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Sample records for hiv discordant unions

  1. Experience of sexual violence among women in HIV discordant unions after voluntary HIV counselling and testing

    PubMed Central

    Emusu, Donath; Ivankova, Nataliya; Jolly, Pauline; Kirby, Russell; Foushee, Herman; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Katongole, Drake; Ehiri, John

    2009-01-01

    HIV-serodiscordant relationships are those in which one partner is infected with HIV while the other is not. We investigated experiences of sexual violence among women in HIV discordant unions attending HIV post-test club services in Uganda. A volunteer sample of 26 women from three AIDS Information Centres in Uganda who reported having experienced sexual violence in a larger epidemiological study were interviewed, using the qualitative critical incident technique. Data were analysed using TEXTPACK, a software application for computer-assisted content analysis. Incidents of sexual violence narrated by the women included use of physical force and verbal threats. Overall, four themes that characterise the women’s experience of sexual violence emerged from the analysis: knowledge of HIV test results, prevalence of sexual violence, vulnerability and proprietary views and reactions to sexual violence. Alcohol abuse by the male partners was an important factor in the experience of sexual violence among the women. Their experiences evoked different reactions and feelings, including concern over the need to have children, fear of infection, desire to separate from their spouses/partners, helplessness, anger and suicidal tendencies. HIV counselling and testing centres should be supported with the capacity to address issues related to sexual violence for couples who are HIV discordant. PMID:20024712

  2. Experience of sexual violence among women in HIV discordant unions after voluntary HIV counselling and testing: a qualitative critical incident study in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Emusu, Donath; Ivankova, Nataliya; Jolly, Pauline; Kirby, Russell; Foushee, Herman; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Katongole, Drake; Ehiri, John

    2009-11-01

    HIV-serodiscordant relationships are those in which one partner is infected with HIV while the other is not. We investigated experiences of sexual violence among women in HIV discordant unions attending HIV post-test club services in Uganda. A volunteer sample of 26 women from three AIDS Information Centres in Uganda who reported having experienced sexual violence in a larger epidemiological study were interviewed, using the qualitative critical incident technique. Data were analysed using TEXTPACK, a software application for computer-assisted content analysis. Incidents of sexual violence narrated by the women included use of physical force and verbal threats. Overall, four themes that characterise the women's experience of sexual violence emerged from the analysis: knowledge of HIV test results, prevalence of sexual violence, vulnerability and proprietary views and reactions to sexual violence. Alcohol abuse by the male partners was an important factor in the experience of sexual violence among the women. Their experiences evoked different reactions and feelings, including concern over the need to have children, fear of infection, desire to separate from their spouses/partners, helplessness, anger and suicidal tendencies. HIV counselling and testing centres should be supported with the capacity to address issues related to sexual violence for couples who are HIV discordant.

  3. Sexual violence and associated factors among women in HIV discordant and concordant relationships in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Shuaib, Faisal M B; Ehiri, John E; Jolly, Pauline; Zhang, Qionghui; Emusu, Donath; Ngu, Julius; Foushee, Herman; Katongole, Drake; Kirby, Russell; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred

    2012-01-01

    HIV serodiscordance is a sexual partnership in which one partner is infected with HIV while the other is not. Managing emotional and sexual intimacy in HIV serodiscordant unions can be difficult due to concerns about HIV transmission and the challenge of initiating and maintaining safe sex. In situations where couples are jointly aware of their HIV status, women in serodiscordant unions may face increased risk of partner violence. We conducted an investigation to assess risk factors for HIV serodiscordance and determine if HIV serodiscordance is associated with incident sexual violence among a cohort of women attending HIV post-test club services at three AIDS Information Centers (AICs) in Uganda. Using a prospective study of 250 women, we elicited information about sexual violence using structured face-to-face interviews. Sexual violence and risk factors were assessed and compared among HIV positive women in HIV discordant unions, HIV negative women in discordant unions, and HIV negative women in negative concordant unions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between participants' serostatus and sexual violence. HIV negative women in serodiscordant relationships (36.1±11.1 years, range: 19-65 years) were significantly older than either HIV positive women in serodiscordant relationships (32.2±9.0 years, range: 18-56 years), or HIV negative women in concordant relationships (32.3±11.0 years, range: 18-62), (p=0.033). Early age at sexual debut was associated with a 2.4-fold increased risk of experiencing sexual violence (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.27-4.65). Based on unadjusted analysis, HIV positive women in discordant relationship were at highest risk for sexual violence compared to HIV negative women in discordant unions, and HIV negative women in negative concordant unions. HIV negative women in discordant relationships and those in concordant negative relationships showed no increased risk for sexual violence. However, couples' HIV

  4. Prevalence and predictors of HIV sero-discordance among cohabiting couples tested in northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Ngilangwa, David Paul; Ochako, Rhoune; Mboya, Beati Alphonce; Noronha, Rita Honoratha; Mgomella, George Suleman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In sub-Saharan Africa where HIV/AIDS epidemic is predominantly generalized, majority of HIV infections occur among heterosexual couples. The majority of people do not know their sero-status. Thus, utilisation of Couples’ HIV Counselling and Testing (CHCT) services remain to be critical in preventing new infections. The objective was to establish prevalence and predictors of HIV sero-discordance among cohabiting couples presenting for CHCT services in northern Tanzania. Methods A cross-sectional study inteveviewed 1,333 couples aged 18-49 years tested from 2005 to 2007 in Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions. A CHCT checklist was used to collect data from couples. Data were analyzed using STATA 10. Results Generally, 220(16%) out of 1,333 couples were HIV sero-discordant. In sero-discordance unions, women were likely to be HIV positive than men (71% versus 29% respectively p<0.001). HIV sero-discordant relationship was associated with age (35-45 years) for both men and women (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.3, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.7-3.2) and (AOR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.7) respectively. Women with older men partners were less likely to be in HIV sero-discordance relationships (AOR: 0.5 95% CI 0.3-09). Arusha couples were likely to be HIV sero-discordant than those of Kilimanjaro (AOR: 2.3 95% CI 1.7-3.2). Couples living far away from CHCT centres were less likely to be sero-discordant than those live nearby (AOR: 0.4 95% CI 0.2-0.9). Conclusion HIV sero-discordance prevalence is high among our participants. Thus, we recommend CHCT utilization should widely be promoted as entry point in treatment as prevention strategy in order to protect uninfected partners in HIV sero-discordance relationships. PMID:26958138

  5. Regional Differences in Prevalence of HIV-1 Discordance in Africa and Enrollment of HIV-1 Discordant Couples into an HIV-1 Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lingappa, Jairam R.; Lambdin, Barrot; Bukusi, Elizabeth Ann; Ngure, Kenneth; Kavuma, Linda; Inambao, Mubiana; Kanweka, William; Allen, Susan; Kiarie, James N.; Makhema, Joseph; Were, Edwin; Manongi, Rachel; Coetzee, David; de Bruyn, Guy; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Magaret, Amalia; Mugo, Nelly; Mujugira, Andrew; Ndase, Patrick; Celum, Connie

    2008-01-01

    Background Most HIV-1 transmission in Africa occurs among HIV-1-discordant couples (one partner HIV-1 infected and one uninfected) who are unaware of their discordant HIV-1 serostatus. Given the high HIV-1 incidence among HIV-1 discordant couples and to assess efficacy of interventions for reducing HIV-1 transmission, HIV-1 discordant couples represent a critical target population for HIV-1 prevention interventions and prevention trials. Substantial regional differences exist in HIV-1 prevalence in Africa, but regional differences in HIV-1 discordance among African couples, has not previously been reported. Methodology/Principal Findings The Partners in Prevention HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Trial (“Partners HSV-2 Study”), the first large HIV-1 prevention trial in Africa involving HIV-1 discordant couples, completed enrollment in May 2007. Partners HSV-2 Study recruitment data from 12 sites from East and Southern Africa were used to assess HIV-1 discordance among couples accessing couples HIV-1 counseling and testing, and to correlate with enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples. HIV-1 discordance at Partners HSV-2 Study sites ranged from 8–31% of couples tested from the community. Across all study sites and, among all couples with one HIV-1 infected partner, almost half (49%) of couples were HIV-1 discordant. Site-specific monthly enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into the clinical trial was not directly associated with prevalence of HIV-1 discordance, but was modestly correlated with national HIV-1 counseling and testing rates and access to palliative care/basic health care (r = 0.74, p = 0.09). Conclusions/Significance HIV-1 discordant couples are a critical target for HIV-1 prevention in Africa. In addition to community prevalence of HIV-1 discordance, national infrastructure for HIV-1 testing and healthcare delivery and effective community outreach strategies impact recruitment of HIV-1 discordant couples into HIV-1 prevention trials. PMID

  6. Disclosure of HIV results among discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda: a facilitated couple counselling approach.

    PubMed

    Kairania, Robert; Gray, Ronald H; Kiwanuka, Noah; Makumbi, Fredrick; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred; Kigozi, Godfrey; Semanda, John; Wawer, Maria J

    2010-09-01

    Disclosure of HIV sero-positive results among HIV-discordant couples in sub-Saharan Africa is generally low. We describe a facilitated couple counselling approach to enhance disclosure among HIV-discordant couples. Using unique identifiers, 293 HIV-discordant couples were identified through retrospective linkage of married or cohabiting consenting adults individually enrolled into a cohort study and into two randomised trials of male circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. HIV-discordant couples and a random sample of HIV-infected concordant and HIV-negative concordant couples (to mask HIV status) were invited to sensitisation meetings to discuss the benefits of disclosure and couple counselling. HIV-infected partners were subsequently contacted to encourage HIV disclosure to their HIV-uninfected partners. If the index positive partner agreed, the counsellor facilitated the disclosure of HIV results, and provided ongoing support. The proportion of disclosure was determined. Eighty-one per cent of HIV-positive partners in discordant relationships disclosed their status to their HIV-uninfected partners in the presence of the counsellor. The rates of disclosure were 81.3% in male HIV-positive and 80.2% in female HIV-positive discordant couples. Disclosure did not vary by age, education or occupation. In summary, disclosure of HIV-positive results in discordant couples using facilitated couple counselling approach is high, but requires a stepwise process of sensitisation and agreement by the infected partner.

  7. Are You HIV Invincible? A Probabilistic Study of Discordant Couples in the Context of HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Bobashev, Georgiy; Norton, Jacob; Wechsberg, Wendee; Toussova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    A number of factors have been identified that are related to sexual and injecting HIV transmission. We developed a probabilistic mathematical model to put these factors together and interpret risks in the context of individual behavior among injecting drug-using (IDU) couples in St. Petersburg, Russia. Some HIV-discordant couples have unprotected sex and sometimes inject drugs together but stay discordant for a long time, while some individuals acquire HIV on the first encounter. We considered existing estimates of HIV transmission risks through injecting and sexual contacts to develop a predictive survival model for an individual who is exposed to HIV through intimate relationships. We computed simulated survival curves for a number of behavioral scenarios and discussed sources of simulated uncertainty. We then applied the model to a longitudinal study of HIV-discordant couples and validated the model’s forecast. Although individual prediction of seroconversion time appeared impossible, the ability to rank behavioral patterns in terms of HIV risk and to estimate the probability of survival HIV-free will be important to educators and counselors. PMID:24839972

  8. Geographical Patterns of HIV Sero-Discordancy in High HIV Prevalence Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cuadros, Diego F.; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Variation in the proportion of individuals living in a stable HIV sero-discordant partnership (SDP), and the potential drivers of such variability across sub Saharan Africa (SSA), are still not well-understood. This study aimed to examine the spatial clustering of HIV sero-discordancy, and the impact of local variation in HIV prevalence on patterns of sero-discordancy in high HIV prevalence countries in SSA. Methods: We described the spatial patterns of sero-discordancy among stable couples by analyzing Demographic and Health Survey data from Cameroon, Kenya, Lesotho, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We identified spatial clusters of SDPs in each country through a Kulldorff spatial scan statistics analysis. After a geographical cluster was identified, epidemiologic measures of sero-discordancy were calculated and analyzed. Results: Spatial clusters with significantly high numbers of SDPs were identified and characterized in Kenya, Malawi, and Tanzania, and they largely overlapped with the clusters with high HIV prevalence. There was a positive correlation between HIV prevalence and the proportion of SDPs among all stable couples across within and outside clusters. Conversely, there was a negative, but weak and not significant, correlation between HIV prevalence and the proportion of SDPs among all stable couples with at least one HIV-infected individual in the partnership. Discussion: There does not appear to be distinct spatial patterns for HIV sero-discordancy that are independent of HIV prevalence patterns. The variation of the sero-discordancy measures with HIV prevalence across clusters and outside clusters demonstrated similar patterns to those observed at the national level. The spatial variable does not appear to be a fundamental nor independent determinant of the observed patterns of sero-discordancy in high HIV prevalence countries in SSA. PMID:27589776

  9. The prevalence of HSV-2 infection in HIV-1 discordant couples.

    PubMed

    Duan, S; Ding, Y; Wu, Z; Rou, K; Yang, Y; Wang, J; Gao, M; Ye, R; Xiang, L; He, N

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of HSV-2 discordance and concordance in HIV-1-discordant couples. This study used the baseline data from a cohort study of HIV-1-discordant couples in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province, China. Of 954 participating couples, 42·4% were affected by HSV-2, of which 20·4% were HSV-2-concordant positive, 7·6% were HSV-2-discordant where the male was HSV-2 positive, and 14·4% were HSV-2 discordant where the female was HSV-2 positive. Compared to HSV-2-negative concordance, HSV-2 discordance with an HSV-2-positive male spouse was significantly associated with characteristics of the male spouse, including Han ethnicity and being in a second marriage. HSV-2 discordance with an HSV-2-positive female spouse was significantly associated with characteristics of the female spouse, including Han ethnicity, having engaged in commercial sex, having a sexual relationship of <3 years and being HIV-1 infected. Compared to HSV-2 discordance, HSV-2-positive concordance was significantly associated with an education level of middle school or higher for both spouses, a sexual relationship of ⩾3 years, more frequent sex and having an HIV-1-infected male spouse. The findings highlight the need for HSV-2 prevention and treatment efforts to reduce HSV-2 transmission in this population, and emphasize the importance of implementing prevention interventions early in couples' relationships.

