Science.gov

Sample records for hitac burners final

  1. Bale Burner. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    Osage Plains, Inc. has manufactured and tested prototypes of a Biomass Burner specifically designed to burn large round bales of straw or stover. Osage Plains, Inc. has constructed a scaled down prototype to explore the expanded and more efficient use of the Bale Burner using thermal oils as the heat transfer medium. The main aim was to ascertain the possibility of reaching temperatures above double the boiling point of water while maintaining the safety of operation at atmospheric pressure. Mobil Therm and other proprietary heat transfer oils can be used successfully as heat sinks in the Bale Burner system to transfer temperatures well in excess of 500 degrees farenheit at atmospheric pressure. It was discovered, however, that filtered (used) crankcase oils could be used for the same practical function at much lower cost. The operation of the Bale Burner using Thermal Oils to replace water is practical. However, specific attention must be paid to bearings, seals and pumps included in the plumbing system. All joints must be shielded to prevent operator injury in the event of a leak under pressure and all pipework must be insulated with a non-combustible insulation. This last point is vital because many insulating materials break down or combust at temperatures lower than those at which the heating medium would be transported. Thermal Oils, while very practical, are very expensive costing currently more than two dollars per gallon. A single charge in the full scale Bale Burner would cost in excess of ten thousand dollars. Plumbing for high temperatures is also astronomical, costing more than five times the price of plumbing the same unit for water. One must therefore conclude that, except under very special circumstances, economy dictates that the Bale Burner be operated with water as the Heat Transfer Medium.

  2. Alzeta porous radiant burner. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    An Alzeta Pyrocore porous radiant burner was tested for the first time at elevated pressures and mass flows. Mapping of the burner`s stability limits (flashback, blowoff, and lean extinction limits) in an outward fired configuration and hot wall environment was carried out at pressures up to 18 atm, firing rates up to 180 kW, and excess air rates up to 100%. A central composite experimental design for parametric testing within the stability limits produced statistically sound correlations of dimensionless burner temperature and NO{sub x} emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, dimensionless firing rate, and reciprocal Reynolds number. The NO{sub x} emissions were below 4 ppmvd at 15% O{sub 2} for all conditions tested, and the CO and unburned hydrocarbon levels were simultaneously low. As a direct result of this cooperative research effort between METC and Alzeta, Solar Turbines has already expressed a strong interest in this novel technology.

  3. Improved radiant burner material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque, M.M.; Milewski, E.B.

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE/ERIP funds were made available to Superkinetic, Inc. for the development of an improved radiant burner material. Three single crystal ceramic fibers were produced and two fiber materials were made into felt for testing as radiant burner screens. The materials were alpha alumina and alpha silicon nitride. These fibers were bonded with a high temperature ceramic and made into a structurally sound trusswork like screen composed of million psi fiber members. These screens were about 5% solid for 95 porosity as needed to permit the flow of combustable natural gas and air mixture. Combustion test proved that they performed very satisfactory and better than the current state of art screen and showed no visable degrade after testing. It is recommended that more time and money be put into expanding this technology and test these new materials for their maximum temperature and durability for production applications that require better burner material.

  4. Industrial burner modeling: Final report for the CIEE

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1994-12-01

    The COYOTE computer program was used as basis for a comprehensive numerical model of industrial burners. This program is based on the full multicomponent Navier-Stokes equations and includes a subgrid-scale turbulence model. The model was used to simulate the flows in a laboratory-scale burner being studied experimentally at UC-Irvine. We summarize what has been learned in the last 3 years from simulations of this burner. This model provides detailed information about the flow field in the furnace, making it a useful tool for studying the physics of burners.

  5. Demonstration test of burner liner strain measuring system. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stetson, K.A.

    1984-06-01

    A demonstration test was conducted for two systems of static strain measurement that had been shown to have potential for application jet engine combustors. A modified JT12D combustor was operated in a jet burner test stand while subjected simultaneously to both systems of instrumentation, i.e., Kanthal A-1 wire strain gages and laser speckle photography. A section of the burner was removed for installation and calibration of the wire gages, and welded back into the burner. The burner test rig was modified to provide a viewing port for the laser speckle photography such that the instrumented section could be observed during operation. Six out of ten wire gages survived testing and showed excellent repeatability. The extensive precalibration procedures were shown to be effective in compensating for the large apparent strains associated with these gages. Although all portions of the speckle photography system operated satisfactorily, a problem was encountered in the form of optical inhomogeneities in the hot, high-pressure gas flowing by the combustor case which generate large and random apparent strain distributions.

  6. Infrared and catalytic burner technology assessment. Final report, 21 February 1980-20 February 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Kesselring, J.P.; Krill, W.V.; Schreiber, R.J.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a review of the state of the art in infrared and catalytic burner development are presented. Four basic types of IR burners are currently is use. Eight commercial and/or residential appliances were characterized to assess the applicability of these burners. The refractory monolith tile and the fiber matrix burners appear most applicable for appliance use. Conceptual designs for the eight appliances with IR burners were prepared to evaluate the technical feasibility. These appliances are shown to have significant fuel efficiency increase and NOx and CO emission reduction benefits. Four appliances -- the commercial rangetop, deep fat fryer, commercial water heater, and warm air furnace -- also appear economically competitive, and recommended approaches for further development are presented. Lists of IR burner literature and patents are also included.

  7. CFCC radiant burner assessment. Final report, April 1, 1992--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, S.; Sullivan, J.

    1994-11-01

    The objective of this work was to identify methods of improving the performance of gas-fired radiant burners through the use of Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCCs). Methods have been identified to improve the price and performance characteristics of the porous surface burner. Results are described.

  8. Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner - Phase III Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Sullivan; A. Webb

    1999-12-01

    The development and demonstration of the Radiation Stabilized Burner (RSB) was completed as a project funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies. The technical goals of the project were to demonstrate burner performance that would meet or exceed emissions targets of 9 ppm NOx, 50 ppm CO, and 9 ppm unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), with all values being corrected to 3 percent stack oxygen, and incorporate the burner design into a new industrial boiler configuration that would achieve ultra-low emissions while maintaining or improving thermal efficiency, operating costs, and maintenance costs relative to current generation 30 ppm low NOx burner installations. Both the ultra-low NOx RSB and the RSB boiler-burner package are now commercially available.

  9. Health Information Technologies-Academic and Commercial Evaluation (HIT-ACE) methodology: description and application to clinical feedback systems.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Aaron R; Lewis, Cara C; Melvin, Abigail; Boyd, Meredith; Nicodimos, Semret; Liu, Freda F; Jungbluth, Nathaniel

    2016-09-22

    Health information technologies (HIT) have become nearly ubiquitous in the contemporary healthcare landscape, but information about HIT development, functionality, and implementation readiness is frequently siloed. Theory-driven methods of compiling, evaluating, and integrating information from the academic and commercial sectors are necessary to guide stakeholder decision-making surrounding HIT adoption and to develop pragmatic HIT research agendas. This article presents the Health Information Technologies-Academic and Commercial Evaluation (HIT-ACE) methodology, a structured, theory-driven method for compiling and evaluating information from multiple sectors. As an example demonstration of the methodology, we apply HIT-ACE to mental and behavioral health measurement feedback systems (MFS). MFS are a specific class of HIT that support the implementation of routine outcome monitoring, an evidence-based practice. HIT-ACE is guided by theories and frameworks related to user-centered design and implementation science. The methodology involves four phases: (1) coding academic and commercial materials, (2) developer/purveyor interviews, (3) linking putative implementation mechanisms to hit capabilities, and (4) experimental testing of capabilities and mechanisms. In the current demonstration, phase 1 included a systematic process to identify MFS in mental and behavioral health using academic literature and commercial websites. Using user-centered design, implementation science, and feedback frameworks, the HIT-ACE coding system was developed, piloted, and used to review each identified system for the presence of 38 capabilities and 18 additional characteristics via a consensus coding process. Bibliometic data were also collected to examine the representation of the systems in the scientific literature. As an example, results are presented for the application of HIT-ACE phase 1 to MFS wherein 49 separate MFS were identified, reflecting a diverse array of characteristics

  10. Burner (Stinger)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the nerves against a bone. Contact sports, particularly football and wrestling, are common causes of burners. In these ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Safety Tips: Football Sports and Exercise Safety Dealing With Sports Injuries Sports Center ...

  11. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Task 1, Cold flow burner development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

    1989-10-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop a high efficiency advanced coal combustor (HEACC) for coal-based fuels capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. The HEACC system is to be capable of firing microfine coal water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system are that it be simple to operate and will offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal fired combustor technology. The specific objective of this report is to document the work carried out under Task 1.0 of this contract, ``Cold Flow Burner Development``. As are detailed in the report, key elements of this work included primary air swirler development, burner register geometry design, cold flow burner model testing, and development of burner scale up criteria.

  12. Full-scale demonstration of low-NO{sub x} cell{trademark} burner retrofit. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhart, C.F.; Kitto, J.B.; Kleisley, R.J.

    1994-07-01

    The objective of the Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark}Burner (LNCB{trademark}) demonstration is to evaluate the applicability of this technology for reducing NO{sub x} emissions in full-scale, cell burner-equipped boilers. More precisely, the program objectives are to: (1) Achieve at least a 50% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. (2) Reduce NO{sub x} with no degradation to boiler performance or life of the unit. (3) Demonstrate a technically and economically feasible retrofit technology. Cell burner equipped boilers comprise 13% of the Pre-New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) coal-fired generating capacity. This relates to 34 operating units generating 23,639 MWe, 29 of which are opposed wall fired with two rows of two-nozzle cell burners on each wall. The host site was one of these 29. Dayton Power & Light offered use of J.M. Stuart Station`s Unit No. 4 as the host site. It was equipped with 24, two-nozzle cell burners arranged in an opposed wall configuration. To reduce NO{sub x} emissions, the LNCB{trademark} has been designed to delay the mixing of the fuel and combustion air. The delayed mixing, or staged combustion, reduces the high temperatures normally generated in the flame of a standard cell burner. A key design criterion for the burner was accomplishing delayed fuel-air mixing with no pressure part modifications to facilitate a {open_quotes}plug-in{close_quotes} design. The plug-in design reduces material costs and outage time required to complete the retrofit, compared to installing conventional, internally staged low-NO{sub x} burners.

  13. Burner systems

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Brian J.

    1984-07-10

    A burner system particularly useful for downhole deployment includes a tubular combustion chamber unit housed within a tubular coolant jacket assembly. The combustion chamber unit includes a monolithic tube of refractory material whose inner surface defines the combustion zone. A metal reinforcing sleeve surrounds and extends the length of the refractory tube. The inner surface of the coolant jacket assembly and outer surface of the combustion chamber unit are dimensioned so that those surfaces are close to one another in standby condition so that the combustion chamber unit has limited freedom to expand with that expansion being stabilized by the coolant jacket assembly so that compression forces in the refractory tube do not exceed about one-half the safe compressive stress of the material; and the materials of the combustion chamber unit are selected to establish thermal gradient parameters across the combustion chamber unit to maintain the refractory tube in compression during combustion system start up and cool down sequences.

  14. Basic research and field experiment of the enhanced infra-red burner. Final report, November 1, 1988-November 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, D.W.; Singh, S.; Wray, D.; Collier, D.; Roberts, J.

    1994-01-16

    An enhanced infra-red natural gas combustion technique has been developed in both the laboratory study and in the field testing. Firing rates as high as 142 KBtu/hr/sq ft were tested with a radiant efficiency better than 45%. At the normal firing rate of 120 KBtu/hr/sq ft, radiant fluxes on the order of 60 KBtu/hr sq ft were obtained. In addition, the major emission pollutants, NOx is below 20 ppm. A desired turndown rate of 2.5:1 has been achieved. The performance of the surface combustion inside the porous ceramic has been modeled. The numerical code has been used in the burner optimization design. In the field evaluation, the component durability, emissions and fuel savings, along with the productivity rate and product quality improvements have been evaluated. Even though a number of technical difficulties were encountered, the new gas fired radiant burner shows great potential for a variety of infra-red heating applications.

  15. High-temperature burner-duct-recuperator (HTBDR) design modification study: Final report, September 1986-May 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This is a reproduction of a letter report for the design modifications study of a high-temperature burner-duct-recuperator (HTBDR) tested in the Cameron Iron Works, Houston, Texas. The prototype HTBDR was field tested at Cameron, but it was eventually shut down due to the failure of some structural components; not the ceramic heat exchanger tubes. No change was recommended to the original core of the system, i.e., the cruciform (internal fin) silicon carbide tubes. However, the air plenums were changed to a clam-shell configuration that provides higher-pressure sealed manifolds. The various seals between the refractory manifold sections, as well as between the tubes and tube sheets, consist of ceramic fiber sleeves and ropes. The HTBDR was developed by Garret AiResearch under funding from the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Programs under Cooperative Agreement No. FC07-81ID12170.

  16. Advanced heat-pipe heat exchanger and microprocessor-based modulating burner controls development. Final report, January 1985-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, A.; Cohen, B.; Feldman, S.; Marsala, J.; Spatz, M.

    1988-02-01

    The work presented in the report includes: (1) the development of a heat-pipe condensing heat exchanger; (2) the development of a nominal 100,000-Btu/hr modulating air/gas valve; (3) the experimental performance studies of water/copper thermosyphons; (4) the field operation of a six-zone warm-air heating system; (5) the adaptation of a conventional venturi-type burner to modulation; and (6) the results of a one-day workshop for manufacturers of HVAC equipment on heat-pipe heat exchangers. Several of the accomplishments of the project included: A unique air/gas valve was adapted to furnaces with heat-pipe and drum-type heat exchangers, providing these furnaces with over a 5-to-1 turndown capability. A six-zone warm-air heating system was tested for two winters with the modulating furnaces previously described. A data base for the application of copper/water thermosyphons was started. A ten-tube heat-pipe heat exchanger was incorporated into a conventional clam-shell furnace as its second-stage condensing heat exchanger with only a small increase in the furnace's dimensions.

  17. Rotary Burner Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Flanagan

    2003-04-30

    The subject technology, the Calcpos Rotary Burner (CRB), is a burner that is proposed to reduce energy consumption and emission levels in comparison to currently available technology. burners are used throughout industry to produce the heat that is required during the refining process. Refineries seek to minimize the use of energy in refining while still meeting EPA regulations for emissions.

  18. Micronized coal burner facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A combustor or burner system in which the ash resulting from burning a coal in oil mixture is of submicron particle size is described. The burner system comprises a burner section, a flame exit nozzle, a fuel nozzle section, and an air tube by which preheated air is directed into the burner section. Regulated air pressure is delivered to a fuel nozzle. Means are provided for directing a mixture of coal particles and oil from a drum to a nozzle at a desired rate and pressure while means returns excess fuel to the fuel drum. Means provide for stable fuel pressure supply from the fuel pump to the fuel nozzle.

  19. Combustor burner vanelets

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Benjamin; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Zuo, Baifang

    2012-02-14

    The present application provides a burner for use with a combustor of a gas turbine engine. The burner may include a center hub, a shroud, a pair of fuel vanes extending from the center hub to the shroud, and a vanelet extending from the center hub and/or the shroud and positioned between the pair of fuel vanes.

  20. Pulverized coal burner

    DOEpatents

    Sivy, Jennifer L.; Rodgers, Larry W.; Koslosy, John V.; LaRue, Albert D.; Kaufman, Keith C.; Sarv, Hamid

    1998-01-01

    A burner having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO.sub.x burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO.sub.x back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing.

  1. Pulverized coal burner

    DOEpatents

    Sivy, J.L.; Rodgers, L.W.; Koslosy, J.V.; LaRue, A.D.; Kaufman, K.C.; Sarv, H.

    1998-11-03

    A burner is described having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO{sub x} burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO{sub x} back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing. 8 figs.

  2. Ultralean low swirl burner

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, R.K.

    1998-04-07

    A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame. 11 figs.

  3. Ultralean low swirl burner

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame.

  4. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    division of Sempra Energy. These match funds were provided via concurrent contracts and investments available via CMCE, Altex, and Leva Energy The project attained all its objectives and is considered a success. CMCE secured the support of GI&E from Italy to supply 100 kW Turbec T-100 microturbines for the project. One was purchased by the project’s subcontractor, Altex, and a second spare was purchased by CMCE under this project. The microturbines were then modified to convert from their original recuperated design to a simple cycle configuration. Replacement low-NOx silo combustors were designed and bench tested in order to achieve compliance with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007 emission limits for NOx and CO when in CHP operation. The converted microturbine was then mated with a low NOx burner provided by Altex via an integration section that allowed flow control and heat recovery to minimize combustion blower requirements; manage burner turndown; and recover waste heat. A new fully integrated control system was designed and developed that allowed one-touch system operation in all three available modes of operation: (1) CHP with both microturbine and burner firing for boiler heat input greater than 2 MMBtu/hr; (2) burner head only (BHO) when the microturbine is under service; and (3) microturbine only when boiler heat input requirements fall below 2 MMBtu/hr. This capability resulted in a burner turndown performance of nearly 10/1, a key advantage for this technology over conventional low NOx burners. Key components were then assembled into a cabinet with additional support systems for generator cooling and fuel supply. System checkout and performance tests were performed in the laboratory. The assembled system and its support equipment were then shipped and installed at a host facility where final performance tests were conducted following efforts to secure fabrication, air, and operating permits. The installed power burner is now in commercial

  5. High efficiency gas burner

    DOEpatents

    Schuetz, Mark A.

    1983-01-01

    A burner assembly provides for 100% premixing of fuel and air by drawing the air into at least one high velocity stream of fuel without power assist. Specifically, the nozzle assembly for injecting the fuel into a throat comprises a plurality of nozzles in a generally circular array. Preferably, swirl is imparted to the air/fuel mixture by angling the nozzles. The diffuser comprises a conical primary diffuser followed by a cusp diffuser.

  6. Burner Rig Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-12

    The Fuel Burner Rig is a test laboratory at NASA Glenn, which subjects new jet engine materials, treated with protective coatings, to the hostile, high temperature, high velocity environment found inside aircraft turbine engines. These samples face 200-mile per hour flames to simulate the temperatures of aircraft engines in flight. The rig can also simulate aircraft carrier and dusty desert operations where salt and sand can greatly reduce engine life and performance.

  7. Oil burner nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Donald G.

    1982-01-01

    An oil burner nozzle for use with liquid fuels and solid-containing liquid fuels. The nozzle comprises a fuel-carrying pipe, a barrel concentrically disposed about the pipe, and an outer sleeve retaining member for the barrel. An atomizing vapor passes along an axial passageway in the barrel, through a bore in the barrel and then along the outer surface of the front portion of the barrel. The atomizing vapor is directed by the outer sleeve across the path of the fuel as it emerges from the barrel. The fuel is atomized and may then be ignited.

  8. Low NOx burner project 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.

    1996-11-01

    A 1995 low NO{sub x} burner project is outlined. The following topics are discussed; site logistics, project planning, pre-construction planning, construction phase, post construction, No. 9 economizer, Todd DynaSwirl Burner, and the No. 11 boiler front.

  9. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  10. Acid gas burner

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, B.

    1991-04-23

    This patent describes a burner for combusting a waste gas. It comprises a throat section; a fire tube downstream from the throat section in communication therewith; an air duct section upstream from the throat section in communication therewith; a centrally located nozzle means for introduction of a fuel in the throat section in a downstream direction toward the fire tube; means upstream from the throat section for forming a downstream directed swirling combustion air stream substantially in an annular ring along the sidewalls of the throat section; and means for introducing a waste gas stream into the throat section downstream of the nozzle means in a forwardly biased but swirling direction opposite to that of the swirling combustion air stream.

  11. Low loss duct burner

    SciTech Connect

    Mar, H. M.; Reider, S. B.

    1985-07-09

    A jet propulsion engine with a fan bypass duct includes a duct burner with a plurality of flame stabilizers therein each mounted to inner case and outer case members through spherical bearings. Each of the stabilizers consists of two blade members having integral arms thereon actuated by fore and aft motion of an external actuating ring to assume an expanded position to increase duct turbulence for mixing air flow therethrough with a fuel supply and into a retracted position against each other to reduce pressure drop under nonafterburning operation. Each of the flame stabilizer blades has a platform that controls communication between a hot air source and a duct for improving fuel vaporization during afterburner operation thereby to increase afterburning limits; the platforms close communication between the hot air source and the duct during nonafterburning operation when flame stabilization is not required.

  12. Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Amy S., Dr.

    2012-06-29

    Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant

  13. Micronized-Coal Burner Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Micronized-coal (coal-in-oil mix) burner facility developed to fulfill need to generate erosion/corrosion data on series of superalloy specimens. In order to successfully operate gas turbine using COM, two primary conditions must be met. First, there must be adequate atomization of COM and second, minimization of coking of burner. Meeting these conditions will be achieved only by clean burning and flame stability.

  14. Burner ignition system

    DOEpatents

    Carignan, Forest J.

    1986-01-21

    An electronic ignition system for a gas burner is battery operated. The battery voltage is applied through a DC-DC chopper to a step-up transformer to charge a capacitor which provides the ignition spark. The step-up transformer has a significant leakage reactance in order to limit current flow from the battery during initial charging of the capacitor. A tank circuit at the input of the transformer returns magnetizing current resulting from the leakage reactance to the primary in succeeding cycles. An SCR in the output circuit is gated through a voltage divider which senses current flow through a flame. Once the flame is sensed, further sparks are precluded. The same flame sensor enables a thermopile driven main valve actuating circuit. A safety valve in series with the main gas valve responds to a control pressure thermostatically applied through a diaphragm. The valve closes after a predetermined delay determined by a time delay orifice if the pilot gas is not ignited.

  15. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, Mark S.; Anselmo, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  16. Wood fuel in suspension burners

    SciTech Connect

    Wolle, P.C.

    1982-01-01

    Experience and criteria for solid fuel suspension burning is presented based on more than ten years of actual experience with commercially installed projects. Fuel types discussed range from dried wood with less than 15% moisture content, wet basis, to exotic biomass material such as brewed tea leaves and processed coffee grounds. Single burner inputs range from 1,465 kW (5,000 Mbh) to 13,771 kW (47,000 Mbh) as well as multiple burner applications with support burning using fuel oil and/or natural gas. General requirements for self-sustaining combustion will be reviewed as applied to suspension solid fuel burning, together with results of what can happen if these requirements are not met. Solid fuel preparation, sizing, transport, storage, and metering control is essential for proper feed. Combustion chamber volume, combustion air requirements, excess air, and products of combustion are reviewed, together with induced draft fan sizing. (Refs. 7).

  17. Flamedoctor™: Nonlinear Burner Diagnostic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Ralph; Daw, Stuart; Finney, Charles; Flynn, Tom; Fuller, Tim

    2003-08-01

    Utility power plants are employing advanced control systems to improve performance over the load range. The performance of the boiler combustion system is critical to the overall performance. Flame Doctor™, which has been developed by McDermott Technology, Inc. and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under sponsorship of Electric Power Research Institute, performs diagnostics on an individual burner basis. The system consists of analogue-to-digital signal conversion and conditioning hardware, analysis software, and a graphical user interface. Time varying voltage signals from all of the burner flame scanners on a boiler are analyzed simultaneously. Nonlinear techniques such as symbolization and time asymmetry along with linear techniques such as power spectral analysis are used. The nonlinear techniques discriminate stability features in the combustion dynamics not possible with the linear techniques alone. The assessments for a variety of flame conditions are collected in a reference library. Libraries have been created for a number of flame scanners types. The Flame Doctor™ burner diagnostic system is described. Results from the first utility installation at Ameren UE Meramec power plant are shown. A live hook-up to the power plant is demonstrated. Flame Doctor™ is being offered commercially under alpha and beta demonstrations through the Electric Power Research Institute and Babcock & Wilcox.

  18. Infrared and catalytic burner technology assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesselring, J. P.; Krill, W. V.; Schreiber, R. J.

    1981-02-01

    A review of the state of the art in infrared and catalytic burner development shows that four basic types of IR burners are currently in use. Eight commercial and/or residential appliances were characterized to assess the applicability of these burners. The refractory monolith tile and the fiber matrix burners appear most applicable for appliance use. Conceptual designs for the eight appliances with IR burners were prepared to evaluate the technical feasibility. These appliances are shown to have significant fuel efficiency increase and NOx and CO emission reduction benefits. Four appliances -- the commercial rangetop, deep fat fryer, commercial water heater, and warm air furnance -- also appear economically competitive, and recommended approaches for further development are presented. Lists of IR burner literature and patents are also presented.

  19. Southern Woods-Burners: A Descriptive Analysis

    Treesearch

    M.L. Doolittle; M.L. Lightsey

    1979-01-01

    About 40 percent of the South's nearly 60,000 wildfires yearly are set by woods-burners. A survey of 14 problem areas in four southern States found three distinct sets of woods-burners. Most active woods-burners are young, white males whose activities are supported by their peers. An older but less active group have probably retired from active participation but...

  20. Computational fluid dynamics in oil burner design

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    In Computational Fluid Dynamics, the differential equations which describe flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer are approximately solved using a very laborious numerical procedure. Flows of practical interest to burner designs are always turbulent, adding to the complexity of requiring a turbulence model. This paper presents a model for burner design.

  1. 14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells...) Five hours at the maximum fuel pressure for which approval is sought, with a burn time for each one... intermediate fuel pressure, with a burn time for each one minute cycle of three to ten seconds. An intermediate...

  2. 14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells...) Five hours at the maximum fuel pressure for which approval is sought, with a burn time for each one... intermediate fuel pressure, with a burn time for each one minute cycle of three to ten seconds. An intermediate...

  3. 14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells...) Five hours at the maximum fuel pressure for which approval is sought, with a burn time for each one... intermediate fuel pressure, with a burn time for each one minute cycle of three to ten seconds. An intermediate...

  4. 14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells...) Five hours at the maximum fuel pressure for which approval is sought, with a burn time for each one... intermediate fuel pressure, with a burn time for each one minute cycle of three to ten seconds. An intermediate...

  5. Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output

    DOEpatents

    Tong, Timothy W.; Sathe, Sanjeev B.; Peck, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

  6. Industrial burner and process efficiency program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, S. R.; Prakash, S. N.; Hersh, D. B.

    1982-10-01

    There is an acute need for a burner that does not use excess air to provide the required thermal turndown and internal recirculation of furnace gases in direct fired batch type furnaces. Such a burner would improve fuel efficiency and product temperature uniformity. A high velocity burner has been developed which is capable of multi-fuel, preheated air, staged combustion. This burner is operated by a microprocessor to fire in a discrete pulse mode using Frequency Modulation (FM) for furnace temperature control by regulating the pulse duration. A flame safety system has been designed to monitor the pulse firing burners using Factory Mutual approved components. The FM combustion system has been applied to an industrial batch hardening furnace (1800 F maximum temperature, 2500 lbs load capacity).

  7. Burners

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional ...

  8. 40 CFR 49.127 - Rule for woodwaste burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided by paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the owner or operator of a woodwaste burner must shut down... woodwaste burners are currently operational. Until the woodwaste burner is shut down, visible emissions from...) Until the woodwaste burner is shut down, only wood waste generated on-site may be burned or disposed...

  9. 40 CFR 49.127 - Rule for woodwaste burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... woodwaste burner must shut down and dismantle the woodwaste burner by no later than two years after the... down, visible emissions from the woodwaste burner must not exceed 20% opacity, averaged over any consecutive six-minute period. (2) Until the woodwaste burner is shut down, only wood waste generated...

  10. Diesel fuel burner for diesel emissions control system

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Cynthia C.; Mathis, Jeffrey A.

    2006-04-25

    A burner for use in the emissions system of a lean burn internal combustion engine. The burner has a special burner head that enhances atomization of the burner fuel. Its combustion chamber is designed to be submersed in the engine exhaust line so that engine exhaust flows over the outer surface of the combustion chamber, thereby providing efficient heat transfer.

  11. Catalytic reactor with improved burner

    DOEpatents

    Faitani, Joseph J.; Austin, George W.; Chase, Terry J.; Suljak, George T.; Misage, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    To more uniformly distribute heat to the plurality of catalyst tubes in a catalytic reaction furnace, the burner disposed in the furnace above the tops of the tubes includes concentric primary and secondary annular fuel and air outlets. The fuel-air mixture from the primary outlet is directed towards the tubes adjacent the furnace wall, and the burning secondary fuel-air mixture is directed horizontally from the secondary outlet and a portion thereof is deflected downwardly by a slotted baffle toward the tubes in the center of the furnace while the remaining portion passes through the slotted baffle to another baffle disposed radially outwardly therefrom which deflects it downwardly in the vicinity of the tubes between those in the center and those near the wall of the furnace.

  12. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

  13. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

  14. Reverberatory screen for a radiant burner

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Paul E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to porous mat gas fired radiant burner panels utilizing improved reverberatory screens. The purpose of these screens is to boost the overall radiant output of the burner relative to a burner using no screen and the same fuel-air flow rates. In one embodiment, the reverberatory screen is fabricated from ceramic composite material, which can withstand higher operating temperatures than its metallic equivalent. In another embodiment the reverberatory screen is corrugated. The corrugations add stiffness which helps to resist creep and thermally induced distortions due to temperature or thermal expansion coefficient differences. As an added benefit, it has been unexpectedly discovered that the corrugations further increase the radiant efficiency of the burner. In a preferred embodiment, the reverberatory screen is both corrugated and made from ceramic composite material.

  15. Industrial burner and process efficiency program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, S. R.; Prakash, S. N.

    1981-03-01

    A laboratory prototype burner which is compatible with a FM (frequency modulation) combustion control system where temperature control is accomplished by regulating the ratio of burner on-time to burner off-time was developed. This multifuel (natural gas and No. 2 fuel oil) high velocity burner is capable of repeated pulse ignition at maximum rated capability (1 million Btu-hour) with preheated air (from ambient to 1100F). A digital control in the FM mode was developed. Experimental data from tests in a laboratory furnace indicated that when applied to a batch type thermal process where appreciable turndown is presently obtained by excess air operation, the FM combustion system provides improvements in process fuel efficiency and gains in productivity.

  16. Regenerative Burner System for Thermoelectric Power Sources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    of the air—to—air heat exchanger, the smoke level. An exceptionally cisan , smokeless Heat b ases, present in the configuration of this pro— fire is...zero (0) on this scale. A Bacharach number totype heat exchanger, are estimated to be approxi— of 10 is the highest smoke level measured and corre...regenera— and fouling. High reliability burners are normally tive burner system design . The lower fuel requirement adjusted to No. 2 or 3 smoke . Scale

  17. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Richard W.; Skinner, Dewey F.; Thorsness, Charles B.

    1985-01-01

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  18. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOEpatents

    Hill, R.W.; Skinner, D.F. Jr.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1983-05-26

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  19. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    DOEpatents

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

    2013-02-05

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  20. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    DOEpatents

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

    2007-10-09

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  1. Assessment of porous media burner for surface/submerged flame during porous media combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janvekar, Ayub Ahmed; Abdullah, M. Z.; Ahmad, Z. A.; Abas, Aizat; Hussien, Ahmed A.; Bashir, Musavir; Azam, Qummare

    2017-03-01

    The applications of porous media burners are of often keen interest to researchers because of many modern advantages, such as high thermal efficiency, stable flame and low emission rate. In this current experimental work, a microburner was made built to achieve both surface and submerged flame for three different thicknesses of reaction layers. A reaction layer of discrete alumina with a predefined thickness of preheat layer was used for combustion. Reaction layer was accordingly replaced with different thicknesses of 10mm, 20mm and 30mm. This work mainly aimed to show burner behavior with increase in thickness of reaction layer thus suggesting the optimum equivalence ratio from best burner performance. Interesting and unique behavior of the burner was encountered for each thickness of the reaction layer. Highest surface temperature was found out with 10mm of reaction layer, while highest wall temperature was incorporated with 20mm of reaction layer. Equivalence ratio of 0.3 is best suitable for optimum performance of the burner. Finally, thermal efficiencies were calculated for surface and submerged modes at optimum equivalence ratio. Emission parameters, such as NOx and CO were also taken into consideration.

  2. Sealed, nozzle-mix burners for silica deposition

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Meryle D. M.; Brown, John T.; Misra, Mahendra K.

    2003-07-08

    Burners (40) for producing fused silica boules are provided. The burners employ a tube-in-tube (301-306) design with flats (56, 50) on some of the tubes (305, 301) being used to limit the cross-sectional area of certain passages (206, 202) within the burner and/or to atomize a silicon-containing, liquid source material, such as OMCTS. To avoid the possibility of flashback, the burner has separate passages for fuel (205) and oxygen (204, 206), i.e., the burner employs nozzle mixing, rather than premixing, of the fuel and oxygen. The burners are installed in burner holes (26) formed in the crown (20) of a furnace and form a seal with those holes so that ambient air cannot be entrained into the furnace through the holes. An external air cooled jacket (60) can be used to hold the temperature of the burner below a prescribed upper limit, e.g., 400.degree. C.

  3. Fuel-flexible burner apparatus and method for fired heaters

    DOEpatents

    Zink, Darton J.; Isaacs, Rex K.; Jamaluddin, A. S.; Benson, Charles E.; Pellizzari, Roberto O.; Little, Cody L.; Marty, Seth A.; Imel, K. Parker; Barnes, Jonathon E.; Parker, Chris S.

    2017-03-14

    A burner apparatus for a fired heating system and a method of burner operation. The burner provides stable operation when burning gas fuels having heating values ranging from low to high and accommodates sudden wide changes in the Wobbe value of the fuel delivered to the burner. The burner apparatus includes a plurality of exterior fuel ejectors and has an exterior notch which extends around the burner wall for receiving and combusting a portion of the gas fuel. At least a portion of the hot combustion product gas produced in the exterior notch is delivered through channels formed in the burner wall to the combustion area at the forward end of the burner. As the Wobbe value of the gas fuel decreases, one or more outer series of addition ejectors can be automatically activated as needed to maintain the amount of heat output desired.

  4. Industrial Energy Conservation, Forced Internal Recirculation Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2003-06-19

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop and evaluate an industrial low NOx burner for existing and new gas-fired combustion systems for intermediate temperature (1400 degree to 2000 degree F) industrial heating devices such as watertube boilers and process fluid heaters. A multi-phase effort is being pursued with decision points to determine advisability of continuance. The current contract over Phases II and III of this work. The objectives of each phase are as follows. Phase II - to design, fabricate, and evaluate prototype burners based on the Forced Internal Recirculation (FIR) concept. Phase III - to evaluate the performance of an FIR burner under actual operating conditions in a full-scale field test and establish the performance necessary for subsequent commercialization

  5. Low NO.sub.x burner system

    DOEpatents

    Kitto, Jr., John B.; Kleisley, Roger J.; LaRue, Albert D.; Latham, Chris E.; Laursen, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    A low NO.sub.x burner system for a furnace having spaced apart front and rear walls, comprises a double row of cell burners on each of the front and rear walls. Each cell burner is either of the inverted type with a secondary air nozzle spaced vertically below a coal nozzle, or the non-inverted type where the coal nozzle is below the secondary air port. The inverted and non-inverted cells alternate or are provided in other specified patterns at least in the lower row of cells. A small percentage of the total air can be also provided through the hopper or hopper throat forming the bottom of the furnace, or through the boiler hopper side walls. A shallow angle impeller design also advances the purpose of the invention which is to reduce CO and H.sub.2 S admissions while maintaining low NO.sub.x generation.

  6. Automatic gas burner block for thermal units

    SciTech Connect

    Kryzhanovskii, K.S.; Senatov, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe a new computerized control system and gas burner configuration for natural gas furnaces used for the heat treatment of ceramics and porcelain which is designed to control and monitor combustion and temperature regimes in the furnace and optimize fuel efficiency. The system permits simultaneous operation and thermal load control of up to 12 burners, automatic maintenance of the desired fuel-air ratio over the entire temperature range, and protection of the furnace against overload by the use of a fuel cutoff switch. Specifications on productivity and efficiency and results of performance evaluations are listed.

  7. DESIGN REPORT: LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

  8. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner. ...

  9. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner. ...

  10. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner. ...

  11. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner. ...

  12. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner. ...

  13. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner. ...

  14. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner. ...

  15. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner. ...

  16. DESIGN REPORT: LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

  17. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BURNERS VOLUME V. BURNER EVALUATION DATA APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a detailed summary of data which were generated during the testing of experimental burners on EPA's Large Watertube Simulator (LWS) test facility. The test data are presented as a series of appendices. Appendix A describe the data quality assurance procedures whi...

  18. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BURNERS VOLUME V. BURNER EVALUATION DATA APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives a detailed summary of data which were generated during the testing of experimental burners on EPA's Large Watertube Simulator (LWS) test facility. The test data are presented as a series of appendices. Appendix A describe the data quality assurance procedures whi...

  19. Burner modifications for cost effective NO{sub x} control

    SciTech Connect

    Melick, T.A.; Hensley, M.E.; Gustafson, D.A.

    1998-12-31

    The development of commercial Low NO{sub x} Burners has provided Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) with the expertise to modify existing burner equipment to provide the controlled fuel/air mixing conditions required for low NO{sub x} contribution. This approach represents a viable alternative to a full burner retrofit for many applications. EER has modified burners to lower NO{sub x} emissions at Louisville Gas and Electric`s (LG and E) Cane Run Station and at Jamestown Board of Public Utilities (JBPU). This paper discusses the method and results of these burner modifications.

  20. CFD studies on burner secondary airflow

    SciTech Connect

    Purimetla, A.; Cui, J.

    2009-02-15

    In many fossil power plants operating today, there is insufficient means to assure the proper balancing of the secondary airflows between the individual burners of wall-fired units. This mismatch leads to decreased boiler efficiency and increased emissions. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of a fossil power plant wind box was performed. The model solved the three-dimensional Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the k-epsilon turbulence model. The CFD results were validated by the experimental data taken from a 1/8th scale model of a wall-fired fossil unit. Simulations under various mass flow rates specified at inlet, various baffle positions and two opening conditions of the burners were obtained to identify the optimum design in terms of the equalization of the secondary airflow through the burners. This study demonstrated that the combination of experimental and CFD approach can be an effective tool in the research of burner secondary airflow balancing.

  1. Consider PLCs as platforms for burner management

    SciTech Connect

    Anzlovar, R.; Sterle, L.

    1994-07-01

    This article compares the performance of programmable logic controllers (PLC) to that of distributed control systems for retrofitting of burner-management systems (BMSs) with microprocessor based systems. The benefits and operation of each are reviewed. The author concludes that for their application to BMS the performance of the PLC provides more value.

  2. Emissions from gas fired agricultural burners

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Because of the Federal Clean Air Act, the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) began defining Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx emissions from cotton gin drying system gas fired burners in its jurisdiction. The NOx emission levels of conventionally used...

  3. Characterizing Particle Combustion in a Rijke Burner.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-29

    Rijke Burner. rp = NU In( I + BT) PgpCpgdp 3.2 Shrinking Core Model -, Levenspiel (1972) outlines the shrinking core model. In this model the particle...M. E., Numerical Methods and Modeling for Chemical Engineers. John Wiley and Sons (1984) Levenspiel , 0., Chemical Reaction Engineering Second

  4. Market assessment for the fan atomized oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    Westphalen, D.

    1996-07-01

    The market potential for the fan atomized burner (FAB) in water and space heating applications was examined. The major findings of the study are as follows. (1). The FAB`s low-input capability allows development of oil-fired room heaters and wall furnaces, a new market area for oil heat. (2). Among conventional oil-fired products, furnaces will benefit most from the burner`s low input capability due to (1) their quick delivery of heat and (2) their more prevalent use in warmer climates and smaller homes. (3). The greatest potential for increased product sales or oil sales exists in the use of the burner with new products (i.e., room heaters). Sales of boilers and direct-fired water heaters are not likely to increase with the use of the burner. (4). Acceptance of the burner will be dependent on proof of reliability. Proof of better reliability than conventional burners would accelerate acceptance.

  5. Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Leto, Anthony

    1983-01-01

    A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

  6. Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

  7. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Robert States

    2006-07-15

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  8. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Cyclone furnaces operate with high excess air and at high temperature. The heat release during combustion is very high and as a result the boiler volume is much smaller than would be found in a conventional pc-fired system. The Marion Unit 1 boiler, at the level of the cyclone entry, has a small cross-section; about 5-feet in depth and about 20-feet in width. A boiler schematic showing the LNS Burner and relative location of the superheater region and overfire air ports is shown in Figure 1. The LNS Burner's combustion process is fundamentally different from that of the cyclone, and the combustion products are also different. The LNS Burner products enter the boiler as hot, fuel-rich gases. Additional overfire air must be added to complete this combustion step with care taken to avoid the formation of thermal NO{sub x}. If done correctly, S0{sub 2} is controlled and significant NO{sub x} reductions are achieved. Because of the small boiler volume, flow modelling was found to be necessary to insure that adequate mixing of LNS Burner combustion products with air can be accomplished to achieve NO{sub x} emissions goals. Design requirements for the air injection system for the Marion boiler were developed using FLUENT, a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A series of runs were made to obtain a design for final air injection that met the process design goals as closely as possible.

  9. Advanced Combustor in the Four Burner Area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-03-21

    Engineer Frank Kutina and a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mechanic examine the setup of an advanced combustor rig inside one of the test cells at the Lewis Research Center’s Four Burner Area in the Engine Research Building. Kutina, of the Research Operations Branch, served as go-between for the researchers and the mechanics. He helped develop the test configurations and get the hardware installed. At the time of this photograph, Lewis Center Director Abe Silverstein had just established the Airbreathing Engine Division to address the new propulsion of the 1960s. After nearly a decade of focusing almost exclusively on space, NASA Lewis began tackling issues relating to the new turbofan engine, noise reduction, energy efficiency, supersonic transport, and the never-ending quest for higher performance levels with smaller and more lightweight engines. The Airbreathing Engine Division’s Combustion Branch was dedicated to the study and mitigation of the high temperatures and pressures found in advanced combustor designs. These high temperatures and pressures could destroy engine components. The Lewis investigation included film cooling, diffuser flow, and jet mixing. Components were tested in smaller test cells, but a full-scale augmenting burner rig, seen here, was tested extensively in the Four Burner Area test cell.

  10. Coal-water mixture fuel burner

    DOEpatents

    Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

    1985-04-29

    The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

  11. Field testing the prototype BNL fan-atomized oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.; Celebi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    BNL has developed a new oil burner design referred to as the Fan Atomized burner System. The primary objective of the field study was to evaluate and demonstrate the reliable operation of the Fan Atomized Burner. The secondary objective was to establish and validate the ability of a low firing rate burner (0.3-0.4 gph) to fully satisfy the heating and domestic hot water load demands of an average household in a climate zone with over 5,000 heating-degree-days. The field activity was also used to evaluate the practicality of side-wall venting with the Fan Atomized Burner with a low stack temperature (300F) and illustrate the potential for very high efficiency with an integrated heating system approach based on the Fan Atomized Burner.

  12. Demonstration of laser speckle system on burner liner cyclic rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, K. A.

    1986-01-01

    A demonstration test was conducted to apply speckle photogrammetry to the measurement of strains on a sample of combustor liner material in a cyclic fatigue rig. A system for recording specklegrams was assembled and shipped to the NASA Lewis Research Center, where it was set up and operated during rig tests. Data in the form of recorded specklegrams were sent back to United Technologies Research Center for processing to extract strains. Difficulties were found in the form of warping and bowing of the sample during the tests which degraded the data. Steps were taken by NASA personnel to correct this problem and further tests were run. Final data processing indicated erratic patterns of strain on the burner liner sample.

  13. Numerical and experimental investigation of a mild combustion burner

    SciTech Connect

    Galletti, Chiara; Parente, Alessandro; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2007-12-15

    An industrial burner operating in the MILD combustion regime through internal recirculation of exhaust gases has been characterized numerically. To develop a self-sufficient numerical model of the burner, two subroutines are coupled to the CFD solver to model the air preheater section and heat losses from the burner through radiation. The resulting model is validated against experimental data on species concentration and temperature. A 3-dimensional CFD model of the burner is compared to an axisymmetric model, which allows considerable computational saving, but neglects some important burner features such as the presence of recirculation windows. Errors associated with the axisymmetric model are evaluated and discussed, as well as possible simplified procedures for engineering purposes. Modifications of the burner geometry are investigated numerically and suggested in order to enhance its performances. Such modifications are aimed at improving exhaust gases recirculation which is driven by the inlet air jet momentum. The burner is found to produce only 30 ppm{sub v} of NO when operating in MILD combustion mode. For the same air preheating the NO emissions would be of approximately 1000 ppm{sub v} in flame combustion mode. It is also shown that the burner ensures more homogeneous temperature distribution in the outer surfaces with respect to flame operation, and this is attractive for burners used in furnaces devoted to materials' thermal treatment processes. The effect of air excess on the combustion regime is also discussed. (author)

  14. Burner modifications for cost effective NO{sub x} control

    SciTech Connect

    Melick, T.A.; Hensley, M.E.; Gustafson, D.A.

