old age. Age variation in several life-history traits has been detected in a number of species, and demographic performances of individuals in a given year are influenced by their reproductive state the previous year. Few studies have, however, examined state-dependent variation in life-history traits with aging, and they focused mainly on a dichotomy of successful versus failed breeding and non-breeding birds. Using a 50-year dataset on the long-lived quasi-biennial breeding wandering albatross, we investigated variations in life-history traits with aging according to a gradient of states corresponding to potential costs of reproduction the previous year (in ascending order): non-breeding birds staying at sea or present at breeding grounds, breeding birds that failed early, late or were successful. We used multistate models to study survival and decompose reproduction into four components (probabilities of return, breeding, hatching, and fledging), while accounting for imperfect detection. Our results suggest the possible existence of two strategies in the population: strict biennial breeders that exhibited almost no reproductive senescence and quasi-biennial breeders that showed an increased breeding frequency with a strong and moderate senescence on hatching and fledging probabilities, respectively. The patterns observed on survival were contrary to our predictions, suggesting an influence of individual quality rather than trade-offs between reproduction and survival at late ages. This work represents a step further into understanding the evolutionary ecology of senescence and its

  2. What shall I do now? State-dependent variations of life-history traits with aging in Wandering Albatrosses

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Deborah; Barbraud, Christophe; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Allocation decisions depend on an organism's condition which can change with age. Two opposite changes in life-history traits are predicted in the presence of senescence: either an increase in breeding performance in late age associated with terminal investment or a decrease due to either life-history trade-offs between current breeding and future survival or decreased efficiency at old age. Age variation in several life-history traits has been detected in a number of species, and demographic performances of individuals in a given year are influenced by their reproductive state the previous year. Few studies have, however, examined state-dependent variation in life-history traits with aging, and they focused mainly on a dichotomy of successful versus failed breeding and non-breeding birds. Using a 50-year dataset on the long-lived quasi-biennial breeding wandering albatross, we investigated variations in life-history traits with aging according to a gradient of states corresponding to potential costs of reproduction the previous year (in ascending order): non-breeding birds staying at sea or present at breeding grounds, breeding birds that failed early, late or were successful. We used multistate models to study survival and decompose reproduction into four components (probabilities of return, breeding, hatching, and fledging), while accounting for imperfect detection. Our results suggest the possible existence of two strategies in the population: strict biennial breeders that exhibited almost no reproductive senescence and quasi-biennial breeders that showed an increased breeding frequency with a strong and moderate senescence on hatching and fledging probabilities, respectively. The patterns observed on survival were contrary to our predictions, suggesting an influence of individual quality rather than trade-offs between reproduction and survival at late ages. This work represents a step further into understanding the evolutionary ecology of senescence and its

  3. High-dose nicotine patch therapy for smokers with a history of alcohol dependence: 36-week outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kalman, David; Kahler, Christopher W; Garvey, Arthur J; Monti, Peter M

    2006-04-01

    This study reports findings from an investigation of the efficacy of high-dose nicotine patch (NP) therapy for heavy smokers with a history of alcohol dependence. One hundred thirty participants were randomly assigned to 42 or 21 mg of transdermal nicotine. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 4, 12, 24, and 36 weeks. Differences between dose conditions were nonsignificant, although, unexpectedly, outcomes favored participants in the 21-mg NP condition. Nicotine abstinence rates in the 21- and 42-mg NP conditions on Week 36 follow-up were 16.9% and 9.2%, respectively. Patch condition did not interact with severity of nicotine dependence. However, nicotine abstinence at follow-up was related to a longer length of alcohol abstinence. No evidence was found for better outcomes as a function of the percentage of baseline cotinine replaced by NPs. Future research should focus primarily on investigating ways to improve smoking quit rates for smokers in early alcohol recovery.

  4. Increased dependence of action selection on recent motor history in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Helmich, Rick C; Aarts, Esther; de Lange, Floris P; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Toni, Ivan

    2009-05-13

    It is well known that the basal ganglia are involved in switching between movement sequences. Here we test the hypothesis that this contribution is an instance of a more general role of the basal ganglia in selecting actions that deviate from the context defined by the recent motor history, even when there is no sequential structure to learn or implement. We investigated the effect of striatal dopamine depletion [in Parkinson's disease (PD)] on the ability to switch between independent action plans. PD patients with markedly lateralized signs performed a hand laterality judgment task that involved action selection of their most and least affected hand. Trials where patients selected the same (repeat) or the alternative (switch) hand as in a previous trial were compared, and this was done separately for the most and least affected hand. Behaviorally, PD patients showed switch-costs that were specific to the most affected hand and that increased with disease severity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) showed that this behavioral effect was related to the state of the frontostriatal system: as disease severity increased, contributions of the basal ganglia to the selection process and their effective connectivity with the medial frontal cortex (MFC) decreased, whereas involvement of the MFC increased. We conclude that the basal ganglia are important for rapidly switching toward novel motor plans even when there is no sequential structure to learn or implement. The enhanced MFC activity may result either from reduced focusing abilities of the basal ganglia or from compensatory processes.

  5. History dependence of the magnetic properties of single-crystal Fe1 -xCoxSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, A.; Garst, M.; Pfleiderer, C.

    2016-06-01

    We report the magnetization, ac susceptibility, and specific heat of optically float-zoned single crystals of Fe1 -xCoxSi , 0.20 ≤x ≤0.50 . We determine the magnetic phase diagrams for all major crystallographic directions and cooling histories. After zero-field cooling, the phase diagrams resemble that of the archetypal stoichiometric cubic chiral magnet MnSi. Besides the helical and conical state, we observe a pocket of skyrmion lattice phase just below the helimagnetic ordering temperature. At the phase boundaries between these states evidence for slow dynamics is observed. When the sample is cooled in small magnetic fields, the phase pocket of skyrmion lattice may persist metastably down to the lowest temperatures. Taken together with the large variation in the transition temperatures, transition fields, and helix wavelength as a function of the composition, this hysteresis identifies Fe1 -xCoxSi as an ideal material for future experiments exploring, for instance, the topological unwinding of the skyrmion lattice.

  6. Effect of yohimbine on reinstatement of operant responding in rats is dependent on cue contingency but not food reward history

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Fiscella, Kimberly A.; Bacharach, Samuel Z.; Tanda, Gianluigi; Shaham, Yavin; Calu, Donna J.

    2014-01-01

    Yohimbine is an alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist that has been used in numerous studies as a pharmacological stressor in rodents, monkeys, and humans. Recently, yohimbine has become the most common stress manipulation in studies on reinstatement of drug and food seeking. However, the wide range of conditions under which yohimbine promotes reward seeking is significantly greater than that of stressors like intermittent footshock. Here we addressed two fundamental questions regarding yohimbine’s effect on reinstatement of reward seeking: (1) whether the drug’s effect on operant responding is dependent on previous reward history or cue contingency, and (2) whether yohimbine is aversive or rewarding under conditions typically used in reinstatement studies. We also used in vivo microdialysis to determine yohimbine’s effect on dopamine levels in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We found that the magnitude of yohimbine-induced (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/kg) operant responding during the reinstatement tests was critically dependent on the contingency between lever-pressing and discrete tone-light cue delivery but not the previous history with food reward during training. We also found that yohimbine (2 mg/kg) did not cause conditioned place aversion. Finally, we found that yohimbine modestly increased dopamine levels in mPFC but not NAc. Results suggest that yohimbine’s effects on operant responding in reinstatement studies are likely independent of the history of contingent self-administration of food or drug rewards and may not be related to the commonly assumed stress-like effects of yohimbine. PMID:25065697

  7. Photoperiod history-dependent responses to intermediate day lengths engage hypothalamic iodothyronine deiodinase type III mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Kampf-Lassin, August; Prendergast, Brian J

    2013-04-15

    Perihypothalamic thyroid hormone signaling features prominently in the seasonal control of reproductive physiology. Triiodothyronine (T(3)) signaling stimulates gonadal development, and decrements in T(3) signaling are associated with gonadal regression. Type 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (DIO3) converts the prohormone thyroxine (T(4)) into biologically inactive 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine, and in long-day breeding Siberian hamsters exposure to long (LD) and short (SD) photoperiods, respectively, inhibit and stimulate hypothalamic dio3 mRNA expression. Reproductive responses to intermediate-duration photoperiods (IntD) occur in a history-dependent manner; IntDs are interpreted as inhibitory only when preceded by longer photoperiods. Because dio3 expression has only been evaluated under LD or SD photoperiods, it is not known whether hypothalamic dio3 encodes absolute photoperiod duration or the reproductive interpretation of photoperiod. Male Siberian hamsters with and without a prior history of LD were exposed to IntD photoperiods, and hypothalamic dio3 mRNA expression was measured 6 wk later. Hamsters with a LD photoperiod history exhibited gonadal regression in IntD and a marked upregulation of hypothalamic dio3 expression, whereas in hamsters without prior exposure to LD, gonadal responses to IntD were absent, and dio3 expression remained low. Patterns of deiodinase expression in hamsters maintained in chronic IntD photoperiods did not appear to reflect feedback effects of gonadal status. Hypothalamic expression of dio3 does not exclusively reflect ambient photoperiod, but rather the context-dependent reproductive interpretation of photoperiod. Neuroendocrine mechanisms that compare current and prior photoperiods, which permit detection of directional changes in day length, occur either upstream, or at the level, of hypothalamic dio3 expression.

  8. Effect of yohimbine on reinstatement of operant responding in rats is dependent on cue contingency but not food reward history.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Fiscella, Kimberly A; Bacharach, Samuel Z; Tanda, Gianluigi; Shaham, Yavin; Calu, Donna J

    2015-07-01

    Yohimbine is an alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist that has been used in numerous studies as a pharmacological stressor in rodents, monkeys and humans. Recently, yohimbine has become the most common stress manipulation in studies on reinstatement of drug and food seeking. However, the wide range of conditions under which yohimbine promotes reward seeking is significantly greater than that of stressors like intermittent footshock. Here, we addressed two fundamental questions regarding yohimbine's effect on reinstatement of reward seeking: (1) whether the drug's effect on operant responding is dependent on previous reward history or cue contingency, and (2) whether yohimbine is aversive or rewarding under conditions typically used in reinstatement studies. We also used in vivo microdialysis to determine yohimbine's effect on dopamine levels in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We found that the magnitude of yohimbine-induced (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/kg) operant responding during the reinstatement tests was critically dependent on the contingency between lever pressing and discrete tone-light cue delivery but not the previous history with food reward during training. We also found that yohimbine (2 mg/kg) did not cause conditioned place aversion. Finally, we found that yohimbine modestly increased dopamine levels in mPFC but not NAc. Results suggest that yohimbine's effects on operant responding in reinstatement studies are likely independent of the history of contingent self-administration of food or drug rewards and may not be related to the commonly assumed stress-like effects of yohimbine.

  9. Voluntary exercise and its effects on body composition depend on genetic selection history.

    PubMed

    Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Hua, Kunjie; Estrada-Smith, Daria; Garland, Theodore; Pomp, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    Little is known about how genetic variation affects the capacity for exercise to change body composition. We examined the extent to which voluntary exercise alters body composition in several lines of selectively bred mice compared to controls. Lines studied included high runner (HR) (selected for high wheel running), M16 (selected for rapid weight gain), Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) (randomly bred as control for M16), M16i (an inbred line derived from M16), HE (selected for high percentage of body fat while holding body weight constant), LF (selected for low percentage of body fat), C57BL/6J (common inbred line), and the F1 between HR and C57BL/6J. Body weight and body fat were recorded before and after 6 days of free access to running wheels in males and females that were individually caged. Total food intake was measured during this 6-day period. All pre- and postexercise measures showed significant strain effects. While HR mice predictably exercised at higher levels, all other selection lines had decreased levels of wheel running relative to ICR. The HR x B6 F1 ran at similar levels to HR demonstrating complete dominance for voluntary exercise. Also, all strains lost body fat after exercise, but the relationships between exercise and changes in percent body were not uniform across genotypes. These results indicate that there is significant genetic variation for voluntary exercise and its effects on body composition. It is important to carefully consider genetic background and/or selection history when using mice to model effects of exercise on body composition, and perhaps, other complex traits as well.

  10. The mass dependence of star formation histories in barred spiral galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carles, Christian; Martel, Hugo; Ellison, Sara L.; Kawata, Daisuke

    2016-11-01

    We performed a series of 29 gas dynamical simulations of disc galaxies, barred and unbarred, with various stellar masses, to study the impact of the bar on star formation history. Unbarred galaxies evolve very smoothly, with a star formation rate (SFR) that varies by at most a factor of 3 over a period of 2 Gyr. The evolution of barred galaxies is much more irregular, especially at high stellar masses. In these galaxies, the bar drives a substantial amount of gas towards the centre, resulting in a high SFR, and producing a starburst in the most massive galaxies. Most of the gas is converted into stars, and gas exhaustion leads to a rapid drop of star formation after the starburst. In massive barred galaxies (stellar mass M_{*}>2× 10^{10} M_{⊙}) the large amount of gas funnelled towards the centre is completely consumed by the starburst, while in lower mass barred galaxies it is only partially consumed. Gas concentration is thus higher in lower mass barred galaxies than it is in higher mass ones. Even though unbarred galaxies funnelled less gas towards their centre, the lower SFR allows this gas to accumulate. At late times, the star formation efficiency is higher in barred galaxies than unbarred ones, enabling these galaxies to maintain a higher SFR with a smaller gas supply. Several properties, such as the global SFR, central SFR, or central gas concentration, vary monotonically with time for unbarred galaxies, but not for barred galaxies. Therefore one must be careful when comparing barred and unbarred galaxies that share one observational property, since these galaxies might be at very different stages of their respective evolution.

  11. Antisocial personality disorder in Turkish substance dependent patients and its relationship with anxiety, depression and a history of childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Kural, Sevil; Erkiran, Murat

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in treatment-seeking Turkish substance dependent patients and the relationship of ASPD with clinical characteristics were studied. Participants were 132 inpatients with substance dependence according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I), Turkish version. The clinician applied a semi-structured socio-demographic form, SCID-I, SCID-II, Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire (CANQ), Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Among the 132 substance dependent patients, 31 (23.5%) had ASPD diagnosis and 56 (42.4%) had no personality disorder or personality traits. Rate of childhood physical abuse, childhood verbal abuse, childhood neglect, suicide attempt history, self-destructive behavior and lifetime major depression were higher among patients with ASPD. Also mean scores of BDI, BAI and MAST were higher among patients with ASPD. The high rate of ASPD found among Turkish substance dependent patients suggests that special attention must be paid to identify ASPD in this group. Findings in this study showed that there is an association between ASPD and childhood abuse, lifetime major depression and severity of substance use.

  12. Neural correlates of impulsive aggressive behavior in subjects with a history of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Kose, Samet; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard; Gowin, Joshua L; Zuniga, Edward; Kamdar, Zahra N; Schmitz, Joy M; Lane, Scott D

    2015-04-01

    Alcohol-related aggression is a complex and problematic phenomenon with profound public health consequences. We examined neural correlates potentially moderating the relationship between human aggressive behavior and chronic alcohol use. Thirteen subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for past alcohol-dependence in remission (AD) and 13 matched healthy controls (CONT) participated in an fMRI study adapted from a laboratory model of human aggressive behavior (Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm, or PSAP). Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation was measured during bouts of operationally defined aggressive behavior, during postprovocation periods, and during monetary-reinforced behavior. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses found group differences in brain regions relevant to chronic alcohol use and aggressive behavior (e.g., emotional and behavioral control). Behaviorally, AD subjects responded on both the aggressive response and monetary response options at significantly higher rates than CONT. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses revealed significant group differences in response to provocation (monetary subtractions), with CONT subjects showing greater activation in frontal and prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and hippocampus. Collapsing data across all subjects, regression analyses of postprovocation brain activation on aggressive response rate revealed significant positive regression slopes in precentral gyrus and parietal cortex; and significant negative regression slopes in orbitofrontal cortex, prefrontal cortex, caudate, thalamus, and middle temporal gyrus. In these collapsed analyses, response to provocation and aggressive behavior were associated with activation in brain regions subserving inhibitory and emotional control, sensorimotor integration, and goal directed motor activity.

  13. Neural Correlates of Impulsive Aggressive Behavior in Subjects With a History of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Kose, Samet; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Gowin, Joshua L.; Zuniga, Edward; Kamdar, Zahra N.; Schmitz, Joy M.; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related aggression is a complex and problematic phenomenon with profound public health consequences. We examined neural correlates potentially moderating the relationship between human aggressive behavior and chronic alcohol use. Thirteen subjects meeting DSM–IV criteria for past alcohol-dependence in remission (AD) and 13 matched healthy controls (CONT) participated in an fMRI study adapted from a laboratory model of human aggressive behavior (Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm, or PSAP). Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation was measured during bouts of operationally defined aggressive behavior, during postprovocation periods, and during monetary-reinforced behavior. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses found group differences in brain regions relevant to chronic alcohol use and aggressive behavior (e.g., emotional and behavioral control). Behaviorally, AD subjects responded on both the aggressive response and monetary response options at significantly higher rates than CONT. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses revealed significant group differences in response to provocation (monetary subtractions), with CONT subjects showing greater activation in frontal and prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and hippocampus. Collapsing data across all subjects, regression analyses of postprovocation brain activation on aggressive response rate revealed significant positive regression slopes in precentral gyrus and parietal cortex; and significant negative regression slopes in orbitofrontal cortex, prefrontal cortex, caudate, thalamus, and middle temporal gyrus. In these collapsed analyses, response to provocation and aggressive behavior were associated with activation in brain regions subserving inhibitory and emotional control, sensorimotor integration, and goal directed motor activity. PMID:25664566

  14. History of suicide attempt in male substance-dependent inpatients and relationship to borderline personality features, anger, hostility and aggression.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Cinar, Ozgul; Evren, Bilge; Celik, Selime

    2011-11-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between severity of borderline personality features and history of suicide attempt (HSA) in male substance-dependent inpatients and the effect of anger, hostility and aggression on this relationship. Further, the effect of some variables that may be related to suicide and/or borderline personality, such as age at inception of regular substance use, substance of dependence (alcohol/drug), depression, and both state and trait anxiety, were controlled. Participants were 200 consecutively admitted male substance-dependent inpatients. Patients were investigated with the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Among substance-dependent inpatients, 33.0% (n=66) were identified as the group with HSA. Mean scores employment status, marital status and duration of education did not differ between groups, whereas current age and age at onset of regular substance use were lower in group with HSA. Mean scores of BPI, AQ and its subscales (anger, hostility and physical/verbal aggression), BDI and STAI were higher in the HSA group. In addition, the rates of drug dependency and borderline personality disorder were higher in this group. The severity of borderline personality symptoms was highly correlated with subscales of the AQ, depression and anxiety, whereas it was negatively correlated with age at onset of regular substance use. The severity of anger and borderline personality features predicted HSA in the logistic regression model. Results suggest that, to reduce the risk of suicide attempt among substance-dependent patients, the feeling of anger must be the target of evaluation and treatment among those with borderline personality features.

  15. Herbivores sculpt leaf traits differently in grasslands depending on life form and land-use histories.

    PubMed

    Firn, Jennifer; Schütz, Martin; Nguyen, Huong; Risch, Anita C

    2017-01-01

    Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores alter plant communities directly by selectively consuming plant species; and indirectly by inducing morphological and physiological changes to plant traits that provide competitive or survivorship advantages to some life forms over others. Progressively excluding aboveground herbivore communities (ungulates, medium and small sized mammals, invertebrates) over five growing seasons, we explored how leaf morphology (specific leaf area or SLA) and nutrition (nitrogen, carbon, phosphorous, potassium, sodium, and calcium) of different plant life forms (forbs, legumes, grasses, sedges) correlated with their dominance. We experimented in two subalpine grassland types with different land-use histories: (1) heavily grazed, nutrient-rich, short-grass vegetation and (2) lightly grazed, lower nutrient tall-grass vegetation. We found differences in leaf traits between treatments where either all herbivores were excluded or all herbivores were present, showing the importance of considering the impacts of both vertebrates and invertebrates on the leaf traits of plant species. Life forms responses to the progressive exclusion of herbivores were captured by six possible combinations: (1) increased leaf size and resource use efficiency (leaf area/nutrients) where lower nutrient levels are invested in leaf construction, but a reduction in the number of leaves, for example, forbs in both vegetation types, (2) increased leaf size and resource use efficiency, for example, legumes in short grass, (3) increased leaf size but a reduction in the number of leaves, for example, legumes in the tall grass, (4) increased number of leaves produced and increased resource use efficiency, for example, grasses in the short grass, (5) increased resource use efficiency of leaves only, for example, grasses and sedges in the tall grass, and (6) no response in terms of leaf construction or dominance, for example, sedges in the short grass. Although we found multiple

  16. Temperature-dependent structural variability of RNAs: spliced leader RNAs and their evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Marz, Manja; Vanzo, Nathalie; Stadler, Peter F

    2010-02-01

    The structures attained by RNA molecules depend not only on their sequence but also on environmental parameters such as their temperature. So far, this effect has been largely neglected in bioinformatics studies. Here, we show that structural comparisons can be facilitated and more coherent structural models can be obtained when differences in environmental parameters are taken into account. We re-evaluate the secondary structures of the spliced leader (SL) RNAs from the seven eukaryotic phyla in which SL RNA trans-splicing has been described. Adjusting structure prediction to the natural growth temperatures and considering energetically similar secondary structures, we observe striking similarities among Euglenida, Kinetoplastida, Dinophyceae, Cnidaria, Rotifera, Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, and Tunicata that cannot be explained easily by the independent innovation of SL RNAs in each of these phyla. Supplementary Table is available at http://www.worldscinet.com/jbcb/.

  17. Pharmacological pain control for human immunodeficiency virus—infected adults with a history of drug dependence

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sanjay; Bruce, R. Douglas; Barry, Declan T.; Altice, Frederick L.

    2007-01-01

    Clinicians treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with substance use disorders often face the challenge of managing patients' acute or chronic pain conditions while keeping in mind the potential dangers of prescription opiate dependence. In this clinical review, we critically appraise the existing data concerning barriers to appropriate treatment of pain among HIV-infected patients with substance use disorders. We then analyze published studies concerning the choice of pharmacological pain control regimens for acute and chronic pain conditions in HIV-infected patients, keeping in mind HIV-specific issues related to drug interactions and substance use disorders. We summarize this information in the form of flowcharts for physicians approaching HIV-infected patients who present with complaints of pain, providing evidence-based guidance for the structuring of pain management services and for addressing aberrant drug-taking behaviors. PMID:17481463

  18. Fundamental population-productivity relationships can be modified through density-dependent feedbacks of life-history evolution.

    PubMed

    Kuparinen, Anna; Stenseth, Nils Christian; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2014-12-01

    The evolution of life histories over contemporary time scales will almost certainly affect population demography. One important pathway for such eco-evolutionary interactions is the density-dependent regulation of population dynamics. Here, we investigate how fisheries-induced evolution (FIE) might alter density-dependent population-productivity relationships. To this end, we simulate the eco-evolutionary dynamics of an Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) population under fishing, followed by a period of recovery in the absence of fishing. FIE is associated with increases in juvenile production, the ratio of juveniles to mature population biomass, and the ratio of the mature population biomass relative to the total population biomass. In contrast, net reproductive rate (R 0 ) and per capita population growth rate (r) decline concomitantly with evolution. Our findings suggest that FIE can substantially modify the fundamental population-productivity relationships that underlie density-dependent population regulation and that form the primary population-dynamical basis for fisheries stock-assessment projections. From a conservation and fisheries-rebuilding perspective, we find that FIE reduces R 0 and r, the two fundamental correlates of population recovery ability and inversely extinction probability.

  19. Influence of procedural learning on Iowa Gambling Task performance among HIV+ individuals with history of substance dependence.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul; Wardle, Margaret; Jacobus, Joanna; Vassileva, Jasmin; Martin-Thormeyer, Eileen M

    2010-02-01

    HIV+ individuals have been shown to demonstrate deficits on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), a complex measure of "decision-making." Little remains known about what other neurocognitive processes may account for variability in IGT performance among HIV+ samples or the role of procedural learning (PL) in IGT performance. A sample of 49 HIV+ individuals with a history of substance use disorders was examined to explore the relationship between IGT performance and three measures of PL: The Rotary Pursuit, Mirror Star Tracing, and Weather Prediction tasks. We found no statistically significant relationships between IGT performance and any of the PL tasks, despite finding significant correlations among the PL tasks. This pattern of results persisted when analyzing IGT performance in various ways (e.g., performance on earlier trial blocks or impairment classifications). Although other nondeclarative processes (e.g., somatic markers) may be important for IGT performance, these findings do not support PL as an important component neurocognitive process for the IGT. Similarly, these results suggest that differences in PL performance does not account for the decision-making deficits or variability in performances observed on the IGT among HIV+ individuals with a history of substance dependence.

  20. Deficits in complex motor functions, despite no evidence of procedural learning deficits, among HIV+ individuals with history of substance dependence.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul; Jacobus, Joanna; Amatya, Anup K; Quartana, Phillip J; Vassileva, Jasmin; Martin, Eileen M

    2008-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and drugs of abuse affect common neural systems underlying procedural memory, including the striatum. The authors compared performance of 48 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 48 HIV seronegative (HIV-) participants with history of cocaine and/or heroin dependence across multiple Trial Blocks of three procedural learning (PL) tasks: Rotary Pursuit (RP), Mirror Star Tracing (MST), and Weather Prediction (WP). Groups were well matched on demographic, psychiatric, and substance use parameters, and all participants were verified abstinent from drugs. Mixed model analyses of variance revealed that the individuals in the HIV+ group performed more poorly across all tasks, with a significant main effect of HIV serostatus observed on the Mirror Star Tracing and a trend toward significance obtained for the Rotary Pursuit task. No significant differences were observed on the Weather Prediction task. Both groups demonstrated significant improvements in performance across all three procedural learning tasks. It is important to note that no significant Serostatus x Trial Block interactions were observed on any task. Thus, the individuals in the HIV+ group tended to perform worse than those in the HIV- group across all trial blocks of procedural learning tasks with motor demands, but showed no differences in their rate of improvement across all tasks. These findings are consistent with HIV--associated deficits in complex motor skills, but not in procedural learning.

  1. History dependence of the electromyogram: Implications for isometric steady-state EMG parameters following a lengthening or shortening contraction.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alexis A; Power, Geoffrey A; Herzog, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Residual force enhancement (RFE) and force depression (FD) refer to an increased or decreased force following an active lengthening or shortening contraction, respectively, relative to the isometric force produced at the same activation level and muscle length. Our intent was to determine if EMG characteristics differed in the RFE or FD states compared with a purely isometric reference contraction for maximal and submaximal voluntary activation of the adductor pollicis muscle. Quantifying these alterations to EMG in history-dependent states allows for more accurate modeling approaches for movement control in the future. For maximal voluntary contractions (MVC), RFE was 6-15% (P<0.001) and FD was 12-19% (P<0.001). The median frequency of the EMG was not different between RFE, FD and isometric reference contractions for the 100% and 40% MVC intensities (P>0.05). However, root mean square EMG (EMGRMS) amplitude for the submaximal contractions was higher in the FD and lower in the RFE state, respectively (P<0.05). For maximal contractions, EMGRMS was lower for the FD state but was the same for the RFE state compared to the isometric reference contractions (P>0.05). Neuromuscular efficiency (NME; force/EMG) was lower in the force depressed state and higher in the force enhanced state (P<0.05) compared to the isometric reference contractions. EMG spectral properties were not altered between the force-enhanced and depressed states relative to the isometric reference contractions, while EMG amplitude measures were.

  2. Theoretical life history responses of juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss to changes in food availability using a dynamic state-dependent approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romine, Jason G.; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Perry, Russell W.; Casal, Lynne; Connolly, Patrick J.; Sauter, Sally S.

    2013-01-01

    Marine subsidies can play an important role in the growth, survival, and migratory behavior of rearing juvenile salmonids. Availability of high-energy, marine-derived food sources during critical decision windows may influence the timing of emigration or the decision to forego emigration completely and remain in the freshwater environment. Increasing growth and growth rate during these decision windows may result in an altered juvenile population structure, which will ultimately affect the adult population age-structure. We used a state dependent model to understand how the juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss population structure may respond to increased availability of salmon eggs in their diet during critical decision windows. Our models predicted an increase in smolt production until coho salmon eggs comprised more than 50 percent of juvenile O. mykiss diet at the peak of the spawning run. At higher-than intermediate levels of egg consumption, smolt production decreased owing to increasing numbers of fish adopting a resident life-history strategy. Additionally, greater growth rates decreased the number of age-3 smolts and increased the number of age-2 smolts. Increased growth rates with higher egg consumption also decreased the age at which fish adopted the resident pathway. Our models suggest that the introduction of a high-energy food source during critical periods of the year could be sufficient to increase smolt production.

  3. Spatially-resolved mapping of history-dependent coupled electrochemical and electronical behaviors of electroresistive NiO

    DOE PAGES

    Sugiyama, Issei; Kim, Yunseok; Jesse, Stephen; ...

    2014-10-22

    Bias-induced oxygen ion dynamics underpins a broad spectrum of electroresistive and memristive phenomena in oxide materials. Although widely studied by device-level and local voltage-current spectroscopies, the relationship between electroresistive phenomena, local electrochemical behaviors, and microstructures remains elusive. Here, the interplay between history-dependent electronic transport and electrochemical phenomena in a NiO single crystalline thin film with a number of well-defined defect types is explored on the nanometer scale using an atomic force microscopy-based technique. A variety of electrochemically-active regions were observed and spatially resolved relationship between the electronic and electrochemical phenomena was revealed. The regions with pronounced electroresistive activity were furthermore » correlated with defects identified by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Using fully coupled mechanical-electrochemical modeling, we illustrate that the spatial distribution of strain plays an important role in electrochemical and electroresistive phenomena. In conclusion, these studies illustrate an approach for simultaneous mapping of the electronic and ionic transport on a single defective structure level such as dislocations or interfaces, and pave the way for creating libraries of defect-specific electrochemical responses.« less

  4. Spatially-resolved mapping of history-dependent coupled electrochemical and electronical behaviors of electroresistive NiO

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Issei; Kim, Yunseok; Jesse, Stephen; Strelcov, Evgheni; Kumar, Amit; Tselev, Alexander; Rahani, Ehasan Kabiri; Shenoy, Vivek B.; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2014-10-22

    Bias-induced oxygen ion dynamics underpins a broad spectrum of electroresistive and memristive phenomena in oxide materials. Although widely studied by device-level and local voltage-current spectroscopies, the relationship between electroresistive phenomena, local electrochemical behaviors, and microstructures remains elusive. Here, the interplay between history-dependent electronic transport and electrochemical phenomena in a NiO single crystalline thin film with a number of well-defined defect types is explored on the nanometer scale using an atomic force microscopy-based technique. A variety of electrochemically-active regions were observed and spatially resolved relationship between the electronic and electrochemical phenomena was revealed. The regions with pronounced electroresistive activity were further correlated with defects identified by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Using fully coupled mechanical-electrochemical modeling, we illustrate that the spatial distribution of strain plays an important role in electrochemical and electroresistive phenomena. In conclusion, these studies illustrate an approach for simultaneous mapping of the electronic and ionic transport on a single defective structure level such as dislocations or interfaces, and pave the way for creating libraries of defect-specific electrochemical responses.

  5. The effect of the nonlinear velocity and history dependencies of the aerodynamic force on the dynamic response of a rotating wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Male, Pim; van Dalen, Karel N.; Metrikine, Andrei V.

    2016-11-01

    Existing models for the analysis of offshore wind turbines account for the aerodynamic action on the turbine rotor in detail, requiring a high computational price. When considering the foundation of an offshore wind turbine, however, a reduced rotor model may be sufficient. To define such a model, the significance of the nonlinear velocity and history dependency of the aerodynamic force on a rotating blade should be known. Aerodynamic interaction renders the dynamics of a rotating blade in an ambient wind field nonlinear in terms of the dependency on the wind velocity relative to the structural motion. Moreover, the development in time of the aerodynamic force does not follow the flow velocity instantaneously, implying a history dependency. In addition, both the non-uniform blade geometry and the aerodynamic interaction couple the blade motions in and out of the rotational plane. Therefore, this study presents the Euler-Bernoulli formulation of a twisted rotating blade connected to a rigid hub, excited by either instantaneous or history-dependent aerodynamic forces. On this basis, the importance of the history dependency is determined. Moreover, to assess the nonlinear contributions, both models are linearized. The structural response is computed for a stand-still and a rotating blade, based on the NREL 5-MW turbine. To this end, the model is reduced on the basis of its first three free-vibration mode shapes. Blade tip response predictions, computed from turbulent excitation, correctly account for both modal and directional couplings, and the added damping resulting from the dependency of the aerodynamic force on the structural motion. Considering the deflection of the blade tip, the history-dependent and the instantaneous force models perform equally well, providing a basis for the potential use of the instantaneous model for the rotor reduction. The linearized instantaneous model provides similar results for the rotating blade, indicating its potential

  6. Inverse characterization method for mechanical properties of strain/strain-rate/temperature/temperature-history dependent steel sheets and its application for hot press forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunki; Kim, Dongun; Ahn, Kanghwan; Yoo, Donghoon; Son, Hyun-Sung; Kim, Gyo-Sung; Chung, Kwansoo

    2015-09-01

    In order to measure the flow curves of steel sheets at high temperatures, which are dependent on strain and strain rate as well as temperature and temperature history, a tensile test machine and specimens were newly developed in this work. Besides, an indirect method to characterize mechanical properties at high temperatures was developed by combining experiments and its numerical analysis, in which temperature history were also accounted for. Ultimately, a modified Johnson-Cook type hardening law, accounting for the dependence of hardening behavior with deterioration on strain rate as well as temperature, was successfully developed covering both pre- and post-ultimate tensile strength ranges for a hot press forming steel sheet. The calibrated hardening law obtained based on the inverse characterization method was then applied and validated for hot press forming of a 2-D mini-bumper as for distributions of temperature history, thickness and hardness considering the continuous cooling transformation diagram. The results showed reasonably good agreement with experiments

  7. The Time Dependance of Dynamic Topography: Mantle Dynamic Contributions to Local and Global Sea-Level Histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, C. J.; Shahnas, M.; Peltier, W. R.