  10. Discordance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, I. M.; Hanchar, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Half a century ago, discordant U-Pb ages of metamorphic zircon were viewed as Pb loss by diffusion. Various diffusionist schools of thought debated vigorously whether diffusion was episodic or continuous [1], but nobody questioned the reality of diffusive Pb loss. Only imaging by cathodoluminescence (CL) [2] and back-scattered electrons (BSE) [3] brought a paradigm change in U-Pb geochronology. In situ dating shows routinely accretion of young zircon rims onto older cores that never display Pb diffusion gradients across the interface. Other minerals (monazite, xenotime, etc.) show the same pattern: irregular patches of uniform age separated by sharp age gradients coinciding with petrologic boundaries. As U-Pb discordance is caused by diachronous, heterochemical mineral generations, zircon and monazite closure temperatures, and strict diffusionism, are irrelevant [4]. Knowing what to pay attention to, analytical protocols for U-Pb dating include both of the following: (i) CL/BSE characterization of phase mixtures; (ii) mass spectrometric analysis including U/Th ratios (and ideally trace element fingerprinting on the same fraction [5]). It is clear that the petrologic context is just as essential as mass spectrometry for accurate geochronology. The K-Ar community rarely uses imaging, and the tight context between microstructures, mineral chemistry, petrology and geochronology is missed. Yet the data would be clear if one looked for it. CL and/or BSE imaging and X-ray mapping of K-feldspar and micas is finding ubiquitous evidence of discrete patches of juxtaposed mineral generations. The Ca/Cl/K ratios in 39Ar-40Ar dating fulfill the same role as U/Th ratios in U-Pb dating for fingerprinting successive heterochemical mineral generations. Any linear correlation in a common-denominator three-isotope correlation diagram is certain evidence of binary mixing between heterochemical end-members. A correlation in a Ca/K vs Ar/K diagram requires two minerals having different

  11. Differences in sexual behavior among HIV discordant and concordant gay men in primary relationships.

    PubMed

    Hoff, C C; Stall, R; Paul, J; Acree, M; Daigle, D; Phillips, K; Kegeles, S; Jinich, S; Ekstrand, M; Coates, T J

    1997-01-01

    We investigated differences in unprotected anal intercourse among gay men in HIV concordant and discordant primary relationships. Individuals were recruited in 1992 from household- and bar-based samples of gay/bisexual men in Portland, Oregon, and Tucson, Arizona. Respondents were men who reported that they were in primary relationships of > or = 1 month and who reported their own and their partner's HIV status (n = 785). Comparisons were made between three groups: (a) HIV + respondents/HIV + partners; (b) HIV- respondents/HIV- partners; and (c) respondents whose partner's HIV status was different from their own (discordant), on sexual behavior, psychosocial, and demographic variables. Men in HIV concordant relationships reported significantly higher rates of unprotected anal intercourse (54% for +2 and 48% for --) than discordant couples (17%). HIV- men in concordant relationships were more likely to be monogamous (58%) and younger (22% < or = 25 years) than the other two groups. There were no significant differences among the groups regarding the kind of sexual behaviors they engaged in with nonprimary partners. The substantially lower rate of unprotected anal intercourse among men in discordant relationships compared to men in concordant relationships suggests that individuals and couples make judgments about sex and behavior based on knowledge of one's own and one's partner's HIV status.

  12. HIV and HCV discordant injecting partners and their association to drug equipment sharing.

    PubMed

    De, Prithwish; Cox, Joseph; Boivin, Jean-Francois; Platt, Robert W; Jolly, Ann M; Alexander, Paul E

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between HIV and HCV discordant infection status and the sharing of drug equipment by injection drug users (IDUs). IDUs were recruited from syringe exchange and methadone treatment programmes in Montreal, Canada. Characteristics of participants and their injecting partners were elicited using a structured questionnaire. Among 159 participants and 245 injecting partners, sharing of syringes and drug preparation equipment did not differ between concordant or discordant partners, although HIV-positive subjects did not share with HIV-negative injectors. Sharing of syringes was positively associated with discordant HIV status (OR=1.85) and negatively with discordant HCV status (OR=0.65), but both results were not statistically significant. Sharing of drug preparation equipment was positively associated with both discordant HIV (OR=1.61) and HCV (OR=1.18) status, but both results were non-significant. Factors such as large injecting networks, frequent mutual injections, younger age, and male gender were stronger predictors of equipment sharing. In conclusion, IDUs do not appear to discriminate drug equipment sharing partners based at least on their HCV infection status. The results warrant greater screening to raise awareness of infection status, post-test counselling to promote status disclosure among partners, and skill-building to avoid equipment sharing between discordant partners. PMID:19172434

  13. Motivations to test for HIV among partners in concordant HIV-negative and HIV-discordant gay male couples.

    PubMed

    Beougher, Sean C; Bircher, Anja E; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Darbes, Lynae A; Mandic, Carmen Gómez; Neilands, Torsten B; Garcia, Carla C; Hoff, Colleen C

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies of HIV testing among gay men describe the motivations, facilitators and barriers, behaviors, and demographic characteristics of individuals who test. What little research focuses on HIV testing among gay men in relationships shows that they do not test regularly or, in some cases, at all-their motivations to test have not been investigated. With so little data on HIV testing for this population, and the continued privileging of individually focused approaches, gay men in relationships fall into a blind spot of research and prevention efforts. This study examined motivations to test for HIV using qualitative data from both partners in 20 gay male couples. Analysis revealed that the partners' motivations were either event-related (e.g., participants testing at the beginning of their relationship or HIV-negative participants in an HIV-discordant relationship testing after risky episode with their discordant primary partner) or partner-related (e.g., participants testing in response to a request or suggestion to test from their primary partner or participants testing out of concern for their primary partner's health and well-being). These data provide insight into relationship-oriented motivations to test for HIV for gay men in relationships and, in doing so, evidence their commitment to their primary partner and relationship. These motivations can be leveraged to increase HIV testing among gay men in relationships, a population that tests less often than single gay men, yet, until recently, has been underserved by prevention efforts.

  14. Motivations to test for HIV among partners in concordant HIV-negative and HIV-discordant gay male couples.

    PubMed

    Beougher, Sean C; Bircher, Anja E; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Darbes, Lynae A; Mandic, Carmen Gómez; Neilands, Torsten B; Garcia, Carla C; Hoff, Colleen C

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies of HIV testing among gay men describe the motivations, facilitators and barriers, behaviors, and demographic characteristics of individuals who test. What little research focuses on HIV testing among gay men in relationships shows that they do not test regularly or, in some cases, at all-their motivations to test have not been investigated. With so little data on HIV testing for this population, and the continued privileging of individually focused approaches, gay men in relationships fall into a blind spot of research and prevention efforts. This study examined motivations to test for HIV using qualitative data from both partners in 20 gay male couples. Analysis revealed that the partners' motivations were either event-related (e.g., participants testing at the beginning of their relationship or HIV-negative participants in an HIV-discordant relationship testing after risky episode with their discordant primary partner) or partner-related (e.g., participants testing in response to a request or suggestion to test from their primary partner or participants testing out of concern for their primary partner's health and well-being). These data provide insight into relationship-oriented motivations to test for HIV for gay men in relationships and, in doing so, evidence their commitment to their primary partner and relationship. These motivations can be leveraged to increase HIV testing among gay men in relationships, a population that tests less often than single gay men, yet, until recently, has been underserved by prevention efforts. PMID:25550145

  15. Antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission in HIV-discordant couples

    PubMed Central

    Anglemyer, Andrew; Rutherford, George W; Horvath, Tara; Baggaley, Rachel C; Egger, Matthias; Siegfried, Nandi

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral drugs have been shown to reduce risk of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are also widely used for post-exposure prophylaxis for parenteral and sexual exposures. Sexual transmission may be lower in couples in which one partner is infected with HIV and the other is not and the infected partner is on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Objectives To determine if ART use in an HIV-infected member of an HIV-discordant couple is associated with lower risk of HIV transmission to the uninfected partner compared to untreated discordant couples. Search methods We used standard Cochrane methods to search electronic databases and conference proceedings with relevant search terms without limits to language. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCT), cohort studies and case-control studies of HIV-discordant couples in which the HIV-infected member of the couple was being treated or not treated with ART Data collection and analysis Abstracts of all trials identified by electronic or bibliographic scanning were examined independently by two authors. We initially identified 3,833 references and examined 87 in detail for study eligibility. Data were abstracted independently using a standardised abstraction form. Main results One RCT and nine observational studies were included in the review. These ten studies identified 2,112 episodes of HIV transmission, 1,016 among treated couples and 1,096 among untreated couples. The rate ratio for the single randomised controlled trial was 0.04 [95% CI 0.00, 0.27]. All index partners in this study had CD4 cell counts at baseline of 350–550 cells/µL. Similarly, the summary rate ratio for the nine observational studies was 0.58 [95% CI 0.35, 0.96], with substantial heterogeneity (I2=64%). After excluding two studies with inadequate person-time data, we estimated a summary rate ratio of 0.36 [95%CI 0.17, 0.75] with substantial heterogeneity (I2=62%). We also performed

  16. Factors influencing marital stability among HIV discordant couples in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tangmunkongvorakul, A; Celentano, D D; Burke, J G; de Boer, M A; Wongpan, P; Suriyanon, V

    1999-10-01

    The burden of HIV in stable relationships places emotional, economic and physical stresses on families. We compared the influence of HIV notification on marital partnerships in northern Thailand among a cohort of HIV discordant couples, and identified factors associated with marital disruption. Data were collected using in-depth interviews with both members of six separated or divorced couples and 13 couples whose relationship remained intact. Five factors influenced marital stability following HIV notification: longer duration of relationship; economic constraints, extended family members' opinions, especially parents; the existence of children from the marriage; and fear of stigmatization by community members. Social influences, both overt and perceived, are important in shaping marital behaviour and decision-making in HIV epidemic areas. HIV counselling needs to be extended beyond the individual seeking testing to include stable partners (and perhaps further, to include the extended family), although it is recognized that this is not the norm for most HIV testing centres.

  17. Clinical Outcome of HIV-Infected Patients with Discordant Virological and Immunological Response to Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zoufaly, A.; an der Heiden, M.; Kollan, C.; Bogner, J. R.; Fätkenheuer, G.; Wasmuth, J. C.; Stoll, M.; Hamouda, O.