    1998-07-01

    The development of commercial low NO{sub x} burners has provided Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) with the expertise to modify existing burner equipment to provide the controlled fuel/air mixing conditions required for low NO{sub x} combustion. This approach represents a viable lower cost alternative to a full burner retrofit for many applications. EER has modified burners to lower NO{sub x} emissions at Louisville Gas and Electric's (LG and E) Cane Run Station and at Jamestown Board of Public Utilities (JBPU). This paper will discuss the method and results of these burner modifications on a 180 and 170 Mwe boiler for LG and E and four boilers at JBPU. NO{sub x} reductions of greater than 50% have been demonstrated with burner modifications only that have achieved NO{sub x} compliance on these six boilers. EER will also be modifying cell burners for Dayton Power and Light at their JM Stuart Station. Unit {number_sign}3 is a 605 Mwe B and W universal pressure opposed wall fired boiler. EER will retrofit the burners this October through November and results will be available by the first of December. With deregulation of the utility industry approaching, many utilities are looking for lower cost alternatives to satisfy NO{sub x} regulations. Justifying new low NO{sub x} burners on a boiler that is 30 to 40 years old and has limited remaining life is also difficult. Performing modifications to the existing burners provides the utility an option. Modifications are usually 2 to 4 times less expensive than new low NO{sub x} burners.

  15. Low NOx gas burner apparatus and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.E.; Napier, S.O.; Jones, A.P.

    1993-08-24

    An improved gas burner apparatus is described for discharging a mixture of fuel gas and air into a furnace space wherein said mixture is burned and flue gases having low NO[sub x] content are formed therefrom comprising: a housing having an open end attached to said furnace space; means for introducing a controlled flow rate of said air into said housing attached thereto; a refractory burner tile attached to the open end of said housing having a base portion, an opening formed in said base portion for allowing air to pass there through and having a wall portion surrounding said opening which extends into said furnace space, the exterior sides of said wall portion being slanted towards said opening and the interior sides thereof being spaced from the periphery of said opening whereby a ledge is provided within the interior of said wall portion; at least one passage formed in said burner tile for conducting primary fuel gas and flue gases from the exterior of said wall portion to the interior thereof; means for forming a fuel gas jet in said passage and drawing flue gases there through adapted to be connected to a source of fuel gas and positioned with respect to said passage whereby a mixture of primary fuel gas and flue gases from said furnace space is discharged from said passage to within the interior of said wall portion; and at least one nozzle adapted to be connected to a source of fuel gas positioned outside said wall portion of said burner tile adjacent the intersection of an exterior slanted side of said wall portion with the surface of said base portion for discharging secondary fuel gas adjacent said external slanted side of said wall portion whereby said secondary fuel gas mixes with flue gases and air in said furnace space. A method is also described for discharging a mixture of fuel gas and air into a furnace space wherein said mixture is burned and flue gases having low NO[sub x] content are formed therefrom.

  16. Development of a Flaring Burner Disposal System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    MATRIX NO. PLANNED TEST ACTUAL TEST COMMENTS 1 No. 2 Fuel Oil No. 2 Diesel A-nozzles, 10 min Oil 2 20 cs Blend 19.5 cs Blend A-nozzles, then change to...the existing engine speed. The test oils were preoared as in the preliminary burner test program, using blends of No. 2 diesel oil and No. 6 fuel oil...21 3.2.4 Air Compressors ................................... 24 3.2.5 Water Pump Module ................................. 25 3.2.6 Diesel Engines

  17. Residential oil burners with low input and two stages firing

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Krajewski, R.; Leigh, R.

    1997-12-31

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized, retention head burner. At low firing rates pressure atomizing nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the small internal passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. To overcome the low input limitations of conventional burners, a low pressure air-atomized burner has been developed watch can operate at fining rates as low as 0.25 gallons of oil per hour (10 kW). In addition, the burner can be operated in a high/low fining rate mode. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at a fixed input rate of 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination. At the test home, instrumentation was installed to measure fuel and energy flows and record trends in system temperatures. Laboratory efficiency testing with water heaters and boilers has been completed using standard single purpose and combined appliance test procedures. The tests quantify benefits due to low firing rates and other burner features. A two stage oil burner gains a strong advantage in rated efficiency while maintaining capacity for high domestic hot water and space heating loads.

  18. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CELLO PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER SYSTEM/SONOTECH INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sonotech, Inc. (Sonotech), of Atlanta, GA, the developer of the Cello® pulse combustion burner, claims that its burner system can be beneficial to a variety of combustion processes. The system incorporates a combustor that can be tuned to induce large amplitude sonic pulsation...

  19. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CELLO PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER SYSTEM/SONOTECH INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sonotech, Inc. (Sonotech), of Atlanta, GA, the developer of the Cello® pulse combustion burner, claims that its burner system can be beneficial to a variety of combustion processes. The system incorporates a combustor that can be tuned to induce large amplitude sonic pulsation...

  20. Combined Heat and Power Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    This factsheet describes a project that will seamlessly integrate a gas-fired simple-cycle 100 kWe microturbine with a new ultra-low NOx gas-fired burner to develop a CHP assembly called the Boiler Burner Energy System Technology.

  1. Advanced oil burner for residential heating -- development report

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The development of advanced oil burner concepts has long been a part of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) oil heat research program. Generally, goals of this work include: increased system efficiency, reduced emissions of soot and NO{sub x}, and the practical extension of the firing rate range of current burners to lower input rates. The report describes the results of a project at BNL aimed at the development of air atomized burners. Two concepts are discussed. The first is an air atomizer which uses air supplied at pressures ranging from 10 to 20 psi and requiring the integration of an air compressor in the system. The second, more novel, approach involves the use of a low-pressure air atomizing nozzle which requires only 8-14 inches of water air pressure for fuel atomization. This second approach requires the use of a fan in the burner instead of a compressor although the fan pressure is higher than with conventional, pressure atomized retention head burners. In testing the first concept, high pressure air atomization, a conventional retention head burner was modified to accept the new nozzle. In addition, the burner head was modified to reduce the flow area to maintain roughly 1 inch of water pressure drop across the head at a firing rate of 0.25 gallons of oil per hour. The burner ignited easily and could be operated at low excess air levels without smoke. The major disadvantage of this burner approach is the need for the air compressor as part of the system. In evaluating options, a vane-type compressor was selected although the use of a compressor of this type will lead to increased burner maintenance requirements.

  2. Industrial pulverized coal low NO[sub x] burner

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-10

    The objective of Phase 1 of the Industrial Pulverized Coal Low NO[sub x] Burner'' Program is to develop a novel low NO[sub x], pulverized coal burner, which offers near-term commercialization potential, uses preheated combustion air of up to 1000[degrees]F, and which can be applied to high-temperature industrial heating furnaces, chemical process furnaces, fired heaters, and boilers. The program team is led byArthur D. Little, Inc., and includes the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Hauck Manufacturing Company. During the first quarter of the program the program team developed the overall program management plan; began a market survey to identify coals suitable for modeling the low NO[sub x], burner design and performance, as well as for use in the Phase II burner tests; and defined the preliminary burner design specifications, sized the prototype burner, and produced the first concept schematic. This report is for the second quarter of the program (July 1992 to September 1992). During this period the program team: Completed the study of industrial coal usage and sources; refined the preliminary burner design and confirmed it as the basis for computer modeling; and started definition of the modeling work scope, including the development of fuel and process specifications, description and modeling approaches.

  3. Fan Atomized Burner design advances & commercial development progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, B.; Butcher, T.A.

    1996-07-01

    As a part of the Oil Heat Research and Development program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has an on-going interest in advanced combustion technologies. This interest is aimed at: improving the initial efficiency of heating equipment, reducing long term fouling and efficiency degradation, reducing air pollutant emissions, and providing practical low-firing rate technologies which may lead to new, high efficiency oil-fired appliances. The Fan-Atomized Burner (FAB) technology is being developed at BNL as part of this general goal. The Fan-Atomized Burner uses a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle in place of the high pressure nozzle used in conventional burners. Because it is air-atomized the burner can operate at low firing rates without the small passages and reliability concerns of low input pressure nozzles. Because it uses a low pressure nozzle the burner can use a fan in place of the small compressor used in other air-atomized burner designs. High initial efficiency of heating equipment is achieved because the burner can operate at very low excess air levels. These low excess air levels also reduce the formation of sulfuric acid in flames. Sulfuric acid is responsible for scaling and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces.

  4. Atmospheric low swirl burner flow characterization with stereo PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Mathieu; Nogueira, José; Lecuona, Antonio; Nauri, Sara; Rodríguez, Pedro A.

    2010-05-01

    The lean premixed prevaporized (LPP) burner concept is now used in most of the new generation gas turbines to reduce flame temperature and pollutants by operating near the lean blow-off limit. The common strategy to assure stable combustion is to resort to swirl stabilized flames in the burner. Nevertheless, the vortex breakdown phenomenon in reactive swirling flows is a very complex 3D mechanism, and its dynamics are not yet completely understood. Among the available measurement techniques to analyze such flows, stereo PIV (S-PIV) is now a reliable tool to quantify the instantaneous three velocity components in a plane (2D-3C). It is used in this paper to explore the reactive flow of a small scale, open to atmosphere, LPP burner (50 kW). The burner is designed to produce two distinct topologies (1) that of a conventional high swirl burner and (2) that of a low swirl burner. In addition, the burner produces a lifted flame that allows a good optical access to the whole recirculation zone in both topologies. The flow is studied over a wide range of swirl and Reynolds numbers at different equivalence ratios. Flow statistics are presented for 1,000 S-PIV snapshots at each configuration. In both reactive and cold nonreactive flow, stability diagrams define the domains of the low and high swirl topologies. Due to the relatively simple conception of the physical burner, this information can be easily used for the validation of CFD computations of the burner flow global structure. Near field pressure measurements reveal the presence of peaks in the power spectra, which suggests the presence of periodical coherent features for almost all configurations. Algorithms have been developed to identify and track large periodic traveling coherent structures from the statistically independent S-PIV realizations. Flow temporal evolution is reconstructed with a POD-based method, providing an additional tool for the understanding of flow topologies and numerical codes validation.

  5. Advanced burner technology for low volatile coal and anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Tigges, K.D.; Streffing, M.; Lisauskas, R.; Ake, T.

    1997-12-31

    Today China is one of the countries with the highest coal production. Approximately three quarters of the produced coal is high-volatile and medium-volatile hard coal and only about 20% is anthracite. However the actual portion of the anthracite used in power plants is even lower. The reason for this is not due to the low amount available, but to the difficulty of ensuring stable and reliable ignition and combustion of anthracite. Up to now, the so-called Downshot firing system has been used to fire difficult anthracite coals. The experience gained with this type of firing system is, however, far from satisfactory. The numerous difficulties in the plants of all manufactures have shown that attempts should be made to develop efficient burners to be able to use the simple, service-proved and reliable opposed-burner system. Deutsche Babcock started this work in the early 1980`s and developed a second generation low-NOx burner -- the DS burner -- which is also well suited for the combustion of anthracite. The development is based on state-of-the-art advanced computer simulation and full-scale combustion tests on a wide range of coals. Performance has been evaluated on coals with volatile matter content ranging from 50% down to as low as 5%. DS burners are characterized by extremely reliable and stable ignition which allows operation at low part loads even when firing difficult coal. The excellent flame stability of this burner is the reason why the complex Downshot firing system with its numerous disadvantages is no longer necessary and opposed burner system may be applied even for firing anthracite. The paper describes the development of the burner for difficult coals and explains the full scale combustion tests, the laboratory tests of the ignitability and compares these results with the computer simulation of the DS burner flame.

  6. A low input, variable firing rate, oil-fired burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariano, C. F.

    1982-05-01

    A prototype low input, VFR oil burner was developed which vaporizes the fuel and mixes it with air prior to combustion. The resulting flame is sootless, odorless, quiet, and efficient (only 5 to 10% excess air). The turndown range is 6:1 and could be extended to 12:1. At 14.25% CO2, the NOx level is typical for a standard gas burner firing at 12% CO2; this is a slight improvement, considering the higher flame temperature of the prototype burner.

  7. Burner rig evaluation of thermal barrier coating

    SciTech Connect

    Gedwill, M.A.

    1981-02-01

    Eight plasma sprayed bond coatings were evaluated for their potential use with ZrO/sub 2/-Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) which are being developed for coal derived fuel fired gas turbines. Longer TBC lives in cyclic burner rig oxidation to 1050 C were achieved with the more oxidation resistant bond coatings. These were Ni-14.1Cr-13.4A1-0.10Ar, Ni-14.1C4-14.4Al-0.16Y, and Ni-15.8Cr-12.8Al-0.36Y on Rene 41. The TBC systems performed best when 0.015-cm thick bond coatings were employed that were sprayed at 20 kW using argon 3.5v/o hydrogen. Cycling had a more life limiting influence on the TBC than accumulated time at 1050 C.

  8. Coal Particle Flow Patterns for O2 Enriched, Low NOx Burners

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Sinclair Curtis

    2005-08-01

    This project involved a systematic investigation examining the effect of near-flame burner aerodynamics on standoff distance and stability of turbulent diffusion flames and the resultant NO{sub x} emissions from actual pulverized coal diffusion flames. Specifically, the scope of the project was to understand how changes in near-flame aerodynamics and transport air oxygen partial pressure can influence flame attachment and coal ignition, two properties essential to proper operation of low NO{sub x} burners. Results from this investigation utilized a new 2M tall, 0.5m in diameter combustor designed to evaluate near-flame combustion aerodynamics in terms of transport air oxygen partial pressure (Po{sub 2}), coal fines content, primary fuel and secondary air velocities, and furnace wall temperature furnish insight into fundamental processes that occur during combustion of pulverized coal in practical systems. Complementary cold flow studies were conducted in a geometrically similar chamber to analyze the detailed motion of the gas and particles using laser Doppler velocimetry. This final technical report summarizes the key findings from our investigation into coal particle flow patterns in burners. Specifically, we focused on the effects of oxygen enrichment, the effect of fines, and the effect of the nozzle velocity ratio on the resulting flow patterns. In the cold flow studies, detailed measurements using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) were made to determine the details of the flow. In the hot flow studies, observations of flame stability and measurements of NO{sub x} were made to determine the effects of the flow patterns on burner operation.

  9. Low NO[sub x] gas burner apparatus and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.E.; Napier, S.O.; Jones, A.P.

    1994-01-04

    Improved gas burner apparatus and methods of burning fuel gas-air mixtures are provided whereby flue gases having low NO[sub x] contents are formed. The burner apparatus includes a refractory burner tile having an air discharge opening therein and a wall surrounding the opening which extends into the furnace space and provides a mixing zone therein. At least one passage is formed in the burner tile which opens into the mixing zone and fuel gas is jetted through the passage whereby flue gases are drawn there through and a fuel gas-flue gases mixture is discharged into the mixing zone. The fuel gas-flue gases mixture is swirled in the mixing zone and mixes with air therein, and the resulting mixture is discharged and burned in a primary reaction zone in the furnace space. 11 figs.

  10. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be...

  11. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be...

  12. 33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ON HOT BLAST STOVES. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. Space Experiment Concepts: Cup-Burner Flame Extinguishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2004-01-01

    Space Fire Suppression Processes & Technology. Space experiment concepts of cup-burner flame extinguishment have been conceived to address to the key issues (i.e., organizing questions) in space fire suppression. Cup-burner flame extinguishment experiment can reveal physical and chemical suppression processes and provide agent effectiveness data useful for technology development of space fire suppression systems in various reduced-gravity platforms.

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Investigation of Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Cremer; Dave Wang; Connie Senior; Andrew Chiodo; Steven Hardy; Paul Wolff

    2005-07-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project was to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. The focus of this project was to quantify the potential impacts of ''fine level'' controls rather than that of ''coarse level'' controls (i.e. combustion tuning). Although it is well accepted that combustion tuning will generally improve efficiency and emissions of an ''out of tune'' boiler, it is not as well understood what benefits can be derived through active multiburner measurement and control systems in boiler that has coarse level controls. The approach used here was to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner air and fuel flow rates. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center have been active participants in this project. CFD simulations were completed for five coal fired boilers as planned: (1) 150 MW wall fired, (2) 500 MW opposed wall fired, (3) 600 MW T-Fired, (4) 330 MW cyclone-fired, and (5) 200 MW T-Fired Twin Furnace. In all cases, the unit selections were made in order to represent units that were descriptive of the utility industry as a whole. For each unit, between 25 and 44 furnace simulations were completed in order to evaluate impacts of burner to burner variations in: (1) coal and primary air flow rate, and (2) secondary air flow rate. The parametric matrices of cases that were completed were

  15. Design and characterization of a linear Hencken-type burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, M. F.; Bohlin, G. A.; Schrader, P. E.; Bambha, R. P.; Kliewer, C. J.; Johansson, K. O.; Michelsen, H. A.

    2016-11-01

    We have designed and constructed a Hencken-type burner that produces a 38-mm-long linear laminar partially premixed co-flow diffusion flame. This burner was designed to produce a linear flame for studies of soot chemistry, combining the benefit of the conventional Hencken burner's laminar flames with the advantage of the slot burner's geometry for optical measurements requiring a long interaction distance. It is suitable for measurements using optical imaging diagnostics, line-of-sight optical techniques, or off-axis optical-scattering methods requiring either a long or short path length through the flame. This paper presents details of the design and operation of this new burner. We also provide characterization information for flames produced by this burner, including relative flow-field velocities obtained using hot-wire anemometry, temperatures along the centerline extracted using direct one-dimensional coherent Raman imaging, soot volume fractions along the centerline obtained using laser-induced incandescence and laser extinction, and transmission electron microscopy images of soot thermophoretically sampled from the flame.

  16. Design and characterization of a linear Hencken-type burner.

    PubMed

    Campbell, M F; Bohlin, G A; Schrader, P E; Bambha, R P; Kliewer, C J; Johansson, K O; Michelsen, H A

    2016-11-01

    We have designed and constructed a Hencken-type burner that produces a 38-mm-long linear laminar partially premixed co-flow diffusion flame. This burner was designed to produce a linear flame for studies of soot chemistry, combining the benefit of the conventional Hencken burner's laminar flames with the advantage of the slot burner's geometry for optical measurements requiring a long interaction distance. It is suitable for measurements using optical imaging diagnostics, line-of-sight optical techniques, or off-axis optical-scattering methods requiring either a long or short path length through the flame. This paper presents details of the design and operation of this new burner. We also provide characterization information for flames produced by this burner, including relative flow-field velocities obtained using hot-wire anemometry, temperatures along the centerline extracted using direct one-dimensional coherent Raman imaging, soot volume fractions along the centerline obtained using laser-induced incandescence and laser extinction, and transmission electron microscopy images of soot thermophoretically sampled from the flame.

  17. Numerical predictions of burner performance during pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Zarnescu, V.; Pisupati, S.V.

    1999-07-01

    The performance of four burners in terms of temperature and velocity profiles, residence time and NO{sub x} emissions was predicted using numerical simulations and a two-dimensional model for pulverized coal combustion. Numerical predictions for two burners used in a pilot-scale 0.5 MM Btu/hr (146.5 kW) down-fired combustor (DFC) are presented. Two other burner configurations were evaluated and compared with the ones used with the DFC for attaining lower NO{sub x} levels. Simulations were conducted for both coal and coal-water slurry as primary fuels. A sensitivity analysis of predictions with respect to variations of the model parameters was performed. The results suggest that the higher NO{sub x} reduction with one of the burners used in the DFC is due to the improved near-burner aerodynamics and to better flame attachment. These improved conditions are influenced by a combination of geometric and flow parameters, such as burner dimensions, quart diameter, inlet velocity, inlet temperature and swirl number.

  18. Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

    2008-12-16

    The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. Implementation of the GNEP requires development and demonstration of three major technologies: (1) Light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel separations technologies that will recover transuranics to be recycled for fuel but not separate plutonium from other transuranics, thereby providing proliferation-resistance; (2) Advanced Burner Reactors (ABRs) based on a fast spectrum that transmute the recycled transuranics to produce energy while also reducing the long term radiotoxicity and decay heat loading in the repository; and (3) Fast reactor fuel recycling technologies to recover and refabricate the transuranics for repeated recycling in the fast reactor system. The primary mission of the ABR Program is to demonstrate the transmutation of transuranics recovered from the LWR spent fuel, and hence the benefits of the fuel cycle closure to nuclear waste management. The transmutation, or burning of the transuranics is accomplished by fissioning and this is most effectively done in a fast spectrum. In the thermal spectrum of commercial LWRs, some transuranics capture neutrons and become even heavier transuranics rather than being fissioned. Even with repeated recycling, only about 30% can be transmuted, which is an intrinsic limitation of all thermal spectrum reactors. Only in a fast spectrum can all transuranics be effectively fissioned to eliminate their long-term radiotoxicity and decay heat. The Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) is the first step in demonstrating the transmutation technologies. It directly supports development of a prototype full-scale Advanced Burner Reactor, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR are: (1) To demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics as part of an

  19. Energy from true in-situ processing of Antrim shale: methane burner ignition system

    SciTech Connect

    VanDerPloeg, M.L.; Pihlaja, R.K.

    1980-08-01

    A rugged yet simple burner that can be easily ignited and reignited is a necessity if in situ thermal methods of energy extraction are to be feasible. During extraction trials at the Dow Chemical Company's oil shale site at Peck, Michigan such a burner was utilized. The performance of the TOR Development burner and ignitor system proved to be reliable and practical under field conditions. However, some recently discovered measures are crucial in protecting the burner and associated downhole hardware. With such precautions burner life was extended by a factor of 15. In the first trial burner life was two days and in the second trial the burner remained intact at least thirty days. Also described is a system which monitored burner performance by continuously analyzing burner exhaust gases. A slip stream sampling technique utilized the high well pressure to transport, at nearly Mach I, a sample of burner exhaust gas to the analytical trailer. There the sample was analyzed for CO, CO/sub 2/, unburned hydrocarbons, and O/sub 2/ by a bank of high speed process gas analyzers. Burner flameouts could be detected in less than 2 minutes. Also the system allowed burner (air/fuel) ratios to be determined on a real time basis. These ratios were used for (1) setting the proper air-fuel mixtures for ignition and steady state operation, (2) leak detection, (3) estimation of burner deterioration after extended use, and (4) study of the burner's steady state and transient response characteristics.

  20. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic

  1. Dual-water mixture fuel burner

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Thomas D.; Reehl, Douglas P.; Walbert, Gary F.

    1986-08-05

    A coal-water mixture (CWM) burner includes a conically shaped rotating cup into which fuel comprised of coal particles suspended in a slurry is introduced via a first, elongated inner tube coupled to a narrow first end portion of the cup. A second, elongated outer tube is coaxially positioned about the first tube and delivers steam to the narrow first end of the cup. The fuel delivery end of the inner first tube is provided with a helical slot on its lateral surface for directing the CWM onto the inner surface of the rotating cup in the form of a uniform, thin sheet which, under the influence of the cup's centrifugal force, flows toward a second, open, expanded end portion of the rotating cup positioned immediately adjacent to a combustion chamber. The steam delivered to the rotating cup wets its inner surface and inhibits the coal within the CWM from adhering to the rotating cup. A primary air source directs a high velocity air flow coaxially about the expanded discharge end of the rotating cup for applying a shear force to the CWM in atomizing the fuel mixture for improved combustion. A secondary air source directs secondary air into the combustion chamber adjacent to the outlet of the rotating cup at a desired pitch angle relative to the fuel mixture/steam flow to promote recirculation of hot combustion gases within the ignition zone for increased flame stability.

  2. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Stephanus Budilarto

    2001-09-04

    It is well understood that the stability of axial diffusion flames is dependent on the mixing behavior of the fuel and combustion air streams. Combustion aerodynamic texts typically describe flame stability and transitions from laminar diffusion flames to fully developed turbulent flames as a function of increasing jet velocity. Turbulent diffusion flame stability is greatly influenced by recirculation eddies that transport hot combustion gases back to the burner nozzle. This recirculation enhances mixing and heats the incoming gas streams. Models describing these recirculation eddies utilize conservation of momentum and mass assumptions. Increasing the mass flow rate of either fuel or combustion air increases both the jet velocity and momentum for a fixed burner configuration. Thus, differentiating between gas velocity and momentum is important when evaluating flame stability under various operating conditions. The research efforts described herein are part of an ongoing project directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners. Experimental studies include both cold-and hot-flow evaluations of the following parameters: primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air, coal particle size distribution and flame holder geometry. Hot-flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance.

  3. Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners

    DOEpatents

    Butcher, Thomas A.; Cerniglia, Philip

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

  4. Advanced Burner Reactor Preliminary NEPA Data Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, L. L.; Cahalan, J. E.; Deitrich, L. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Grandy, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kim, T. K.; Yang, W. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-10-15

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is a new nuclear fuel cycle paradigm with the goals of expanding the use of nuclear power both domestically and internationally, addressing nuclear waste management concerns, and promoting nonproliferation. A key aspect of this program is fast reactor transmutation, in which transuranics recovered from light water reactor spent fuel are to be recycled to create fast reactor transmutation fuels. The benefits of these fuels are to be demonstrated in an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), which will provide a representative environment for recycle fuel testing, safety testing, and modern fast reactor design and safeguard features. Because the GNEP programs will require facilities which may have an impact upon the environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), preparation of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for GNEP is being undertaken by Tetra Tech, Inc. The PEIS will include a section on the ABR. In support of the PEIS, the Nuclear Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to provide a description of the ABR alternative, including graphics, plus estimates of construction and operations data for an ABR plant. The compilation of this information is presented in the remainder of this report. Currently, DOE has started the process of engaging industry on the design of an Advanced Burner Reactor. Therefore, there is no specific, current, vendor-produced ABR design that could be used for this PEIS datacall package. In addition, candidate sites for the ABR vary widely as to available water, geography, etc. Therefore, ANL has based its estimates for construction and operations data largely on generalization of available information from existing plants and from the environmental report assembled for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design [CRBRP, 1977]. The CRBRP environmental report was chosen as a resource because it thoroughly

  5. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    Cyclone furnaces operate with high excess air and at high temperature. The heat release during combustion is very high and as a result the boiler volume is much smaller than would be found in a conventional pc-fired system. The Marion Unit 1 boiler, at the level of the cyclone entry, has a small cross-section; about 5-feet in depth and about 20-feet in width. A boiler schematic showing the LNS Burner and relative location of the superheater region and overfire air ports is shown in Figure 1. The LNS Burner`s combustion process is fundamentally different from that of the cyclone, and the combustion products are also different. The LNS Burner products enter the boiler as hot, fuel-rich gases. Additional overfire air must be added to complete this combustion step with care taken to avoid the formation of thermal NO{sub x}. If done correctly, S0{sub 2} is controlled and significant NO{sub x} reductions are achieved. Because of the small boiler volume, flow modelling was found to be necessary to insure that adequate mixing of LNS Burner combustion products with air can be accomplished to achieve NO{sub x} emissions goals. Design requirements for the air injection system for the Marion boiler were developed using FLUENT, a commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. A series of runs were made to obtain a design for final air injection that met the process design goals as closely as possible.

  6. User guide to the Burner Engineering Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Fornaciari, N.; Schefer, R.; Paul, P.; Lubeck, C.; Sanford, R.; Claytor, L.

    1994-11-01

    The Burner Engineering Research Laboratory (BERL) was established with the purpose of providing a facility where manufacturers and researchers can study industrial natural gas burners using conventional and laser-based diagnostics. To achieve this goal, an octagonal furnace enclosure with variable boundary conditions and optical access that can accommodate burners with firing rates up to 2.5 MMBtu per hour was built. In addition to conventional diagnostic capabilities like input/output measurements, exhaust gas monitoring, suction pyrometry and in-furnace gas sampling, laser-based diagnostics available at BERL include planar Mie scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence. This paper gives an overview of the operation of BERL and a description of the diagnostic capabilities and an estimate of the time required to complete each diagnostic for the potential user who is considering submitting a proposal.

  7. Prospects for residential oil burners with reduced emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Krajewski, R.F.; Celebi, Y.; McDonald, R.J. ); Batey, J. )

    1992-04-01

    In considering the emissions characteristics of residential oil heating equipment it is important to consider the magnitude of these emissions relative to all other sources. Laboratory and field test data show that home oil burners produce very low levels of pollutants when compared to all other combustion sources in the US. Home oil burners are relatively clean burning and produce less air pollution than the average combustion source in the US. This is especially true for carbon monoxide, particulates, and hydrocarbons, which are a small fraction of the average emission of other combustion equipment. In this paper results are presented of emission tests done with a number of oil burners selected as being representative of modern equipment or representing a recent development trend or a novel approach. The primary purpose of this work was to provide a benchmark of what oil equipment can do today and what the effects of some of these alternative designs are on emissions.

  8. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOEpatents

    Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1985-11-05

    The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

  9. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    E.G.Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; M.P. Heap; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

    2001-06-01

    An initial testing campaign was carried out during the summer of 2000 to evaluate the impact of multiburner firing on NOx emissions. Extensive data had been collected during the Fall of 1999 and Spring of 2000 using a single pulverized-coal (PC) burner, and this data collection was funded by a separate Department of Energy program, the Combustion 2000 Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) project under the direction of DB Riley. This single-burner data was thus available for comparison with NOx emissions obtained while firing three burners at the same overall load and operating conditions. A range of operating conditions were explored that were compatible with single-burner data, and thus the emission trends as a function of air staging, burner swirl and other parameters will be described below. In addition, a number of burner-to-burner operational variations were explored that provided interesing insight on their potential impact on NOx emissions. Some of these variations include: running one burner very fuel rich while running the others fuel lean; varying the swirl of a single burner while holding others constant; increasing the firing rate of a single burner while decreasing the others. In general, the results to date indicated that multiburner firing yielded higher NOx emissions than single burner firing at the same fuel rate and excess air. At very fuel rich burner stoichiometries (SR < 0.75), the difference between multiple and single burners became indistinguishable. This result is consistent with previous single-burner data that showed that at very rich stoichiometries the NOx emissions became independent of burner settings such as air distributions, velocities and burner swirl.

  10. Identifying Dark Matter Burners in the Galactic Center

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Wai, Lawrence L.

    2007-04-16

    If the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of our Galaxy grew adiabatically, then a dense ''spike'' of dark matter is expected to have formed around it. Assuming that dark matter is composed primarily of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a star orbiting close enough to the SMBH can capture WIMPs at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, i.e. ''WIMP burners'', in the vicinity of an adiabatically grown SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WD) or degenerate cores with envelopes. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and could possibly be used to establish its density profile. In our previous paper we computed the luminosity from WIMP burning for a range of dark matter spike density profiles, degenerate core masses, and distances from the SMBH. Here we compare our results with the observed stars closest to the Galactic center and find that they could be consistent with WIMP burners in the form of degenerate cores with envelopes. We also cross-check the WIMP burner hypothesis with the EGRET observed flux of gamma-rays from the Galactic center, which imposes a constraint on the dark matter spike density profile and annihilation cross-section. We find that the EGRET data is consistent with the WIMP burner hypothesis. New high precision measurements by GLAST will confirm or set stringent limits on a dark matter spike at the Galactic center, which will in turn support or set stringent limits on the existence of WIMP burners at the Galactic center.

  11. Development of an air-atomized oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.

    1996-06-01

    A new concept for the design of a residential oil burner is presented involving a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle. Advantages of this approach, relative to conventional, pressure atomized burners include: ability to operate at very low excess air levels without smoke, ability to operate at low (and possibly variable) rates, reduced boiler fouling, and low NO{sub x}. The nozzle used is a low pressure, airblast atomizer which can achieve fuel spray drop sizes similar to conventional nozzles and very good combustion performance with air pressure as low as 5 inches of water (1.24 kPa). A burner head has been developed for this nozzle and combustion test results are presented in a wide variety of equipment including cast iron and steel boilers, warm air furnaces, and water heaters over the firing rate range 0.25 gph to 1.0 gph (10 to 41 kW). Beyond the nozzle and combustion head the burner system must be developed and two approaches have been taken. The first involves a small, brushless DC motor/fan combination which uses high fan speed to achieve air pressures from 7 to 9 inches of water (1.74 to 2.24 kPa). Fuel is delivered to the atomizer at less than 1 psig (6.9 kPa) using a solenoid pump and flow metering orifice. At 0.35 gph (14 kW) the electric power draw of this burner is less than 100 watts. In a second configuration a conventional motor is used with a single stage fan which develops 5 to 6 inches of water pressure (1.24 to 1.50 kPa) at similar firing rates. This burner uses a conventional type fuel pump and metering orifice to deliver fuel. The fuel pump is driven by the fan motor, very much like a conventional burner. This second configuration is seen as more attractive to the heating industry and is now being commercialized. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination.

  12. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

  13. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

  14. Altitude Performance Characteristics of Tail-pipe Burner with Convergingconical Burner Section on J47 Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, William R; Mcaulay, John E

    1950-01-01

    An investigation of turbojet-engine thrust augmentation by means of tail-pipe burning was conducted in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel. Performance data were obtained with a tail-pipe burner having a converging conical burner section installed on an axial-flow-compressor type turbojet engine over a range of simulated flight conditions and tail-pipe fuel-air ratios with a fixed-area exhaust nozzle. A maximum tail-pipe combustion efficiency of 0.86 was obtained at an altitude of 15,000 feet and a flight Mach number of 0.23. Tail-pipe burner operation was possible up to an altitude of 45,000 feet at a flight Mach number of 0.23.

  15. Burner modifications for very cost effective NO{sub x} control

    SciTech Connect

    Melick, T.A.; Hensley, M.E.; Gustafson, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    The development of commercial Low NO{sub x} Burners has provided Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) with the expertise to modify existing burner equipment to provide the controlled fuel/air mixing conditions required for low NO{sub x} combustion. This approach represents a viable alternative to a full burner retrofit for many applications. EER has modified burners to lower NO{sub x} emissions at Louisville Gas & Electric`s (LG&E) Cane Run Station and at Jamestown Board of Public Utilities (JBPU). This paper will discuss the method and results of these burner modifications.

  16. Burner modifications for very cost effective NO{sub x} control

    SciTech Connect

    Melick, T.A.; Hensley, M.E.; Gustafson, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    The development of commercial Low NO{sub x} Burners has provided Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) with the expertise to modify existing burner equipment to provide the controlled fuel/air mixing conditions required for low NO{sub x} combustion. This approach represents a viable alternative to a full burner retrofit for many applications. EER has modified burners to lower NO{sub x} emissions at Louisville Gas and Electric`s (LG and E) Cane Run Station and at Jamestown Board of Public Utilities (JBPU). This paper will discuss the method and results of these burner modifications.

  17. [Burner head with high sensitivity in atomic absorption spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Feng, X; Yang, Y

    1998-12-01

    This paper presents a burner head with gas-sample separate entrance and double access, which is used for atomic absorption spectroscopy. According to comparison and detection, the device can improve sensitivity by a factor of 1 to 5. In the meantime it has properties of high stability and resistance to interference.

  18. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  19. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  20. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  1. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  2. A burner for plasma-coal starting of a boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peregudov, V. S.

    2008-04-01

    Advanced schemes of a plasma-coal burner with single-and two-stage chambers for thermochemical preparation of fuel are described. The factors causing it becoming contaminated with slag during oil-free starting of a boiler are considered, and methods for preventing this phenomenon are pointed out.

  3. Demonstration test of burner liner strain measurement systems: Interim results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, K. A.; Grant, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    Work is in progress to demonstrate two techniques for static strain measurements on a jet engine burner liner. Measurements are being made with a set of resistance strain gages made from Kanthal A-1 wire and via heterodyne speckle photogrammetry. The background of the program is presented along with current results.

  4. How Efficient is a Laboratory Burner in Heating Water?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Michael P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which chemistry students determine the efficiency of a laboratory burner used to heat water. The reaction is assumed to be the complete combustion of methane, CH4. The experiment is appropriate for secondary school chemistry students familiar with heats of reaction and simple calorimetry. Contains pre-laboratory and…

  5. Demonstration test of burner liner strain measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    A demonstration test was conducted for two systems of static strain measurement that had been shown to have potential for application jet engine combustors. A modified JT12D combustor was operated in a jet burner test stand while subjected simultaneously to both systems of instrumentation, i.e., Kanthal A-1 wire strain gages and laser speckle photography. A section of the burner was removed for installation and calibration of the wire gages, and welded back into the burner. The burner test rig was modified to provide a viewing port for the laser speckle photography such that the instrumented section could be observed during operation. Six out of ten wire gages survived testing and showed excellent repeatability. The extensive precalibration procedures were shown to be effective in compensating for the large apparent strains associated with these gages. Although all portions of the speckle photography system operated satisfactorily, a problem was encountered in the form of optical inhomogeneities in the hot, high-pressure gas flowing by the combustor case which generate large and random apparent strain distributions.

  6. How Efficient is a Laboratory Burner in Heating Water?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Michael P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which chemistry students determine the efficiency of a laboratory burner used to heat water. The reaction is assumed to be the complete combustion of methane, CH4. The experiment is appropriate for secondary school chemistry students familiar with heats of reaction and simple calorimetry. Contains pre-laboratory and…

  7. Oxyhydrogen burner for low-temperature flame fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueltzen, M.; Brüggenkamp, T.; Franke, M.; Altenburg, H.

    1993-04-01

    An oxyhydrogen burner as described in this article enables the growth of crystals by Verneuil's technique at temperatures of about 1000 °C. The powder fed to the crystal passes along a low-temperature pathway through the flame, so that evaporation of volatile components is prevented. Low-temperature flame fusion of superconducting Y-Ba-cuprate is reported.

  8. 6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking northeast. Uphill and to the left of the flare is the Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D) and the Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Camping Burner-Based Flame Emission Spectrometer for Classroom Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ne´el, Bastien; Crespo, Gasto´n A.; Perret, Didier; Cherubini, Thomas; Bakker, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A flame emission spectrometer was built in-house for the purpose of introducing this analytical technique to students at the high school level. The aqueous sample is sprayed through a homemade nebulizer into the air inlet of a consumer-grade propane camping burner. The resulting flame is analyzed by a commercial array spectrometer for the visible…

  10. Camping Burner-Based Flame Emission Spectrometer for Classroom Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ne´el, Bastien; Crespo, Gasto´n A.; Perret, Didier; Cherubini, Thomas; Bakker, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A flame emission spectrometer was built in-house for the purpose of introducing this analytical technique to students at the high school level. The aqueous sample is sprayed through a homemade nebulizer into the air inlet of a consumer-grade propane camping burner. The resulting flame is analyzed by a commercial array spectrometer for the visible…

  11. NOx Emissions from a Lobed Fuel Injector/Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, L. L.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.

    1996-01-01

    The present experimental study examines the performance of a novel fuel injector/burner configuration with respect to reduction in nitrogen oxide NOx emissions. The lobed injector/burner is a device in which very rapid initial mixing of reactants can occur through strong streamwise vorticity generation, producing high fluid mechanical strain rates which can delay ignition and thus prevent the formation of stoichiometric diffusion flames. Further downstream of the rapid mixing region. this flowfield produces a reduced effective strain rate, thus allowing ignition to occur in a premixed mode, where it is possible for combustion to take place under locally lean conditions. potentially reducing NOx emissions from the burner. The present experiments compare NO/NO2/NOx emissions from a lobed fuel injector configuration with emissions from a straight fuel injector to determine the net effect of streamwise vorticity generation. Preliminary results show that the lobed injector geometry can produce lean premixed flame structures. while for comparable flow conditions, a straight fuel injector geometry produces much longer. sooting diffusion flames or slightly rich pre-mixed flames. NO measurements show that emissions from a lobed fuel injector/burner can be made significantly lower than from a straight fuel injector under comparable flow conditions.

  12. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: THE PYRETRON OXYGEN BURNER, AMERICAN COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pyretron is a burner which is designed to allow for the injection of oxygen into the combustion air stream for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of a hazardous waste incinerator. The SITE demonstration of the Pyretron took place at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Re...

  13. Study of the Effects of Ambient Conditions Upon the Performance of Fan Powered, Infrared Natural Gas Burners

    SciTech Connect

    Clark Atlanta University

    2002-12-02

    The objective of this investigation was to characterize the operation of a fan-powered, infrared burner (IR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions, develop numerical model to simulate the burner performances, and provide design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance.

  14. VARIABLE FIRING RATE OIL BURNER USING PULSE FUEL FLOW CONTROL.

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KAMATH,B.R.

    2004-10-01

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized retention head burner, which has an excellent reputation for reliability and efficiency. In this burner, oil is delivered to a fuel nozzle at pressures from 100 to 150 psi. In addition, to atomizing the fuel, the small, carefully controlled size of the nozzle exit orifice serves to control the burner firing rate. Burners of this type are currently available at firing rates of more than 0.5 gallons-per-hour (70,000 Btu/hr). Nozzles have been made for lower firing rates, but experience has shown that such nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the necessarily small passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. Also, traditionally burners and the nozzles are oversized to exceed the maximum demand. Typically, this is figured as follows. The heating load of the house on the coldest day for the location is considered to define the maximum heat load. The contractor or installer adds to this to provide a safety margin and for future expansion of the house. If the unit is a boiler that provides domestic hot water through the use of a tankless heating coil, the burner capacity is further increased. On the contrary, for a majority of the time, the heating system is satisfying a much smaller load, as only rarely do all these demands add up. Consequently, the average output of the heating system has to be much less than the design capacity and this is accomplished by start and stop cycling operation of the system so that the time-averaged output equals the demand. However, this has been demonstrated to lead to overall efficiencies lower than the steady-state efficiency. Therefore, the two main reasons for the current practice of using oil burners much larger than necessary for space heating are the unavailability of reliable low firing rate oil burners and the desire to assure adequate input rate for short duration, high draw domestic hot water loads. One approach to solve this

  15. A stochastic model of turbulent mixing with chemical reaction: Nitric oxide formulation in a plug-flow burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flagan, R. C.; Appleton, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    A stochastic model of turbulent mixing was developed for a reactor in which mixing is represented by n-body fluid particle interactions. The model was used to justify the assumption (made in previous investigations of the role of turbulent mixing on burner generated thermal nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions) that for a simple plug flow reactor, composition nonuniformities can be described by a Gaussian distribution function in the local fuel:air equivalence ratio. Recent extensions of this stochastic model to include the combined effects of turbulent mixing and secondary air entrainment on thermal generation of nitric oxide in gas turbine combustors are discussed. Finally, rate limited upper and lower bounds of the nitric oxide produced by thermal fixation of molecular nitrogen and oxidation of organically bound fuel nitrogen are estimated on the basis of the stochastic model for a plug flow burner; these are compared with experimental measurements obtained using a laboratory burner operated over a wide range of test conditions; good agreement is obtained.

  16. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 500-MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired cmbustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Field chemical emissions monitoring, Overfire air and overfire air/low NO{sub x} burner operation: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes data gathered by Radian Corporation at a coal-fired power plant, designated Site 16, for a program sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services (SCS), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Concentrations of selected inorganic and organic substances were measured in the process and discharge streams of the plant operating under two different types of combustion modifications: overfire air (OFA) and a combination of overfire air with low-NO{sub x} burners (OFA/LNB). Information contained in this report will allow DOE and EPRI to determine the effects of low-NO{sub x} modifications on plant emissions and discharges. Sampling was performed on an opposed wall-fired boiler burning medium-sulfur bituminous coal. Emissions were controlled by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). The testing was conducted in two distinct sampling periods, with the OFA test performed in March of 1991 and the OFA/LNB test performed in May of 1993. Specific objectives were: to quantify emissions of target substances from the stack; to determine the efficiency of the ESPs for removing the target substances; and to determine the fate of target substances in the various plant discharge streams.

  17. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF NATURAL GAS-SWIRL BURNER

    SciTech Connect

    Ala Qubbaj

    2005-03-01

    A numerical simulation of a turbulent natural gas jet diffusion flame at a Reynolds number of 9000 in a swirling air stream is presented. The numerical computations were carried out using the commercially available software package CFDRC. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The thermal, composition, flow (velocity), as well as stream function fields for both the baseline and air-swirling flames were numerically simulated in the near-burner region, where most of the mixing and reactions occur. The results were useful to interpret the effects of swirl in enhancing the mixing rates in the combustion zone as well as in stabilizing the flame. The results showed the generation of two recirculating regimes induced by the swirling air stream, which account for such effects. The present investigation will be used as a benchmark study of swirl flow combustion analysis as a step in developing an enhanced swirl-cascade burner technology.