    2012-12-01

    model to be employed to study the present state of the mantle and its evolution in the recent geological past. The predictions of the model that interest us are those of the rate of uplift and depression of the crust that contribute to records of relative sea level history over timescales sufficiently long to encompass several Late Quaternary glacial cycles. We employ a number of available local records of the time dependence of dynamical topography such as the coral based Barbados record of Peltier and Fairbanks (2006, QSR 25, pp. 3322-3337) to first demonstrate the accuracy with which the convection model is able to reconcile such observational constraints. Although several of the best available constraint data sets derive from regions in the near vicinity of active subduction zones, we proceed to apply the model's predictions to a number of (assumed to be) passive continental margins from which data have been derived that have been assumed to represent variations in eustatic sea level due to the variation of continental land ice volume such as those recently discussed by Miller et al. (2012, Geology 20, pp. 407-410). We assess the extent to which the passive continental margin assumption may have led to significant errors in the inference of global sea level rise for the mid-Pliocene interval of time centered upon 3 Ma.

  8. Effect of spinal manipulation on the development of history-dependent responsiveness of lumbar paraspinal muscle spindles in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; Pickar, Joel G.

    2014-01-01

    We determined whether spinal manipulation could prevent and/or reverse the decrease and increase in paraspinal muscle spindle responsiveness caused respectively by lengthening and shortening histories of the lumbar muscles. Single unit spindle activity from multifidus and longissimus muscles was recorded in the L6 dorsal root in anesthetized cats. Muscle history was created and spinal manipulation delivered (thrust amplitude: 1.0mm, duration: 100ms) using a feedback-controlled motor attached to the L6 spinous process. Muscle spindle discharge to a fixed vertebral position (static test) and to vertebral movement (dynamic test) was evaluated following the lengthening and shortening histories. For the static test, changes in muscle spindle responsiveness were significantly less when spinal manipulation followed muscle history (p<0.01), but not when spinal manipulation preceded it (p>0.05). For the dynamic test, spinal manipulation did not significantly affect the history-induced change in muscle spindle responsiveness. Spinal manipulation may partially reverse the effects of muscle history on muscle spindle signaling of vertebral position. PMID:24932019

  9. Effect of spinal manipulation on the development of history-dependent responsiveness of lumbar paraspinal muscle spindles in the cat.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dong-Yuan; Pickar, Joel G

    2014-06-01

    We determined whether spinal manipulation could prevent and/or reverse the decrease and increase in paraspinal muscle spindle responsiveness caused respectively by lengthening and shortening histories of the lumbar muscles. Single unit spindle activity from multifidus and longissimus muscles was recorded in the L6 dorsal root in anesthetized cats. Muscle history was created and spinal manipulation delivered (thrust amplitude: 1.0mm, duration: 100ms) using a feedback-controlled motor attached to the L6 spinous process. Muscle spindle discharge to a fixed vertebral position (static test) and to vertebral movement (dynamic test) was evaluated following the lengthening and shortening histories. For the static test, changes in muscle spindle responsiveness were significantly less when spinal manipulation followed muscle history (p<0.01), but not when spinal manipulation preceded it (p>0.05). For the dynamic test, spinal manipulation did not significantly affect the history-induced change in muscle spindle responsiveness. Spinal manipulation may partially reverse the effects of muscle history on muscle spindle signaling of vertebral position.

  10. Solution of the equation of heat conduction with time dependent sources: Programmed application to planetary thermal history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program (Program SPHERE) solving the inhomogeneous equation of heat conduction with radiation boundary condition on a thermally homogeneous sphere is described. The source terms are taken to be exponential functions of the time. Thermal properties are independent of temperature. The solutions are appropriate to studying certain classes of planetary thermal history. Special application to the moon is discussed.

  11. Field and sample history dependence of the compensation temperature in Sm 0.97Gd 0.03Al 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, U. V.; Rakhecha, V. C.; Sumithra, S.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Grover, A. K.

    2007-03-01

    We present magnetization data on three polycrystalline specimens of Sm 0.97Gd 0.03Al 2: (1) as-cast (grainy texture), (2) powder, and (3) re-melted fast-quenched (plate). The data are presented for nominally zero- (ZFC) and high-field-cooling (HFC) histories. A zero cross-over in magnetization curve at some temperature T= T0 was seen in ZFC data on grainy and powder samples, but not in the plate sample. At fields surpassing magnetocrystalline anisotropy, a 4f magnetic moment flip was still evidenced by HFC data in all samples at a compensation temperature Tcomp, which must necessarily be treated as distinct from T0 ( T0 may not even exist). Proper understanding of Tcomp should take account of thermomagnetic history effects.

  12. Inter- and Intra-Specific Density-Dependent Effects on Life History and Development Strategies of Larval Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Tsurim, Ido; Silberbush, Alon; Ovadia, Ofer; Blaustein, Leon; Margalith, Yoel

    2013-01-01

    We explored how inter- and intra-specific competition among larvae of two temporary-pool mosquito species, Culiseta longiareolata and Ochlerotatus caspius, affect larval developmental strategy and life history traits. Given that their larvae have similar feeding habits, we expected negative reciprocal inter-specific interactions. In a microcosm experiment, we found sex-specific responses of larval survival and development to both intra- and inter-specific larval competition. C. longiareolata was the superior competitor, reducing adult size and modifying larval developmental time of O. caspius. We observed two distinct waves of adult emergence in O. caspius, with clear sex-specific responses to its inter-specific competitor. In males, this pattern was not affected by C. longiareolata, but in females, the timing and average body size of the second wave strongly varied with C. longiareolata density. Specifically, in the absence of C. longiareolata, the second wave immediately followed the first wave. However, as C. longiareolata abundance increased, the second wave was progressively delayed and the resulting females tended to be larger. This study improves our understanding of the way intra- and inter-specific competition combine to influence the life histories of species making up temporary pond communities. It also provides strong evidence that not all individuals of a cohort employ the same strategies in response to competition. PMID:23469250

  13. Formation and evolution of early-type galaxies - III. Dependence of the star formation history on the total mass and initial overdensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlin, E.; Chiosi, C.; Piovan, L.; Grassi, T.; Buonomo, U.; Barbera, F. La

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the influence of the initial overdensities and masses of proto-galaxies on their subsequent evolution (the star formation history in particular) to understand whether these key parameters are sufficient to account for the varied properties of the galactic populations. By means of fully hydrodynamical N-body simulations performed with the code EVOL, we produce 12 self-similar models of early-type galaxies of different initial masses and overdensities, and follow their evolution from the early epochs (detachment from the linear regime and Hubble flow at z ≥ 20) down to the stage when mass assembly is complete, i.e. z ≤ 1 (in some cases the models are calculated up to z = 0). The simulations include radiative cooling, star formation, stellar energy feedback, re-ionizing photo-heating background and chemical enrichment of the interstellar medium; we do not consider the possible presence of active nuclei. We find a strong correlation between the initial properties of the proto-haloes and their subsequent star formation histories. Massive (Mtot ≃ 1013 M⊙) haloes experience a single, intense burst of star formation (with rates ≥103 M⊙ yr-1) at early epochs, consistently with observations, with less pronounced dependence on the initial overdensity; intermediate-mass (Mtot ≃ 1011 M⊙) haloes have histories that strongly depend on their initial overdensity, whereas low-mass haloes (Mtot ≃ 109 M⊙) always have erratic, bursting like star-forming histories, due to the 'galactic breathing' phenomenon. The model galaxies have morphological, structural and chemical properties resembling those of real galaxies, even though some disagreement still occurs, likely a consequence of some numerical choices. We conclude that total mass and initial overdensity drive the star formation histories of early-type galaxies. The model galaxies belong to the so-called quasi-monolithic (or early hierarchical) scenario in the sense that the aggregation of lumps of

  14. The alveolitis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Evaluation of natural history and alveolitis-dependent changes in lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Keogh, B.A.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Line, B.R.; Crystal, R.G.

    1983-08-01

    Current concepts of the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis suggest that a mononuclear cell alveolitis, comprised of activated T-lymphocytes and activated alveolar macrophages, precedes and modulates the formation of granuloma and fibrosis. To evaluate the natural history of this alveolitis and determine the relationship it has to subsequent changes in lung function, 19 untreated patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary manifestations were studied with bronchoalveolar lavage, /sup 67/Ga scanning, and pulmonary function tests to evaluate lung T-cells, lung alveolar macrophages, and lung function, respectively. In patients with sarcoidosis, low intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells less than or equal to 28% of all lung effector cells and/or /sup 67/Ga scan negative) was much more common (80% of all observations) than high intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells greater than 28% and /sup 67/Ga scan positive, 20% of all observations). Conventional clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic studies could not predict the alveolitis status. Interestingly, of the 51 alveolitis evaluations in the 19 patients, there were 24 occurrences (47%) where the alveolitis was ''split,'' i.e., /sup 67/Ga scans positive and T-cells low (39%) or /sup 67/Ga negative and T-cells high (8%). Most untreated patients with sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary symptoms may have some inflammatory processes ongoing in their alveolar structures. Overall, whenever a high intensity alveolitis episode occurred, it was followed by deterioration over the next 6 months in at least one lung function parameter. A low intensity alveolitis episode was followed by functional deterioration only 8% of the time. The alveolitis parameters (lavage and /sup 67/Ga scanning) clearly predicted prognosis. These observations should prove useful in understanding the natural history of pulmonary sarcoidosis, in staging patients with this disease, and in making rational therapy decisions.

  15. Effects of place identity, place dependence, and experience-use history on perceptions of recreation impacts in a natural setting.

    PubMed

    White, Dave D; Virden, Randy J; van Riper, Carena J

    2008-10-01

    It is generally accepted that recreation use in natural environments results in some degree of negative social and environmental impact. Environmental managers are tasked with mitigating the impact while providing beneficial recreation opportunities. Research on the factors that influence visitors' perceptions of environmental and social conditions is necessary to inform sound environmental management of protected natural areas. This study examines the effect of prior experience with the setting and two dimensions of place attachment (i.e., place identity and place dependence) on visitors' perceptions of three types of recreation impacts (i.e., depreciative behavior, environmental impacts, and recreation conflict). Principal components analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling were used to test the study hypotheses using data collected from 351 visitors through on-site questionnaires (response rate of 93 percent). The results show that prior experience exhibited a moderate and significant direct positive effect on place identity, place dependence, and visitors' perceptions of recreation impacts. Contrary to study hypotheses and prior research, neither place dependence nor place identity exhibited a significant effect on the dependent variables. The results show that prior experience causes visitors to be more sensitive to depreciative behaviors, environmental impacts, and recreation conflict. These findings raise concerns over potential visitor displacement and deterioration of site conditions. Implications for resource managers are discussed, which include education, modifying visitor use patterns, and site design strategies.

  16. The susceptibility of soil enzymes to inhibition by leaf litter tannins is dependent on the tannin chemistry, enzyme class and vegetation history.

    PubMed

    Triebwasser, Daniella J; Tharayil, Nishanth; Preston, Caroline M; Gerard, Patrick D

    2012-12-01

    By inhibiting soil enzymes, tannins play an important role in soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization. The role of tannin chemistry in this inhibitory process, in conjunction with enzyme classes and isoforms, is less well understood. Here, we compared the inhibition efficiencies of mixed tannins (MTs, mostly limited to angiosperms) and condensed tannins (CTs, produced mostly by gymnosperms) against the potential activity of β-glucosidase (BG), N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG), and peroxidase in two soils that differed in their vegetation histories. Compared with CTs, MTs exhibited 50% more inhibition of almond (Prunus dulcis) BG activity and greater inhibition of the potential NAG activity in the gymnosperm-acclimatized soils. CTs exhibited lower BG inhibition in the angiosperm-acclimated soils, whereas both types of tannins exhibited higher peroxidase inhibition in the angiosperm soils than in gymnosperm soils. At all of the tested tannin concentrations, irrespective of the tannin type and site history, the potential peroxidase activity was inhibited two-fold more than the hydrolase activity and was positively associated with the redox-buffering efficiency of tannins. Our finding that the inhibitory activities and mechanisms of MTs and CTs are dependent on the vegetative history and enzyme class is novel and furthers our understanding of the role of tannins and soil isoenzymes in decomposition.

  17. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 659: The Use of Vaginal Estrogen in Women With a History of Estrogen-Dependent Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Ruth

    2016-03-01

    Cancer treatment should address female-specific survivorship issues, including the hypoestrogenic- related adverse effects of cancer therapies or of natural menopause in survivors. Systemic and vaginal estrogen are widely used for symptomatic relief of vasomotor symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and lower urinary tract infections in the general population. However, given that some types of cancer are hormone sensitive, there are safety concerns about the use of local hormone therapy in women who currently have breast cancer or have a history of breast cancer. Nonhormonal approaches are the first-line choices for managing urogenital symptoms or atrophy-related urinary symptoms experienced by women during or after treatment for breast cancer. Among women with a history of estrogen-dependent breast cancer who are experiencing urogenital symptoms, vaginal estrogen should be reserved for those patients who are unresponsive to nonhormonal remedies. The decision to use vaginal estrogen may be made in coordination with a woman's oncologist. Additionally, it should be preceded by an informed decision-making and consent process in which the woman has the information and resources to consider the benefits and potential risks of low-dose vaginal estrogen. Data do not show an increased risk of cancer recurrence among women currently undergoing treatment for breast cancer or those with a personal history of breast cancer who use vaginal estrogen to relieve urogenital symptoms.

  18. Attention problems among children with a positive family history of alcohol abuse or dependence and controls. Prevalence and course for the period from preteen to early teen years.

    PubMed

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder.

  19. The relationship of suicide attempt history with childhood abuse and neglect, alexithymia and temperament and character dimensions of personality in substance dependents.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Evren, Bilge

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of suicide in Turkish male substance dependents, and to investigate the relationship of suicide attempt history with childhood abuse and neglect, alexithymia, and temperament and character dimensions of personality. Participants were 154 consecutively admitted male substance dependents. Patients were investigated with the Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Among substance-dependent patients, 28.6% was considered a group with suicide attempt history (SAH). Current age was lower and rate of being single was higher in the group with SAH. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of employment, educational status and duration of education. Rates of physical, emotional abuse and neglect, self-mutilation and being alexithymic were higher and ages at first substance use and regular substance use were lower in the group with SAH. Mean scores of "difficulty in identifying feelings" (DIF) and "difficulty in describing feelings" (DDF) subscale EOT of the TAS-20 were higher in the SAH group. Among temperament and character dimensions of the TCI, only "Self-directedness" and "Cooperativeness" were lower in SAH and there were no significant differences between groups in terms of other subscales. Age and Self-directedness score of TCI were determinants for suicide attempt. In particular, young drug users with low Self-directedness scores could be the target population in order to prevent suicidal behavior. This study also suggests that in substance-dependent patients, in the background of all suicidal behavior, childhood abuse and neglect must be evaluated.

  20. Satellite alignment. I. Distribution of substructures and their dependence on assembly history from n-body simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang Ocean; Lin, W. P.; Yu, Yu; Kang, X.; Dutton, Aaron; Macciò, Andrea V. E-mail: linwp@shao.ac.cn

    2014-05-01

    Observations have shown that the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies is not random, but aligned with the major axes of central galaxies. This alignment is dependent on galaxy properties, such that red satellites are more strongly aligned than blue satellites. Theoretical work conducted to interpret this phenomenon has found that it is due to the non-spherical nature of dark matter halos. However, most studies overpredict the alignment signal under the assumption that the central galaxy shape follows the shape of the host halo. It is also not clear whether the color dependence of alignment is due to an assembly bias or an evolution effect. In this paper we study these problems using a cosmological N-body simulation. Subhalos are used to trace the positions of satellite galaxies. It is found that the shapes of dark matter halos are mis-aligned at different radii. If the central galaxy shares the same shape as the inner host halo, then the alignment effect is weaker and agrees with observational data. However, it predicts almost no dependence of alignment on the color of satellite galaxies, though the late accreted subhalos show stronger alignment with the outer layer of the host halo than their early accreted counterparts. We find that this is due to the limitation of pure N-body simulations where satellite galaxies without associated subhalos ('orphan galaxies') are not resolved. These orphan (mostly red) satellites often reside in the inner region of host halos and should follow the shape of the host halo in the inner region.

  1. Landscape history and land-use dependent soil erosion in central Bosnia from the Bronze Age to Medieval Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolters, Steffen; Enters, Dirk; Bittmann, Felix

    2010-05-01

    The inland areas of the northwestern Balkan peninsula and in particular of Bosnia and Herzegovina are poor in natural archives suitable for the reconstruction of past environmental changes and vegetation history. Consequently, palaeoenvironmental analyses are scarce with only three palynological studies available dating back to 1973, 1956 and 1934. Central Bosnia, however, is rich in archaeological heritage, featuring numerous prehistoric settlement sites along the river Bosna starting in the early Neolithic. This generates the need for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions to support and complement recent archaeological research in this area. Here we present results from a 450 cm gyttja-peat sequence from Seoce Jezero, a small mire located at 600 m NN on a plateau above a tributary of the river Bosna 30 km northwest of Sarajevo (central Bosnia). Fourteen AMS C-14 dates provide a robust time-depth-relationship which covers natural and anthropogenic environmental changes at Seoce Jezero from the Bronze Age to early Medieval Times. Pollen, macrofossil and geochemical analyses of 167 samples produce a high resolution record of land-use and vegetation change up to a half-decadal time scale. The palaeoenvironmental record starts ca. 1800 BC (3750 cal. BP) and reveals an initially relatively undisturbed landscape dominated by Fagus- and Quercus-Carpinus woodland. Anthropogenic influence is clearly visible from 1400 BC (3350 cal. BP) onwards and comprises woodland clearances, pasturing and crop cultivation. Pollen analyses confirm several consecutive phases of different land-use character and intensity. Phases of high land-use pressure culminated at the transition Bronze Age/Iron Age (1100 BC), the late Iron Age (400 BC), late Roman times (AD 300) and from AD 700 onwards. In between, stages of forest regeneration could be detected, most pronounced in the period between 70 BC and AD 150 (2020-1800 cal. BP), when anthropogenic influence virtually ceased. Whereas land use in

  2. Pollutant Dehalogenation Capability May Depend on the Trophic Evolutionary History of the Organism: PBDEs in Freshwater Food Webs

    PubMed Central

    Bartrons, Mireia; Grimalt, Joan O.; de Mendoza, Guillermo; Catalan, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Organohalogen compounds are some of the most notorious persistent pollutants disturbing the Earth biosphere. Although human-made, these chemicals are not completely alien to living systems. A large number of natural organohalogens, part of the secondary metabolism, are involved in chemical trophic interactions. Surprisingly, the relationship between organisms’ trophic position and synthetic organohalogen biotransformation capability has not been investigated. We studied the case for polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDE), a group of flame-retardants of widespread use in the recent years, in aquatic food webs from remote mountain lakes. These relatively simple ecosystems only receive pollution by atmospheric transport. A large predominance of the PBDE congener currently in use in Europe, BDE-209, largely dominated the PBDE composition of the basal resources of the food web. In contrast, primary consumers (herbivores and detritivores) showed a low proportion of BDE-209, and dominance of several less brominated congeners (e.g. BDE-100, BDE47). Secondary consumers (predators) showed large biomagnification of BDE-209 compare to other congeners. Finally, top predator fish characterized by low total PBDE concentrations. Examination of the bromine stable isotopic composition indicates that primary consumers showed higher PBDE biotransformation capability than secondary consumers. We suggest that the evolutionary response of primary consumers to feeding deterrents would have pre-adapted them for PBDE biotransformation. The observed few exceptions, some insect taxa, can be interpreted in the light of the trophic history of the evolutionary lineage of the organisms. Bromine isotopic composition in fish indicates that low PBDE values are due to not only biotransformation but also to some other process likely related to transport. Our finding illustrates that organohalogen compounds may strongly disturb ecosystems even at low concentrations, since the species lacking or having

  3. Pollutant dehalogenation capability may depend on the trophic evolutionary history of the organism: PBDEs in freshwater food webs.

    PubMed

    Bartrons, Mireia; Grimalt, Joan O; de Mendoza, Guillermo; Catalan, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Organohalogen compounds are some of the most notorious persistent pollutants disturbing the Earth biosphere. Although human-made, these chemicals are not completely alien to living systems. A large number of natural organohalogens, part of the secondary metabolism, are involved in chemical trophic interactions. Surprisingly, the relationship between organisms' trophic position and synthetic organohalogen biotransformation capability has not been investigated. We studied the case for polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDE), a group of flame-retardants of widespread use in the recent years, in aquatic food webs from remote mountain lakes. These relatively simple ecosystems only receive pollution by atmospheric transport. A large predominance of the PBDE congener currently in use in Europe, BDE-209, largely dominated the PBDE composition of the basal resources of the food web. In contrast, primary consumers (herbivores and detritivores) showed a low proportion of BDE-209, and dominance of several less brominated congeners (e.g. BDE-100, BDE47). Secondary consumers (predators) showed large biomagnification of BDE-209 compare to other congeners. Finally, top predator fish characterized by low total PBDE concentrations. Examination of the bromine stable isotopic composition indicates that primary consumers showed higher PBDE biotransformation capability than secondary consumers. We suggest that the evolutionary response of primary consumers to feeding deterrents would have pre-adapted them for PBDE biotransformation. The observed few exceptions, some insect taxa, can be interpreted in the light of the trophic history of the evolutionary lineage of the organisms. Bromine isotopic composition in fish indicates that low PBDE values are due to not only biotransformation but also to some other process likely related to transport. Our finding illustrates that organohalogen compounds may strongly disturb ecosystems even at low concentrations, since the species lacking or having scarce

  4. Environment-dependent reversal of a life history trade-off in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Messina, F J; Fry, J D

    2003-05-01

    Environmental manipulations have consistently demonstrated a cost of reproduction in the capital-breeding seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, as females deprived of seeds or mates lay fewer eggs and thereby increase their longevity. Yet fecundity and longevity tend to be positively correlated within populations, perhaps as a consequence of individual differences in resource acquisition. We conducted a split-brood experiment that combined a manipulation of seed availability (seeds present or absent) with a quantitative-genetic analysis of fecundity and lifespan in each environment. Each trait was significantly heritable in each environment. Seed availability not only altered mean fecundity and longevity between environments, but also modified how the traits were correlated within environments. The signs of both the phenotypic and genetic correlations switched from positive when seeds were present to negative when seeds were absent. This reversal persisted even after the effect of body mass (a potential indicator of resource acquisition) was statistically controlled. Cross-environment genetic correlations were positive but significantly less than one for each trait. We suggest that the reversal of the fecundity-longevity relationship depends on a shift in the relative importance of resource-acquisition and resource-allocation loci between environments. In particular, a cost of reproduction may be apparent at the individual level only when seeds are scarce or absent because differences in reproductive effort become large enough to overwhelm differences in resource acquisition. Despite their common dependence on resources acquired during larval stages, fecundity and lifespan in C. maculatus do not appear to be tightly coupled in a physiological or genetic sense.

  5. History-dependent ion transport through conical nanopipettes and the implications in energy conversion dynamics at nanoscale interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yan; Wang, Dengchao; Kvetny, Maksim M.; Brown, Warren; Liu, Juan; Wang, Gangli

    2014-08-20

    The dynamics of ion transport at nanostructured substrate–solution interfaces play vital roles in high-density energy conversion, stochastic chemical sensing and biosensing, membrane separation, nanofluidics and fundamental nanoelectrochemistry. Advancements in these applications require a fundamental understanding of ion transport at nanoscale interfaces. The understanding of the dynamic or transient transport, and the key physical process involved, is limited, which contrasts sharply with widely studied steady-state ion transport features at atomic and nanometer scale interfaces. Here we report striking time-dependent ion transport characteristics at nanoscale interfaces in current–potential (I–V) measurements and theoretical analyses. First, a unique non-zero I–V cross-point and pinched I–V curves are established as signatures to characterize the dynamics of ion transport through individual conical nanopipettes. Moreoever, ion transport against a concentration gradient is regulated by applied and surface electrical fields. The concept of ion pumping or separation is demonstrated via the selective ion transport against concentration gradients through individual nanopipettes. Third, this dynamic ion transport process under a predefined salinity gradient is discussed in the context of nanoscale energy conversion in supercapacitor type charging–discharging, as well as chemical and electrical energy conversion. Our analysis of the emerging current–potential features establishes the urgently needed physical foundation for energy conversion employing ordered nanostructures. The elucidated mechanism and established methodology can be generalized into broadly-defined nanoporous materials and devices for improved energy, separation and sensing applications.

  6. Ligand accessibility and bioactivity of a hormone–dendrimer conjugate depend on pH and pH history

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; Bae, Sung Chul; Carlson, Kathryn E.; Mayne, Christopher G.; Granick, Steve; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.

    2015-07-17

    Estrogen conjugates with a polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer have shown remarkably selective regulation of the nongenomic actions of estrogens in target cells in this paper. In response to pH changes, however, these estrogen–dendrimer conjugates (EDCs) display a major morphological transition that alters the accessibility of the estrogen ligands that compromises the bioactivity of the EDC. A sharp break in dynamic behavior near pH 7 occurs for three different ligands on the surface of a PAMAM-G6 dendrimer: a fluorophore (tetramethylrhodamine [TMR]) and two estrogens (17α-ethynylestradiol and diphenolic acid). Collisional quenching and time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy experiments with TMR–PAMAM revealed high ligand shielding above pH 7 and low shielding below pH 7. Furthermore, when the pH was cycled from 8.5 (conditions of ligand–PAMAM conjugation) to 4.5 (e.g., endosome/lysosome) and through 6.5 (e.g., hypoxic environment) back to pH 8.5, the 17α-ethynylestradiol– and diphenolic acid–PAMAM conjugates experienced a dramatic, irreversible loss in cell stimulatory activity; dynamic NMR studies indicated that the hormonal ligands had become occluded within the more hydrophobic core of the PAMAM dendrimer. Thus, the active state of these estrogen–dendrimer conjugates appears to be metastable. Finally, this pH-dependent irreversible masking of activity is of considerable relevance to the design of drug conjugates with amine-bearing PAMAM dendrimers.

  7. History-dependent ion transport through conical nanopipettes and the implications in energy conversion dynamics at nanoscale interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Yan; Wang, Dengchao; Kvetny, Maksim M.; ...

    2014-08-20

    The dynamics of ion transport at nanostructured substrate–solution interfaces play vital roles in high-density energy conversion, stochastic chemical sensing and biosensing, membrane separation, nanofluidics and fundamental nanoelectrochemistry. Advancements in these applications require a fundamental understanding of ion transport at nanoscale interfaces. The understanding of the dynamic or transient transport, and the key physical process involved, is limited, which contrasts sharply with widely studied steady-state ion transport features at atomic and nanometer scale interfaces. Here we report striking time-dependent ion transport characteristics at nanoscale interfaces in current–potential (I–V) measurements and theoretical analyses. First, a unique non-zero I–V cross-point and pinched I–Vmore » curves are established as signatures to characterize the dynamics of ion transport through individual conical nanopipettes. Moreoever, ion transport against a concentration gradient is regulated by applied and surface electrical fields. The concept of ion pumping or separation is demonstrated via the selective ion transport against concentration gradients through individual nanopipettes. Third, this dynamic ion transport process under a predefined salinity gradient is discussed in the context of nanoscale energy conversion in supercapacitor type charging–discharging, as well as chemical and electrical energy conversion. Our analysis of the emerging current–potential features establishes the urgently needed physical foundation for energy conversion employing ordered nanostructures. The elucidated mechanism and established methodology can be generalized into broadly-defined nanoporous materials and devices for improved energy, separation and sensing applications.« less

  8. Parallel decrease in arterial distensibility and in endothelium-dependent dilatation in young women with a history of pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Pàez, Olga; Alfie, José; Gorosito, Marta; Puleio, Pablo; de Maria, Marcelo; Prieto, Noemì; Majul, Claudio

    2009-10-01

    Pre-eclampsia not only complicates 5 to 8% of pregnancies but also increases the risk of maternal cardiovascular disease and mortality later in life. We analyzed three different aspects of arterial function (pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and flow-mediated dilatation), in 55 nonpregnant, normotensive women (18-33 years old) according to their gestational history: 15 nulliparous, 20 with a previous normotensive, and 20 formerly pre-eclamptic pregnancy. Former pre-eclamptic women showed a significantly higher augmentation index and pulse wave velocity (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) and lower flow-mediated dilatation (p = 0.01) compared to control groups. In contrast, sublingual nitroglycerine elicited a comparable vasodilatory response in the three groups. The augmentation index correlated significantly with pulse wave velocity and flow-mediated dilatation (R = 0.28 and R = -0.32, respectively, P < 0.05 for both). No significant correlations were observed between augmentation index or flow-mediated dilatation with age, body mass index (BMI), brachial blood pressure, heart rate, or metabolic parameters (plasma cholesterol, glucose, insulin, or insulin resistance). Birth weight maintained a significantly inverse correlation with the augmentation index (R = -0.51, p < 0.002) but not with flow-mediated dilatation. Our findings revealed a parallel decrease in arterial distensibility and endothelium-dependent dilatation in women with a history of pre-eclampsia compared to nulliparous women and women with a previous normal pregnancy. A high augmentation index was the most consistent alteration associated with a history of pre-eclampsia. The study supports the current view that the generalized arterial dysfunction associated with pre-eclampsia persists subclinically after delivery.

  9. Ligand accessibility and bioactivity of a hormone–dendrimer conjugate depend on pH and pH history

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; Bae, Sung Chul; ...

    2015-07-17

    Estrogen conjugates with a polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer have shown remarkably selective regulation of the nongenomic actions of estrogens in target cells in this paper. In response to pH changes, however, these estrogen–dendrimer conjugates (EDCs) display a major morphological transition that alters the accessibility of the estrogen ligands that compromises the bioactivity of the EDC. A sharp break in dynamic behavior near pH 7 occurs for three different ligands on the surface of a PAMAM-G6 dendrimer: a fluorophore (tetramethylrhodamine [TMR]) and two estrogens (17α-ethynylestradiol and diphenolic acid). Collisional quenching and time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy experiments with TMR–PAMAM revealed high ligand shielding abovemore » pH 7 and low shielding below pH 7. Furthermore, when the pH was cycled from 8.5 (conditions of ligand–PAMAM conjugation) to 4.5 (e.g., endosome/lysosome) and through 6.5 (e.g., hypoxic environment) back to pH 8.5, the 17α-ethynylestradiol– and diphenolic acid–PAMAM conjugates experienced a dramatic, irreversible loss in cell stimulatory activity; dynamic NMR studies indicated that the hormonal ligands had become occluded within the more hydrophobic core of the PAMAM dendrimer. Thus, the active state of these estrogen–dendrimer conjugates appears to be metastable. Finally, this pH-dependent irreversible masking of activity is of considerable relevance to the design of drug conjugates with amine-bearing PAMAM dendrimers.« less

  10. The dependence of galaxy star formation histories on environment at 0.6 < z < 0.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Shannon

    We used a low-dispersion prism (LDP) in IMACS on the 6.5 m Baade (Magellan I) telescope to obtain low resolution spectroscopy of galaxies with 18 < zAB < 23.3 mag over a ˜0.2 deg2 field. In contrast to spectra obtained through a traditional grating, the resolution of LDP spectra was a strong function of wavelength, with the spectral resolving power of the LDP varying from R ˜ 66 at 5000 A to R ˜ 15 at 8500 A. Stellar population synthesis models were fit to the relative flux calibrated LDP spectra and Subaru Suprime-Cam V Riz photometry in order to measure redshifts. We measured ˜10,000 redshifts to a precision of ˜1% in (1 + z). Given the emerging consensus regarding the key role of stellar mass in shaping the star formation histories (SFHs) of galaxies, we aimed to study stellar mass limited samples. Our z-band spectroscopic selection was critical in assembling samples to low mass limits at 0.6 < z < 0.9. Our final sample consisted of ˜1100 galaxies at 0.6 < z < 0.9 above a mass limit of M > 1.8 x 1010 M⊙ (log M/ M⊙ > 10.25). This mass limit roughly corresponds to 0.2M ⋆, thus reaching well below the knee of the Schechter mass function and also a factor of two below the threshold mass above which galaxy properties appear to be primarily determined by stellar mass. The rest-frame color of a galaxy serves as trace for the age of its stellar populations. We investigated the rest-frame u -- g color of galaxies as a function of local density in a redshift slice (0.80 < z < 0.87) containing the cluster RX J0152.7-1357 as well as several other groups. We find that the fraction of red galaxies increases at higher densities, reaching ˜90--100% in the cores of moderate mass groups, the same value as found in the center of RX J0152.7-1357, and suggesting the presence of older stellar populations in these high density environments. Because dust obscuration can make younger star forming galaxies (SFGs) appear red, we investigated the obscured star formation rates

  11. Match or mismatch: the influence of phenology on size-dependent life history and divergence in population structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherding, Jost; Beeck, Peter; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Scharf, Werner R.