    2011-01-01

    Background. A subgroup of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected patients with severe immunodeficiency show persistently low CD4+ cell counts despite sustained viral suppression. It is unclear whether this immuno-virological discordance translates into an increased risk for clinical events. Methods. Data analysis from a large multicenter cohort incorporating 14,433 HIV-1–infected patients in Germany. Treatment-naive patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART) with CD4+ cell counts <200 cells/μL who achieved complete and sustained viral suppression <50 copies/mL (n = 1318) were stratified according to the duration of immuno-virological discordance (failure to achieve a CD4+ cell count ≥200 cells/μL). Groups were compared by descriptive and Poisson statistics. The time-varying discordance status was analyzed in a multivariable Cox model. Results. During a total of 5038 person years of follow-up, 42 new AIDS events occurred. The incidence rate of new AIDS events was highest in the initial 6 months of complete viral suppression (immuno-virological discordance group, 55.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 30.82–90.82; and immune responder group, 24.54; 95% CI, 10.59–48.35) and decreased significantly by 65% per year in patients with immuno-virological discordance (incidence risk ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14–0.92; P = .03). Immuno-virological discordance and prior AIDS diagnosis were independently associated with new AIDS events (hazard ratio, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.09–8.82; P = .03). Conclusion. Compared with immune responders, patients with immuno-virological discordance seem to remain at increased risk for AIDS. Absolute risk is greatly reduced after the first 6 months of complete viral suppression. PMID:21208929

  18. Enhancing Acceptability and Use of Sexual Barrier Products Among HIV Concordant and Discordant Couples

    PubMed Central

    Kashy, Deborah; Villar-Loubet, Olga; Weiss, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Strategies to prevent HIV transmission may benefit from addressing both individual and dyadic factors. This study compared the impact of group and individual interventions on the acceptability of sexual barrier products among HIV sero-concordant and discordant couples, and evaluated the contribution of couple members’ perceived product acceptability to their sexual barrier use. Participants (n = 216 couples) were multicultural couples in Miami, Florida. Longitudinal multilevel modeling and the actor–partner interdependence model were used for analyses. Product acceptability increased more among female group participants, and acceptability of male condoms increased more among sero-discordant couples in the group. Additionally, acceptability of products associated with prevention of STDS/HIV and pregnancy increased more among sero-concordant couples in the group condition. Both actor and partner product acceptability predicted use. Results support the use of group interventions targeting both partners in relationships in prevention programs designed to enhance sexual barrier use. PMID:23494224

  19. Enhancing acceptability and use of sexual barrier products among HIV concordant and discordant couples.

    PubMed

    Jones, Deborah; Kashy, Deborah; Villar-Loubet, Olga; Weiss, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Strategies to prevent HIV transmission may benefit from addressing both individual and dyadic factors. This study compared the impact of group and individual interventions on the acceptability of sexual barrier products among HIV sero-concordant and discordant couples, and evaluated the contribution of couple members' perceived product acceptability to their sexual barrier use. Participants (n = 216 couples) were multicultural couples in Miami, Florida. Longitudinal multilevel modeling and the actor-partner interdependence model were used for analyses. Product acceptability increased more among female group participants, and acceptability of male condoms increased more among sero-discordant couples in the group. Additionally, acceptability of products associated with prevention of STDS/HIV and pregnancy increased more among sero-concordant couples in the group condition. Both actor and partner product acceptability predicted use. Results support the use of group interventions targeting both partners in relationships in prevention programs designed to enhance sexual barrier use.

  20. Individual and Partner Risk Factors Associated with Abnormal Cervical Cytology among Women in HIV-discordant Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Jason; Rositch, Anne F.; Koutsky, Laura; Guthrie, Brandon L.; Choi, Robert Y.; Bosire, Rose K.; Gatuguta, Ann; Smith, Jennifer S.; Kiarie, James; Lohman-Payne, Barbara; Farquhar, Carey

    2014-01-01

    Individual and sexual partner characteristics may increase risk of abnormal cervical cytology among women in HIV-discordant relationships. Papanicolaou smears were obtained in a prospective cohort of Kenyan HIV-discordant couples. Of 441 women, 283 (64%) were HIV-infected and 158 (36%) were HIV-uninfected with HIV-infected partners. Overall, 79 (18%) had low-grade and 25 (6%) high-grade cervical abnormalities. Lack of male circumcision, male HSV-2 seropositivity and lower couple socioeconomic status were associated with cervical abnormalities (p<0.05). HIV-uninfected women with HIV-infected male sex partners (CD4>350 cells/µL) had the lowest prevalence of high-grade cervical lesions. HIV-infected women (CD4>350 cells/µL) and HIV-uninfected women with HIV-infected partners (CD4≤350 cells/µL) were at similar intermediate risk (P>0.05), and HIV-infected women (CD4≤350 cells/µL) had significantly higher risk of high-grade cervical abnormalities (p=0.05). Women in HIV-discordant relationships have high rates of cervical lesions and this may be influenced by couple-level factors, including HIV status and CD4 count of the infected partner. PMID:24047885

  1. Individual and partner risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology among women in HIV-discordant relationships.

    PubMed

    Soh, Jason; Rositch, Anne F; Koutsky, Laura; Guthrie, Brandon L; Choi, Robert Y; Bosire, Rose K; Gatuguta, Ann; Smith, Jennifer S; Kiarie, James; Lohman-Payne, Barbara; Farquhar, Carey

    2014-04-01

    Individual and sexual partner characteristics may increase the risk of abnormal cervical cytology among women in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-discordant relationships. Papanicolaou smears were obtained in a prospective cohort of Kenyan HIV-discordant couples. Of 441 women, 283 (64%) were HIV-infected and 158 (36%) were HIV-uninfected with HIV-infected partners. Overall, 79 (18%) had low-grade and 25 (6%) high-grade cervical abnormalities. Male herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seropositivity and lower couple socioeconomic status were associated with cervical abnormalities (p < 0.05). HIV-uninfected women with HIV-infected male sex partners (CD4 > 350 cells/µL) had the lowest prevalence of high-grade cervical lesions. HIV-infected women (CD4 > 350 cells/µL) and HIV-uninfected women with HIV-infected partners (CD4 ≤ 350 cells/µL) were at similar intermediate risk (p > 0.05), and HIV-infected women (CD4 ≤ 350 cells/µL) had significantly higher risk of high-grade cervical abnormalities (p = 0.05). Women in HIV-discordant relationships have high rates of cervical lesions and this may be influenced by couple-level factors, including HIV status and CD4 count of the infected partner.

  2. Case series of fertility treatment in HIV-discordant couples (male positive, female negative): the Ontario experience.

    PubMed

    Newmeyer, Trent; Tecimer, Sandy N; Jaworsky, Denise; Chihrin, Steven; Gough, Kevin; Rachlis, Anita; Martin, James; Mohammed, Saira; Loutfy, Mona R

    2011-01-01

    The success of combination antiretroviral therapies for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has resulted in prolonged life expectancy (over 40 years from diagnosis) and an improved quality of life for people living with HIV. The risk of vertical HIV transmission during pregnancy has been reduced to less than 1%. As a result of these breakthroughs and as many of these individuals are of reproductive age, fertility issues are becoming increasingly important for this population. One population in which conception planning and reduction of horizontal HIV transmission warrants further research is HIV-discordant couples where the male partner is HIV-positive and the female partner is HIV-negative. Sperm washing is a technique carried out in a fertility clinic that separates HIV from the seminal fluid. Although sperm washing followed by intrauterine insemination significantly reduces the risk of horizontal HIV transmission, there has been limited access to the procedure in North America. Furthermore, little is known about the conception decision-making experiences of HIV-discordant couples who might benefit from sperm washing. Chart reviews and semi-structured interviews were completed with 12 HIV-discordant couples in Ontario, Canada. Couples were recruited through HIV clinics and one fertility clinic that offered sperm washing. Participants identified a number of factors that affected their decision-making around pregnancy planning. Access to sperm washing and other fertility services was an issue (cost, travel and few clinics). Participants identified a lack of information on the procedure (availability, safety). Sources of support (social networks, healthcare providers) were unevenly distributed, especially among those who did not disclose their HIV status to friends and family. Finally, the stigmatisation of HIV continues to have a negative affect on HIV-discordant couples and their intentions to conceive. Access to sperm washing and fertility service

  3. Desire for fertility among HIV-seroconcordant and -discordant couples in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Cook, Ryan; Hayden, Robert; Weiss, Stephen M; Jones, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy rates and the desire to conceive are increasing among women living with HIV in Africa. However, attempts to conceive may increase the risk of HIV transmission or reinfection. A better understanding of factors influencing fertility desires would significantly contribute to programmes to meet the reproductive needs of women living with HIV. Using a couples-based approach, this paper explored fertility desires among HIV-seroconcordant and -discordant couples in Lusaka, Zambia. Participants were 208 heterosexual couples recruited from community health clinics and their respective catchment areas. Couples completed assessments on demographics, condom use, relationship quality and communication. Desire for children was often shared among couple members, and the strongest predictor of participants' desire for children was having a partner who wanted children. Additionally, the number of children participants had, their own reports of positive communication, and their partner's HIV serostatus influenced reproductive desires. Results support the involvement of both couple members in pre-conception counselling and pregnancy planning interventions. The inclusion of both partners may be a more effective strategy to respond to the reproductive needs of couples affected by HIV, enabling them to safeguard the health of both partners and infants.

  4. 'We keep her status to ourselves': experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Rispel, Laetitia C; Cloete, Allanise; Metcalf, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    In HIV-discordant relationships, the HIV-negative partner also carries the burden of a stigmatised disease. For this reason, couples often hide their HIV-discordant status from family, friends and community members. This perpetuates the silence around HIV-discordant relationships and impacts on targeted HIV prevention, treatment and counselling efforts. This article reports on experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine. During 2008, HIV-discordant couples who had been in a relationship for at least one year were recruited purposively through health-care providers and civil society organisations in the three countries. Participants completed a brief self-administered questionnaire, while semi-structured interviews were conducted with each partner separately and with both partners together. Interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis. Fifty-one couples were recruited: 26 from South Africa, 10 from Tanzania, and 15 from Ukraine. Although most participants had disclosed their HIV status to someone other than their partner, few were living openly with HIV discordance. Experiences of stigma were common and included being subjected to gossip, rumours and name-calling, and HIV-negative partners being labelled as HIV-positive. Perpetrators of discrimination included family members and health workers. Stigma and discrimination present unique and complex challenges to couples in HIV sero-discordant relationships in these three diverse countries. Addressing stigmatisation of HIV-discordant couples requires a holistic human rights approach and specific programme efforts to address discrimination in the health system.

  5. ‘We keep her status to ourselves’: Experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine

    PubMed Central

    Rispel, Laetitia C.; Cloete, Allanise; Metcalf, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In HIV-discordant relationships, the HIV-negative partner also carries the burden of a stigmatised disease. For this reason, couples often hide their HIV-discordant status from family, friends and community members. This perpetuates the silence around HIV-discordant relationships and impacts on targeted HIV prevention, treatment and counselling efforts. This article reports on experiences of stigma and discrimination among HIV-discordant couples in South Africa, Tanzania and Ukraine. During 2008, HIV-discordant couples who had been in a relationship for at least one year were recruited purposively through health-care providers and civil society organisations in the three countries. Participants completed a brief self-administered questionnaire, while semi-structured interviews were conducted with each partner separately and with both partners together. Interviews were analysed using thematic content analysis. Fifty-one couples were recruited: 26 from South Africa, 10 from Tanzania, and 15 from Ukraine. Although most participants had disclosed their HIV status to someone other than their partner, few were living openly with HIV discordance. Experiences of stigma were common and included being subjected to gossip, rumours and name-calling, and HIV-negative partners being labelled as HIV-positive. Perpetrators of discrimination included family members and health workers. Stigma and discrimination present unique and complex challenges to couples in HIV sero-discordant relationships in these three diverse countries. Addressing stigmatisation of HIV-discordant couples requires a holistic human rights approach and specific programme efforts to address discrimination in the health system. PMID:25778765

  6. Antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission in HIV-discordant couples.

    PubMed

    Anglemyer, Andrew; Horvath, Tara; Rutherford, George

    2013-10-16

    CLINICAL QUESTION Does treating the HIV-infected partner in a serodiscordant couple reduce the risk of HIV transmission to the uninfected partner? BOTTOM LINE Compared with serodiscordant couples without treatment, couples in which the infected partner is treated with antiretroviral therapy have a lower risk of HIV transmission.

  7. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E; Campbell, Chadwick K; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-07-01

    Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City-a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP.