  18. Numerical simulation of radiative heat loss in an experimental burner

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.; Brookshaw, L.

    1993-09-01

    We describe the numerical algorithm used in the COYOTE two-dimensional, transient, Eulerian hydrodynamics program to allow for radiative heat losses in simulations of reactive flows. The model is intended primarily for simulations of industrial burners, but it is not confined to that application. It assumes that the fluid is optically thin and that photons created by the fluid immediately escape to free space or to the surrounding walls, depending upon the application. The use of the model is illustrated by simulations of a laboratory-scale experimental burner. We find that the radiative heat losses reduce the local temperature of the combustion products by a modest amount, typically on the order of 50 K. However, they have a significant impact on NO{sub x} production.

  19. Fuel burner with air-deflecting object and method therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Durfee, E.P.

    1980-12-16

    There is provided an improved fuel burner of the type having an air blower and blast tube. The improvement involves placement of an air-deflecting object inside the housing of the air blower or in the blast tube. In one embodiment, the object has a v-shaped cross section, and is attached to a gently tapered cylinder; the object can be held in place by inserting it through a hole of appropriate dimension in the air blower or blast tube, and tapping on the exposed end of the tapered cylinder until the latter is engaged in the hole. There is also provided a method of improving a fuel burner by mounting a air-deflecting object of the type described in the air blower housing or in the blast tube.

  20. T-Burner Testing of Metallized Solid Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-01

    are those associated with velocity coupling and large variations in the measured frequency. To illustrate possible techniques for accounting for these...Standardization of Combustion Insta- bility Measurements in the T-Burner, an ad hoc committee organized by the ICRPG Working Group on Solid Propellant... measurements of the response of a burning solid propellant to sinusoidal oscillations in the near flow field. Besides its place in re- search, it has

  1. Characterization of Particle Combustion in a Rijke Burner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    rate HTPB propellant with variable aluminum size. Figure 8. Typical firing with CYH showing the onset of dark combustion mode during high amplitude...turn is based on energy dissipation by viscous drag. When ZrC was first added to propellants it was considered to be an "inert" additive. However...and can provide valuable insight to the combustion mechanisms that occur in a burner. Several propellants have been tested1 ,4-6 in the VCTB and an

  2. Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations

    DOEpatents

    Farmayan, Walter Farman; Giles, Steven Paul; Brignac, Jr., Joseph Phillip; Munshi, Abdul Wahid; Abbasi, Faraz; Clomburg, Lloyd Anthony; Anderson, Karl Gregory; Tsai, Kuochen; Siddoway, Mark Alan

    2011-05-31

    A gas burner assembly for heating a subsurface formation includes an oxidant conduit, a fuel conduit, and a plurality of oxidizers coupled to the oxidant conduit. At least one of the oxidizers includes a mix chamber for mixing fuel from the fuel conduit with oxidant from the oxidant conduit, an igniter, and a shield. The shield includes a plurality of openings in communication with the oxidant conduit. At least one flame stabilizer is coupled to the shield.

  3. Altitude Test Cell in the Four Burner Area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1947-10-21

    One of the two altitude simulating-test chambers in Engine Research Building at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. The two chambers were collectively referred to as the Four Burner Area. NACA Lewis’ Altitude Wind Tunnel was the nation’s first major facility used for testing full-scale engines in conditions that realistically simulated actual flight. The wind tunnel was such a success in the mid-1940s that there was a backlog of engines waiting to be tested. The Four Burner chambers were quickly built in 1946 and 1947 to ease the Altitude Wind Tunnel’s congested schedule. The Four Burner Area was located in the southwest wing of the massive Engine Research Building, across the road from the Altitude Wind Tunnel. The two chambers were 10 feet in diameter and 60 feet long. The refrigeration equipment produced the temperatures and the exhauster equipment created the low pressures present at altitudes up to 60,000 feet. In 1947 the Rolls Royce Nene was the first engine tested in the new facility. The mechanic in this photograph is installing a General Electric J-35 engine. Over the next ten years, a variety of studies were conducted using the General Electric J-47 and Wright Aeronautical J-65 turbojets. The two test cells were occasionally used for rocket engines between 1957 and 1959, but other facilities were better suited to the rocket engine testing. The Four Burner Area was shutdown in 1959. After years of inactivity, the facility was removed from the Engine Research Building in late 1973 in order to create the High Temperature and Pressure Combustor Test Facility.

  4. Structure of diffusion flames from a vertical burner

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Finney; Dan Jimenez; Jack D. Cohen; Isaac C. Grenfell; Cyle Wold

    2010-01-01

    Non-steady and turbulent flames are commonly observed to produce flame contacts with adjacent fuels during fire spread in a wide range of fuel bed depths. A stationary gas-fired burner (flame wall) was developed to begin study of flame edge variability along an analagous vertical fuel source. This flame wall is surrogate for a combustion interface at the edge of a deep...

  5. Effect of cycled combustion ageing on a cordierite burner plate

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Eugenio

    2010-11-15

    A combination of {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction analysis has been employed to study modifications in chemical and mechanical stability occurring in a cordierite burner aged under combustion conditions which simulate the working of domestic boilers. Moessbauer study shows that Fe is distributed into the structural sites of the cordierite lattice as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions located mostly at octahedral sites. Ferric oxide impurities, mainly hematite, are also present in the starting cordierite material accounting for {approx_equal}40% of the total iron phases. From Moessbauer and X-ray diffraction data it can be deduced that, under the combustion conditions used, new crystalline phases were formed, some of the substitutional Fe{sup 3+} ions existing in the cordierite lattice were reduced to Fe{sup 2+}, and ferric oxides underwent a sintering process which results in hematite with higher particle size. All these findings were detected in the burner zone located in the proximity of the flame and were related to possible chemical reactions which might explain the observed deterioration of the burner material. Research Highlights: {yields}Depth profile analyses used as a probe to understand changes in refractory structure. {yields}All changes take place in the uppermost surface of the burner, close to the flame. {yields}Reduction to Fe{sup 2+} of substitutional Fe{sup 3+} ions and partial cordierite decomposition. {yields}Heating-cooling cycling induces a sintering of the existing iron oxide particles. {yields}Chemical changes can explain the alterations observed in the material microstructure.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Caner Yurteri

    2001-08-20

    The proposed research is directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This fundamental research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners to the kinetic emissions limit (below 0.2 lb./MMBTU). Experimental studies include both cold and hot flow evaluations of the following parameters: flame holder geometry, secondary air swirl, primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air and coal particle size distribution. Hot flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance. Cold flow studies will be conducted with surrogate particles as well as pulverized coal. The cold flow furnace will be similar in size and geometry to the hot-flow furnace but will be designed to use a laser Doppler velocimeter/phase Doppler particle size analyzer. The results of these studies will be used to predict particle trajectories in the hot-flow furnace as well as to estimate the effect of flame holder geometry on furnace flow field. The hot-flow experiments will be conducted in a novel near-flame down-flow pulverized coal furnace. The furnace will be equipped with externally heated walls. Both reactors will be sized to minimize wall effects on particle flow fields. The cold-flow results will be compared with Fluent computation fluid dynamics model predictions and correlated with the hot-flow results with the overall goal of providing insight for novel low NO{sub x} burner geometry's.

  7. Controversy of the year. Biomedical ethics on the front burner.

    PubMed

    2000-12-22

    CONTROVERSY OF THE YEAR: Biomedical Ethics on the Front Burner It was a hot year for debates over research ethics. Controversy erupted in late 1999 after the death of 18-year-old Jesse Gelsinger in a gene-therapy clinical trial at the University of Pennsylvania. Because Penn and one of its clinicians had a financial stake in a gene-therapy company, questions about potential conflicts of interest arose at once.

  8. Characterization of Noise and Instability in a Commercial Burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Stewart; Agrawal, Ajay

    2013-11-01

    A range of combustion applications produce noise as a significant and undesirable output. Concurrently, efforts to reduce emissions through lean premixed combustion have shown this process to be prone to developing instabilities. In this study a commercial-style combustor was investigated to characterize combustion noise and instabilities. Knowledge in this area is intended for future research involving the application of porous inert media (PIM) in industrial burners. Porous media has been used to passively suppress both combustion noise and instabilities in a laboratory setting, but has yet to be implemented in a commercial burner. Combustion experiments were conducted in an industrial-scale lean premixed burner using natural gas while varying equivalence ratio and reactant flow rate. Acoustic data was acquired using a microphone probe placed in the plane of the combustor exit. Measurements were analyzed in the frequency spectrum to quantify noise spectra and detect the development of instabilities. Results have indicated the occurrence of strong combustion instability at certain conditions. Additionally, research has supported the general relationship of increased noise production with increasing equivalence ratio and heat release rate. Adverse effects of combustion instability were accompanied with flashback and downstream acoustic excitation. Funding for this research provided by NSF REU grant 1062611.

  9. The BNL fan-atomized burner system prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has a continuing interest in the development of advanced oil burners which can provide new capabilities not currently available with pressure atomized, retention head burners. Specifically program goals include: the ability to operate at firing rates as low as 0.25 gph; the ability to operate with very low excess air levels for high steady state efficiency and to minimize formation of sulfuric acid and iron sulfate fouling; low emissions of smoke, CO, and NO{sub x} even at very low excess air levels; and the potential for modulation - either staged firing or continuous modulation. In addition any such advanced burner must have production costs which would be sufficiently attractive to allow commercialization. The primary motivation for all work sponsored by the US DOE is, of course, improved efficiency. With existing boiler and furnace models this can be achieved through down-firing and low excess air operation. Also, with low excess air operation fouling and efficiency degradation due to iron-sulfate scale formation are reduced.

  10. Flame characteristics in a novel petal swirl burner

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Lingling; Zhou, Qiangtai; Zhao, Changsui

    2008-10-15

    A three-dimensional (360 deg) body-fitted coordinate mathematical model to simulate pulverized coal particle combustion in a petal swirl burner (PSB) is first set up to analyze the flame stability and its characteristics. The studies on the flow pattern, the temperature distribution, and the flue gas composition of the flame, the ignition location, and the combustion efficiency of the pulverized coal particle are conducted. The results show that owing to the special geometric design of the PSB, some of the pulverized coal particles leaving the burner can directly enter the radial recirculation zone (RRZ) behind the petal flame stabilizer (PFS) and are immediately ignited and burned in the RRZ, producing a sort of flame that is always on duty behind each petal, which is called the permanent flame. The flame pattern, which is a combination of the main flame and several permanent flames, provides a sufficient heat source for reliable ignition and steady combustion even for the low-volatile coal-firing and turndown capacity operation, and is advantageous to lower NO{sub x} emission. Moreover, the mechanisms by which the special flame pattern of PSB can be existed are analyzed. A PSB test was undertaken in a 210-MW power plant boiler to investigate the performance of the PSB with firing of low-volatile pulverized coal. The temperature measurement value along the burner axis is given, in which the temperature distribution and the ignition location are clearly shown. (author)

  11. Natural Gas Burners for Domestic and Industrial Appliances.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneo, Lucio; Coghe, Aldo; Cozzi, Fabio; Olivani, Andrea; Solero, Giulio

    This contribution presents some examples of the application of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique to domestic appliances and small-scale burners, with the aim of discussing relevant results together with problems encountered. Combustion efficiency and pollutant emissions of gas burners are strongly influenced by the fluid dynamics of the mixture in both premixed and nonpremixed flames. For these reasons the Combustion Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano started using laser diagnostic techniques (LDV and PIV) many years ago. The first PIV application was on a premixed V-flame attached over a burner plate with rectangular twin slots, developed for domestic appliances. The autocorrelation of a double-exposed photograph was used to define the 2-D velocity flow field and high spatial resolution was obtained with a 1 : 1 magnification and a zoom Nikkor objective. More recently, a crosscorrelation CCD camera with a double-pulse Nd:YAG laser was used to characterize high-swirl flows under both nonreacting and reacting conditions. In the following, special emphasis will be given to the discussion of the most relevant results and the main problems encountered with PIV applications to the investigated cases.

  12. Disposal of Liquid Combustible Wastes using Flameless Burners with Porous Carbon Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, Sergei; Savchenko, Evgenii; Khaustov, Sergei; Tabakaev, Roman; Zavorin, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Two modifications of flameless burners with a carbon porous media in the combustion area were investigated. Kerosene TS-1 and mixtures of highly flammable liquids wastes (HIL) were used as fuel. Experimental data are presented in a graphical form as plot of the burner thermal capacity. Results show capacity for of the developed devices and prove the prospects of disposal of liquid combustible wastes using flameless burners with porous carbon matrix.

  13. Design and analysis of the federal aviation administration next generation fire test burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Robert Ian

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration makes use of threat-based fire test methods for the certification of aircraft cabin materials to enhance the level of safety in the event of an in-flight or post-crash fire on a transport airplane. The global nature of the aviation industry results in these test methods being performed at hundreds of laboratories around the world; in some cases testing identical materials at multiple labs but yielding different results. Maintenance of this standard for an elevated level of safety requires that the test methods be as well defined as possible, necessitating a comprehensive understanding of critical test method parameters. The tests have evolved from simple Bunsen burner material tests to larger, more complicated apparatuses, requiring greater understanding of the device for proper application. The FAA specifies a modified home heating oil burner to simulate the effects of large, intense fires for testing of aircraft seat cushions, cargo compartment liners, power plant components, and thermal acoustic insulation. Recently, the FAA has developed a Next Generation (NexGen) Fire Test burner to replace the original oil burner that has become commercially unavailable. The NexGen burner design is based on the original oil burner but with more precise control of the air and fuel flow rates with the addition of a sonic nozzle and a pressurized fuel system. Knowledge of the fundamental flow properties created by various burner configurations is desired to develop an updated and standardized burner configuration for use around the world for aircraft materials fire testing and airplane certification. To that end, the NexGen fire test burner was analyzed with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to resolve the non-reacting exit flow field and determine the influence of the configuration of burner components. The correlation between the measured flow fields and the standard burner performance metrics of flame temperature and

  14. Computational investigations of low-emission burner facilities for char gas burning in a power boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Morozov, I. V.; Zaychenko, M. N.; Sidorkin, V. T.

    2016-04-01

    Various variants for the structure of low-emission burner facilities, which are meant for char gas burning in an operating TP-101 boiler of the Estonia power plant, are considered. The planned increase in volumes of shale reprocessing and, correspondingly, a rise in char gas volumes cause the necessity in their cocombustion. In this connection, there was a need to develop a burner facility with a given capacity, which yields effective char gas burning with the fulfillment of reliability and environmental requirements. For this purpose, the burner structure base was based on the staging burning of fuel with the gas recirculation. As a result of the preliminary analysis of possible structure variants, three types of early well-operated burner facilities were chosen: vortex burner with the supply of recirculation gases into the secondary air, vortex burner with the baffle supply of recirculation gases between flows of the primary and secondary air, and burner facility with the vortex pilot burner. Optimum structural characteristics and operation parameters were determined using numerical experiments. These experiments using ANSYS CFX bundled software of computational hydrodynamics were carried out with simulation of mixing, ignition, and burning of char gas. Numerical experiments determined the structural and operation parameters, which gave effective char gas burning and corresponded to required environmental standard on nitrogen oxide emission, for every type of the burner facility. The burner facility for char gas burning with the pilot diffusion burner in the central part was developed and made subject to computation results. Preliminary verification nature tests on the TP-101 boiler showed that the actual content of nitrogen oxides in burner flames of char gas did not exceed a claimed concentration of 150 ppm (200 mg/m3).

  15. Premixed burner studies of NO{sub x} formation and control

    SciTech Connect

    Casleton, K.H.; Straub, D.L.; Moran, C.; Stephens, J.W.

    1993-11-01

    One of the primary reasons for using this type of premixed, flat flame burner is that it is essentially one-dimensional (1-D), i.e., that important parameters such as temperature are nearly constant in regions near the central vertical axis of the burner for a fixed height above the burner surface. As a result of this 1-D nature, computer codes such as Sandia National Laboratory`s PREMIX can be used to model the important chemical interactions involved in the combustion processes. These predictions can be compared with experimental measurements to gain valuable insight into the formation of nitrogen oxides. The bulk of the burner experiments performed to date have been focussed primarily toward characterization of burner and the sample extraction and analysis system. All experiments thus far have been for methane/air flames at one atmosphere pressure. Figure 2 shows the burner centerline temperature profile for an equivalence ratio of {Phi} = 0.87. The sharp peak in temperature near 0.3 cm corresponds to the luminous zone of the flame. The high temperature in the luminous zone shows an abrupt decay with increasing height above the burner. The temperature gradient in the non-luminous post-flame zone is much smaller, approximately 2.5{degree}C decrease in temperature for each millimeter increase in height over the range of 1.3 to 4 cm above the burner. Radial temperature profiles have also been measured to assess the onedimensional nature of this burner.

  16. Development of Non-Equilibrium Plasma-Flame Kinetic Mechanism and its Validation Using Gliding Arc Integrated with Counterflow Burner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-21

    FINAL REPORT: FA9550-07-1-0136, Dec. 2006 – Nov. 2009 Development of Non-Equilibrium Plasma-Flame Kinetic Mechanism and its...U) Development of Non-Equilibrium Plasma-Flame Kinetic Mechanism and its Validation Using Gliding Arc Integrated with Counterflow Burner 5a...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Kinetic enhancements of NOx, O3, and O2(a1Δg) on ignition and flame propagation of CH4 and H2, C3H8 and

  17. NOx reduction in natural gas high-performance burners laboratory burner evaluation and design optimization. Topical report, December 1989-May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Syska, A.J.; Benson, C.E.; Beer, J.M.; Toqan, M.; Moreland, D.

    1994-09-01

    The report summarizes the results of the first two phases of a program aimed at developing a low NO(x) burner suitable for high temperature industrial applications, where NO(x) emissions can become extremely high. The program was one of two addressing this important objective. The second, a collaboration between Eclipse Combustion and Altex Technologies also has achieved technical success. Each program aimed at slightly different combustion applications, with this burner being well suited for smaller furnace applications while the Eclipse/Altex burner is better suited for large-scale furnaces such as steel reheating.

  18. Removal of NOx and CO from a burner system.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri Mohd; Ishak, Mohd Shaiful Ashrul; Saharin, Sanisah

    2010-04-15

    This paper presents the development of an emissions-controlling technique for oil burners aimed especially to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Another emission of interest is carbon monoxide (CO). In this research, a liquid fuel burner is used. In the first part, five different radial air swirler blade angles, 30 degrees , 40 degrees , 45 degrees , 50 degrees , and 60 degrees , respectively, have been investigated using a combustor with 163 mm inside diameter and 280 mm length. Tests were conducted using kerosene as fuel. Fuel was injected at the back plate of the swirler outlet. The swirler blade angles and equivalence ratios were varied. A NOx reduction of more than 28% and CO emissions reduction of more than 40% were achieved for blade angle of 60 degrees compared to the 30 degrees blade angle. The second part of this paper presents the insertion of an orifice plate at the exit plane of the air swirler outlet. Three different orifice plate diameters of 35, 40, and 45 mm were used with a 45 degrees radial air swirler vane angle. The fuel flow rates and orifice plate's sizes were varied. NOx reduction of more than 30% and CO emissions reduction of more than 25% were obtained using the 25 mm diameter orifice plate compared to the test configuration without the orifice plate. The last part of this paper presents tests conducted using the air-staging method. An industrial oil burner system was investigated using the air staging method in order to reduce emission, especially NOx. Emissions reduction of 30% and 16.7% were obtained for NOx and CO emissions, respectively, when using air staging compared to the non-air-staging tests.

  19. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOEpatents

    Nodd, Dennis G.; Walker, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing with an atomizing air flow and directed into the combustion chamber. The atomizer includes a swirler located immediately adjacent to where the fuel slurry is introduced into the combustion chamber and which has a single center channel through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry flows into a plurality of diverging channels continuous with the center channel from which the slurry exits the swirler immediately adjacent to an aperture in the combustion chamber. The swirler includes a plurality of slots around its periphery extending the length thereof through which the atomizing air flows and by means of which the atomizing air is deflected so as to exert a maximum shear force upon the carbonaceous material-water slurry as it exits the swirler and enters the combustion chamber. A circulating coolant system or boiler feed water is provided around the periphery of the burner along the length thereof to regulate burner operating temperature, eliminate atomizer plugging, and inhibit the generation of sparklers, thus increasing combustion efficiency. A secondary air source directs heated air into the combustion chamber to promote recirculation of the hot combustion gases within the combustion chamber.

  20. Experimental and theoretical study on characteristics of pulse excitation in T-burners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Mi; Wang, Ningfei; Li, Junwei; Song, Anchen; Ma, Yu

    2017-05-01

    Pulse excitation is the key to measure the pressure-coupling response function of composite propellant. It is also a key trigger factor for nonlinear combustion instability. This paper aims at understanding characteristics of pulse excitation in T-burners. Pulse excitation is provided by black powder (BP). D2 law is used to calculate BP burning properties. Firstly, the experimental pressure history of a pulse excitation is analyzed. Pressure pulse and mean pressure increment are introduced to describe pulse excitation. Secondly, the modified zero-dimension model and one-dimension model of pressure pulse are established based on energy conservation and modification. The results of models indicate that the modified zero-dimensional model can accurately predict the pressure pulse. The modified zero-dimension model demonstrates that the pressure pulse is determined by pulse build-up time threshold, volume coefficient, effective weight fraction of BP, weight of BP et. al. When burning time of BP is larger than the threshold, volume coefficient is equal to 2, and effective weight fraction of BP is less than 1. The pressure pulse is approximately linear correlation with weight and effective weight fraction of BP. Otherwise, volume coefficient is larger than 2, and effective weight fraction of BP is equal to 1. The pressure pulse is approximately linear correlation with volume coefficient and BP weight. Thirdly, a zero-dimensional prediction model of mean pressure is established based on conservations of energy and mass. The prediction models of pressure pulse and mean pressure are validated by T-burner experiments. Finally, effects of BP burning properties on pressure pulse and mean pressure increment are studied. The results show that both pressure pulse and mean pressure increment increase with increasing BP weight, linearly. The pressure pulse is more sensitivity to the variations of burning time of BP. As burning time of BP decreases, the mean pressure increment

  1. REAL TIME FLAME MONITORING OF GASIFIER BURNER AND INJECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    James Servaites; Serguei Zelepouga; David Rue

    2003-10-01

    This report is submitted to the United States Department of Energy in partial fulfillment of the contractual requirements for Phase I of the project titled, ''Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors'', under co-operative agreement number DE-FS26-02NT41585. The project is composed of three one-year budget periods. The work in each year is divided into separate Tasks to facilitate project management, orderly completion of all project objectives, budget control, and critical path application of personnel and equipment. This Topical Report presents results of the Task 1 and 2 work. The 2 D optical sensor was developed to monitor selected UV and visible wavelengths to collect accurate flame characterization information regarding mixing, flame shape, and flame rich/lean characteristic. Flame richness, for example, was determined using OH and CH intensity peaks in the 300 to 500 nanometer range of the UV and visible spectrum. The laboratory burner was operated over a wide range of air to fuel ratio conditions from fuel rich to fuel lean. The sooty oxygen enriched air flames were established to test the sensor ability to characterize flame structures with substantial presence of hot solid particles emitting strong ''black body radiation''. The knowledge gained in these experiments will be very important when the sensor is used for gasifier flame analyses. It is expected that the sensor when installed on the Global Energy gasifier will be exposed to complex radiation patterns. The measured energy will be a combination of spectra emitted by the combusting gases, hot solid particulates, and hot walls of the gasifier chamber. The ability to separate flame emissions from the ''black body emissions'' will allow the sensor to accurately determine flame location relative to the gasifier walls and the injectors, as well as to analyze the flame's structure and condition. Ultimately, this information should enable the gasification processes to be monitored and

  2. NOx formation in combustion of gaseous fuel in ejection burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimár, Miroslav; Kulikov, Andrii

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare model for researching of the formation in combustion of gaseous fuels. NOx formation is one of the main ecological problems nowadays as nitrogen oxides is one of main reasons of acid rains. The ANSYS model was designed according to the calculation to provide full combustion and good mixing of the fuel and air. The current model is appropriate to research NOx formation and the influence of the different principles of NOx reduction method. Applying of designed model should spare both time of calculations and research and also money as you do not need to measure the burner characteristics.

  3. Development of mesoscale burner arrays for gas turbine reheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunyoup

    Mesoscale burner arrays allow combustion to be conducted in a distributed fashion at a millimeter (meso) scale. At this scale, diffusive processes are fast, but not yet dominant, such that numerous advantages over conventional gas turbine combustion can be achieved without giving up the possibility to use fluid inertia to advantage. Since the scale of the reaction zone follows from the scale at which the reactants are mixed, very compact flames result. This compact, distributed form of combustion can provide the opportunity of inter-turbine reheat as well as the potential for lean premixed or highly vitiated combustion to suppress NOx emissions. As a proof-of-concept, a 4x4 array with burner elements on 5-mm centers was fabricated in silicon nitride via assembly mold SDM. Each burner element was designed in a single monolithic unit with its own combination of reactant inlets, fuel plenum and injection nozzles, and swirler to induce flame stabilization. Results using methane, including pressure drop, flame stability, temperature distribution in the burnt gas, and NO emissions are reported for both fully premixed (mixing prior to injection) and nonpremixed (mixing in the array) configurations. These results demonstrate the degree to which premixed performance can be achieved with this design and pointed to ways in which the array design could be improved over this first-generation unit. Given what was learned from the 4x4 array, a next-generation 6x6 array was developed. Major design changes include addition of a bluff-body stabilizer to each burner element to improve stability and use of a multilayer architecture to enhance the degree of reactant mixing. Tests using methane in both operating conditions were performed for two stabilization configurations---with and without the bluff bodies. The results for nonpremixed operation show that nearly complete air/fuel mixing was achieved using the 6x6 design, leading to NO emission levels obtainable under fully premixed

  4. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Details of Vertical Burner Head 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Vertical Burner Head ER15MR06.003...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Details of Horizontal Burner Head 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Horizontal Burner Head ER15MR06.002...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Details of Horizontal Burner Head 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Horizontal Burner Head ER15MR06.002...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Details of Horizontal Burner Head 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Horizontal Burner Head ER15MR06.002...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Details of Vertical Burner Head 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Vertical Burner Head ER15MR06.003...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Details of Vertical Burner Head 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Vertical Burner Head ER15MR06.003...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Details of Vertical Burner Head 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Vertical Burner Head ER15MR06.003...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 4 to Part 1633 - Details of Vertical Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Details of Vertical Burner Head 4 Figure 4 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Vertical Burner Head ER15MR06.003...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Details of Horizontal Burner Head 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Horizontal Burner Head ER15MR06.002...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1633 - Details of Horizontal Burner Head

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Details of Horizontal Burner Head 3 Figure 3 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT...—Details of Horizontal Burner Head ER15MR06.002...

  14. Plasma-assisted combustion technology for NOx reduction in industrial burners.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Hoon; Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Hee Seok; Song, Young-Hoon; Park, Jae Eon

    2013-10-01

    Stronger regulations on nitrogen oxide (NOx) production have recently promoted the creation of a diverse array of technologies for NOx reduction, particularly within the combustion process, where reduction is least expensive. In this paper, we discuss a new combustion technology that can reduce NOx emissions within industrial burners to single-digit parts per million levels without employing exhaust gas recirculation or other NOx reduction mechanisms. This new technology uses a simple modification of commercial burners, such that they are able to perform plasma-assisted staged combustion without altering the outer configuration of the commercial reference burner. We embedded the first-stage combustor within the head of the commercial reference burner, where it operated as a reformer that could host a partial oxidation process, producing hydrogen-rich reformate or synthesis gas product. The resulting hydrogen-rich flow then ignited and stabilized the combustion flame apart from the burner rim. Ultimately, the enhanced mixing and removal of hot spots with a widened flame area acted as the main mechanisms of NOx reduction. Because this plasma burner acted as a low NOx burner and was able to reduce NOx by more than half compared to the commercial reference burner, this methodology offers important cost-effective possibilities for NOx reduction in industrial applications.

  15. Analytical screening of low emissions, high performance duct burners for supersonic cruise aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohmann, R. A.; Riecke, G. T.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical screening study was conducted to identify duct burner concepts capable of providing low emissions and high performance in advanced supersonic engines. Duct burner configurations ranging from current augmenter technology to advanced concepts such as premix-prevaporized burners were defined. Aerothermal and mechanical design studies provided the basis for screening these configurations using the criteria of emissions, performance, engine compatibility, cost, weight and relative risk. Technology levels derived from recently defined experimental low emissions main burners are required to achieve both low emissions and high performance goals. A configuration based on the Vorbix (Vortex burning and mixing) combustor concept was analytically determined to meet the performance goals and is consistent with the fan duct envelope of a variable cycle engine. The duct burner configuration has a moderate risk level compatible with the schedule of anticipated experimental programs.

  16. Laboratory measurements in a turbulent, swirling flow. [measurement of soot inside a flame-tube burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoult, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of soot inside a flame-tube burner using a special water-flushed probe are discussed. The soot is measured at a series of points at each burner, and upon occasion gaseous constitutents NO, CO, hydrocarbons, etc., were also measured. Four geometries of flame-tube burners were studied, as well as a variety of different fuels. The role of upstream geometry on the downstream pollutant formation was studied. It was found that the amount of soot formed in particularly sensitive to how aerodynamically clean the configuration of the burner is upstream of the injector swirl vanes. The effect of pressure on soot formation was also studied. It was found that beyond a certain Reynolds number, the peak amount of soot formed in the burner is constant.

  17. Full-scale demonstration Low-NO sub x Cell trademark Burner retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    The Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} Burner operates on the principle of staged combustion. The lower burner of each two-nozzle cell is modified to accommodate all the fuel input previously handled by two nozzles. Secondary air, less than theoretically required for complete combustion, is introduced to the lower burner. The remainder of secondary air is directed to the upper port'' of each cell to complete the combustion process. B W/EPRI have thoroughly tested the LNCB{trademark} at two pilot scales (6 million Btu per hour and 100 million Btu per hour), and tested a single full-scale burner in a utility boiler. Combustion tests at two scales have confirmed NO{sub x} reduction with the low-NO{sub x} cell on the order of 50% relative to the standard cell burner at optimum operating conditions. The technology is now ready for full unit, full-scale demonstration.

  18. Abatement of SF6 and CF4 using an enhanced kerosene microwave plasma burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hun Shin, Dong; Cheol Hong, Yong; Cheon Cho, Soon; Sup Uhm, Han

    2006-11-01

    A kerosene microwave plasma burner was presented as a tool for abatement of SF6 and CF4 gases, which cause global warming. The plasma burner operates by injecting kerosene as a liquid hydrocarbon fuel into a microwave plasma torch and by mixing the resultant gaseous hydrogen and carbon compounds with air or oxygen (O2) gas. The abatement of SF6 and CF4, by making use of the kerosene plasma burner, was conducted in terms of nitrogen (N2) flow rates. The destruction and removal efficiency of the burner were achieved up to 99.9999% for 0.1 liters per minute (lpm) SF6 in 120lpm N2 and 99.3% for 0.05lpm CF4 in 60lpm N2, revealing that the microwave plasma burner can effectively eliminate perfluorocompounds emitted from the semiconductor industries.

  19. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height...

  20. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat... Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam generating units...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  3. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat... Stationary Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam...

  4. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are duct burners and waste heat... Stationary Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam...

  5. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are duct burners and waste heat... Stationary Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam...

  6. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat... Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam generating units...

  7. Fully Premixed Low Emission, High Pressure Multi-Fuel Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A low-emissions high-pressure multi-fuel burner includes a fuel inlet, for receiving a fuel, an oxidizer inlet, for receiving an oxidizer gas, an injector plate, having a plurality of nozzles that are aligned with premix face of the injector plate, the plurality of nozzles in communication with the fuel and oxidizer inlets and each nozzle providing flow for one of the fuel and the oxidizer gas and an impingement-cooled face, parallel to the premix face of the injector plate and forming a micro-premix chamber between the impingement-cooled face and the in injector face. The fuel and the oxidizer gas are mixed in the micro-premix chamber through impingement-enhanced mixing of flows of the fuel and the oxidizer gas. The burner can be used for low-emissions fuel-lean fully-premixed, or fuel-rich fully-premixed hydrogen-air combustion, or for combustion with other gases such as methane or other hydrocarbons, or even liquid fuels.

  8. Operational characteristics of a parallel jet MILD combustion burner system

    SciTech Connect

    Szegoe, G.G.; Dally, B.B.; Nathan, G.J.

    2009-02-15

    This study describes the performance and stability characteristics of a parallel jet MILD (Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution) combustion burner system in a laboratory-scale furnace, in which the reactants and exhaust ports are all mounted on the same wall. Thermal field measurements are presented for cases with and without combustion air preheat, in addition to global temperature and emission measurements for a range of equivalence ratio, heat extraction, air preheat and fuel dilution levels. The present furnace/burner configuration proved to operate without the need for external air preheating, and achieved a high degree of temperature uniformity. Based on an analysis of the temperature distribution and emissions, PSR model predictions, and equilibrium calculations, the CO formation was found to be related to the mixing patterns and furnace temperature rather than reaction quenching by the heat exchanger. The critical equivalence ratio, or excess air level, which maintains low CO emissions is reported for different heat exchanger positions, and an optimum operating condition is identified. Results of CO and NO{sub x} emissions, together with visual observations and a simplified two-dimensional analysis of the furnace aerodynamics, demonstrate that fuel jet momentum controls the stability of this multiple jet system. A stability diagram showing the threshold for stable operation is reported, which is not explained by previous stability criteria. (author)

  9. Visualisation of isothermal large coherent structures in a swirl burner

    SciTech Connect

    Valera-Medina, A.; Syred, N.; Griffiths, A.

    2009-09-15

    Lean premixed combustion using swirl flame stabilisation is widespread amongst gas turbine manufacturers. The use of swirl mixing and flame stabilisation is also prevalent in many other non-premixed systems. Problems that emerge include loss of stabilisation as a function of combustor geometry and thermo-acoustic instabilities. Coherent structures and their relationship with combustion processes have been a concern for decades due to their complex nature. This paper thus adopts an experimental approach to characterise large coherent structures in swirl burners under isothermal conditions so as to reveal the effects of swirl in a number of geometries and cold flow patterns that are relevant in combustion. Aided by techniques such as Hot Wire Anemometry, High Speed Photography and Particle Image Velocimetry, the recognition of several structures was achieved in a 100 kW swirl burner model. Several varied, interacting, structures developed in the field as a consequence of the configurations used. New structures never observed before were identified, the results not only showing the existence of very well defined large structures, but also their dependency on geometrical and flow parameters. The PVC is confirmed to be a semi-helical structure, contrary to previous simulations performed on the system. The appearance of secondary recirculation zones and suppression of the vortical core as a consequence of geometrical constrictions are presented as a mechanism of flow control. The asymmetry of the Central Recirculation Zone in cold flows is observed in all the experiments, with its elongation dependent on Re and swirl number used. (author)

  10. Process and apparatus for igniting a burner in an inert atmosphere

    DOEpatents

    Coolidge, Dennis W.; Rinker, Franklin G.

    1994-01-01

    According to this invention there is provided a process and apparatus for the ignition of a pilot burner in an inert atmosphere without substantially contaminating the inert atmosphere. The process includes the steps of providing a controlled amount of combustion air for a predetermined interval of time to the combustor then substantially simultaneously providing a controlled mixture of fuel and air to the pilot burner and to a flame generator. The controlled mixture of fuel and air to the flame generator is then periodically energized to produce a secondary flame. With the secondary flame the controlled mixture of fuel and air to the pilot burner and the combustion air is ignited to produce a pilot burner flame. The pilot burner flame is then used to ignited a mixture of main fuel and combustion air to produce a main burner flame. The main burner flame then is used to ignite a mixture of process derived fuel and combustion air to produce products of combustion for use as an inert gas in a heat treatment process.

  11. Simulation Modeling of an Enhanced Low-Emission Swirl-Cascade Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Ala Qubbaj

    2004-09-01

    ''Cascade-burners'' is a passive technique to control the stoichiometry of the flame through changing the flow dynamics and rates of mixing in the combustion zone with a set of venturis surrounding the flame. Cascade-burners have shown advantages over other techniques; its reliability, flexibility, safety, and cost makes it more attractive and desirable. On the other hand, the application of ''Swirl-burners'' has shown superiority in producing a stable flame under a variety of operating conditions and fuel types. The basic idea is to impart swirl to the air or fuel stream, or both. This not only helps to stabilize the flame but also enhances mixing in the combustion zone. As a result, nonpremixed (diffusion) swirl burners have been increasingly used in industrial combustion systems such as gas turbines, boilers, and furnaces, due to their advantages of safety and stability. Despite the advantages of cascade and swirl burners, both are passive control techniques, which resulted in a moderate pollutant emissions reduction compared to SCR, SNCR and FGR (active) methods. The present investigation will study the prospects of combining both techniques in what to be named as ''an enhanced swirl-cascade burner''. Natural gas jet diffusion flames in baseline, cascade, swirl, and swirl-cascade burners were numerically modeled using CFDRC package. The thermal, composition, and flow (velocity) fields were simulated. The numerical results showed that swirl and cascade burners have a more efficient fuel/air mixing, a shorter flame, and a lower NOx emission levels, compared to the baseline case. The results also revealed that the optimal configurations of the cascaded and swirling flames have not produced an improved performance when combined together in a ''swirl-cascade burner''. The non-linearity and complexity of the system accounts for such a result, and therefore, all possible combinations, i.e. swirl numbers (SN) versus venturi diameter ratios (D/d), need to be considered.

  12. Research in Varying Burner Tilt Angle to Reduce Rear Pass Temperature in Coal Fired Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrangaraju, Savithry K.; Munisamy, Kannan M.; Baskaran, Saravanan

    2017-04-01

    This research shows the investigation conducted on one of techniques that is used in Manjung 700 MW tangentially fired coal power plant. The investigation conducted in this research is finding out the right tilt angle for the burners in the boiler that causes an efficient temperature distribution and combustion gas flow pattern in the boiler especially at the rear pass section. The main outcome of the project is to determine the right tilt angle for the burner to create an efficient temperature distribution and combustion gas flow pattern that able to increase the efficiency of the boiler. The investigation is carried out by using Computational Fluid Dynamics method to obtain the results by varying the burner tilt angle. The boiler model is drawn by using designing software which is called Solid Works and Fluent from Computational Fluid Dynamics is used to conduct the analysis on the boiler model. The analysis is to imitate the real combustion process in the real Manjung 700 MW boiler. The expected results are to determine the right burner tilt angle with a computational fluid analysis by obtaining the temperature distribution and combustion gas flow pattern for each of the three angles set for the burner tilt angle in FLUENT software. Three burner tilt angles are selected which are burner tilt angle at (0°) as test case 1, burner tilt angle at (+10°) as test case 2 and burner tilt angle at (-10°) as test case 3. These entire three cases were run in CFD software and the results of temperature distribution and velocity vector were obtained to find out the changes on the three cases at the furnace and rear pass section of the boiler. The results are being compared in analysis part by plotting graphs to determine the right tilting angle that reduces the rear pass temperature.

  13. Effect of different downstream temperatures on the performance of a two-layer porous burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, T. C.; Malico, I.; Pereira, J. C. F.

    2010-07-01

    The influence of considering different downstream temperatures on the performance of a two-layer porous burner is studied numerically. A 3D numerical model based on a unit cell was implemented to correctly predict the momentum, heat and mass transfer at the interface of the two layers. Two operating modes are simulated corresponding to the burner radiating to cold and hot environments. When the burner radiates to a hot environment, its radiative heat losses are lower and, as a consequence, the temperatures and pollutants emissions are higher. Additionally, the flame front moves upstream and stabilizes nearer the interface of the two layers.

  14. Process burner and combustion system hazards: 10 key issues that save lives.

    PubMed

    John R Puskar, P E

    2007-04-11

    Burner and combustion safety is crucial for the safe operation of fuel-fired heaters and boilers at process industry facilities. This paper discusses 10 of the most common burner and combustion system hazards that impact the safe operation of combustion equipment. The paper includes a discussion of three burner related explosion incidents that occurred at plants and how to avoid them. Strategies are also presented for training of maintenance and operations personnel on hazard recognition and avoidance. A protocol for walking down equipment prior to light offs is also presented as an extra safety step.

  15. High-Pressure Gaseous Burner (HPGB) Facility Became Operational

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2003-01-01

    A gas-fueled high-pressure combustion facility with optical access, developed over the last 3 years, is now collecting research data in a production mode. The High-Pressure Gaseous Burner (HPGB) rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center can operate at sustained pressures up to 60 atm with a variety of gaseous fuels and liquid jet fuel. The facility is unique because it is the only continuous-flow, hydrogen-capable 60-atm rig in the world with optical access. It will provide researchers with new insights into flame conditions that simulate the environment inside the ultra-high-pressure-ratio combustion chambers of tomorrow s advanced aircraft engines. The facility provides optical access to the flame zone through four fused-silica optical windows, enabling the calibration of nonintrusive optical diagnostics to measure chemical species and temperature. The data from the HPGB rig enable the validation of numerical codes that simulate gas turbine combustors.

  16. A Study of Scrap Heating By Burners. Part I: Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Kamalesh; Irons, Gordon A.

    2013-02-01

    A furnace, approximately 1 m3 in capacity, was built to measure the efficiency of heat transfer from a propane-oxygen burner to different types of industrial steel scrap. Supplementary measurements were undertaken to measure the scrap density, size, and void fraction to insure complete combustion of the propane and to measure the extent of scrap oxidation. Local values of temperature in the scrap bed were measured along with the exit temperature of the off gas. The off gas temperature was a direct measurement of the overall efficiency of heating. It was found that smaller and denser scrap was heated more effectively. Configurations that increased the path length of the gas also increased the efficiency of heating. In Part II, a mathematical model is developed to compare with the measured temperatures.

  17. Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

  18. Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

  19. Optimum compositions for thermal insulation of burners and regenerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zasypkin, V.I.; Popov, O.N.

    1988-07-01

    The thermal and mechanical properties of thermal insulation compositions applied by spraying were evaluated to determine the optimum composition for the parameters posed by the burners and regenerators of glass-melting furnaces. The effects of varying spray parameters on these properties were also assessed. Changes were made in the binder density while leaving the amount of filler unaltered. With an increase in binder density there was an increase in the apparent density of the insulation. Kaolin wool with an aluminoborophosphate concentrate binder was tested for thermal conductivity, apparent density, and bending, shear, and compression strength against asbestos with water glass as a binder. For walls of the regenerators and a single-layer heat insulation, insulation made from an asbestos-perlite mixture with water glass was recommended.

  20. Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D.; Lowell, C.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-base alloys (IN-792, IN-738, and IN-100), a cobalt-base alloy (MM-509), and an iron-base alloy (304 stainless steel) were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and with both the concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

  1. Fire Suppression in Low Gravity Using a Cup Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Linteris, Gregory T.; Katta, Viswanath R.

    2004-01-01

    Longer duration missions to the moon, to Mars, and on the International Space Station increase the likelihood of accidental fires. The goal of the present investigation is to: (1) understand the physical and chemical processes of fire suppression in various gravity and O2 levels simulating spacecraft, Mars, and moon missions; (2) provide rigorous testing of numerical models, which include detailed combustion suppression chemistry and radiation sub-models; and (3) provide basic research results useful for advances in space fire safety technology, including new fire-extinguishing agents and approaches. The structure and extinguishment of enclosed, laminar, methane-air co-flow diffusion flames formed on a cup burner have been studied experimentally and numerically using various fire-extinguishing agents (CO2, N2, He, Ar, CF3H, and Fe(CO)5). The experiments involve both 1g laboratory testing and low-g testing (in drop towers and the KC-135 aircraft). The computation uses a direct numerical simulation with detailed chemistry and radiative heat-loss models. An agent was introduced into a low-speed coflowing oxidizing stream until extinguishment occurred under a fixed minimal fuel velocity, and thus, the extinguishing agent concentrations were determined. The extinguishment of cup-burner flames, which resemble real fires, occurred via a blowoff process (in which the flame base drifted downstream) rather than the global extinction phenomenon typical of counterflow diffusion flames. The computation revealed that the peak reactivity spot (the reaction kernel) formed in the flame base was responsible for attachment and blowoff of the trailing diffusion flame. Furthermore, the buoyancy-induced flame flickering in 1g and thermal and transport properties of the agents affected the flame extinguishment limits.