    2010-01-01

    age cohort of the predator. 6. The results demonstrate that the switch between competitive interactions and a predator-prey relationship depended on phenology. This resulted in pronounced size differences in the YOY age cohort, which had far-reaching consequences for the entire predator population.

  12. Ontogenetic timing as a condition-dependent life history trait: High-condition males develop quickly, peak early, and age fast.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Amy K; Spagopoulou, Foteini; Wylde, Zachariah; Maklakov, Alexei A; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2017-03-01

    Within-population variation in ageing remains poorly understood. In males, condition-dependent investment in secondary sexual traits may incur costs that limit ability to invest in somatic maintenance. Moreover, males often express morphological and behavioral secondary sexual traits simultaneously, but the relative effects on ageing of investment in these traits remain unclear. We investigated the condition dependence of male life history in the neriid fly Telostylinus angusticollis. Using a fully factorial design, we manipulated male early-life condition by varying nutrient content of the larval diet and, subsequently, manipulated opportunity for adult males to interact with rival males. We found that high-condition males developed more quickly and reached their reproductive peak earlier in life, but also experienced faster reproductive ageing and died sooner than low-condition males. By contrast, interactions with rival males reduced male lifespan but did not affect male reproductive ageing. High-condition in early life is therefore associated with rapid ageing in T. angusticollis males, even in the absence of damaging male-male interactions. Our results show that abundant resources during the juvenile phase are used to expedite growth and development and enhance early-life reproductive performance at the expense of late-life performance and survival, demonstrating a clear link between male condition and ageing.

  13. Effects of Sex, Drinking History, and Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Dysregulation on the Onset of Liver Injury in Very Heavy Drinking Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vatsalya, Vatsalya; Song, Ming; Schwandt, Melanie L.; Cave, Matthew C.; Barve, Shirish S.; George, David T.; Ramchandani, Vijay A.; McClain, Craig J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Heavy alcohol consumption frequently causes liver inflammation/injury, and certain fatty acids (FAs) may be involved in this liver pathology. In this study, we evaluated the association of heavy drinking and the changes in the FA levels involved in the ω-6 (pro-inflammatory) and ω-3 (anti-inflammatory) state in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients who had no clinical manifestations of liver injury. We aimed to identify sex-based differences in patients with mild or no biochemical evidence of liver injury induced by heavy drinking. Methods A total of 114 heavy drinking AD female and male patients aged 21 to 65 years without clinical manifestations of liver injury, who were admitted to an alcohol dependence treatment program, were grouped by the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels: ≤40 IU/l, as no liver injury (GR.1), and >40 IU/l, as mild liver injury (GR.2). Patients were actively drinking until the day of admission. Comprehensive metabolic panel, comprehensive FA panel, and drinking history data were evaluated. Results Elevated ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) showed close association with markers of heavy alcohol intake. In the patients with mild biochemical liver injury (GR.2), females showed significantly higher AST level than males. Significant association of AST and total drinks in past 90 days (TD90) in females, and AST and heavy drinking days in past 90 days (HDD90) in males was observed. The ω-6:ω-3 ratio showed a significant pro-inflammatory response only in females with mild liver injury (GR.2) when adjusted by drinking history marker, TD90. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were increased in males with liver injury, while females did not show any comparable rise in EPA; and DHA levels were lower. Conclusions Measures of heavy drinking, TD90 and HDD90, predicted changes in liver injury. Changes in the ω-3 and ω-6 FA levels and the ω-6:ω-3 ratio showed a pro-inflammatory shift in patients with biochemical

  14. Bayesian deterministic decision making: a normative account of the operant matching law and heavy-tailed reward history dependency of choices

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hiroshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2014-01-01

    The decision making behaviors of humans and animals adapt and then satisfy an “operant matching law” in certain type of tasks. This was first pointed out by Herrnstein in his foraging experiments on pigeons. The matching law has been one landmark for elucidating the underlying processes of decision making and its learning in the brain. An interesting question is whether decisions are made deterministically or probabilistically. Conventional learning models of the matching law are based on the latter idea; they assume that subjects learn choice probabilities of respective alternatives and decide stochastically with the probabilities. However, it is unknown whether the matching law can be accounted for by a deterministic strategy or not. To answer this question, we propose several deterministic Bayesian decision making models that have certain incorrect beliefs about an environment. We claim that a simple model produces behavior satisfying the matching law in static settings of a foraging task but not in dynamic settings. We found that the model that has a belief that the environment is volatile works well in the dynamic foraging task and exhibits undermatching, which is a slight deviation from the matching law observed in many experiments. This model also demonstrates the double-exponential reward history dependency of a choice and a heavier-tailed run-length distribution, as has recently been reported in experiments on monkeys. PMID:24624077

  15. Bayesian deterministic decision making: a normative account of the operant matching law and heavy-tailed reward history dependency of choices.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroshi; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2014-01-01

    The decision making behaviors of humans and animals adapt and then satisfy an "operant matching law" in certain type of tasks. This was first pointed out by Herrnstein in his foraging experiments on pigeons. The matching law has been one landmark for elucidating the underlying processes of decision making and its learning in the brain. An interesting question is whether decisions are made deterministically or probabilistically. Conventional learning models of the matching law are based on the latter idea; they assume that subjects learn choice probabilities of respective alternatives and decide stochastically with the probabilities. However, it is unknown whether the matching law can be accounted for by a deterministic strategy or not. To answer this question, we propose several deterministic Bayesian decision making models that have certain incorrect beliefs about an environment. We claim that a simple model produces behavior satisfying the matching law in static settings of a foraging task but not in dynamic settings. We found that the model that has a belief that the environment is volatile works well in the dynamic foraging task and exhibits undermatching, which is a slight deviation from the matching law observed in many experiments. This model also demonstrates the double-exponential reward history dependency of a choice and a heavier-tailed run-length distribution, as has recently been reported in experiments on monkeys.

  16. Fire ecology of C3 and C4 grasses depends on evolutionary history and frequency of burning but not photosynthetic type.

    PubMed

    Ripley, Brad; Visser, Vernon; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Archibald, Sally; Martin, Tarryn; Osborne, Colin

    2015-10-01

    Grasses using the C4 photosynthetic pathway dominate frequently burned savannas, where the pathway is hypothesized to be adaptive. However, independent C4 lineages also sort among different fire environments. Adaptations to fire may thus depend on evolutionary history, which could be as important as the possession of the C4 photosynthetic pathway for life in these environments. Here, using a comparative pot experiment and controlled burn, we examined C3 and C4 grasses belonging to four lineages from the same regional flora, and asked the following questions: Do lineages differ in their responses to fire, are responses consistent between photosynthetic types, and are responses related to fire frequency in natural habitats? We found that in the C4 Andropogoneae lineage, frost killed a large proportion of aboveground biomass and produced a large dry fuel load, which meant that only a small fraction of the living tissue was lost in the fire. C3 species from the Paniceae and Danthonioideae lineages generated smaller fuel loads and lost more living biomass, while species from the C4 lineage Aristida generated the smallest fuel loads and lost the most living tissue. Regrowth after the fire was more rapid and complete in the C4 Andropogoneae and C3 Paniceae, but incomplete and slower in the C3 Danthonioideae and C4 Aristida. Rapid recovery was associated with high photosynthetic rates, high specific leaf area, delayed flowering, and frequent fires in natural habitats. Results demonstrated that phylogenetic lineage was more important than photosynthetic type in determining the fire response of these grasses and that fire responses were related to the frequency that natural habitats burned.

  17. Intellectual History, Social History, Cultural History...and Our History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, David Paul

    1990-01-01

    Defines and explores the links among intellectual, social, and cultural history. Warns that an adequate foundation must be laid in the economic and institutional social history of mass media before communication historians jump into cultural history. (SR)

  18. Tracing the Mass-Dependent Star Formation History of Late-Type Galaxies using X-ray Emission: Results from the CHANDRA Deep Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmer, B.D; Brandt, W.N.; Schneider, D.P.; Steffen, A.T.; Alexander, D.M.; Bell, E.F.; Hornschemeier, A.E.; McIntosh, D.H.; Bauer, F.E.; Gilli, R.; Mainieri, V.; Silverman, J.D.; Tozzi, P.; Wolf, C.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the X-ray evolution over the last approx.9 Gyr of cosmic history (i.e., since z = 1.4) of late-type galaxy populations in the Chandra Deep Field-North and Extended Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-N and E-CDF-S. respectively; jointly CDFs) survey fields. Our late-type galaxy sample consists of 2568 galaxies. which were identified using rest-frame optical colors and HST morphologies. We utilized X-ray stacking analyses to investigate the X-ray emission from these galaxies, emphasizing the contributions from normal galaxies that are not dominated by active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Over this redshift range, we find significant increases (factors of approx. 5-10) in the X-ray-to-optical mean luminosity ratio (L(sub x)/L(sub B)) and the X-ray-to-stellar-mass mean ratio (L(sub x)/M(sub *)) for galaxy populations selected by L(sub B) and M(sub *), respectively. When analyzing galaxy samples selected via SFR, we find that the mean X-ray-to-SFR ratio (L(sub x)/SFR) is consistent with being constant over the entire redshift range for galaxies with SFR = 1-100 Solar Mass/yr, thus demonstrating that X-ray emission can be used as a robust indicator of star-formation activity out to z approx. 1.4. We find that the star-formation activity (as traced by X-ray luminosity) per unit stellar mass in a given redshift bin increases with decreasing stellar mass over the redshift range z = 0.2-1, which is consistent with previous studies of how star-formation activity depends on stellar mass. Finally, we extend our X-ray analyses to Lyman break galaxies at z approx. 3 and estimate that L(sub x)/L(sub B) at z approx. 3 is similar to its value at z = 1.4.

  19. Tropical mountain glaciers on Mars: Altitude-dependence of ice accumulation, accumulation conditions, formation times, glacier dynamics, and implications for planetary spin-axis/orbital history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastook, James L.; Head, James W.; Marchant, David R.; Forget, Francois

    2008-12-01

    Fan-shaped deposits up to ˜166,000 km in area are found on the northwest flanks of the huge Tharsis Montes volcanoes in the tropics of Mars. Recent spacecraft data have confirmed earlier hypotheses that these lobate deposits are glacial in origin. Increased knowledge of polar-latitude terrestrial glacial analogs in the Antarctic Dry Valleys has been used to show that the lobate deposits are the remnants of cold-based glaciers that formed in the extremely cold, hyper-arid climate of Mars. Mars atmospheric general circulation models (GCM) show that these glaciers could form during periods of high obliquity when upwelling and adiabatic cooling of moist air favor deposition of snow on the northwest flanks of the Tharsis Montes. We present a simulation of the Tharsis Montes ice sheets produced by a static accumulation pattern based on the GCM results and compare this with the nature and extent of the geologic deposits. We use the fundamental differences between the atmospheric snow accumulation environments (mass balance) on Earth and Mars, geological observations and ice-sheet models to show that two equilibrium lines should characterize ice-sheet mass balance on Mars, and that glacial accumulation should be favored on the flanks of large volcanoes, not on their summits as seen on Earth. Predicted accumulation rates from such a parameterization, together with sample spin-axis obliquity histories, are used to show that obliquity in excess of 45° and multiple 120,000 year obliquity cycles are necessary to produce the observed deposits. Our results indicate that the formation of these deposits required multiple successive stages of advance and retreat before their full extent could be reached, and thus imply that spin-axis obliquity remained at these high values for millions of years during the Late Amazonian period of Mars history. Spin-axis obliquity is one of the main factors in the distribution and intensity of solar insolation, and thus in determining the climate

  20. Tropical Mountain Glaciers on Mars: Altitude-Dependence of Ice Accumulation, Accumulation Conditions, Formation Times, Glacier Dynamics, and Implications for Planetary Spin- Axis/Orbital History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fastook, J. L.; Head, J. W.; Marchant, D. R.

    2007-12-01

    Lobate deposits up to ~166,000 km2 in area are found on the northwest flanks of the huge Tharsis Montes volcanos in the tropics of Mars. Recent spacecraft data have confirmed earlier hypotheses that these lobate deposits are glacial in origin. Increased knowledge of polar-latitude terrestrial glacial analogs in the Antarctic Dry Valleys has been used to show that the lobate deposits are the remnants of cold-based glaciers that formed in the extremely cold, hyper-arid climate of Mars. Mars atmospheric general circulation models (GCM) show that these glaciers form during periods of high obliquity when upwelling and adiabatic cooling of moist polar air favor deposition of snow on the northwest flanks of the Tharsis Montes. We present a simulation of the Tharsis Montes ice sheets produced by a static accumulation pattern based on the GCM results and compare this with the nature and extent of the geologic deposits. We use the fundamental differences between the atmospheric snow accumulation environments (mass balance) on Earth and Mars, geological observations and ice sheet models to show that two equilibrium lines should characterize ice sheet mass balance on Mars, and that glacial accumulation should be favored on the flanks of large volcanos, not on their summits as seen on Earth. Predicted accumulation rates from such a parameterization, together with sample spin-axis obliquity histories, are used to show that mean obliquity in excess of 45 degrees and multiple 120,000 year obliquity cycles are necessary to produce the observed deposits. Our results indicate that the formation of these deposits required multiple successive stages of advance and retreat before their full extent could be reached, and thus imply that spin-axis obliquity remained at these high values for millions of years during the Late Amazonian period of Mars history. Spin-axis obliquity is one of the main factors in the distribution and intensity of solar insolation, and thus in determining the

  1. Community History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Helen M.

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the experience of researching community history in Ivanhoe, Virginia, between 1987 and 1990. The Ivanhoe History Project involved community members in collecting photographs, memorabilia, and oral histories of their town. Subsequent published volumes won the W. D. Weatherford Award and inspired a quilt exhibit and a theatrical production.…

  2. Analysis of DSC thermal curves for assigning a characteristic glass transition temperature, dependent on either the type or thermal history of the polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Saffell, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    DSC was used to study the thermal curve characteristics of four classical polymer glasses: polycarbonate (PC), anionic polystyrene (aPS), polysulfone, and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The onset, peak, and fictive temperatures as well as endotherm characteristics were studied over two decades of heating and cooling rates. Assuming that the fictive temperature is independent of heating rate, the usefulness of T{sub onset} and ambiguity of T{sub peak} are demonstrated. The useful [heat/cool] ratio allows use of T{sub onset} to calculate the effective cooling rate of the sample (which is easier to calculate than T{sub fictive}). Comparison with results from annealed samples are shown. The fictive and onset temperatures can be used together to improve the reliability of glass temperature characterization and results are surprisingly constant between the four different types of glasses, leading to a method of providing a single temperature to characterize the thermal history/morphology using a DSC thermal curve. The peak temperature is nearly independent of thermal history, and so provides a characterization parameter that is insensitive to manufacturing and molding procedures.

  3. Inferring the evolutionary history of Mo-dependent nitrogen fixation from phylogenetic studies of nifK and nifDK.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Linda S; Barnum, Susan R

    2010-07-01

    The ability to fix nitrogen is widely, but sporadically distributed among the Bacteria and Archaea suggesting either a vertically inherited, ancient function with widespread loss across genera or an adaptive feature transferred laterally between co-inhabitants of nitrogen-poor environments. As previous phylogenetic studies of nifH and nifD have not completely resolved the evolutionary history of nitrogenase, sixty nifD, nifK, and combined nifDK genes were analyzed using Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and parsimony algorithms to determine whether the individual and combined datasets could provide additional information. The results show congruence between the 16S and nifDK phylogenies at the phyla level and generally support vertical descent with loss. However, statistically significant differences between tree topographies suggest a complex evolutionary history with the underlying pattern of vertical descent obscured by recurring lateral transfer events and different patterns of evolution between the genes. Results support inheritance from the Last Common ancestor or an ancient lateral transfer of the nif genes between Bacteria and Archaea, ongoing gene transfer between cohabitants of similar biogeographic regions, acquisition of nitrogen-fixing capability via symbiosis islands, possible xenologous displacement of one gene in the operon, and possible retention of ancestral genes in heterocystous cyanobacteria. Analyses support the monophyly of the Cyanobacteria, alphabetagamma-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria (Frankia) and provide strong support for the placement of Frankia nif genes at the base of combined the Cyanobacteria/Proteobacteria clades.

  4. Temperature- and Relative Humidity-Dependent Life History Traits of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Malvales: Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, H S; Yang, L; Huang, L F; Wang, W L; Hu, Y; Jiang, J J; Zhou, Z S

    2015-08-01

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a worldwide distributive invasive pest, originated from the United States, and it was first reported in Guangdong province, China, in 2008. The effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the life history traits of P. solenopsis on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvales: Malvaceae) were studied at seven constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27.5, 30, 32.5, and 35°C) and three RHs (45, 60, and 75%). The results showed that temperature, RH, and their interactions significantly influenced the life history traits of P. solenopsis. First instar was the most sensitive stage to extreme temperatures with very low survival rates at 15 and 35°C. At 25-32.5°C and the three RHs, the developmental periods of entire immature stage were shorter with values between 12.5-18.6 d. The minimum threshold temperature and the effective accumulative temperature for the pest to complete one generation were 13.2°C and 393.7 degree-days, respectively. The percentage and longevity of female adults significantly differed among different treatments. It failed to complete development at 15 or 35°C and the three RHs. Female fecundity reached the maximum value at 27.5°C and 45% RH. The intrinsic rate for increase (r), the net reproductive rate (R0), and the finite rate of increase (λ) reached the maximum values at 27.5°C and 45% RH (0.22 d(-1), 244.6 hatched eggs, and 1.25 d(-1), respectively). Therefore, we conclude that 27.5°C and 45% RH are the optimum conditions for the population development of the pest.

  5. Lifetime history of traumatic events in a young adult Mexican American sample: Relation to substance dependence, affective disorder, acculturation stress, and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Kim, Corinne; Gilder, David A; Stouffer, Gina M; Caetano, Raul; Yehuda, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the United States, and within this population, trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with physical and mental health problems. Therefore, efforts to delineate factors that may uniquely contribute to increased likelihood of trauma, PTSD, and substance use disorders over the lifetime in Mexican Americans are important to address health disparities and to develop treatment and prevention programs. Six hundred fourteen young adults (age 18-30 yrs) of Mexican American heritage, largely second generation, were recruited from the community and assessed with the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and an acculturation stress scale. More males (51.2%) reported experiencing traumas than females (41.1%), however, a larger proportion of females received a PTSD diagnosis (15%) than males (8%). Alcohol dependence and affective disorders, but not anxiety disorders, antisocial disorders, nicotine, marijuana, or stimulant dependence, were significantly comorbid with PTSD. Endorsing higher levels of acculturation stress was also significantly associated with both trauma exposure and a diagnosis of PTSD. Logistic regression revealed that female gender, having an affective disorder, alcohol dependence, higher levels of acculturation stress, and lower levels of education were all predictors of PTSD status. Additionally, alcohol dependence generally occurred after the PTSD diagnosis in early adulthood in this high-risk population. These studies suggest that treatment and prevention efforts should particularly focus on young adult second generation Mexican American women with higher levels of acculturation stress, who may be at higher risk for PTSD, affective disorder, and alcohol dependence following trauma exposure.

  6. Annual life-history dependent seasonal differences in neural activity of the olfactory system between non-migratory and migratory songbirds.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Ashutosh; Surbhi; Malik, Shalie; Rani, Sangeeta; Kumar, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Present study investigated seasonal plasticity in neural activity of the olfactory system, and assessed whether this was influenced by differences in seasonal life-history states (LHSs) between the non-migratory and migratory birds. Brains of non-migratory Indian weaver birds and migratory redheaded buntings were processed for ZENK immunohistochemistry, a marker of neuronal activation, at the times of equinoxes (March, September) and solstices (June, December), which correspond with the periods of different seasonal LHSs during the year. Immunoreactivity was quantified in brain regions comprising the olfactory system viz. olfactory bulb (OB), anterior olfactory nucleus (AON), prepiriform cortex (CPP), lateral olfactory tract (LOT) and olfactory cortex (piriform cortex, CPI; lateral olfactory cortex, LOC). In weaver birds, ZENK-like immunoreactive (ZENK-lir) cells were significantly higher in all the brain areas during post-breeding season (September) than during the other seasons; OBs had higher neuronal activity in the breeding season (June), however. A similar neural activity pattern but at enhanced levels was found in migratory buntings almost all the year. These results for the first time show LHS-associated differences in the seasonal plasticity of a sensory system between the non-migratory and migratory songbirds.

  7. Canadian History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Libraries in Canada, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes 22 articles that address Canadian history and the importance of having students honor Canada's past by providing articles relating to the areas of History and Social Studies covering: historical fiction as instructional material; Canadian scientists; agricultural fairs; the Historical Foundation; social science books on Canada; student…

  8. Risk Factors for Relapse and Higher Costs among Medicaid Members with Opioid Dependence or Abuse: Opioid Agonists, Comorbidities, and Treatment History

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Robin E.; Baxter, Jeffrey D.; Aweh, Gideon; O'Connell, Elizabeth; Fisher, William H.; Barton, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials show that opioid agonist therapy (OAT) with methadone or buprenorphine is more effective than behavioral treatments, but state policymakers remain ambivalent about covering OAT for long periods. We used Medicaid claims for 52,278 Massachusetts Medicaid beneficiaries with a diagnosis of opioid abuse or dependence between 2004 and 2010 to study associations between use of methadone, buprenorphine or other behavioral health treatment without OAT, and time to relapse and total healthcare expenditures. Cox Proportional Hazards ratios for patients treated with either methadone or buprenorphine showed approximately 50% lower risk of relapse than behavioral treatment without OAT. Expenditures per month were from $153 to $233 lower for OAT episodes compared to other behavioral treatment. Co-occurring alcohol abuse/dependence quadrupled the risk of relapse, other non-opioid abuse/dependence doubled the relapse risk and severe mental illness added 80% greater risk compared to those without each of those disorders. Longer current treatment episodes were associated with lower risk of relapse. Relapse risk increased as prior treatment exposure increased but prior treatment was associated with slightly lower total healthcare expenditures. These findings suggest that the effectiveness of OAT that has been demonstrated in clinical trials persists at the population level in a less controlled setting and that OAT is associated with lower total healthcare expenditures compared to other forms of behavioral treatment for patients with opioid addiction. Co-occurring other substance use and mental illness exert strong influences on cost and risk of relapse, suggesting that individuals with these conditions need more comprehensive treatment. PMID:25997674

  9. Corticotropin-releasing Factor in the Rat Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Promotes Different Forms of Behavioral Flexibility Depending on Social Stress History

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Kevin P; Hill-Smith, Tiffany E; Lucki, Irwin; Valentino, Rita J

    2015-01-01

    The stress-related neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) regulates the dorsal raphe nucleus–serotonin (DRN–5-HT) system during stress and this may underlie affective and cognitive dysfunctions that characterize stress-related psychiatric disorders. CRF acts on both CRF1 and CRF2 receptor subtypes in the DRN that exert opposing inhibitory and excitatory effects on DRN-5-HT neuronal activity and 5-HT forebrain release, respectively. The current study first assessed the cognitive effects of intra-DRN microinfusion of CRF or the selective CRF2 agonist, urocortin II in stress-naive rats on performance of an operant strategy set-shifting task that is mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). CRF (30 ng) facilitated strategy set-shifting performance, whereas higher doses of CRF and urocortin II that would interact with CRF2 were without effect, consistent with a CRF1-mediated action. This dose decreased 5-HT extracellular levels in the mPFC, further supporting a role for CRF1. The effects of CRF were then assessed in rats exposed to repeated social stress using the resident–intruder model. Repeated social stress shifted the CRF effect from facilitation of strategy set shifting to facilitation of reversal learning and this was most prominent in a subpopulation of rats that resist defeat. Notably, in this subpopulation of rats 5-HT neuronal responses to CRF have been demonstrated to shift from CRF1-mediated inhibition to CRF2-mediated excitation. Because 5-HT facilitates reversal learning, the present results suggest that stress-induced changes in the cellular effects of CRF in the DRN translate to changes in cognitive effects of CRF. Together, the results underscore the potential for stress history to shift cognitive processing through changes in CRF neurotransmission in the DRN and the association of this effect with coping strategy. PMID:25865931

  10. Temporal variation in life-history traits of the clam Tivela mactroides (Bivalvia: Veneridae): Density-dependent processes in sandy beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turra, Alexander; Petracco, Marcelo; Amaral, A. Cecilia Z.; Denadai, Márcia R.

    2014-10-01

    Temporal variation in the structure and dynamics of a population of Tivela mactroides was examined over two periods (2003-2004 and 2007-2008) in the southern part of Caraguatatuba Bay, southeastern Brazil. During the first period from January 2003 to October 2004, sampling was conducted monthly. Sampling in the second period was performed in the summer (January and February 2007 and 2008) and winter (July and August 2007 and 2008). The von Bertalanffy growth function was applied to estimate growth parameters for both periods from length-frequency distributions. Production was determined using the mass-specific growth rate method. Results indicated that the mean abundance (±SE) of T. mactroides varied sharply between the two periods, with an increase of almost 150 times from 2003 to 2004 (8.67·102 ± 0.83·102 ind m-1) to 2007-2008 (1.25·105 ± 3.33·104 ind m-1). The higher abundance in the second period was related to successful recruitment events. While the mean biomass and the production were higher in the second (5.43 ± 0.87 kg AFDM m-1 and 7.89 kg AFDM m-1 yr-1) than in the first period (0.18 ± 0.02 kg AFDM m-1 and 0.18 kg AFDM m-1 yr-1), lower values of shell length, curvature parameter, asymptotic length of the VBGF, and the growth index phi-prime in 2007-2008 (17.57 ± 1.35 mm; K = 0.40 yr-1; L∞ = 38.60 mm, ϕ‧ = 2.78) than in 2003-2004 (26.21 ± 1.21 mm; K = 1.00 yr-1; L∞ = 40.75 mm, ϕ‧ = 3.22) were related to a strongly density-dependent growth process in the second period. The oscillation in growth observed in the second, but not in the first period also indicates a process of density-dependent growth. These sharp temporal variations in population parameters of T. mactroides suggest the occurrence of density-dependent processes, and reinforce the importance of these processes in structuring sandy-beach populations.

  11. Pleistocene evolutionary history of the Clouded Apollo (Parnassius mnemosyne): genetic signatures of climate cycles and a 'time-dependent' mitochondrial substitution rate.

    PubMed

    Gratton, P; Konopiński, M K; Sbordoni, V

    2008-10-01

    Genetic data are currently providing a large amount of new information on past distribution of species and are contributing to a new vision of Pleistocene ice ages. Nonetheless, an increasing number of studies on the 'time dependency' of mutation rates suggest that date assessments for evolutionary events of the Pleistocene might be overestimated. We analysed mitochondrial (mt) DNA (COI) sequence variation in 225 Parnassius mnemosyne individuals sampled across central and eastern Europe in order to assess (i) the existence of genetic signatures of Pleistocene climate shifts; and (ii) the timescale of demographic and evolutionary events. Our analyses reveal a phylogeographical pattern markedly influenced by the Pleistocene/Holocene climate shifts. Eastern Alpine and Balkan populations display comparatively high mtDNA diversity, suggesting multiple glacial refugia. On the other hand, three widely distributed and spatially segregated lineages occupy most of northern and eastern Europe, indicating postglacial recolonization from different refugial areas. We show that a conventional 'phylogenetic' substitution rate cannot account for the present distribution of genetic variation in this species, and we combine phylogeographical pattern and palaeoecological information in order to determine a suitable intraspecific rate through a Bayesian coalescent approach. We argue that our calibrated 'time-dependent' rate (0.096 substitutions/ million years), offers the most convincing time frame for the evolutionary events inferred from sequence data. When scaled by the new rate, estimates of divergence between Balkan and Alpine lineages point to c. 19 000 years before present (last glacial maximum), and parameters of demographic expansion for northern lineages are consistent with postglacial warming (5-11 000 years before present).

  12. Family History

    MedlinePlus

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  13. The way to her heart? Response to romantic cues is dependent on hunger state and dieting history: An fMRI pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ely, Alice V; Childress, Anna Rose; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Normal weight historical dieters (HDs) are prone to future weight gain, and show higher levels of brain activation in reward-related regions after having eaten than nondieters (NDs) in response to food stimuli (Ely, Childress, Jagannathan, & Lowe, 2014), a similar pattern to that seen in obesity. We hypothesized that HDs are differentially sensitive after eating to rewards in general, and thus extended prior findings by comparing the same groups' brain activation when viewing romantic pictures compared to neutral stimuli while being scanned in a blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI paradigm in a fasted and fed state. Results show that 1) in fed relative to fasted conditions, both HDs and NDs were more responsive in areas related to reward and 2) in HDs, greater fed versus fasted activation extended to areas linked to perception and goal-directed behavior. HDs relative to NDs were more responsive to romantic cues in the superior frontal gyrus when fasted and the middle temporal gyrus when fed. This pattern of response is similar to HDs' activation when viewing highly palatable food cues, and is consistent with research showing overlapping brain-based responses to sex, drugs and food.

  14. Natural History of Dependency in the Elderly: A 24-Year Population-Based Study Using a Longitudinal Item Response Theory Model.

    PubMed

    Edjolo, Arlette; Proust-Lima, Cécile; Delva, Fleur; Dartigues, Jean-François; Pérès, Karine

    2016-02-15

    We aimed to describe the hierarchical structure of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) and basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and trajectories of dependency before death in an elderly population using item response theory methodology. Data were obtained from a population-based French cohort study, the Personnes Agées QUID (PAQUID) Study, of persons aged ≥65 years at baseline in 1988 who were recruited from 75 randomly selected areas in Gironde and Dordogne. We evaluated IADL and ADL data collected at home every 2-3 years over a 24-year period (1988-2012) for 3,238 deceased participants (43.9% men). We used a longitudinal item response theory model to investigate the item sequence of 11 IADL and ADL combined into a single scale and functional trajectories adjusted for education, sex, and age at death. The findings confirmed the earliest losses in IADL (shopping, transporting, finances) at the partial limitation level, and then an overlapping of concomitant IADL and ADL, with bathing and dressing being the earliest ADL losses, and finally total losses for toileting, continence, eating, and transferring. Functional trajectories were sex-specific, with a benefit of high education that persisted until death in men but was only transient in women. An in-depth understanding of this sequence provides an early warning of functional decline for better adaptation of medical and social care in the elderly.

  15. Glaucoma history and risk factors.

    PubMed

    McMonnies, Charles W

    Apart from the risk of developing glaucoma there is also the risk that it is not detected and irreversible loss of vision ensues. Some studies of methods of glaucoma diagnosis have examined the results of instrument-based examinations with great if not complete reliance on objective findings in arriving at a diagnosis. The very valuable advances in glaucoma detection instrument technologies, and apparent increasing dependence on them, may have led to reduced consideration of information available from a patient history in those studies. Dependence on objective evidence of glaucomatous pathology may reduce the possibility of detecting glaucoma suspects or patients at risk for becoming glaucoma suspects. A valid positive family history of glaucoma is very valuable information. However, negative family histories can often be unreliable due to large numbers of glaucoma cases being undiagnosed. No evidence of family history is appropriate rather than no family history. In addition the unreliability of a negative family history is increased when patients with glaucoma fail to inform their family members. A finding of no family history can only be stated as no known family history. In examining the potential diagnostic contribution from a patient history, this review considers, age, frailty, race, type and degree of refractive error, systemic hyper- and hypotension, vasospasm, migraine, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, diabetes, medication interactions and side effects, the degree of exposure to intraocular and intracranial pressure elevations and fluctuations, smoking, and symptoms in addition to genetics and family history of the disease.

  16. Lunar History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    This section of the workshop describes the history of the moon, and offers explanations for the importance of understanding lunar history for engineers and users of lunar simulants. Included are summaries of the initial impact that is currently in favor as explaining the moon's formation, the crust generation, the creation of craters by impactors, the era of the lunar cataclysm, which some believe effected the evolution of life on earth, the nature of lunar impacts, crater morphology, which includes pictures of lunar craters that show the different types of craters, more recent events include effect of micrometeorites, solar wind, radiation and generation of agglutinates. Also included is a glossary of terms.