  8. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E; Campbell, Chadwick K; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-07-01

    Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City-a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  9. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E.; Campbell, Chadwick K.; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City—a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  10. High Genotypic Discordance of Concurrent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Sputum and Blood of HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ssengooba, Willy; Cobelens, Frank G.; Nakiyingi, Lydia; Mboowa, Gerald; Armstrong, Derek T.; Manabe, Yukari C.; Joloba, Moses L.; de Jong, Bouke C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Among HIV-infected individuals with CD4 less than 200 cells/mm3, tuberculosis often has an atypical presentation, is more likely to be disseminated and is diagnostically challenging. We sought to understand the genotypic discordance of concurrent sputum and blood M. tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from HIV-infected individuals. Methods From a prospective diagnostic accuracy study with 182 HIV-infected culture-positive TB adults, isolates were obtained from 51 of 66 participants who were MTB culture-positive by both sputum and blood. Isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing to 1st line drugs, spoligotyping and 24 locus- MIRU-VNTR. Results The median age of the participants was 31 (IQR; 27–38) years and 51% were male. The median CD4 count was 29 (IQR; 10–84) cells/mm3 with 20% taking ART; 8.0% were previously treated for TB, and 63% were AFB smear-negative. The isolates belonged to two of the main global MTB-lineages; East-African-Indian (L3) 17 (16.7%) and Euro-American (L4) 85 (83.3%). We identified 26 (51.0%) participants with discordant MTB-genotypes between sputum and blood, including two patients with evidence of mixed infection in either compartment. Having discordant MTB-genotypes was not predicted by the MTB-lineage in either blood or sputum, CD4 cell count, or any other clinical characteristic. Conclusions There is a high genotypic discordance among M. tuberculosis concurrently isolated from sputum and blood of HIV-infected individuals. These findings suggest that infection with more than one strain of M. tuberculosis occurs in at least half of patients with advanced HIV infection. PMID:26176604

  11. Ethical Dilemma and Management of Infertility in HIV Seropositive Discordant Couples: A Case Study in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Umeora, Ouj; Chukwuneke, Fn

    2013-01-01

    The traditional African society places an invaluable premium on procreation and, in some communities, a woman's place in her matrimony is only confirmed on positive reproductive outcome. Infertility is rife in Nigeria, and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection is a global pandemic, which has led to a drop in life expectancy across the world. In Nigeria, a number of cultural norms relating to gender roles and power dynamics constitute a serious barrier to issues of sexuality and infertility. Couples are concerned about their infertility diagnostic test being disclosed to each other, especially before marriage. This concern is understandable, especially in an environment that lacks the modern concepts and attitude toward sexual matters. This is complicated by the advent of HIV/AIDS infection and the societal mind-set that look at seropostive individuals as transgressors. At present, sexual and reproductive health rights are currently not in place because ethical issues are not given prominence by many physicians in Nigeria. A case of an infertile and seropostive discordant couple, which raised a lot of medical and ethical concerns, is presented here to awaken the consciousness of Nigerian physicians and stimulate discussions on the ethical matters such as this in clinical practice.

  12. Ethical Dilemma and Management of Infertility in HIV Seropositive Discordant Couples: A Case Study in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Umeora, OUJ; Chukwuneke, FN

    2013-01-01

    The traditional African society places an invaluable premium on procreation and, in some communities, a woman's place in her matrimony is only confirmed on positive reproductive outcome. Infertility is rife in Nigeria, and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection is a global pandemic, which has led to a drop in life expectancy across the world. In Nigeria, a number of cultural norms relating to gender roles and power dynamics constitute a serious barrier to issues of sexuality and infertility. Couples are concerned about their infertility diagnostic test being disclosed to each other, especially before marriage. This concern is understandable, especially in an environment that lacks the modern concepts and attitude toward sexual matters. This is complicated by the advent of HIV/AIDS infection and the societal mind-set that look at seropostive individuals as transgressors. At present, sexual and reproductive health rights are currently not in place because ethical issues are not given prominence by many physicians in Nigeria. A case of an infertile and seropostive discordant couple, which raised a lot of medical and ethical concerns, is presented here to awaken the consciousness of Nigerian physicians and stimulate discussions on the ethical matters such as this in clinical practice. PMID:23634339

  13. Here's what top employers, unions are doing about HIV.

    PubMed

    1997-10-17

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that while only one in six large companies offer formal HIV/AIDS education programs, some companies and labor unions are conducting workplace-based prevention. The National Business and Labor Conference on HIV/AIDS, held September 29, 1997 in Washington, DC, recognized a variety of companies for their innovative workplace-based programs. These included Levi Strauss and Company, Sailor's Valentine Gallery, the National Basketball Players Association, Hawaii Industry Venture, IBM, Polaroid, Unum Life Insurance Company, and Gap, Inc. These companies provide a range of programs and services including fundraising for local AIDS organizations, employee education, public awareness, and family education.

  14. Factors Associated with Immunological Discordance in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy with Complete Viral Suppression in a Resource-Limited Setting.

    PubMed

    Mingbunjerdsuk, Pornpimol; Asdamongkol, Nakhon; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek

    2015-01-01

    "Immunological discordance," i.e., immunological failure despite complete viral suppression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), is associated with increased risk of AIDS or death. To evaluate risk factors for immunological discordance in a resource-limited setting in which patients usually present late with low CD4 cell counts, we conducted a case-control study among HIV-infected patients receiving ART and having undetectable HIV RNA. The study included patients with immunological discordance (cases), which was defined as CD4 cell count < 30% above baseline and absolute CD4 cell count < 200 cells/mm(3) at the first 12 months of undetectable HIV RNA (<50 copies/mL). Patients without immunological discordance were included as controls. Of 142 patients (44 cases; 98 controls), the mean age was 38.6 ± 9.4 years and 67.6% were men; 65.5% had history of opportunistic infections. In multivariate analysis, only baseline CD4 cell count < 100 cells/mm(3) (odd ratio [OR], 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-6.14; P = 0.040) and history of lost to follow-up (OR, 11.04; 95% CI, 2.87-42.46; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with immunological discordance. Early initiation of ART and intervention to improve regular clinic visit compliance and adherence to ART are crucial to prevent immunological discordance among HIV-infected patients.

  15. Biomarker evaluation of self-reported condom use among women in HIV-discordant couples.

    PubMed

    Mose, F; Newman, L P; Njunguna, R; Tamooh, H; John-Stewart, G; Farquhar, C; Kiarie, J

    2013-07-01

    Self-reported condom use is a commonly collected statistic, yet its use in research studies may be inaccurate. We evaluated this statistic among women in HIV-discordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial in Nairobi, Kenya. Vaginal swabs were acquired from 125 women and tested for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for semen exposure, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Ten (10%) of 98 women who reported 100% use of condoms in the previous month tested PSA positive. In a bivariate logistic regression analysis, among women who reported 100% condom use in the previous month, those with ≤8 years of school had significantly higher odds of testing PSA-positive (odds ratio [OR] = 8.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-69.13) than women with more schooling. Our estimate may be conservative, as the ability to detect PSA may be limited to 24-48 hours after exposure. Less educated women may be a target group for counselling regarding reporting sexual behaviour in clinical trials.

  16. Community perceptions of childbearing and use of safer conception strategies among HIV-discordant couples in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Breitnauer, Brooke T; Mmeje, Okeoma; Njoroge, Betty; Darbes, Lynae A; Leddy, Anna; Brown, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Safer conception strategies (SCS) have the potential to decrease HIV transmission among HIV-discordant couples who desire children. Community perceptions of SCS may influence the scale-up and uptake of these services, but little is known about how communities will react to these strategies. Without community support for SCS, their success as an HIV prevention tool may be limited. The objective of this study is to characterize community perceptions of SCS for HIV-discordant couples in Kisumu, Kenya, to inform ongoing and future safer conception intervention studies in low-resource settings. Methods We conducted six focus group discussions and 11 in-depth-interviews in Kisumu, Kenya, among a diverse group (N=59) of community members, including men, women, youth (age 19–25), community health workers and local leaders. An iterative qualitative analysis using a grounded theory approach was employed. Results and discussion All participants emphasized the importance of childbearing in their society and the right to have children, regardless of an individual's HIV status. While most participants believed that HIV-discordant couples should be allowed to have children, they discussed several barriers to the uptake of SCS such as HIV-related stigma, fear of HIV transmission to the uninfected partner and child, fear of unfamiliar medical procedures and lack of information among community members and health care providers about HIV prevention interventions that allow safer conception. Access to information, community experiences with successful safer conception interventions, healthcare provider training, male engagement and community mobilization may help overcome these barriers. Though assisted reproduction strategies generated the most negative reactions from participants, our results suggest that with education and explanation of these services, participants express interest in these strategies and want them to be offered in their community. Conclusions Many

  17. A study of HIV-concordant and -discordant couples attending voluntary counselling and testing services at a tertiary care center in North India.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Bhanu; Bhalla, Preena; Rawat, Deepti; Kishore, Jugal

    2015-01-01

    A large number of Indian couples are exposed to the risk of heterosexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. The present records-based study was undertaken at the voluntary counselling and testing facility of a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India to determine HIV prevalence among Indian couples; to assess the magnitude of seroconcordance and discordance among HIV-affected couples; and to compare the concordant and discordant partnerships for sociodemographic determinants and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) counts. Of the 1309 couples included in the study, 249 (19%) were HIV-affected, and of them 113 (45.4%) were concordantly and 136 (54.6%) discordantly affected by HIV. Males were the HIV-infected partners in 72% of the serodiscordant partnerships analyzed. Seroconcordance was significantly associated with the occupation status of being a housewife (P = 0.009). The contribution of discordant partnerships to the burden of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is significant, warranting novel couple-targeted counselling strategies and preventive measures, including safe sexual behavior and possibly preexposure HIV prophylaxis of the uninfected partner.

  18. “Maybe his blood is still strong”: a qualitative study among HIV-sero-discordant couples on ART in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-negative members of sero-discordant couples are at high risk for HIV acquisition but few behavioral prevention interventions have been implemented in sub-Saharan Africa and discordance is not well understood by couples themselves. Methods In this nested sub-study, we interviewed 40 HIV sero-discordant couples before and after a 6-month behavioral intervention that was comprised of four group discussions on specific HIV prevention and care topics. The content of the sessions included: 1) understanding HIV serodiscordance and reducing risk, 2) couple communication, 3) reproductive health and HIV serodiscordance, 4) coping with HIV serodiscordance and ongoing support. Couple members were interviewed individually. Data were analyzed thematically using ‘Framework Analysis’ which incorporated dyadic factors to address couple issues. Results Analysis revealed pre-identified concepts and emergent themes that were relevant to the final conceptual model. Four major categories of factors affecting couple relations, beliefs and current risk behaviors emerged: intervention factors, structural/contextual factors, physical health factors, and past risk behavior. The topics within the intervention most relevant were communication and reproductive health. The contextual factors highlighted by couples were gender norms around sexual decision-making and multiple partnerships. Individual beliefs regarding HIV serodiscordance persisted over all time points for some couples. Interestingly, some couple members had divergent views about their HIV status; some believing the HIV-negative member was negative while others described multiple beliefs around the negative member’s blood surely being positive for HIV. Couple communication emerged as an important theme mediating beliefs and behavior. Conclusions In addition to biomedical and behavioral interventions, HIV-serodiscordant couple interventions must embrace the contextual complexity and cultural understanding of HIV

  19. HIV-negative partnered men’s attitudes toward using an in-home rapid HIV test and associated factors among a sample of US HIV-negative and HIV-discordant male couples

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Many MSM acquire HIV while in a same-sex relationship. Studies with gay male couples have demonstrated that relationship characteristics and testing behaviors are important to examine for HIV prevention. Recently, an in-home rapid HIV test (HT) has become available for purchase in the US. However, HIV-negative partnered men’s attitudes toward using an HT, and whether characteristics of their relationship affect their use of HTs remain largely unknown. This information is relevant for development of HIV prevention interventions targeting at-risk HIV-negative and discordant male couples. Methods To assess HIV-negative partnered men’s attitudes and associated factors toward using an HT, a cross-sectional Internet-based survey was used to collect dyadic data from a national sample of 275 HIV-negative and 58 HIV-discordant gay male couples. Multivariate multilevel modeling was used to identify behavioral and relationship factors associated with 631 HIV-negative partnered men’s attitudes toward using an HT. Results HIV-negative partnered men were “very likely” to use an HT. More positive attitudes toward using an HT were associated with being in a relationship of mixed or nonwhite race and with one or both men recently having had sex with a casual male partner. Less positive attitudes toward using an HT were associated with both partners being well educated, with greater resources (investment size) in the relationship, and with one or both men having a primary care provider. Conclusions These findings may be used to help improve testing rates via promotion of HTs among gay male couples. PMID:25668643