  2. Fire Suppression in Low Gravity Using a Cup Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki; Linteris, Gregory T.; Katta, Viswanath R.

    2004-01-01

    Longer duration missions to the moon, to Mars, and on the International Space Station increase the likelihood of accidental fires. The goal of the present investigation is to: (1) understand the physical and chemical processes of fire suppression in various gravity and O2 levels simulating spacecraft, Mars, and moon missions; (2) provide rigorous testing of numerical models, which include detailed combustion-suppression chemistry and radiation sub-models; and (3) provide basic research results useful for advances in space fire safety technology, including new fire-extinguishing agents and approaches.The structure and extinguishment of enclosed, laminar, methane-air co-flow diffusion flames formed on a cup burner have been studied experimentally and numerically using various fire-extinguishing agents (CO2, N2, He, Ar, CF3H, and Fe(CO)5). The experiments involve both 1g laboratory testing and low-g testing (in drop towers and the KC-135 aircraft). The computation uses a direct numerical simulation with detailed chemistry and radiative heat-loss models. An agent was introduced into a low-speed coflowing oxidizing stream until extinguishment occurred under a fixed minimal fuel velocity, and thus, the extinguishing agent concentrations were determined. The extinguishment of cup-burner flames, which resemble real fires, occurred via a blowoff process (in which the flame base drifted downstream) rather than the global extinction phenomenon typical of counterflow diffusion flames. The computation revealed that the peak reactivity spot (the reaction kernel) formed in the flame base was responsible for attachment and blowoff of the trailing diffusion flame. Furthermore, the buoyancy-induced flame flickering in 1g and thermal and transport properties of the agents affected the flame extinguishment limits.

  3. Premixed burner experiments: Geometry, mixing, and flame structure issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.K.; Lewis, M.J.; Gupta, M.

    1995-10-01

    This research program is exploring techniques for improved fuel-air mixing, with the aim of achieving combustor operations up to stoichiometric conditions with minimal NO x and maximum efficiency. The experimental studies involve the use of a double-concentric natural gas burner that is operable in either premixed or non-premixed modes, and the system allows systematic variation of equivalence ratio, swirl strength shear length region and flow momentum in each annulus. Flame structures formed with various combinations of swirl strengths, flow throughput and equivalence ratios in premixed mode show the significant impact of swirl flow distribution on flame structure emanating from the mixedness. This impact on flame structure is expected to have a pronounced effect on the heat release rate and the emission of NO{sub x}. Thus, swirler design and configuration remains a key factor in the quest for completely optimized combustion. Parallel numerical studies of the flow and combustion phenomena were carried out, using the RSM and thek-{epsilon} turbulence models. These results have not only indicated the strengths and limitations of CFD in performance and pollutants emission predictions, but have provided guidelines on the size and strength of the recirculation produced and the spatio-temporal structure of the combustion flowfield. The first stage of parametric studies on geometry and operational parameters at Morgan State University have culminated in the completion of a one-dimensional flow code that is integrated with a solid, virtual model of the existing premixed burner. This coupling will provide the unique opportunity to study the impact of geometry on the flowfield and vice-versa, with particular emphasis on concurrent design optimization.

  4. The influence of combustion liner holes on noise production by ducted burners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.; Jones, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The thermoacoustic energy conversion process in a turbulent flame is not yet sufficiently well understood to allow accurate prediction of the sound pressure field of even the simplest of laboratory burners. The present contribution is intended to be a step toward fuller understanding of this process. In particular, the possibility is explored that the source structure, in the form of the thermoacoustic efficiency spectrum, might be influenced by the acoustic response of the burner itself. Experimental results are presented which seem to establish that, at least for the gas-fueled laboratory burner studied, source activity is not affected by the addition of downstream combustion liner holes which otherwise alter the acoustic response of the burner.

  5. Design and calibration of a flat-flame burner using line-reversal techniques. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Snelling, D.R.; Fischer, M.

    1985-04-01

    A premixed methane/air flat-flame burner is described. The burner was designed to have a central flame that can be seeded with sodium, and an annular guard flame that ensured a flat-temperature profile in the seeded region. The burner produced a well-behaved flat flame for linear gas velocities of 20 to 30 cm/s and air-to-fuel ratios within 15% of stoichiometric. The temperature distribution in the flame was measured for a range of operating conditions using the sodium line-reversal technique. The temperatures measured were within the range 2000-2100 K, slightly lower than the adiabatic methane/air flame temperature. This burner will be used as a calibration tool in the development of CARS (Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy).

  6. FMC Chemicals: Burner Management System Upgrade Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    FMC Chemicals Corporation increased the efficiency of two large coal-fired boilers at its soda ash mine in Green River, Wyoming, by upgrading the burner management system. The project yields annual energy savings of 250,000 MMBtu.

  7. Demonstration test of burner liner strain measurements using resistance strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Anderson, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    A demonstration test of burner liner strain measurements using resistance strain gages as well as a feasibility test of an optical speckle technique for strain measurement are presented. The strain gage results are reported. Ten Kanthal A-1 wire strain gages were used for low cycle fatigue strain measurements to 950 K and .002 apparent strain on a JT12D burner can in a high pressure (10 atmospheres) burner test. The procedure for use of the strain gages involved extensive precalibration and postcalibration to correct for cooling rate dependence, drift, and temperature effects. Results were repeatable within + or - .0002 to .0006 strain, with best results during fast decels from 950 K. The results agreed with analytical prediction based on an axisymmetric burner model, and results indicated a non-uniform circumferential distribution of axial strain, suggesting temperature streaking.

  8. Combustion Characteristics of Oxy-fuel Burners for CO2 Capturing Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joon; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Choi, Kyu Sung

    Oxy-fuel boilers have been developed to capture CO2 from the exhaust gas. A 50 kW class model burner has been developed and tested in a furnace type boiler. The burner has been scaled up to 0.5 and 3 MW class for fire-tube type boilers. The burners are commonly laid out in a coaxial type to effectively heat the combustion chamber of boilers. Burners are devised to support air and oxy-fuel combustion modes for the retrofitting scenario. FGR (flue gas recirculation) has been tried during the scale-up procedure. Oxy-fuel combustion yields stretched flame to uniformly heat the combustion chamber. It also provides the high CO2 concentration, which is over 90% in dry base. However, pure oxy-fuel combustion increases NO concentration, because of the reduced flow rate. The FGR can suppress the thermal NOx induced by the infiltration of the air.

  9. Initial experience in operation of furnace burners with adjustable flame parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Garzanov, A.L.; Dolmatov, V.L.; Saifullin, N.R.

    1995-07-01

    The designs of burners currently used in tube furnaces (CP, FGM, GMG, GIK, GNF, etc.) do not have any provision for adjusting the heat-transfer characteristics of the flame, since the gas and air feed systems in these burners do not allow any variation of the parameters of mixture formation, even though this process is critical in determining the length, shape, and luminosity of the flame and also the furnace operating conditions: efficiency, excess air coefficient, flue gas temperature at the bridgewall, and other indexes. In order to provide the controlling the heat-transfer characteristics of the flame, the Elektrogorsk Scientific-Research Center (ENITs), on the assignment of the Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery, developed a burner with diffusion regulation of the flame. The gas nozzle of the burner is made up of two coaxial gas chambers 1 and 2, with independent feed of gas from a common line through two supply lines.

  10. SITE PROGRAM EVALUATION OF THE SONOTECH PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER TECHNOLOGY - TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of demonstration tests was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility (IRF) under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. These tests, twelve in all, evaluated a pulse combustion burner technology dev...

  11. SITE PROGRAM EVALUATION OF THE SONOTECH PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER TECHNOLOGY - TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of demonstration tests was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility (IRF) under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. These tests, twelve in all, evaluated a pulse combustion burner technology dev...

  12. Full scale demonstration of low-NO sub x cell burner retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-09

    The overall objective of the Full-Scale Demonstration of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NO{sub x} generated by a large based-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NO{sub x} reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) Acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NO{sub x} reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) Demonstrate that the retrofit of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burners in boilers currently equipped with cell burners, is a cost-effective alternative to any other emerging, or commercially-available, NO{sub x} control technology.

  13. Full scale demonstration of low-NO{sub x} cell burner retrofit. Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-09

    The overall objective of the Full-Scale Demonstration of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NO{sub x} generated by a large based-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NO{sub x} reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) Acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NO{sub x} reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) Demonstrate that the retrofit of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burners in boilers currently equipped with cell burners, is a cost-effective alternative to any other emerging, or commercially-available, NO{sub x} control technology.

  14. Experimental study of the thermal-acoustic efficiency in a long turbulent diffusion-flame burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    An acoustic source/propagation model is used to interpret measured noise spectra from a long turbulent burner. The acoustic model is based on the perturbation solution of the equations describing the unsteady one-dimensional flow of an inviscid ideal gas with a distributed heat source. The model assumes that the measured noise spectra are due uniquely to the unsteady component of combustion heat release. The model was applied to a long cylindrical hydrogen burner operating over a range of power levels between 4.5 kW and 22.3 kW. Acoustic impedances at the inlet to the burner and at the exit of the tube downstream of the burner were measured and are used as boundary conditions for the model. These measured impedances are also presented.

  15. Effects of fractal grid on spray characteristics and flame development in burner combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirnordin, S. H.; Khalid, A.; Suardi, M.; Manshoor, B.; Hushim, M. F.

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence generator plays an important role in enhancing turbulence in combustion and determining the flame characteristics in burner combustion. This research demonstrated the effect of a fractal grid on the spray and flame characteristics in burner combustion. Three geometrical configurations of fractal grid were investigated with different equivalence ratios of 0.5-1.0. The images were captured using direct photographic method. The characteristics of the spray and flame were studied, including the length, angle, and area. The results from this fractal grid were compared with the swirl. The results showed that the fractal geometry and ratio of air-to-fuel mixture affected the performance of the burner. The correct combination of fractal geometry and air-to-fuel ratio resulted in complete combustion and improved the overall performance of the burner.

  16. Characterization of a gas burner to simulate a propellant flame and evaluate aluminum particle combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Matt; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Gill, Walt

    2008-04-15

    This study details the characterization and implementation of a burner designed to simulate solid propellant fires. The burner was designed with the ability to introduce particles (particularly aluminum) into a gas flame. The aluminized flame conditions produced by this burner are characterized based on temperature and heat flux measurements. Using these results, flame conditions are quantified in comparison to other well-characterized reactions including hydrocarbon and propellant fires. The aluminized flame is also used to measure the burning rate of the particles. This work describes the application of this burner for re-creating small-scale propellant flame conditions and as a test platform for experiments that contribute to the development of a particle combustion model, particularly in propellant fires. (author)

  17. Continuous Liquid-Sample Introduction for Bunsen Burner Atomic Emission Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a laboratory-constructed atomic emission spectrometer with modular instrumentation components and a simple Bunsen burner atomizer with continuous sample introduction. A schematic diagram and sample data are provided. (DDR)

  18. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    The University of Alabama will develop fuel-flexible, low-emissions burner technology for the metal processing industry that is capable of using biomass-derived liquid fuels, such as glycerin or fatty acids, as a substitute for natural gas. By replacing a fossil fuel with biomass fuels, this new burner will enable a reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and an increase in fuel flexibility.

  19. Numerical simulation of turbulent mixing and combustion near the inlet of a burner

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1993-02-01

    The COYOTE computer program was used to simulate the flow field and turbulent mixing near the fuel and air inlets in a simplified burner that was proposed for experimental study at the Combustion Laboratory at the University of California at Irvine. Four cases are presented, with and without chemical reactions, with two different outflow boundary conditions, and with two different swirl numbers. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability of COYOTE to simulate burners, and they illustrate some limitations and requirements of such modeling.

  20. Low No sub x /SO sub x burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative's (SIPC's) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC's Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner's SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  1. Low NOx Burner Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Seltzer

    2005-05-01

    The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no over-fire gas (OFG) and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was made of a single wall-fired burner and horizontal portion of the furnace from the wall to the center. Without primary gas swirl, coal burnout was relatively small, due to the low oxygen content of the primary gas stream. Consequently, the burners were modified to include primary gas swirl to bring the coal particles in contact with the secondary gas. An optimal primary gas swirl was chosen to achieve sufficient burnout.

  2. Rotrix `vortex breakdown` burner turbulence-stabilized combustion of heating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Hofbauer, P.

    1995-04-01

    For the past two years, the Viessmann MatriX radiant burner has been setting the standard for low emission combustion of gas. Now, with the RotriX burner, Viessmann has succeeded in drastically reducing nitrogenoxide emissions in the combustoin of oil. After a successful test period, the RotriX burner is now being introduced to the market. The RotriX oil burner consequently takes into account the mechanisms in the creation of harmful emissions in the combustion of heating oil No. 2, and guarantees stable combustion under any operating conditions. The burner has the following features: heating oil is combusted only after complete vaporization and mixing with combustion air and recirculated flue gases; the flame is not stabilized with a turbulator disk, but a strong turbulating current is created by means of the Vortex Breakdown phenomenon, which develops a very stable flame under any operating conditions; and high internal flue gas recirculation rates lower the flame temperature to the point where thermal NO formation is reduced to the same low level as in the combustion of gas. The new burner has extremely low emissions of NOx < 60 mg/kWh, and CO < 5 mg/kWh at a CO{sub 2} concentraiton of 14%.

  3. Burner Rig with an Unattached Duct for Evaluating the Erosion Resistance of Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Zhu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    Extensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling backed by experimental observation has demonstrated the feasibility of using an unattached duct to increase the velocity and spatial spread of erodent particles exiting from a burner rig. It was shown that gas velocity and temperature are mostly retained if the inner diameter of the unattached duct equaled the exit diameter of the burner rig nozzle. For particles having a mean diameter of 550 millimeters, the modeled velocity attained at a distance 2.0 in. (50.8 millimeters) beyond the exit of a 12 in. (305 millimeters) long duct was approximately twice as large as the velocity the same distance from the nozzle when the duct was not present. For finer particles, the relative enhancement was somewhat less approximately 1.5 times greater. CFD modeling was also used to guide the construction of a device for slowing down the velocity of the particles being injected into the burner rig. This device used a simple 45 degree fitting to slow the particle velocity in the feed line from 20 meters per second, which is in the range needed to convey the particles, to about 3 meters per second just as they are injected into the burner. This lower injection velocity would lessen the severity of the collision of large particles with the wall of the burner liner opposite the injection port, thereby reducing potential damage to the burner liner by high-velocity particles.

  4. Prediction of the Ignition Phases in Aeronautical and Laboratory Burners using Large Eddy Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gicquel, L. Y. M.; Staffelbach, G.; Sanjose, M.; Boileau, M.

    2009-12-01

    Being able to ignite or reignite a gas turbine engine in a cold and rarefied atmosphere is a critical issue for many aeronautical gas turbine manufacturers. From a fundamental point of view, the ignition of the first burner and the flame propagation from one burner to another are two phenomena that are usually not studied. The present work presents on-going and past Large Eddy Simulations (LES) on this specific subject and as investigated at CERFACS (European Centre for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation) located in Toulouse, France. Validation steps and potential difficulties are underlined to ensure reliability of LES for such problems. Preliminary LES results on simple burners are then presented, followed by simulations of a complete ignition sequence in an annular helicopter chamber. For all cases and when possible, two-phase or purely gaseous LES have been applied to the experimentally simplified or the full geometries. For the latter, massively parallel computing (700 processors on a Cray XT3 machine) was essential to perform the computation. Results show that liquid fuel injection has a strong influence on the ignition times and the rate at which the flame progresses from burner to burner. The propagation speed characteristic of these phenomena is much higher than the turbulent flame speed. Based on an in-depth analysis of the computational data, the difference in speed is mainly identified as being due to thermal expansion and the flame speed is strongly modified by the main burner aerodynamics issued by the swirled injection.

  5. Fully-Enclosed Ceramic Micro-burners Using Fugitive Phase and Powder-based Processing

    PubMed Central

    Do, Truong; Shin, Changseop; Kwon, Patrick; Yeom, Junghoon

    2016-01-01

    Ceramic-based microchemical systems (μCSs) are more suitable for operation under harsh environments such as high temperature and corrosive reactants compared to the more conventional μCS materials such as silicon and polymers. With the recent renewed interests in chemical manufacturing and process intensification, simple, inexpensive, and reliable ceramic manufacturing technologies are needed. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a new powder-based fabrication framework, which is a one-pot, cost-effective, and versatile process for ceramic μCS components. The proposed approach employs the compaction of metal-oxide sub-micron powders with a graphite fugitive phase that is burned out to create internal cavities and microchannels before full sintering. Pure alumina powder has been used without any binder phase, enabling more precise dimensional control and less structure shrinkage upon sintering. The key process steps such as powder compaction, graphite burnout during partial sintering, machining in a conventional machine tool, and final densification have been studied to characterize the process. This near-full density ceramic structure with the combustion chamber and various internal channels was fabricated to be used as a micro-burner for gas sensing applications. PMID:27546059

  6. Fully-Enclosed Ceramic Micro-burners Using Fugitive Phase and Powder-based Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Truong; Shin, Changseop; Kwon, Patrick; Yeom, Junghoon

    2016-08-01

    Ceramic-based microchemical systems (μCSs) are more suitable for operation under harsh environments such as high temperature and corrosive reactants compared to the more conventional μCS materials such as silicon and polymers. With the recent renewed interests in chemical manufacturing and process intensification, simple, inexpensive, and reliable ceramic manufacturing technologies are needed. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a new powder-based fabrication framework, which is a one-pot, cost-effective, and versatile process for ceramic μCS components. The proposed approach employs the compaction of metal-oxide sub-micron powders with a graphite fugitive phase that is burned out to create internal cavities and microchannels before full sintering. Pure alumina powder has been used without any binder phase, enabling more precise dimensional control and less structure shrinkage upon sintering. The key process steps such as powder compaction, graphite burnout during partial sintering, machining in a conventional machine tool, and final densification have been studied to characterize the process. This near-full density ceramic structure with the combustion chamber and various internal channels was fabricated to be used as a micro-burner for gas sensing applications.

  7. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; M.P. Heap; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

    2000-04-01

    Reduction of NO{sub x} emission is an important environmental issue in pulverized coal combustion. Final emissions of NO{sub x} are strongly affected by the nitrogen release during devolatilization, which is the first stage of coal combustion. The most cost-effective approach to NO{sub x} reduction is air-staging which can also operate with additional down-stream techniques such as reburning [1]. Air staging promotes the conversion of NO{sub x} precursors (HCN, NH{sub 3}, etc.) to N{sub 2} by delaying the oxygen supply to the greatest extent when those nitrogen species are released during devolatilization. Such a delay gives the primary volatiles a chance to undergo secondary reactions, including tar cracking and soot formation. Secondary reactions of volatiles largely determine the fate of the ultimate NO{sub x} production from pyrolysis, therefore a detailed investigation into the transformation of nitrogen species during secondary reactions and effects of soot on nitrogen release is critical for design and implementation of new pollution control strategies. Current nitrogen models (including the CPD model at BYU) only simulate the nitrogen release during primary pyrolysis, which happens at low temperatures. This project helps to build a nitrogen release model that accounts for secondary reactions and the effects of soot at temperatures relevant to industrial burners.

  8. Fully-Enclosed Ceramic Micro-burners Using Fugitive Phase and Powder-based Processing.

    PubMed

    Do, Truong; Shin, Changseop; Kwon, Patrick; Yeom, Junghoon

    2016-08-22

    Ceramic-based microchemical systems (μCSs) are more suitable for operation under harsh environments such as high temperature and corrosive reactants compared to the more conventional μCS materials such as silicon and polymers. With the recent renewed interests in chemical manufacturing and process intensification, simple, inexpensive, and reliable ceramic manufacturing technologies are needed. The main objective of this paper is to introduce a new powder-based fabrication framework, which is a one-pot, cost-effective, and versatile process for ceramic μCS components. The proposed approach employs the compaction of metal-oxide sub-micron powders with a graphite fugitive phase that is burned out to create internal cavities and microchannels before full sintering. Pure alumina powder has been used without any binder phase, enabling more precise dimensional control and less structure shrinkage upon sintering. The key process steps such as powder compaction, graphite burnout during partial sintering, machining in a conventional machine tool, and final densification have been studied to characterize the process. This near-full density ceramic structure with the combustion chamber and various internal channels was fabricated to be used as a micro-burner for gas sensing applications.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Performance and Operating Characterisitics of a Tail-Pipe Burner for a Turbojet Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-10-30

    NACA RM No. E7G03 - -- .1 0 - Burner- inlet gas temperature, TB (°F) o 1100 x , ~looo 950 ~ ’750 550 n x A...with inlet -velocity pressure at several burner- inlet gas temperatures for tail-pipe burner Q. . . gFlmTl_Gy- . . . . . NACA RM NO. E7G03 Flg. 9 . a al...WAStiINGTUN --: October 30, 1947 .: .,1 tlFllFWEHTIAlm . .- . . NACA RM No. E7G03 &==Q! -. . . .. .: .. ,,,---.. r. ..,.,. NATIONKL ADVISORY

  10. Methanol as a soot reducer in a turbulent swirling burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izquierdo, A. J.; Hoult, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    The combined effect of using methanol as a fuel additive together with a prototype multifuel injector has been evaluated with regard to soot formation in a tubular laboratory burner with a turbulent swirl stabilized diffusion flame. Kerosene, ERBS fuel and Blending Stock with approximately 14,12.8 and 10.3 wt pct of hydrogen respectively were characterized in terms of soot loading at the axial positions Z/D = 2.5 and 4.0 and normalized radius r/R = + or 0.67. Mixtures of ERBS fuel and Blending Stock with 15 and 7.5 wt pct of methanol were also characterized in the same way. Measurements with the plain fuels showed a drastic reduction in soot formation, in the order of one hundred and fifty fold decrease, due to the new injector design. Further reductions by a factor of 2 and 1.5 were accomplished with the mixtures of 15 and 7.5 wt pct of methanol respectively.

  11. Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels in Porous-Media Burners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barajas, Pablo E.; Parthasarathy, R. N.; Gollahalli, S. R.

    2010-05-01

    Biofuels, such as canola methyl ester (CME) and soy methyl ester (SME) derived from vegetable oil are alternative sources of energy that have been developed to reduce the dependence on petroleum-based fuels. In the present study, CME, SME, commercial Jet-A fuel were tested in a porous-media burner. The measured combustion characteristics at an initial equivalence ratio of 0.8 included NOx and CO emission indices, radiative fractions of heat release, and axial temperatures. The effects of fuel on the injector and porous media durability were also documented. The NOx emission index was higher for the SME and CME flames than that of the Jet-A flame. Furthermore, the axial temperature profiles were similar for all the flames. The prolonged use of CME and SME resulted in the solid-particle deposition on the metal walls of the injector and within the structure of the porous medium, thereby increasing the restriction to the fuel/air flow.

  12. Development of a lean premixed burner for hydrogen utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.O.

    1996-10-01

    The long-term mandate of the hydrogen program is to develop the technologies needed to establish a hydrogen economy. Although a hydrogen fueled automobile has been established as a demonstration project, there are at least three other end use sectors that are recognized by the H{sub 2} program and that are addressed by this project. These end uses are: (1) power generation from stationary turbines, (2) generation of process heat or steam, and (3) commercial and residential direct use applications. Eliminating carbon from the fuel will remove carbon containing species from the emissions, however, NO{sub x} resulting from thermal NO production cannot be ignored. Thermal NO production is minimized by reducing the peak combustion temperature and the residence time at the peak temperature. NO can be reduced to extremely low levels (a few ppm) by operating sufficiently lean to reduce the peak combustion temperatures below 1700 to 1800 K. The objectives for this project are to: (1) develop an environmentally benign and safe burner operating on hydrogen in a lean premixed mode, (2) provide a facility in which fundamental investigations can be performed to support other programs.

  13. Blower augmentor for power oil and power gas burners

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, L.A.

    1987-07-14

    An oil burner is described in combination: (a) a blower comprising a scroll housing and a driven squirrel cage, the squirrel cage having an interior air space, and having blades disposed around space and constituting an air impeller; (b) the scroll housing having a tangential air outlet, and further comprising a spiral wall encircling the squirrel cage; (c) a stationary barrier wall mounted in the housing and extending into the interior air space of the squirrel cage. The barrier wall extends outward from and with respect to a central axial area of the squirrel cage to a location adjacent the blades; (d) the housing is wider than the squirrel cage in axial dimension, to provide an end space between the squirrel cage and the housing, in which end space air tends to recirculate in the housing; and (e) support and baffle means disposed in the end space between the housing and squirrel cage, for mounting the barrier wall and for redirecting in outward directions a portion of the circularly travelling recirculating air in the housing.

  14. High temperature burner-duct-recuperator system evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, W.P. Jr.; DeBellis, C.L.

    1989-08-01

    The Babcock Wilcox Company (B W) has completed a program to design, construct, install, and field test a ceramic-based high-temperature burner-duct-recuperator (HTBDR) in an industrial setting. The unit was capable of operating in corrosive, high temperature (2250{degree}F) flue gas streams. The HTBDR was successfully tested in a steel soaking pit at B W's Tubular Products Division in Koppel, PA. During the 1400 hour operation prior to plant closing, the ceramic stage performed well with no material related problems or air-to-flue leakage. The maximum preheat air produced was 1425{degree}F with a flue gas temperature of 2170{degree}F. Measured fuel savings of 17--24% were obtained over the previous recuperated (metallic heat exchanger) system. This projects to savings of 41% for an unrecuperated furnace. A simple payback analysis indicated acceptable payback for installation in unrecuperated furnaces but unacceptable payback for recuperated furnaces at today's low gas prices. In both cases return on investment is high over a ten year projected life expectancy. 14 refs., 67 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Fat burners: nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, A E; Randell, R

    2011-10-01

    The term 'fat burner' is used to describe nutrition supplements that are claimed to acutely increase fat metabolism or energy expenditure, impair fat absorption, increase weight loss, increase fat oxidation during exercise, or somehow cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism. Often, these supplements contain a number of ingredients, each with its own proposed mechanism of action and it is often claimed that the combination of these substances will have additive effects. The list of supplements that are claimed to increase or improve fat metabolism is long; the most popular supplements include caffeine, carnitine, green tea, conjugated linoleic acid, forskolin, chromium, kelp and fucoxanthin. In this review the evidence for some of these supplements is briefly summarized. Based on the available literature, caffeine and green tea have data to back up its fat metabolism-enhancing properties. For many other supplements, although some show some promise, evidence is lacking. The list of supplements is industry-driven and is likely to grow at a rate that is not matched by a similar increase in scientific underpinning.

  16. Thermal barrier coatings: Burner rig hot corrosion test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, P. E.; Stecura, S.; Gedwill, M. A.; Zaplatynsky, I.; Levine, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    A Mach 0.3 burner rig test program was conducted to examine the sensitivity of thermal barrier coatings to Na and V contaminated combustion gases simulating potential utility gas turbine environments. Coating life of the standard ZrO2-12Y2O3/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y NASA thermal barrier coating system which was developed for aircraft gas turbines was significantly reduced in such environments. Two thermal barrier coating systems, Ca2SiO4/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y and ZrO2-8Y2O3/Ni-16.4Cr-5.1Al-0.15Y and a less insulative cermet coating system, 50 volume percent MgO-50 volume percent Ni-19.6Cr-17.1Al-0.97Y/Ni-16.2Cr-5.6Al-0.6Y, were identified as having much improved corrosion resistance compared to the standard coating.

  17. Burner Rig in the Material and Stresses Building

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-21

    A burner rig heats up a material sample in the Materials and Stresses Building at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. Materials technology is an important element in the successful development of advanced airbreathing and rocket propulsion systems. Different types of engines operate in different environments so an array of dependable materials is needed. NASA Lewis began investigating the characteristics of different materials shortly after World War II. In 1949 the materials group was expanded into its own division. The Lewis researchers sought to study and test materials in environments that simulate the environment in which they would operate. The Materials and Stresses Building, built in 1949, contained a number of laboratories to analyze the materials. They are subjected to high temperatures, high stresses, corrosion, irradiation, and hot gasses. The Physics of Solids Laboratory included a cyclotron, cloud chamber, helium cryostat, and metallurgy cave. The Metallographic Laboratory possessed six x-ray diffraction machines, two metalloscopes, and other equipment. The Furnace Room had two large induction machines, a 4500⁰ F graphite furnace, and heat treating equipment. The Powder Laboratory included 60-ton and 3000-ton presses. The Stresses Laboratory included stress rupture machines, fatigue machines, and tensile strength machines.

  18. Preliminary safety evaluation of the advanced burner test reactor.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F. E.; Fanning, T. H.; Cahalan, J. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2006-09-15

    Results of a preliminary safety evaluation of the Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) pre-conceptual design are reported. The ABTR safety design approach is described. Traditional defense-in-depth design features are supplemented with passive safety performance characteristics that include natural circulation emergency decay heat removal and reactor power reduction by inherent reactivity feedbacks in accidents. ABTR safety performance in design-basis and beyond-design-basis accident sequences is estimated based on analyses. Modeling assumptions and input data for safety analyses are presented. Analysis results for simulation of simultaneous loss of coolant pumping power and normal heat rejection are presented and discussed, both for the case with reactor scram and the case without reactor scram. The analysis results indicate that the ABTR pre-conceptual design is capable of undergoing bounding design-basis and beyond-design-basis accidents without fuel cladding failures. The first line of defense for protection of the public against release of radioactivity in accidents remains intact with significant margin. A comparison and evaluation of general safety design criteria for the ABTR conceptual design phase are presented in an appendix. A second appendix presents SASSYS-1 computer code capabilities and modeling enhancements implemented for ABTR analyses.

  19. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  20. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fam powered, infrared, natural gas burners

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Tiejun

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of a fan powered infrared burner (PIR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions and develop design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. The fan powered infrared burner is a technology introduced more recently in the residential and commercial markets. It is a surface combustor that elevates the temperature of the burner head to a radiant condition. A variety of metallic and ceramic materials are used for the burner heads. It has been demonstrated that infrared burners produce low CO and NO{sub x} emissions in a controlled geometric space. This project consists of both experimental research and numerical analysis. To conduct the experiments, an experimental setup has been developed and installed in the Combustion Laboratory at Clerk Atlanta University (CAU). This setup consists of a commercial deep fat fryer that has been modified to allow in-situ radiation measurements on the surface of the infrared burner via a view port installed on the side wall of the oil vat. Proper instrumentation including fuel/air flow rate measurement, exhaust gas emission measurement, and radiation measurement has been developed. The project is progressing well. The scheduled tasks for this period of time were conducted smoothly. Specifically: 1. Baseline experimental study at CAU has been completed. The data are now under detailed analysis and will be reported in next quarterly report. 2. Theoretical formulation and analysis of the PIR burner performance model are continuing. Preliminary results have been obtained.

  1. Design of "model-friendly" turbulent non-premixed jet burners for C2+ hydrocarbon fuels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiayao; Shaddix, Christopher R; Schefer, Robert W

    2011-07-01

    Experimental measurements in laboratory-scale turbulent burners with well-controlled boundary and flow configurations can provide valuable data for validating models of turbulence-chemistry interactions applicable to the design and analysis of practical combustors. This paper reports on the design of two canonical nonpremixed turbulent jet burners for use with undiluted gaseous and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, respectively. Previous burners of this type have only been developed for fuels composed of H(2), CO, and/or methane, often with substantial dilution. While both new burners are composed of concentric tubes with annular pilot flames, the liquid-fuel burner has an additional fuel vaporization step and an electrically heated fuel vapor delivery system. The performance of these burners is demonstrated by interrogating four ethylene flames and one flame fueled by a simple JP-8 surrogate. Through visual observation, it is found that the visible flame lengths show good agreement with standard empirical correlations. Rayleigh line imaging demonstrates that the pilot flame provides a spatially homogeneous flow of hot products along the edge of the fuel jet. Planar imaging of OH laser-induced fluorescence reveals a lack of local flame extinction in the high-strain near-burner region for fuel jet Reynolds numbers (Re) less than 20,000, and increasingly common extinction events for higher jet velocities. Planar imaging of soot laser-induced incandescence shows that the soot layers in these flames are relatively thin and are entrained into vortical flow structures in fuel-rich regions inside of the flame sheet.

  2. Latest developments and application of DB Riley's low NOx CCV{reg{underscore}sign} burner technology

    SciTech Connect

    Penterson, C.; Ake, T.

    1998-07-01

    Recent developments in DB Riley (DBR) low NOx burner technology and the application of this technology in coal fired utility boilers are discussed. Since the promulgation of the Clean Air Act Amendment in 1990, DBR has sold nearly 1,500 Controlled Combustion Venturi (CCV{reg{underscore}sign}) burners on pulverized coal fired utility boilers reducing NOx emissions 50--70% from uncontrolled levels. This technology has been retrofitted on boiler designs ranging in size and type from 50 MW front wall fired boilers to 1,300 MW opposed fired cell type boilers. In DBR's latest version of the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} burner, a second controlled flow air zone was added to enhance NOx control capability. Other developments included improved burner air flow measurement accuracy and several mechanical design upgrades such as new coal spreader designs for 3 year wear life. Test results of the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} dual air zone burner in DBR's 100 million Btu/hr (29 MW) coal burner test facility are presented. In the test program, coals from four utility boiler sites were fired to provide a range of coal properties. A baseline high volatile bituminous coal was also fired to provide a comparison with 1992 test data for the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} single register burner. The tests results showed that the second air zone enhanced NOx reduction capability by an additional 20% over the single register design. Computational fluid dynamic (DFD) modeling results of the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} dual air zone burner are also presented showing near field mixing patterns conducive to low NOx firing. DBR was recently awarded Phase IV of the Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) program by the US Department of Energy to build a proof of concept facility representing the next major advancement in pulverized coal burning technology. A key part of winning that award were test results of the CCV{reg{underscore}sign} dual air zone burner with advanced air staging and coal reburning in a 100

  3. Design and evaluation of a porous burner for the mitigation of anthropogenic methane emissions.

    PubMed

    Wood, Susie; Fletcher, David F; Joseph, Stephen D; Dawson, Adrian; Harris, Andrew T

    2009-12-15

    Methane constitutes 15% of total global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The mitigation of these emissions could have a significant near-term effect on slowing global warming, and recovering and burning the methane would allow a wasted energy resource to be exploited. The typically low and fluctuating energy content of the emission streams makes combustion difficult; however porous burners-an advanced combustion technology capable of burning low-calorific value fuels below the conventional flammability limit-are one possible mitigation solution. Here we discuss a pilot-scale porous burner designed for this purpose. The burner comprises a cylindrical combustion chamber filled with a porous bed of alumina saddles, combined with an arrangement of heat exchanger tubes for preheating the incoming emission stream. A computational fluid dynamics model was developed to aid in the design process. Results illustrating the burner's stable operating range and behavior are presented: stable ultralean combustion is demonstrated at natural gas concentrations as low as 2.3 vol%, with transient combustion at concentrations down to 1.1 vol%; the system is comparatively stable to perturbations in the operating conditions, and emissions of both carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons are negligible. Based on this pilot-scale demonstration, porous burners show potential as a methane mitigation technology.

  4. A critical review of noise production models for turbulent, gas-fueled burners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, J. R.

    1984-06-01

    The combustion noise literature for the period between 1952 and early 1984 is critically reviewed. Primary emphasis is placed on past theoretical and semi-empirical attempts to predict or explain observed direct combustion noise characteristics of turbulent, gas-fueled burners; works involving liquid-fueled burners are reviewed only when ideas equally applicable to gas-fueled burners are pesented. The historical development of the most important contemporary direct combustion noise theories is traced, and the theories themselves are compared and criticized. While most theories explain combustion noise production by turbulent flames in terms of randomly distributed acoustic monopoles produced by turbulent mixing of products and reactants, none is able to predict the sound pressure in the acoustic farfield of a practical burner because of the lack of a proven model which relates the combustion noise source strenght at a given frequency to the design and operating parameters of the burner. Recommendations are given for establishing a benchmark-quality data base needed to support the development of such a model.

  5. How ''flat'' is the rich premixed flame produced by your McKenna burner?

    SciTech Connect

    Migliorini, F.; De Iuliis, S.; Cignoli, F.; Zizak, G.

    2008-05-15

    McKenna burners are widely used in the combustion community for producing ''flat'' premixed flames. These flames are considered as standards for the development and calibration of optical techniques. Rich premixed flames produced by McKenna burners are frequently investigated in order to understand soot formation processes both by optical and by sampling techniques. Measurements are normally performed along the axis of the flames, with a uniform distribution of temperature and species concentration assumed in the radial direction. In this work it is shown that the soot radial profiles of rich premixed ethylene-air flames produced by a McKenna burner with a stainless steel porous plug may be far from being ''flat.'' Soot is mainly distributed in an annular region and nonsoot fluorescing species are present in the core of the flames. This surprising result was verified under several working conditions. Furthermore, flames cannot be considered axial-symmetric but present a skewed soot distribution. Another McKenna burner with a bronze porous disk was used to produce flames of the same equivalence ratio and flows. These flames show a completely different soot radial profile, closer to the claimed flat distribution. These results cast doubts about the conclusions drawn in several studies on soot formation performed with a stainless steel McKenna burner. (author)

  6. A critical review of noise production models for turbulent, gas-fueled burners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    The combustion noise literature for the period between 1952 and early 1984 is critically reviewed. Primary emphasis is placed on past theoretical and semi-empirical attempts to predict or explain observed direct combustion noise characteristics of turbulent, gas-fueled burners; works involving liquid-fueled burners are reviewed only when ideas equally applicable to gas-fueled burners are pesented. The historical development of the most important contemporary direct combustion noise theories is traced, and the theories themselves are compared and criticized. While most theories explain combustion noise production by turbulent flames in terms of randomly distributed acoustic monopoles produced by turbulent mixing of products and reactants, none is able to predict the sound pressure in the acoustic farfield of a practical burner because of the lack of a proven model which relates the combustion noise source strenght at a given frequency to the design and operating parameters of the burner. Recommendations are given for establishing a benchmark-quality data base needed to support the development of such a model.

  7. Recovery of burner acoustic source structure from far-field sound spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.; Jones, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    A method is presented that permits the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum in a long turbulent burner to be recovered from the corresponding far-field sound spectrum. An acoustic source/propagation model is used based on the perturbation solution of the equations describing the unsteady one-dimensional flow of an inviscid ideal gas with a distributed heat source. The technique is applied to a long cylindrical hydrogen-flame burner operating over power levels of 4.5-22.3 kW. The results show that the thermal-acoustic efficiency at a given frequency, defined as the fraction of the total burner power converted to acoustic energy at that frequency, is rather insensitive to burner power, having a maximum value on the order of 10 to the -4th at 150 Hz and rolling off steeply with increasing frequency. Evidence is presented that acoustic agitation of the flame at low frequencies enhances the mixing of the unburned fuel and air with the hot products of combustion. The paper establishes the potential of the technique as a useful tool for characterizing the acoustic source structure in any burner, such as a gas turbine combustor, for which a reasonable acoustic propagation model can be postulated.

  8. Recovery of burner acoustic source structure from far-field sound spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.; Jones, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    A method is presented that permits the thermal-acoustic efficiency spectrum in a long turbulent burner to be recovered from the corresponding far-field sound spectrum. An acoustic source/propagation model is used based on the perturbation solution of the equations describing the unsteady one-dimensional flow of an inviscid ideal gas with a distributed heat source. The technique is applied to a long cylindrical hydrogen-flame burner operating over power levels of 4.5-22.3 kW. The results show that the thermal-acoustic efficiency at a given frequency, defined as the fraction of the total burner power converted to acoustic energy at that frequency, is rather insensitive to burner power, having a maximum value on the order of 10 to the -4th at 150 Hz and rolling off steeply with increasing frequency. Evidence is presented that acoustic agitation of the flame at low frequencies enhances the mixing of the unburned fuel and air with the hot products of combustion. The paper establishes the potential of the technique as a useful tool for characterizing the acoustic source structure in any burner, such as a gas turbine combustor, for which a reasonable acoustic propagation model can be postulated.

  9. Low NOx Burner Development Program - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 09/30/2000

    SciTech Connect

    McClaine, Andrew W.

    2000-09-30

    This report describes the work performed to develop and demonstrate the VISTA combustor. The development effort was planned for three phases. Laboratory testing at a 1.5 and 6 MMBtu/hr scale was performed at thermo Power Corporation during the first phase. Also during the first phase, analytic modeling was performed to guide the design modifications evaluated in the experimental testing. Toward the end of the first phase, John Zink Company entered the program to participate in the design, evaluation, testing, and demonstration of a 30 MMBtu/hr combustor. The results of the second phase testing were to be used in the demonstration of the 30 MMBtu/hr combustor in a Koch Industries boiler. The program proceeded into the second phase. Two models of the VISTA combustor were tested. Measurements of the first stage NOx production were in the range anticipated to achieve the program goals, based on analytical modeling results. While testing the VISTA combustor at the John Zink facility, John Zink elected to discontinue the development of the VISTA combustor in favor of an alternative in-house concept. As a result, this program was terminated.

  10. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, T.

    1997-01-01

    This quarterly technical progress report describes work performed under DOE Grant No. DE-FG22-94MT94011 during the period September 1, 1996 to December 31, 1996 which covers the nineth quarter of the project. The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of a fan powered infrared burner (IR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions and develop design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. The fan powered infrared burner is a technology introduced more recently in the residential and commercial markets. It is a surface combustor that elevates the temperature of the burner head to a radiant condition. A variety of metallic and ceramic materials are used for the burner heads. It has been demonstrated that infrared burners produce low CO and NO{sub x} emissions in a controlled geometric space. As the environmental regulations become more stringent, infrared burners are receiving increasing interests.

  11. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Tiejun; Yeboah, Y.D.; Sampath, R.

    1996-01-01

    Infrared burner is a surface combustor that elevates the temperature of the burner head to a radiant condition. Applications of radiant burners includes boilers, air heaters, deep fat fryers, process heaters, and immersion heaters. On reason for the present interest in this type of burner is its low NO{sub x} emissions, which is attributed to the fact that a large proportion of the combustion heat is given out as radiation from the burner surface, which results in relatively low gas temperature in the combustion zone compared to that of a conventional free-flame burner. As a consequence, such burners produce less NO{sub x}, mainly by the so-called prompt-NO mechanism. A porous radiant burner testing facility was built, consisting of spectral radiance as well as flue gas composition measurements. Measurement capabilities were tested using methane; results were consistent with literature.

  12. Development and certification of the innovative pioneer oil burner for residential heating appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, B.

    1997-09-01

    The Pioneer burner represents another important milestone for the oil heat industry. It is the first practical burner design that is designated for use in small capacity heating appliances matching the needs of modern energy efficient home designs. Firing in the range of 0.3 GPH to 0.65 GPH (40,000-90,000 Btu/hr) it allows for new oil heating appliance designs to compete with the other major fuel choices in the small design load residential market. This market includes energy efficient single family houses, town-houses, condominiums, modular units, and mobile homes. The firing range also is wide enough to cover a large percentage of more conventional heating equipment and home designs as well. Having recently passed Underwriters Laboratory certification tests the burner in now being field tested in several homes and samples are being made available to interested boiler and furnace manufacturers for product development and application testing.

  13. Investigation of lean combustion stability and pressure drop in porous media burners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobhani, Sadaf; Haley, Bret; Bartz, David; Dunnmon, Jared; Sullivan, John; Ihme, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    The stability and thermal durability of combustion in porous media burners (PMBs) is examined experimentally and computationally. For this, two burner concepts are considered, which consist of different pore topologies, porous materials, and matrix arrangements. Long-term material durability tests at constant and cycled on-off conditions are performed, along with a characterization of combustion stability, pressure drop and pollutant emissions for a range of equivalence ratios and mass flow rates. Experimental thermocouple temperature measurements and pressure drop data are presented and compared to results obtained from one-dimensional volume-averaged simulations. Experimental and model results show reasonable agreement for temperature profiles and pressure drop evaluated using Ergun's equations. Enhanced flame stability is illustrated for burners with Yttria-stabilized Zirconia Alumina upstream and Silicon Carbide in the downstream combustion zone. Results reinforce concepts in PMB design and optimization, and demonstrate the potential of PMBs to overcome technological barriers associated with conventional free-flame combustion technologies.