  17. Bulletproof History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the writers and producers of the television documentary, "The Valour and the Horror," provided a false impression of an event to fit preconceived and erroneous interpretations of history. Points out specific examples of inaccurate historical presentations and provides contradictory historical interpretations. (CFR)

  18. Arguing History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    The history of science illustrates some exciting--and sometimes controversial--moments. Unfortunately, textbooks tend to focus on results in a scientific discipline and only occasionally showcase an interesting historical vignette, telling the story behind those results. Although required studies may leave teachers little classroom time for…

  19. Making History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shein, Esther

    2008-01-01

    Jennifer Dorman was in a fix. Teaching ninth-grade US history at Holicong Middle School in Doylestown, Pennsylvania, Dorman wanted to tap into her students' interest in creating "something of value not just for their teachers, but something they could share with other students and people." But that required something a conventional paper-based…

  20. History dependence of magnetomechanical properties of steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melquiond, F.; Mouroux, A.; Jouglar, J.; Vuillermoz, P. L.; Weinstock, H.

    1996-05-01

    Magnetomechanical measurements using a superconducting SQUID magnetic gradiometer and a tensile-testing machine have been performed on a variety of steel specimens to determine the change in magnetization due to applied stress and the possible application of the observed behavior as a new form of nondestructive evaluation in steel. This study builds on earlier related measurements.

  1. River history.

    PubMed

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2012-05-13

    During the last half century, advances in geomorphology-abetted by conceptual and technical developments in geophysics, geochemistry, remote sensing, geodesy, computing and ecology-have enhanced the potential value of fluvial history for reconstructing erosional and depositional sequences on the Earth and on Mars and for evaluating climatic and tectonic changes, the impact of fluvial processes on human settlement and health, and the problems faced in managing unstable fluvial systems.

  2. Truncation and reset process on the dynamics of Parrondo's games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Cheng-Hung; Tsong, Tian Yow

    2003-02-01

    The counter-intuitive feature of Parrondo’s games is illustrated on various dynamical systems combined from different deterministic and stochastic subsystems. The concept of truncation and reset process is introduced, which provides a transparent perspective to understand the underlying mechanism of this class of dynamics, including the transport of flashing ratchets, and clarifies the puzzlement why random switching between two games can generate reversal dynamics as periodical switching does.

  3. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  4. Cygnus History

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Henderson, Raymond E. Gignac, Douglas E. Good, Mark D. Hansen, Charles V. Mitton; Daniel S. Nelson, Eugene C. Ormond; Steve R. Cordova, Isidro Molina; John R. Smith, Evan A. Rose

    2009-07-02

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site. The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images for dynamic plutonium experiments. This work will recount and discuss salient maintenance and operational issues encountered during the history of Cygnus. A brief description of Cygnus systems and rational for design selections will set the stage for this historical narrative. It is intended to highlight the team-derived solutions for technical problems encountered during extended periods of maintenance and operation. While many of the issues are typical to pulsed power systems, some of the solutions are unique. It is hoped that other source teams will benefit from this presentation, as well as other necessary disciplines (e.g., source users, system architects, facility designers and managers, funding managers, and team leaders).

  5. The Future of History and History Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commager, Henry Steele

    1983-01-01

    Technical history, a quantitative record of history strengthened by new techniques in mathematics, computer science, and other fields has advantages over former approaches to history--history as philosophy and historical theology. For example, it makes available more source materials. However, it has drawbacks, e.g., it directs research to highly…

  6. Dependent Probability Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, William F.; Shiflett, Ray C.; Shultz, Harris

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical model used to describe independence between two events in probability has a non-intuitive consequence called dependent spaces. The paper begins with a very brief history of the development of probability, then defines dependent spaces, and reviews what is known about finite spaces with uniform probability. The study of finite…

  7. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dethloff, Henry C.

    2001-01-01

    The KSC History Project focuses on archival research and oral history interviews on the history of Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Related projects include the preparation of a precis and chapter outline for a proposed book-length narrative history, a bibliography of key primary and secondary resources, a brief monograph overview of the history of KSC, and a monograph on the history of safety at the Center. Finally, there is work on the development of a web page and a personal history data base associated with the oral history project. The KSC History Project has been a joint endeavor between Henry C. Dethloff and Dr. Noble Lee Snaples, Jr.

  8. Celebrate Women's History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Carolyn M.; Baradar, Mariam

    This teachers' guide to activities celebrating Women's History Month focuses on women whose important contributions have been omitted from history textbooks. Women's History Month grew from a 1977 celebration of Women's History Week and is intended to bring women's history into the school curriculum. International Women's Day, celebrated on March…

  9. What Is Literary "History"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Wendell V.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the meaning of the word "history" as used in the common phrase "literary history" by critics and scholars. Asserts the differences between historical scholarship and literary history. Argues that the grounding activity of literary history is insulated from the relativism insisted upon by poststructuralist theorizing.…

  10. Let History Reign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    Spanish River High School is one of 40 U.S. History Schools and 21 affiliates around the country that get resources and academic support from the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. The schools require participating students to take a U.S. history course each year, in addition to any requisites in world history and other subjects. The…

  11. Microforms and Sport History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Explores the importance of sport history as it reflects the social and cultural history of the United States. Discussion covers the various sport history materials that are available in microform, including the Spalding Collection, twentieth-century microfilm sources, and sports and social history (Sports Periodicals microfilm series). (EJS)

  12. Integrating Women's History and Regular History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filene, Peter G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a university course which synthesizes women's history with traditional history. The four-part curricular sequence comprises the socioeconomic situation; occupations, including housework and how and whether women were employed; values, ideas, and images; and politics, including movements such as suffragism, birth control, and temperance.…

  13. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snaples, Lee

    2001-01-01

    The project is a joint endeavor between Dr. Henry Dethloff and myself and is producing a number of products related to KSC history. This report is a summary of those projects. First, there is an overview monograph covering KSC history. Second, there is a chapter outline for an eventual book-length history. Third, there is monograph on safety at KSC. Finally, there is a web page and database dedicated to the KSC oral history project.

  14. Life-history data.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James

    2016-07-15

    Life-history data are quantitative, retrospective and autobiographical data collected through event-history calendars. By mimicking the structure of our memories, these instruments can gather reliable information on different dimensions of the lifecourse. Life-history data enable the duration, timing and ordering of events to be brought to the foreground of analysis. Extending the scope of lifecourse research, life-history data make it possible to examine the long-term effects of past policies with more precision and detail.

  15. HAD Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  16. Studying Ancient History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  17. History of Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Albert E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the history of American physics, indicating that much effort has been on the atomic bond and high-energy physics, to the detriment of other topics and areas. To offset this tendency, significant research is going on in the history of solid-state physics, with glimmerings in the history of physics education. (JN)

  18. Film and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Robin L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on using film to teach history. Includes Web sites in five areas: (1) film and education; (2) history of cinema; (3) film and history resources; (4) film and women; and (5) film organizations. (CMK)

  19. Conducting the Medical History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Martin A.; Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    A key portion of the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse is the medical history. This differs from interviews or histories obtained by other professionals in that it is focuses more on the health and well-being of the child. Careful questions should be asked about all aspects of the child's medical history by a skilled, compassionate,…

  20. Who Owns History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Sheldon

    1995-01-01

    Presents an interview with historian Cary Carson of the Colonial Williamsburg Foundation and author William Styron on the role of history in society. Outlines the once-proposed Disney history theme park near Mannassas, Virginia. Discusses historical interpretation, museums, historical sites, and popular history. (CFR)

  1. Teaching History Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausum, Henry S., Ed.

    The 14 articles included in this collection touch on several aspects of the teaching of history. The articles are: (1) "Observations on University Teaching and Research" (N. Graebner); (2) "Teaching History: A Changing Clientele and an Affirmation of Goals" (E. Burns); (3) "History for Citizens" (W. McNeill); (4)…

  2. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Cancer.gov

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  3. Visual dependence and BPPV.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, K; Bronstein, A M; Faldon, M E; Mandalà, M; Murray, K; Silove, Y

    2012-06-01

    The increased visual dependence noted in some vestibular patients may be secondary to their vertigo. We examine whether a single, brief vertigo attack, such as in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), modifies visual dependency. Visual dependency was measured before and after the Hallpike manoeuvre with (a) the Rod and Frame and the Rod and Disc techniques whilst seated and (b) the postural sway induced by visual roll-motion stimulation. Three subject groups were studied: 20 patients with BPPV (history and positive Hallpike manoeuvre; PosH group), 20 control patients (history of BPPV but negative Hallpike manoeuvre; NegH group) and 20 normal controls. Our findings show that while both patient groups showed enhanced visual dependency, the PosH and the normal control group decreased visual dependency on repetition of the visual tasks after the Hallpike manoeuvre. NegH patients differed from PosH patients in that their high visual dependency did not diminish on repetition of the visual stimuli; they scored higher on the situational characteristic questionnaire ('visual vertigo' symptoms) and showed higher incidence of migraine. We conclude that long term vestibular symptoms increase visual dependence but a single BPPV attack does not increase it further. Repetitive visual motion stimulation induces adaptation in visual dependence in peripheral vestibular disorders such as BPPV. A positional form of vestibular migraine may underlie the symptoms of some patients with a history of BPPV but negative Hallpike manoeuvre. The finding that they have non adaptable increased visual dependency may explain visuo-vestibular symptoms in this group and, perhaps more widely, in patients with migraine.

  4. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Patrick K.

    2003-01-01

    The 2003 NASA/ASEE KSC History Project focused on a series of six history initiatives designed to acquire, preserve, and interpret the history of Kennedy Space Center. These six projects included the completion of Voices From the Cape, historical work co-authored with NASA historian Roger Launius, the completion of a series of oral histories with key KSC personnel, expansion of monograph on Public Affairs into two comprehensive pieces on KSC press operations and KSC visitor operations, the expansion of KSC Historical Concept Maps (Cmap) for history knowledge preservation, the expansion of the KSC oral history program through the administration of an oral history workshop for KSC-based practitioners, and the continued collaborative relationships between Kennedy Space Center, the University of West Florida, the University of Central Florida and other institutions including the University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

  5. KSC History Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Patrick K.

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 NASA/ASEE KSC History Project focused on a series of seven history initiatives designed to acquire, preserve, and interpret the history of Kennedy Space Center. These seven projects included the co-authoring of Voices From the Cape, historical work with NASA historian Roger Launius, the completion of a series of oral histories with key KSC personnel, a monograph on Public Affairs, the development of a Historical Concept Map (CMap) for history knowledge preservation, advice on KSC history database and web interface capabilities, the development of a KSC oral history program and guidelines of training and collection, and the development of collaborative relationships between Kennedy Space Center, the University of West Florida, and the University of Central Florida.

  6. Surfing for history: websites featuring dental history object collections.

    PubMed

    O'Dell, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    Research is a key activity for any individual interested in dental history. It should come as no surprise that the ever-evolving Internet has become a major resource for those who seek the latest information available on this (or almost any other) subject. As a curator in a dental history museum, the author frequently checks other sources that feature dental objects while cataloging and identifying newly-acquired objects or those under consideration for exhibition. "Surfing" by computer is often the author's first activity in pursuing any research task. This paper is a tour of websites written in English that include historical dental objects. At the risk of stating the obvious, the author would like to point out that the accuracy and reliability of information on websites varies widely, depending on the source. Therefore, most of the sites listed here have been developed by institutions.

  7. History of mathematics and history of science.

    PubMed

    Mann, Tony

    2011-09-01

    This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic careers open to practitioners have had a profound effect on the discipline, leading to a focus on elite mathematics and great mathematicians. More recently, reflecting earlier developments in the history of science, an increased interest in the context and culture of the practice of mathematics has become evident.

  8. Diet history: Method and applications.

    PubMed

    Morán Fagúndez, Luis Juan; Rivera Torres, Alejandra; González Sánchez, María Eugenia; de Torres Aured, Mari Lourdes; Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen; Irles Rocamora, José Antonio

    2015-02-26

    The diet history is a traditional method of analysis of food intake. In its traditional structure consists of three components that provide an overall information of the usual food consumption pattern of the individual and also detailed information on certain foods. The information is collected in an interview and requires highly experienced qualified interviewers. The quality of information depends largely on the skills of the interviewer. It is mostly used in clinical practice. It has also been used in studies of diet and health relationship to investigate the usual diet in the past. The high cost and long duration of the interview limit their usefulness in large epidemiological studies.

  9. Suicidal Behavior in Chemically Dependent Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaiola, Alan A.; Lavender, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Study explores distinctions between chemically dependent suicide attempters, chemically dependent nonsuicidal adolescents, and high school students with no history of chemical dependency (N=250). Results reveal that there were significant differences between the chemically dependent groups. It was also found that the majority of suicidal gestures…

  10. Implementing Big History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welter, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Contends that world history should be taught as "Big History," a view that includes all space and time beginning with the Big Bang. Discusses five "Cardinal Questions" that serve as a course structure and address the following concepts: perspectives, diversity, change and continuity, interdependence, and causes. (CMK)

  11. Teaching and Writing History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Milton

    1970-01-01

    Discusses new approaches to teaching history through publishers' series devoted to case studies on social problems, balanced presentation of the contributions of minorities including women, documentary sources, or different viewpoints, all instead of the traditional predigested, summarized history texts. Address delivered at American Association…

  12. Writing American Indian History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  13. History of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oversby, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses why the history of science should be included in the science curriculum in schools. He also presents some opportunities that can come out of using historical contexts, and findings from a study assessing the place of history of science in readily available textbooks.

  14. Teaching Nuclear History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holl, Jack M.; Convis, Sheila C.

    1991-01-01

    Presents results of a survey of the teaching about nuclear history at U.S. colleges and universities. Reports the existence of a well-established and extensive literature, a focus on nuclear weapons or warfare, and a concentration on nuclear citizenship, therapy, or eschatology for courses outside of history departments. Discusses individual…

  15. Women's History Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthsdotter, Mary, Ed.; Eisenberg, Bonnie, Ed.

    This curriculum guide is designed to facilitate teachers' first efforts to introduce information about women in U.S. history. The guide promotes a multicultural awareness of women's history beginning with the Native Americans and proceeding to current issues of diversity. Activities are divided for grades 1-6 and 7-12 but may be adapted as…

  16. Homes in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This issue of "The Goldfinch," an Iowa history magazine for children, focuses on issues relating to housing. Articles address such subjects as homelessness, neighborhood history, architecture, and local folklore. One student activity is the "Building Blocks" game that calls upon students to fill in blanks to complete words from…

  17. History Teaching in Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vero, Julia, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of five documents defines and explores the role, scope, reforms, and current trends in history teaching in Hungary. Ivan Berend in "Educational Ideas and History," considers whether or not the traditional uses of historical knowledge have become obsolete and examines the value of this knowledge in today's society. Peter…

  18. History and Ecological Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherif, Abour H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the main objectives of ecohistory and sources of information for this study. Details five themes that are important for students to know about the history of ecology including the history of Earth, fauna and flora, the human species, human civilization, and changes in the human environment. (CW)

  19. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  20. Re-Righting History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornhill, Esmeralda

    1993-01-01

    The traditionally accepted version of the world's story, which ignores achievements and concerns of whole segments of humanity, needs correcting, as a self-determination act of reconstruction and deconstruction by African Americans. Evidence of African presence in the Americas before Columbus and aspects of Canadian history exemplify history that…

  1. The wet-heat resistance of Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBAB4 spores produced in a two-step sporulation process depends on sporulation temperature but not on previous cell history.

    PubMed

    Baril, E; Coroller, L; Postollec, F; Leguerinel, I; Boulais, C; Carlin, F; Mafart, P

    2011-03-15

    While bacterial spores are mostly produced in a continuous process, this study reports a two-step sporulation methodology. Even though spore heat resistance of numerous spore-forming bacteria is known to be dependent on sporulation conditions, this approach enables the distinction between the vegetative cell growth phase in nutrient broth and the sporulation phase in specific buffer. This study aims at investigating whether the conditions of growth of the vegetative cells, prior to sporulation, could affect spore heat resistance. For that purpose, wet-heat resistance of Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBAB4 spores, produced via a two-step sporulation process, was determined from vegetative cells harvested at four different stages of the growth kinetics, i.e. early exponential phase, late exponential phase, transition phase or early stationary phase. To assess the impact of the temperature on spore heat resistance, sporulation was performed at 10 °C, 20 °C and 30 °C from cells grown during a continuous or a discontinuous temperature process, differentiating or not the growth and sporulation temperatures. Induction of sporulation seems possible for a large range of growth stages. Final spore concentration was not significantly affected by the vegetative cell growth stage while it was by the temperature during growing and sporulation steps. The sporulation temperature influences the heat resistance of B. weihenstephanensis KBAB4 spores much more than growth temperature prior to sporulation. Spores produced at 10 °C were up to 3 times less heat resistant than spores produced at 30 °C.

  2. Life-history strategies of ungulates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leslie, David M.; Bowyer, R.T.; Kie, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    This Special Feature resulted from a symposium on life-history strategies of ungulates presented at the 78th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Mammalogists in Blacksburg, Virginia, in June 1998. The presentations at the symposium represented only a vignette of the wide variety of life-history strategies that exists among ungulates. The four papers that follow include treatises on birth-site selection of moose (Alces alces), sex-ratio correlates with dimorphism and risk of predation, optimal foraging relative to risk of predation, and the role of density dependence in shaping life-history traits of ungulates. A theme of risk of predation in shaping life-history traits is common to three of four papers.

  3. The global history of reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, Bradley; Mesinger, Andrei

    2017-03-01

    Using a Bayesian framework, we quantify what current observations imply about the history of the epoch of reionization (EoR). We use a popular, three-parameter EoR model, flexible enough to accommodate a wide range of physically plausible reionization histories. We study the impact of various EoR observations: (i) the optical depth to the CMB measured by Planck 2016; (ii) the dark fraction in the Lyman α and β forests; (iii) the redshift evolution of galactic Lyα emission (so-called 'Lyα fraction'); (iv) the clustering of Lyα emitters; (v) the IGM damping wing imprint in the spectrum of QSO ULASJ1120+0641; (vi) and the patchy kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signal. Combined, (i) and (ii) already place interesting constraints on the reionization history, with the epochs corresponding to an average neutral fraction of (75, 50, 25) per cent, constrained at 1σ to z= (9.21^{+1.22 }_{ -1.15}, 8.14^{+1.08 }_{ -1.00}, 7.26^{+1.13 }_{ -0.96}). Folding-in more model-dependent EoR observations [(iii)-(vi)], strengthens these constraints by tens of per cent, at the cost of a decrease in the likelihood of the best-fitting model, driven mostly by (iii). The tightest constraints come from (v). Unfortunately, no current observational set is sufficient to break degeneracies and constrain the astrophysical EoR parameters. However, model-dependent priors on the EoR parameters themselves can be used to set tight limits by excluding regions of parameter space with strong degeneracies. Motivated by recent observations of z ∼ 7 faint, lensed galaxies, we show how a conservative upper limit on the virial temperature of haloes which host reionizing galaxies can constrain the escape fraction of ionizing photons to f_esc = 0.14^{+0.26 }_{ -0.09}.

  4. Singing American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to use music when teaching U.S. History. Provides examples such as teaching about the Civil War, the Great Depression, and the Vietnam War and showing the contributions of African Americans. Includes a discography. (CMK)

  5. Teaching American Environmental History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Douglas H.

    1974-01-01

    Themes, issues, teaching approaches, and bibliographic references to sources for a course in environmental history, offered with the hope of preparing students to formulate principles to guide our further conduct toward the environment, are described. (JH)

  6. History and Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Diana S.

    2004-01-01

    The history of the computer usage in high school laboratories is discussed. Students learned scientific methods by acknowledging measurement errors, using significant digits, questioning their own results, and without doubts, they benefited from applying skill learned in mathematics classes.

  7. Creating a family health history

    MedlinePlus

    Family health history; Create a family health history; Family medical history ... Many factors affect your health. These include your: Genes Diet and exercise habits Environment Family members tend to share certain behaviors, genetic traits, and habits. ...

  8. Creating a Family Health History

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Creating a Family Health History Why Create a Family Health History? Click for more information A Family Tree for ... Click for more information What a Family Health History May Reveal You can use a family health ...

  9. AAS Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  10. Political History as Women's History: Toward a More Inclusive Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woyshner, Christine

    2002-01-01

    The secondary school history curriculum, with its emphasis on political history, tends to relegate women to the margins or to interpret their accomplishments according to a patriarchal framework. The author argues that by adapting theoretical developments in the field of women's history, women can be seen as political agents in history, thereby…

  11. History-dependent catastrophes regulate axonal microtubule behavior.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Tatiana; Smal, Ihor; van Haren, Jeffrey; Akinci, Umut; Liu, Zhe; Miedema, Marja; Limpens, Ronald; van Ham, Marco; van der Reijden, Michael; Poot, Raymond; Grosveld, Frank; Mommaas, Mieke; Meijering, Erik; Galjart, Niels

    2010-06-08

    In Chinese hamster ovary cells, microtubules originate at the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) and grow persistently toward the cell edge, where they undergo catastrophe. In axons, microtubule dynamics must be regulated differently because microtubules grow parallel to the plasma membrane and there is no MTOC. GFP-tagged microtubule plus end tracking proteins (+TIPs) mark the ends of growing neuronal microtubules. Their fluorescent "comet-like" pattern reflects turnover of +TIP binding sites. Using GFP-tagged +TIPs and fluorescence-based segmentation and tracking tools, we show that axonal microtubules grow with a constant average velocity and that they undergo catastrophes at random positions, yet in a programmed fashion. Using protein depletion approaches, we find that the +TIPs CLIP-115 and CLIP-170 affect average microtubule growth rate and growth distance in neurons but not the duration of a microtubule growth event. In N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells, we find that EB1, the core +TIP, regulates microtubule growth rate, growth distance, and duration, consistent with in vitro data. Combined, our data suggest that CLIPs influence the axonal microtubule/tubulin ratio, whereas EB1 stimulates microtubule growth and structural transitions at microtubule ends, thereby regulating microtubule catastrophes and the turnover of +TIP binding sites.

  12. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  13. History of psychology.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    The editor of History of Psychology discusses her plan to vary the journal's content and expand its scope in specific ways. The first is to introduce a "Spotlight" feature, a relatively brief, provocative thought piece that might take one of several forms. Along with this new feature, she hopes further to broaden the journal's coverage and its range of contributors. She encourages submissions on the history of the psy-sciences off the beaten path. Finally, she plans to continue the journal's tradition of special issues, special sections, and essay reviews of two or more important recently published books in the field. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Time, money, and history.

    PubMed

    Edgerton, David

    2012-06-01

    This essay argues that taking the economy seriously in histories of science could not only extend the range of activities studied but also change--often quite radically--our understanding of well-known cases and instances in twentieth-century science. It shows how scientific intellectuals and historians of science have followed the money as a means of critique of particular forms of science and of particular conceptions of science. It suggests the need to go further, to a much broader implicit definition of what constitutes science--one that implies a criticism of much history of twentieth-century science for defining it implicitly and inappropriately in very restrictive ways.

  15. Investigating human evolutionary history

    PubMed Central

    WOOD, BERNARD

    2000-01-01

    We rely on fossils for the interpretation of more than 95% of our evolutionary history. Fieldwork resulting in the recovery of fresh fossil evidence is an important component of reconstructing human evolutionary history, but advances can also be made by extracting additional evidence for the existing fossil record, and by improving the methods used to interpret the fossil evidence. This review shows how information from imaging and dental microstructure has contributed to improving our understanding of the hominin fossil record. It also surveys recent advances in the use of the fossil record for phylogenetic inference. PMID:10999269

  16. Student Papers in Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Johnson County Center for Local History.

    Thirteen papers on Kansas and Johnson County, Kansas history are presented. The papers were written by students in a course at the Johnson County Center for Local History or for independent study in local history. The papers are: "Conditions and Construction of Gardner Lake"; "The History of St. Joseph's Church, Shawnee,…

  17. Teaching Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This Social Science Docket theme issue focuses on teaching local history and included theme and non-themed articles, lesson plans, learning activities, and book, movie, and museum reviews designed for K-12 social studies teachers. Articles and materials in this issue are: "Editing Is Not Censorship" (Alan Singer); "Teachers Respond…

  18. Why Military History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Josiah, III

    2008-01-01

    Interest in military history is as strong as it has ever been--except on American college campuses. Lt. Gen. Josiah Bunting III examines why today's undergraduates need to study the facts of war, and why knowing its causes and consequences remain a vital part of our common knowledge.

  19. Black History Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noldon, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The author argues in this speech that one cannot expect students in the school system to know and understand the genius of Black history if the curriculum is Eurocentric, which is a residue of racism. He states that his comments are designed for the enlightenment of those who suffer from a school system that "hypocritically manipulates Black…

  20. Brazilian History through Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaher, Celia Ribeiro; Varella, Maria Angelica

    This paper provides an overview of the beginnings of the newspaper in Brazil with information on the more significant titles and their role in the history of journalism and their impact on social change that occurred between the Imperial and Republican periods. Current collections at the National Library and legal deposit are discussed. It…

  1. The History Computerization Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Description of the History Computerization Project, which is being developed for the exchange of information between researchers, librarians, archivists, museum curators, preservation groups, and historical societies, focuses on workshops that teach the use of computer database management for historical cataloging and research. (LRW)

  2. A Little History (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagleson, P. S.

    2009-12-01

    Seeds of the Blue Book were planted in Cambridge, MA in the early 1960's, and variants thereof in Boulder, Colorado and Tucson, Arizona at a somewhat later date. However, flowering and cross-pollination did not occur until 1984 with the fruit ripening in 1991. We will briefly review this obscure history, search for lessons learned, and ponder what comes next.

  3. History of Vietnamese Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duong Quang Ham

    This is the first of a two-volume textbook, covering the official program of the Ministry of Education, of the secondary curriculum for the history of Vietnamese literature. It is divided into three main sections. The first section "First Year of the Secondary Cycle (Grade 11)" deals with (1) popular literature; (2) the influence of China, (3)…

  4. Gill's 'History' restored

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurn, Mark

    2009-06-01

    Note about the restoration of the copy of Sir David Gill's 'A History and Description of the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope' in the Library of the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge. The book was restored with funds provided by the SHA in thanks for facilities for meetings provided to the Institute.

  5. History of vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before. PMID:25136134

  6. History, Theory, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rury, John L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the question of theory as it may pertain to the history of education, with particular attention to the United States. Historians, like everyone else, have little choice regarding the use of theory; to one extent or another they must. The question is how much and to what end. The author aims to consider the…

  7. AFA-NIET History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Guy; Schnoor, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Presents a history of the American Forensic Association regarding its splintering within the forensic community. Discusses the incorporation of the National Individual Events Tournament (NIET). Considers how the NIET Committee has encouraged research projects related to forensic pedagogy as well as other issues related to forensics. (NH)

  8. Narrative History and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamura, Eileen H.

    2011-01-01

    While narrative history has been the prevailing mode in historical scholarship, its preeminence has not gone unquestioned. In the 1980s, the role of narrative in historical writing was "the subject of extraordinarily intense debate." The historical backdrop of this debate can be traced to the preceding two decades, when four groups of thinkers…

  9. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…

  10. Life History and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses the life history method to chronicle the challenges of a low-income, first-generation student en route to college. The paper addresses three questions: how Manuel navigates college and related topics such as roommates, family, and money; how he creates social networks; and how he works with adults such as teachers and…

  11. History at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The efforts of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to capture and record the events of the past are described, particularly the research accomplishments of NASA's agency-wide history program. A concise guide to the historical research resources available at NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C., at NASA facilities around the country, and through the federal records systems is given.

  12. Black History Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on Black History month. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines; includes professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  13. My English History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the author's history as an English teacher. Suggests that English teaching is not hermetic but profoundly influenced by educational trends outside the subject itself. Explains that the author's commitment to English combines a sense of engagement with a sense of liberation. (PM)

  14. In a Word, History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohan, Mary Helen

    1977-01-01

    Understanding words like "bionics" will open the mind to the horizons of another time when words like "railroad" evoked wonder and "to fly to the moon" was a metaphor for the impossible dream. Suggests that history teachers and English teachers should join together in using words to teach both subjects. (Editor/RK)

  15. History and Civility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Larry Schaefer's history of civility is a succinct summary of the implicit and evolving definitions of civility over 2500 years of civilization. Beginning with the Romans and the root word "civitas," meaning the rights and duties of citizenship, civility appears in classical literature as integral to the roots of democracy in the context…

  16. Five Colleges: Five Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Ronald, Ed.

    This book presents essays on the histories of five Massachusetts schools of higher education (Amherst College, Mount Holyoke College, the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Smith College, Hampshire College) who together have had a successful consortia lasting for 25 years. The first essay, by Theodore P. Greene, depicts the temper of Amherst…

  17. History of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-08-26

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  18. Picturing Iowa's History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue focuses on how advancements in photography affected Iowans and the pictures they took of their communities. Five famous and not so famous photographers who have taken pictures of Iowa's history are featured: (1) John Plumbe, Jr.; (2) Isaac A. Wetherby; (3) D. C. Hale; (4) Duluth Pieper; and (5) E. M. Clark. Instructions for making…

  19. Bengal Literature and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimock, Edward C., Jr., Ed.

    The unifying theme of the papers in this book is the use of creative literature as source material for the study of cultural history. Titles and authors of the papers are: "Encounter and Growth in Bengali Literature, A Survey of Medieval Bengali Literature" by T.W. Clark; "The Hindu Chiefdom in Middle Bengali Literature" by…

  20. History in Present Tense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakrewsky, Jackie

    1994-01-01

    Eschewing Little Mermaid and Ninja Turtle costumes, students at a Washington Montessori school celebrate Halloween dressed as John Adams, Clara Barton, and other historical figures. U.S. Department of Education recently recognized eight schools for using interdisciplinary approaches, devoting adequate instructional time to history, and addressing…

  1. Testing History As Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, James R.; Hart, James

    1973-01-01

    Some obvious difficulties of teaching and testing history as inquiry are reviewed. Examples of test items that require students to utilize thought processes developed through inquiry teaching are presented together with a rationale for their use. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is proposed as a useful tool in test construction. (SM)

  2. Psychology and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsterburg, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    This essay considers the discipline of psychology as distinct from history, defining it as a science within philosophy dedicated to the study of the causal structure of the human mind. Although Hugo Munsterburg was considered an important figure in applied psychology, this essay represents an earlier epistemology. (SLD)

  3. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  4. Music in Iowa History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue of "The Goldfinch" focuses on music as an art using sound in time to express ideas and emotions and contains articles featuring appreciations of some of Iowa's renowned musical artists. The first article gives an overview of music in Iowa's history. The next article describes Antonin Dvorak's summer sojourn in Spillville…

  5. Histories of Geographical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Ashley

    2006-01-01

    This paper revisits the value of and justification for histories of geographical education as a field of research endeavour within geographical education. Four potentially fruitful areas of research are identified. These are pressure groups, especially the International Geographical Union's Commission on Geographical Education; the influence of…

  6. Kentucky History and Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckinridge County Board of Education, Hardinsburg, KY.

    Designed for use in grades 6, 7, and 8, this curriculum guide provides 11 individual units for teaching Kentucky history and geography with the recommended text "Kentucky Heritage" published by Steck-Vaughn. Unit titles are The Blue Grass State, Early Explorations of Kentucky, Development of the Government of Kentucky, The Constitution…

  7. Projects in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harben, Cedric Y.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses two types of historical projects conducted by O-level pupils at Clifton College: studies of famous chemists and projects on the development of industrial chemicals. Indicates that a project in the history of chemistry is characterized by its practical and philosophical approach to chemistry study. (CC)

  8. A Biospheric Natural History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomashow, Mitchell

    2001-01-01

    A group of Maine birdwatchers recognizes that the presence or absence of migrating songbirds is related to complex biospheric patterns. For schoolchildren, community groups, and environmental scientists, such local natural history observations can be a pathway to perceiving and understanding global ecological change and then to developing…

  9. Understanding World Economic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaples, Robert

    2013-01-01

    One joy of studying history is discovering people living meaningful lives and behaving in unusual ways that are startling to the modern reader--young or old. Why did pre-modern people living hundreds or even thousands of years ago do things so differently than we do? Robert Whaples states that Economic historians conclude that the key difference…

  10. Freud and cultural history.

    PubMed

    Burke, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article is concerned with three questions: Can historians make use of Freud's ideas? Have they done so in the past? Should they do so in the future? It begins with a personal encounter with Freud's ideas and then raises some general questions about the relation between psychoanalysis and history.