  20. Discordance of HIV and HSV-2 Biomarkers and Self-reported Sexual Behavior among Orphan Adolescents in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyunsan; Luseno, Winnie; Halpern, Carolyn; Zhang, Lei; Mbai, Isabella; Milimo, Benson; Hallfors, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper examines the discordance between biological data of HIV and HSV-2 infections and self-reported questionnaire responses among orphan adolescents in Western Kenya. Methods In 2011 a total of 837 orphan adolescents from 26 primary schools were enrolled in an HIV prevention trial. At baseline, blood samples were drawn for HIV and HSV-2 infection biomarker testing, and participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) survey. Results Comparing biological data with self-reported responses indicated that 70% of HIV positive (7 out of 10) and 64% of HSV-2 positive (18 out of 28 positive) participants reported never having had sex. Among ever-married adolescents 65% (57 out of 88) reported never having had sex. Overall, 10% of study participants appeared to have inconsistently reported their sexual behavior. Logistic regression analyses indicated that lower educational level and exam scores were significant predictors of inconsistent reporting. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the discordance between infections measured by biomarkers and self-reports of having had sex among orphan adolescents in Kenya. In order to detect program effects accurately in prevention research, it is necessary to collect both baseline and endline biological data. Furthermore, it is recommended to triangulate multiple data sources about adolescent participants’ self-reported information about marriage and pregnancies from school records and parent/guardians to verify the information. Researchers should recognize potential threats to validity in data and design surveys to consider cognitive factors and/or cultural context to obtain more accurate and reliable information from adolescents regarding HIV/STI risk behaviors. PMID:25378660

  1. Repeat Confirmatory Testing for Persons with Discordant Whole Blood and Oral Fluid Rapid HIV Test Results: Findings from Post Marketing Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wesolowski, Laura G.; MacKellar, Duncan A.; Ethridge, Steven F.; Zhu, Julia H.; Owen, S. Michele; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Reactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB), immunofluorescent assay (IFA) or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)). When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result), repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen. Previous reports have not described whether repeat testing adequately resolves the HIV-infection status of persons with discordant results. Methodology Post-marketing surveillance was conducted in 368 testing sites affiliated with 14 state and 2 city health departments from August 11, 2004 to June 30, 2005 and one health department through December 31, 2005. For persons with discordant results, data were collected on demographics, risk behaviors, HIV test results and specimen types. Persons with repeat confirmatory results were classified as HIV-infected or uninfected. Regression models were created to assess risk factors for not having repeat testing. Principal Findings Of 167,371 rapid tests conducted, 2589 (1.6%) were reactive: of these, 2417 (93%) had positive WB/IFA, 172 (7%) had negative or indeterminate WB/IFA. Of 89/172 (52%) persons with a repeat confirmatory test: 17 (19%) were HIV-infected, including 3 with indeterminate WB and positive NAAT; 72 (81%) were uninfected, including 12 with repeat indeterminate WB. Factors associated with HIV-infection included having an initial indeterminate WB/IFA (vs. negative) (p<0.001) and having an initial oral fluid WB (vs. serum) (p<0.001). Persons who had male-female sex (vs. male-male sex) were at increased risk for not having a repeat test [adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI (1.3, 4.9)]. Conclusions Though only half of persons with discordant results had repeat confirmatory testing, of those who did, nearly one in five were HIV-infected. These findings underscore the need for rapid HIV testing programs to increase repeat confirmatory testing for persons

  2. KIR-HLA-A and B alleles of the Bw4 epitope against HIV infection in discordant heterosexual couples in Chaco Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Habegger de Sorrentino, Alicia; Sinchi, Jessica L; Marinic, Karina; López, Rosana; Iliovich, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Activating and inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and their ligands HLA-Bw4 (loci A and B) were studied by way of establishing whether they can contribute to protection against HIV-1 infection in highly exposed and persistently seronegative (HESN) patients. Twenty-three HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples, 100 HIV-1+ patients and 200 healthy individuals were included in this retrospective case–control study. HLA typing was performed by means of PCR followed by sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe reverse hybridization. KIR3DL1 and KIR3DS1 were studied by PCR sequence-specific primers. The frequency of KIR3DS1(3DS1/3DL1)-Bw4 combination was significantly higher in HESN patients versus the discordant couples (P = 0·0003) and HIV-1+ patients (P = 0·0001). Conversely, the KIR3DL1/KIR3DL1 homozygosity was significantly decreased in HESN patients versus the discordant couples (P = 0·00003), and HIV-1+ patients (P = 0·00066). The frequency of HLA-A*32 and HLA-B*44 was higher in HESN versus their discordant couples (P = 0·009; P = 0·049), and HIV-1+ patients (P = 0·00002; P = 0·0001). This had greater significance in combination with KIR3DS1 (3DS1/3DL1). KIR3DS1(3DS1/3DL1) could have a greater effect on protection against HIV-1 infection in HESN patients when bound to a specific HLA allele, in this case HLA-A*32 and HLA-B*44, both Bw4 alleles. The differences probably arise both in the HLA alleles and in the subtypes of KIR receptors depending on the ethnic group studied. PMID:23789883

  3. Brief Report: Relationship and Demographic Factors Associated With Willingness to Use an In-Home Rapid HIV Test to Screen Potential Sex Partners Among a US Sample of HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason W; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2015-06-01

    With dyadic data from a US Internet sample of 275 HIV-negative and 58 discordant male couples, we assessed HIV-negative partnered men's attitudes toward using an in-home rapid HIV test (HT) to screen potential new sex partners and associated factors by multivariate multilevel modeling. HIV-negative partnered men were "likely" to use an HT for screening purposes. More positive attitudes were associated with being in a mixed/nonwhite relationship; having an open sexual agreement. Less positive attitudes were associated with both partners being well educated. These findings may highlight how to make the most of HTs as risk-reduction screening tool among at-risk male couples.

  4. Dyadic Effects of Stigma and Discrimination on Distress in Chinese HIV Discordant Couples.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nancy Xiaonan; Chan, Cecilia L W; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigated the dyadic effects of stigma and discrimination on distress in Chinese couples affected by HIV. Chinese people living with HIV (PLHIV) and their seronegative spouses (N = 119 couples) participated in this study. The PLHIV completed measures on stigma beliefs about being better off dead and dignity-related distress. The spouses completed measures on perceived discrimination and exclusion and caregiver distress. The results showed that there was no significant correlation between the PLHIV's stigma beliefs and the spouses' perceived discrimination and exclusion. The couples showed significant associations in their dignity-related distress and caregiver distress. Analyses using the actor-partner interdependence model showed that PLHIV's stigma beliefs and the spouses' perceived discrimination and exclusion both had significant actor and partner effects on distress within the dyad. Psychosocial interventions aiming for distress reduction in the context of HIV should tackle stigma and discrimination and target the couples rather than solely the patient or spouse. PMID:27427923

  5. Risk reduction among HIV-seroconcordant and -discordant couples: the Zambia NOW2 intervention.

    PubMed

    Jones, Deborah; Kashy, Deborah; Chitalu, Ndashi; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mumbi, Mirriam; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    Heterosexual HIV transmission remains the leading cause of HIV incidence in adult men and women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed whether an HIV risk-reduction intervention would be more likely to increase sexual barrier acceptability and decrease risk behavior when delivered to couples in gender concordant groups or in an individual format. This study also examined the mutual impact of couple members as a source of influence on acceptability, and assessed whether product acceptability, intimate partner violence (IPV), and/or partner communication predicted sexual barrier use. HIV seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples (n=216) were recruited in Lusaka, Zambia, and randomized to a four session gender-concordant intervention. Participants were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Willingness to use barriers (p=0.012), acceptability (p<0.001), and barrier use (p<0.001) increased over time in both conditions, and were influenced by gender preferences. IPV decreased (p=0.040) and positive communication increased (p<0.001) in both conditions. Individual and gender concordant group sessions achieved similar increases in sexual barrier use following the intervention. Results highlight the influence of partners as well as product acceptability as predictors of sexual barrier use among couples in sub-Saharan Africa. Future prevention studies should consider both product acceptability and partner influence to achieve optimal sexual risk behavior outcomes.

  6. Discordance of Cognitive and Academic Achievement Outcomes in Youth with Perinatal HIV Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Garvie, Patricia A.; Zeldow, Bret; Malee, Kathleen; Nichols, Sharon L.; Smith, Renee A.; Wilkins, Megan L.; Williams, Paige L.

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate achievement in youth with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) compared to HIV-exposed uninfected peers (HEU), and to examine differential effects of HIV on cognition-achievement concordance. Methods Cognition and achievement were assessed using standardized measures. IQ-derived predicted achievement scores were subtracted from observed achievement scores to calculate discrepancy values. Linear regression models were used to compare achievement discrepancies between PHIV and HEU, adjusting for demographic covariates. Results Participants: 295 PHIV and 167 HEU youth; 71% black, 48% male, mean age 13.1 and 11.3 years, respectively. PHIV youth were relatively healthy (mean CD4%, 32%; viral load ≤400 copies/mL, 72%). PHIV and HEU youth had cognitive and achievement scores significantly below population norm means (p<0.001), but did not differ in cognition (mean FSIQ=86.7 vs. 89.4, respectively). In unadjusted models, HEU outperformed PHIV youth on Total Achievement (TA; mean=89.2 vs. 86.0, p=0.04) and Numerical Operations (NO; mean=88.8 vs. 82.9, p<0.001); no differences remained after adjustment. Mean observed-predicted achievement discrepancies reflected “underachievement”. History of encephalopathy predicted poorer achievement (p=0.039) and greater underachievement, even after adjustment. PHIV showed greater underachievement than HEU for NO (p<0.001) and TA (p=0.03), but these differences did not persist in adjusted models. Conclusions Both PHIV and HEU youth demonstrated lower achievement than normative samples, and underachieved relative to predicted achievement scores. Observed-predicted achievement discrepancies were associated with prior encephalopathy, older age and other non-HIV factors. PHIV youth with prior encephalopathy had significantly lower achievement and greater underachievement compared to PHIV without encephalopathy and HEU youth, even in adjusted models. PMID:25361033

  7. HIV-Negative Partnered Men's Willingness to Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Factors Among an Internet Sample of U.S. HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Research on male couples' willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is critically lacking. Methods: A cross-sectional 2011 Internet survey collected dyadic data from 275 HIV-negative and 58 HIV-discordant male couples to describe 631 HIV-negative partnered mens' willingness to use PrEP and associated couple-level demographic and behavioral factors with multivariate multilevel modeling. Results: Fifty-three percent were very to extremely likely to use PrEP. Willingness was positively associated with being in a mixed race and behaviorally non-monogamous relationship, and with amyl nitrate use with sex outside the relationship. Willingness was negatively associated with having a college education. Conclusion: Prevention efforts should educate male couples about the potential benefits of PrEP. PMID:26790016

  8. Discordant Immune Response with Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1: A Systematic Review of Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Christine; Gaskell, Katherine M.; Richardson, Marty; Klein, Nigel; Garner, Paul; MacPherson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background A discordant immune response (DIR) is a failure to satisfactorily increase CD4 counts on ART despite successful virological control. Literature on the clinical effects of DIR has not been systematically evaluated. We aimed to summarise the risk of mortality, AIDS and serious non-AIDS events associated with DIR with a systematic review. Methods The protocol is registered with the Centre for Review Dissemination, University of York (registration number CRD42014010821). Included studies investigated the effect of DIR on mortality, AIDS, or serious non-AIDS events in cohort studies or cohorts contained in arms of randomised controlled trials for adults aged 16 years or older. DIR was classified as a suboptimal CD4 count (as defined by the study) despite virological suppression following at least 6 months of ART. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to December 2015. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane tool for assessing risk of bias in cohort studies. Two authors applied inclusion criteria and one author extracted data. Risk ratios were calculated for each clinical outcome reported. Results Of 20 studies that met the inclusion criteria, 14 different definitions of DIR were used. Risk ratios for mortality in patients with and without DIR ranged between 1.00 (95% CI 0.26 to 3.92) and 4.29 (95% CI 1.96 to 9.38) with the majority of studies reporting a 2 to 3 fold increase in risk. Conclusions DIR is associated with a marked increase in mortality in most studies but definitions vary widely. We propose a standardised definition to aid the development of management options for DIR. PMID:27284683

  9. Modulation of T cell responses to recall antigens presented by Langerhans cells in HIV-discordant identical twins by anti-interleukin (IL)-10 antibodies and IL-12.