  14. Thermionic-cogeneration-burner assessment study. Second quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The performance analysis work continued with the completion of the programming of the mathematical model and with the start of a series of parametric analyses. Initial studies predict that approximately 25 to 30% of the heat contained in the flue gas can be passed through the thermionic converters (TEC) and then be converted at 12 to 15% efficiency into electrical power. This results in up to 17 kWe per 1 million Btu/h burner firing rate. This is a 4 to 10 percent energy saving over power produced at the utility. The thermal burner design and construction have been completed, as well as initial testing on the furnace and preheat systems. The following industries are still considered viable options for use of the thermionic cogeneration burner: chlor-alkali, alumina-aluminum, copper refining, steel and gray iron, industries using resistance heating, electrolytic industries and electrochemical industries. Information gathered on these industries is presented.

  15. Experimental study of the thermal-acoustic efficiency in a long turbulent diffusion-flame burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A two-year study of noise production in a long tubular burner is described. The research was motivated by an interest in understanding and eventually reducing core noise in gas turbine engines. The general approach is to employ an acoustic source/propagation model to interpret the sound pressure spectrum in the acoustic far field of the burner in terms of the source spectrum that must have produced it. In the model the sources are assumed to be due uniquely to the unsteady component of combustion heat release; thus only direct combustion-noise is considered. The source spectrum is then the variation with frequency of the thermal-acoustic efficiency, defined as the fraction of combustion heat release which is converted into acoustic energy at a given frequency. The thrust of the research was to study the variation of the source spectrum with the design and operating parameters of the burner.

  16. Effect of fuel volatility on performance of tail-pipe burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barson, Zelmar; Sargent, Arthur F , Jr

    1951-01-01

    Fuels having Reid vapor pressures of 6.3 and 1.0 pounds per square inch were investigated in a tail-pipe burner on an axial-flow-type turbojet engine at a simulated flight Mach number of 0.6 and altitudes from 20,000 to 45,000 feet. With the burner configuration used in this investigation, having a mixing length of only 8 inches between the fuel manifold and the flame holder, the low-vapor-pressure fuel gave lower combustion efficiency at a given tail-pipe fuel-air ratio. Because the exhaust-nozzle area was fixed, the lower efficiency resulted in lower thrust and higher specific fuel consumption. The maximum altitude at which the burner would operate was practically unaffected by the change in fuel volatility.

  17. Development of lean premixed low-swirl burner for low NO{sub x} practical application

    SciTech Connect

    Yegian, D.T.; Cheng, R.K.

    1999-07-07

    Laboratory experiments have been performed to evaluate the performance of a premixed low-swirl burner (LSB) in configurations that simulate commercial heating appliances. Laser diagnostics were used to investigate changes in flame stabilization mechanism, flowfield, and flame stability when the LSB flame was confined within quartz cylinders of various diameters and end constrictions. The LSB adapted well to enclosures without generating flame oscillations and the stabilization mechanism remained unchanged. The feasibility of using the LSB as a low NO{sub x} commercial burner has also been verified in a laboratory test station that simulates the operation of a water heater. It was determined that the LSB can generate NO{sub x} emissions < 10 ppm (at 3% O{sub 2}) without significant effect on the thermal efficiency of the conventional system. The study has demonstrated that the lean premixed LSB has commercial potential for use as a simple economical and versatile burner for many low emission gas appliances.

  18. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation 10 Figure 10 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY....1633, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 1633—Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress...

  19. 41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Procurement of gasoline... § 101-26.602-3 Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents. (a... capability to procure locally. Item Minimum annual requirement (gallons) Gasoline 10,000 Burner fuel oil 10...

  20. 41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Procurement of gasoline... § 101-26.602-3 Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents. (a... capability to procure locally. Item Minimum annual requirement (gallons) Gasoline 10,000 Burner fuel oil 10...

  1. 41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Procurement of gasoline... § 101-26.602-3 Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents. (a... capability to procure locally. Item Minimum annual requirement (gallons) Gasoline 10,000 Burner fuel oil 10...

  2. 41 CFR 101-26.602-3 - Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procurement of gasoline... § 101-26.602-3 Procurement of gasoline, fuel oil (diesel and burner), kerosene, and solvents. (a... capability to procure locally. Item Minimum annual requirement (gallons) Gasoline 10,000 Burner fuel oil 10...

  3. Development of combined low-emissions burner devices for low-power boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Yu. V.; Khokhlov, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    Low-power water boilers are widely used for autonomous heat supply in various industries. Firetube and water-tube boilers of domestic and foreign manufacturers are widely represented on the Russian market. However, even Russian boilers are supplied with licensed foreign burner devices, which reduce their competitiveness and complicate operating conditions. A task of developing efficient domestic low-emissions burner devices for low-power boilers is quite acute. A characteristic property of ignition and fuel combustion in such boilers is their flowing in constrained conditions due to small dimensions of combustion chambers and flame tubes. These processes differ significantly from those in open combustion chambers of high-duty power boilers, and they have not been sufficiently studied yet. The goals of this paper are studying the processes of ignition and combustion of gaseous and liquid fuels, heat and mass transfer and NO x emissions in constrained conditions, and the development of a modern combined low-emissions 2.2 MW burner device that provides efficient fuel combustion. A burner device computer model is developed and numerical studies of its operation on different types of fuel in a working load range from 40 to 100% of the nominal are carried out. The main features of ignition and combustion of gaseous and liquid fuels in constrained conditions of the flame tube at nominal and decreased loads are determined, which differ fundamentally from the similar processes in steam boiler furnaces. The influence of the burner devices design and operating conditions on the fuel underburning and NO x formation is determined. Based on the results of the design studies, a design of the new combined low-emissions burner device is proposed, which has several advantages over the prototype.

  4. Thermionic cogeneration burner assessment study. Third quarterly technical progress report, April-June, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The specific tasks of this study are to mathematically model the thermionic cogeneration burner, experimentally confirm the projected energy flows in a thermal mock-up, make a cost estimate of the burner, including manufacturing, installation and maintenance, review industries in general and determine what groups of industries would be able to use the electrical power generated in the process, select one or more industries out of those for an in-depth study, including determination of the performance required for a thermionic cogeneration system to be competitive in that industry. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  5. COST-EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF NOx WITH INTEGRATED ULTRA LOW-NOx BURNERS AND SNCR

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid Farzan; Jennifer Sivy; Alan Sayre; John Boyle

    2003-07-01

    Under sponsorship of the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), the Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), and Fuel Tech teamed together to investigate an integrated solution for NOx control. The system was comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{trademark} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. The technology's emission target is achieving 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu for full-scale boilers. Development of the low-NOx burner technology has been a focus in B&W's combustion program. The DRB-4Z{trademark} burner (see Figure 1.1) is B&W's newest low-NO{sub x} burner capable of achieving very low NO{sub x}. The burner is designed to reduce NO{sub x} by diverting air away from the core of the flame, which reduces local stoichiometry during coal devolatilization and, thereby, reduces initial NO{sub x} formation. Figure 1.2 shows the historical NO{sub x} emission levels from different B&W burners. Figure 1.2 shows that based on three large-scale commercial installations of the DRB-4Z{trademark} burners in combination with OFA ports, using Western subbituminous coal, the NO{sub x} emissions ranged from 0.16 to 0.18 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. It appears that with continuing research and development the Ozone Transport Rule (OTR) emission level of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu is within the reach of combustion modification techniques for boilers using western U.S. subbituminous coals. Although NO{sub x} emissions from the DRB-4Z{trademark} burner are nearing OTR emission level with subbituminous coals, the utility boiler owners that use bituminous coals can still benefit from the addition of an SNCR and/or SCR system in order to comply with the stringent NO{sub x} emission levels facing them.

  6. Polonium release from an ATW burner system with liquid lead-bismuth coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N.; Yefimov, E.; Pankratov, D.

    1998-04-01

    The authors analyzed polonium release hazards in a conceptual pool-type ATW burner with liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant. Simplified quantitative models are used based on experiments and real NPP experience. They found little Po contamination outside the burner under normal operating conditions with nominal leakage from the gas system. In sudden gas leak and/or coolant spill accidents, the P contamination level can reach above the regulation limit but short exposure would not lead to severe health consequences. They are evaluating and developing mitigation methods.

  7. Experimental verification of vapor deposition model in Mach 0.3 burner rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive theoretical framework of deposition from combustion gases was developed covering the spectrum of various mass delivery mechanisms including vapor, thermophoretically enhanced small particle, and inertially impacting large particle deposition. Rational yet simple correlations were provided to facilitate engineering surface arrival rate predictions. Experimental verification of the deposition theory was validated using burner rigs. Toward this end, a Mach 0.3 burner rig apparatus was designed to measure deposition rates from salt-seeded combustion gases on an internally cooled cylindrical collector.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to Portable Frame Allowing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION OF NOVEL LOW-NOx BURNERS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect

    Cygan, David

    2006-12-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), together with Hamworthy Peabody Combustion Incorporated (formerly Peabody Engineering Corporation), the University of Utah, and Far West Electrochemical have developed and demonstrated an innovative combustion system suitable for natural gas and coke-oven gas firing within the steel industry. The combustion system is a simple, low-cost, energy-efficient burner that can reduce NOx by more than 75%. The U.S. steel industry needs to address NOx control at its steelmaking facilities. A significant part of NOx emissions comes from gas-fired boilers. In steel plants, byproduct gases – blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke-oven gas (COG) – are widely used together with natural gas to fire furnaces and boilers. In steel plants, natural gas can be fired together with BFG and COG, but, typically, the addition of natural gas raises NOx emissions, which can already be high because of residual fuel-bound nitrogen in COG. The Project Team has applied its expertise in low-NOx burners to lower NOx levels for these applications by combining advanced burner geometry and combustion staging with control strategies tailored to mixtures of natural gas and byproduct fuel gases. These methods reduce all varieties of NOx – thermal NOx produced by high flame temperatures, prompt NOx produced by complex chain reactions involving radical hydrocarbon species and NOx from fuel-bound nitrogen compounds such as ammonia found in COG. The Project Team has expanded GTI’s highly successful low-NOx forced internal recirculation (FIR) burner, previously developed for natural gas-fired boilers, into facilities that utilize BFG and COG. For natural gas firing, these burners have been shown to reduce NOx emissions from typical uncontrolled levels of 80-100 vppm to single-digit levels (9 vppm). This is done without the energy efficiency penalties incurred by alternative NOx control methods, such as external flue gas recirculation (FGR), water injection, and selective non

  15. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Philip Malte

    2004-11-30

    The objective of the research is the reduction of emissions of NOx and carbon from wood waste combustion and dryer systems. Focus in on suspension (dust) burners, especially the cyclone burners that are widely used in the industry. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to help understand the details of combustion and pollutant formation in wood waste combustion systems, and to help determine the potential of combustion modification for reducing emissions. Field burners are examined with the modeling.

  16. SONOTECH, INC. FREQUENCY-TUNABLE PULSE COMBUSTION SYSTEM (CELLO PULSE BURNER) - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sonotech, Inc. (Sonotech) of Atlanta, Georgia, has developed a pulse combustion burner technology that claims to offer benefits when applied in a variety of combustion processes. The technology incorporates a combustor that can be tuned to induce large-amplitude acoustic or soni...

  17. Comparison of multi-microphone transfer matrix measurements with acoustic network models of swirl burners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A.; Hirsch, C.; Sattelmayer, T.

    2006-11-01

    Utilizing the close analogy between electronic circuits and ducted acoustic systems, mathematical methods originally developed for the characterization of electronic networks are applied to the experimental acoustic plane wave characterization of swirl burners with complex geometries. The experiments presented in the paper show that the acoustic behavior of swirl generators can be quantitatively evaluated treating them as acoustic two-ports. Such acoustic two-ports are presented in forms of transfer-, scattering- and mobility matrices of the element. In the acoustic burner study dynamic pressure measurements were made at several locations of a tubular combustor test rig for two acoustically independent states, which were generated by forcing with sirens at the opposite ends of the setup. The technique for the experimental evaluation of acoustic transfer matrices of complex geometries on the basis of these dynamic pressure measurements is illustrated. As an alternative to the experiment, the evaluation of the acoustic behavior of acoustic systems is assessed using acoustic networks consisting of simple acoustic elements like ducts, bends, junctions and sudden area changes with transfer matrices, which are derived from first principles. In the paper, a network model representing the transfer characteristics of swirl burners is presented and compared with the previously measured transfer matrices. Although the burner geometry is rather complex, its acoustic behavior can be successfully mapped to a network consisting of a serial connection of nine elements with only minor adjustment of one parameter.

  18. ASU nitrogen sweep gas in hydrogen separation membrane for production of HRSG duct burner fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Panuccio, Gregory J.; Raybold, Troy M.; Jamal, Agil; Drnevich, Raymond Francis

    2013-04-02

    The present invention relates to the use of low pressure N2 from an air separation unit (ASU) for use as a sweep gas in a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to increase syngas H2 recovery and make a near-atmospheric pressure (less than or equal to about 25 psia) fuel for supplemental firing in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) duct burner.

  19. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1633 - Details of Burner Stand-off

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Details of Burner Stand-off 5 Figure 5 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 7 Figure...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation 9 Figure 9 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation 9 Figure 9 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 7 Figure...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 7 Figure...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 7 Figure...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation 9 Figure 9 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1633 - Details of Burner Stand-off

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Details of Burner Stand-off 5 Figure 5 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation 9 Figure 9 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1633 - Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burner Placements on Mattress/Foundation 9 Figure 9 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1633 - Details of Burner Stand-off

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Details of Burner Stand-off 5 Figure 5 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1633 - Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of Propane Flow Control for Each Burner 7 Figure 7 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 7 Figure...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1633 - Details of Burner Stand-off

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Details of Burner Stand-off 5 Figure 5 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Part 1633 - Details of Burner Stand-off

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Details of Burner Stand-off 5 Figure 5 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Part...

  14. SONOTECH, INC. FREQUENCY-TUNABLE PULSE COMBUSTION SYSTEM (CELLO PULSE BURNER) - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sonotech, Inc. (Sonotech) of Atlanta, Georgia, has developed a pulse combustion burner technology that claims to offer benefits when applied in a variety of combustion processes. The technology incorporates a combustor that can be tuned to induce large-amplitude acoustic or soni...

  15. 46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... service systems. (a) All discharge piping from the fuel oil service pumps to burners must be seamless... application may be used when approved by the Marine Safety Center. Tubing fittings must be of the flared type... copper nickel. (b)(1) All vessels having oil fired boilers must have at least two fuel service...

  16. Comparison of heat transfer and soil impacts of air curtain burner burning and slash pile burning

    Treesearch

    Woongsoon Jang; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Han-Sup Han

    2017-01-01

    We measured soil heating and subsequent changes in soil properties between two forest residue disposal methods: slash pile burning (SPB) and air curtain burner (ACB). The ACB consumes fuels more efficiently and safely via blowing air into a burning container. Five burning trials with different fuel sizes were implemented in northern California, USA. Soil temperature...

  17. Confronting the "Bra-Burners": Teaching Radical Feminism with a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreydatus, Beth

    2008-01-01

    In many of the U.S. History courses the author has taught, she has encountered students who refer to the second-wave feminists of the 1960s and 1970s as "bra-burners." Unsurprisingly, these students know very little about the origin of this epithet, and frequently, they know even less about the women's movement generally. Second-wave feminism, and…

  18. Validation of structural analysis methods using burner liner cyclic rig test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of the hot section technology (HOST) burner liner cyclic rig test program are basically threefold: (1) to assist in developing predictive tools needed to improve design analyses and procedures for the efficient and accurate prediction of burner liner structural response; (2) to calibrate, evaluate and validate these predictive tools by comparing the predicted results with the experimental data generated in the tests; and (3) to evaluate existing as well as advanced temperature and strain measurement instrumentation, both contact and noncontact, in a simulated engine cycle environment. The data generated will include measurements of the thermal environment (metal surface temperatures) as well as structural (strain) and life (fatigue) responses of simulated burner liners and specimens under controlled boundary and operating conditions. These data will be used to calibrate, compare and validate analytical theories, methodologies and design procedures, as well as improvements in them, for predicting liner temperatures, stress-strain responses and cycles to failure. Comparison of predicted results with experimental data will be used to show where the predictive theories, etc. need improvements. In addition, as the predictive tools, as well as the tests, test methods, and data acquisition and reduction techniques, are developed and validated, a proven, integrated analysis/experiment method will be developed to determine the cyclic life of a simulated burner liner.

  19. THE SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE AMERICAN COMBUSTION PYRETRON OXYGEN-ENHANCED BURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of the American Combustion PyretronTM oxygen-enhanced burner ws conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The Demonstration was conducted at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Research Facility (CRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas....

  20. Alternative solutions for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from cell burner boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mali, E.; Laursen, T.; Piepho, J.

    1996-01-01

    Standard, tightly-spaced cell burners were developed by Babcock & Wilcox during the 1960s in response to economic demands for highly efficient burner designs. However, the downside of this 1960s design is the production of elevated levels of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions which negatively impact the environment. Cell-fired units have been designated as Phase II, Group II boilers under Title IV, Acid Rain Control, of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 for NO{sub x} control. This paper will discuss one technology developed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program for pulverized coal, cell-fired units - namely, the Low NO{sub x} Cell burner (LNCB{reg_sign}) technology. The body of this paper will describe the development of Low NO{sub x} Cell burner technology and examine six follow-on commercial contracts. The purpose of the paper is to identify similarities and differences in design, fuels, costs and performance results when compared against the Clean Coal Technology prototype.

  1. Confronting the "Bra-Burners": Teaching Radical Feminism with a Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreydatus, Beth

    2008-01-01

    In many of the U.S. History courses the author has taught, she has encountered students who refer to the second-wave feminists of the 1960s and 1970s as "bra-burners." Unsurprisingly, these students know very little about the origin of this epithet, and frequently, they know even less about the women's movement generally. Second-wave feminism, and…

  2. Experimental verification of vapor deposition rate theory in high velocity burner rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Santoro, Gilbert J.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective has been the experimental verification of the corrosive vapor deposition theory in high-temperature, high-velocity environments. Towards this end a Mach 0.3 burner-rig appartus was built to measure deposition rates from salt-seeded (mostly Na salts) combustion gases on the internally cooled cylindrical collector. Deposition experiments are underway.

  3. THE SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE AMERICAN COMBUSTION PYRETRON OXYGEN-ENHANCED BURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of the American Combustion PyretronTM oxygen-enhanced burner ws conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The Demonstration was conducted at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Research Facility (CRF) in Jefferson, Arkansas....

  4. Social Studies (Still) on the Back Burner: Perceptions and Practices of K-5 Social Studies Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintner, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    In 1995, Neil Houser concluded that social studies in Delaware was "on the back burner." Some ten years later, the same can be said concerning social studies in South Carolina. With a continued emphasis being placed on the more "pressing" fields such as math and language arts, coupled with the inclusion of social studies on…

  5. Low No{sub x}/SO{sub x} burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Baseline test report: Issue A

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC`s) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC`s Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner`s SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  6. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  7. [Industrial pulverized coal low NO{sub x} burner, Phase I] technical progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Market evaluation of industrial pulverized coal usage, and of typical industries and applications where the low-NO{sub x}, burner may be sold, was partially completed at the end of this reporting period. The study identified three coals that may adequately meet the requirements of the low-NO{sub x} burner modeling study, and of the intended industrial applications. These were: (a) Pittsburgh Seam Bituminous, (b) Pittsburgh No. 8, and (c) Utah Bituminous. The first burner design, for modeling studies, was developed for a nominal output of 5.0 million Btu/hr. All input and process parameters, and all major dimensions of the burner have been determined. Burner design sketch was developed. Standard jet pump geometry of the fuel-rich burner flow path (US Patents No. 4,445,842 and No. 3,990,831), has been modified for use with pulverized coal. Staged air was added. Staged air, in conjunction with recirculated flue gas, has been found by ADL, MIT and other researchers to be effective in NO{sub x}, reduction. No attempt has been made to achieve compactness of design. The primary and seconder, air inlets and flow passages are separate, although in the industrial burner they will be combined. Flue gas may be drawn into the burner either from the hot furnace chamber, or from the flue stack after recuperation. However, to satisfy the energy requirements for volatilizing the coal, flue gas temperature above 2000{degrees}F may be needed. With the preliminary burner design completed, and suitable coals for the modeling study selected, type project is ready to proceed to the kinetic modeling tasks at MIT.

  8. [Industrial pulverized coal low NO[sub x] burner, Phase I] technical progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Market evaluation of industrial pulverized coal usage, and of typical industries and applications where the low-NO[sub x], burner may be sold, was partially completed at the end of this reporting period. The study identified three coals that may adequately meet the requirements of the low-NO[sub x] burner modeling study, and of the intended industrial applications. These were: (a) Pittsburgh Seam Bituminous, (b) Pittsburgh No. 8, and (c) Utah Bituminous. The first burner design, for modeling studies, was developed for a nominal output of 5.0 million Btu/hr. All input and process parameters, and all major dimensions of the burner have been determined. Burner design sketch was developed. Standard jet pump geometry of the fuel-rich burner flow path (US Patents No. 4,445,842 and No. 3,990,831), has been modified for use with pulverized coal. Staged air was added. Staged air, in conjunction with recirculated flue gas, has been found by ADL, MIT and other researchers to be effective in NO[sub x], reduction. No attempt has been made to achieve compactness of design. The primary and seconder, air inlets and flow passages are separate, although in the industrial burner they will be combined. Flue gas may be drawn into the burner either from the hot furnace chamber, or from the flue stack after recuperation. However, to satisfy the energy requirements for volatilizing the coal, flue gas temperature above 2000[degrees]F may be needed. With the preliminary burner design completed, and suitable coals for the modeling study selected, type project is ready to proceed to the kinetic modeling tasks at MIT.

  9. Results of initial operation of the Jupiter Oxygen Corporation oxy-fuel 15 MWth burner test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Ochs, Danylo Oryshchyn, Rigel Woodside, Cathy Summers, Brian Patrick, Dietrich Gross, Mark Schoenfield, Thomas Weber and Dan O'Brien

    2009-04-01

    Jupiter Oxygen Corporation (JOC), in cooperation with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), constructed a 15 MWth oxy-fuel burner test facility with Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPRTM) to test high flame temperature oxy-fuel combustion and advanced carbon capture. Combustion protocols include baseline air firing with natural gas, oxygen and natural gas firing with and without flue gas recirculation, and oxygen and pulverized coal firing with flue gas recirculation. Testing focuses on characterizing burner performance, determining heat transfer characteristics, optimizing CO2 capture, and maximizing heat recovery, with an emphasis on data traceability to address retrofit of existing boilers by directly transforming burner systems to oxy-fuel firing.

  10. A high-pressure premixed flat-flame burner for chemical process studies. [of pollutant formation in hydrocarbon flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I. M.

    1978-01-01

    A premixed flat-flame burner was designed and tested with methane-air mixtures at pressures from 1.1 to 20 atm and equivalence ratios from 0.7 to 1.1. Reactant velocity in the burner mixing chamber was used to characterize the range of stable flames at each pressure-equivalence-ratio condition. Color photographs of the flames were used to determine flame zone thickness and flame height. The results show that this burner can be used for chemical process studies in premixed high pressure methane-air flames up to 20 atm.

  11. Ensemble Diffraction Measurements of Spray Combustion in a Novel Vitiated Coflow Turbulent Jet Flame Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabra, R.; Hamano, Y.; Chen, J. Y.; Dibble, R. W.; Acosta, F.; Holve, D.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental investigation is presented of a novel vitiated coflow spray flame burner. The vitiated coflow emulates the recirculation region of most combustors, such as gas turbines or furnaces; additionally, since the vitiated gases are coflowing, the burner allows exploration of the chemistry of recirculation without the corresponding fluid mechanics of recirculation. As such, this burner allows for chemical kinetic model development without obscurations caused by fluid mechanics. The burner consists of a central fuel jet (droplet or gaseous) surrounded by the oxygen rich combustion products of a lean premixed flame that is stabilized on a perforated, brass plate. The design presented allows for the reacting coflow to span a large range of temperatures and oxygen concentrations. Several experiments measuring the relationships between mixture stoichiometry and flame temperature are used to map out the operating ranges of the coflow burner. These include temperatures as low 300 C to stoichiometric and oxygen concentrations from 18 percent to zero. This is achieved by stabilizing hydrogen-air premixed flames on a perforated plate. Furthermore, all of the CO2 generated is from the jet combustion. Thus, a probe sample of NO(sub X) and CO2 yields uniquely an emission index, as is commonly done in gas turbine engine exhaust research. The ability to adjust the oxygen content of the coflow allows us to steadily increase the coflow temperature surrounding the jet. At some temperature, the jet ignites far downstream from the injector tube. Further increases in the coflow temperature results in autoignition occurring closer to the nozzle. Examples are given of methane jetting into a coflow that is lean, stoichiometric, and even rich. Furthermore, an air jet with a rich coflow produced a normal looking flame that is actually 'inverted' (air on the inside, surrounded by fuel). In the special case of spray injection, we demonstrate the efficacy of this novel burner with a

  12. Low-NO sub x modification of a 200 MMBTU/HR natural gas-fired ring burner

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, C.; Rib, D. ); Czerniak, D.; Blakeslee, C. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a program to reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from the boilers on solar electric generating stations (SEGS) located in Boron, California. The primary goal of the program was to reduce emissions by 20 ppm, from 80 to 60 ppm, at a low cost relative to total burner replacement with new commercial low-NO{sub x} burners. Each SEGS unit includes a 33 MW Westinghouse/Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) natural gas-fired boiler originally equipped with two MHI type SE-100 low-NO{sub x} burners rate at 200 MMBtu/hr. The type and size of these burners are typical of large utility boilers. The boiler is also equipped with steam injection to the combustion air to control NO{sub x} emission from approximately 100 ppm (uncontrolled) to 80 ppm for the original design.

  13. Opposed Jet Burner Extinction Limits: Simple Mixed Hydrocarbon Scramjet Fuels vs Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Vaden, Sarah N.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2007-01-01

    Opposed Jet Burner tools have been used extensively by the authors to measure Flame Strength (FS) of laminar non-premixed H2 air and simple hydrocarbon (HC) air counterflow diffusion flames at 1-atm. FS represents a strain-induced extinction limit based on air jet velocity. This paper follows AIAA-2006-5223, and provides new HC air FSs for global testing of chemical kinetics, and for characterizing idealized flameholding potentials during early scramjet-like combustion. Previous FS data included six HCs, pure and N2-diluted; and three HC-diluted H2 fuels, where FS decayed very nonlinearly as HC was added to H2, due to H-atom scavenging. This study presents FSs on mixtures of (candidate surrogate) HCs, some with very high FS ethylene. Included are four binary gaseous systems at 300 K, and a hot ternary system at approx. 600 K. The binaries are methane + ethylene, ethane + ethylene, methane + ethane, and methane + propylene. The first three also form two ternary systems. The hot ternary includes both 10.8 and 21.3 mole % vaporized n-heptane and full ranges of methane + ethylene. Normalized FS data provide accurate means of (1) validating, globally, chemical kinetics for extinction of non-premixed flames, and (2) estimating (scaling by HC) the loss of incipient flameholding in scramjet combustors. The n-heptane is part of a proposed baseline simulant (10 mole % with 30% methane + 60% ethylene) that mimics the ignition of endothermically cracked JP-7 like kerosene fuel, as suggested by Colket and Spadaccini in 2001 in their shock tube Scramjet Fuels Autoignition Study. Presently, we use FS to gauge idealized flameholding, and define HC surrogates. First, FS was characterized for hot nheptane + methane + ethylene; then a hot 36 mole % methane + 64% ethylene surrogate was defined that mimics FS of the baseline simulant system. A similar hot ethane + ethylene surrogate can also be defined, but it has lower vapor pressure at 300 K, and thus exhibits reduced gaseous

  14. Demonstration of Low-NOx Burner Retrofit for Dual-Fuel Package Boilers: Equipment Selection Criteria and Initial Findings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    modifications; (2) at least 3 ft on each side of the boiler and at least 8 ft from the burner mounting plate . "* Stack should be accessible for instrumentation...This problem was corrected by installing replacement parts recommended by the burner manufacturer. The second problem was a warped diffuser plate . This...problem was caused by an incorrect specification that overlooked the boiler’s negative furnace pressure. The diffuser plate was replaced with the

  15. NUCLEAR DATA TARGET ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS FOR MA BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Palmiotti; M. Salvatores

    2011-06-01

    A nuclear data target accuracy assessment has been carried out for two types of transmuters: a critical sodium fast reactor(SFR) and an accelerator driven system (ADMAB). Results are provided for a 7 group energy structure. Considerations about fuel cycle parameters uncertainties illustrate their dependence from the isotope final densities at end of cycle.

  16. Sensor for Individual Burner Control of Coal Firing Rate, Fuel-Air Ratio and Coal Fineness Correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hill; Roger Demler

    2004-06-01

    The project's overall objective is to develop a commercially viable dynamic signature based sensing system that is used to infer the flow rate and fineness of pulverized coal. This eighteen month effort will focus on developments required to transfer the measurement system from the laboratory to a field ready prototype system. This objective will be achieved through the completion of the laboratory development of the sensor and data algorithm followed by full scale field tests of a portable measurement system. The sensing system utilizes accelerometers attached externally to coal feeder pipes. Raw data is collected from the impingement of the coal particles as well as the acoustic noise generated from the flow and is transformed into characteristic signatures through proper calibration that are meaningful to the operator. The laboratory testing will use a portable version of the sensing system to collect signature data from a variety of flow conditions including coal flow rates, flow orientations, and coal particle characteristics. This work will be conducted at the Coal Flow Measurement Laboratory that is sponsored by EPRI and operated by Airflow Sciences. The data will be used to enhance the algorithm and neural network required to perform real time analysis of the nonspecific signature data. The system will be installed at two full scale power plants to collect data in a real time operating scenario. These short term duration tests will evaluate the ability of the algorithm to accurately infer coal flow rates and determine if the measurement system can be used effectively in an active control loop for combustion diagnostics and burner balancing. At the completion of this project, prototype versions of both a portable system and a permanent installation will be available for final packaging and commercialization by one of the team members. Both types of systems will be marketed for conducting combustion diagnostics and balancing of individual flows to pulverized

  17. SENSOR FOR INDIVIDUAL BURNER CONTROL OF COAL FIRING RATE, FUEL-AIR RATIO AND COAL FINENESS CORRELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne Hill

    2004-02-01

    The project's overall objective is to development a commercially viable dynamic signature based sensing system that is used to infer the flow rate and fineness of pulverized coal. This eighteen month effort will focus on developments required to transfer the measurement system from the laboratory to a field ready prototype system. This objective will be achieved through the completion of the laboratory development of the sensor and data algorithm followed by full scale field tests of a portable measurement system. The sensing system utilizes accelerometers attached externally to coal feeder pipes. Raw data is collected from the impingement of the coal particles as well as the acoustic noise generated from the flow and is transformed into characteristic signatures through proper calibration that are meaningful to the operator. The laboratory testing will use a portable version of the sensing system to collect signature data from a variety of flow conditions including coal flow rates, flow orientations, and coal particle characteristics. This work will be conducted at the Coal Flow Measurement Laboratory that is sponsored by EPRI and operated by Airflow Sciences. The data will be used to enhance the algorithm and neural network required to perform real time analysis of the non-specific signature data. The system will be installed at two full scale power plants to collect data in a real time operating scenario. These short term duration tests will evaluate the ability of the algorithm to accurately infer coal flow rates and determine if the measurement system can be used effectively in an active control loop for combustion diagnostics and burner balancing. At the completion of this project, prototype versions of both a portable system and a permanent installation will be available for final packaging and commercialization by one of the team members. Both types of systems will be marketed for conducting combustion diagnostics and balancing of individual flows to

  18. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

  19. Effect of Reynolds Number in Turbulent-Flow Range on Flame Speeds of Bunsen Burner Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollinger, Lowell M; Williams, David T

    1949-01-01

    The effect of flow conditions on the geometry of the turbulent Bunsen flame was investigated. Turbulent flame speed is defined in terms of flame geometry and data are presented showing the effect of Reynolds number of flow in the range of 3000 to 35,000 on flame speed for burner diameters from 1/4 to 1 1/8 inches and three fuels -- acetylene, ethylene, and propane. The normal flame speed of an explosive mixture was shown to be an important factor in determining its turbulent flame speed, and it was deduced from the data that turbulent flame speed is a function of both the Reynolds number of the turbulent flow in the burner tube and of the tube diameter.

  20. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Work on process design was deferred pending a restart of the mainstream project activities. LNS Burner design effort was focussed mainly on the continued development of the slag screen model. Documentation of the LNS Burner thermal model also continued. Balance of plant engineering continued on the P ID's for the fuel preparation building HVAC system, lighter oil, limestone/fuel additive handling system, instrument and service air and fire protection systems. Work began on the preparation of system and sub-system descriptions. Schematic connection and wiring drawings and diagrams for the fuel handling system, flame scanner/igniter system and DCS control modification for the lighter oil pumps and Unit 1 circulating water pumps were completed.

  1. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS BASED INVESTIGATION OF SENSITIVITY OF FURNACE OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS TO BURNER FLOW CONTROLS

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Cremer; Zumao Chen; Dave Wang; Paul Wolff

    2004-06-01

    This is the extended second Semiannual Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project is to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. Our approach is to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner flow controls. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center are active participants in this project. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts.

  2. Performance of laser glazed Zr02 TBCs in cyclic oxidation and corrosion burner test rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of laser glazed zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) was evaluated in cyclic oxidation and cyclic corrosion tests. Plasma sprayed zirconia coatings of two thicknesses were partially melted with a CO2 laser. The power density of the focused laser beam was varied from 35 to 75 W/sq mm, while the scanning speed was about 80 cm per minute. In cyclic oxidation tests, the specimens were heated in a burner rig for 6 minutes and cooled for 3 minutes. It is indicated that the laser treated samples have the same life as the untreated ones. However, in corrosion tests, in which the burner rig flame contained 100 PPM sodium fuel equivalent, the laser treated samples exhibit nearly a fourfold life improvement over that of the reference samples vary. In both tests, the lives of the samples inversely with the thickness of the laser melted layer of zirconia.

  3. Method for reducing NOx during combustion of coal in a burner

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Bing; Parasher, Sukesh; Hare, Jeffrey J.; Harding, N. Stanley; Black, Stephanie E.; Johnson, Kenneth R.

    2008-04-15

    An organically complexed nanocatalyst composition is applied to or mixed with coal prior to or upon introducing the coal into a coal burner in order to catalyze the removal of coal nitrogen from the coal and its conversion into nitrogen gas prior to combustion of the coal. This process leads to reduced NOx production during coal combustion. The nanocatalyst compositions include a nanoparticle catalyst that is made using a dispersing agent that can bond with the catalyst atoms. The dispersing agent forms stable, dispersed, nano-sized catalyst particles. The catalyst composition can be formed as a stable suspension to facilitate storage, transportation and application of the catalyst nanoparticles to a coal material. The catalyst composition can be applied before or after pulverizing the coal material or it may be injected directly into the coal burner together with pulverized coal.

  4. Evaluation of Fluid Conduction and Mixing within a Subassembly of the Actinide Burner Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Cliff B. Davis

    2007-09-01

    The RELAP5-3D code is being considered as a thermal-hydraulic system code to support the development of the sodium-cooled Actinide Burner Test Reactor as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. An evaluation was performed to determine whether the control system could be used to simulate the effects of non-convective mechanisms of heat transport in the fluid, including axial and radial heat conduction and subchannel mixing, that are not currently represented with internal code models. The evaluation also determined the relative importance of axial and radial heat conduction and fluid mixing on peak cladding temperature for a wide range of steady conditions and during a representative loss-of-flow transient. The evaluation was performed using a RELAP5-3D model of a subassembly in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, which was used as a surrogate for the Actinide Burner Test Reactor.

  5. Integration of an Inter Turbine Burner to a Jet Turbine Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    performance. 16 Figure 2.5: Curved RVC [11] Liew et al. has conducted an off design performance-cycle analysis for a two spool turbofan engine with an...C. J., “Performance Cycle Analysis of Turbofan Engine with Interstage Turbine Burner”, Journal of Propulsion and Power, 2006, Vol. 22 10. Zelina...INTEGRATION OF AN INTER TURBINE BURNER TO A JET TURBINE ENGINE THESIS Matthew M. Conrad

  6. A numerical study of highly-diluted, burner-stabilised dimethyl ether flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Daniel; Moshammer, Kai; Cai, Liming; Pitsch, Heinz; Kohse-Höinghaus, Katharina

    2015-03-01

    Recently, a new burner was designed by Zhang et al. (Proc. Combust. Inst. 34 [2013], 763-770) to enable the investigation of 1D, premixed flames at atmospheric pressure with a temperature in the burnt gases near 1500 K. It consists of a matrix burner plate with alternating fuel and oxidiser feeds that, because of small-scale nozzles, mix quite rapidly. Flames at high dilution and reduced temperatures such as realised here are of relevance for the understanding of low-temperature combustion strategies. In this work, we examine the burner with regard to the validity of the 1D assumption for the investigated flames. Experimental measurements are conducted and 1D and 3D simulations are performed in which the chemistry is described by a detailed chemistry approach based on a reduced reaction scheme derived from the mechanism of Fischer et al. (Int. J. Chem. Kinetics 32 [2000], 713-740). The experimental results are compared to 1D simulations with two different temperature treatments. First, the unburnt temperature is set to the measured temperature closest to the burner surface; second, the experimental temperature profile is prescribed in the whole simulation domain without solving the energy equation. The comparison shows that the 1D simulation predicts the experimental results reasonably well, if the experimentally obtained temperature profile is prescribed in the simulation domain. Differences are found in the mole fractions of methyl and formaldehyde. Further comparisons of the experimental data with 3D simulation results and comparisons of 3D and 1D simulation results indicate that the differences between measured and computed mole fractions of these species are not a result of the 3D nature of the experimental flame and might be attributed to the chemical mechanism. The conclusion is that the measurement data can be used for validation purposes with the 1D simulation setup shown here if the measured temperature profiles are prescribed in the 1D simulation domain.

  7. Strand Burner Results of AFP-001 Propellant with Inert Coating for Temperature Compensation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    ARL-MR-0907 ● OCT 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Strand Burner Results of AFP-001 Propellant with Inert Coating for Temperature...Destroy this report when it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. ARL-MR-0907 ● OCT 2015 US Army Research ...Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FOR ii REPORT

  8. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-06-01

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants and they are typically used without venting. The objective of this study is to quantify pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. A mass balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes and the "exposure concentrations" experienced by individual occupants. The model was applied to estimate nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for one week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs, NO{sub 2} and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of CO and NO{sub 2} were obtained from available databases. Ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use were inferred from household characteristics. Proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods were also explored. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying less than 10%. The simulation model estimates that in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods, 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3000, and 20 ppb for NO{sub 2}, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health

  9. Cooling Characteristics of an Experimental Tail-pipe Burner with an Annular Cooling-air Passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Harold R; Koffel, William K

    1952-01-01

    The effects of tail-pipe fuel-air ratio (exhaust-gas temperatures from approximately 3060 degrees to 3825 degrees R), radial distributiion of tail-pipe fuel flow, and mass flow of combustion gas and the inside wall were determined for an experimental tail-pipe burner cooled by air flowing through and insulated cooling-air to combustion gas mass flow from 0.066 to 0.192 were also determined.

  10. Numerical simulation of the laminar diffusion flame in a simplified burner

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1995-11-08

    The laminar ethylene-air diffusion fame in a simple laboratory burner was simulated with the COYOTE reactive flow program. This program predicts the flow field, transport, and chemistry for the purposes of code validation and providing physical understanding of the processes occurring in the flame. We show the results of numerical experiments to test the importance of several physical effects, including gravity, radiation, and differential diffusion. The computational results compare favorably with the experimental measurements.

  11. Burning anthracite at B and W downshot unit and burner upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.

    1998-12-31

    Low volatile matter (VM) coals have difficulty on ignition, flame stability and burnout. A conventional utility boiler can`t successfully utilize such coals. The applications of enhancing ignition steps, proper burner type and its arrangement plus staging combustion as well as a suitable furnace configuration, along or in combination, may burn such low VM coals with high efficiency. B&W downshot units in Shang An Power Plant (S-Plant) in China applies a downshot firing with a W-shape flame plus primary air exchange burner (PAX) and staging combustion in a combination which achieved a great success in burning the design coal. The design coal is a blended coal (25% Yangquan (YQ) anthracite and 75% Shuyang lean) resulting a 13.95% VMdmf ranking as a semi-anthracite per ASTM-D338. In 1995, all 20 burner registers of Unit 1 had been upgraded. S-Plant and B and W decided to conduct a high anthracite blending coal (75% anthracite) combustion tests. The unit had demonstrated a great fuel flexibility. Based on the achievements, the all burner and staging ports of Unit 2 has been upgraded in 1997. In order to further demonstrate the great enhancing ignition feature, B and W had entrusted Chinese TPRI to conduct 100% YQ anthracite burn tests in May 1998. These tests reveal that with 100% anthracite firing, the ignition was fast and on time; the flame and combustion were very stable. Three days (58 continuous hours) 100% anthracite firing was carried out with the load range from the full (350 MW) to half (170--175 MW). The minimum load of 170--175 MW (48--50% MCR) without oil support was easy to maintain. Due to the plant policy, they don`t allow further reduction of the minimum load lower than 50% MCR. These tests have greatly demonstrated the capability of these units burning 100% anthracite.

  12. The effects of chemical kinetics and wall temperature on performance of porous media burners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    mohammadi, Iman; Hossainpour, Siamak

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports a two-dimensional numerical prediction of premixed methane-air combustion in inert porous media burner by using of four multi-step mechanisms: GRI-3.0 mechanism, GRI-2.11 mechanism and the skeletal and 17 Species mechanisms. The effects of these models on temperature, chemical species and pollutant emissions are studied. A two-dimensional axisymmetric model for premixed methane-air combustion in porous media burner has developed. The finite volume method has used to solve the governing equations of methane-air combustion in inert porous media burner. The results indicate that the present four models have the same accuracy in predicting temperature profiles and the difference between these profiles is not more than 2 %. In addition, the Gri-3.0 mechanism shows the best prediction of NO emission in comparison with experimental data. The 17 Species mechanism shows good agreement in prediction of temperature and pollutant emissions with GRI-3.0, GRI-2.11 and the skeletal mechanisms. Also the effects of wall temperature on the gas temperature and mass fraction of species such as NO and CH4 are studied.

  13. Numerical investigation of premixed combustion in a porous burner with integrated heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzaneh, Meisam; Shafiey, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Reza; Shams, Mehrzad

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we perform a numerical analysis of a two-dimensional axisymmetric problem arising in premixed combustion in a porous burner with integrated heat exchanger. The physical domain consists of two zones, porous and heat exchanger zones. Two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, gas and solid energy equations, and chemical species transport equations are solved and heat release is described by a multistep kinetics mechanism. The solid matrix is modeled as a gray medium, and the finite volume method is used to solve the radiative transfer equation to calculate the local radiation source/sink in the solid phase energy equation. Special attention is given to model heat transfer between the hot gas and the heat exchanger tube. Thus, the corresponding terms are added to the energy equations of the flow and the solid matrix. Gas and solid temperature profiles and species mole fractions on the burner centerline, predicted 2D temperature fields, species concentrations and streamlines are presented. Calculated results for temperature profiles are compared to experimental data. It is shown that there is good agreement between the numerical solutions and the experimental data and it is concluded that the developed numerical program is an excellent tool to investigate combustion in porous burner.

  14. TPV Power Generation System Using a High Temperature Metal Radiant Burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, K.; Hayden, A. C. S.; Entchev, E.

    2007-02-01

    Interest has grown in micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP). Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generation of electricity in fuel-fired furnaces is one of the micro-CHP technologies that are attracting technical attention. Previous investigations have shown that a radiant burner that can efficiently convert fuel chemical energy into radiation energy is crucial to realize a practical TPV power system. In this work, we developed a TPV power generation system using a gas-fired metal radiant burner. The burner consists of a high temperature alloy emitter, which could have an increased emissivity at short wavelengths and low emissivity at long wavelengths. The metal emitter is capable of bearing high temperatures of interest to fuel-fired TPV power conversion. GaSb TPV cells were tested in the combustion-driven radiant source. Electric output characteristics of the TPV cells were investigated at various operating conditions. The electric power output of the TPV cells was demonstrated to be promising. At an emitter temperature of 1185°C, an electric power density of 0.476 W/cm2 was generated by the GaSb cells. It is shown that the metal emitter is attractive and could be applied to practical fuel-fired TPV power systems.