  11. History of Space Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    2012), 1. 2 Winston Churchill, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/history.html (accessed January 8, 2012). 3 Deborah Cadbury , Space Race... Cadbury , Space Race, The Epic Battle Between America and the Soviet Union for Dominion of Space (New York: Harper Collins, 2006), 4. 22 7 Ibid., 5

  12. Epistemology and history.

    PubMed

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    The essay reviews Hans-Jörg Rheinberger's intensive engagement with French epistemology that has remained a constant throughout his career. It focuses especially on a set of recent writings by Rheinberger that all revolve around the question: how has epistemology become historical? This question is discussed in the context of Rheinberger's own move from philosophy to an embracement of history.

  13. Footsteps through History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Michael L.

    1984-01-01

    Using colored construction paper, students trace around their shoes and cut out two forms. Students then pick and research an event from the time period in history under study and write a report on the representations of shoe soles. The reports are taped, in order of occurrence, around the classroom. (RM)

  14. Redefining American Literary History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruoff, A. LaVonne Brown, Ed.; Ward, Jerry W., Jr., Ed.

    This book is a collection of essays which provide starting points for a redefinition of American literary history based on a multiethnic and multiracial, rather than European, theory of culture. After an introduction by the editors, essays in the book are: "The Literatures of America: A Comparative Discipline" (Paul Lauter);…

  15. A History of Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Evan L.

    Any study of the history of psychology must first determine what is to be considered psychology, whether to stick to the relatively continuous Western tradition or to include others (e.g., Eastern, Oriental), and whether to investigate the impact of the socio-cultural events of the time on the views of that period or consider those views in a…

  16. The Holocaust and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This theme based journal issue consists of articles and teaching ideas focusing on the Holocaust and history. This publication contains the following materials: (1) "Multiple Perspectives on the Holocaust?" (Alan Singer); (2) "Responses to 'Multiple Perspectives on the Holocaust'"; (3) "Escape to Cuba: Story of Laura Kahn,…

  17. Using Histories to Implement Atomic Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Pui

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we describe an approach of implementing atomicity. Atomicity requires that computations appear to be all-or-nothing and executed in a serialization order. The approach we describe has three characteristics. First, it utilizes the semantics of an application to improve concurrency. Second, it reduces the complexity of application-dependent synchronization code by analyzing the process of writing it. In fact, the process can be automated with logic programming. Third, our approach hides the protocol used to arrive at a serialization order from the applications. As a result, different protocols can be used without affecting the applications. Our approach uses a history tree abstraction. The history tree captures the ordering relationship among concurrent computations. By determining what types of computations exist in the history tree and their parameters, a computation can determine whether it can proceed.

  18. Life history evolution: successes, limitations, and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stearns, Stephen C.

    Life history theory tries to explain how evolution designs organisms to achieve reproductive success. The design is a solution to an ecological problem posed by the environment and subject to constraints intrinsic to the organism. Work on life histories has expanded the role of phenotypes in evolutionary theory, extending the range of predictions from genetic patterns to whole-organism traits directly connected to fitness. Among the questions answered are the following: Why are organisms small or large? Why do they mature early or late? Why do they have few or many offspring? Why do they have a short or a long life? Why must they grow old and die? The classical approach to life histories was optimization; it has had some convincing empirical success. Recently non-equilibrium approaches involving frequency-dependence, density-dependence, evolutionary game theory, adaptive dynamics, and explicit population dynamics have supplanted optimization as the preferred approach. They have not yet had as much empirical success, but there are logical reasons to prefer them, and they may soon extend the impact of life history theory into population dynamics and interspecific interactions in coevolving communities.

  19. Assembly history dictates ecosystem functioning: evidence from wood decomposer communities.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Tadashi; Dickie, Ian A; Paula Wilkie, J; Paulus, Barbara C; Park, Duckchul; Roberts, Andrea; Buchanan, Peter K; Allen, Robert B

    2010-06-01

    Community assembly history is increasingly recognized as a fundamental determinant of community structure. However, little is known as to how assembly history may affect ecosystem functioning via its effect on community structure. Using wood-decaying fungi as a model system, we provide experimental evidence that large differences in ecosystem functioning can be caused by small differences in species immigration history during community assembly. Direct manipulation of early immigration history resulted in three-fold differences in fungal species richness and composition and, as a consequence, differences of the same magnitude in the rate of decomposition and carbon release from wood. These effects - which were attributable to the history-dependent outcome of competitive and facilitative interactions - were significant across a range of nitrogen availabilities observed in natural forests. Our results highlight the importance of considering assembly history in explaining ecosystem functioning.

  20. Opioid dependence

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Dependence on opioids is a multifactorial condition involving genetic and psychosocial factors. There are three approaches to treating opioid dependence. Stabilisation is usually by opioid substitution treatments, and aims to ensure that the drug use becomes independent of mental state (such as craving and mood) and independent of circumstances (such as finance and physical location). The next stage is to withdraw (detox) from opioids. The final aim is relapse prevention. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments for stabilisation (maintenance) in people with opioid dependence? What are the effects of drug treatments for withdrawal in people with opioid dependence? What are the effects of drug treatments for relapse prevention in people with opioid dependence? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 23 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: buprenorphine; clonidine; lofexidine; methadone; naltrexone; and ultra-rapid withdrawal regimes. PMID:21696648

  1. [Arthritis and clinical history].

    PubMed

    Silva, Lígia; Sampaio, Luzia; Pinto, José; Ventura, Francisco S

    2011-01-01

    In front of a patient with arthritis, clinical good-sense tells that the most probable diagnosis are the most prevalent ones. Nevertheless, we have to exclude a multiplicity of other aetiologies, less frequent, but with highest implications in the therapeutic conduct. Infections by Brucella and by Borrelia are rare causes of chronic arthritis, yet are diagnosis to consider, even when the clinical manifestations aren't the most typical, as there still exist endemic areas in Portugal. Here we report two clinical cases about patients with arthritis for more than one year, subject to ineffective exams ant treatments. Only the clinical history could put on evidence clinical-epidemiological data, suggestive of Brucellosis and Lyme Disease, namely the professional contact with infected animals, and the history of probable erythema migrans, that pointed toward the correct diagnosis. So, with directed therapeutic, there was complete resolution of the inflammatory symptoms.

  2. Stress and life history.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Pat; Spencer, Karen A

    2014-05-19

    In his book on behavioural endocrinology, Randy Nelson describes 'stress' as a 'notoriously ethereal concept'. Yet, despite this lack of clarity, studies of the consequences of stress across different time scales, life history stages, taxa and levels of biological enquiry form a large part of modern biology and biomedicine. Organisms need to recognise and respond to environmental challenges. Being able to do so appropriately, and with minimal costs, is an important physiological attribute, with great adaptive value. The costs and benefits of different mechanisms that enable organisms to cope with unpredictable environmental changes can be manifest to different degrees at different life stages. Accordingly, the level of stress experienced in the environment can act as a strong selective pressure that drives the evolution of life histories.

  3. Sequence History Update Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.

  4. Alcohol in human history.

    PubMed

    Vallee, B L

    1994-01-01

    The role of ethanol in the history of human development is here summarized under seven topics: I. Alcohol: the substitute for water as the major human beverage; II. Alcohol as a component of the diet and source of calories; III. Alcohol, concentration by distillation; IV. The Reformation, Temperance and Prohibition; V. Potable nonalcoholic beverages: Boiled water (coffee, tea); VI. Purification and sanitation of water; VII. The present and future.

  5. The Trouble with History

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    regards, the post-structuralist theories of Michel Foucault, the deconstruc- tionist notions of Jacques Derrida , and Dominick LaCapra’s techniques of...is closer to fiction than nonfiction. Indeed, they have a point. Compare: Frank Ankersmit, “Historiography and Postmodernism ,” History and Theory, 28...Historiography in the Twentieth Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge (Hanover, N.H.: Wesleyan Univ. Press, 1997) and Evans

  6. History of hadrontherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2015-05-01

    Hadrontherapy is today an established modality in cancer radiation therapy. Based on the superior ballistic and radiobiological properties of accelerated ions, this discipline experienced a remarkable growth in the last 20 years. This paper reviews the history of hadrontherapy, from the early days to the most recent developments. In particular, the evolution of proton and carbon ion therapy is presented together with a glance at future solutions such as single-room facilities.

  7. A passion for history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Robin

    2008-02-01

    While walking through the recently refurbished physics department at Manchester University with its newly painted walls and gleaming windows, a sense of history is never far behind. Many famous physicists have worked and studied at the university, including Ernest Rutherford, J J Thomson, William Bragg and James Chadwick. Indeed, when Albert Einstein came to the UK in 1921, it was at Manchester that he gave his first lecture to a British audience.

  8. Brief History of Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Tampa, M; Sarbu, I; Matei, C; Benea, V; Georgescu, SR

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Before the discovery of Treponema pallidum as the etiologic agent, the origins of syphilis have been the subject of several debates. Diverse therapeutic agents were employed in an attempt to cure the disease. Examining the milestones in the history of syphilis, the present article reviews the existing theories that tried to explain the origins of the disease, the approach in art, the cultural and the evolution of the treatments from the empiric means to the discovery of penicillin. PMID:24653750

  9. The History of Secondary Education in History of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Gary

    2012-01-01

    "History of Education" has published a steady stream of papers on the history of secondary education over the first 40 years of its existence. This corpus of research has been generated in the context of renewed interest in the history of secondary education that has been stimulated by developments in social and historical inquiry as…

  10. Integrating Men's History into Women's History: A Proposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zook, Melinda S.

    2002-01-01

    In the late 1970s and early 1980s, "The History Teacher" published several articles on the importance and process of integrating women's history into "regular history." Now, at the dawn of the twenty-first century, the author suggests to add a new perspective as to how teachers think about and teach gender in the classroom.…

  11. History Teachers Are Not Historians! Theme: Why Teach History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paget, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    Suggests that the imposition of order on history perpetuates a historian/history teacher dichotomy. Illustrates prevailing fallacies in the teaching of history: (1) the moniker fallacy; (2) the one-school fallacy; (3) the contextual fallacy; and (4) the wave fallacy. States that an avoidance of these fallacies will at least partially reconcile…

  12. Disciplinary History and the Situation of History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fordham, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A growing consensus in the history education community supports the idea that the discipline of history provides the best opportunity for moving beyond a "nation-building" or "skills-based" approach to teaching about the past. The social and temporal characteristics of the discipline of history mean such conclusions have…

  13. Teacher Candidates' Attitudes to Using Oral History in History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demircioglu, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the views of history teacher candidates towards an oral history project carried out in the Special Teaching Method Course of the history pedagogy program of the Fatih Faculty of Education (FFE) at Karadeniz Technical University in Turkey. An open-ended questionnaire and semi-structured interview were the…

  14. Opioid dependence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Dependence on opioids is a multifactorial condition involving genetic and psychosocial factors. There are three stages to treating opioid dependence. Stabilisation is usually by opioid substitution treatments, and aims to ensure that the drug use becomes independent of mental state (such as craving and mood) and independent of circumstances (such as finance and physical location). The next stage is to withdraw (detox) from opioids. The final stage is relapse prevention. This treatment process contributes to recovery of the individual, which also includes improved overall health and wellbeing, as well as engagement in society. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments for stabilisation (maintenance) in people with opioid dependence? What are the effects of drug treatments for withdrawal in people with opioid dependence? What are the effects of drug treatments for relapse prevention in people with opioid dependence? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 26 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: buprenorphine; clonidine; lofexidine; methadone; naltrexone; and ultra-rapid withdrawal regimens. PMID:21929827

  15. Inventing the History of Invention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molella, Arthur P.

    1988-01-01

    Selected are three pioneers who invented the history of technology: Abbott P. Usher, Lewis Mumford, and Sigfried Giedion. Their careers, publications, and contributions to the history of technology are described. (YP)

  16. Integrating Educational Theory and History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, James P.

    1977-01-01

    Recommends that history teachers incorporate educational theory into their courses. Describes and evaluates a history course at Brooklyn College constructed around Benjamin Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive educational objectives. (Author/DB)

  17. Summary of The History Manifesto.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Noortje

    2016-06-01

    This essay provides a brief, impartial summary of some main points of The History Manifesto, of the debate among historians that it has engendered, and of its connection to previous debates in and about the history of the sciences.

  18. Quantum histories without contrary inferences

    SciTech Connect

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-12-15

    In the consistent histories formulation of quantum theory it was shown that it is possible to retrodict contrary properties. We show that this problem do not appear in our formalism of generalized contexts for quantum histories. - Highlights: • We prove ordinary quantum mechanics has no contrary properties. • Contrary properties in consistent histories are reviewed. • We prove generalized contexts for quantum histories have no contrary properties.

  19. History + Mystery = Inquiring Young Historians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Jana; Helm, Allison; Pierce, Kristin; Galloway, Michele

    2011-01-01

    While social studies content about communities, neighborhood jobs, and maybe even some state history is taught in the early elementary grades, often the upper elementary grades are the first time students learn about the larger progression of history. How do teachers begin to teach the progression of U.S. history and the themes and questions that…

  20. Book History and Ideological Hierarchies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilevko, Juris; Dali, Keren

    2006-01-01

    The evolving field of Book History has had difficulty in integrating the experiences of immigrant culture. In explaining the origins of print culture in North America, Book History has a tendency to associate lowbrow with immigrants and their struggles to establish a foothold in a new land. Book History therefore symbolically defines immigrant…

  1. NEWE: A Western Shoshone History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    One in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume relates the history of the Western Shoshone, or Newe, whose territory included parts of the Great Basin area which extends from southern California to Idaho. Based on the spoken word of tribal elders and research conducted at numerous archives, the history begins with ancient…

  2. Save Our History: Our Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Libby Haight; Gordon, Sarah; Suisman, David

    2003-01-01

    The Fall 2003 Idea Book features: "Save Our History Study Guide: Our Documents"; "History International Study Guide: Pyramids"; "The History Channel Study Guide: Lewis and Clark" (Ideas from Our Teachers Contest Rules; Ideas from Our Teachers Context Winners); "A&E Classroom Study Guide: Post…

  3. Ethnic Groups in History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Nathan; Ueda, Reed

    Six popular high school American history textbooks are examined to address accusations of overcompensation by textbook publishers as a result of the raised ethnic consciousness of the 1970s. The textbooks are: "Our American Heritage" (Silver Burdett); "The Pageant of American History" (Allyn and Bacon); "A History of Our American Republic"…

  4. The Controversy around Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitre, Abul; Ray, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    Controversy over black history began in 1926, when Carter G. Woodson introduced Negro history week, and has continued into the 21st century. Proponents of black history believe it promotes diversity, develops self-esteem, and corrects myths and stereotypes. Opponents argue it is dishonest, divisive, and lacks academic credibility and rigor.…

  5. Make History with Your Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Linda

    1992-01-01

    Presents creative ways for teachers to interest students in learning history by encouraging a feel for the context and interrelationships of events. Names, dates, and events are interspersed with opportunities for students to experience history through their own lives (e.g. oral histories, personal scrapbooks, family photographs, and household…

  6. Family Histories: Collecting, Connecting, Celebrating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damkoehler, Dee; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes an integrated curriculum for grade two at Metcalf Laboratory School, Normal, Illinois, that celebrates family histories and American immigration. Reports that the journey begins with the teachers sharing their own family backgrounds, followed by story reading, sharing the family history project with parents, collecting oral histories,…

  7. Cultural History and Cultural Materialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Ronald

    1990-01-01

    Historicism critiques cultural history and cultural materialism as a methodology for literary analysis. Questions the finality of interpretation, how original values change, and whether dramatic history implies actual history. Using Shakespearean plays, analyzes the power and politics of a play in relation to its audience; posits that cultural…

  8. Recasting History: The Public Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Beth

    2014-01-01

    If you ask Americans what is studied in history classrooms, many will answer "facts and dates." If you ask them what people can do with a history degree, they answer "teach." Yet those same Americans acknowledge the power and practical relevance of history as they flock to national parks, historic sites, museums, and cultural…

  9. The History of Wound Care

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jayesh B.

    2012-01-01

    The history of wound healing is, in a sense, the history of humankind. This brief history of wound healing has been compiled for the benefit of readers. It is amazing to see that some of the basic principles of wound healing have been known since 2000 bc. PMID:24525756

  10. The End of Economic History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Christina D.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the field of economic history is no longer a separate subfield of economics but an integral part of the entire discipline. Explains the concepts of monetary policy, labor force development, and economic growth in U.S. economic history. Concludes that the end of economic history is the beginning of better and richer economics. (CFR)

  11. Build Skills by Doing History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monte-Sano, Chauncey

    2012-01-01

    No Child Left Behind has profoundly limited the teaching of history over the past 10 years. Now, the Common Core State Standards offers an opportunity to reverse this decline by giving history a more prominent place in the school curriculum alongside literacy goals. Learning history and argumentative writing is key to developing analytical ways of…

  12. Lesson Study and History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Kesler Lund, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of a group of fifth-grade teachers who used lesson study, a teacher-driven form of professional development, to teach history in a project supported by a Teaching American History Grant. The project addressed the following questions: What does a lesson study cycle for history education look like? What…

  13. United States History: United States History I, Honors United States History I ACT, AP US History I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort Worth Independent School District, TX.

    This curriculum guide, covering U.S. history, honors U.S. history, and advanced placement U.S. history contains the following components: a statement of philosophy and broad goals for each content area; objectives organized around broad content goals or strands; scope and sequence charts; instructional planning guides that include suggested…

  14. Studying Russian and Soviet History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Abraham, Ed.

    These essays were written to assist teachers in the task of making Russian history intelligible to young U.S. students. In "An Approach to Russian History," Edward Keenan proposes that students need to gain a better understanding of how Russians perceive themselves and their history. In "Pre-Petrine Russia," Andrzej S. Kaminski…

  15. A history of salt.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  16. A History Worth Preserving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2008-04-01

    The Manhattan Project transformed the course of American and world history, science, politics and society. If we can read about this in books and watch History Channel documentaries, why do we need to preserve some of the properties of this enormous undertaking? The presentation, ``A History Worth Preserving,'' will address why some of the physical properties need to be preserved and which ones we are struggling to maintain for future generations. The story of this effort begins in 1997 as the Department of Energy was posed to demolish the last remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos laboratory. Located deep behind security fences, the ``V Site's'' asbestos-shingled wooden buildings looked like humble garages with over-sized wooden doors. The ``V Site'' properties were almost lost twice, first to bulldozers and then the Cerro Grande fire of 2000. Now, visitors can stand inside the building where J. Robert Oppenheimer and his crew once worked and imagine the Trinity ``gadget'' hanging from its hoist shortly before it ushered in the Atomic Age on July 16, 1945. As Richard Rhodes has commented, we preserve what we value of the physical past because it specifically embodies our social past. But many challenge whether the Manhattan Project properties ought to be preserved. Rather than recognize the Manhattan Project as a great achievement worthy of commemoration, some see it as a regrettable event, producing an instrument to take man's inhumanity to man to extremes. While these divergent views will no doubt persist, the significance of the Manhattan Project in producing the world's first atomic bombs is irrefutable. Preserving some of its tangible remains is essential so that future generations can understand what the undertaking entailed from its humble wooden sheds to enormous first-of-a-kind industrial plants with 125,000 people working in secret and living in frontier-like communities. With continuing pressure for their demolition, what progress has

  17. Climate in Earth history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, W. H.; Crowell, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Complex atmosphere-ocean-land interactions govern the climate system and its variations. During the course of Earth history, nature has performed a large number of experiments involving climatic change; the geologic record contains much information regarding these experiments. This information should result in an increased understanding of the climate system, including climatic stability and factors that perturb climate. In addition, the paleoclimatic record has been demonstrated to be useful in interpreting the origin of important resources-petroleum, natural gas, coal, phosphate deposits, and many others.

  18. Earthquake history of Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Hake, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Although situated between two States (California and Washington) that have has many violent earthquakes, Oregon is noticeably less active seismically. the greatest damage experienced resulted from a major shock near Olympia, Wash., in 1949. During the short history record available (since 1841), 34 earthquakes of intensity V, Modified Mercalli Scale, or greater have centered within Oregon or near its borders. Only 13 of the earthquakes had an intensity above V, and many of the shocks were local. However, a 1936 earthquake in the eastern Oregon-Washington region caused extensive damage and was felt over an area of 272,000 square kilometers. 

  19. The history of happiness.

    PubMed

    Stearns, Peter N

    2012-01-01

    In the 18th century, the Enlightenment ushered in the notion that happiness was the attainment of a worthy life. Since then the pursuit of happiness has spread to every aspect of behavior, from religion and politics to work and parenting. Today the happiness imperative creates pressures that, paradoxically, can make us miserable. Sadness is often mistaken for a pathology. Understanding the cultural commitment to good cheer as an artifact of modern history, not as an inherent feature of the human condition, opens new opportunities for understanding key facets of our social and personal experience.

  20. Atmospheric refraction: a history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  1. Atmospheric refraction: a history.

    PubMed

    Lehn, Waldemar H; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-20

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  2. History of rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Belinfante, Louis S

    2012-02-01

    Man has considered the nose to be a key feature, if not the key feature, of facial appearance, beauty, and dynamics. However, because of its central facial location and weak cartilaginous support, the nose is susceptible to disfiguring infection, trauma, pathologic entities, and human-associated carnages. This article discusses the various methods (eg, endonasal approach, external approach, and osteoplastic operations) surgeons have tried throughout history to give their patients a more attractive face by altering the one physical anatomic structure that one usually notices first.

  3. History of Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Tomisaku; Naoe, Shiro

    2014-04-01

    We describe a short history of Kawasaki disease. In 1967, we published a paper entitled 'Infantile acute febrile mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome with specific desquamation of the fingers and toes. Clinical observation of 50 cases'; this was the first report on what is now called Kawasaki disease. Since then, many reports on cardiology, treatment, epidemiology, pathology and etiology of Kawasaki disease have been published. Furthermore, a recent Chapel Hill Consensus Statement on Kawasaki disease in the classification of vasculitis is given, along with a figure on the relationship and classification of childhood vasculitis by autopsy material.

  4. History of autostereoscopic cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, Walter

    2012-03-01

    This paper covers the history of autostereoscopic cinema, from the beginnings of autostereoscopy in the 1800s, the development of motion capability and it's subsequent evolution to present techniques. Public viewings of autostereoscopic movies have occurred on a semi-ongoing basis since the early 1940s. In Moscow and other cities, theaters were constructed called stereokinos, for showing autostereoscopic films, with specially positioned seating for proper viewing. The Cyclostéréoscope was an autostereoscopic cinema system invented by François Savoye in France. It was based around a drum made of metal bars that revolve around a screen. For several years in the 1940s and 1950s, it was open to the public in Paris. Any film made in a dual film format could be shown. Besides dedicated theaters in Russia and France, exhibits of content have occurred outside devoted theaters. The paper focuses on the history of autostereoscopic technology developed for entertainment, public viewing of content, the individuals involved and the content itself.

  5. Zebra mussel life history

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, J.D.

    1995-06-01

    The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large parttot a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion of a D-shaped larval shell, the larva becomes a D-shaped veliger, which is the first recognizable planktonic larva. Later, the secretion of a second larval shell leads to the last obligate free-swimming veliger stage known as the veliconcha. The last larval stage known as the pediveliger, however, can both swim using its velum or crawl using its fully-functional foot. Pediveligers actively select substrates on which they {open_quotes}settle{close_quotes} by secreting byssal threads and undergo metamorphosis to become plantigrade mussels. The secretion of the adult shell and concomitant changes in growth axis leads to the heteromyariant or mussel-like shape, which is convergent with marine mussels. Like a number of other bivalves, zebra mussels produce byssal threads as adults, but these attachments may be broken enabling their translocation to new areas. The recognition and examination of these life history traits will lead to a better understanding of zebra mussel biology.

  6. History of vascular access.

    PubMed

    Dudrick, Stanley J

    2006-01-01

    Milestones in the history of the development of vascular access and the subsequent advances in practical clinical applications of the knowledge, techniques, technology, and experience to the beneficial management of a variety of patients are described. The original achievements are presented and briefly discussed primarily, but not exclusively, in relationship to the successful development of parenteral nutrition (PN). Beginning with the discovery of the circulation of blood, landmark events, resulting from astute observations, experimentation, and ingenious technological advances, are summarized or outlined chronologically over the past 4 centuries, with emphasis on the many recent accomplishments of basic and clinical scientists during the past 6 decades. Brief descriptions of several seminal contributions to safe and effective IV access, management, and therapy acknowledge and recognize the historical highlights that have allowed a complex and potentially hazardous therapeutic modality to evolve into a commonly applied useful adjunct to our current inpatient and outpatient armamentarium. A comprehensive list of references documents the highlights of the development of vascular access for the student of history.

  7. History of acupuncture research.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yi; Xing, Jing-jing; Li, Juan; Zeng, Bai-Yun; Liang, Fan-rong

    2013-01-01

    The acupuncture has been practiced in China for more than 3000 years and was spread to Europe and American from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. The history of acupuncture research was initiated in the eighteenth century and developed rapidly since then. In the past, physicians tried hard to apply acupuncture into clinical practice, while scientists were focused on the possible characteristics of acupoints and meridians. In the modern time, scientists have strived hard to evaluate the real effectiveness of acupuncture and the underlying physiological and biological mechanisms of acupuncture. Reviewing research history from past to present, we are delighted to witness this wonderful development. Accumulated evidences that acupuncture is beneficial in various conditions significantly enhanced our understanding the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment. However, there is still no conclusive evidence in acupuncture clinical studies. The clinical research still needs great improving, while the basic research results need to be appropriately transformed into clinical outcomes. Based on current achievements, we believe that although the challenges and difficulties exist, a more collaborative, innovative, and integrated approach will help us to achieve further progress in future acupuncture research.

  8. History of ball bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowson, D.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The familiar precision rolling-element bearings of the twentieth century are products of exacting technology and sophisticated science. Their very effectiveness and basic simplicity of form may discourage further interest in their history and development. Yet the full story covers a large portion of recorded history and surprising evidence of an early recognition of the advantages of rolling motion over sliding action and progress toward the development of rolling-element bearings. The development of rolling-element bearings is followed from the earliest civilizations to the end of the eighteenth century. The influence of general technological developments, particularly those concerned with the movement of large building blocks, road transportation, instruments, water-raising equipment, and windmills are discussed, together with the emergence of studies of the nature of rolling friction and the impact of economic factors. By 1800 the essential features of ball and rolling-element bearings had emerged and it only remained for precision manufacture and mass production to confirm the value of these fascinating machine elements.

  9. Reconstructing Druze population history

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Scarlett; Das, Ranajit; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Elhaik, Eran

    2016-01-01

    The Druze are an aggregate of communities in the Levant and Near East living almost exclusively in the mountains of Syria, Lebanon and Israel whose ~1000 year old religion formally opposes mixed marriages and conversions. Despite increasing interest in genetics of the population structure of the Druze, their population history remains unknown. We investigated the genetic relationships between Israeli Druze and both modern and ancient populations. We evaluated our findings in light of three hypotheses purporting to explain Druze history that posit Arabian, Persian or mixed Near Eastern-Levantine roots. The biogeographical analysis localised proto-Druze to the mountainous regions of southeastern Turkey, northern Iraq and southeast Syria and their descendants clustered along a trajectory between these two regions. The mixed Near Eastern–Middle Eastern localisation of the Druze, shown using both modern and ancient DNA data, is distinct from that of neighbouring Syrians, Palestinians and most of the Lebanese, who exhibit a high affinity to the Levant. Druze biogeographic affinity, migration patterns, time of emergence and genetic similarity to Near Eastern populations are highly suggestive of Armenian-Turkish ancestries for the proto-Druze. PMID:27848937

  10. History of Human Parasitology

    PubMed Central

    Cox, F. E. G.

    2002-01-01

    Humans are hosts to nearly 300 species of parasitic worms and over 70 species of protozoa, some derived from our primate ancestors and some acquired from the animals we have domesticated or come in contact with during our relatively short history on Earth. Our knowledge of parasitic infections extends into antiquity, and descriptions of parasites and parasitic infections are found in the earliest writings and have been confirmed by the finding of parasites in archaeological material. The systematic study of parasites began with the rejection of the theory of spontaneous generation and the promulgation of the germ theory. Thereafter, the history of human parasitology proceeded along two lines, the discovery of a parasite and its subsequent association with disease and the recognition of a disease and the subsequent discovery that it was caused by a parasite. This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, cestodiasis, paragonimiasis, clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, amoebiasis, giardiasis, African trypanosomiasis, South American trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, malaria, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, cyclosporiasis, and microsporidiosis. PMID:12364371

  11. [Pierre Janet observes history].

    PubMed

    Fischer-Homberger, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Janet, philosopher and physician, Freud's junior by three years, not only described traumatic dissociation and pathogenic subconscious ideas; he outlined a comprehensive system of psychology. Still, he considered his concepts to be mere linguistic tools, designed to grasp mental phenomena as precisely as possible. His prime interest was in observations - his own and those of others, whether his contemporaries at home and abroad or predecessors of all kinds. Janet never regarded himself as a historian, but his works as well as his way of thinking are most interesting from a historiographical point of view. His three-volume Médications psychologiques of 1919 contains a wealth of material about the history of psychotherapy. Furthermore, he dealt with his sources in a critical and historically reflexive manner. The later Janet considered any explanation and theory to be "inventions", more or less useful and basically open to change. By working with the notion of "narration", he described scientific statements as narratives, different from lies, fairy-tales or novels only in their claim to be verifiable. Every narration, however, is placed in a social context: narrators always wish to evoke a particular image of the real in their audience. Thus Janet established the link between scientific edifices and individual motivation, an unsettling link in terms of the history of science and certainly alien, if not positively abhorrent to Freud.

  12. At the Interface: Academic History, School History and the Philosophy of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retz, Tyson

    2016-01-01

    How history is learnt and taught must to some extent be shaped by conceptions of what history is. Historians tend to conceptualize what something is by investigating what it has been and what it has meant in different contexts. This article explains how a debate in the philosophy of history between positivism and intentionalism provided the…

  13. Variability in the developmental life history of the genus Gorilla.

    PubMed

    Stoinski, Tara S; Perdue, Bonnie; Breuer, Thomas; Hoff, Michael P

    2013-10-01

    Life history is influenced by factors both intrinsic (e.g., body and relative brain size) and extrinsic (e.g., diet, environmental instability) to organisms. In this study, we examine the prediction that energetic risk influences the life history of gorillas. Recent comparisons suggest that the more frugivorous western lowland gorilla shows increased infant dependence, and thus a slower life history, than the primarily folivorous mountain gorilla to buffer against the risk of starvation during periods of food unpredictability. We further tested this hypothesis by incorporating additional life history data from wild western lowland gorillas and captive western lowland gorillas with the assumption that the latter live under ecological conditions of energetic risk that more closely resemble those of mountain gorillas and thus should show faster life histories than wild members of the species. Overall, we found captive western lowland and wild mountain gorillas to have faster developmental life histories than wild western lowland gorillas, weaning their infants approximately a year earlier and thus reducing interbirth intervals by a year. These results provide support that energetic risk plays an important role in determining gorilla life history. Unlike previous assertions, gorillas do not have substantially faster life histories, at least at the genus level, than other great apes. This calls for a re-evaluation of theories concerning comparative ape life history and evolution and highlights the need for data from additional populations that vary in energetic risk.

  14. Clone history shapes Populus drought responses.

    PubMed

    Raj, Sherosha; Bräutigam, Katharina; Hamanishi, Erin T; Wilkins, Olivia; Thomas, Barb R; Schroeder, William; Mansfield, Shawn D; Plant, Aine L; Campbell, Malcolm M

    2011-07-26

    Just as animal monozygotic twins can experience different environmental conditions by being reared apart, individual genetically identical trees of the genus Populus can also be exposed to contrasting environmental conditions by being grown in different locations. As such, clonally propagated Populus trees provide an opportunity to interrogate the impact of individual environmental history on current response to environmental stimuli. To test the hypothesis that current responses to an environmental stimulus, drought, are contingent on environmental history, the transcriptome- level drought responses of three economically important hybrid genotypes-DN34 (Populus deltoides × Populus nigra), Walker [P. deltoides var. occidentalis × (Populus laurifolia × P. nigra)], and Okanese [Walker × (P. laurifolia × P. nigra)]-derived from two different locations were compared. Strikingly, differences in transcript abundance patterns in response to drought were based on differences in geographic origin of clones for two of the three genotypes. This observation was most pronounced for the genotypes with the longest time since establishment and last common propagation. Differences in genome-wide DNA methylation paralleled the transcriptome level trends, whereby the clones with the most divergent transcriptomes and clone history had the most marked differences in the extent of total DNA methylation, suggesting an epigenomic basis for the clone history-dependent transcriptome divergence. The data provide insights into the interplay between genotype and environment in the ecologically and economically important Populus genus, with implications for the industrial application of Populus trees and the evolution and persistence of these important tree species and their associated hybrids.