    PubMed Central

    Blauvelt, A; Chougnet, C; Shearer, G M; Katz, S I

    1996-01-01

    Decreased antigen (Ag)-specific T cell (TC) proliferation and IL-2 production are detected in all stages of HIV disease. To determine whether dendritic cell dysfunction and/or abnormal cytokine production contribute to HIV-induced immune dysregulation, we studies TC responses to recall Ags (influenza virus and tetanus toxoid) presented by Langerhans cells (LC) in six pairs of HIV-discordant identical twins, and the modulation of these responses by anti-IL-10 (alphaIL-10) mAbs and IL-12. LC from HIV+ twins induced IL-2 comparable to normal LC in cultures containing TC from uninfected twins. In contrast, IL-2 production was markedly decreased in cultures containing TC from HIV+ twins. IL-12 enhanced Ag-specific IL-2 production by TC from two patients with CD4+ counts > 600. In contrast, alphaIL-10 mAbs enhanced IL-2 production in influenza virus-stimulated cultures containing TC from two patients with CD4+ counts < 20. Thus, these findings suggest that immunologic dysfunction of dendritic cells does not contribute to impaired secondary immune responses in HIV+ individuals. Although few patients were studied, partial immune reconstitution in vitro, as demonstrated here, may help to predict those individuals who might benefit from cytokines or antibodies against cytokines as immunotherapy for HIV disease. PMID:8617889

  10. HIV/AIDS in the countries of the former Soviet Union: societal and attitudinal challenges.

    PubMed

    Rechel, Bernd

    2010-06-01

    For several years, some of the countries of the former Soviet Union have experienced the fastest growing HIV epidemic in the world, with the vast majority of reported infections contracted through injecting drug use. However, most governments of the region have been slow to recognize the severity of the problem. The scope and coverage of governmental HIV/AIDS programmes have remained very limited. Harm reduction programmes are mainly financed by external donors, while substitution treatment remains illegal in Russia and unavailable in some other countries of the region. Being based on a review of published and grey literature, this paper explores attitudinal and societal barriers to scaling up HIV programmes in the countries of the former Soviet Union. A major challenge in many countries is negative public attitudes towards people living with HIV, as well as towards those most at risk of contracting the disease: injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. This extends to the actions of state authorities which often pursue a punitive approach to drug users, with high rates of incarceration for minor drug offences. While many of the findings reported here relate to the Russian Federation, there is reason to believe that similar challenges exist in many other countries of the former Soviet Union. More needs to be done to document challenges to HIV prevention and treatment programmes across the region, so that policy interventions can be more effective.

  11. HIV-Negative Partnered Men's Willingness to Use Non-Occupational Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Factors in a U.S. Sample of HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Sophus, Amber I.; Petroll, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) is an underutilized biomedical option for HIV prevention. Few studies have assessed male couples' knowledge of and willingness to use nPEP. Methods: Cross-sectional dyadic data from 275 HIV-negative and 58 HIV-discordant male couples were used to describe HIV-negative, partnered men's awareness of and willingness to use nPEP, and factors associated with their willingness to use nPEP. Data were analyzed with the use of multivariate multilevel modeling. Results: Less than a third of the men were aware of nPEP, yet 73% were very-to-extremely likely to use nPEP. Partnered men's willingness to use nPEP was positively associated with having an individual income less than $30,000 USD and serosorting within the relationship. Willingness to use nPEP was negatively associated with greater age difference between primary partners and with higher scores on measures of couples' investment in their relationship. Conclusion: Efforts should be made to increase male couples' awareness of nPEP and how to access nPEP. Uptake of nPEP has the potential to help avert new HIV infections among male couples. PMID:26789400

  12. Characteristics of HIV-1 Discordant Couples Enrolled in a Trial of HSV-2 Suppression to Reduce HIV-1 Transmission: The Partners Study

    PubMed Central

    Lingappa, Jairam R.; Kahle, Erin; Mugo, Nelly; Mujugira, Andrew; Magaret, Amalia; Baeten, Jared; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey; Stewart, Grace John; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, M.; Were, Edwin; Fife, Kenneth; deBruyn, Guy; Gray, Glenda; McIntyre, James; Manongi, Rachel; Kapiga, Saidi; Coetzee, David; Allen, Susan; Inambao, Mubiana; Kayitenkore, Kayitesi; Karita, Etienne; Kanweka, William; Delany, Sinead; Rees, Helen; Vwalika, Bellington; Coombs, Robert W.; Morrow, Rhoda; Whittington, William; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna; Celum, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Background The Partners HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Study (Partners Study) is a phase III, placebo-controlled trial of daily acyclovir for genital herpes (HSV-2) suppression among HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected persons to reduce HIV-1 transmission to their HIV-1 susceptible partners, which requires recruitment of HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples. We describe the baseline characteristics of this cohort. Methods HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples, in which the HIV-1 infected partner was HSV-2 seropositive, had a CD4 count ≥250 cells/mcL and was not on antiretroviral therapy, were enrolled at 14 sites in East and Southern Africa. Demographic, behavioral, clinical and laboratory characteristics were assessed. Results Of the 3408 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled, 67% of the HIV-1 infected partners were women. Couples had cohabitated for a median of 5 years (range 2–9) with 28% reporting unprotected sex in the month prior to enrollment. Among HIV-1 susceptible participants, 86% of women and 59% of men were HSV-2 seropositive. Other laboratory-diagnosed sexually transmitted infections were uncommon (<5%), except for Trichomonas vaginalis in 14% of HIV-1 infected women. Median baseline CD4 count for HIV-1 infected participants was 462cells/mcL and median HIV-1 plasma RNA was 4.2 log10 copies/mL. After adjusting for age and African region, correlates of HIV-1 RNA level included male gender (+0.24 log10 copies/mL; p<0.001) and CD4 count (−0.25 and −0.55 log10 copies/mL for CD4 350–499 and >500 relative to <350, respectively, p<0.001). Conclusions The Partners Study successfully enrolled a cohort of 3408 heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in Africa at high risk for HIV-1 transmission. Follow-up of this cohort will evaluate the efficacy of acyclovir for HSV-2 suppression in preventing HIV-1 transmission and provide insights into biological and behavioral factors determining heterosexual HIV-1 transmission. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  13. Discordant Impact of HLA on Viral Replicative Capacity and Disease Progression in Pediatric and Adult HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Adland, Emily; Paioni, Paolo; Thobakgale, Christina; Laker, Leana; Mori, Luisa; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Csala, Anna; Clapson, Margaret; Flynn, Jacquie; Novelli, Vas; Hurst, Jacob; Naidoo, Vanessa; Shapiro, Roger; Huang, Kuan-Hsiang Gary; Frater, John; Prendergast, Andrew; Prado, Julia G; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D; Carrington, Mary; Jooste, Pieter; Goulder, Philip J R

    2015-06-01

    HLA class I polymorphism has a major influence on adult HIV disease progression. An important mechanism mediating this effect is the impact on viral replicative capacity (VRC) of the escape mutations selected in response to HLA-restricted CD8+ T-cell responses. Factors that contribute to slow progression in pediatric HIV infection are less well understood. We here investigate the relationship between VRC and disease progression in pediatric infection, and the effect of HLA on VRC and on disease outcome in adult and pediatric infection. Studying a South African cohort of >350 ART-naïve, HIV-infected children and their mothers, we first observed that pediatric disease progression is significantly correlated with VRC. As expected, VRCs in mother-child pairs were strongly correlated (p = 0.004). The impact of the protective HLA alleles, HLA-B*57, HLA-B*58:01 and HLA-B*81:01, resulted in significantly lower VRCs in adults (p<0.0001), but not in children. Similarly, in adults, but not in children, VRCs were significantly higher in subjects expressing the disease-susceptible alleles HLA-B*18:01/45:01/58:02 (p = 0.007). Irrespective of the subject, VRCs were strongly correlated with the number of Gag CD8+ T-cell escape mutants driven by HLA-B*57/58:01/81:01 present in each virus (p = 0.0002). In contrast to the impact of VRC common to progression in adults and children, the HLA effects on disease outcome, that are substantial in adults, are small and statistically insignificant in infected children. These data further highlight the important role that VRC plays both in adult and pediatric progression, and demonstrate that HLA-independent factors, yet to be fully defined, are predominantly responsible for pediatric non-progression.

  14. ‘Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials’: Discordant discourses between western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women

    PubMed Central

    DE JESUS, Maria; CARRETE, Claudia; MAINE, Cathleen; NALLS, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the United States and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than U.S.-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women’s HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington DC Metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one’s spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one’s family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one’s spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25616443

  15. "Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials": discordant discourses between Western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC, has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the USA, and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than US-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women's HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to Western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one's spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one's family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one's spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed.

  16. "Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials": discordant discourses between Western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC, has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the USA, and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than US-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women's HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to Western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one's spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one's family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one's spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25616443

  17. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses clarify the origin of the HIV-1 subtype A variant circulating in former Soviet Union's countries.

    PubMed

    Díez-Fuertes, Francisco; Cabello, Marina; Thomson, Michael M

    2015-07-01

    The HIV-1 subtype A variant dominating the HIV-1 epidemics in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries (A(FSU)) represents one of the major clades of the HIV-1 pandemic. This variant was reported to have begun spreading among injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Ukrainian city of Odessa in late 1994. Two competing hypotheses have been proposed on the ancestral origin of the A(FSU) variant, locating it either in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) or in the Republic of Guinea (RG). The studies supporting these hypotheses employed phylogenetic analyses to identify HIV-1 sequences collected outside FSU countries ancestrally related to A(FSU). A different approach, based on Bayesian phylogenetic inference and coalescent-based population genetics, has been employed here to elucidate the ancestry of this HIV-1 variant and to improve our knowledge on its spread in FSU countries. The analyses were carried out using env (C2-V3-C3) and p24(gag) fragments of the HIV-1 genome. The inferred migration for the HIV-1 A(FSU) variant revealed only one significantly supported migration pathway from Africa to Eastern Europe, supporting the hypothesis of its origin in the DRC and estimating the upper limit of the migration of the ancestral virus from Africa around 1970. The support for an origin in the RG was negligible. The results supported the main role of Odessa as the epicenter of the A(FSU) epidemic, dating the tMRCA of the A(FSU) variant around 1984, ten years before its explosive expansion among IDUs. The estimated origin of the AFSU subcluster responsible for the IDU outbreak was also located in Odessa, with the estimated tMRCA around 1993. Statistically supported migration routes from Odessa to other cities of Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Belarus were also inferred by the Bayesian phylogeographic analysis. These results shed new light on the origin and spread of the HIV-1 A(FSU) variant.

  18. Knowledge, attitude and behavioral intention to act regarding HIV infection and prevention in immigrants from the Former Soviet Union in Germany: a comparative study with the native population.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Laura; Matterne, Uwe; Crispin, Alexander; Ruzicka, Thomas; Zippel, Stefan A; Kuznetsov, Alexander V

    2013-02-01

    In Germany, immigrants from Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries represent one of the largest immigrant groups. Some FSU countries face the highest HIV prevalence in the region of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. However, the HIV knowledge, attitude and behavioral intent have not been investigated in FSU immigrants compared to the native population yet. A cross-sectional anonymous survey among 1,205 FSU immigrants and 435 native Germans (aged 18-65 years) in Bavaria. Data analysis from the participating 435 (36 %) immigrants and 334 (76.8 %) natives showed that the immigrants were less knowledgeable (p < .001) about HIV transmission (median score 8 vs. 9, ranged from 0 to 10) and HIV prevention (4 vs. 5, ranged from 0 to 6) than the native Germans, especially with regard to HIV transmission during anal (67 vs. 79.1 %; OR = 1.86 [1.32-2.62]) and oral (49.7 vs. 61.8 %; OR = 1.63 [1.21-2.20]) intercourse and showed a high misconception rate. Age and education were associated with knowledge about sexual HIV transmission; male gender, age and education with HIV prevention by single-use of needles/syringes. In case of a suspected HIV contraction, fewer immigrants would request a test; in case of a confirmed HIV diagnosis fewer would use a condom or inform their sexual partner(s). This first comparative study indicates an urgent need for HIV/AIDS education among FSU immigrants.

  19. Australian-Antarctic discordance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempeéreé, Jean-Christophe; Palmer, Jeb; Christie, David M.; Phipps Morgan, Jason; Shor, Alexander N.

    1991-05-01

    The Australian-Antarctic discordance is a region of anomalous geophysical and geochemical properties along the mid-ocean ridge system. It includes the isotopic boundary between Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean basalts. Its lavas have compositions consistent with low mantle temperatures and a relatively low overall extent of melting. These characteristics have been attributed to downward flow in the underlying mantle. New bathymetric and side-scan sonar data show that (1) the spreading axis within the discordance is predominantly characterized by a broad rift valley and segmentation characteristics typical of slow-spreading centers, (2) the isotopic boundary appears to be associated with unusual, chaotic sea floor, and (3) the spreading axis east of the discordance is characterized by an axial ridge typical of fast-spreading centers. These extreme variations, at an essentially constant (intermediate) spreading rate are consistent with differences in melt supply and mantle properties along the spreading axis within and east of the discordance, as suggested in previous studies.