  15. Prediction of Excess Air Factor in Automatic Feed Coal Burners by Processing of Flame Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talu, Muhammed Fatih; Onat, Cem; Daskin, Mahmut

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the relationship between the visual information gathered from the flame images and the excess air factor λ in coal burners is investigated. In conventional coal burners the excess air factor λ. can be obtained using very expensive air measurement instruments. The proposed method to predict λ for a specific time in the coal burners consists of three distinct and consecutive stages; a) online flame images acquisition using a CCD camera, b) extraction meaningful information (flame intensity and brightness)from flame images, and c) learning these information (image features) with ANNs and estimate λ. Six different feature extraction methods have been used: CDF of Blue Channel, Co-Occurrence Matrix, L ∞-Frobenius Norms, Radiant Energy Signal (RES), PCA and Wavelet. When compared prediction results, it has seen that the use of co-occurrence matrix with ANNs has the best performance (RMSE = 0.07) in terms of accuracy. The results show that the proposed predicting system using flame images can be preferred instead of using expensive devices to measure excess air factor in during combustion.

  16. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; M.P. Heap; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

    2000-04-01

    Coal continues to be one of the principal energy sources for electric power generation in the United States. One of the biggest environmental challenges involved with coal utilization is the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) formed during coal combustion. The most economical method of NO{sub x} abatement in coal combustion is through burner modification. Air-staging techniques have been widely used in the development of low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal burners, promoting the conversion of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} by delaying the mixing in the fuel-rich zone near the burner inlet. Previous studies have looked at the mechanisms of NO{sub x} evolution at relatively low temperatures where primary pyrolysis is dominant, but data published for secondary pyrolysis in the pulverized coal furnace are scarce. In this project, the nitrogen evolution behavior during secondary coal pyrolysis will be explored. The end result will be a complete model of nitrogen evolution and NO{sub x} precursor formation due to primary and secondary pyrolysis.

  17. High-temperature burner-duct-recuperator system evaluation. Annual report, October 1981-September 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    A project to design, construct, install, and evaluate a high-temperature burner-duct-recuperator (HTBDR) system is described. The high-temperature recuperator is to be capable of delivering 2000/sup 0/F (1800/sup 0/F minimum) preheated combustion air to a high-temperature burner designed for the combustion system of a steel mill soaking pit. The evaluation site is located at the Koppel, Pennsylvania, steel-making facility of the B and W Tubular Products Group. The purpose of the project is to advance the state-of-the-art in industrial waste heat utilization by developing an HTBDR system that is both technically and economically acceptable to industry. The system designed by B and W intended to operate in flue gas streams of 2500/sup 0/F (maximum) that contain contaminants from hot topping compounds and scale (iron oxide). This report describes the efforts in the first year of the project, which includes the design of the HTBDR system, flue exposure testing, and an energy audit of the host site. An interactive, interdisciplinary team was utilized to design the HTBDR system. The design effort of each technical discipline is presented in detail in sections 1 to 7 of this report including: ceramic materials characterization; system mechanical design; process control and instrumentation; thermal and fluid flow; applied mechanics (stress analysis); flow-induced vibration analysis; HTBDR burner development, and HTBDR and energy audit.

  18. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; M.P. Heap; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

    2000-04-01

    Coal continues to be one of the principal energy sources for electric power generation in the United States. One of the biggest environmental challenges involved with coal utilization is the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) formed during coal combustion. The most economical method of NO{sub x} abatement in coal combustion is through burner modification. Air-staging techniques have been widely used in the development of low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal burners, promoting the conversion of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} by delaying the mixing in the fuel-rich zone near the burner inlet. Previous studies have looked at the mechanisms of NO{sub x} evolution at relatively low temperatures where primary pyrolysis is dominant, but data published for secondary pyrolysis in the pulverized coal furnace are scarce. In this project, the nitrogen evolution behavior during secondary coal pyrolysis will be explored. The end result will be a complete model of nitrogen evolution and NO{sub x} precursor formation due to primary and secondary pyrolysis.

  19. Prediction of Excess Air Factor in Automatic Feed Coal Burners by Processing of Flame Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talu, Muhammed Fatih; Onat, Cem; Daskin, Mahmut

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the relationship between the visual information gathered from the flame images and the excess air factor λ in coal burners is investigated. In conventional coal burners the excess air factor λ. can be obtained using very expensive air measurement instruments. The proposed method to predict λ for a specific time in the coal burners consists of three distinct and consecutive stages; a) online flame images acquisition using a CCD camera, b) extraction meaningful information (flame intensity and brightness)from flame images, and c) learning these information (image features) with ANNs and estimate λ. Six different feature extraction methods have been used: CDF of Blue Channel, Co-Occurrence Matrix, L ∞-Frobenius Norms, Radiant Energy Signal (RES), PCA and Wavelet. When compared prediction results, it has seen that the use of co-occurrence matrix with ANNs has the best performance (RMSE = 0.07) in terms of accuracy. The results show that the proposed predicting system using flame images can be preferred instead of using expensive devices to measure excess air factor in during combustion.

  20. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powdered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, T.; Yeboah, Y.D.; Sampath, R.

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of fan powered infrared burner (PER) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions and develop design guidelines for appliances containing PER burners for satisfactory performance. During this past quarter, a porous radiant burner testing facility consisting of a commercial deep-fat fryer, an FTIR based spectral radiance measurement system, a set of flue gas analysis components, and a fuel gas mixing station was constructed. The measurement capabilities of the system were tested using methane and the test results were found to be consistent with the literature. Various gas mixtures were tested. Results indicated that the stability limits of the burner and emissions vary with fuel gas composition and air/fuel ratio. However, the maximum radiant efficiency of the burner remained constant. Results obtained from this study can be useful to develop optimum design guidelines for PER burner manufacturers.

  1. Design and evaluation of a low nitrogen oxides natural gas-fired conical wire-mesh duct burner for a micro-cogeneration unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Omar Barka Ab

    A novel low NOx conical wire-mesh duct burner was designed, built and tested in the present research. This thesis documents the design process and the in-depth evaluation of this novel duct burner for the development of a more efficient micro-cogeneration unit. This duct burner provides the thermal energy necessary to raise the microturbine exhaust gases temperature to increase the heat recovery capability. The duct burner implements both lean-premixed and surface combustion techniques to achieve low NOx and CO emissions. The design of the duct burner was supported by a qualitative flow visualization study for the duct burner premixer to provide insight into the premixer flow field (mixing process). Different premixer geometries were used to control the homogeneity of the fuel-oxidant mixture at the exit of the duct burner premixer. Laser sheet illumination (LSI) technique was used to capture images of the mixing process, for each configuration studied. A quasi-quantitative analysis technique was developed to rank the different premixer geometries in terms of mixing effectiveness. The premixer geometries that provided better mixing were selected and used for the combustion tests. The full-scale gas-fired duct burner was installed in the exhaust duct of a micro-cogeneration unit for the evaluation. Three wire-mesh burners with different pressure drops were used. Each burner has a conical shape made from FeCrAL alloy mat and was designed based on a heat release per unit area of 2500 kW/m2 and a total heat release of 240kW at 100 percent excess air. The local momentum of the gaseous mixture introduced through the wire-mesh was adjusted so that the flame stabilized outside the burner mesh (surface combustion). Cold flow tests (i.e., the duct burner was off, but the microturbine was running) were conducted to measure the effect of different duct burner geometrical parameters on flow split between the combustion zone and the bypass channel, and on pressure drop across

  2. Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NO, reduction (70VO) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Depatiment of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was petformed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NO, emission level of 0.73 lb/1 OG Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50Y0. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NO, in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of' natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NO, emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65

  3. Pollutant Exposures from Natural Gas Cooking Burners: A Simulation-Based Assessment for Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants, and they are typically used without venting range hoods. Objective: We quantified pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes. Methods: A mass-balance model was applied to estimate time-dependent pollutant concentrations throughout homes in Southern California and the exposure concentrations experienced by individual occupants. We estimated nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations for 1 week each in summer and winter for a representative sample of Southern California homes. The model simulated pollutant emissions from NGCBs as well as NO2 and CO entry from outdoors, dilution throughout the home, and removal by ventilation and deposition. Residence characteristics and outdoor concentrations of NO2 and CO were obtained from available databases. We inferred ventilation rates, occupancy patterns, and burner use from household characteristics. We also explored proximity to the burner(s) and the benefits of using venting range hoods. Replicate model executions using independently generated sets of stochastic variable values yielded estimated pollutant concentration distributions with geometric means varying by < 10%. Results: The simulation model estimated that—in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods—62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO2, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3,000, and 20 ppb for NO2, CO, and HCHO, respectively. Conclusions: Reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed

  4. Effect of the fuel bias distribution in the primary air nozzle on the slagging near a swirl coal burner throat

    SciTech Connect

    Lingyan Zeng; Zhengqi Li; Hong Cui; Fucheng Zhang; Zhichao Chen; Guangbo Zhao

    2009-09-15

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of slagging characteristics near the burner throat region were carried out for swirl coal combustion burners used in a 1025 tons/h boiler. The gas/particle two-phase numerical simulation results and the data measured by a particle-dynamics anemometer (PDA) show that the numeration model was reasonable. For the centrally fuel-rich swirl coal combustion burner, the coal particles move in the following way. The particles first flow into furnace with the primary air from the burner throat. After traversing a certain distance, they move back to the burner throat and then toward the furnace again. Thus, particle trajectories are extended. For the case with equal air mass fluxes in the inner and outer primary air/coal mixtures, as the ratio of the coal mass flux in the inner primary air/coal mixture to the total coal mass flux increased from 40 (the reference condition) to 50%, 50 to 70%, and 70 to 100%, the maximum number density declined by 22, 11, and 4%, respectively, relative to the reference condition. In addition, the sticking particle ratio declined by 13, 14, and 8%, respectively, compared to the reference condition. 22 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Quantitative measurement of soot particle size distribution in premixed flames - The burner-stabilized stagnation flame approach

    SciTech Connect

    Abid, Aamir D.; Camacho, Joaquin; Sheen, David A.; Wang, Hai

    2009-10-15

    A burner-stabilized, stagnation flame technique is introduced. In this technique, a previously developed sampling probe is combined with a water-cooled circular plate such that the combination simultaneously acts as a flow stagnation surface and soot sample probe for mobility particle sizing. The technique allows for a rigorous definition of the boundary conditions of the flame with probe intrusion and enables less ambiguous comparison between experiment and model. Tests on a 16.3% ethylene-23.7% oxygen-argon flame at atmospheric pressure show that with the boundary temperatures of the burner and stagnation surfaces accurately determined, the entire temperature field may be reproduced by pseudo one-dimensional stagnation reacting flow simulation using these temperature values as the input boundary conditions. Soot particle size distribution functions were determined for the burner-stabilized, stagnation flame at several burner-to-stagnation surface separations. It was found that the tubular probe developed earlier perturbs the flow and flame temperature in a way which is better described by a one-dimensional stagnation reacting flow than by a burner-stabilized flame free of probe intrusion. (author)

  6. Evaluation of Gas Reburning and Low N0x Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler emissions that comprise acid rain precursors, especially NOX. The project involved operating gas reburning technology combined with low NO, burner technology (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired utility boiler. Low NOX burners are designed to create less NOX than conventional burners. However, the NO, control achieved is in the range of 30-60-40, and typically 50%. At the higher NO, reduction levels, CO emissions tend to be higher than acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce the level of NO. in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. When combined, GR and LNBs work in harmony to both minimize NOX emissions and maintain an acceptable level of CO emissions. The demonstration was performed at Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit 3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW. wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado bituminous, low-sulfur coal and had a pre GR-LNB baseline NOX emission of 0.73 lb/1 Oe Btu. The target for the project was a reduction of 70 percent in NOX emissions. Project sponsors included the U.S. Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER). EER conducted a comprehensive test demonstration program over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved. Intensive measurements were taken to quantify the reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability, and all factors influencing costs. The results showed that GR-LNB technology achieved excellent emission reductions. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was somewhat less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was achieved at an average gas heat input of 180A. The performance goal of 70

  7. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a

  8. Combustion dynamics linked to flame behaviour in a partially premixed swirled industrial burner

    SciTech Connect

    Biagioli, Fernando; Guethe, Felix; Schuermans, Bruno

    2008-07-15

    Previous work [Biagioli, F., Stabilization mechanism of turbulent premixed flames in strongly swirled flows, Combustion, Theory and Modelling 10 (3) (2006) 389-412; Guethe, F., Lachner, R., Schuermans, B., Biagioli, F., Geng, W., Inauen, A., Schenker, S., Bombach, R., Hubschmid, W., Flame imaging on the ALSTOM EV-burner: thermo acoustic pulsations and CFD-validation, in: AIAA Paper 2006-437 presented at the 44th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, January 9-12, 2006] has shown that turbulent dry low NO{sub x} (partially premixed) flames in high swirl conical burners may be subject to a large change of their anchoring location at the symmetry axis when a critical value of the bulk equivalence ratio is reached, i.e. they are bi-stable. This flame behavior is linked here to combustion pressure dynamics measured in an atmospheric test rig for a prototype version of the Alstom EnVironmental (EV) conical burner. The link is made via the solution of the problem of the 'travelling flameholder', which shows that the unsteady displacement of the flame anchoring location implies an unsteady variation of the flame surface area and therefore unsteady heat release. The relevance of this source of unsteady heat release - which is different from more usual ones due to variations in turbulent burning rate and in the sensible enthalpy jump across the flame - to the generation of combustion dynamics in strongly swirled flows is confirmed here by the strong positive correlation between the tendency of the flame to be displaced and the measured amplitude of pressure pulsations. (author)

  9. Evaluation of a high-temperature burner-duct-recuperator system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) sponsors research and development (R and D) to improve the energy efficiency of American industry and to provide for fuel flexibility. OIT has funded a multiyear R and D project by the Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) to design, fabricate, field test, and evaluate a high-temperature burner-duct-recuperator (HTBDR) system. This ceramic-based recuperator system recovers waste heat from the corrosive, high-temperature (2170 F) flue gas stream of a steel soaking pit to preheat combustion air to as high as 1700 F. The preheated air is supplied to a high-temperature burner. The B and W R and D program, which is now complete, involved several activities, including selecting and evaluating ceramic materials, designing the system, and developing and evaluating the prototype. In addition, a full-scale unit was tested at a B and W steel soaking pit. The full-scale system consisted of a modular single-stage ceramic recuperator, a conventional two-pass metallic recuperator, a high-temperature burner, fans, insulated ducting, and associated controls and instrumentation. The metallic recuperator preheated combustion air to about 750 F before it passed to the ceramic module. This technical case study describes the DOE/B and W recuperator project and highlights the field tests of the full-scale recuperator system. The document makes results of field tests and data analysis available to other researchers and private industry. It discusses project status, summarizes field tests, and reviews the potential effects the technology will have on energy use and system economics.

  10. Central recirculation zone analysis in an unconfined tangential swirl burner with varying degrees of premixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valera-Medina, A.; Syred, N.; Kay, P.; Griffiths, A.

    2011-06-01

    Swirl-stabilised combustion is one of the most widely used techniques for flame stabilisation, uses ranging from gas turbine combustors to pulverised coal-fired power stations. In gas turbines, lean premixed systems are of especial importance, giving the ability to produce low NOx systems coupled with wide stability limits. The common element is the swirl burner, which depends on the generation of an aerodynamically formed central recirculation zone (CRZ) and which serves to recycle heat and active chemical species to the root of the flame as well as providing low-velocity regions where the flame speed can match the local flow velocity. Enhanced mixing in and around the CRZ is another beneficial feature. The structure of the CRZ and hence that of the associated flames, stabilisation and mixing processes have shown to be extremely complex, three-dimensional and time dependent. The characteristics of the CRZ depend very strongly on the level of swirl (swirl number), burner configuration, type of flow expansion, Reynolds number (i.e. flowrate) and equivalence ratio. Although numerical methods have had some success when compared to experimental results, the models still have difficulties at medium to high swirl levels, with complex geometries and varied equivalence ratios. This study thus focuses on experimental results obtained to characterise the CRZ formed under varied combustion conditions with different geometries and some variation of swirl number in a generic swirl burner. CRZ behaviour has similarities to the equivalent isothermal state, but is strongly dependent on equivalence ratio, with interesting effects occurring with a high-velocity fuel injector. Partial premixing and combustion cause more substantive changes to the CRZ than pure diffusive combustion.

  11. Experimental verification of corrosive vapor deposition rate theory in high velocity burner rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Santoro, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    The ability to predict deposition rates is required to facilitate modelling of high temperature corrosion by fused salt condensates in turbine engines. A corrosive salt vapor deposition theory based on multicomponent chemically frozen boundary layers (CFBL) has been successfully verified by high velocity burner rig experiments. The experiments involved internally air-impingement cooled, both rotating full and stationary segmented cylindrical collectors located in the crossflow of sodium-seeded combustion gases. Excellent agreement is found between the CFBL theory an the experimental measurements for both the absolute amounts of Na2SO4 deposition rates and the behavior of deposition rate with respect to collector temperature, mass flowrate (velocity) and Na concentration.

  12. Thermal calculation for a furnace with three-tiered near-wall burners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafin, D. B.; Sadykov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers using a differential method for thermal calculation of a furnace with finding the thermal and aerodynamic parameters within the radiation chamber of a tube furnace. The furnace is equipped with acoustictype burners allocated in three tiers on the lateral walls. The method implies joint numerical solution of 2D radiation transfer equations using the S 2-approximation of the discrete ordinate method, of energy equations, flow equations, k-ɛ turbulence model, and single-stage modeling of gas fuel combustion. Typical results of simulation are presented.

  13. The effect of fuel-to-air ratio on burner-rig hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.; Kohl, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    Samples of a cobalt-base alloy, Mar M-509, were subjected to hot corrosion in a Mach-0.3 burner rig. The corrodent was NaCl added as an aqueous solution to the combustion products of a sulfur-containing Jet-A fuel. The metal temperature was fixed at 900 C. The extent of hot corrosion increased by a factor of three as the fuel-to-air mass ratio was increased from 0.033 to 0.050. Because the depositing salt was always Na2SO4, the increased attack appeared to be related to the gas composition.

  14. COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS FOR O2 ENRICHED, LOW NOx BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer L. Sinclair

    2001-09-30

    Over the past year, the hot flow studies have focused on the validation of a novel 2M near-flame combustion furnace. The 2M furnace was specifically designed to investigate burner aerodynamics and flame stability phenomena. Key accomplishments include completion of coal & oxygen mass balance calculations and derivation of emission conversion equations, upgrade of furnace equipment and flame safety systems, shakedown testing and partial completion of a parametric flame stability study. These activities are described in detail below along with a description of the 2M furnace and support systems.

  15. Numerical simulation of the laminar diffusion flame in a simplified burner. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1996-02-01

    The laminar ethylene-air diffusion flame in a simple laboratory burner was simulated with the COYOTE reactive flow program. This program predicts the flow field, transport, and chemistry for the purposes of code validation and providing physical understanding of the processes occurring in the flame. The authors show the results of numerical experiments to test the importance of several physical phenomena, including gravity, radiation, and differential diffusion. The computational results compare favorably with the experimental measurements, and all three phenomena are important to accurate simulations.

  16. Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Investigation of Sensitivity of Furnace Operational Conditions to Burner Flow Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Marc Cremer; Kirsi St. Marie; Dave Wang

    2003-04-30

    This is the first Semiannual Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-02NT41580. The goal of this project is to systematically assess the sensitivity of furnace operational conditions to burner air and fuel flows in coal fired utility boilers. Our approach is to utilize existing baseline furnace models that have been constructed using Reaction Engineering International's (REI) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Using CFD analyses provides the ability to carry out a carefully controlled virtual experiment to characterize the sensitivity of NOx emissions, unburned carbon (UBC), furnace exit CO (FECO), furnace exit temperature (FEGT), and waterwall deposition to burner flow controls. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program, and instrument and controls experts from EPRI's Instrument and Controls (I&C) Center are active participants in this project. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. A project kickoff meeting was held in conjunction with NETL's 2002 Sensors and Control Program Portfolio Review and Roadmapping Workshop, in Pittsburgh, PA during October 15-16, 2002. Dr. Marc Cremer, REI, and Dr. Paul Wolff, EPRI I&C, both attended and met with the project COR, Susan Maley. Following the review of REI's database of wall-fired coal units, the project team selected a front wall fired 150 MW unit with a Riley Low NOx firing system including overfire air for evaluation. In addition, a test matrix outlining approximately 25 simulations involving variations in burner secondary air flows, and coal and primary air flows was constructed. During the reporting period, twenty-two simulations have been completed, summarized, and tabulated for sensitivity analysis. Based on these results, the team is developing a suitable approach for quantifying the sensitivity coefficients associated with the parametric tests. Some of the results of the CFD simulations of the

  17. Phenomenological study of the behavior of some silica formers in a high velocity jet fuel burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawley, J. D.; Handschuh, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of four silica formers: single crystal SiC, sintered alpha-SiC, reaction sintered Si3N4 and polycrystalline MoSi2, were subjected to a Mach 1 jet fuel burner for 1 hr, at a sample temperature of 1375 deg C (2500 deg F). Two phenomena were identified which may be deleterious to a gas turbine application of these materials. The glass layer formed on the MoSi2 deformed appreciably under the aerodynamic load. A scale developed on the samples of the other materials which consisted of particular matter from the gas stream entrapped in a SiO2 matrix.

  18. Oxidation of a Silica-Containing Material in a Mach 0.3 Burner Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, QuynhGiao N.; Cuy, Michael D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A primarily silica-containing material with traces of organic compounds, as well as aluminum and calcium additions, was exposed to a Mach 0.3 burner rig at atmospheric pressure using jet fuel. The sample was exposed for 5 continuous hours at 1370 C. Post exposure x-ray diffraction analyses indicate formation of cristobalite, quartz, NiO and Spinel (Al(Ni)CR2O4). The rig hardware is composed of a nickel-based superalloy with traces of Fe. These elements are indicated in the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) results. This material was studied as a candidate for high temperature applications under an engine technology program.

  19. Composition surveys of test gas produced by a hydrogen-oxygen-air burner. [for supersonic ramjet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggers, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    As a result of the need for a uniform hot gas test stream for fuel injector development for hydrogen fueled supersonic combustion ramjet engines, an experimental study of injector configuration effect on exit flow uniformity of a hydrogen fueled oxygen replenished, combustion burner was made. Measurements used to investigate the burner nozzle exit profiles were pitot and gas sample measurements. Gas composition and associated temperature profiles were reduced to an acceptable level by burner injector modifications. The effect of the injector modifications was to redistribute the hydrogen fuel, increase the air pressure drop, promote premixing of the oxygen and air, and establish a uniform flow pattern where the oxygen-air mixture comes into contact with the hydrogen fuel. The most sensitive phenomenon which affected the composition profiles was the uniformity of the air distribution supplied to the combustion chamber.

  20. Combustion characteristics and NOx emissions of two kinds of swirl burners in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.Q.; Jing, J.P.; Chen, Z.C.; Ren, F.; Xu, B.; Wei, H.D.; Ge, Z.H.

    2008-07-01

    Measurements were performed in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler. Enhanced ignition-dual register (EI-DR) burners and centrally fuel rich (CFR) swirl coal combustion burners were installed in the bottom row of the furnace during experiments. Local mean concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx gas species, gas temperatures, and char burnout were determined in the region of the two types of burners. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners, local mean CO concentrations, gas temperatures and the temperature gradient are higher and mean concentrations of O{sub 2} and NOx along the jet flow direction in the burner region are lower than for the enhanced ignition-dual register burners. Moreover, the mean O{sub 2} concentration is higher and the gas temperature and mean CO concentration are lower in the side wall region. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners in the bottom row, the combustion efficiency of the boiler increases from 96.73% to 97.09%, and NOx emission decreases from 411.5 to 355 ppm at 6% O{sub 2} compared to enhanced ignition-dual register burners and the boiler operates stably at 110 MWe without auxiliary fuel oil.

  1. A higher-order projection method for the simulation of unsteady turbulent nonpremixed combustion in an industrial burner

    SciTech Connect

    Pember, R.B.; Almgren, A.S.; Bell, J.B.; Colella, P.; Howell, L.; Lai, M.

    1994-12-01

    The modeling of transient effects in burners is becoming increasingly important. The problem of ensuring the safe performance of an industrial burner, for example, is much more difficult during the startup or shutdown phases of operation. The peak formation of pollutants is also much more dependent on transient behavior, in particular, on peak temperatures, than on average operating conditions. In this paper we present a new methodology for the modeling of unsteady, nonpremixed, reacting flow in industrial burners. The algorithm uses a second-order projection method for unsteady, low-Mach number reacting flow and accounts for species diffusion, convective and radiative heat transfer, viscous transport, turbulence, and chemical kinetics. The time step used by the method is restricted solely by an advective CFL condition. The methodology is applicable only in the low-Mach number regime (M < .3), typically met in industrial burners. The projection method for low-Mach number reacting flow is an extension of a higher-order projection method for incompressible flow [9, 5, 3,4] to the low-Mach number equations of reacting flow. Our method is based on an approximate projection formulation. Radiative transport is modeled using the discrete ordinates method. The main goal of this work is to introduce and investigate the simulation of burners using a higher-order projection method for low-Mach number combustion. As such, the methodology is applied here only to axisymmetric flow in gas-fired burners for which the boundaries can be aligned with a rectangular grid. The perfect gas law is also assumed. In addition, we use a one-step reduced kinetics mechanism, a {kappa} {minus} {epsilon} model for turbulent transport, and a simple turbulent combustion model.

  2. Full-scale demonstration Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} Burner retrofit. Quarterly report No. 6, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    The Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} Burner operates on the principle of staged combustion. The lower burner of each two-nozzle cell is modified to accommodate all the fuel input previously handled by two nozzles. Secondary air, less than theoretically required for complete combustion, is introduced to the lower burner. The remainder of secondary air is directed to the upper ``port`` of each cell to complete the combustion process. B&W/EPRI have thoroughly tested the LNCB{trademark} at two pilot scales (6 million Btu per hour and 100 million Btu per hour), and tested a single full-scale burner in a utility boiler. Combustion tests at two scales have confirmed NO{sub x} reduction with the low-NO{sub x} cell on the order of 50% relative to the standard cell burner at optimum operating conditions. The technology is now ready for full unit, full-scale demonstration.

  3. Simplified Configuration for the Combustor of an oil Burner using a low Pressure, high flow air-atomizing Nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, Thomas; Celebi, Yusuf; Fisher, Leonard

    1998-09-28

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The inventors have devised a fuel burner that uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle. The improved fuel burner does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design.

  4. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of a synthesis gas turbulent combustion in a round jet burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansourian, Mohammad; Kamali, Reza

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the RNG-Large Eddy Simulation (RNG-LES) methodology of a synthesis gas turbulent combustion in a round jet burner is investigated, using OpenFoam package. In this regard, the extended EDC extinction model of Aminian et al. for coupling the reaction and turbulent flow along with various reaction kinetics mechanisms such as Skeletal and GRI-MECH 3.0 have been utilized. To estimate precision and error accumulation, we used the Smirinov's method and the results are compared with the available experimental data under the same conditions. As a result, it was found that the GRI-3.0 reaction mechanism has the least computational error and therefore, was considered as a reference reaction mechanism. Afterwards, we investigated the influence of various working parameters including the inlet flow temperature and inlet velocity on the behavior of combustion. The results show that the maximum burner temperature and pollutant emission are affected by changing the inlet flow temperature and velocity.

  5. Chemical and toxicological characterization of residential oil burner emissions: II. Mutagenic, tumorigenic, and potential teratogenic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, A G; Busby, W F; Liber, H L; Thilly, W G

    1987-01-01

    Extracts of effluents from a modern residential oil burner have been evaluated in several toxicological assay systems. Bacterial mutagens were detected in extracts from both the particulate and vapor phase emissions. Effluents from continuous operation were an order of magnitude less mutagenic than those from cyclic (5 min on, 10 min off) operations. No difference in the yield of bacterial mutagens per gram of fuel burned was found between cyclic operation under low and moderate sooting conditions. On the basis of elution behavior from alumina it appeared that the bacterial mutagens collected from high sooting effluents were more polar than those from low sooting effluent. An extract that was mutagenic in bacteria did not induce a significant increase in mutation frequency to human lymphoblasts. No evidence of tumorigenicity was observed in a limited number of newborn mice after IP injection of effluent extract when compared to historical control data. Putative nonmutagenic teratogens were detected in effluent using an attachment inhibition assay. The level of these agents was reduced in effluents from continuous oil burner operation. PMID:3665866

  6. Advancement of Cellular Ceramics Made of Silicon Carbide for Burner Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuessel, Alexander; Klemm, Hagen; Boettge, Daniela; Marschallek, Felix; Adler, Joerg; Michaelis, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Lower emissions of CO and NOx as well as a higher power density were observed in combustion processes performed in porous media like ceramic foams. Only a few materials are applicable for porous burners. Open-celled ceramic foams made of silicon carbide are of particular interest because of their outstanding properties. Two different SiC materials have been investigated, silicon-infiltrated silicon carbide (SiSiC) and pressureless sintered silicon carbide (SSiC). The oxidation behaviour of both has been characterized by furnace oxidation and burner tests up to 500 h operating time. Up to a temperature of 1200 °C SiSiC exhibited a good oxidation resistance in combustion gases by forming a protective layer of silica. High inner porosity up to 30% in the ceramic struts was found in the SSiC material. Caused by inner oxidation processes the pure material SSiC allows only short time applications with a temperature limit of 1550 °C in combustion gases. An increase of the lifetime of the SSiC foams was obtained by development of a new SSiC with an inner porosity of less than 12%. The result was a considerable reduction of the inner oxidation processes in the SSiC struts.

  7. Multi-ported, internally recuperated burners for direct flame impingement heating applications

    DOEpatents

    Abbasi, Hamid A.; Kurek, Harry; Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Lisienko, Vladimir G.; Malikov, German K.

    2010-08-03

    A direct flame impingement method and apparatus employing at least one multi-ported, internally recuperated burner. The burner includes an innermost coaxial conduit having a first fluid inlet end and a first fluid outlet end, an outermost coaxial conduit disposed around the innermost coaxial conduit and having a combustion products outlet end proximate the first fluid inlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit and a combustion products inlet end proximate the first fluid outlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit, and a coaxial intermediate conduit disposed between the innermost coaxial conduit and the outermost coaxial conduit, whereby a second fluid annular region is formed between the innermost coaxial conduit and the intermediate coaxial conduit and a combustion products annular region is formed between the intermediate coaxial conduit and the outermost coaxial conduit. The intermediate coaxial conduit has a second fluid inlet end proximate the first fluid inlet end of the innermost coaxial conduit and a second fluid outlet end proximate the combustion products inlet end of the outermost coaxial conduit.

  8. Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard Sterling; Bechtel, II, William Theodore; Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur; Black, Stephen Hugh; Bland, Robert James; DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne; Meyer, Stefan Martin; Taura, Joseph Charles; Battaglioli, John Luigi

    2002-01-01

    A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

  9. Characterization of Liquid Fuel Evaporation of a Lifted Methanol Spray Flame in a Vitiated Coflow Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabra, Ricardo; Dibble, Robert W.; Chen, Jyh-Yuan

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation of lifted spray flames in a coflow of hot, vitiated gases is presented. The vitiated coflow burner is a spray flame that issues into a coaxial flow of hot combustion products from a lean, premixed H2/Air flame. The spray flame in a vitiated coflow emulates the combustion that occurs in many advanced combustors without the detailed fluid mechanics. Two commercially available laser diagnostic systems are used to characterize the spray flame and to demonstrate the vitiated coflow burner's amenability to optical investigation. The Ensemble Particle Concentration and Size (EPCS) system is used to measure the path-average droplet size distribution and liquid volume fraction at several axial locations while an extractive probe instrument named the Real-time Fuel-air Analyzer (RFA) is used to measure the air to fuel ratio downstream of the spray nozzle with high temporal and spatial resolution. The effect of coflow conditions (stoichiometry) and dilution of the fuel with water was studied with the EPCS optical system. As expected, results show that water retards the evaporation and combustion of fuels. Measurements obtained by the RFA extractive probe show that while the Delavan manufactured nozzle does distribute the fuel over the manufacturer specified spray angle, it unfortunately does not distribute the fuel uniformly, providing conditions that may result in the production of unwanted NOx. Despite some limitations due to the inherent nature of the experimental techniques, the two diagnostics can be readily applied to spray flames in the vitiated coflow environment.

  10. Modeling Population Exposures to Pollutants Emitted from Natural Gas Cooking Burners

    SciTech Connect

    Lobscheid, Agnes; Singer, Brett C.; Klepeis, Neil E.

    2011-06-01

    We developed a physics-based data-supported model to investigate indoor pollutant exposure distributions resulting from use of natural gas cooking appliances across households in California. The model was applied to calculate time-resolved indoor concentrations of CO, NO2 and formaldehyde resulting from cooking burners and entry with outdoor air. Exposure metrics include 1-week average concentrations and frequency of exceeding ambient air quality standards. We present model results for Southern California (SoCal) using two air-exchange scenarios in winter: (1) infiltration-only, and (2) air exchange rate (AER) sampled from lognormal distributions derived from measurements. In roughly 40percent of homes in the SoCal cohort (N=6634) the 1-hour USEPA NO2 standard (190 ?g/m3) was exceeded at least once. The frequency of exceeding this standard was largely independent of AER assumption, and related primarily to building volume, emission rate and amount of burner use. As expected, AER had a more substantial impact on one-week average concentrations.

  11. A New Method to Measure Temperature and Burner Pattern Factor Sensing for Active Engine Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The determination of the temperatures of extended surfaces which exhibit non-uniform temperature variation is very important for a number of applications including the "Burner Pattern Factor" (BPF) of turbine engines. Exploratory work has shown that use of BPF to control engine functions can result in many benefits, among them reduction in engine weight, reduction in operating cost, increase in engine life, while attaining maximum engine efficiency. Advanced engines are expected to operate at very high temperature to achieve high efficiency. Brief exposure of engine components to higher than design temperatures due to non-uniformity in engine burner pattern can reduce engine life. The engine BPF is a measure of engine temperature uniformity. Attainment of maximum temperature uniformity and high temperatures is key to maximum efficiency and long life. A new approach to determine through the measurement of just one radiation spectrum by a multiwavelength pyrometer is possible. This paper discusses a new temperature sensing approach and its application to determine the BPF.

  12. Burner (Stinger)

    MedlinePlus

    ... mobile while you heal. Your doctor might prescribe medicine to help with any pain. And as with any injury, make sure you're completely healed before you start playing sports again. If you don't, you'll increase ...

  13. Charcoal burner

    SciTech Connect

    Bakic, M.C.

    1988-12-27

    A combustible fuel apparatus is described comprising: side walls formed contiguous with and extending upward from a base and converging to form a closed container, having stacked charcoal fuel particles therein. The base may be placed directly on a substantially horizontal surface and the container may be ignited and substantially burned to ash, and the charcoal fuel particles may be ignited and sufficiently burned for cooking, wherein the charcoal fuel particles are stacked on the base in a relatively stable position prior to the igniting of the container, and are maintained in a relatively stable position during and after the igniting and burning of the container, whereby a mound of ignited charcoal fuel particles remains on the substantially horizontal surface after the burning of the container, the mound having a configuration substantially similar to the shape of the container prior to the combustion thereof.

  14. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation 10 Figure 10 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 1633—Jig...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation 10 Figure 10 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 1633—Jig...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation 10 Figure 10 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 1633—Jig...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation 10 Figure 10 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 1633—Jig...

  18. Making a Low-Cost Soda Can Ethanol Burner for Out-of-Laboratory Flame Test Demonstrations and Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Henson L. Lee; Domingo, Perfecto N., Jr.; Yanza, Elliard Roswell S.; Guidote, Armando M., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This article demonstrates how to make a low-cost ethanol burner utilizing soda cans. It burns with a light blue flame suitable for out-of-laboratory flame test demonstrations where interference from a yellow flame needs to be avoided.

  19. Making a Low-Cost Soda Can Ethanol Burner for Out-of-Laboratory Flame Test Demonstrations and Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Henson L. Lee; Domingo, Perfecto N., Jr.; Yanza, Elliard Roswell S.; Guidote, Armando M., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This article demonstrates how to make a low-cost ethanol burner utilizing soda cans. It burns with a light blue flame suitable for out-of-laboratory flame test demonstrations where interference from a yellow flame needs to be avoided.

  20. SITE PROGRAM APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS ASSESSMENT OF SUPERFUND APPLICATIONS FOR THE AMERICAN COMBUSTION INC. PYRETRON OXYGEN ENHANCED BURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incineration is widely used to clean up Superfund sites. Modifications which improve the efficiency with which waste can be incinerated are therefore of interest to EPA. Oxygen/air burners are of interest because their installation on conventional incinerators can allow for signi...

  1. On the effects of fuel leakage on CO production from household burners as revealed by LIF and CARS

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Meij, C.E.; Mokhov, A.V.; Jacobs, R.A.A.M.; Levinsky, H.B.

    1994-12-31

    Measurements of the distributions of CO, OH, and temperature in flames from two commonly used, commercially available household burners are presented. The local mole fractions of CO and relative distribution of OH have been obtained using laser-induced fluorescence, while the local temperatures have, been determined by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). For both burners, burning in the open air, CO formation outside the main flames has been observed and attributed to the leakage of fuel-air mixture at the edges of the flame, where the fuel is subsequently converted to CO in the boundary layer between the flame and the surroundings. For a rich-premixed, multiblade burner, which gives Bunsen-like flames, the CO produced by the leaking fuel appears to be oxidized by OH arising from the outer cones of adjacent flames, and burns out to low concentrations. In the case of a lean-premixed burner, the CO produced by fuel leakage remains in the cool boundary layer without adequate burnout. Possible consequences for appliance behavior are discussed.

  2. High Pressure Burner Rig Testing of Advanced Environmental Barrier Coatings for Si3N4 Turbine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Pastel, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced thermal and environmental barrier coatings are being developed for Si3N4 components for turbine engine propulsion applications. High pressure burner rig testing was used to evaluate the coating system performance and durability. Test results demonstrated the feasibility and durability of the coating component systems under the simulated engine environments.

  3. SITE PROGRAM APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS ASSESSMENT OF SUPERFUND APPLICATIONS FOR THE AMERICAN COMBUSTION INC. PYRETRON OXYGEN ENHANCED BURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incineration is widely used to clean up Superfund sites. Modifications which improve the efficiency with which waste can be incinerated are therefore of interest to EPA. Oxygen/air burners are of interest because their installation on conventional incinerators can allow for signi...

  4. The effect of laser glazing on life of ZrO2 TBCs in cyclic burner rig tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, I.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of laser glazed zirconia (containing 8 wt% Y2O3) TBC's was evaluated in burner rig cyclic oxidation tests at 1000 and 1050 C. It was found that the cycle duration has no effect on life of TBC's and that the increase in thickness of the glazed layer caused a slight reduction in life.

  5. Industrial pulverized coal low NO{sub x} burner. Phase 1, Second quarterly technical progress report, 1 April 1992--31 March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-10

    The objective of Phase 1 of the ``Industrial Pulverized Coal Low NO{sub x} Burner`` Program is to develop a novel low NO{sub x}, pulverized coal burner, which offers near-term commercialization potential, uses preheated combustion air of up to 1000{degrees}F, and which can be applied to high-temperature industrial heating furnaces, chemical process furnaces, fired heaters, and boilers. The program team is led byArthur D. Little, Inc., and includes the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Hauck Manufacturing Company. During the first quarter of the program the program team developed the overall program management plan; began a market survey to identify coals suitable for modeling the low NO{sub x}, burner design and performance, as well as for use in the Phase II burner tests; and defined the preliminary burner design specifications, sized the prototype burner, and produced the first concept schematic. This report is for the second quarter of the program (July 1992 to September 1992). During this period the program team: Completed the study of industrial coal usage and sources; refined the preliminary burner design and confirmed it as the basis for computer modeling; and started definition of the modeling work scope, including the development of fuel and process specifications, description and modeling approaches.

  6. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, T.; Yeboah, Y.D.; Sampath, R.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this investigation is to characterize the operation of fan powered infrared burner (PIR) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions and develop design guidelines for appliances in containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance. During this period, experimental setup with optical and electronic instrumentation that is necessary for measuring the radiant heat output and the emission gas output of the burner has been established. The radiation measurement instrument, an FTIR, has been purchased and installed in the porous burner experimental system. The radiation measurement capability of the FTIR was tested and found to be satisfactory. A standard blackbody source, made by Graseby Infrared, was employed to calibrate the FTIR. A collection duct for emission gas measurement was fabricated and connected to the existing Horiba gas analyzer. Test runs are being conducted for flue gas analysis. A number of published research papers on modeling of porous burners were reviewed. The physical mechanism and theoretical analysis of the combustion process of the PIR burner was formulated. The numerical modeling, and implementation of a PIR burner code at CAU`s computing facility is in progress.

  7. Investigation on Flame Characteristics and Burner Operability Issues of Oxy-Fuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhuri, Ahsan

    2013-09-30

    Oxy-fuel combustion has been used previously in a wide range of industrial applications. Oxy- combustion is carried out by burning a hydrocarbon fuel with oxygen instead of air. Flames burning in this configuration achieve higher flame temperatures which present opportunities for significant efficiency improvements and direct capture of CO2 from the exhaust stream. In an effort to better understand and characterize the fundamental flame characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion this research presents the experimental measurements of flame stability of various oxyfuel flames. Effects of H2 concentration, fuel composition, exhaust gas recirculation ratio, firing inputs, and burner diameters on the flame stability of these fuels are discussed. Effects of exhaust gas recirculation i.e. CO2 and H2O (steam) acting as diluents on burner operability are also presented. The roles of firing input on flame stability are then analyzed. For this study it was observed that many oxy-flames did not stabilize without exhaust gas recirculation due to their higher burning velocities. In addition, the stability regime of all compositions was observed to decrease as the burner diameter increased. A flashback model is also presented, using the critical velocity gradient gF) values for CH4-O2-CO2 flames. The second part of the study focuses on the experimental measurements of the flow field characteristics of premixed CH4/21%O2/79%N2 and CH4/38%O2/72%CO2 mixtures at constant firing input of 7.5 kW, constant, equivalence ratio of 0.8, constant swirl number of 0.92 and constant Reynolds Numbers. These measurements were taken in a swirl stabilized combustor at atmospheric pressure. The flow field visualization using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) technique is implemented to make a better understanding of the turbulence characteristics of

  8. Study of the effects of ambient conditions upon the performance of fan powered, infrared, natural gas burners. Quarterly report, April 1, 1996 - June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, T.; Yeboah, Y.D.; Sampath, R.

    1996-07-01

    A porous radiant burner testing facility consisting of a commercial deep-fat fryer, an FTIR based spectral radiance measurement system, a set of flue gas analysis components, and a fuel gas mixing station was constructed. The measurement capabilities of the system were tested using methane and the test results were found to be consistent with the literature. Following the validation of the measurement system, various gas mixtures were tested to study the effect of gas compositions have on burner performance. Results indicated that the emissions vary with fuel gas composition and air/fuel ratio. The maximum radiant efficiency of the burner was obtained close to air/fuel ratio of 1.

  9. NASA Lewis Research Center lean-, rich-burn materials test burner rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Robinson, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The lean-, rich-burn materials test burner rig at NASA LeRC is used to evaluate the high temperature environmental durability of aerospace materials. The rig burns jet fuel and pressurized air, and sample materials can be subjected to both lean-burn and rich-burn environments. As part of NASA's Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) program, an existing rig was adapted to simulate the rich-burn quick-quench lean-burn (RQL) combustor concept which is being considered for the HSCT (high speed civil transport) aircraft. RQL materials requirements exceed that of current superalloys, thus ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) emerged as the leading candidate materials. The performance of these materials in the quasi reducing environment of the rich-burn section of the RQL is of fundamental importance to materials development. This rig was developed to conduct such studies, and its operation and capabilities are described.

  10. Performance (Off-Design) Cycle Analysis for a Turbofan Engine With Interstage Turbine Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liew, K. H.; Urip, E.; Yang, S. L.; Mattingly, J. D.; Marek, C. J.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the performance of a steady-state, dual-spool, separate-exhaust turbofan engine, with an interstage turbine burner (ITB) serving as a secondary combustor. The ITB, which is located in the transition duct between the high- and the low-pressure turbines, is a relatively new concept for increasing specific thrust and lowering pollutant emissions in modern jet-engine propulsion. A detailed off-design performance analysis of ITB engines is written in Microsoft(Registered Trademark) Excel (Redmond, Washington) macrocode with Visual Basic Application to calculate engine performances over the entire operating envelope. Several design-point engine cases are pre-selected using a parametric cycle-analysis code developed previously in Microsoft(Registered Trademark) Excel, for off-design analysis. The off-design code calculates engine performances (i.e. thrust and thrust-specific-fuel-consumption) at various flight conditions and throttle settings.