  15. Suicide Attempts and Family History of Suicide in Three Psychiatric Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremeau, Fabien; Staner, Luc; Duval, Fabrice; Correa, Humberto; Crocq, Marc-Antoine; Darreye, Angelina; Czobor, Pal; Dessoubrais, Cecile; Macher, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The influence of a family history of suicide on suicide attempt rate and characteristics in depression, schizophrenia, and opioid dependence was examined. One hundred sixty inpatients with unipolar depression, 160 inpatients with schizophrenia, and 160 opioid-dependent patients were interviewed. Overall, a family history of suicide was associated…

  16. The History of Nature and the Nature of History: Stephen Jay Gould on Science, Philosophy, and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaser, Kent

    1999-01-01

    Considers Stephen Jay Gould's writings on the nature of history, specifically on the relationship between science and history. Addresses the scientific method, the foundations and procedures of historical explanation in science, history as contingency, and evolution as history. (CMK)

  17. A history of kuru.

    PubMed

    Alpers, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    Kuru is placed in its geographic and linguistic setting in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea. The epidemic of kuru has declined over the period 1957 to 2005 from more than 200 deaths a year to 1 or none. Since transmission of the kuru prion agent through the mortuary practice of transumption ceased by the early 1960s, the continuation of the epidemic into the present century demonstrates the long incubation periods that are possible in human prion diseases. Several histories of kuru are portrayed, from the different perspectives of the Fore people, of the scientists striving to elucidate the disease, of those engaged in research on prions, and of humans confronting the implications of kuru-like epidemics in the remote past. Kuru has connections to bovine spongiform encephalopathy through intraspecies recycling. The influence of host genetics on the incubation period in kuru may help to predict the shape of the still ongoing epidemic of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  18. Lunar thermal history revisited.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, R. K., Jr.; Gast, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    New information is used to demonstrate that better models for the thermal history of the moon are required. As a first step, account is taken of (1) a nonuniform initial composition in terms of fraction of low melting to high melting phase present, and for variation in the uranium, potassium, and thorium contents as a function of depth, (2) partitioning of the radioactive elements between the melt and the solid phases, and (3) a cutoff value of melt which must be exceeded before magma can move to the surface. The results of several attempts to determine whether reasonable conditions, composition, and thermal properties can be expected to give rise to two separate periods of volcanism are discussed. Two models with somewhat different distributions of radioactive heat sources and different conductivities are examined.

  19. History of San Marco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caporale, A. J.

    1968-01-01

    A brief history is reported of the first San Marco project, a joint program of the United States and Italy. The Project was a three phase effort to investigate upper air density and associated ionosphere phenomena. The initial phase included the design and development of the spacecraft, the experiments, the launch complex, and a series of suborbital flights, from Wallops Island. The second phase, consisting of designing, fabricating, and testing a spacecraft for the first orbital mission, culminated in an orbital launch also from Wallops Island. The third phase consisted of further refining the experiments and spacecraft instrumentation and of establishing a full-bore scout complex in Kenya. The launch of San Marco B, in April 1967, from this complex into an equatorial orbit, concluded the initial San Marco effort.

  20. History of Presolar Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Papers on the History of Presolar Grains. This has been a very productive period in which much of the laboratory work conducted in the previous year and during this funding cycle were brought to completion. In the last year we have published or submitted for peer review 4 research papers, 4 review papers, and 11 abstracts in research areas supported under this grant. Brief synopses of the results of the research papers are presented, followed by short summaries of the topics discussed in the review papers. Several areas of research are of course being actively pursued, and the appended list of abstracts gives citations to this ongoing work. In a paper submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, the results of an investigation into the physical conditions in the mass outflows of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars that are required for the formation of micron-sized presolar graphite grains, with and without previously formed internal crystals of titanium carbide (TIC) are reported.

  1. Cultural history and psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Loewenberg, Peter

    2007-01-01

    There is a congruence of hermeneutic method between cultural history and psychoanalysis which includes a recognition of the subjectivity and self-reflexivity of interpretation and of the centrality of emotions in the structuring of historical motivation and action. Psychoanalysis is a humanistic discipline that offers tentative multi-causal conclusions, combining in its method both self-reflection and empiricism, but basing itself on a unique process of inquiry different from either the natural or the cultural sciences. Distinguished shapers of the historian's craft, including Dilthey, Collingwood, and Bloch, used the self as an instrument of research and insight. Freud was a cultural pessimist, as was Burckhardt whom he admired. Leading contemporary American historians, such as Williamson, foreground self-reflection as an acknowledged tool of historical discovery and cognition. The "Bauhaus," 1919-1939, is presented as a case study of creative group process utilizing Winnicott's concepts of transitional space.

  2. Some History of Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnum, Dennis W.

    2003-12-01

    The history of saltpeter is an interesting combination of chemistry, world trade, technology, politics, and warfare. Originally it was obtained from the dirt floors of stables, sheep pens, pigeon houses, caverns, and even peasants' cottages; any place manure and refuse accumulated in soil under dry conditions. When these sources became inadequate to meet demand it was manufactured on saltpeter plantations, located in dry climates, where piles of dirt, limestone, and manure were allowed to stand for three to five years while soil microbes oxidized the nitrogen to nitrate—an example of early bioengineering. Extensive deposits of sodium nitrate were mined in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile from 1830 until the mid 1920s when the mines were displaced by the Haber Ostwald process.

  3. SOFIA design history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärcher, Hans J.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Krabbe, Alfred; Wagner, Jörg

    2016-07-01

    SOFIA has reached in the last two years its full operational capabilities and is producing now great science on typically three observing flights per week. The telescope is the backbone of the observatory and is working nearly perfectly. This may be the right time to have a look on the design history of the telescope and some of the major subsystems, which ensure the functionality under the harsh aero-acoustic environment inside the aircraft cavity. A comparison with SOFIA's predecessor KAO gives insight in to the challenges of airborne telescope design. The paper describes the development of the optical subsystem, the telescopes structure, the telescope mount and the interface to the aircraft from the conceptual design up to the finally as-built telescope, and comments on their influence on the overall observatory performance.

  4. History of Entomopathogenic Nematology

    PubMed Central

    Poinar, G. O.; Grewal, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    The history of entomopathogenic nematology is briefly reviewed. Topic selections include early descriptions of members of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis, how only morphology was originally used to distinguish between the species; descriptions of the symbiotic bacteria and elucidating their role in the nematode- insect complex, including antibiotic properties, phase variants, and impeding host defense responses. Other topics include early solutions regarding production, storage, field applications and the first commercial sales of entomopathogenic nematodes in North America. Later studies centered on how the nematodes locate insect hosts, their effects on non-target organisms and susceptibility of the infective juveniles to soil microbes. While the goals of early workers was to increase the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes for pest control, the increasing use of Heterorhabditis and Photorhabdus as genetic models in molecular biology is noted. PMID:23482453

  5. Why the history of nephrology?

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2016-01-01

    Nephrology is a relatively new discipline that emerged at a time when the writing of the history of medicine was changing drastically. While the merits of medical history were valued since antiquity, it was only in the 18th century that the actual historiography of medicine began. It was nurtured, matured and appreciated enough that by the late 19th and early 20th centuries, medical history was incorporated into the medical curriculum and presented at national meetings. Unfortunately, the merits of medical history and its inclusion in medical education have come under increasing scrutiny over the past few decades. Ironically, the erosion began at about the same time that scholarly work on the history of medicine was flourishing whilst that of scientific discovery and innovation in medicine was accelerating. The demands of rigorous research into the history of medicine gradually led to the emergence of medical history as an independent discipline within academic departments of history. Simultaneously, the exponential growth of new information generated by medical research led to an overflow of medical knowledge in which the inclusion of medical history was contested and dismissed. That is just about the time that nephrology emerged in the 1960s. Whereas initially the quest for origins led renal journals to publish historical articles, the more recent quest to increase impact factors has led to the exclusion of historical articles from consideration for publication. This manuscript examines the reasons that brought about the separation of nephrology from its history and proposes potential solutions to their rapprochement.

  6. Phenibut dependence.

    PubMed

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Paton-Gay, C Lindsay; Balchand, Kam; Rehm, Jürgen

    2013-02-06

    Phenibut is a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist designed and used as an anxiolytic in Russia. In Western countries, phenibut is not a registered medication but is available through online stores as a supplement. We present a case of a patient who used phenibut to self-medicate anxiety, insomnia and cravings for alcohol. While phenibut was helpful initially, the patient developed dependence including tolerance, significant withdrawal symptoms within 3-4 h of last use and failure to fulfil his roles at work and at home. He finally sought medical assistance in our addictions clinic. We have gradually, over the course of 9 weeks, substituted phenibut with baclofen, which has similar pharmacological properties, and then successfully tapered the patient off baclofen. This required approximately 10 mg of baclofen for each gram of phenibut.

  7. Phenibut dependence

    PubMed Central

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Paton-Gay, C Lindsay; Balchand, Kam; Rehm, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Phenibut is a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist designed and used as an anxiolytic in Russia. In Western countries, phenibut is not a registered medication but is available through online stores as a supplement. We present a case of a patient who used phenibut to self-medicate anxiety, insomnia and cravings for alcohol. While phenibut was helpful initially, the patient developed dependence including tolerance, significant withdrawal symptoms within 3–4 h of last use and failure to fulfil his roles at work and at home. He finally sought medical assistance in our addictions clinic. We have gradually, over the course of 9 weeks, substituted phenibut with baclofen, which has similar pharmacological properties, and then successfully tapered the patient off baclofen. This required approximately 10 mg of baclofen for each gram of phenibut. PMID:23391959

  8. Drug dependence: some research issues*

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D. C.

    1970-01-01

    This paper examines some problems of drug dependence, stressing the importance of a balanced approach. Consideration must be given to the demand for, as well as the supply of, drugs. Without a demand, there would be no continuing supply of man-made agents and no need to control the availability of naturally occurring agents. To achieve a balanced approach, increased research is needed into the effects on man of taking various dependence-producing drugs (particularly when these are used for long periods of time), the natural history of drug taking, the relative effectiveness of various preventive, therapeutic and restorative approaches and techniques, and means of identifying substances that, because of their dependence-producing properties, are apt to induce individual or public health problems. Attention is also called to some problems that may inhibit, but do not preclude, the initiation of studies in the field of drug dependence. PMID:5313071

  9. Allometric scaling of plant life history.

    PubMed

    Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M; Agustí, Susana

    2007-10-02

    Plant mortality and birth rates are critical components of plant life history affecting the stability of plant populations and the ecosystems they form. Although allometric theory predicts that both plant birth and mortality rates should be size-dependent, this prediction has not yet been tested across plants ranging the full size spectrum. Here we show that both population mortality and population birth rates scale as the -(1/4) power and plant lifespan as the (1/4) power of plant mass across plant species spanning from the tiniest phototrophs to the largest trees. Whereas the controls on plant lifespans are as yet poorly understood, our findings suggest that plant mortality rates have evolved to match population birth rates, thereby helping to maintain plant communities in equilibrium and optimizing plant life histories.

  10. Ascertaining Problems with Medication Histories

    PubMed Central

    Halapy, Henry; Kertland, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Background: Accurate and complete medication histories are not always obtained in clinical practice. Objective: This qualitative research study was undertaken to explore the barriers to and facilitators of obtaining accurate medication histories. Methods: Individual interviews, based on a structured interview guide, were conducted with 25 patients from both inpatient and ambulatory care clinic settings. Focus groups, based on a semistructured interview guide, were conducted with pharmacists, medical residents, and nurses. Transcribed data were analyzed by forming coded units and assessing these units for emerging themes. Results: Major themes that emerged from the patient interviews included patient ownership of health and medication knowledge (with knowledge of medications and their side effects and how to take medications being seen as important), patient-specific strategies to improve medication histories (e.g., use of regularly updated medication lists), and suggestions for system-level facilitators to improve medication histories (e.g., centralized databases of medication histories, increased patient education regarding the use and purpose of medications). Major themes also emerged from focus groups with health care professionals, including shared responsibility for medication history-taking among all 3 health care professions, perceptions about the barriers to medication history-taking (including patients not knowing their medications and not bringing their medication lists), and suggestions to improve medication histories (e.g., educating patients to bring medication vials to hospital admissions and appointments, using a centralized computer database for medication histories). Conclusions: Key recommendations resulting from this study include using standardized documentation techniques for medication histories, recording of medication history information in centralized electronic databases, educating patients to bring medications to every health care visit

  11. History of Antibiotics Research.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Kathrin I

    2016-01-01

    For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the age since mankind has been thinking of infectious diseases and the question of their causes. However, due to a lack of knowledge, the search for strategies to fight, heal, and prevent the spread of communicable diseases was unsuccessful for a long time. It was not until the discovery of the healing effects of (antibiotic producing) molds, the first microscopic observations of microorganisms in the seventeenth century, the refutation of the abiogenesis theory, and the dissolution of the question "What is the nature of infectious diseases?" that the first milestones within the history of antibiotics research were set. Then new discoveries accelerated rapidly: Bacteria could be isolated and cultured and were identified as possible agents of diseases as well as producers of bioactive metabolites. At the same time the first synthetic antibiotics were developed and shortly thereafter, thousands of synthetic substances as well as millions of soil borne bacteria and fungi were screened for bioactivity within numerous microbial laboratories of pharmaceutical companies. New antibiotic classes with different targets were discovered as on assembly line production. With the beginning of the twentieth century, many of the diseases which reached epidemic proportions at the time-e.g., cholera, syphilis, plague, tuberculosis, or typhoid fever, just to name a few, could be combatted with new discovered antibiotics. It should be considered that hundred years ago the market launch of new antibiotics was significantly faster and less complicated than today (where it takes 10-12 years in average between the discovery of a new antibiotic until the launch). After the first euphoria it was quickly realized that bacteria are able to develop, acquire, and spread numerous resistance mechanisms

  12. Predictive value of a history of varicella infection

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Candice N.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether a history of previous varicella infection provides a reliable marker for prior infection. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE MEDLINE was searched from January 1996 to May 2002 using the MeSH headings “varicella,” “chickenpox,” and “medical history taking.” Recommendations in this paper are based on evidence from well designed cross-sectional studies. MAIN MESSAGE Serologic testing is advised, rather than presumptive vaccination, for those with a negative or uncertain history of varicella; most will be immune. For those with a positive history of varicella, the advice given depends on the population. For populations at higher risk of varicella infection (eg, health care workers, pregnant women), routine serum testing is recommended. For low-risk populations, physicians could accept a positive history of varicella as a reliable indicator of immunity. CONCLUSION Most studies found that patients’ history of varicella had a high positive predictive value and a low negative predictive value. These findings suggest that a positive history of varicella is a reliable marker of disease while a negative history does not not predict lack of immunity. PMID:15732223

  13. World History Workshop (1983).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    Ultimately what Luther and Calvin sought to do was stress the idea that man’s spiritual salvation depends far more on God than on man himself. It is a ...III. COURSE MATERIALS A . Syllabus. B. Textbooks. 1. Richard Goff, Walter Moss, Janice Terry, Jim-Hwa Upshur, The Twentieth Century, A Brief Global...angry Martin Luther nailed 95 theocrats to a church door. Theologically, Luthar was into reorientation mutation. Calvinism was the most convenient

  14. Negotiating Historical Narratives: An Epistemology of History for History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levisohn, Jon A.

    2010-01-01

    Historians typically tell stories about the past, but how are we to understand the epistemic status of those narratives? This problem is particularly pressing for history education, which seeks guidance not only on the question of which narrative to teach but also more fundamentally on the question of the goals of instruction in history. This…

  15. Experience and Life History. Roskilde University Life History Project Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salling Olesen, Henning

    The Life History Project at Denmark's Roskilde University is a 5-year research project that was initiated in 1998 to examine learning and participation in adult and continuing education from a life history perspective. The project was designed to build on a broad range of qualitative interview studies and case studies into learning processes. The…

  16. Resources for History Day 1991: "Rights in History."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabbas, Audrey

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter issue brings to students' attention some of the topics they could explore in working toward an award that the Arab World and Islamic Resources and School Services (AWAIR) organization presented to students participating in History Day 1991. The special category of the awards is Arab or Islamic history. The topics presented were not…

  17. The National Women's History Project: Writing Women Back into History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthsdotter, Mary

    1995-01-01

    Profiles the National Women's History Project (NWHP). Since its inception in 1980 this nonprofit, educational organization has produced training and materials designed to increase awareness of the role of women in history and society. These include workshops, videotapes, and bibliographies. Discusses other activities of NWHP. (MJP)

  18. A New History, Macrohistory, and Structure in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Mark F.

    Toward the improvement of teaching history and to provide student insights into the study of history, a course involving structure, relevancy, an interdisciplinary approach, and innovation is suggested which advocates analyzing what has happened in the past as a whole, as revealed by the various sciences of archaeology, anthropology, paleontology,…

  19. Lessons about Art in History and History in Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Gilbert, Ed.

    Written by teachers from the United States and Canada, these lesson plans focus on integrating the teaching of history and art history. Seventeen lesson plans cover the topics of (1) Slavery, Henry Ossawa Tanner, and His Family--Grades: Elementary; (2) Chinese Landscape Painting--Grades: Elementary; (3) Regionalism: American Art of the Great…

  20. Doing Justice to History: Transforming Black History in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamud, Abdul; Whitburn, Robin

    2016-01-01

    "Doing Justice to History" challenges everyday racism in society and offers counter-stories to the singular narratives that still prevail among national historians and in school curricula. It will be a key resource for the annual Black History Month in both the UK and the US. But the book's key purpose is to argue for deeper and…

  1. Improving History Learning through Cultural Heritage, Local History and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magro, Graça; de Carvalho, Joaquim Ramos; Marcelino, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    History learning is many times considered dull and demotivating by young students. Probably this is due because the learning process is disconnected from these students' reality and experience. One possible way to overcome this state of matters is to use technology like mobile devices with georeferencing software and local history and heritage…

  2. Longing for the Present in the History of History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wils, Kaat; Verschaffel, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The public debates on history education that occurred in many countries over the past decades have given rise to the idea that people live in an age of "history wars". While these wars are primarily fought on a national level, they are increasingly looked at as a global phenomenon. In most cases, they are the expression of tensions between the…

  3. The history of leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2017-02-15

    In this review article the history of leishmaniasis is discussed regarding the origin of the genus Leishmania in the Mesozoic era and its subsequent geographical distribution, initial evidence of the disease in ancient times, first accounts of the infection in the Middle Ages, and the discovery of Leishmania parasites as causative agents of leishmaniasis in modern times. With respect to the origin and dispersal of Leishmania parasites, the three currently debated hypotheses (Palaearctic, Neotropical and supercontinental origin, respectively) are presented. Ancient documents and paleoparasitological data indicate that leishmaniasis was already widespread in antiquity. Identification of Leishmania parasites as etiological agents and sand flies as the transmission vectors of leishmaniasis started at the beginning of the 20(th) century and the discovery of new Leishmania and sand fly species continued well into the 21(st) century. Lately, the Syrian civil war and refugee crises have shown that leishmaniasis epidemics can happen any time in conflict areas and neighbouring regions where the disease was previously endemic.

  4. History of animal bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  5. The history of hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2014-07-01

    Hemophilia A and B are rare inherited bleeding disorders characterized by the deficiency of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) or factor IX (FIX). While the history of hemophilia dates back to the 2nd century AD, a modern description of hemophilia appeared only at the beginning of the 19th century. The discovery of "antihemophilic globulin" in the middle of the 20th century paved the way to the production of cryoprecipitate and then of FVIII and FIX concentrates. Barring the tragic consequences on the hemophilia community of the transmission of blood-borne viruses by nonvirus inactivated factor concentrates during the 1970s and 1980s, plasma-derived first and recombinant products later revolutionized the treatment of hemophilia through the widespread adoption of home treatment and prophylaxis regimens, which dramatically improved the quality of life and life expectancy of persons with hemophilia during the past decade. This article briefly reviews the most important stages of the management of hemophilia from the past century up to the present days.

  6. a History of Emats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alers, George

    2008-02-01

    This paper was prepared for a Special Session in the 34th Annual Review of Quantitative NDE devoted to "Applications of EMATs". As such, it reviews the past history of electromagnetic induction of vibrations in metals with special attention to the application to nondestructive testing. The first patent describing the use of Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) to replace the commonly used piezoelectric transducer was in 1969 but their first appearance in the scientific literature was in 1939 when the principles were applied to exciting and detecting the longitudinal resonance modes of bars of brass. The first true application to nondestructive testing was an R&D program sponsored by the American Gas Association to develop a device for inspecting buried gas pipelines for stress corrosion cracks in the early 1970's. During this same time period, theoretical models to describe the transduction mechanism appeared and led to the engineering of solutions to NDT and NDE problems that could not be accomplished with piezoelectric devices. The papers in the session to follow this historical summary show how the field has developed over the past 30 years and expose an impressive array of applications to quantitative nondestructive evaluation (QNDE) practices.

  7. History of magnetorheological finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Daniel C.

    2011-06-01

    Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is a deterministic method for producing complex optics with figure accuracy <50 nm and surface roughness <1 nm. MRF was invented at the Luikov Institute of Heat and Mass Transfer in Minsk, Belarus in the late 1980s by a team led by William Kordonski. When the Soviet Union opened up, New York businessman Lowell Mintz was invited to Minsk in 1990 to explore possibilities for technology transfer. Mintz was told of the potential for MRF, but did not understand whether it had value. Mintz was referred to Harvey Pollicove at the Center for Optics Manufacturing of the University of Rochester. As a result of their conversation, they sent Prof. Steve Jacobs to visit Minsk and evaluate MRF. From Jacobs' positive findings, and with support from Lowell Mintz, Kordonski and his colleagues were invited in 1993 to work at the Center for Optics Manufacturing with Jacobs and Don Golini to refine MRF technology. A "preprototype" finishing machine was operating by 1994. Prof. Greg Forbes and doctoral student Paul Dumas developed algorithms for deterministic control of MRF. In 1996, Golini recognized the commercial potential of MRF, secured investment capital from Lowell Mintz, and founded QED Technologies. The first commercial MRF machine was unveiled in 1998. It was followed by more advanced models and by groundbreaking subaperture stitching interferometers for metrology. In 2006, QED was acquired by and became a division of Cabot Microelectronics. This paper recounts the history of the development of MRF and the founding of QED Technologies.

  8. NIF Gamma Reaction History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; McEvoy, A. M.; Hoffman, N. M.; Wilson, D. C.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Evans, S.; Batha, S. H.; Stoeffl, W.; Lee, A.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.; Miller, E. K.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.

    2010-11-01

    The primary objective of the NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics is to provide bang time and burn width information based upon measurement of fusion gamma-rays. This is accomplished with energy-thresholded Gas Cherenkov detectors that convert MeV gamma-rays into UV/visible photons for high-bandwidth optical detection. In addition, the GRH detectors can perform γ-ray spectroscopy to explore other nuclear processes from which additional significant implosion parameters may be inferred (e.g., plastic ablator areal density). Implementation is occurring in 2 phases: 1) four PMT-based channels mounted to the outside of the NIF target chamber at ˜6 m from TCC (GRH-6m) for the 3e13-3e16 DT neutron yield range expected during the early ignition-tuning campaigns; and 2) several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at ˜15 m from TCC (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the wall into well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs for the 1e16-1e20 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign. This suite of diagnostics will allow exploration of interesting γ-ray physics well beyond the ignition campaign. Recent data from OMEGA and NIF will be shown.

  9. Francis Bacon's natural history and civil history: a comparative survey.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative survey of Bacon's theory and practice of natural history and of civil history, particularly centered on their relationship to natural philosophy and human philosophy. I will try to show that the obvious differences concerning their subject matter encompass a number of less obvious methodological and philosophical assumptions which reveal a significant practical and conceptual convergence of the two fields. Causes or axioms are prescribed as the theoretical end-products of natural history, whereas precepts are envisaged as the speculative outcomes derived from perfect civil history. In spite of this difference, causes and precepts are thought to enable effective action in order to change the state of nature and of man, respectively. For that reason a number of common patterns are to be found in Bacon's theory and practice of natural and civil history.

  10. Thermal History and Mantle Dynamics of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsui, Albert T.

    1997-01-01

    One objective of this research proposal is to develop a 3-D thermal history model for Venus. The basis of our study is a finite-element computer model to simulate thermal convection of fluids with highly temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosities in a three-dimensional spherical shell. A three-dimensional model for thermal history studies is necessary for the following reasons. To study planetary thermal evolution, one needs to consider global heat budgets of a planet throughout its evolution history. Hence, three-dimensional models are necessary. This is in contrasts to studies of some local phenomena or local structures where models of lower dimensions may be sufficient. There are different approaches to treat three-dimensional thermal convection problems. Each approach has its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the choice of the various approaches is subjective and dependent on the problem addressed. In our case, we are interested in the effects of viscosities that are highly temperature dependent and that their magnitudes within the computing domain can vary over many orders of magnitude. In order to resolve the rapid change of viscosities, small grid spacings are often necessary. To optimize the amount of computing, variable grids become desirable. Thus, the finite-element numerical approach is chosen for its ability to place grid elements of different sizes over the complete computational domain. For this research proposal, we did not start from scratch and develop the finite element codes from the beginning. Instead, we adopted a finite-element model developed by Baumgardner, a collaborator of this research proposal, for three-dimensional thermal convection with constant viscosity. Over the duration supported by this research proposal, a significant amount of advancements have been accomplished.

  11. Composite-Nanoparticles Thermal History Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    shell nanoparticles, heterostructure nanowires , and nano-flakes) temperature history sensors for recording the thermal environment that biological...range from room temperature to over 900 °C. Photoluminescence (PL) of core/shell CdSe /ZnS QDs in different sizes were used as a tool to exam their...dependence on their size. For example, the average size of Ag nanospheres is 4 nm at 300 oc while 14 nm at 700 °C. The PL of core/shell CdSe /ZnS QDs in

  12. A Brief History of Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    FARHUD, Dariush D; ZARIF YEGANEH, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of human blood groups, without doubt, has a history as old as man himself. There are at least three hypotheses about the emergence and mutation of human blood groups. Global distribution pattern of blood groups depends on various environmental factors, such as disease, climate, altitude, humidity etc. In this survey, the collection of main blood groups ABO and Rh, along with some minor groups, are presented. Several investigations of blood groups from Iran, particularly a large sampling on 291857 individuals from Iran, including the main blood groups ABO and Rh, as well as minor blood groups such as Duffy, Lutheran, Kell, KP, Kidd, and Xg, have been reviewed. PMID:23514954

  13. Introduction to Media Literacy History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordac, Sarah Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Why is it important for us to consider the history of media literacy? Beyond forging connections of the past to the present, exploring the history of the field can deepen intellectual curiosity and understanding for those who work in media literacy education, ignite interest in others, and drive investigation into understanding the relationships…

  14. NUWUVI: A Southern Paiute History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    The first in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Southern Paiutes, or Nuwuvi. Based on interviews with tribal members and research conducted at numerous archives and record centers, the history begins with a description of the ancient culture and territory of the many Nuwuvi bands that lived,…

  15. Alternatives to War in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Jeffrey

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that human history is a story of paradoxes: cooperation and conflict, war and peace. States that, throughout history, various individuals and groups have sought alternatives to war. Describes attempts to keep the peace, to manage conflict, and to initiate social reforms that eliminate the causes of war. (CFR)

  16. Orphan Trains in Iowa History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frese, Millie K., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The "Goldfinch" is a magazine that introduces children to different aspects of Iowa history. Each issue contains articles that provide in-depth knowledge of a topic about Iowa. The focus of this issue is orphan trains in Iowa it introduces readers to some of the people heroes of modern history who rode the trains west between 1854 and…

  17. Gynaecological assessment and history taking.

    PubMed

    Summers, Anthony

    2013-09-01

    Nurse practitioners (NPs) rarely undertake gynaecological histories or female genital examinations yet, by doing so, they can broaden their scope of practice. This article discusses what NPs should ask women about their gynaecological histories and how to undertake pelvic examinations, and reviews common gynaecological symptoms. Further articles will cover different aspects of the pelvic examination and potential differential diagnoses.

  18. Religious Liberty as American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonventre, Vincent Martin

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that the development of religious liberty in the United States can be used to view the nation's history. Reviews significant events and issues related to religious liberty from colonial times to the present. Concludes that the struggle between individual liberty and government authority will continue to link religion and history. (CFR)

  19. History's Purpose in Antebellum Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInnis, Edward Cromwell

    2012-01-01

    Many scholars have argued that history education during the antebellum period in the United States supported conservative values and sought to produce close-minded citizens. History textbooks of that era, they frequently posit, cast Americans as God's chosen people and present the past in a style that reaffirms established social conventions. Ruth…

  20. World History Textbooks: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewall, Gilbert T.

    2004-01-01

    This world history review examines standard textbooks used between the sixth and twelfth grades in schools across the nation. These established textbooks dominate the field and set the pitch for new and forthcoming volumes. The 2002 Texas history textbook adoption and the California list have influenced what textbooks will dominate the national…

  1. Women in American History Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiferth, Berniece B.; Bennett, Barbara

    This teaching unit was developed to highlight the role of women in American history. Written for the junior and senior high school level, the unit examines how women's role has changed, what contributions were made by women in the almost 400 years of our history, effects of the women's rights and suffragist movement of the 19th century, and…

  2. Teaching American History: New Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, Matthew T., Ed.

    This bulletin contains suggestions to help secondary teachers teach about the histories of groups that have too often been ignored by historians and whose histories, when they were recounted at all, have been told largely from outside perspectives. It focuses on women, the family, workers, Native Americans, and other people frequently neglected in…

  3. The Florida Library History Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasper, Catherine; McCook, Kathleen de la Pena

    The Florida Library History Project (FLHP) began in January 1998. Letters requesting histories were sent to all public libraries in Florida with follow-up letters sent after an initial response was received from the libraries. E-mail messages were sent out to FL-LIB listservs encouraging participation in the project. A poster session was presented…

  4. American Educational History Journal, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 annual publication contains 31 articles on topics germane to the history of education. Each year, this journal publishes papers presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest History of Education Society. After the "Introduction" (R. J. Taggart) articles in this year's issue are: "Origins of the American Federation of…

  5. The Case for "Big History."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, David

    1991-01-01

    Urges an approach to the teaching of history that takes the largest possible perspective, crossing time as well as space. Discusses the problems and advantages of such an approach. Describes a course on "big" history that begins with time, creation myths, and astronomy, and moves on to paleontology and evolution. (DK)

  6. Art History in 3-D

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Students often have a hard time equating time spent on art history as time well spent in the art room. Likewise, art teachers struggle with how to keep interest in their classrooms high when the subject turns to history. Some teachers show endless videos, with the students nodding sleepily along to the narrator. Others try to incorporate small…

  7. Drug Use in American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses drug use in U.S. history. Argues that a "get-tough" approach did not work in the past and will not work in the future. Suggests that history can provide a scholarly assessment of drugs, foster understanding of drugs in contemporary society, and enable students to evaluate drug policies more objectively. (DK)

  8. A Structural History of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, John

    This book combines a traditional history-of-the-language approach with modern linguistic analysis to discuss the history of English from Old English through Middle English, Early Modern English, Authoritarian English, Mature Modern English, to American English. The book begins with a discussion of the present status and structure of English. Each…

  9. The International Big History Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big…

  10. Celebration Time: Black History Month

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkney, Andrea Davis

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, more students, teachers, and librarians are aware of African-American History Month and try to give it greater attention. However, the author questions herself if people do really "celebrate" African-American History Month or is it just something folks feel obligated to do, so they "celebrate" by displaying a collection of books about…

  11. History of Higher Education: Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harada, Myra

    This paper reviews the history of undergraduate curriculum in the United States from the colonial period to the present, arguing that the drive for utility has been the main force shaping curricular trends. It discusses the purpose of early colonial colleges and their curricula, which emphasized Latin, Greek, Hebrew, ancient history, theology,…

  12. Perspectives: Women in Nebraska History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paul G., Ed.; Machacek, Rosemary, Ed.

    Seventeen essays direct attention to the lives and achievements of outstanding women in Nebraska history. Most of the women described in the essays did their major work in literature, the arts, education, or some other related human service. Only two essays are not focused on specific women--"Union Maids in Omaha Labor History,…

  13. Weaving History through the Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  14. Anthropometric History: What Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlos, John

    1992-01-01

    Describes the contributions of anthropometric history to the understanding of standards of living in the past. Defines anthropometric history as a methodology that uses body height as a proxy measure for economic variables determining how well the human organism thrives in its socioeconomic environment. Suggests that anthropometric methodology…

  15. History Microcomputer Games: Update 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Provides full narrative reviews of B-1 Nuclear Bomber (Avalon, 1982); American History Adventure (Social Science Microcomputer Review Software, 1985); Government Simulations (Prentice-Hall, 1985); and The Great War, FDR and the New Deal, and Hitler's War, all from New Worlds Software, 1985. Lists additional information on five other history and…

  16. [Aesthetic surgery and history].