  20. Scale up use of family planning services to prevent maternal transmission of HIV among discordant couples: a cross-sectional study within a resource-limited setting

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Martin; Yuan, HongFang; Tchoua Kemayou, Aude Laure; Songo, Emmanuel Ancel; Yang, Fan; Ma, XiuLan; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing

    2016-01-01

    Background Integration of family planning services (FPS) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care for HIV-infected women is an important aspect of the global prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) strategy. We assessed the integration of FPS into routine care of HIV-infected mothers by evaluating the uptake and barriers of contraception and PMTCT services. Methods We conducted an interventional study using the interrupted time series approach in the health care facilities located in Yaounde, Cameroon. First, structured questionnaires related to family planning use, PMTCT services use, and infection risk of the sexual partner were administered to the first trimester pregnant women who were HIV infected and living with uninfected partners. Second, 2 weeks before the delivery date, the women were interviewed according to the prior counseling interventions received, in order to assess their behavior on FPS, antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, delivery option, and infant nourishment to be adopted. P-values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant in the statistical analyses. Results Of 94 HIV-infected women, 69% were stable couples. Only 13% of women had attended FPS before conception. Although the vast majority were knowledgeable about modern and traditional contraception methods, only 19% had experienced effective contraceptive methods. However, 66% preferred condom use, 45% having three children still expressed a desire to conceive, while 44% reported abortions, 65% had tried to avoid the current pregnancy, and 12% of women were ART naïve. Several predictors such as education, abortion rate, unplanned pregnancies, and partners’ decision were associated with the nonuse of effective contraceptive methods. Moreover, barriers including sex inequity, lack of partner support, ART shortages, and lack of HIV viral load monitoring were prevalent among the participants (P=0.001). However FPS use, ART compliance, and safe options to PMTCT

  1. Immuno-Virological Discordance and the Risk of Non-AIDS and AIDS Events in a Large Observational Cohort of HIV-Patients in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Zoufaly, Alexander; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Reekie, Joanne; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens; Reiss, Peter; Jevtovic, Djordje; Machala, Ladislav; Zangerle, Robert; Mocroft, Amanda; Van Lunzen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of immunosuppression despite virological suppression (immuno-virological discordance, ID) on the risk of developing fatal and non-fatal AIDS/non-AIDS events is unclear and remains to be elucidated. Methods Patients in EuroSIDA starting at least 1 new antiretroviral drug with CD4<350 cells/µl and viral load (VL)>500 copies/mL were followed-up from the first day of VL< = 50 copies/ml until a new fatal/non-fatal non-AIDS/AIDS event. Considered non-AIDS events included non-AIDS malignancies, pancreatitis, severe liver disease with hepatic encephalopathy (>grade 3), cardio- and cerebrovascular events, and end-stage renal disease. Patients were classified over time according to whether current CD4 count was above (non-ID) or below (ID) baseline level. Relative rates (RR) of events were calculated for ID vs. non-ID using adjusted Poisson regression models. Results 2,913 patients contributed 11,491 person-years for the analysis of non-AIDS. 241 pre-specified non-AIDS events (including 84 deaths) and 89 AIDS events (including 10 deaths) occurred. The RR of developing pre-specified non-AIDS events for ID vs. non-ID was 1.96 (95% CI 1.37–2.81, p<0.001) in unadjusted analysis and 1.43 (0.94–2.17, p = 0.095) after controlling for current CD4 count. ID was not associated with the risk of AIDS events (aRR 0.76, 95% CI 0.41–1.38, p = 0.361). Conclusion Compared to CD4 responders, patients with immuno-virological discordance may be at increased risk of developing non-AIDS events. Further studies are warranted to establish whether in patients with ID, strategies to directly modify CD4 count response may be needed besides the use of ART. PMID:24498036

  2. Discordance at human leukocyte antigen-DRB3 and protection from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission.

    PubMed

    Hader, Shannon L; Hodge, Thomas W; Buchacz, Kate A; Bray, Robert A; Padian, Nancy S; Rausa, Alfio; Slaviniski, Sally A; Holmberg, Scott D

    2002-06-15

    Host human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) integrated into the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 envelope could theoretically determine, as in tissue transplants, whether HIV-1 is "rejected" by exposed susceptible persons, preventing transmission. HLA discordance (mismatch) was examined among 45 heterosexual partner pairs in which at least 1 partner was HIV-1 infected and exposure or transmission between partners had occurred. Immunologic discordance at class II HLA-DRB3 (present in the HIV donor partner but absent in the recipient partner) was associated with lack of transmission of HIV-1. Eight (35%) of 23 partner pairs in which HIV-1 transmission did not occur were immunologically discordant at HLA-DRB3, compared with 0 of 11 partner pairs in which HIV-1 transmission did occur (P=.027). Further investigation of the roles of class II HLAs in HIV-1 transmission and as possible components of HIV-1 vaccines should be pursued. PMID:12085318

  3. Discordant responses to cART in HIV-1 patients in the era of high potency antiretroviral drugs: clinical evaluation, classification, management prospects.

    PubMed

    Cenderello, Giovanni; De Maria, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The goal of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in HIV-1 patients is immune reconstitution following control of viral replication. CD4+ cell number/proportions are a crude but essential correlate of immune reconstitution. Despite suppression of HIV replication, a fraction of ART-treated patients still fails to fully reconstitute CD4+ T cell numbers (immunological nonresponders, INRs). New drugs, regimens and treatment strategies led to increased efficacy, lower side effects and higher virological success rates in clinical practice. The multitude of described immune defects and clinical events accompanying INR opposed to the marginal effect of antiretroviral intensification or immunotherapy trials underline the need for continuing efforts at understanding the mechanisms that underlie INR. Here, we reassess INR definition, frequency, and the achievements of active clinical and translational research suggesting a shared definition for insufficient, partial and complete CD4+ cell number recovery thus improving homogeneity in patient selection and mechanism identification.

  4. DISCORDANCE BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS AMONG HIV-1-INFECTED PATIENTS ON ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AND WITH LIPOATROPHY/LIPOHYPERTROPHY SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, Lismeia Raimundo; da SILVA, Daniela Cardeal; GONSALEZ, Claudio R.; BATISTA, Felipe G.; FONSECA, Luiz Augusto M.; DUARTE, Alberto J.S.; CASSEB, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has improved and extended the lives of thousands of people living with HIV/AIDS around the world. However, this treatment can lead to the development of adverse reactions such as lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome (LLS) and its associated risks. Objective: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of self-reported lipodystrophy and nutritional status by anthropometric measurements in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods: An observational study of 227 adult patients in the Secondary Immunodeficiencies Outpatient Department of Dermatology, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo (3002 ADEE-HCFMUSP). The sample was divided into three groups; Group 1 = 92 patients on HAART and with self-reported lipodystrophy, Group 2 = 70 patients on HAART without self-reported lipodystrophy and Group 3 = 65 patients not taking HAART. The nutritional status of individuals in the study sample was determined by body mass index (BMI) and percentage of body fat (% BF). The cardiovascular risk and diseases associated with abdominal obesity were determined by waist/hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC). Results: The prevalence of self-reported lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome was 33% among women and 59% among men. Anthropometry showed depletion of fat mass in the evaluation of the triceps (TSF) in the treatment groups with HAART and was statistically independent of gender; for men p = 0.001, and for women p = 0.007. Similar results were found in the measurement of skin folds of the upper and lower body (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003 respectively). In assessing the nutritional status of groups by BMI and % BF, excess weight and body fat were more prevalent among women compared to men (p = 0.726). The WHR and WC revealed risks for cardiovascular and other diseases associated with abdominal obesity for women on HAART and with self-reported LLS (p = 0.005) and (p = 0.011). Conclusions

  5. Quantum discord with weak measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Uttam Pati, Arun Kumar

    2014-04-15

    Weak measurements cause small change to quantum states, thereby opening up the possibility of new ways of manipulating and controlling quantum systems. We ask, can weak measurements reveal more quantum correlation in a composite quantum state? We prove that the weak measurement induced quantum discord, called as the “super quantum discord”, is always larger than the quantum discord captured by the strong measurement. Moreover, we prove the monotonicity of the super quantum discord as a function of the measurement strength and in the limit of strong projective measurement the super quantum discord becomes the normal quantum discord. We find that unlike the normal discord, for pure entangled states, the super quantum discord can exceed the quantum entanglement. Our results provide new insights on the nature of quantum correlation and suggest that the notion of quantum correlation is not only observer dependent but also depends on how weakly one perturbs the composite system. We illustrate the key results for pure as well as mixed entangled states. -- Highlights: •Introduced the role of weak measurements in quantifying quantum correlation. •We have introduced the notion of the super quantum discord (SQD). •For pure entangled state, we show that the SQD exceeds the entanglement entropy. •This shows that quantum correlation depends not only on observer but also on measurement strength.

  6. Quantum discord and Maxwell's demons

    SciTech Connect

    Zurek, Wojciech Hubert

    2003-01-01

    Quantum discord was proposed as an information-theoretic measure of the 'quantumness' of correlations. I show that discord determines the difference between the efficiency of quantum and classical Maxwell's demons - that is, entities that can or cannot measure nonlocal observables or carry out conditional quantum operations - in extracting work from collections of correlated quantum systems.

  7. Purified discord and multipartite entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Eric G.; Webster, Eric J.; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Kempf, Achim

    2013-10-15

    We study bipartite quantum discord as a manifestation of a multipartite entanglement structure in the tripartite purified system. In particular, we find that bipartite quantum discord requires the presence of both bipartite and tripartite entanglement in the purification. This allows one to understand the asymmetry of quantum discord, D(A,B)≠D(B,A) in terms of entanglement monogamy. As instructive special cases, we study discord for qubits and Gaussian states in detail. As a result of this we shed new light on a counterintuitive property of Gaussian states: the presence of classical correlations necessarily requires the presence of quantum correlations. Finally, our results also shed new light on a protocol for remote activation of entanglement by a third party. -- Highlights: •Bipartite quantum discord as a manifestation of multipartite entanglement. •Relevance of quantum discord as a utilizable resource for quantum info. tasks. •Quantum discord manifests itself in entanglement in the purified state. •Relation between asymmetry of discord and entanglement monogamy. •Protocol for remote activation of entanglement by a third party.

  8. Risks worth Taking: Safety Agreements among Discordant Gay Couples

    PubMed Central

    Beougher, Sean C.; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Garcia, Carla C.; Darbes, Lynae A.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Hoff, Colleen C.

    2012-01-01

    As HIV research and prevention efforts increasingly target gay men in relationships, situational factors such as couple serostatus and agreements about sex become central to examinations of risk. Discordant gay couples are of particular interest because the risk of HIV infection is seemingly near-at-hand. Yet little is known about their sexual behaviors, agreements about sex, and safer sex efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal semi-structured, qualitative interviews to explore these issues among 12 discordant couples. Findings show that nearly every couple had agreements about reducing the likelihood of HIV transmission from one partner to the other. Negotiating these agreements involved establishing a level of acceptable risk, determining condom use, and employing other risk-reduction techniques, such as seropositioning and withdrawal. For half of the couples, these agreements did not involve using condoms; only two couples reported consistent condom use. Despite forgoing condoms, however, none reported seroconversion over the course of data collection. Additional issues are raised where long-term HIV prevention is concerned. Future prevention efforts with discordant couples should work with, rather than fight against, the couple’s decision to use condoms and endeavor to complement and accentuate their other safer sex efforts. PMID:22292838

  9. Discordant Treatment Responses to Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Rwanda: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kayigamba, Felix R.; Franke, Molly F.; Bakker, Mirjam I.; Rodriguez, Carly A.; Bagiruwigize, Emmanuel; Wit, Ferdinand WNM; Rich, Michael L.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Some antiretroviral therapy naïve patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) experience a limited CD4 count rise despite virological suppression, or vice versa. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of discordant treatment responses in a Rwandan cohort. Methods A discordant immunological cART response was defined as an increase of <100 CD4 cells/mm3 at 12 months compared to baseline despite virological suppression (viral load [VL] <40 copies/mL). A discordant virological cART response was defined as detectable VL at 12 months with an increase in CD4 count ≥100 cells/mm3. The prevalence of, and independent predictors for these two types of discordant responses were analysed in two cohorts nested in a 12-month prospective study of cART-naïve HIV patients treated at nine rural health facilities in two regions in Rwanda. Results Among 382 patients with an undetectable VL at 12 months, 112 (29%) had a CD4 rise of <100 cells/mm3. Age ≥35 years and longer travel to the clinic were independent determinants of an immunological discordant response, but sex, baseline CD4 count, body mass index and WHO HIV clinical stage were not. Among 326 patients with a CD4 rise of ≥100 cells/mm3, 56 (17%) had a detectable viral load at 12 months. Male sex was associated with a virological discordant treatment response (P = 0.05), but age, baseline CD4 count, BMI, WHO HIV clinical stage, and travel time to the clinic were not. Conclusions Discordant treatment responses were common in cART-naïve HIV patients in Rwanda. Small CD4 increases could be misinterpreted as a (virological) treatment failure and lead to unnecessary treatment changes. PMID:27438000

  10. Quantum discord, local operations, and Maxwell's demons

    SciTech Connect

    Brodutch, Aharon; Terno, Daniel R.