  11. Burner rig hot corrosion of a single crystal Ni-48Al-Ti-Hf-Ga alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, J.A.; Darolia, R.; Cuy, M.D.

    1999-07-01

    The hot corrosion resistance of a single crystal Ni-48Al-1Ti-0.5Hf-0.2Ga alloy was examined in a Mach 0.3 burner rig at 900 C for 300 hours. The combustion chamber was doped with 2 ppmw synthetic sea salt. The hot corrosion attack produced a random mound morphology on the surface. Microstructurally, the hot corrosion attack appeared to initiate with oxide-filled pits which were often broad and shallow. At an intermediate stage, the pits increased in size to incorporate unoxidized Ni islands in the corrosion product. The rampant attack stage, which was observed only at sharp sample corners, was characterized by rapid inward growth of alumina in finger-like protrusions incorporating significant amounts of Al-depleted Ni islands. Aluminum consumption in the oxide fingers resulted in the growth of a {gamma}{prime} layer ahead of the advancing oxide fingers.

  12. Burner Rig Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coating Systems for Nickel-Base Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedwill, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Eight plasma sprayed bond coatings were evaluated for their potential use with ZrO2-Y2O3 thermal barrier coatings (TECs) which are being developed for coal derived fuel fired gas turbines. Longer TBC lives in cyclic burner rig oxidation to 1050 C were achieved with the more oxidation resistant bond coatings. These were Ni-14.1Cr-13.4A1-0.10Ar, Ni-14.1C4-14.4Al-0.16Y, and Ni-15.8Cr-12.8Al-0.36Y on Rene 41. The TBC systems performed best when 0.015-cm thick bond coatings were employed that were sprayed at 20 kW using argon 3.5v/o hydrogen. Cycling had a more life limiting influence on the TBC than accumulated time at 1050 C.

  13. Pollutant exposures from unvented gas cooking burners: A Simulation-based Assessment for Southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Klepeis, Neil E.; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-01-01

    Residential natural gas cooking burners (NGCBs) can emit substantial quantities of pollutants, and they are typically used without venting range hoods. In this study, LBNL researchers quantified pollutant concentrations and occupant exposures resulting from NGCB use in California homes.The simulation model estimated that—in homes using NGCBs without coincident use of venting range hoods -- 62%, 9%, and 53% of occupants are routinely exposed to NO2, CO, and HCHO levels that exceed acute health-based standards and guidelines. NGCB use increased the sample median of the highest simulated 1-hr indoor concentrations by 100, 3,000, and 20 ppb for NO2, CO, and HCHO, respectively. The study recommends that reducing pollutant exposures from NGCBs should be a public health priority. Simulation results suggest that regular use of even moderately effective venting range hoods would dramatically reduce the percentage of homes in which concentrations exceed health-based standards.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of a Low Emissions High Performance Duct Burner for Variable Cycle Engines (VCE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohmann, R. P.; Mador, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    An evaluation was conducted with a three stage Vorbix duct burner to determine the performance and emissions characteristics of the concept and to refine the configuration to provide acceptable durability and operational characteristics for its use in the variable cycle engine (VCE) testbed program. The tests were conducted at representative takeoff, transonic climb, and supersonic cruise inlet conditions for the VSCE-502B study engine. The test stand, the emissions sampling and analysis equipment, and the supporting flow visualization rigs are described. The performance parameters including the fuel-air ratio, the combustion efficiency/exit temperature, thrust efficiency, and gaseous emissions calculations are defined. The test procedures are reviewed and the results are discussed.

  15. High gas velocity burner tests on silicon carbide and silicon nitride at 1200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, W. A.; Probst, H. B.

    1973-01-01

    Specimens of silicon carbide and silicon nitride were exposed to a Mach one gas velocity burner simulating a turbine engine environment. Cyclic tests up to 100 hour duration were conducted at specimen temperatures of 1200 C. A specimen geometry was used that develops thermal stresses during thermal cycling in a manner similar to blades and vanes of a gas turbine engine. Materials were compared on a basis of weight change, dimensional reductions, metallography, fluorescent penetrant inspection, X-ray diffraction analyses, failure mode, and general appearance. One hot pressed SiC, one reaction sintered SiC, and three hot pressed Si3N4 specimens survived the program goal of 100 one-hour cycle exposures. Of the materials that failed to meet the program goal, thermal fatigue was identified as the exclusive failure mode.

  16. Mechanical swirler for a low-NO.sub.x, weak-swirl burner

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Robert K.; Yegian, Derek T.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed is a mechanical swirler for generating diverging flow in lean premixed fuel burners. The swirler of the present invention includes a central passage with an entrance for accepting a feed gas, a flow balancing insert that introduces additional pressure drop beyond that occurring in the central passage in the absence of the flow balancing insert, and an exit aligned to direct the feed gas into a combustor. The swirler also has an annular passage about the central passage and including one or more vanes oriented to impart angular momentum to feed gas exiting the annular passage. The diverging flow generated by the swirler stabilizes lean combustion thus allowing for lower production of pollutants, particularly oxides of nitrogen.

  17. Mechanical swirler for a low-NO{sub x}, weak-swirl burner

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, R.K.; Yegian, D.T.

    1999-03-09

    Disclosed is a mechanical swirler for generating diverging flow in lean premixed fuel burners. The swirler of the present invention includes a central passage with an entrance for accepting a feed gas, a flow balancing insert that introduces additional pressure drop beyond that occurring in the central passage in the absence of the flow balancing insert, and an exit aligned to direct the feed gas into a combustor. The swirler also has an annular passage about the central passage and including one or more vanes oriented to impart angular momentum to feed gas exiting the annular passage. The diverging flow generated by the swirler stabilizes lean combustion thus allowing for lower production of pollutants, particularly oxides of nitrogen. 16 figs.

  18. Burner Rig Hot Corrosion of a Single Crystal Ni-48Al-Ti-Hf-Ga Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Darolia, Ram; Cuy, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    The hot corrosion resistance of a single crystal Ni-48Al-1Ti-0.5Hf-0.2Ga alloy was examined in a Mach 0.3 burner rig at 900 C for 300 hours. The combustion chamber was doped with 2 ppmw synthetic sea salt. The hot corrosion attack produced a random mound morphology on the surface. Microstructurally, the hot corrosion attack appeared to initiate with oxide-filled pits which were often broad and shallow. At an intermediate stage, the pits increased in size to incorporate unoxidized Ni islands in the corrosion product. The rampant attack stage, which was observed only at sharp sample corners, was characterized by rapid inward growth of alumina in finger-like protrusions incorporating significant amounts of Al-depleted Ni islands. Aluminum consumption in the oxide fingers resulted in the growth of a gamma' layer ahead of the advancing oxide fingers.

  19. Burner-rig evaluation of thermal barrier coating systems for nickel-base alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gedwill, M.A.

    1981-02-01

    Eight plasma-sprayed bond coatings were evaluated for their potential use with ZrO/sub 2/-Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) which are being developed for coal-derived-fuel-fired gas turbines. Longer TBC liver in cyclic burner rig oxidation to 1050/sup 0/C were achieved with the more oxidation resistant bond coatings. These were Ni-14.1Cr-13.4A1-0.10Zr, Ni-14.1Cr-14.4A1-0.16Y, and Ni-15.8Cr-12.8A1-0.36Y on Rene 41. The TBC systems performed best when 0.015-cm thick bond coatings were employed that were sprayed at 20 kW using argon - 3.5 v/o hydrogen. Cycling had a more life limiting influence on the TBC than accumulated time at 1050/sup 0/C.

  20. Premix fuels study applicable to duct burner conditions for a variable cycle engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataramani, K. S.

    1978-01-01

    Emission levels and performance of a premixing Jet-A/air duct burner were measured at reference conditions representative of take-off and cruise for a variable cycle engine. In a parametric variation sequence of tests, data were obtained at inlet temperatures of 400, 500 and 600K at equivalence ratios varying from 0.9 to the lean stability limit. Ignition was achieved at all the reference conditions although the CO levels were very high. Significant nonuniformity across the combustor was observed for the emissions at the take-off condition. At a reference Mach number of 0.117 and an inlet temperature of 600K, corresponding to a simulated cruise condition, the NOx emission level was approximately 1 gm/kg-fuel.

  1. Simulated experiment for elimination of air contaminated with odorous chemical agents by microwave plasma burner

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Shin, Dong Hun; Uhm, Han Sup

    2007-10-15

    An experimental study on elimination of odorous chemical agent was carried out by making use of a microwave plasma burner, which consists of a microwave plasma torch and a reaction chamber with a fuel injector. Injection of hydrocarbon fuels into a high-temperature microwave torch plasma generates a plasma flame. The plasma flame can eliminate the odorous chemical agent diluted in air or purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces. The specially designed reaction chamber eliminated H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} diluted in airflow rate of 5000 lpm (liters per minute), showing {beta} values of 46.52 and 39.69 J/l, respectively.

  2. The influence of droplet evaporation on fuel-air mixing rate in a burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komiyama, K.; Flagan, R. C.; Heywood, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments involving combustion of a variety of hydrocarbon fuels in a simple atmospheric pressure burner were used to evaluate the role of droplet evaporation in the fuel/air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames. Both air-assist atomization and pressure atomization processes were studied; fuel/air mixing rates were determined on the basis of cross-section average oxygen concentrations for stoichiometric overall operation. In general, it is concluded that droplets act as point sources of fuel vapor until evaporation, when the fuel jet length scale may become important in determining nonuniformities of the fuel vapor concentration. In addition, air-assist atomizers are found to have short droplet evaporation times with respect to the duration of the fuel/air mixing process, while for the pressure jet atomizer the characteristic evaporation and mixing times are similar.

  3. Mach 0.3 Burner Rig Facility at the NASA Glenn Materials Research Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Dennis S.; Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming; Perez, Michael; Cuy, Michael D.; Robinson, R. Craig

    2011-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum presents the current capabilities of the state-of-the-art Mach 0.3 Burner Rig Facility. It is used for materials research including oxidation, corrosion, erosion and impact. Consisting of seven computer controlled jet-fueled combustors in individual test cells, these relatively small rigs burn just 2 to 3 gal of jet fuel per hour. The rigs are used as an efficient means of subjecting potential aircraft engine/airframe advanced materials to the high temperatures, high velocities and thermal cycling closely approximating actual operating environments. Materials of various geometries and compositions can be evaluated at temperatures from 700 to 2400 F. Tests are conducted not only on bare superalloys and ceramics, but also to study the behavior and durability of protective coatings applied to those materials.

  4. Material response from Mach 0.3 burner rig combustion of a coal-oil mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Calfo, F. D.; Kohl, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    Wedge shaped specimens were exposed to the combustion gases of a Mach 0.3 burner rig fueled with a mixture of 40 weight percent micron size coal particles dispersed in No. 2 fuel oil. Exposure temperature was about 900 C and the test duration was about 44 one hour cycles. The alloys tested were the nickel base superalloys, IN-100, U-700 and IN-792, and the cobalt base superalloy, Mar-M509. The deposits on the specimens were analyzed and the extent of corrosion/erosion was measured. The chemical compositions of the deposits were compared with the predictions from an equilibrium thermodynamic analysis. The experimental results were in very good agreement with the predictions.

  5. Performance Cycle Analysis of a Two-Spool, Separate-Exhaust Turbofan With Interstage Turbine Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liew, K. H.; Urip, E.; Yang, S. L.; Mattingly, J. D.; Marek, C. J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the performance cycle analysis of a dual-spool, separate-exhaust turbofan engine, with an Interstage Turbine Burner serving as a secondary combustor. The ITB, which is located at the transition duct between the high- and the low-pressure turbines, is a relatively new concept for increasing specific thrust and lowering pollutant emissions in modern jet engine propulsion. A detailed performance analysis of this engine has been conducted for steady-state engine performance prediction. A code is written and is capable of predicting engine performances (i.e., thrust and thrust specific fuel consumption) at varying flight conditions and throttle settings. Two design-point engines were studied to reveal trends in performance at both full and partial throttle operations. A mission analysis is also presented to assure the advantage of saving fuel by adding ITB.

  6. Deposition stress effects on the life of thermal barrier coatings on burner rigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

  7. An Experimental and Numerical Study of a Supersonic Burner for CFD Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnotti, G.; Cutler, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory scale supersonic burner has been developed for validation of computational fluid dynamics models. Detailed numerical simulations were performed for the flow inside the combustor, and coupled with finite element thermal analysis to obtain more accurate outflow conditions. A database of nozzle exit profiles for a wide range of conditions of interest was generated to be used as boundary conditions for simulation of the external jet, or for validation of non-intrusive measurement techniques. A set of experiments was performed to validate the numerical results. In particular, temperature measurements obtained by using an infrared camera show that the computed heat transfer was larger than the measured value. Relaminarization in the convergent part of the nozzle was found to be responsible for this discrepancy, and further numerical simulations sustained this conclusion.

  8. Assessment of Startup Fuel Options for the GNEP Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu; David Alberstein

    2008-02-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP) includes a program element for the development and construction of an advanced sodium cooled fast reactor to demonstrate the burning (transmutation) of significant quantities of minor actinides obtained from a separations process and fabricated into a transuranic bearing fuel assembly. To demonstrate and qualify transuranic (TRU) fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype is needed. The ABR would necessarily be started up using conventional metal alloy or oxide (U or U, Pu) fuel. Startup fuel is needed for the ABR for the first 2 to 4 core loads of fuel in the ABR. Following start up, a series of advanced TRU bearing fuel assemblies will be irradiated in qualification lead test assemblies in the ABR. There are multiple options for this startup fuel. This report provides a description of the possible startup fuel options as well as possible fabrication alternatives available to the program in the current domestic and international facilities and infrastructure.

  9. Development of a High-Pressure Gaseous Burner for Calibrating Optical Diagnostic Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2003-01-01

    In this work-in-progress report, we show the development of a unique high-pressure burner facility (up to 60 atm) that provides steady, reproducible premixed flames with high precision, while having the capability to use multiple fuel/oxidizer combinations. The highpressure facility has four optical access ports for applying different laser diagnostic techniques and will provide a standard reference flame for the development of a spectroscopic database in high-pressure/temperature conditions. Spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) was the first diagnostic applied, and was used to successfully probe premixed hydrogen-air flames generated in the facility using a novel multi-jet micro-premixed array burner element. The SRS spectral data include contributions from H2, N2, O2, and H2O and were collected over a wide range of equivalence ratios ranging from 0.16 to 4.9 at an initial pressure of 10-atm via a spatially resolved point SRS measurement with a high-performance optical system. Temperatures in fuel-lean to stoichiometric conditions were determined from the ratio of the Stokes to anti-Stokes scattering of the Q-branch of N2, and those in fuel-rich conditions via the rotational temperature of H2. The SRS derived temperatures using both techniques were consistent and indicated that the flame temperature was approximately 500 K below that predicted by adiabatic equilibrium, indicating a large amount of heat-loss at the measurement zone. The integrated vibrational SRS signals show that SRS provides quantitative number density data in high-pressure H2-air flames.

  10. Investigation of the effect of pilot burner on lean blow out performance of a staged injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinhu; Zhang, Kaiyu; Liu, Cunxi; Ruan, Changlong; Liu, Fuqiang; Xu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    The staged injector has exhibited great potential to achieve low emissions and is becoming the preferable choice of many civil airplanes. Moreover, it is promising to employ this injector design in military engine, which requires most of the combustion air enters the combustor through injector to reduce smoke emission. However, lean staged injector is prone to combustion instability and extinction in low load operation, so techniques for broadening its stable operation ranges are crucial for its application in real engine. In this work, the LBO performance of a staged injector is assessed and analyzed on a single sector test section. The experiment was done in atmospheric environment with optical access. Kerosene-PLIF technique was used to visualize the spray distribution and common camera was used to record the flame patterns. Emphasis is put on the influence of pilot burner on LBO performance. The fuel to air ratios at LBO of six injectors with different pilot swirler vane angle were evaluated and the obtained LBO data was converted into data at idle condition. Results show that the increase of pilot swirler vane angle could promote the air assisted atomization, which in turn improves the LBO performance slightly. Flame patterns typical in the process of LBO are analyzed and attempts are made to find out the main factors which govern the extinction process with the assistance of spray distribution and numerical flow field results. It can be learned that the flame patterns are mainly influenced by structure of the flow field just behind the pilot burner when the fuel mass flow rate is high; with the reduction of fuel, atomization quality become more and more important and is the main contributing factor of LBO. In the end of the paper, conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made for the optimization of the present staged injector.

  11. Pollutant Emissions and Lean Blowoff Limits of Fuel Flexible Burners Operating on Gaseous Renewable and Fossil Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colorado, Andres

    This study provides an experimental and numerical examination of pollutant emissions and stability of gaseous fueled reactions stabilized with two premixed-fuel-flexible and ultra-low NOx burner technologies. Both burners feature lean combustion technology to control the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The first fuel--flexible burner is the low-swirl burner (LSB), which features aerodynamic stabilization of the reactions with a divergent flow-field; the second burner is the surface stabilized combustion burner (SSCB), which features the stabilization of the reactions on surface patterns. For combustion applications the most commonly studied species are: NOx, carbon monoxide (CO), and unburned hydrocarbons (UHC). However these are not the only pollutants emitted when burning fossil fuels; other species such as nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3) and formaldehyde (CH2O) can be directly emitted from the oxidation reactions. Yet the conditions that favor the emission of these pollutants are not completely understood and require further insight. The results of this dissertation close the gap existing regarding the relations between emission of pollutants species and stability when burning variable gaseous fuels. The results of this study are applicable to current issues such as: 1. Current combustion systems operating at low temperatures to control formation of NOx. 2. Increased use of alternative fuels such as hydrogen, synthetic gas and biogas. 3. Increasing recognition of the need/desire to operate combustion systems in a transient manner to follow load and to offset the intermittency of renewable power. 4. The recent advances in measurement methods allow us to quantify other pollutants, such as N 2O, NH3 and CH2O. Hence in this study, these pollutant species are assessed when burning natural gas (NG) and its binary mixtures with other gaseous fuels such as hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), ethane (C 2H6) and propane (C3H8) at variable operation modes including

  12. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CORP. KENTUCKY COLEMAN C3 BIG RIVERS ELEC CORP. KENTUCKY EW BROWN 1 KENTUCKY UTL CO. KENTUCKY GREEN... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant...

  13. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  14. A CFD-Based Study of the Feasibility of Adapting an Erosion Burner Rig for Examining the Effect of CMAS Deposition Corrosion on Environmental Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic and computational fluid dynamics modeling has been conducted to examine the feasibility of adapting the NASA-Glenn erosion burner rigs for use in studies of corrosion of environmental barrier coatings by the deposition of molten CMAS. The effect of burner temperature, Mach number, particle preheat, duct heating, particle size, and particle phase (crystalline vs. glass) were analyzed. Detailed strategies for achieving complete melting of CMAS particles were developed, thereby greatly improving the probability of future successful experimental outcomes.

  15. Reduction of exposure to ultrafine particles by kitchen exhaust hoods: the effects of exhaust flow rates, particle size, and burner position.

    PubMed

    Rim, Donghyun; Wallace, Lance; Nabinger, Steven; Persily, Andrew

    2012-08-15

    Cooking stoves, both gas and electric, are one of the strongest and most common sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in homes. UFP have been shown to be associated with adverse health effects such as DNA damage and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. This study investigates the effectiveness of kitchen exhaust hoods in reducing indoor levels of UFP emitted from a gas stove and oven. Measurements in an unoccupied manufactured house monitored size-resolved UFP (2 nm to 100 nm) concentrations from the gas stove and oven while varying range hood flow rate and burner position. The air change rate in the building was measured continuously based on the decay of a tracer gas (sulfur hexafluoride, SF(6)). The results show that range hood flow rate and burner position (front vs. rear) can have strong effects on the reduction of indoor levels of UFP released from the stove and oven, subsequently reducing occupant exposure to UFP. Higher range hood flow rates are generally more effective for UFP reduction, though the reduction varies with particle diameter. The influence of the range hood exhaust is larger for the back burner than for the front burner. The number-weighted particle reductions for range hood flow rates varying between 100 m(3)/h and 680 m(3)/h range from 31% to 94% for the front burner, from 54% to 98% for the back burner, and from 39% to 96% for the oven.

  16. Experimental data regarding the characterization of the flame behavior near lean blowout in a non-premixed liquid fuel burner

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgi, Maria Grazia; Sciolti, Aldebara; Campilongo, Stefano; Ficarella, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the data related to the flame acquisitions in a liquid-fuel gas turbine derived burner operating in non-premixed mode under three different equivalence fuel/air ratio, which corresponds to a richer, an intermediate, and an ultra-lean condition, near lean blowout (LBO). The data were collected with two high speed visualization systems which acquired in the visible (VIS) and in the infrared (NIR) spectral region. Furthermore chemiluminescence measurements, which have been performed with a photomultiplier (PMT), equipped with an OH* filter, and gas exhaust measurements were also given. For each acquisition the data were related to operating parameters as pressure, temperature and equivalent fuel/air ratio. The data are related to the research article “Image processing for the characterization of flame stability in a non-premixed liquid fuel burner near lean blowout” in Aerospace Science and Technology [1]. PMID:26862557

  17. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

  18. Deposition of Na2SO4 from salt-seeded combustion gases of a high velocity burner rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Rosner, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    With a view to developing simulation criteria for the laboratory testing of high-temperature materials for gas turbine engines, the deposition rates of sodium sulfate from sodium salt-seeded combustion gases were determined experimentally using a well instrumented high-velocity burner. In the experiments, Na2SO4, NaCl, NaNO3, and simulated sea salt solutions were injected into the combustor of the Mach 0.3 burner rig operating at constant fuel/air ratios. The deposits formed on an inert rotating collector were then weighed and analyzed. The experimental results are compared to Rosner's vapor diffusion theory. Some additional test results, including droplet size distribution of an atomized salt spray, are used in interpreting the deposition rate data.

  19. Origin of activated combustion in steady-state premixed burner flame with superposition of dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaima, Kazunori; Akashi, Haruaki; Sasaki, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to understand the mechanism of plasma-assisted combustion in a steady-state premixed burner flame. We examined the spatiotemporal variation of the density of atomic oxygen in a premixed burner flame with the superposition of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). We also measured the spatiotemporal variations of the optical emission intensities of Ar and OH. The experimental results reveal that atomic oxygen produced in the preheating zone by electron impact plays a key role in the activation of combustion reactions. This understanding is consistent with that described in our previous paper indicating that the production of “cold OH(A2Σ+)” via CHO + O → OH(A2Σ+) + CO has the sensitive response to the pulsed current of DBD [K. Zaima and K. Sasaki, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53, 110309 (2014)].

  20. Experimental study on NOx emission and unburnt carbon of a radial biased swirl burner for coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Shan Xue; Shi'en Hui; Qulan Zhou; Tongmo Xu

    2009-07-15

    Pilot tests were carried out on a 1 MW thermal pulverized coal fired testing furnace. Symmetrical combustion was implemented by use of two whirl burners with dual air adjustment. The burnout air device was installed in various places at the top of the main burner, which consists of a primary air pipe with a varying cross-section and an impact ring. In the primary air pipe, the air pulverized coal (PC) stream was separated into a whirling stream that was thick inside and thin outside, thus realizing the thin-thick distribution at the burner nozzle in the radial direction. From the comparative combustion tests of three coals with relatively great characteristic differences, Shaanbei Shenhua high rank bituminous coal (SH coal), Shanxi Hejin low rank bituminous coal (HJ coal), and Shanxi Changzhi meager coal (CZ coal), were obtained such test results as the primary air ratio, inner secondary air ratio, outer secondary air ratio, impact of the change of outer secondary air, change of the relative position for the layout of burnout air, change of the swirling intensity of the primary air and secondary air, etc., on the NOx emission, and unburnt carbon content in fly ash (CFA). At the same time, the relationship between the NOx emission and burnout ratio and affecting factors of the corresponding test items on the combustion stability and economic results were also acquired. The results may provide a vital guiding significance to engineering designs and practical applications. According to the experimental results, the influence of each individual parameter on NOx formation and unburned carbon in fly ash agrees well with the existing literature. In this study, the influences of various combinations of these parameters are also examined, thus providing some reference for the design of the radial biased swirl burner, the configuration of the furnace, and the distribution of the air. 23 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Study of the Effects of Ambient Conditions Upon the Performance of Fan Powered, Infrared, Natural Gas Burners

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-31

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is a simple, fast, reliable and nondestructive analytical method. By using the method developed in Clark Atlanta University, consistent and reliable infrared spectral results can be obtained. An accurate radiant energy can be calculated from these infrared spectra by using a blackbody as the calibration standards. By means of the specially-designed-and-lab-made sampling inlet and the Horiba gas analyzers, the compositions of CO{sub 2}, CO, UCH, NOx and O{sub 2} etc. from the combustion exhaust gases have been on-line accurately analyzed. The commercial natural gas IR burner performed differently in the different conditions. For the methane-air combustion, at the equivalence ratio {Phi} = 1, the IR burner produced its maximum radiation efficiency, {approximately}31.4%, and the concentration of CO{sub 2} reached its maximum value, {approximately}10.7%. In the fuel-lean region, the O{sub 2} concentration in the emission gas decreased proportionally as {Phi} increased, but the concentrations of CO and UHC were kept in a couple of hundred ppm ranges. In the fuel-rich region, the O{sub 2} concentration was kept as a constant, {approximately}0.2%, but the CO and UHC concentrations were quickly jumped to thousands ppm or more as {Phi} further increased. The NOx formation was mainly dependent on the combustion temperature, and reached its maximum, {approximately}8 ppm, at {Phi}= {approximately}1. Because of the uniform temperature distribution, the IR burner produced lower NOx than traditional gas burners. Nitrogen is a non-combustible gas. It worked only as diluent for the combustion, reducing the radiant efficiency. Propane has a higher molar combustion enthalpy. It produced a higher combustion temperature and NOx, while maintaining similar radiant efficiency. Hydrogen has a lower combustion activation energy. It enhanced the radiant efficiency, and did not significantly affect the production of NOx, CO{sub 2} and CO.

  2. Simplified configuration for the combustor of an oil burner using a low pressure, high flow air-atomizing nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Butcher, Thomas A.; Celebi, Yusuf; Fisher, Leonard

    2000-09-15

    The invention relates to clean burning of fuel oil with air. More specifically, to a fuel burning combustion head using a low-pressure, high air flow atomizing nozzle so that there will be a complete combustion of oil resulting in a minimum emission of pollutants. The improved fuel burner uses a low pressure air atomizing nozzle that does not result in the use of additional compressors or the introduction of pressurized gases downstream, nor does it require a complex design. Inventors:

  3. Dynamics of the flame flowfields in a low-swirl burner

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Robert; Johnson, Matthew R.; Cheng, Robert K.

    2003-07-01

    The concept of using low swirl to stabilize lean premixed turbulent flame was introduced in 1992. Since then, the low-swirl burner (LSB) has become a useful laboratory tool for the study of detailed flame structures as well as turbulent burning speeds. Its main attribute is that the flame is freely propagating and is locally normal to the turbulent approach flow (Figure 1). Therefore, the turbulent flame brush is not influence by physical boundaries. The capability of LSB to support very lean flames and very turbulent flames [1, 2] was further exploited in recent studies to test the validity of the flame regime concept. Using 2D imaging diagnostics (e.g. planar laser induced fluorescence, PLIF, and planar laser induced Rayleigh scattering) our analysis showed that the wrinkled flame regime to be valid at a turbulence intensity level much higher than previously thought [3-5]. This provided experimental verification of a new 'thin reaction zone' regime for the Kalovitz number range of 1 < Ka < 10 (Ka = (u{prime}/s{sub L}){sup 3/2} (l{sub x}/d{sub L}){sup 1/2}) proposed by Peters. Due to its freely propagating nature, modeling and simulations of LSB flames are non-trivial. The flame position cannot be specified a priori because it is coupled to the turbulent flowfield and the turbulent flame speed may be required as input. This has not been a significant issue when treating the LSB flame as a close approximation to a 1D premixed turbulent flame. However, to support the development of more robust 3D simulation methods, accurate information on the flowfield dynamics in particular those at the burner exit and the interactions between the core and swirl air flows becomes important. In the past, velocity measurements in LSB have concentrated on collecting information along the centerline. The objective of this investigation is to conduct a detailed study using particle image velocimetry (PIV) to provide the flowfield information that are more suited to support 3D

  4. Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, E. A.; Krapf, M.; Orasche, J.; Huang, Y.; Zimmermann, R.; Drinovec, L.; Močnik, G.; El-Haddad, I.; Slowik, J. G.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Residential wood burning contributes to the total atmospheric aerosol burden; however, large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. Primary emissions are influenced by a variety of parameters, including appliance type, burner wood load and wood type. In addition to directly emitted particles, previous laboratory studies have shown that oxidation of gas-phase emissions produces compounds with sufficiently low volatility to readily partition to the particles, forming considerable quantities of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, relatively little is known about wood burning SOA, and the effects of burn parameters on SOA formation and composition are yet to be determined. There is clearly a need for further study of primary and secondary wood combustion aerosols to advance our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts on health, air quality and climate. For the first time, smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of wood loading on both primary and secondary wood combustion products. Products were characterized using a range of particle- and gas-phase instrumentation, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). A novel approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) quantification from AMS data was developed and results were compared to those from GC-MS analysis of filter samples. Similar total particle mass emission factors were observed under high and average wood loadings; however, high fuel loadings were found to generate significantly higher contributions of PAHs to the total organic aerosol (OA) mass compared to average loadings. PAHs contributed 15 ± 4% (mean ±2 sample standard deviations) to the total OA mass in high-load experiments, compared to 4 ± 1% in average-load experiments. With aging, total OA concentrations increased by a factor of 3 ± 1 for high load experiments compared to 1.6 ± 0.4 for average-load experiments. In the AMS, an increase in PAH and

  5. Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, E. A.; Krapf, M.; Orasche, J.; Huang, Y.; Zimmermann, R.; Drinovec, L.; Močnik, G.; El-Haddad, I.; Slowik, J. G.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2014-10-01

    Residential wood burning contributes significantly to the total atmospheric aerosol burden; however, large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. Primary emissions are influenced by a variety of parameters, including appliance type, burner wood load and wood type. In addition to directly emitted particles, previous laboratory studies have shown that oxidation of gas phase emissions produces compounds with sufficiently low volatility to readily partition to the particles, forming significant quantities of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, relatively little is known about wood burning SOA and the effects of burn parameters on SOA formation and composition are yet to be determined. There is clearly a need for further study of primary and secondary wood combustion aerosols to advance our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts on health, air quality and climate. For the first time, smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of wood loading on both primary and secondary wood combustion products. Products were characterized using a range of particle and gas phase instrumentation, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). A novel approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) quantification from AMS data was developed and results were compared to those from GC-MS analysis of filter samples. Similar total particle mass emission factors were observed under high and average wood loadings, however, high fuel loadings were found to generate significantly higher contributions of PAHs to the total organic aerosol (OA) mass compared to average loadings. PAHs contributed 15 ± 4% (mean ± 2 sample standard deviations) to the total OA mass in high load experiments, compared to 4 ± 1% in average load experiments. With aging, total OA concentrations increased by a factor of 3 ± 1 for high load experiments compared to 1.6 ± 0.4 for average load experiments. In the AMS, an increase in

  6. Development of a vane-swirler for use in a low NO{sub x} weak-swirl burner

    SciTech Connect

    Yegian, D.T.; Cheng, R.K.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the continuing development of the weak-swirl burner (WSB) for use in low NO{sub x} applications. Weak-swirl is a unique method for stabilizing lean-burning, premixed combustion as the flame is stabilized by flow divergence, not through recirculation as is commonly seen in nonpremixed industrial burners. Earlier versions of the WSB used a tangential air jet swirler that offers flexibility for determining the range of operation and evaluating the performance of the WSB. Though common in large applications, air swirler may not be amenable to small and medium-size appliances. To reduce manufacturing costs and burner complexity, the authors have developed a fixed vane swirler to replace the air jet swirler in the WSB. This paper describes the operating characteristics and key design parameters of the vane swirler. A new expression for determining swirl number intensity is developed. Testing of a laboratory water heater fitted with a WSB with the new vane-swirler shows 0 < NO < 20 ng/J, 10 < CO < 70 ppm, and thermal efficiencies {approx} 78% over the lean burning range of 0.70 < {phi} < 0.90. The continuous firing rate is robust for a 53 mm vane-swirled WSB, with initial tests ranging from 40,000 to 400,000 Btu/hr. for 0.60 < {phi} < 1.0. Successful development of the new vane swirler demonstrates that the low emission WSB is adaptable to a wide variety of industrial applications.

  7. Numerical study of a jet-in-hot-coflow burner with hydrogen-addition using the Flamelet Generated Manifolds technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abtahizadeh, Seyed Ebrahim; van Oijen, Jeroen; de Goey, Philip

    2012-11-01

    Recently Mild combustion is subjected to intensive research because of its unique ability to provide high efficiency and low pollutant combustion simultaneously in industrial heating processes. In most practical Mild combustion applications, a fuel jet is ignited due to recirculation of hot burned gases. The impact of burned gases on autoignition and flame stabilization has been studied in a laboratory jet-in-hot-coflow (JHC) burner. Results of this study help us to understand recent experimental observations of the Delft group (DJHC burner) in which Dutch Natural Gas (DNG) is mixed with various amounts of H2. The main focus is on the modeling of autoignition in the DJHC burner by using the Flamelet Generated Manifolds (FGM) technique. In this technique, kinetic information is tabulated with a few controlling variables which results in a significant decrease in simulation time. The FGM tabulation has been performed using igniting laminar counterflow diffusion flames. Since H2 is present in the fuel composition, it is essential to include preferential diffusion effects in the table due to the high diffusivity of H2. Based on results, the FGM table is capable to reproduce the autoignition of hydrogen containing fuel predicted by detailed chemistry in 1D counterflow flames. The Authors gratefully acknowledge financial support of the Dutch Technology Foundation STW.

  8. Surface temperature measurements in a porous media burner using a new laser-induced phosphorescence intensity ratio technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber, A.; Zigan, L.; Sakhrieh, A.; Leipertz, A.

    2013-07-01

    Applying the laser-induced phosphorescence technique, the phosphorescence from a phosphor-coated surface can be used for the determination of the surface temperature during hydrocarbon fuel combustion in a porous media burner. A mixture of dysprosium-cerbium double-doped: yttrium aluminium garnet (Dy:Er:YAG) thermographic phosphor powder and an adhesive agent was used for coating the front surface of the burner which was operated with a thermal load of 1000 W and 2000 W and equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 0.8. A pulsed laser of 355 nm wavelength was used for phosphorescence excitation and a spectrometer for luminescence detections. An adapted intensity ratio (IR) method was applied for temperature determination and compared with two other IR methods. Temperature calibrations were executed in an oven which can be operated up to 2073 K. Imprecision and inaccuracy of the temperature measurements in the phosphor and the mixture calibrations and in the burner-coated front surface have been investigated. The adapted IR method allowed temperature measurements which were more accurate than the other two IR methods, applied for comparison. Compared to additionally performed thermocouple measurements and to published results in the literature using an infrared camera, the adapted IR method turned out to be the more accurate one. The temperature results were also in good agreement with numerical simulations given in the literature.

  9. Development of a combustion technology for ultra-low emission (< 5 ppm nox) industrial burner

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohn, D.; Majeski, A.J.; Cheng, R.K.; Castaldini, C.

    2002-11-01

    A combustion concept to achieve ultra-low emissions (NO{sub x} {le} 2 ppm and CO {le} 20 ppm) was tested on an 18 kW low swirl burner (LSB). It is based on lean premixed combustion combined with flue gas recirculation (FGR) and partially reformed natural gas (PRNG). Flame stability and emissions were assessed as a function of {phi}, FGR, and PRNG. The results show that PRNG improves flame stability and reduces CO, with no impact on NO{sub x} at {phi} = 0.8. A 1D flame simulation satisfactorily predicted prompt NO{sub x} at lean conditions with high FGR. Two catalysts were tested in a prototype steam reformer, and the results were used to estimate reactor volume and steam requirements in a practical system. An advanced Sud Chemie catalyst displayed good conversion efficiency at relatively low temperatures and high space velocities, which indicates that the reformer can be small and will track load changes. Tests conducted on the LSB with FGR and 0.05 PRNG shows that boilers using a LSB with PRNG and high FGR and {phi} close to stoichiometry can operate with low emissions and high efficiency.

  10. Oxy-Combustion Burner and Integrated Pollutant Removal Research and Development Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schoenfield; Manny Menendez; Thomas Ochs; Rigel Woodside; Danylo Oryshchyn

    2012-09-30

    A high flame temperature oxy-combustion test facility consisting of a 5 MWe equivalent test boiler facility and 20 KWe equivalent IPR® was constructed at the Hammond, Indiana manufacturing site. The test facility was operated natural gas and coal fuels and parametric studies were performed to determine the optimal performance conditions and generated the necessary technical data required to demonstrate the technologies are viable for technical and economic scale-up. Flame temperatures between 4930-6120F were achieved with high flame temperature oxy-natural gas combustion depending on whether additional recirculated flue gases are added to balance the heat transfer. For high flame temperature oxy-coal combustion, flame temperatures in excess of 4500F were achieved and demonstrated to be consistent with computational fluid dynamic modeling of the burner system. The project demonstrated feasibility and effectiveness of the Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process with Integrated Pollutant Removal process for CCS and CCUS. With these technologies total parasitic power requirements for both oxygen production and carbon capture currently are in the range of 20% of the gross power output. The Jupiter Oxygen high flame temperature oxy-combustion process has been demonstrated at a Technology Readiness Level of 6 and is ready for commencement of a demonstration project.

  11. Deposition and material response from Mach 0.3 burner rig combustion of SRC 2 fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G. J.; Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Fryburg, G. C.; Johnson, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Collectors at 1173K (900 C) were exposed to the combustion products of a Mach 0.3 burner rig fueled with various industrial turbine liquid fuels from solvent refined coals. Four fuels were employed: a naphtha, a light oil, a wash solvent and a mid-heavy distillate blend. The response of four superalloys (IN-100, U 700, IN 792 and M-509) to exposure to the combustion gases from the SRC-2 naphtha and resultant deposits was also determined. The SRC-2 fuel analysis and insights obtained during the combustion experience are discussed. Particular problems encountered were fuel instability and reactions of the fuel with hardware components. The major metallic elements which contributed to the deposits were copper, iron, chromium, calcium, aluminum, nickel, silicon, titanium, zinc, and sodium. The deposits were found to be mainly metal oxides. An equilibrium thermodynamic analysis was employed to predict the chemical composition of the deposits. The agreement between the predicted and observed compounds was excellent. No hot corrosion was observed. This was expected because the deposits contained very little sodium or potassium and consisted mainly of the unreactive oxides. However, the amounts of deposits formed indicated that fouling is a potential problem with the use of these fuels.

  12. Opposed jet burner studies of hydrogen combustion with pure and N2, NO-contaminated air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerra, Rosemary; Pellett, Gerald L.; Northam, G. Burton; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    1987-01-01

    A counterflow diffusion flame formed by an argon-bathed tubular-opposed jet burner (OJB) was used to determine the 'blowoff' and 'restore' combustion characteristics for jets of various H2/N2 mixtures and for jets of air contaminated by NO (which normally occurs in high-enthalpy airflows supplied to hypersonic test facilities for scramjet combustors). Substantial divergence of 'blowoff' and 'restore' limits occurred as H2 mass flux, M(H)2, increased, the H2 jet became richer, and the M(air)/M(H2 + N2) ratio increased from 1 to 3 (molar H2/O2 from 1 to 16). Both OJB limits were sensitive to reactant composition. One to six percent NO in air led to significant N2-corrected decreases in the M(H2) values for 'blowoff' (2-8 percent) and 'restore' (6-12 percent) for mole fractions of H2 ranging from 0.5 to 0.95. However, when H2/O2 was held constant, all N2-corrected changes in M(H2) were negligible.

  13. A Parametric Cycle Analysis of a Separate-Flow Turbofan with Interstage Turbine Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, C. J. (Technical Monitor); Liew, K. H.; Urip, E.; Yang, S. L.

    2005-01-01

    Today's modern aircraft is based on air-breathing jet propulsion systems, which use moving fluids as substances to transform energy carried by the fluids into power. Throughout aero-vehicle evolution, improvements have been made to the engine efficiency and pollutants reduction. This study focuses on a parametric cycle analysis of a dual-spool, separate-flow turbofan engine with an Interstage Turbine Burner (ITB). The ITB considered in this paper is a relatively new concept in modern jet engine propulsion. The JTB serves as a secondary combustor and is located between the high- and the low-pressure turbine, i.e., the transition duct. The objective of this study is to use design parameters, such as flight Mach number, compressor pressure ratio, fan pressure ratio, fan bypass ratio, linear relation between high- and low-pressure turbines, and high-pressure turbine inlet temperature to obtain engine performance parameters, such as specific thrust and thrust specific fuel consumption. Results of this study can provide guidance in identifying the performance characteristics of various engine components, which can then be used to develop, analyze, integrate, and optimize the system performance of turbofan engines with an ITB.

  14. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; M.P. Heap; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

    2000-04-01

    Reduction of NO{sub x} emission is an important environmental issue in pulverized coal combustion. The most cost-effective approach to NO{sub x} reduction is air-staging which can also operate with additional down-stream techniques such as reburning [1]. Air staging promotes the conversion of NO{sub x} precursors (HCN, NH{sub 3}, etc.) to N{sub 2} by delaying the oxygen supply to the greatest extent when those nitrogen species are released during devolatilization. Such a delay gives the primary volatiles a chance to undergo secondary reactions, including tar cracking and soot formation. Secondary reactions of volatiles largely determine the fate of the ultimate NO{sub x} production from pyrolysis, therefore a detailed investigation into the transformation of nitrogen species during secondary reactions and effects of soot on nitrogen release is critical for design and implementation of new pollution control strategies. Current nitrogen models (including the CPD model at BYU) only simulate the nitrogen release during primary pyrolysis, which happens at low temperatures. This project helps to build a nitrogen release model that accounts for secondary reactions and the effects of soot at temperatures relevant to industrial burners.

  15. FLUENT simulations of the Westinghouse Multi-Annular Swirl Burner for design optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, T.S.; Mollot, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    The FLUENT computational fluid dynamics code is being used to aid the design of the Westinghouse Multi-Annular Swirl Burner (MASB). The MASB is being designed by Westinghouse for use as a topping combustor in a Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion System as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program. The MASB will primarily burn low-energy, coal-derived gaseous fuel (syngas) with vitiated air, at elevated pressure, to supply a gas turbine for power generation. MASB operation will require dual fuel capability, i.e., the ability to burn a high heating value fuel as well as the lower energy syngas. Firing a high heating value gas, such as methane or propane, is required during plant start-up and other off-design conditions. The goal of the current study was to devise a method for introducing dilution air into the MASB to produce an optimum pattern factor without significantly changing the existing design. This design modification must not adversely affect MASB performance when firing syngas.

  16. Research on the numerical simulation of secondary air diffusion angle to the swirl burners combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lei; Chang, Zhen; Liu, He; Yang, Guotian; Li, Xinli

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the combustion process of swirl burners during 660 MW unit power plant is simulated. The influence of secondary air diffusion angle on the furnace temperature and furnace slagging is studied. In detail the temperature field and the carbon concentration field and velocity field inside the furnace are analysed when the secondary air diffusion angle is set as 30 °, 45 ° and 60 ° respectively. The simulation results show that when the secondary air diffusion angle is set as 30°, the center temperature of the furnace is highest, and at this time the pulverized coal combustion is sufficient, the carbon concentration near the water wall is the lowest, moreover, it is not easy to slag in the furnace. With the increase of secondary air diffusion angle, the center temperature of boiler burning zone gradually decline, carbon concentration near the water wall increase, it is the more prone to coking inside the furnace. The numerical simulation results not only provide a reference basis for the boiler operation, but also provide an important reference value for exquisite combustion research of the boiler.