    PubMed

    Glicenstein, J

    2003-10-01

    The history of aesthetic surgery is linked to that of the 20th century. The first operations allowed by the progress of anesthesia and asepsis are the correction of "prominent ears" by Ely then rhinoplasty with endonasal incision by Roe. Considered by some as a precursor and a quack by others, C.C. Miller was the first surgeon to specialize and write books on the subject. Before world war I, aesthetic surgery was seldom practiced and publications were few. The war was at the origin of several units of maxillo-facial surgery created for the huge number of casualties with face trauma due to trench warfare. Many of those who will become great names in plastic surgery operated in these units: Blair, Davis, Léon Dufourmentel, Virenque, Morestin and Gillies. After the war, American surgeons were regrouped in scientific societies. Plastic surgery was privileged and aesthetic surgery was lifted for "quacks". In France, several surgeons such as Suzanne Noël, Passot, Bourguet, Dartigues showed an important creativity and described several techniques that inspired recent ones. The Dujarier case discredited French aesthetic surgery but did not stop the creation of the first French Society of Plastic Surgery in 1930. World war II led to new orientations. In England, the East Grinstead center with Gillies and McIndoe during and after the war was at the origin of many vocations. After the war, many national and international societies of plastic surgery started to appear. The French Society of Plastic Surgery was born in 1952.

  17. [African population in history].

    PubMed

    Yang, S

    1984-11-29

    The growth rate of the African population has been fluctuating throughout history, affected by political, social, and economic events. 6000 years ago, the majority of the population was based in North Africa, because farming had been developed there. However, between the 11th and the 16th centuries, there was a constant decline in the population of that region, due to invasions from Europe and the black plague. During the same period, the population in the area south of the Sahara grew rapidly, as people there had gone into the iron tool period and farming had been developed. From the 16th to the mid-17th Century, population growth was considerable in Africa; more people had learned the technology of irrigation, corn and potatoes had been introduced from South America, and colonialism was not yet an issue. From the mid-17th to the mid-19th Century, there was no growth, due to the slave trade and wars between tribes. One estimate sets the direct and indirect loss during this period, as a result of the slave trade, at 100 million people. From the 1850s to the end of World War I, population growth started up again, chiefly influenced by the fact that the slave trade had essentially come to a half and modern medical care had become available on the continent. However, in central Africa, the region which suffered the worst blow from the slave trade, growth was very slow, while in East Africa the population was declining because of wars between colonists and natives, as well as natural disasters. Increases in population during this period were a result of immigration from Europe and India. From the end of World War I to the present, growth has been rapid, given improvements in medical services and standards of living, while most of the former colonies became independent after the 1950s. Consequently, almost all African countries are under great pressure now with regard to their populations.

  18. History of parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Dudrick, Stanley J

    2009-06-01

    The concept of feeding patients entirely parenterally by injecting nutrient substances or fluids intravenously was advocated and attempted long before the successful practical development of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) four decades ago. Realization of this 400 year old seemingly fanciful dream initially required centuries of fundamental investigation coupled with basic technological advances and judicious clinical applications. Most clinicians in the 1950's were aware of the negative impact of starvation on morbidity, mortality, and outcomes, but only few understood the necessity for providing adequate nutritional support to malnourished patients if optimal clinical results were to be achieved. The prevailing dogma in the 1960's was that, "Feeding entirely by vein is impossible; even if it were possible, it would be impractical; and even if it were practical, it would be unaffordable." Major challenges to the development of TPN included: (1) formulate complete parenteral nutrient solutions (did not exist), (2) concentrate substrate components to 5-6 times isotonicity without precipitation (not easily done), (3) demonstrate utility and safety of long-term central venous catheterization (not looked upon with favor by the medical hierarchy), (4) demonstrate efficacy and safety of long-term infusion of hypertonic nutrient solutions (contrary to clinical practices at the time), (5) maintain asepsis and antisepsis throughout solution preparation and delivery (required a major culture change), and (6) anticipate, avoid, and correct metabolic imbalances or derangements (a monumental challenge and undertaking). This presentation recounts approaches to, and solution of, some of the daunting problems as really occurred in a comprehensive, concise and candid history of parenteral nutrition.

  19. The history of LASIK.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Archer, Timothy J; Gobbe, Marine

    2012-04-01

    Keratomileusis, brainchild of Jose I. Barraquer Moner, was conceived and developed as the first stromal sculpting method to correct refractive error in 1948. The word "keratomileusis" literally means "sculpting" of the "cornea." Barraquer's first procedures involved freezing a disc of anterior corneal tissue before removing stromal tissue with a lathe. Over the years, the procedure continued to develop, first through the Barraquer-Krumeich-Swinger non-freeze technique where tissue was removed from the underside of the disc by a second pass of the microkeratome. In-situ keratomileusis was later developed by passing the microkeratome a second time directly on the stromal bed. The procedure became known as automated lamellar keratoplasty with the invention of an automated microkeratome and was further refined by replacing the disc without sutures and later by stopping the microkeratome before the end of the pass to create a hinged flap, as first demonstrated in 1989. The history of the excimer laser dates back to 1900 and the quantum theory, eventually leading to the discovery that 193-nm ultraviolet excimer laser pulses could photoablate tissue without thermal damage. Ultrastructural and wound healing studies confirmed that large area ablation could be performed in the central cornea. This was described as photorefractive keratectomy in 1986 and the first sighted eyes were treated in 1988. An excimer laser was first used to sculpt from the stromal bed under a hinged flap created manually using a trephine and scalpel in 1988. The incorporation of a microkeratome in 1990 finally led to laser in situ keratomileusis-LASIK-as we know it today.

  20. The history of benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Wick, Jeannette Y

    2013-09-01

    After more than 50 years of experience with benzodiazepines, the American health care system has a love-hate relationship with them. In 1955, Hoffmann-La Roche chemist Leo Sternbach serendipitously identified the first benzodiazepine, chlordiazepoxide (Librium). By 1960, Hoffmann-La Roche marketed it as Librium, and it pursued molecular modifications for enhanced activity. Valium (diazepam) followed in 1963. Hoffmann-La Roche's competitors also began looking for analogues. Initially, benzodiazepines appeared to be less toxic and less likely to cause dependence than older drugs. A specific improvement was their lack of respiratory depression, a safety concern with barbiturates. Medical professionals greeted benzodiazepines enthusiastically at first, skyrocketing their popularity and patient demand. In the mid-to-late 1970s, benzodiazepines topped all "most frequently prescribed" lists. It took 15 years for researchers to associate benzodiazepines and their effect on gamma-aminobutyric acid as a mechanism of action. By the 1980s, clinicians' earlier enthusiasm and propensity to prescribe created a new concern: the specter of abuse and dependence. As information about benzodiazepines, both raising and damning, accumulated, medical leaders and legislators began to take action. The result: individual benzodiazepines and the entire class began to appear on guidelines and in legislation giving guidance on their use. Concurrently, clinicians began to raise concerns about benzodiazepine use by elderly patients, indicating that elders'lesser therapeutic response and heightened sensitivity to side effects demanded prescriber caution. The benzodiazepine story continues to evolve and includes modern-day issues and concerns beyond those ever anticipated.

  1. Focus: science, history, and modern India. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Phalkey, Jahnavi

    2013-06-01

    Histories of science in India are revisitations of the colonial question. Science is ideology to be unraveled and exposed--as modernity and progress making or violence and oppression making--depending on where you stand on the interpretive spectrum. It has been seen as ideologically driven practice, as a mode of knowledge production whose history is inseparable from the social and political uses to which it is tethered. In the colonial as well as the postcolonial context, science and technology have been seen as the "ideology of empire," "tools of empire," "tentacles of progress," and "reasons of state." Yet science and technology are practices and bodies of knowledge that inhabitants of the subcontinent have engaged with enthusiasm, that they have used to invent themselves in their global, national, and individual lives. We know remarkably little about the histories of these complex engagements. A departure from current historiographical preoccupations is called for to map and explain the lives, institutions, practices, and stories of science on the subcontinent as they connect with, and where they break away from, the world at large.

  2. The Ethnic History of South Carolina. American History, South Carolina History. Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charleston County School District, North Charleston, SC. Div. of Instruction.

    This guide for eighth grade teachers was the product of a Title IX ethnic studies project. The guide was designed to supplement the regular South Carolina state history textbooks and place in a more positive frame of reference the ethnic contributions that specific ethnic groups have made to South Carolina history. Written by teachers, the guide…

  3. History Untold: Celebrating Ohio History Through ABLE Students. Ohio History Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent State Univ., OH. Ohio Literacy Resource Center.

    This document is a compilation of 33 pieces of writing presenting Ohio adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) students' perspectives of community and personal history. The items included in the compilation were written by ABLE students across Ohio in celebration of Ohio History Day. The compilation is organized in five sections as follows: (1)…

  4. A Model History Course: History Practicum--Researching, Writing, and Publishing Local History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, E. J., II

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Southwest Texas State University course "History Practicum: Researching, Writing, and Publishing Local History" that stresses computer proficiency, teamwork, and active learning. Students create and publish a guidebook for a town, city, or historic site in central Texas. Discusses the publication process of "San Marcos: A Guide to a…

  5. Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2002-10-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are mainly used to treat androgen deficiency syndromes and, more recently, catabolic states such as AIDS-associated wasting. There is no evidence in the reviewed literature that AAS abuse or dependence develops from the therapeutic use of AAS. Conversely, 165 instances of AAS dependence have been reported among weightlifters and bodybuilders who, as part of their weight training regimens, chronically administered supraphysiologic doses, often including combinations of injected and oral AAS as well as other drugs of abuse. A new model is proposed in which both the "myoactive" and psychoactive effects of AAS contribute to the development of AAS dependence. The adverse consequences of AAS are reviewed, as well as their assessment by means of a history and physical, mental status examination, and laboratory testing. When patients with AAS use disorders are compared with patients with other substance use disorders, both similarities and differences become apparent and have implications for treatment.

  6. California earthquake history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toppozada, T.; Branum, D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the advancement in our knowledge of California's earthquake history since ??? 1800, and especially during the last 30 years. We first review the basic statewide research on earthquake occurrences that was published from 1928 through 2002, to show how the current catalogs and their levels of completeness have evolved with time. Then we review some of the significant new results in specific regions of California, and some of what remains to be done. Since 1850, 167 potentially damaging earthquakes of M ??? 6 or larger have been identified in California and its border regions, indicating an average rate of 1.1 such events per year. Table I lists the earthquakes of M ??? 6 to 6.5 that were also destructive since 1812 in California and its border regions, indicating an average rate of one such event every ??? 5 years. Many of these occurred before 1932 when epicenters and magnitudes started to be determined routinely using seismographs in California. The number of these early earthquakes is probably incomplete in sparsely populated remote parts of California before ??? 1870. For example, 6 of the 7 pre-1873 events in table I are of M ??? 7, suggesting that other earthquakes of M 6.5 to 6.9 occurred but were not properly identified, or were not destructive. The epicenters and magnitudes (M) of the pre-instrumental earthquakes were determined from isoseismal maps that were based on the Modified Mercalli Intensity of shaking (MMI) at the communities that reported feeling the earthquakes. The epicenters were estimated to be in the regions of most intense shaking, and values of M were estimated from the extent of the areas shaken at various MMI levels. MMI VII or greater shaking is the threshold of damage to weak buildings. Certain areas in the regions of Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Eureka were each shaken repeatedly at MMI VII or greater at least six times since ??? 1812, as depicted by Toppozada and Branum (2002, fig. 19).

  7. History of food allergy.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Brunello

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we will first consider whether there is real evidence on the basis of literature for early descriptions in antiquity of pathogenic reactions after food intake that could be comparable to allergy, for instance in the scriptures of Hippocrates or Lucretius. On this topic we are skeptical, which is in agreement with the medical historian Hans Schadewaldt. We also assert that it is unlikely that King Richard III was the first food-allergic individual in medical literature. Most probably it was not a well-planned poisoning ('allergy') with strawberries, but rather a birth defect ('… his harm was ever such since his birth') that allowed the Lord Protector to bring Mylord of Ely to the scaffold in the Tower, as we can read in The History of King Richard III by Thomas More (1478-1535; published by his son-in-law, Rastell, in 1557). In 1912, the American pediatrician Oscar Menderson Schloss (1882-1952) was probably the first to describe scratch tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. Milestones in the practical diagnosis of food allergy are further discussed, including scratch tests, intradermal tests, modified prick tests and prick-to-prick tests. False-negative results can be attributed to the phenomenon of a 'catamnestic reaction' according to Max Werner (1911-1987), or to the fermentative degradation of food products. Prior to the discovery of immunoglobulin E, which marked a turning point in allergy diagnosis, and the introduction of the radioallergosorbent test in 1967, several more or less reliable techniques were used in the diagnosis of food allergy, such as pulse rate increase after food intake according to Coca, the leukopenic index, drop in basophils or drastic platelet decrease. The 'leukocytotoxic test' (Bryan's test), today called the 'ALCAT' test, shows no scientific evidence. The double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy. For the future, component-resolved diagnostics

  8. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  9. History, Medicine, and Culture: History for Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balog, C. Edward

    1980-01-01

    Describes college level history course entitled "Healers and Persons" for undergraduate medicine students. Topics include Greek medicine and Hippocrates, Galen of Pergamum, Islamic and Roman culture, medieval medicine, the Renaissance, Harvey, Pasteur, Lister, and Mendel. (KC)

  10. Periodic sequences of simple maps can support chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cánovas, Jose S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the Parrondo's paradox when several dynamically simple maps are combined in a periodic way, producing chaotic dynamics. We show that the paradox is not commutative, that is, it depends on the way that the maps are iterated. We also see that the paradox happens more frequently when the number of maps that we iterate increases.

  11. Star Formation History In Merging Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Li-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    Interacting and merging galaxies are believed to play an important role in many aspects of galactic evolution. Their violent interactions can trigger starbursts, which lead to formation of young globular clusters. Therefore the ages of these young globular clusters can be interpreted to yield the timing of interaction-triggered events, and thus provide a key to reconstruct the star formation history in merging galaxies. The link between galaxy interaction and star formation is well established, but the triggers of star formation in interacting galaxies are still not understood. To date there are two competing formulas that describe the star formation mechanism--density-dependent and shock-induced rules. Numerical models implementing the two rules predict significantly different star formation histories in merging galaxies. My dissertation combines these two distinct areas of astrophysics, stellar evolution and galactic dynamics, to investigate the star formation history in galaxies at various merging stages. Begin with NGC 4676 as an example, I will briefly describe its model and illustrate the idea of using the ages of clusters to constrain the modeling. The ages of the clusters are derived from spectra that were taken with multi-object spectroscopy on Keck. Using NGC 7252 as a second example, I will present a state of the art dynamical model which predicts NGC7252's star formation history and other properties. I will then show a detailed comparison and analysis between the clusters and the modeling. In the end, I will address this important link as the key to answer the fundamental question of my thesis: what is the trigger of star formation in merging galaxies?

  12. Clone history shapes Populus drought responses

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Sherosha; Bräutigam, Katharina; Hamanishi, Erin T.; Wilkins, Olivia; Thomas, Barb R.; Schroeder, William; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Plant, Aine L.; Campbell, Malcolm M.

    2011-01-01

    Just as animal monozygotic twins can experience different environmental conditions by being reared apart, individual genetically identical trees of the genus Populus can also be exposed to contrasting environmental conditions by being grown in different locations. As such, clonally propagated Populus trees provide an opportunity to interrogate the impact of individual environmental history on current response to environmental stimuli. To test the hypothesis that current responses to an environmental stimulus, drought, are contingent on environmental history, the transcriptome- level drought responses of three economically important hybrid genotypes—DN34 (Populus deltoides × Populus nigra), Walker [P. deltoides var. occidentalis × (Populus laurifolia × P. nigra)], and Okanese [Walker × (P. laurifolia × P. nigra)]—derived from two different locations were compared. Strikingly, differences in transcript abundance patterns in response to drought were based on differences in geographic origin of clones for two of the three genotypes. This observation was most pronounced for the genotypes with the longest time since establishment and last common propagation. Differences in genome-wide DNA methylation paralleled the transcriptome level trends, whereby the clones with the most divergent transcriptomes and clone history had the most marked differences in the extent of total DNA methylation, suggesting an epigenomic basis for the clone history-dependent transcriptome divergence. The data provide insights into the interplay between genotype and environment in the ecologically and economically important Populus genus, with implications for the industrial application of Populus trees and the evolution and persistence of these important tree species and their associated hybrids. PMID:21746919

  13. Organizing the History of Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misa, Thomas J.

    This paper tries to distill some of the ‘lessons learned’ from the Charles Babbage Institute’s quarter-century experience (1980-present) in organizing the history of computing. It draws on the author’s (recent) experience as CBI director; conversations with Arthur Norberg, CBI’s long-time founding director; and papers delivered at a special symposium appraising CBI’s role in computing history, which appeared in the IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 29 no. 4 (October-December 2007).

  14. Natural History of Pancreatic Cysts.

    PubMed

    Larson, Alexander; Kwon, Richard S

    2017-03-17

    Pancreatic cystic neoplasms are discovered with increasing frequency. Accurate knowledge of the natural history of cystic neoplasms is crucial to develop useful and cost-effective strategies for surveillance and surgical resection. To date, the natural history of cystic neoplasms is still incomplete due to lack of adequate diagnostic accuracy in the absence of surgical pathology. Nevertheless, current evidence points to risk factors for malignant transformation to help clinical management. New biomarkers that accurately distinguish cyst neoplasms and those most likely to progress to cancer would help clarify the natural history of cystic neoplasms.

  15. [History of tracheotomy].

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Jurek; Miłoński, Jarosław

    2007-01-01

    The present notion - tracheotomy, originates from the Latin words trachea - windpipe, which comes from the combination of Latin "tracheia" and Greek "arteria" indicating an uneven road, and "tome" - cut. Procedures of pharyngotomy have a long-lasting history. First similar operations were found on the ancient Egyptian clay tablets dating back to 3600 BC. Mentions of pharyngotomy operations were found in the papyrus called Ebers's Papyrus dating back to about 1550 BC, which can obviously be treated as an encyclopaedia of the medical knowledge that the ancient Egyptians possessed. Guidelines for the person performing pharyngotomy were described in Rig Veda - the holy scriptures of Hindi medicine, about 2000 BC. Asclepiads of Prussia in Bithynia (124-156 BC), a Greek physician practising in Rome, is commonly considered the father of pharyngotomy. In the 1st century BC he documented an operation similar to pharyngotomy. Procedures similar to pharyngotomy were conducted by Claudius Galenus of Pergamon (about 130-200 AD) who was treating gladiators at the beginning of his medical career. A precise description of the technique in pharyngotomy performed by the method adopted from Antilla (3rd century AD) was presented by Paulos Aeginata (625-690 AD), whereas in modern times the first surgical pharyngotomy was performed by Antonio Brasavola (1490-1554) in 1546. In those times pharyngotomy operations were applied as life saving procedures and were associated with a desperate fight for life. The best example is given by Sanctorio Santorius (1561-1636) who pierced the trachea lumen with a trocar. All the experiences connected with the pharyngotomy technique were collected by Lorenz Heister (1683-1758) and published in his work "Surgery" in 1716. Until the end of 18th century the work finally established views about performing pharyngotomy operations. In 1856 Eugeniusz Bonchut conducted the first pharyngotomy in a child with passing an intubation tube into the trachea lumen

  16. [The history of antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Yazdankhah, Siamak; Lassen, Jørgen; Midtvedt, Tore; Solberg, Claus Ola

    2013-12-10

    The development of chemical compounds for the treatment of infectious diseases may be divided into three phases: a) the discovery in the 1600s in South America of alkaloid extracts from the bark of the cinchona tree and from the dried root of the ipecacuanha bush, which proved effective against, respectively, malaria (quinine) and amoebic dysentery (emetine); b) the development of synthetic drugs, which mostly took place in Germany, starting with Paul Ehrlich's (1854-1915) discovery of salvarsan (1909), and crowned with Gerhard Domagk's (1895-1964) discovery of the sulfonamides (1930s); and c) the discovery of antibiotics. The prime example of the latter is the development of penicillin in the late 1920s following a discovery by a solitary research scientist who never worked in a team and never as part of a research programme. It took another ten years or so before drug-quality penicillin was produced, with research now dependent on being conducted in large collaborative teams, frequently between universities and wealthy industrial companies. The search for new antibiotics began in earnest in the latter half of the 1940s and was mostly based on soil microorganisms. Many new antibiotics were discovered in this period, which may be termed «the golden age of antibiotics». Over the past three decades, the development of new antibiotics has largely stalled, while antibiotic resistance has increased. This situation may require new strategies for the treatment of infectious diseases.

  17. Child Labor in America's History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  18. Wire Jewelry/Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Robert A.; Robinson, Charles C.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a project which made the study of Black history more real to fifth graders by having them make wire jewelry, smaller versions of the ornate filigreed ironwork produced by slave blacksmiths. (RM)

  19. A philatelic history of anesthesiology

    PubMed Central

    Sekhar, K C

    2013-01-01

    Thematic or topical philately deals with stamp collection based on a particular topic or theme. This article deals with a thematic depiction of the history of anesthesia from ancient to modern times using stamps, postal stationery and cancellations. PMID:23492850

  20. A History of Vision Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelboom, Tina M.

    1985-01-01

    The vision screening program has a long and interesting history involving educators, pediatricians, optometrists, and ophthamologists. This historical review of vision screening in the schools includes a discussion of amblyopia and screening of preschool students. (Author/CB)

  1. Resources for Teaching Social History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furtek, Joanne

    1982-01-01

    Describes print and audiovisual resources available for teaching social history to secondary students. Topics covered include crime, the family, health and medicine, work, and youth. Student texts are also cited. (RM)

  2. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Cancer.gov

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  3. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Cancer.gov

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  4. Drug Discovery Case History: US Spelling

    PubMed Central

    Kufahl, Peter R.; Watterson, Lucas R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Globally, alcohol abuse and dependence are significant contributors to chronic disease and injury and are responsible for nearly 4% of all deaths annually. Acamprosate (Campral), one of only three pharmacological treatments approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence, has shown mixed efficacy in clinical trials in maintaining abstinence of detoxified alcoholics since studies began in the 1980’s. Yielding inconsistent results, these studies have prompted skepticism. Areas Covered Herein, the authors review the preclinical studies which have assessed the efficacy of acamprosate in various animal models of alcohol dependence and discuss the disparate findings from the major clinical trials. Moreover, the authors discuss the major limitations of these preclinical and clinical studies and offer explanations for the often contradictory findings. The article also looks at the importance of the calcium moiety that accompanies the salt form of acamprosate and its relevance to its activity. Expert opinion The recent discovery that large doses of calcium largely duplicate the effects of acamprosate in animal models has introduced a serious challenge to the widely-held functional association between this drug and the glutamate neurotransmission system. Future research on acamprosate or newer pharmacotherapeutics should consider assessing plasma and/or brain levels of calcium as a correlate or mediating factor in anti-relapse efficacy. Furthermore, preclinical research on acamprosate has thus far lacked animal models of chemical dependence on alcohol, and the testing of rodents with histories of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal is suggested. PMID:25258174

  5. History of the Concept of Addiction.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Peter E; Conrad, Mandy; Skinstad, Anne Helene

    2016-01-01

    Our distant forebears wrestled with concepts of alcohol addiction not unlike those of today: Is addiction a sin or a disease? Is addiction caused by the gods, the substance, the individual's vulnerability, or psychological or social factors? Luther, Calvin, and Catholic Church leaders viewed moderate alcohol use as God's gift; used intemperately, it was a moral transgression. The founders of modern scientific psychiatry rejected moral explanations for addiction in favor of an early biological model. The first two versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-I and DSM-II) stigmatized addiction by listing it with other societally disapproved disorders stemming from personality disorder. DSM-III espoused atheoretical, descriptive diagnoses but required tolerance or withdrawal to diagnose dependence. Substance dependence in DSM-III-R included physiological and behavioral symptoms and reflected the substance dependence syndrome. DSM-IV's emphasis on biology in its concept of dependence was unchanged from its immediate predecessors. DSM-5 declared that all drugs taken in excess have in common the direct activation of the brain reward system. This article examines evolving concepts of alcohol addiction through 12,000 years of recorded human history, from the first mention of alcohol consumption in China more than 12,000 years ago to alcohol use and abuse in the DSM era, 1952 to the present.

  6. LIFE HISTORY. Age-related mortality explains life history strategies of tropical and temperate songbirds.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E

    2015-08-28

    Life history theory attempts to explain why species differ in offspring number and quality, growth rate, and parental effort. I show that unappreciated interactions of these traits in response to age-related mortality risk challenge traditional perspectives and explain life history evolution in songbirds. Counter to a long-standing paradigm, tropical songbirds grow at similar overall rates to temperate species but grow wings relatively faster. These growth tactics are favored by predation risk, both in and after leaving the nest, and are facilitated by greater provisioning of individual offspring by parents. Increased provisioning of individual offspring depends on partitioning effort among fewer young because of constraints on effort from adult and nest mortality. These growth and provisioning responses to mortality risk finally explain the conundrum of small clutch sizes of tropical birds.

  7. Ancient history of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    New, Maria I

    2011-01-01

    Although there are many erudite reports on the history of endocrinology and endocrine disorders, the history of congenital adrenal hyperplasia has not been published. I have tried to review ancient as well as modern history of CAH.

  8. Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative

    MedlinePlus

    ... Start Your Family Health History My Family Health Portrait Tool English Web Tool Printable Versions Source Code ... your family's health history. My Family Health History Portrait Tool Find out about this web-based tool ...

  9. Resources for Teaching with Computers in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, David M.

    1988-01-01

    Highlights seven resources for teaching history with computers. Titles include "Technology and the Social Studies: A Vision"; "Using Databases in History Teaching"; "Computers and Database Management in the History Curriculum"; "Social Studies. Microsoft Courseware Evaluations"; "Teaching Comparative…

  10. [The practice of research in history].

    PubMed

    Poisson, Michel

    2013-11-01

    History is a discipline whose research methods present similarities with those of other human and social sciences, with certain specificities. The nursing profession can use these methods to showcase its history and the history of nursing care.

  11. The History of Melancholia Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghfard, Abbas; Bozorgi, Ali Reza; Ahmadi, Shaghayegh; Shojaei, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Melancholia is a kind of depression with the most common symptoms of evident mental disorder, slimness, lack of enjoyment, feeling guilty and having no appetite. In modern medicine, the word “melancholia” only refers to mental and affective symptoms of depression. However, historically, it could have physical symptoms as well as mental symptoms and the atrabilious situations were categorized according to their common reasons rather than their specific characteristics. This study aimed to enlighten the history of this disease. Methods: This is a review article concerned with cerebral diseases by collecting data from medical electronic databases including PUBMED and SID, historical psychiatry books and traditional medicine manuscripts. Results: The first known physician to have scientifically looked at the mental diseases was Hippocrates (370-460 B.C), who should be accredited as the father of medicine. While physicians in the time of Hippocrates seriously believed in the metaphysics power in health and diseases, Hippocrates believed in natural laws. Plato (348-428 B.C) believed that human behavior is affected by his physical needs and instincts. In the course of Hippocrates’s theory about bodily humors, Aristotle considered a range of mental characteristics for each. Finally, Galen believed that cerebral disease causes mental diseases or disorders based on his own theories of anatomy. Persian physicians involved in this area were Rabban al-Tabari (838-870 A.D), Razes (865-925 A.D), Ali-Ibn Abbas Ahvazi (944-982 A.D), Al-ikhwan al bukhari the physician of the ninth century, Ibn Sina (980-1037 A.D), Gorgani (1040-1136 A.D) and Khaje Nasireddin Tousi (1201-1274 A.D). They considered cerebral diseases and health as a part of equality process; different organs accommodate a physical system and mutual dependence with the society and environment. Conclusion: Mental health has been reviewed from various aspects in view of ancient physicians. Feeble

  12. The History of Melancholia Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghfard, Abbas; Bozorgi, Ali Reza; Ahmadi, Shaghayegh; Shojaei, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Melancholia is a kind of depression with the most common symptoms of evident mental disorder, slimness, lack of enjoyment, feeling guilty and having no appetite. In modern medicine, the word “melancholia” only refers to mental and affective symptoms of depression. However, historically, it could have physical symptoms as well as mental symptoms and the atrabilious situations were categorized according to their common reasons rather than their specific characteristics. This study aimed to enlighten the history of this disease. Methods: This is a review article concerned with cerebral diseases by collecting data from medical electronic databases including PUBMED and SID, historical psychiatry books and traditional medicine manuscripts. Results: The first known physician to have scientifically looked at the mental diseases was Hippocrates (370-460 B.C), who should be accredited as the father of medicine. While physicians in the time of Hippocrates seriously believed in the metaphysics power in health and diseases, Hippocrates believed in natural laws. Plato (348-428 B.C) believed that human behavior is affected by his physical needs and instincts. In the course of Hippocrates’s theory about bodily humors, Aristotle considered a range of mental characteristics for each. Finally, Galen believed that cerebral disease causes mental diseases or disorders based on his own theories of anatomy. Persian physicians involved in this area were Rabban al-Tabari (838-870 A.D), Razes (865-925 A.D), Ali-Ibn Abbas Ahvazi (944-982 A.D), Al-ikhwan al bukhari the physician of the ninth century, Ibn Sina (980-1037 A.D), Gorgani (1040-1136 A.D) and Khaje Nasireddin Tousi (1201-1274 A.D). They considered cerebral diseases and health as a part of equality process; different organs accommodate a physical system and mutual dependence with the society and environment. Conclusion: Mental health has been reviewed from various aspects in view of ancient physicians. Feeble

  13. History by history statistical estimators in the BEAM code system.

    PubMed

    Walters, B R B; Kawrakow, I; Rogers, D W O

    2002-12-01

    A history by history method for estimating uncertainties has been implemented in the BEAMnrc and DOSXYznrc codes replacing the method of statistical batches. This method groups scored quantities (e.g., dose) by primary history. When phase-space sources are used, this method groups incident particles according to the primary histories that generated them. This necessitated adding markers (negative energy) to phase-space files to indicate the first particle generated by a new primary history. The new method greatly reduces the uncertainty in the uncertainty estimate. The new method eliminates one dimension (which kept the results for each batch) from all scoring arrays, resulting in memory requirement being decreased by a factor of 2. Correlations between particles in phase-space sources are taken into account. The only correlations with any significant impact on uncertainty are those introduced by particle recycling. Failure to account for these correlations can result in a significant underestimate of the uncertainty. The previous method of accounting for correlations due to recycling by placing all recycled particles in the same batch did work. Neither the new method nor the batch method take into account correlations between incident particles when a phase-space source is restarted so one must avoid restarts.

  14. History of mathematics and history of science reunited?

    PubMed

    Gray, Jeremy

    2011-09-01

    For some years now, the history of modern mathematics and the history of modern science have developed independently. A step toward a reunification that would benefit both disciplines could come about through a revived appreciation of mathematical practice. Detailed studies of what mathematicians actually do, whether local or broadly based, have often led in recent work to examinations of the social, cultural, and national contexts, and more can be done. Another recent approach toward a historical understanding of the abstractness of modern mathematics has been to see it as a species of modernism, and this thesis will be tested by the raft of works on the history of modern applied mathematics currently under way.

  15. [Buffon: time, change and history].

    PubMed

    Rheinberger, H J

    1990-01-01

    There is a longstanding and ongoing controversy about whether Buffon is to be regarded as a forerunner of evolutionism in the eighteenth century, or even as one of the founders of transformistic biology. There are good reasons to deny this claim. There are good reasons even to deny that the question which is going to be answered negatively is of particular importance. The present paper addresses the issue from a different angle. It analyzes the concept of time operative in the natural history writings of Buffon, and it delineates the articulation of the concepts of time, change, and history with its organizing impact on Buffon's discourse on earth and organisms. It is argued that although with his species concept Buffon tries to introduce the classical notion of a physical system into biology, in order to do so, he has to subvert it by an element of time. This guides him in considering various aspects of organic change, but by itself does not lead to a general perspective of transformation. On the other hand, in his Epoques de la nature, Buffon introduces a general law of geological change, thus arriving at something which could be called a physically intelligible history. The conquest of natural history by physics, in one and the same movement, leads to a subversion of physical geology by history, and prevents biology from becoming evolutionistic in the sense in which the nineteenth century understands this term.

  16. Using History of Mathematics to Teach Volume Formula of Frustum Pyramids: Dissection Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butuner, Suphi Onder

    2015-01-01

    Within recent years, history of mathematics (HoM) has become an increasingly popular topic. Studies have shown that student reactions to it depend on the ways they use history of mathematics. The present action research study aimed to make students deduce volume rules of frustum pyramids using the dissection method. Participants were 24 grade…

  17. Developmental and Evolutionary History Affect Survival in Stressful Environments

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Gareth R.; Brodie, Edmund D.; French, Susannah S.