  17. Laser Metal Deposition as Repair Technology for a Gas Turbine Burner Made of Inconel 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrat, Torsten; Graf, Benjamin; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Rethmeier, Michael

    Maintenance, repair and overhaul of components are of increasing interest for parts of high complexity and expensive manufacturing costs. In this paper a production process for laser metal deposition is presented, and used to repair a gas turbine burner of Inconel 718. Different parameters for defined track geometries were determined to attain a near net shape deposition with consistent build-up rate for changing wall thicknesses over the manufacturing process. Spot diameter, powder feed rate, welding velocity and laser power were changed as main parameters for a different track size. An optimal overlap rate for a constant layer height was used to calculate the best track size for a fitting layer width similar to the part dimension. Deviations in width and height over the whole build-up process were detected and customized build-up strategies for the 3D sequences were designed. The results show the possibility of a near net shape repair by using different track geometries with laser metal deposition.

  18. A Study of Scrap Heating by Burners: Part II—Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Kamalesh; Irons, Gordon A.

    2013-02-01

    A computational fluid dynamics code was developed to model the heating of a bed of porous steel scrap by combustion gases from a burner. The code accounted for nonuniform void fraction in the bed; turbulent, non-Darcian flow, heat transfer from the gas to the scrap; and radiation. The measured bed porosity values were used in the code. Because steel scrap pieces are very irregular in shape and size, the effective particle diameter was fitted to measurements made in a 1-m3 capacity furnace, as reported in part I. It was found that the lower porosity of the scrap was the most beneficial in increasing the efficiency of heat transfer to the scrap bed because the interfacial area is larger. The effect of particle size was much smaller. It was found that the configurations that increased the residence time or path length of the gases increased the efficiency. The measured porosity of the bed approached unity at the walls, so this provided an easy path for the gas to short-circuit the bed, which limited the effectiveness of decreasing the porosity to increase heat-transfer efficiency. Similarly, simulations of nonuniform scrap distributions reduced efficiency of heat transfer due to short circuiting. The implications of the findings for industrial operations are discussed.

  19. The porous-plug burner: Flame stabilization, onset of oscillation, and restabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Kurdyumov, Vadim N.; Matalon, Moshe

    2008-04-15

    In recent studies of edge-flames it was found that when the characteristic gas velocity exceeds a critical value the flame often undergoes spontaneous oscillations. The oscillations are amplified as the flow rate increases, reaching a maximum amplitude, and then decrease with further increasing flow rate until the flame restabilizes. In this paper we examine the concept of flame restabilization in a simpler but related problem - the planar premixed flame on a porous-plug burner - which is amenable to a full stability analysis. We show the dependence of all possible steady states on the relevant parameters, including the mass flow rate, the effective Lewis number of the mixture, the overall activation energy of the chemical reaction, and the extent of heat release. A linear stability analysis is then carried out to examine whether these steady states are stable to small disturbances. The analysis determines the critical conditions for the onset of instability, as well as the nature of the instability. In particular, we show that by decreasing the mass flow rate, the flame, which is at first stable, starts to oscillate back and forth for a limited range of gas velocities but is then restabilized by further decreasing the mass flow rate. We also show that the properties of the plug, such as the thickness of the plate and its porosity, play a significant role in flame stabilization. (author)

  20. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; K.A. Davis; M.P. Heap; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang

    2000-04-01

    Reduction of NO{sub x} emission is an important environmental issue in pulverized coal combustion. The most cost-effective approach to NO{sub x} reduction is air-staging which can also operate with additional down-stream techniques such as reburning [1]. Air staging promotes the conversion of NO{sub x} precursors (HCN, NH{sub 3}, etc.) to N{sub 2} by delaying the oxygen supply to the greatest extent when those nitrogen species are released during devolatilization. Such a delay gives the primary volatiles a chance to undergo secondary reactions, including tar cracking and soot formation. Secondary reactions of volatiles largely determine the fate of the ultimate NO{sub x} production from pyrolysis, therefore a detailed investigation into the transformation of nitrogen species during secondary reactions and effects of soot on nitrogen release is critical for design and implementation of new pollution control strategies. Current nitrogen models (including the CPD model at BYU) only simulate the nitrogen release during primary pyrolysis, which happens at low temperatures. This project helps to build a nitrogen release model that accounts for secondary reactions and the effects of soot at temperatures relevant to industrial burners.

  1. A Study of Oxidation of Hydrogen Based on Flashback of Hydrogen-Oxygen-Nitrogen Burner Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fine, Burton D.

    1959-01-01

    The flashback of hydrogen-oxygen-nitrogen flames was studied as a function of pressure, burner diameter, equivalence ratio, and oxidant strength. The results were treated on the assumption that the product of the critical boundary velocity gradient for flashback and the initial concentration of that reactant which is not in excess is proportional to a mean reaction rate associated with the flame zone. It was further assumed that this reaction rate can be expressed in terms of initial concentrations and flame temperature. Measurements at constant flame temperature yield orders of reaction with respect to hydrogen and oxygen. These do not vary with flame temperature. Measurements in which pressure is varied for several values of oxidant strength at constant equivalence ratio yield a total order of reaction and a function describing the dependence of the mean reaction rate on flame temperature. The total reaction order is independent of flame temperature and equal to the sum of the orders for hydrogen and oxygen. The dependence of the reaction rate on flame temperature cannot be described by a constant activation energy. The activation energy obtained apparently increases with flame temperature. Flashback results can be described by a single rate constant which is independent of equivalence ratio. Values were estimated for this rate constant as a function of flame temperature.

  2. Evaluating measurements of carbon dioxide emissions using a precision source--A natural gas burner.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Rodney; Bundy, Matthew; Zong, Ruowen

    2015-07-01

    A natural gas burner has been used as a precise and accurate source for generating large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) to evaluate emissions measurements at near-industrial scale. Two methods for determining carbon dioxide emissions from stationary sources are considered here: predicting emissions based on fuel consumption measurements-predicted emissions measurements, and direct measurement of emissions quantities in the flue gas-direct emissions measurements. Uncertainty for the predicted emissions measurement was estimated at less than 1%. Uncertainty estimates for the direct emissions measurement of carbon dioxide were on the order of ±4%. The relative difference between the direct emissions measurements and the predicted emissions measurements was within the range of the measurement uncertainty, therefore demonstrating good agreement. The study demonstrates how independent methods are used to validate source emissions measurements, while also demonstrating how a fire research facility can be used as a precision test-bed to evaluate and improve carbon dioxide emissions measurements from stationary sources. Fossil-fuel-consuming stationary sources such as electric power plants and industrial facilities account for more than half of the CO2 emissions in the United States. Therefore, accurate emissions measurements from these sources are critical for evaluating efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This study demonstrates how a surrogate for a stationary source, a fire research facility, can be used to evaluate the accuracy of measurements of CO2 emissions.

  3. Laminar burn rates of gun propellants measured in the high-pressure strand burner

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J. E., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    The pressure dependence of the laminar burn rate of gun propellants plays a role in the design and behavior of high-performance guns. We have begun a program to investigate the effects of processing variables on the laminar burn rates, using our high-pressure strand burner to measure these rates at pressures exceeding 700 MPa. We have burned JA2 and M43 propellant samples, provided by Dr. Arpad Juhasz, ARL, from propellant lots previously used in round-robin tests. Our results at room temperature are in accord with other measurements. In addition, we present results measured for propellant that has been preheated to 50 C before burning. We used our thermochemical equilibrium code, CHEETAH, to help interpret the simultaneous pressure and temperature measurements taken during the testing, and show examples of its use. It has been modified to provide performance measures and equations of state for the products that are familiar to the gun-propellant community users of BLAKE.

  4. Burner Rig Hot Corrosion of Five Ni-Base Alloys Including Mar-M247

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Helmink, R.; Harris, K.; Erickson, G.

    2000-01-01

    The hot corrosion resistance of four new Ni-base superalloys was compared to that of Mar-M247 by testing in a Mach 0.3 burner rig at 900 C for 300 1-hr cycles. While the Al content was held the same as in the Mar-M247, the Cr and Co levels in the four new alloys were decreased while other strengthening elements (Re, Ta) were increased. Surprisingly, despite their lower Cr and Co contents, the hot corrosion behavior of all four new alloys was superior to that of the Mar-M247 alloy. The Mar-M247 alloy began to lose weight almost immediately whereas the other four alloys appeared to undergo an incubation period of 50-150 1-hr cycles. Examination of the cross-sectional microstructures showed regions of rampant corrosion attack (propagation stage) in all five alloys after 300 1-hr cycles . This rampant corrosion morphology was similar for each of the alloys with Ni and Cr sulfides located in an inner subscale region. The morphology of the attack suggests a classic "Type I", or high temperature, hot corrosion attack.

  5. A novel multi-jet burner for hot flue gases of wide range of temperatures and compositions for optical diagnostics of solid fuels gasification/combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Wubin; Borggren, Jesper; Li, Bo; Aldén, Marcus; Li, Zhongshan

    2017-04-01

    A novel multi-jet burner was built to provide one-dimensional laminar flat flames with a wide range of variable parameters for multipurpose quantitative optical measurements. The burner is characterized by two independent plenum chambers, one supporting a matrix of 181 laminar jet flames and the other supporting a co-flow from a perforated plate with small holes evenly distributed among the jets. A uniform rectangular burned gas region of 70 mm × 40 mm can be generated, with a wide range of temperatures and equivalence ratios by controlling independently the gas supplies to the two plenum chambers. The temperature of the hot gas can be adjusted from 1000 K to 2000 K with different flame conditions. The burner is designed to seed additives in gas or liquid phase to study homogeneous reactions. The large uniform region can be used to burn solid fuels and study heterogeneous reactions. The temperature was measured using two-line atomic fluorescence thermometry and the temperature profile at a given height above the burner was found to be flat. Different types of optical diagnostic techniques, such as line of sight absorption or laser-induced fluorescence, can be easily applied in the burner, and as examples, two typical measurements concerning biomass combustion are demonstrated.

  6. Duquesne Light Company`s burner modification for NO{sub x} RACT compliance on a 200 MW single face fired pulverized coal unit

    SciTech Connect

    Bionda, J.P.; Gabrielson, J.E.; Hallo, A.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses the result of a research test program conducted on Duquesne Light Company`s Elrama Unit 4. The program was designed to determine the viability of achieving compliance with the recently enacted PA DER Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) regulations. These regulations stipulate presumptive RACT requirements for wall fired boilers which include the installations and operation of low NO{sub x} burners with separated overfire air. Duquesne Light Company contracted Energy Systems, Associates (ESA) to aide in the design and testing of a novel low NO{sub x} burner design and separated overfire air system. By modifying the coal burners, it has been possible to reduce the NO{sub x} emissions by 50% to 60% on Unit 4, with minimal impact to the unburned carbon in the ash. The burner modifications create fuel rich streams which are surrounded by air rich zones in the primary flame region, thus staging combustion at the burner. Additional NO{sub x} reductions are realized when the combustion is further staged by use of the separated overfire air system.

  7. Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Shropshire

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program’s understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power’s cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

  8. NASA GRC's High Pressure Burner Rig Facility and Materials Test Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. Craig

    1999-01-01

    The High Pressure Burner Rig (HPBR) at NASA Glenn Research Center is a high-velocity. pressurized combustion test rig used for high-temperature environmental durability studies of advanced materials and components. The facility burns jet fuel and air in controlled ratios, simulating combustion gas chemistries and temperatures that are realistic to those in gas turbine engines. In addition, the test section is capable of simulating the pressures and gas velocities representative of today's aircraft. The HPBR provides a relatively inexpensive. yet sophisticated means for researchers to study the high-temperature oxidation of advanced materials. The facility has the unique capability of operating under both fuel-lean and fuel-rich gas mixtures. using a fume incinerator to eliminate any harmful byproduct emissions (CO, H2S) of rich-burn operation. Test samples are easily accessible for ongoing inspection and documentation of weight change, thickness, cracking, and other metrics. Temperature measurement is available in the form of both thermocouples and optical pyrometery. and the facility is equipped with quartz windows for observation and video taping. Operating conditions include: (1) 1.0 kg/sec (2.0 lbm/sec) combustion and secondary cooling airflow capability: (2) Equivalence ratios of 0.5- 1.0 (lean) to 1.5-2.0 (rich), with typically 10% H2O vapor pressure: (3) Gas temperatures ranging 700-1650 C (1300-3000 F): (4) Test pressures ranging 4-12 atmospheres: (5) Gas flow velocities ranging 10-30 m/s (50-100) ft/sec.: and (6) Cyclic and steady-state exposure capabilities. The facility has historically been used to test coupon-size materials. including metals and ceramics. However complex-shaped components have also been tested including cylinders, airfoils, and film-cooled end walls. The facility has also been used to develop thin-film temperature measurement sensors.

  9. High-Pressure Gaseous Burner (HPGB) Facility Completed for Quantitative Laser Diagnostics Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2002-01-01

    A gas-fueled high-pressure combustion facility with optical access, which was developed over the last 2 years, has just been completed. The High Pressure Gaseous Burner (HPGB) rig at the NASA Glenn Research Center can operate at sustained pressures up to 60 atm with a variety of gaseous fuels and liquid jet fuel. The facility is unique as it is the only continuous-flow, hydrogen-capable, 60-atm rig in the world with optical access. It will provide researchers with new insights into flame conditions that simulate the environment inside the ultra-high-pressure-ratio combustion chambers of tomorrow's advanced aircraft engines. The facility provides optical access to the flame zone, enabling the calibration of nonintrusive optical diagnostics to measure chemical species and temperature. The data from the HPGB rig enables the validation of numerical codes that simulate gas turbine combustors, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC). The validation of such numerical codes is often best achieved with nonintrusive optical diagnostic techniques that meet these goals: information-rich (multispecies) and quantitative while providing good spatial and time resolution. Achieving these goals is a challenge for most nonintrusive optical diagnostic techniques. Raman scattering is a technique that meets these challenges. Raman scattering occurs when intense laser light interacts with molecules to radiate light at a shifted wavelength (known as the Raman shift). This shift in wavelength is unique to each chemical species and provides a "fingerprint" of the different species present. The facility will first be used to gather a comprehensive data base of laser Raman spectra at high pressures. These calibration data will then be used to quantify future laser Raman measurements of chemical species concentration and temperature in this facility and other facilities that use Raman scattering.

  10. PRELIMINARY DATA CALL REPORT ADVANCED BURNER REACTOR START UP FUEL FABRICATION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    S. T. Khericha

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide data for preparation of a NEPA Environmental Impact Statement in support the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). One of the GNEP objectives is to reduce the inventory of long lived actinide from the light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel. The LWR spent fuel contains Plutonium (Pu) -239 and other transuranics (TRU) such as Americium-241. One of the options is to transmute or burn these actinides in fast neutron spectra as well as generate the electricity. A sodium-cooled Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) concept has been proposed to achieve this goal. However, fuel with relatively high TRU content has not been used in the fast reactor. To demonstrate the utilization of TRU fuel in a fast reactor, an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR) prototype of ARR is proposed, which would necessarily be started up using weapons grade (WG) Pu fuel. The WG Pu is distinguished by relatively highest proportions of Pu-239 and lesser amount of other actinides. The WG Pu will be used as the startup fuel along with TRU fuel in lead test assemblies. Because such fuel is not currently being produced in the US, a new facility (or new capability in an existing facility) is being considered for fabrication of WG Pu fuel for the ABR. This report is provided in response to ‘Data Call’ for the construction of startup fuel fabrication facility. It is anticipated that the facility will provide the startup fuel for 10-15 years and will take to 3 to 5 years to construct.

  11. Holy Smoke in Medieval Funerary Rites: Chemical Fingerprints of Frankincense in Southern Belgian Incense Burners

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Challe, Sophie; De Vos, Dirk; Degryse, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Frankincense, the oleogum resin from Boswellia sp., has been an early luxury good in both Western and Eastern societies and is particularly used in Christian funerary and liturgical rites. The scant grave goods in late medieval burials comprise laterally perforated pottery vessels which are usually filled with charcoal. They occur in most regions of western Europe and are interpreted as incense burners but have never been investigated with advanced analytical techniques. We herein present chemical and anthracological results on perforated funerary pots from 4 Wallonian sites dating to the 12–14th century AD. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of lipid extracts of the ancient residues and comparison with extracts from four Boswellia species clearly evidence the presence of degraded frankincense in the former, based on characteristic triterpenoids, viz. boswellic and tirucallic acids, and their myriad dehydrated and oxygenated derivatives. Cembrane-type diterpenoids indicate B. sacra (southern Arabia) and B. serrata (India) as possible botanical origins. Furthermore, traces of juniper and possibly pine tar demonstrate that small amounts of locally available fragrances were mixed with frankincense, most likely to reduce its cost. Additionally, markers of ruminant fats in one sample from a domestic context indicate that this vessel was used for food preparation. Anthracological analysis demonstrates that the charcoal was used as fuel only and that no fragrant wood species were burned. The chars derived from local woody plants and were most likely recovered from domestic fires. Furthermore, vessel recycling is indicated by both contextual and biomarker evidence. The results shed a new light on funerary practices in the Middle Ages and at the same time reveal useful insights into the chemistry of burned frankincense. The discovery of novel biomarkers, namely Δ2-boswellic acids and a series of polyunsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, demonstrates the

  12. Imaging of diluted turbulent ethylene flames stabilized on a Jet in Hot Coflow (JHC) burner

    SciTech Connect

    Medwell, Paul R.; Kalt, Peter A.M.; Dally, Bassam B.

    2008-01-15

    The spatial distributions of the hydroxyl radical (OH), formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO), and temperature imaged by laser diagnostic techniques are presented using a Jet in Hot Coflow (JHC) burner. The measurements are of turbulent nonpremixed ethylene jet flames, either undiluted or diluted with hydrogen (H{sub 2}), air or nitrogen (N{sub 2}). The fuel jet issues into a hot and highly diluted coflow at two O{sub 2} levels and a fixed temperature of 1100 K. These conditions emulate those of moderate or intense low oxygen dilution (MILD) combustion. Ethylene is an important species in the oxidation of higher-order hydrocarbon fuels and in the formation of soot. Under the influence of the hot and diluted coflow, soot is seen to be suppressed. At downstream locations, surrounding air is entrained which results in increases in reaction rates and a spatial mismatch between the OH and H{sub 2}CO surfaces. In a very low O{sub 2} coflow, a faint outline of the reaction zone is seen to extend to the jet exit plane, whereas at a higher coflow O{sub 2} level, the flames visually appear lifted. In the flames that appear lifted, a continuous OH surface is identified that extends to the jet exit. At the ''lift-off'' height a transition from weak to strong OH is observed, analogous to a lifted flame. H{sub 2}CO is also seen upstream of the transition point, providing further evidence of the occurrence of preignition reactions in the apparent lifted region of these flames. The unique characteristics of these particular cases has led to the term transitional flame. (author)

  13. Holy smoke in medieval funerary rites: chemical fingerprints of frankincense in southern Belgian incense burners.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Challe, Sophie; De Vos, Dirk; Degryse, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Frankincense, the oleogum resin from Boswellia sp., has been an early luxury good in both Western and Eastern societies and is particularly used in Christian funerary and liturgical rites. The scant grave goods in late medieval burials comprise laterally perforated pottery vessels which are usually filled with charcoal. They occur in most regions of western Europe and are interpreted as incense burners but have never been investigated with advanced analytical techniques. We herein present chemical and anthracological results on perforated funerary pots from 4 Wallonian sites dating to the 12-14th century AD. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of lipid extracts of the ancient residues and comparison with extracts from four Boswellia species clearly evidence the presence of degraded frankincense in the former, based on characteristic triterpenoids, viz. boswellic and tirucallic acids, and their myriad dehydrated and oxygenated derivatives. Cembrane-type diterpenoids indicate B. sacra (southern Arabia) and B. serrata (India) as possible botanical origins. Furthermore, traces of juniper and possibly pine tar demonstrate that small amounts of locally available fragrances were mixed with frankincense, most likely to reduce its cost. Additionally, markers of ruminant fats in one sample from a domestic context indicate that this vessel was used for food preparation. Anthracological analysis demonstrates that the charcoal was used as fuel only and that no fragrant wood species were burned. The chars derived from local woody plants and were most likely recovered from domestic fires. Furthermore, vessel recycling is indicated by both contextual and biomarker evidence. The results shed a new light on funerary practices in the Middle Ages and at the same time reveal useful insights into the chemistry of burned frankincense. The discovery of novel biomarkers, namely Δ2-boswellic acids and a series of polyunsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, demonstrates the high

  14. A new piloted premixed jet burner to study strong finite-rate chemistry effects

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Matthew J.; Masri, Assaad R.; Bilger, Robert W.

    2007-10-15

    This paper describes the initial characterization of a piloted premixed jet burner (PPJB) designed to investigate finite-rate chemistry effects in highly turbulent lean premixed combustion. The PPJB consists of a high-velocity lean premixed central jet, piloted by a low-velocity stoichiometric premixed pilot, surrounded by a large-diameter coflow of lean premixed hydrogen-air combustion products. The configuration of a lean central jet supported by a stoichiometric pilot is similar to that of a lean premixed gas turbine combustor, but without additional complications such as swirl, recirculation, and complex boundary conditions. A significant feature of the PPJB is that under certain conditions the central jet combustion process appears to undergo an extinction-reignition process. It is considered likely that intense turbulent mixing after the nozzle drives an initial extinction process that reduces flame luminosity, with reignition occurring downstream where turbulent mixing has decreased, causing an increase in flame luminosity. Four flames are selected for further study, each with an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and with central jet velocities of 50, 100, 150, and 200 m/s. Simultaneous two-dimensional (2D) Rayleigh-OH planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging results are presented for the selected flames, showing that in the ''extinction'' region OH concentrations occur at reduced levels in isolated patchy regions, supporting the idea that extinction is predominantly occurring. Laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) data are also reported for the flow field turbulence statistics, with the most significant result being that for the reacting cases the pilot delays the occurrence of peak turbulence intensity downstream to near the observed ''extinction'' region. (author)

  15. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-15

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising

  16. Research, development, and testing of a prototype two-stage low-input rate oil burner for variable output heating system applications

    SciTech Connect

    Krajewski, R.F.; Butcher, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    The use of a Two-Stage Fan Atomized Oil Burner (TSFAB) in space and water heating applications will have dramatic advantages in terms of it`s potential for a high Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE) and/or Energy Factor (EF) rating for the equipment. While demonstrations of a single rate burner in an actual application have already yielded sufficient confidence that space and domestic heating loads can be met at a single low firing rate, this represents only a narrow solution to the diverse nature of building space heating and domestic water loads that the industry must address. The mechanical development, proposed control, and testing of the Two-Stage burner is discussed in terms of near term and long term goals.

  17. Multipurpose water heater. Final technical report, October 1995--August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Guyer, E.C.; Coumou, K.G.

    1999-03-01

    This final report describes SBIR Phase 2 project for the development of a multi-purpose water heater for use in Army Food sanitation centers. The objective of the project was to develop a water heater--powered only by an M2 burner and requiring no external supply of electricity--capable of supplying a continuous flow of pressurized hot water to a faucet at the sanitation sink. In the course of the research, two developments took place that have had an impact on the final design. First, the Multifuel Burner Unit (MBU) became available as a potential replacement for the M2. The MBU runs on JP-8 or diesel fuel and requires an external 24-volt VDC power supply. Thus, in anticipation of eventual conversion from M2 to MBU, a DC-Powered Water Heater was also delivered. Second, a new method for heating water in the sanitation sinks was developed allowing three sinks to be heated by a single M2 or MBU.

  18. Evaluation of Gas Reburning & Low NOx Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler Performance and Economics Report Gas Reburning-Low NOx Burner System Cherokee Station Unit 3 Public Service Company of Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-07-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NOX reduction (70%) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was performed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado Bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NOX emission level of 0.73 lb/106 Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50%. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NOX in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NOX emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of 65% was

  19. Teratogen metabolism. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, A.G.

    1983-01-31

    This study indicates Thalidomide is metabolized by a classic cytochrome P450 monoxygenase system to a product which inhibits attachment of cells to concanavalin A coated dishes. Hydrolysis products of Thalidomide and its active metabolite do not inhibit attachement. We have initiated additional studies with methylene chloride extracts of particulate and of volatile hydrocarbon emissions of a domestic oil burner. These studies show low levels of inhibitory activity are uniformly present in these extracts.

  20. Use of freeze-casting in advanced burner reactor fuel design

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, A. L.; Yablinsky, C. A.; Allen, T. R.; Burger, J.; Hunger, P. M.; Wegst, U. G. K.

    2012-07-01

    This paper will detail the modeling of a fast reactor with fuel pins created using a freeze-casting process. Freeze-casting is a method of creating an inert scaffold within a fuel pin. The scaffold is created using a directional solidification process and results in open porosity for emplacement of fuel, with pores ranging in size from 300 microns to 500 microns in diameter. These pores allow multiple fuel types and enrichments to be loaded into one fuel pin. Also, each pore could be filled with varying amounts of fuel to allow for the specific volume of fission gases created by that fuel type. Currently fast reactors, including advanced burner reactors (ABR's), are not economically feasible due to the high cost of operating the reactors and of reprocessing the fuel. However, if the fuel could be very precisely placed, such as within a freeze-cast scaffold, this could increase fuel performance and result in a valid design with a much lower cost per megawatt. In addition to competitive costs, freeze-cast fuel would also allow for selective breeding or burning of actinides within specific locations in fast reactors. For example, fast flux peak locations could be utilized on a minute scale to target specific actinides for transmutation. Freeze-cast fuel is extremely flexible and has great potential in a variety of applications. This paper performs initial modeling of freeze-cast fuel, with the generic fast reactor parameters for this model based on EBR-II. The core has an assumed power of 62.5 MWt. The neutronics code used was Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP5) transport code. Uniform pore sizes were used in increments of 100 microns. Two different freeze-cast scaffold materials were used: ceramic (MgO-ZrO{sub 2}) and steel (SS316L). Separate models were needed for each material because the freeze-cast ceramic and metal scaffolds have different structural characteristics and overall porosities. Basic criticality results were compiled for the various models. Preliminary

  1. Opposed Jet Burner Approach for Characterizing Flameholding Potentials of Hydrocarbon Scramjet Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, Gerald L.; Convery, Janet L.; Wilson, Lloyd G.

    2006-01-01

    Opposed Jet Burner (OJB) tools have been used extensively by the authors to measure Flame Strength (FS) extinction limits of laminar H2/N2 air and (recently) hydrocarbon (HC) air Counterflow Diffusion Flames (CFDFs) at one atm. This paper details normalization of FSs of N2- diluted H2 and HC systems to account for effects of fuel composition, temperature, pressure, jet diameter, inflow Reynolds number, and inflow velocity profile (plug, contoured nozzle; and parabolic, straight tube). Normalized results exemplify a sensitive accurate means of validating, globally, reduced chemical kinetic models at approx. 1 atm and the relatively low temperatures approximating the loss of non-premixed idealized flameholding, e.g., in scramjet combustors. Laminar FS is defined locally as maximum air input velocity, U(sub air), that sustains combustion of a counter-jet of g-fuel at extinction. It uniquely characterizes a fuel. And global axial strain rate at extinction (U(sub air) normalized by nozzle or tube diameter, D(sub n or (sub t)) can be compared directly with computed extinction limits, determined using either a 1-D Navier Stokes stream-function solution, using detailed transport and finite rate chemistry, or (better yet) a detailed 2-D Navier Stokes numerical simulation. The experimental results define an idealized flameholding reactivity scale that shows wide ranging (50 x) normalized FS s for various vaporized-liquid and gaseous HCs, including, in ascending order: JP-10, methane, JP-7, n-heptane, n-butane, propane, ethane, and ethylene. Results from H2 air produce a unique and exceptionally strong flame that agree within approx. 1% of a recent 2-D numerically simulated FS for a 3 mm tube-OJB. Thus we suggest that experimental FS s and/or FS ratios, for various neat and blended HCs w/ and w/o additives, offer accurate global tests of chemical kinetic models at the Ts and Ps of extinction. In conclusion, we argue the FS approach is more direct and fundamental, for

  2. Technology gap analysis on sodium-cooled reactor fuel handling system supporting advanced burner reactor development.

    SciTech Connect

    Chikazawa, Y.; Farmer, M.; Grandy, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-01

    The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand in an environmentally sustainable manner, to address nuclear waste management issues without making separated plutonium, and to address nonproliferation concerns. The advanced burner reactor (ABR) is a fast reactor concept which supports the GNEP fuel cycle system. Since the integral fast reactor (IFR) and advanced liquid-metal reactor (ALMR) projects were terminated in 1994, there has been no major development on sodium-cooled fast reactors in the United States. Therefore, in support of the GNEP fast reactor program, the history of sodium-cooled reactor development was reviewed to support the initiation of this technology within the United States and to gain an understanding of the technology gaps that may still remain for sodium fast reactor technology. The fuel-handling system is a key element of any fast reactor design. The major functions of this system are to receive, test, store, and then load fresh fuel into the core; unload from the core; then clean, test, store, and ship spent fuel. Major requirements are that the system must be reliable and relatively easy to maintain. In addition, the system should be designed so that it does not adversely impact plant economics from the viewpoints of capital investment or plant operations. In this gap analysis, information on fuel-handling operating experiences in the following reactor plants was carefully reviewed: EBR-I, SRE, HNPF, Fermi, SEFOR, FFTF, CRBR, EBR-II, DFR, PFR, Rapsodie, Phenix, Superphenix, KNK, SNR-300, Joyo, and Monju. The results of this evaluation indicate that a standardized fuel-handling system for a commercial fast reactor is yet to be established. However, in the past sodium-cooled reactor plants, most major fuel-handling components-such as the rotatable plug, in-vessel fuel-handling machine, ex-vessel fuel transportation cask, ex-vessel sodium-cooled storage

  3. Emissions and properties of Bio-oil and Natural Gas Co-combustion in a Pilot Stabilised Swirl Burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, Dylan

    Fast pyrolysis oil, or bio-oil, has been investigated to replace traditional fossil fuels in industrial burners. However, flame stability is a challenge due to its high water content. In order to address its instability, bio-oil was co-fired with natural gas in a lab scale 10kW swirl burner at energy ratios from 0% bio-oil to 80% bio-oil. To evaluate the combustion, flame shape, exhaust and particulate emissions, temperatures, as well as infrared emission were monitored. As the bio-oil energy fraction increased, NO emissions increased due to the nitrogen content of bio-oil. CO and particulate emissions increased likely due to carbonaceous residue exiting the combustion zone. Unburnt Hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions increased rapidly as combustion became poor at 60-80% bio-oil energy. The temperature and infrared output decreased with more bio-oil energy. The natural gas proved to be effective at anchoring the bio-oil flame to the nozzle, decreasing instances of extinction or blowout.

  4. Cooling Effectiveness Measurements for Air Film Cooling of Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces in a Burner Rig Environment Using Phosphor Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. In this investigation, surface temperature mapping was performed using recently developed Cr-doped GdAlO3 phosphor thermometry. Measurements were performed in the NASA GRC Mach 0.3 burner rig on a TBC-coated plate using a scaled up cooling hole geometry where both the mainstream hot gas temperature and the blowing ratio were varied. Procedures for surface temperature and cooling effectiveness mapping of the air film-cooled TBC-coated surface are described. Applications are also shown for an engine component in both the burner rig test environment as well as an engine afterburner environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  5. Evaluation of the Use of Existing RELAP5-3D Models to Represent the Actinide Burner Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    C. B. Davis

    2007-02-01

    The RELAP5-3D code is being considered as a thermal-hydraulic system code to support the development of the sodium-cooled Actinide Burner Test Reactor as part of Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. An evaluation was performed to determine whether the control system could be used to simulate the effects of non-convective mechanisms of heat transport in the fluid that are not currently represented with internal code models, including axial and radial heat conduction in the fluid and subchannel mixing. The evaluation also determined the relative importance of axial and radial heat conduction and fluid mixing on peak cladding temperature for a wide range of steady conditions and during a representative loss-of-flow transient. The evaluation was performed using a RELAP5-3D model of a subassembly in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II, which was used as a surrogate for the Actinide Burner Test Reactor. An evaluation was also performed to determine if the existing centrifugal pump model could be used to simulate the performance of electromagnetic pumps.

  6. DURABILITY OF VERY LOW CAPACITY PRESSURE ATOMIZED FUEL NOZZLES USED WITH LOW FIRING RATE RESIDENTIAL OIL BURNERS.

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD,R.J.

    2007-05-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), working for the United States Department of Energy (DOE), has conducted a preliminary evaluation of the potential of very low fuel input capacity Simplex type pressure atomizing nozzles for use with oil burners designed for residential boilers, furnaces and water heaters. These nozzles under suitable conditions can be sufficiently reliable to enable new heating system designs. This would allow for the design of heating appliances that match the smaller load demands of energy efficient homes built with modern components and architectural systems designed to minimize energy use. When heating systems are installed with excessive capacity, oversized by three to four times the load, the result is a loss of up to ten percent as compared to the rated appliance efficiency. The use of low capacity nozzles in systems designed to closely match the load can thereby result in significant energy savings. BNL investigated the limitations of low flow rate nozzles and designed long-term experiments to see if ways could be determined that would be beneficial to long-term operation at low input capacities without failures. In order to maximize the potential for success the best possible industry practices available were employed. Low flow rate nozzles primarily fail by blockage or partial blockage of internal fuel flow passages inside the nozzle. To prevent any contaminants from entering the nozzle BNL investigated the geometry and critical dimensions and the current sate of the art of fuel filter design. Based on this investigation it was concluded that the best available filters should be more than capable of filtering contaminants from the fuel prior to entering the oil burner itself. This position was indeed validated based on the long-term trials conducted under this study no evidence resulted to change our position. It is highly recommended that these filters rated at 10 microns and with large filter capacity (surface area), should be used

  7. Preliminary core design studies for the advanced burner reactor over a wide range of conversion ratios.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E. A.; Yang, W. S.; Hill, R. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-05-05

    A consistent set of designs for 1000 MWt commercial-scale sodium-cooled Advance Burner Reactors (ABR) have been developed for both metal and oxide-fueled cores with conversion ratios from breakeven (CR=1.0) to fertile-free (CR=0.0). These designs are expected to satisfy thermal and irradiation damage limits based on the currently available data. The very low conversion ratio designs require fuel that is beyond the current fuel database, which is anticipated to be qualified by and for the Advanced Burned Test Reactor. Safety and kinetic parameters were calculated, but a safety analysis was not performed. Development of these designs was required to achieve the primary goal of this study, which was to generate representative fuel cycle mass flows for system studies of ABRs as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). There are slight variations with conversion ratio but the basic ABR configuration consists of 144 fuel assemblies and between 9 and 22 primary control assemblies for both the metal and oxide-fueled cores. Preliminary design studies indicated that it is feasible to design the ABR to accommodate a wide range of conversion ratio by employing different assembly designs and including sufficient control assemblies to accommodate the large reactivity swing at low conversion ratios. The assemblies are designed to fit within the same geometry, but the size and number of fuel pins within each assembly are significantly different in order to achieve the target conversion ratio while still satisfying thermal limits. Current irradiation experience would allow for a conversion ratio of somewhat below 0.75. The fuel qualification for the first ABR should expand this experience to allow for much lower conversion ratios and higher bunrups. The current designs were based on assumptions about the performance of high and very high enrichment fuel, which results in significant uncertainty about the details of the designs. However, the basic fuel cycle performance

  8. Partial conversion of hydrocarbons to syngas and hydrogen in volumetric radiation burners as a prospective way to enhance the performance characteristics of power engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunov, V. S.; Shmelev, V. M.; Shapovalova, O. V.; Rakhmetov, A. N.; Strekova, L. N.

    2013-03-01

    New type of syngas generator based on the partial conversion of natural gas (methane) or heavier hydrocarbons in volumetric permeable matrix burners in the conditions of locked infrared (IR) radiation is suggested as a high-productive, adaptable, and rather simple way of syngas and hydrogen production for various low-scale applications including enhancing the performance characteristics of power engines.

  9. Experimental investigation of 1 kW solid oxide fuel cell system with a natural gas reformer and an exhaust gas burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Tzu-Hsiang; Hong, Wen-Tang; Huang, Wei-Ping; Tsai, Yu-Ching; Wang, Hung-Yu; Huang, Cheng-Nan; Lee, Chien-Hsiung

    An experimental investigation is performed to establish the optimal operating conditions of a porous media after-burner integrated with a 1 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system fed by a natural gas reformer. The compositions of the anode off-gas and cathode off-gas emitted by the SOFC when operating with fuel utilizations in the range 0-0.6 are predicted using commercial GCTool software. The numerical results are then used to set the compositions of the anode off-gas and cathode off-gas in a series of experiments designed to clarify the effects of the fuel utilization, cathode off-gas temperature and excess air ratio on the temperature distribution within the after-burner. The experimental results show that the optimal after-burner operation is obtained when using an anode off-gas temperature of 650 °C, a cathode off-gas temperature of 390 °C, a flame barrier temperature of 700 °C, an excess air ratio of 2 and a fuel utilization of U f = 0.6. It is shown that under these conditions, the after-burner can operate in a long-term, continuous fashion without the need for either cooling air or any additional fuel other than that provided by the anode off-gas.

  10. A computer simulation of the transient response of a 4 cylinder Stirling engine with burner and air preheater in a vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, W. R.

    1981-01-01

    A series of computer programs are presented with full documentation which simulate the transient behavior of a modern 4 cylinder Siemens arrangement Stirling engine with burner and air preheater. Cold start, cranking, idling, acceleration through 3 gear changes and steady speed operation are simulated. Sample results and complete operating instructions are given. A full source code listing of all programs are included.

  11. From Bunsen Burners to Fuel Cells: Invoking Energy Transducers to Exemplify "Paths" and Unify the Energy-Related Concepts of Thermochemistry and Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hladky, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of chemical energy entirely into thermal energy by Bunsen burners and into thermal energy and electrical energy by fuel cells of varying efficiencies illustrates different paths by which a chemical reaction can occur. Using the efficiency of producing electrical energy as a path label allows all of the energy-related quantities to…

  12. From Bunsen Burners to Fuel Cells: Invoking Energy Transducers to Exemplify "Paths" and Unify the Energy-Related Concepts of Thermochemistry and Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hladky, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    The conversion of chemical energy entirely into thermal energy by Bunsen burners and into thermal energy and electrical energy by fuel cells of varying efficiencies illustrates different paths by which a chemical reaction can occur. Using the efficiency of producing electrical energy as a path label allows all of the energy-related quantities to…

  13. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gurney, Kevin R.

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  14. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    DeTar, Carleton

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  15. Aerothermodynamic cycle analysis of a dual-spool, separate-exhaust turbofan engine with an interstage turbine burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Ka Heng

    This study focuses on a specific engine, i.e., a dual-spool, separate-flow turbofan engine with an Interstage Turbine Burner (ITB). This conventional turbofan engine has been modified to include a secondary isobaric burner, i.e., ITB, in a transition duct between the high-pressure turbine and the low-pressure turbine. The preliminary design phase for this modified engine starts with the aerothermodynamics cycle analysis is consisting of parametric (i.e., on-design) and performance ( i.e., off-design) cycle analyses. In parametric analysis, the modified engine performance parameters are evaluated and compared with baseline engine in terms of design limitation (maximum turbine inlet temperature), flight conditions (such as flight Mach condition, ambient temperature and pressure), and design choices (such as compressor pressure ratio, fan pressure ratio, fan bypass ratio etc.). A turbine cooling model is also included to account for the effect of cooling air on engine performance. The results from the on-design analysis confirmed the advantage of using ITB, i.e., higher specific thrust with small increases in thrust specific fuel consumption, less cooling air, and less NOx production, provided that the main burner exit temperature and ITB exit temperature are properly specified. It is also important to identify the critical ITB temperature, beyond which the ITB is turned off and has no advantage at all. With the encouraging results from parametric cycle analysis, a detailed performance cycle analysis of the identical engine is also conducted for steady-state engine performance prediction. The results from off-design cycle analysis show that the ITB engine at full throttle setting has enhanced performance over baseline engine. Furthermore, ITB engine operating at partial throttle settings will exhibit higher thrust at lower specific fuel consumption and improved thermal efficiency over the baseline engine. A mission analysis is also presented to predict the fuel

  16. First archeointensity determinations on Maya incense burners from Palenque temples, Mexico: New data to constrain the Mesoamerica secular variation curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjat, G.; Camps, P.; Alva Valdivia, L. M.; Sougrati, M. T.; Cuevas-Garcia, M.; Perrin, M.

    2013-02-01

    We present archeointensity data carried out on pieces of incense burners from the ancient Maya city of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico, covering much of the Mesoamerican Classic period, from A.D. 400 to A.D. 850. We worked on pieces from 24 incense burners encompassing the five Classic ceramic phases of Palenque: Motiepa (A.D. 400-500), Cascadas (A.D. 500-600), Otulum (A.D. 600-700), Murcielagos (A.D. 700-770), and Balunté (A.D. 770-850). All the samples come from highly elaborate, flanged pedestal of incense burners that are undoubtedly assigned to a ceramic phase by means of their iconographic, morphological and stylistic analyses. Archeointensity measurements were performed with the Thellier-Thellier's method on pre-selected samples by means of their magnetic properties. We obtained archeointensities of very good technical quality from 19 of 24 pieces, allowing the determination of a precise mean value for each ceramic phase, between 29.1±0.9 μT and 32.5±1.2 μT. The firing temperatures of ceramics were estimated with Mössbauer spectroscopy between 700 °C and 1000 °C. These values ensure that a full thermo-remanent magnetization was acquired during the original heating. Our results suggest a relative stability of the field intensity during more than 400 years in this area. The abundance of archeological material in Mesoamerica contrasts with the small amount of archeomagnetic data available that are, in addition, of uneven quality. Thus, it is not possible to establish a trend of intensity variations in Mesoamerica, even using the global databases and secular variation predictions from global models. In this context, our high technical quality data represent a strong constraint for the Mesoamerican secular variation curve during the first millennium AD. The corresponding Virtual Axial Dipole Moments (VADM) are substantially smaller than the ones predicted by the last global geomagnetic models CALS3k.4, suggesting the need for additional data to develop a

  17. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, June--September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  18. Opposed jet burner studies of silane-methane, silane-hydrogen and hydrogen diffusion flames with air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, G. L.; Guerra, Rosemary; Wilson, L. G.; Northam, G. B.

    1986-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure tubular opposed jet burner technique was used to characterize certain diffusion-flame transitions and associated burning rates for N2-diluted mixtures of highly-reactive fuels. Presented are: (1) details of the technique, with emphasis on features permitting the study of flames involving pyrophoric gases and particle-forming combustion reactions: (2) discoveries on the properties of these flames which correspond to physically and chemically distinct stages of silane and hydrogen combustion; and (3) unburnt gas velocity data obtained from flames based on SiH4-CH4-N2, SiH4-H2-N2, and H2-N2 fuel mixtures, and plotted as functions of combustible-fuel mole fraction and fuel/oxygen molar input flow ratios. In addition, these burning velocity results are analyzed and interpreted.

  19. Opposed jet burner studies of silane-methane, silane-hydrogen, and hydrogen diffusion flames with air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellett, G. L.; Guerra, Rosemary; Wilson, L. G.; Northam, G. B.

    1986-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure tubular opposed jet burner technique was used to characterize certain diffusion-flame transitions and associated burning rates for N2-diluted mixtures of highly-reactive fuels. The paper presents: (1) details of the technique, with emphasis on features permitting the study of flames involving pyrophoric gases and particle-forming combustion reactions; (2) discoveries on the properties of these flames which correspond to physically and chemically distinct stages of silane and hydrogen combustion; and (3) unburnt gas velocity data obtained from flames based on SiH4-CH4-N2, SiH4-H2-N2, and H2-N2 fuel mixtures, and plotted as functions of combustible-fuel mole fraction and fuel/oxygen molar input flow ratios. In addition, these burning velocity results are analyzed and interpreted.

  20. Nonlinear behavior of acoustic waves in combustion chambers. I, II. [stability in solid propellant rocket engine and T burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culick, F. E. C.

    1976-01-01

    The general problem of the nonlinear growth and limiting amplitude of acoustic waves in a combustion chamber is treated in three parts: (1) the general conservation equations are expanded in two small parameters, and then combined to yield a nonlinear inhomogeneous wave equation, (2) the unsteady pressure and velocity fields are expressed as a synthesis of the normal modes of the chamber, but with unknown time-varying amplitudes, and (3) the system of nonlinear equations is treated by the method of averaging to produce a set of coupled nonlinear first order differential equations for the amplitudes and phases of the modes. This approximate analysis is applied to the investigation of the unstable motions in a solid propellant rocket engine and in a T burner.