    2014-01-01

    The world is increasingly impacted by a variety of stressors that have the potential to differentially influence life history stages of organisms. Organisms have evolved to cope with some stressors, while with others they have little capacity. It is thus important to understand the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival in stressful environments. We present evidence of the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival of a freshwater vertebrate, the rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) in an osmotically stressful environment. We compared the survival of larvae in either NaCl or MgCl2 that were exposed to salinity either as larvae only or as embryos as well. Embryonic exposure to salinity led to greater mortality of newt larvae than larval exposure alone, and this reduced survival probability was strongly linked to the carry-over effect of stunted embryonic growth in salts. Larval survival was also dependent on the type of salt (NaCl or MgCl2) the larvae were exposed to, and was lowest in MgCl2, a widely-used chemical deicer that, unlike NaCl, amphibian larvae do not have an evolutionary history of regulating at high levels. Both developmental and evolutionary history are critical factors in determining survival in this stressful environment, a pattern that may have widespread implications for the survival of animals increasingly impacted by substances with which they have little evolutionary history. PMID:24748021

  18. The history of neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of a novel serum autoantibody (termed NMO-IgG or AQP4-Ab) in a subset of patients in 2004 has revived interest in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). While the history of classical multiple sclerosis has been extensively studied, only little is known about the history of NMO. In the present article, we provide a comprehensive review of the early history of this rare but intriguing syndrome. We trace the origins of the concept of NMO in the 19th century medical literature and follow its evolution throughout the 20th and into the 21st century. Finally, we discuss recent proposals to revise the concept of NMO and explain why there is indeed a need for a more systematic and descriptive nomenclature. PMID:23320783

  19. Ancient DNA and human history

    PubMed Central

    Slatkin, Montgomery; Racimo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    We review studies of genomic data obtained by sequencing hominin fossils with particular emphasis on the unique information that ancient DNA (aDNA) can provide about the demographic history of humans and our closest relatives. We concentrate on nuclear genomic sequences that have been published in the past few years. In many cases, particularly in the Arctic, the Americas, and Europe, aDNA has revealed historical demographic patterns in a way that could not be resolved by analyzing present-day genomes alone. Ancient DNA from archaic hominins has revealed a rich history of admixture between early modern humans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans, and has allowed us to disentangle complex selective processes. Information from aDNA studies is nowhere near saturation, and we believe that future aDNA sequences will continue to change our understanding of hominin history. PMID:27274045

  20. Tradeoffs in bacteriophage life histories.

    PubMed

    Keen, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on the planet, yet most classical principles of evolutionary biology and ecology were not developed with viruses in mind. Here, the concept of biological tradeoffs, a fundamental tenet of life history theory, is examined in the context of bacteriophage biology. Specifically, several important parameters of phage life histories-replication, persistence, host range, and adsorption-are evaluated for tradeoffs. Available data indicate that replication rate is strongly negatively correlated with both persistence and host range, suggesting that the well-documented tradeoff in macroorganisms between offspring production and offspring quality also applies to phages. The biological tradeoffs that appear to characterize viruses' life histories have potential importance for viral evolution, ecology, and pathogenesis.

  1. Ancient DNA and human history.

    PubMed

    Slatkin, Montgomery; Racimo, Fernando

    2016-06-07

    We review studies of genomic data obtained by sequencing hominin fossils with particular emphasis on the unique information that ancient DNA (aDNA) can provide about the demographic history of humans and our closest relatives. We concentrate on nuclear genomic sequences that have been published in the past few years. In many cases, particularly in the Arctic, the Americas, and Europe, aDNA has revealed historical demographic patterns in a way that could not be resolved by analyzing present-day genomes alone. Ancient DNA from archaic hominins has revealed a rich history of admixture between early modern humans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans, and has allowed us to disentangle complex selective processes. Information from aDNA studies is nowhere near saturation, and we believe that future aDNA sequences will continue to change our understanding of hominin history.

  2. America: History and Life Online: History and Much More.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Joyce Duncan

    1983-01-01

    This guide to searching for "America: History and Life," a bibliographic database offering resources on topics in social sciences, humanities, and arts in the United States and Canada, covers subject scope, selection and coverage, document types and records, combined entries, subject indexing, personal names, geographic names, historical periods,…

  3. Trade and Industry in History. National History Day, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Miriam L.; And Others

    Presented are winning essays written by junior and senior high school students for the historical paper category of the 1982 National History Day program contest. This unique program encourages young people to explore a historical subject related to a specific theme. The winning papers, responding to the 1982 theme of trade and industry in…

  4. Revolution, Reaction, Reform in History. National History Day 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Beatriz, Ed.; Gorn, Cathy, Ed.

    National History Day, a year-long educational program, fosters academic achievement and intellectual growth. In addition to acquiring historical knowledge and perspective while developing entries and competing in a series of district, state, and national contests, students develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills that help them manage…

  5. History Untold: Celebrating Ohio History through ABLE Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent State Univ., OH. Ohio Literacy Resource Center.

    This document is a compilation of 25 pieces of writing presenting Ohio adult basic and literacy education (ABLE) students' perspectives of community and personal history. The items included in the compilation were written by ABLE students across Ohio. The compilation is organized in three sections as follows: (1) people (9 items, including a…

  6. The History of Education as the History of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    This paper surveys recent studies in the history of reading that historians of education will find useful, given that all education involves some form of reading. It describes the sources that historians of reading use, the models they employ (such as the "Reading Revolution" of the eighteenth century), and the questions they address…

  7. "Victims of History": Challenging Students' Perceptions of Women in History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockyer, Bridget; Tazzymant, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    As postgraduate historians with teaching responsibilities at the University of York, Bridget Lockyer and Abigail Tazzyman were concerned to tackle some of the challenges reported by their students who had generally only encountered women's history in a disconnected way through stand-alone topics or modules. Their response was to create a series of…

  8. Curriculum History, Schooling and the History of the Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkewitz, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    The essay focuses on curriculum history as the study of systems of reason. The first section considers curriculum as "converting ordinances", inscribing Puritan notions of education as evangelizing and calculating designs in American Progressive education. The second section examines the Social Question, a cross-Atlantic Protestant reformist…

  9. Defining History for Library Statistics, or Everything Has a History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Joel D.; Mosley, Pixey Anne; Marner, Jonathan C.; Highsmith, Anne L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that measured the subject area and call number correspondence for the discipline of history at the Texas A&M University libraries. Considers the rise in interdisciplinary scholarship that challenges the frequent assumption that a correlation exists between topicality and call number range for collection management decisions.…

  10. History and Quasi-History in Physics Education - Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, M. A. B.

    1979-01-01

    Examines how quasi-history, by eliminating the social dimension, distorts its description of major scientific advances in one of two distinct ways; either almost trivial or almost mystical. Uses two examples, Einstein's theory of the photoelectric effect and Planck's discovery of his law. (GA)

  11. History without time: Buffon's natural history as a nonmathematical physique.

    PubMed

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2010-03-01

    While "natural history" is practically synonymous with the name of Buffon, the term itself has been otherwise overlooked by historians of science. This essay attempts to address this omission by investigating the meanings of "physique," "natural philosophy," and "history," among other terms, with the purpose of understanding Buffon's actual objectives. It also shows that Buffon never claimed to be a Newtonian and should not be considered as such; the goal is to provide a historical analysis that resituates Buffon's thought within his own era. This is done, primarily, by eschewing the often-studied question of time in Buffon. Instead, this study examines the nontemporal meanings of the word "history" within the naturalist's theory and method. The title of his Natural History is examined both as an indicator of the kind of science that Buffon was hoping to achieve and as a source of great misinterpretation among his peers. Unlike Buffon, many of his contemporaries actually envisioned the study of nature from a Baconian perspective where history was restricted to the mere collection of facts and where philosophy, which was the implicit and ultimate goal of studying nature, was seen, at least for the present, as unrealizable. Buffon confronts this tendency insofar as his Histoire naturelle claims to be the real physique that, along with describing nature, also sought to identify general laws and provide clear insight into what true knowledge of nature is or should be. According to Buffon, history (both natural and civil) is not analogous to mathematics; it is a nonmathematical method whose scope encompasses both nature and society. This methodological stance gives rise to the "physicization" of certain moral concepts--a gesture that was interpreted by his contemporaries as Epicurean and atheist. In addition, Buffon reduces a number of metaphysically tainted historical concepts (e.g., antediluvian monuments) to objects of physical analysis, thereby confronting the very

  12. [Diagnosis. History and physical examination].

    PubMed

    Pérez Martín, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    Family physicians play a key role in the diagnosis and management of patients with osteoarthritis. Diagnosis is mainly clinical and radiological. A complete history should be taken with meticulous physical examination of the joints. The history-taking should aim to detect risk factors and compatible clinical symptoms. Pain characteristics should be identified, distinguishing between mechanical and inflammatory pain, and an exhaustive examination of the joints should be performed, with evaluation of the presence of pain, deformity, mobility restrictions (both active and passive), crepitus, joint effusion, and inflammation. A differential diagnosis should be made with all diseases that affect the joints and/or produce joint stiffness.

  13. The history of space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Martin J.; Kraemer, Sylvia K.

    1994-01-01

    Presented are the acknowledgements and introduction sections of the book 'Space: Discovery and Exploration.' The goal of the book is to address some basic questions of American space history, including how this history compares with previous eras of exploration, why the space program was initiated when it was, and how the U.S. space program developed. In pursuing these questions, the intention is not to provide exhaustive answers, but to point the reader toward a more varied picture of how our venture in space has intersected with American government, politics, business, and science.

  14. Pyschodermatology: a trip through history*

    PubMed Central

    França, Katlein; Chacon, Anna; Ledon, Jennifer; Savas, Jessica; Nouri, Keyvan

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between the mind and diseases of the skin has been the study focus for many researchers worldwide. The field of Psychodermatology, or Psychocutaneous Medicine, is the result of the merging of two major medical specialties, psychiatry and dermatology. Although the history of Psychodermatology is rather old and interesting, the field has only recently gained popularity. Since ancient times, philosophers, surgeons, dermatologists and psychiatrists have reported the presence of psychocutaneous diseases in various scenarios. In this article, the authors describe curious and remarkable facts in the history of Psychodermatology. PMID:24173201

  15. Bringing back the social history.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Mary Clyde; Kaczor, Kim; Thompson, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The social environment of a child is a key determinant of the child's current and future health. Factors in a child's family environment, both protective and harmful, have a profound impact on a child's long-term health, brain development, and mortality. The social history may be the best all-around tool available for promoting a child's future health and well-being. It is a key first step in identifying social needs of a child and family so that they may benefit from intervention. This article focuses on key social history elements known to increase a child's risk of maltreatment and provides case examples.

  16. Mars' volatile and climate history.

    PubMed

    Jakosky, B M; Phillips, R J

    2001-07-12

    There is substantial evidence that the martian volatile inventory and climate have changed markedly throughout the planet's history. Clues come from areas as disparate as the history and properties of the deep interior, the composition of the crust and regolith, the morphology of the surface, composition of the present-day atmosphere, and the nature of the interactions between the upper atmosphere and the solar wind. We piece together the relevant observations into a coherent view of the evolution of the martian climate, focusing in particular on the observations that provide the strongest constraints.

  17. History of manned space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.

    1981-01-01

    This book is the history of all the great moments of failure, tension, drama, euphoria, and success that characterized the beginning of man's adventure in space. It covers the technology and scientific knowledge, the vision, the politics, and the dedication of all those involved in the space program. One chapter is devoted to the experiments and observations of the astronauts as they explored the moon. An integral part of the history of space exploration is the race between Russia and the US to establish man in space. This is included. The book vividly portrays the experiences of the astronauts from Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and the Apollo-Soyuz missions. (SC)

  18. A Brief History of Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    Although there are certainly some good historical treatments of acoustics in the literature, it still seems appropriate to begin a handbook of history acoustics with a brief history of the subject. We begin by mentioning some important experiments that took place before the 19th century. Acoustics in the 19th century is characterized by describing the work of seven outstanding acousticians: Tyndall, von Helmholtz, Rayleigh, Stokes, Bell, Edison, and Koenig. Of course this sampling omits the mention of many other outstanding investigators.

  19. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibble, T. W. B.

    2015-07-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  20. History Through Biography? A Conceptual Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Robert W.

    Social studies classroom teachers can enliven high school history courses and motivate students to learn about history by using dramatic or heroic biographies in teaching history. The biographical approach centers on study of the lives, beliefs, and surroundings of historical actors. This approach differs from the "great man" theory of history in…

  1. Women and History: Outside the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Mimi

    2007-01-01

    The active participation of women in the field of American history dates back to the earliest writings on the subject. The rich and long history of women writing, teaching and researching in the field of American History, however, is obscured by narrow disciplinary definitions of what actually counts as history and who is qualified to represent…

  2. Developing Oral History in Chinese Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Songhui, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    Compared with oral history in most Western countries, oral history theory and practice in Mainland China lag behind in both study and practice. This paper outlines the experience of oral history work in the Shantou university library, and the types and features of the oral history collected by the library. It examines problems in the development…

  3. A Century of Local History Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Barbara J.

    1989-01-01

    Offers suggestions on finding sources on the historiography of local history. Examines books useful to the local historian, including books on local social history and studies on immigrants, minorities, and women. Suggests the use of visual versions of local history. Discusses architectural histories, landmarks, and the use of primary sources. (RW)

  4. Dynamic Model for Life History of Scyphozoa

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Congbo; Fan, Meng; Wang, Xin; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    A two-state life history model governed by ODEs is formulated to elucidate the population dynamics of jellyfish and to illuminate the triggering mechanism of its blooms. The polyp-medusa model admits trichotomous global dynamic scenarios: extinction, polyps survival only, and both survival. The population dynamics sensitively depend on several biotic and abiotic limiting factors such as substrate, temperature, and predation. The combination of temperature increase, substrate expansion, and predator diminishment acts synergistically to create a habitat that is more favorable for jellyfishes. Reducing artificial marine constructions, aiding predator populations, and directly controlling the jellyfish population would help to manage the jellyfish blooms. The theoretical analyses and numerical experiments yield several insights into the nature underlying the model and shed some new light on the general control strategy for jellyfish. PMID:26114642

  5. Dynamic Model for Life History of Scyphozoa.

    PubMed

    Xie, Congbo; Fan, Meng; Wang, Xin; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    A two-state life history model governed by ODEs is formulated to elucidate the population dynamics of jellyfish and to illuminate the triggering mechanism of its blooms. The polyp-medusa model admits trichotomous global dynamic scenarios: extinction, polyps survival only, and both survival. The population dynamics sensitively depend on several biotic and abiotic limiting factors such as substrate, temperature, and predation. The combination of temperature increase, substrate expansion, and predator diminishment acts synergistically to create a habitat that is more favorable for jellyfishes. Reducing artificial marine constructions, aiding predator populations, and directly controlling the jellyfish population would help to manage the jellyfish blooms. The theoretical analyses and numerical experiments yield several insights into the nature underlying the model and shed some new light on the general control strategy for jellyfish.

  6. Computerized History Games: Narrative Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    How may historians best express history through computer games? This article suggests that the answer lies in correctly correlating historians' goals for teaching with the capabilities of different kinds of computer games. During the development of a game prototype for high school students, the author followed best practices as expressed in the…

  7. A History of College Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokosz, Francis M.

    The history of football is traced as it evolved from the English game of rugby. The game as it is known today was conceived only after a long series of changes. Three prominent reasons for the change were: to make football more interesting to the spectator; to balance the competition between offense and defense; and to modify the dangerous…

  8. Used planet: A global history

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Erle C.; Kaplan, Jed O.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Vavrus, Steve; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Verburg, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Human use of land has transformed ecosystem pattern and process across most of the terrestrial biosphere, a global change often described as historically recent and potentially catastrophic for both humanity and the biosphere. Interdisciplinary paleoecological, archaeological, and historical studies challenge this view, indicating that land use has been extensive and sustained for millennia in some regions and that recent trends may represent as much a recovery as an acceleration. Here we synthesize recent scientific evidence and theory on the emergence, history, and future of land use as a process transforming the Earth System and use this to explain why relatively small human populations likely caused widespread and profound ecological changes more than 3,000 y ago, whereas the largest and wealthiest human populations in history are using less arable land per person every decade. Contrasting two spatially explicit global reconstructions of land-use history shows that reconstructions incorporating adaptive changes in land-use systems over time, including land-use intensification, offer a more spatially detailed and plausible assessment of our planet's history, with a biosphere and perhaps even climate long ago affected by humans. Although land-use processes are now shifting rapidly from historical patterns in both type and scale, integrative global land-use models that incorporate dynamic adaptations in human–environment relationships help to advance our understanding of both past and future land-use changes, including their sustainability and potential global effects. PMID:23630271

  9. Oral History: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Paul G.

    Defining oral history as a method of inquiry by which the memories of individuals are elicited, preserved in interview transcripts or on tape recordings, and then used to enrich understanding of individuals' lives and the events in which they participated, this annotated bibliography provides a broad overview and a sampling of the resources…

  10. History of Manned Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    U.S. manned space projects from Mercury Redstone 3 through Skylab 4 are briefly described including dates, flight duration, crew, and number of earth/moon orbits. The flight costs of each project are itemized. Highlights in the history of the manned space program from 1957 to February, 1974 are included.

  11. History of American Education Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boers, David

    2007-01-01

    This book depicts the evolution of American educational history from 1630 to the present. The book highlights how ideological managers have shaped society and, because schools mirror society, have thus had a profound impact on education and schooling. Five common areas of study - philosophy, politics, economics, social sciences, and religion -…

  12. Getting Our Hands on History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Cherry; Brown, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    It all began with a discussion about storage. Rows of dusty boxes were sitting in the cellar of Vaughan College, home to the University of Leicester's Institute for Lifelong Learning. They contained papers, booklets and publicity leaflets, the outpourings of the Leicester Workers' Educational Association (WEA) branch's 100-year history. When the…

  13. History Microcomputer Simulations: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, James E.

    1985-01-01

    This article summarizes seven currently available microcomputer simulations for history. The seven included are: Government Simulations (Prentice-Hall, 1984), Nomination (Brady Company, 1984), Tigers in the Snow (Strategic Simulations, 1981), Lincoln's Decisions (Educational Activities, 1982), Watergate Simulation (Social Science Research and…

  14. A Bibliography for Chicano History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Matt S.; Rivera, Feliciano

    The principal objective of this bibliography is to provide the beginning student in Chicano history a selective list of items useful to understanding each of the major historical periods from the Mexican American's origins to the present day. The bibliography is arranged chronologically to include: books; some Federal, state, and local…

  15. Internationalizing the American History Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, William

    New programs promoting global or international education have been started all over the country. At Tidewater Community College (TCC) in Virginia, efforts to add an international dimension to the curriculum began in 1988, when 20 faculty members from the disciplines of psychology, sociology, economics, mathematics, history, English, and business…

  16. Animal Magnetism and Curriculum History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bernadette

    2007-01-01

    This article elaborates the impact that crises of authority provoked by animal magnetism, mesmerism, and hypnosis in the 19th century had for field formation in American education. Four layers of analysis elucidate how curriculum history's repetitive focus on public school policy and classroom practice became possible. First, the article surveys…

  17. Living History: F. Eugene Yates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, John

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. During 2008, the APS Cardiovascular Section selected Francis Eugene Yates to be…

  18. Living History: Clark M. Blatteis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Ning

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History Project to recognize senior members who have made extraordinary contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and profession of physiology. During 2007, the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise Physiology selected Clark M. Blatteis to be…

  19. Living History: Elsworth R. Buskirk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History of Physiology Archival Program to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and the profession of physiology. Subsequently, the leadership of the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise…

  20. Using Databases in History Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, P.; Timmins, G.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses advantages and limitations of database software in meeting the educational objectives of history instruction; reviews five currently available computer programs (FACTFILE, QUEST, QUARRY BANK 1851, Census Analysis, and Beta Base); highlights major considerations that arise in designing such programs; and describes their classroom use.…

  1. A Mandate for Native History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pember, Mary Annette

    2007-01-01

    The Montana Indian Education For All Act may be setting an audacious national precedent for America's primary and secondary schools. The law requires all Montana schools to include curricula about the history, culture and contemporary status of the state's American Indian population. The new constitutional mandate has eyes throughout Native…

  2. Natural history museums and cyberspace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wemmer, C.; Erixon-Stanford, M.; Gardner, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    Natural history museums are entering the electronic age as they increasingly use computers to build accessible and shareable databases that support research and education on a world-wide basis. Museums are exploring the Internet and other shared uses of electronic media to enhance their traditional roles in education, training, identifications, technical assistance, and collections management.

  3. Teaching the Mystery of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, David; Carroll, Jeff; Doolittle, Peter; Lee, John; Oliver, Brian

    2004-01-01

    In a history class, students typically listen to the teacher lecture, read from their textbook, then take a test. Although they may sometimes be required to memorize information or read stories about historical events and people, they rarely work with other students, use original documents, write term papers, or discuss the significance of what…

  4. Fighting To Preserve Black History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conciatore, Jacqueline

    2000-01-01

    Examines the urgent need for yet lack of federal funding for restoration of historic properties on historically black college campuses, including many on the National Register of Historic Places. Reviews legislative history of federal funding, notes other funding sources, summarizes costs of restoration, and gives examples from Talladega College…

  5. History of School of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Wanda Eileen; Kosub, Mariann

    2006-01-01

    The history of the Bowie State University School of Education is traced from very humble beginnings in 1865 with its formation to provide teachers for Freedmen following the Civil War to a School of Education in a comprehensive university. Maryland Archives, student publications, college catalogues, legislative and other records were searched to…

  6. World History. Focus on Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; Clark, James; Herscher, Walter

    This book opens with an exploration of the first economic revolution, which set the stage for the dramatic unfolding of the role economics has played in world history. The lessons focus on two topics: (1) why some economies grew and prospered while others remained stagnant or declined; and (2) what causes people to make choices that help or hinder…

  7. Mathematical History, Philosophy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otte, Michael

    2007-01-01

    History of mathematics occupies itself describing processes of growth and development, whereas philosophy of mathematics is concerned with questions of justification. Both play an essential role within the educational context. But there is a problem because genuine historical studies necessitate ever greater particularity whereas mathematics and…

  8. Electron Spin and Its History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commins, Eugene D.

    2012-11-01

    The history of electron spin is summarized. Topics include the discovery of electron spin, the birth of quantum electrodynamics, the invention of magnetic resonance, the invention of renormalization, the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron in experiment and theory, and searches for the electron electric dipole moment.

  9. History of the Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cravens, Hamilton

    1985-01-01

    Reviews the history of the social sciences in America, indicating that the field is still chiefly a collection of topics, albeit important ones such as mental hospitals, child development, and eugenics. Also indicates that although source materials are vast, synthetic overviews are needed in a number of areas. (JN)

  10. Education Reforms: Lessons from History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    Policy makers in education have long embraced reform. Unfortunately, education reforms have consistently been plagued by the reformers' lack of knowledge and appreciation of the history of education. Accordingly, the latest reform, touted as a panacea, meets with failure, and the search for the magic elixir begins anew. The ahistorical nature of…

  11. World History, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This world history guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, that were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. The guides are supplementary in design, containing a series of episodes (minilessons) that emphasize the relationship between current environmental…

  12. American History, Environmental Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

    This American history guide, for use at the secondary level, is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. The guides are supplementary in design, containing a series of episodes (minilessons) that emphasize the relationship between current environmental…

  13. [Labour History in Manitoba, Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Social Science Teacher, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Devoted to the Winnipeg General Strike in 1919, this document provides social science teachers with details of the strike as well as general information on teaching about unions, labor, and working-class history. The first article, "The Winnipeg General Strike" (Doug Smith), presents the events during and prior to the Winnipeg General…

  14. History Sources on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Kenneth D.

    This paper provides descriptions of key online history resources useful to teachers, librarians, and other education professionals. Highlights include: primary sources on the Internet; archives; Online Public Access Catalogs (OPACs); the American Historical Association (AHA) Web site; state and federal government resources; business history…

  15. History of Physical Terms: "Energy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frontali, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties encountered by teachers in giving a definition of the term "energy", and by students in grasping its actual meaning, reflect the lengthy process through which the concept eventually came to maturity around 1850. Tracing the history of this process illuminates the different aspects covered by the term and shows the important…

  16. European Mediaeval History Tour 1973

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Lascelles

    1973-01-01

    The tour was the outcome of a suggestion from an adult education class in medieval history. Plans for 25 tour members included air fare, accommodations, coach, driver, and multilingual hostess for 35 days on the continent plus nine days in England. (AG)

  17. Women in Latin American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavrin, Asuncion

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  18. Family Health History and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... History Prevent Type 2 Diabetes in Your Family Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... encourages people to share this content freely. [ Top ] ​​​​​ Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  19. War, Journalism, and Oral History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project where students conducted oral history with either a war correspondent or a U.S. combat veteran for the course "War and the News Media: From Vietnam through Desert Storm and Beyond." Discusses how the students prepared for the interviews and the evaluation of their projects. (CMK)

  20. Linking Assessments: Concept and History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the history of linking is summarized, and current linking frameworks that have been proposed are considered. Key publications discussed include Flanagan (1951), Angoff (1971), Linn (1993), Mislevy (1992), and Feuer, Holland, Green, Bertenthal, and Hemphill (1999). The article further focuses on the concordance situation for…

  1. A History of Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M.; Hoffman, Diane B.

    The historical evolution of vocational education is discussed in an attempt to show that obvious comparisons can be drawn between the industrial education movement and debate of American educational history and the concepts of career education today. The document covers the period from the mid-1800's to the present. Major factors influencing the…

  2. Touching a Moment in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabato, George

    1990-01-01

    Discusses activities that allow students to explore epochs in time by studying real artifacts, museum replicas, student-created reproductions and dramatizations, and video and computer software. Presents two model lessons of how artifacts can be used to enliven a history lesson. (DB)

  3. Concurrent Resurgence and Behavioral History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva, Stephanie P.; Maxwell, Megan E.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of past experiences to concurrent resurgence was investigated in three experiments. In Experiment 1, resurgence was related to the length of reinforcement history as well as the reinforcement schedule that previously maintained responding. Specifically, more resurgence occurred when key pecks had been reinforced on a…

  4. Dinetah: Navajo History. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessel, Robert A., Jr.

    Using archaeological data, written chronicles of Spanish explorers and missionaries, and oral narratives and legends, the book traces the history of the Navajo people to their original homeland, Dinetah, located primarily off the present reservation in an area south and east of Farmington, New Mexico. The book discusses various theories on Navajo…

  5. Diet History Questionnaire: Canadian Version

    Cancer.gov

    The Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) and the DHQ nutrient database were modified for use in Canada through the collaborative efforts of Dr. Amy Subar and staff at the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch, and Dr. Ilona Csizmadi and colleagues in the Division of Population Health and Information at the Alberta Cancer Board in Canada.

  6. A History of Indian Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, S. Lyman

    The study brings together in one work a brief history of American Indian policy in the United States for the use of students, teachers, government employees, and the general reader. More detail has been supplied for the period since 1930 to enable the reader to see the processes involved in the adoption, administration, and eventual changes in…

  7. Brief History of Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herner, Saul

    1984-01-01

    This bibliographic essay reviews and analyzes 11 contributions to the field of information science as a means of tracing the history of the field, from its pre- and post-World War II beginnings to the early 1980s. Primary contributors to the field are highlighted. Eighteen references are listed. (EJS)

  8. The history of the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-11

    Abstract: From the civil engineering, to the manufacturing of the various magnet types, each building block of this extraordinary machine required ambitious leaps in innovation. This lecture will review the history of the LHC project, focusing on the many challenges -- scientific, technological, managerial -- that had to be met during the various phases of R&D;, industrialization, construction, installation and commissioning.

  9. Signals in Communication Engineering History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consonni, Denise; Silva, Magno T. M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a study of various electric signals, which have been employed throughout the history of communication engineering in its two main landmarks: the telegraph and the telephone. The signals are presented in their time and frequency domain representations. The historical order has been followed in the presentation: wired systems, spark…

  10. Photograph Usage in History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbaba, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effect of photograph usage in history education to the students' achievement was tried to be identified. In the study which was done with a pre-test post-test control group design, a frame was tried to be established between the experimental group and the analytical usage of the photograph, the control group's courses were done…

  11. The history of the LHC

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Abstract: From the civil engineering, to the manufacturing of the various magnet types, each building block of this extraordinary machine required ambitious leaps in innovation. This lecture will review the history of the LHC project, focusing on the many challenges -- scientific, technological, managerial -- that had to be met during the various phases of R&D;, industrialization, construction, installation and commissioning.

  12. Used planet: a global history.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Erle C; Kaplan, Jed O; Fuller, Dorian Q; Vavrus, Steve; Klein Goldewijk, Kees; Verburg, Peter H

    2013-05-14

    Human use of land has transformed ecosystem pattern and process across most of the terrestrial biosphere, a global change often described as historically recent and potentially catastrophic for both humanity and the biosphere. Interdisciplinary paleoecological, archaeological, and historical studies challenge this view, indicating that land use has been extensive and sustained for millennia in some regions and that recent trends may represent as much a recovery as an acceleration. Here we synthesize recent scientific evidence and theory on the emergence, history, and future of land use as a process transforming the Earth System and use this to explain why relatively small human populations likely caused widespread and profound ecological changes more than 3,000 y ago, whereas the largest and wealthiest human populations in history are using less arable land per person every decade. Contrasting two spatially explicit global reconstructions of land-use history shows that reconstructions incorporating adaptive changes in land-use systems over time, including land-use intensification, offer a more spatially detailed and plausible assessment of our planet's history, with a biosphere and perhaps even climate long ago affected by humans. Although land-use processes are now shifting rapidly from historical patterns in both type and scale, integrative global land-use models that incorporate dynamic adaptations in human-environment relationships help to advance our understanding of both past and future land-use changes, including their sustainability and potential global effects.

  13. Between History and Apocalypse: Stumbling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalu, Premesh

    2016-01-01

    Apartheid rested on a division of the senses as much as it did on a reductive politics of racial subjection and its accompanying violence. As an instance of the division of the senses, it produced a condition of stasis in which history and a post-apartheid future were increasingly marked by a politico-religious discourse of apocalypse, and a moral…

  14. Guide to Sources: American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Thomas H., Comp.

    Designed to introduce students to some of the basic bibliographic tools in American history available in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine, this guide begins by listing examples of relevant Library of Congress Subject Headings and providing brief explanations of the call numbers and classification systems (Library of Congress and Dewey…

  15. Trends in Philippine Library History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Vicente S.

    This paper divides Philippine library history into three periods, establishing a relationship between historical events and library trends. During the Spanish period, modern library trends were introduced through the establishment of the Sociedad Economica in 1780, but did not influence Philippine library culture until the later part of the 19th…

  16. Texas Educational History: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, James H., Comp.

    The bibliography provides a comprehensive listing of the literature of Texas educational history up to March, 1978. Objectives are to provide access to the sources and to stimulate interest and research in the field. Over 1050 books, journal articles, pamphlets, theses, and doctoral dissertations are arranged in nine subject sections: General…

  17. Genocide in World History Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the treatment of genocide in secondary world history textbooks. Acknowledges that textbook space is limited, but argues that all should contain some reference to the subject. Concludes that the Armenian genocide, as well as the genocidal acts of Hitler, Stalin, and Mao Tse-tung should be presented in all survey texts. (GEA)

  18. History of Higher Education, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Roger L., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The six papers in this annual volume on the history of higher education cover some of the changes that evolved over the years in various U.S. Institutions. The first paper is: "The Articulation of Secondary and Higher Education: Four Historical Models at the University of Georgia" (J. Patrick McCarthy), which discusses the efforts of…

  19. Evolution in population parameters: density-dependent selection or density-dependent fitness?

    PubMed

    Travis, Joseph; Leips, Jeff; Rodd, F Helen

    2013-05-01

    Density-dependent selection is one of earliest topics of joint interest to both ecologists and evolutionary biologists and thus occupies an important position in the histories of these disciplines. This joint interest is driven by the fact that density-dependent selection is the simplest form of feedback between an ecological effect of an organism's own making (crowding due to sustained population growth) and the selective response to the resulting conditions. This makes density-dependent selection perhaps the simplest process through which we see the full reciprocity between ecology and evolution. In this article, we begin by tracing the history of studying the reciprocity between ecology and evolution, which we see as combining the questions of evolutionary ecology with the assumptions and approaches of ecological genetics. In particular, density-dependent fitness and density-dependent selection were critical concepts underlying ideas about adaptation to biotic selection pressures and the coadaptation of interacting species. However, theory points to a critical distinction between density-dependent fitness and density-dependent selection in their influences on complex evolutionary and ecological interactions among coexisting species. Although density-dependent fitness is manifestly evident in empirical studies, evidence of density-dependent selection is much less common. This leads to the larger question of how prevalent and important density-dependent selection might really be. Life-history variation in the least killifish Heterandria formosa appears to reflect the action of density-dependent selection, and yet compelling evidence is elusive, even in this well-studied system, which suggests some important challenges for understanding density-driven feedbacks between ecology and evolution.

  20. Ganymede - A relationship between thermal history and crater statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Malin, M. C.

    1980-01-01

    An approach for factoring the effects of a planetary thermal history into a predicted set of crater statistics for an icy satellite is developed and forms the basis for subsequent data inversion studies. The key parameter is a thermal evolution-dependent critical time for which craters of a particular size forming earlier do not contribute to present-day statistics. An example is given for the satellite Ganymede and the effect of the thermal history is easily seen in the resulting predicted crater statistics. A preliminary comparison with the data, subject to the uncertainties in ice rheology and impact flux history, suggests a surface age of 3.8 x 10 to the 9th years and a radionuclide abundance of 0.3 times the chondritic value.