    2010-06-15

    Quantum discord was proposed as a measure of the quantumness of correlations. There are at least three different discordlike quantities, two of which determine the difference between the efficiencies of a Szilard's engine under different sets of restrictions. The three discord measures vanish simultaneously. We introduce an easy way to test for zero discord, relate it to the Cerf-Adami conditional entropy and show that there is no simple relation between the discord and the local distinguishability.

  11. Quantum discord protection from amplitude damping decoherence.

    PubMed

    Yune, Jiwon; Hong, Kang-Hee; Lim, Hyang-Tag; Lee, Jong-Chan; Kwon, Osung; Han, Sang-Wook; Kim, Yong-Su; Moon, Sung; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2015-10-01

    Entanglement is known to be an essential resource for many quantum information processes. However, it is now known that some quantum features may be acheived with quantum discord, a generalized measure of quantum correlation. In this paper, we study how quantum discord, or more specifically, the measures of entropic discord and geometric discord are affected by the influence of amplitude damping decoherence. We also show that a protocol deploying weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal can effectively protect quantum discord from amplitude damping decoherence, enabling to distribute quantum correlation between two remote parties in a noisy environment. PMID:26480116

  12. Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum discord

    SciTech Connect

    Fanchini, F. F.; Caldeira, A. O.; Werlang, T.; Brasil, C. A.; Arruda, L. G. E.

    2010-05-15

    We evaluate the quantum discord dynamics of two qubits in independent and common non-Markovian environments. We compare the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord. For independent reservoirs the quantum discord vanishes only at discrete instants whereas the entanglement can disappear during a finite time interval. For a common reservoir, quantum discord and entanglement can behave very differently with sudden birth of the former but not of the latter. Furthermore, in this case the quantum discord dynamics presents sudden changes in the derivative of its time evolution which is evidenced by the presence of kinks in its behavior at discrete instants of time.

  13. Non-commutativity measure of quantum discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yu

    2016-04-01

    Quantum discord is a manifestation of quantum correlations due to non-commutativity rather than entanglement. Two measures of quantum discord by the amount of non-commutativity via the trace norm and the Hilbert-Schmidt norm respectively are proposed in this paper. These two measures can be calculated easily for any state with arbitrary dimension. It is shown by several examples that these measures can reflect the amount of the original quantum discord.

  14. Non-commutativity measure of quantum discord

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Quantum discord is a manifestation of quantum correlations due to non-commutativity rather than entanglement. Two measures of quantum discord by the amount of non-commutativity via the trace norm and the Hilbert-Schmidt norm respectively are proposed in this paper. These two measures can be calculated easily for any state with arbitrary dimension. It is shown by several examples that these measures can reflect the amount of the original quantum discord. PMID:27122226

  15. Geometric quantum discord under noisy environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiming; Qiu, Daowen

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we mainly analyze the dynamics of geometric quantum discord under a common dissipating environment. Our results indicate that geometric quantum discord is generated when the initial state is a product state. The geometric quantum discord increases from zero to a stable value with the increasing time, and the variations of stable values depend on the system size. For different initial product states, geometric quantum discord has some different behaviors in contrast with entanglement. For initial maximally entangled state, it is shown that geometric quantum discord decays with the increasing dissipated time. It is found that for EPR state, entanglement is more robust than geometric quantum discord, which is a sharp contrast to the existing result that quantum discord is more robust than entanglement in noisy environments. However, for GHZ state and W state, geometric quantum discord is more stable than entanglement. By the comparison of quantum discord and entanglement, we find that a common dissipating environment brings complicated effects on quantum correlation, which may deepen our understanding of physical impacts of decohering environment on quantum correlation. In the end, we analyze the effects of collective dephasing noise and rotating noise to a class of two-qubit X states, and we find that quantum correlation is not altered by the collective noises.

  16. Cost and safety of assisted reproductive technologies for human immunodeficiency virus-1 discordant couples.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Yih; Ho, Hong-Nerng

    2015-05-12

    Due to significant advances in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), HIV-1 infection gradually has become a treatable chronic disease. Successfully treated HIV-positive individuals can have a normal life expectancy. Hence, more and more HIV-1 discordant couples in Taiwan and the rest of the world are seeking fertility assistance. Pre-treatment of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) combined with sperm washing and RT-polymerase chain reaction examination for HIV-1 viral load has become the standard procedure to assist them to conceive. However, in order to reduce the transmission risk to the lowest level for the couple and to diminish the cost of health care for the insurance institutes or government, in vitro fertilization (IVF)-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) therapy provides the ideal solution for HIV-1 discordant couples with infected men. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) theoretically introduces more than 10(7) times of sperm counts or semen volume to uninfected women vs IVF-ICSI. However, since some regimens of HAART may significantly decrease the sperm motility, compared to IVF-ICSI, IUI only produces 1/5 to 1/2 pregnancy rates per cycle. Given the risk of seroconversion of HIV infection which actually happens after successful treatment, IVF-ICSI for these HIV-1 seropositive men is more cost-effective and should be the first line treatment for these cases.

  17. Cost and safety of assisted reproductive technologies for human immunodeficiency virus-1 discordant couples.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Yih; Ho, Hong-Nerng

    2015-05-12

    Due to significant advances in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), HIV-1 infection gradually has become a treatable chronic disease. Successfully treated HIV-positive individuals can have a normal life expectancy. Hence, more and more HIV-1 discordant couples in Taiwan and the rest of the world are seeking fertility assistance. Pre-treatment of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) combined with sperm washing and RT-polymerase chain reaction examination for HIV-1 viral load has become the standard procedure to assist them to conceive. However, in order to reduce the transmission risk to the lowest level for the couple and to diminish the cost of health care for the insurance institutes or government, in vitro fertilization (IVF)-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) therapy provides the ideal solution for HIV-1 discordant couples with infected men. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) theoretically introduces more than 10(7) times of sperm counts or semen volume to uninfected women vs IVF-ICSI. However, since some regimens of HAART may significantly decrease the sperm motility, compared to IVF-ICSI, IUI only produces 1/5 to 1/2 pregnancy rates per cycle. Given the risk of seroconversion of HIV infection which actually happens after successful treatment, IVF-ICSI for these HIV-1 seropositive men is more cost-effective and should be the first line treatment for these cases. PMID:25964879

  18. Monozygotic twins discordant for sex.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, R; Sobel, E H; Nitowsky, H M; Dar, H; Allen, F H

    1976-01-01

    A pair of monozygotic, adolescent twins is discordant for sex. The phenotypic female twin has chromosome constitution of 46, XY/45, X. She displays many signs of Turner's syndrome, including typical facies, webbed neck, malformed left kidney, high plasma gonadotropins, and streak ovaries. However, her height is 154 cm which exceeds the height usually reported in Turner's syndrome. The male twin has a karyotype of 46, XY and normal sexual development. Only two other reports of pairs of monozygotic twins of opposite sex have been published. Images PMID:944787

  19. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because

  20. Teacher-Student Discordance and Teacher Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, G. M.; Johnson, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    The study calculated "teacher student discordance" for 12 grade 1 teachers and 45 at-risk students. At the end of the school year, students were divided into three groups (positive, neutral, negative) based on teacher recommendations regarding placement. In general, T-S Discordance did not discriminate across teacher recommendation groups. (DB)

  1. HIV

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sumit; Sahoo, Soumya Swaroop; Jain, Rambilas; Khanna, Pardeep; Mehta, Bharti; Singh, Inderjeet

    2014-01-01

    Getting to zero: zero new HIV infections, zero deaths from AIDS-related illness, zero discrimination is the theme of World AIDS Day 2012. Given the spread of the epidemic today, getting to zero may sound difficult, but significant progress is underway. The total annual loss for the entire country due to HIV is 7% of GDP, which exceeds India’s annual health expenditure in 2004. The additional loss due to loss of labor income and increased medical expenditure as measured by the external transfers, account for 5% of the country’s health expenditure and 0.23% of GDP. Given that the HIV incidence rate is only 0.27% in India, these losses are quite staggering. Despite the remarkable achievements in development of anti-retroviral therapies against HIV and the recent advances in new prevention technologies, the rate of new HIV infections continue to outpace efforts on HIV prevention and control. Thus, the development of a safe and effective vaccine for prevention and control of AIDS remains a global public health priority and the greatest opportunity to eventually end the AIDS pandemic. PMID:24056755

  2. Union Agitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    A decade has passed since a few union leaders formed the network known as Teacher Union Reform Network (TURN) to search for innovative ways to enhance education. Selling their message has not always been easy. Created in 1995, TURN was the brain child of Adam Urbanski, the president of the Rochester (N.Y.) Teachers Association for the past 25…

  3. Angiographic studies of atrioventricular discordance.

    PubMed

    Attie, F; Soni, J; Ovseyevitz, J; Muñoz-Castellanos, L; Testelli, M R; Buendia, A

    1980-08-01

    The results and value of conventional and axial angiocardiography were studied in 26 cases of atrioventricular discordance (AVD). The angiographic anatomy of this malformation was analyzed to determine the precise characteristics of atrioventricular and ventriculoarterial connections. The left and right ventricles in atrial situs solitus and levocardia show angiographic features that differ from those seen in atrial situs solitus and dextrocardia. The same differences are found in atrial situs inversus. Regardless of the type of ventriculoarterial connections, the ventricles maintain the same angiographic characteristics. The ventricular septum in AVD in situs solitus and levocardia and situs inversus and dextrocardia has a peculiar orientation. The use of axial angiocardiography facilitates detection and localization of the ventricular septal defect. In cases of malposition of the heart, the conventional frontal view allows visualization of the ventricular septum in all of its length. The axial projection is useful in diagnosing left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.

  4. Mechanisms for initiation of cardiac discordant alternans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echebarria, B.; Karma, A.

    2007-07-01

    Electrical alternans, defined as a beat-to-beat change in the duration of the excited phase of cardiac cells, is among the known precursors of sudden cardiac death. It may appear as concordant (all the tissue presenting the same phase of oscillation) or discordant (with out-of-phase regions distributed among tissue). Spatially discordant alternans can lead to unidirectional block that initiates reentry and ventricular fibrillation. The role played by tissue heterogeneities and heart rate changes in their initiation remains, however, unclear. We study the mechanisms for initiation of spatially discordant alternans by numerical simulations of an ionic model spatially distributed in a one-dimensional cable and in an anatomical model of the rabbit heart. The effects of CV-restitution, ectopic beats, and the role of spatial gradients of electrical restitution properties are investigated. In homogeneous tissue, the origin of discordant alternans may be dynamical, through CV-restitution, or due to a localized change in the pacing period. We also find that a sudden change of stimulation rate can initiate discordant alternans in the presence of a spatial gradient of APD-restitution without necessitating CV-restitution. The mechanism of, and the conditions for, initiation are determined based on an iterated map analysis of beat to beat changes of APD. This analysis leads to the definition of a vulnerable window for initiation of discordant alternans. Moreover, the pattern of spatially discordant alternans is found to change slowly over several beats following initiation, as reflected in ECG recordings.

  5. One-way unlocalizable quantum discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Zhengjun; Fan, Heng; Li, Yongming

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, we present the concept of the one-way unlocalizable quantum discord and investigate its properties. We provide a polygamy inequality for it in a tripartite pure quantum system of arbitrary dimension. Several tradeoff relations between the one-way unlocalizable quantum discord and other correlations are given. If the von Neumann measurement is made on a part of the system, we give two expressions of the one-way unlocalizable quantum discord in terms of partial distillable entanglement and quantum disturbance. Finally, we also provide a lower bound for bipartite shareability of quantum correlation beyond entanglement in a tripartite system.

  6. Global quantum discord in multipartite systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rulli, C. C.; Sarandy, M. S.

    2011-10-15

    We propose a global measure for quantum correlations in multipartite systems, which is obtained by suitably recasting the quantum discord in terms of relative entropy and local von Neumann measurements. The measure is symmetric with respect to subsystem exchange and is shown to be nonnegative for an arbitrary state. As an illustration, we consider tripartite correlations in the Werner-GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) state and multipartite correlations at quantum criticality. In particular, in contrast with the pairwise quantum discord, we show that the global quantum discord is able to characterize the infinite-order quantum phase transition in the Ashkin-Teller spin chain.

  7. Physician unionization.

    PubMed

    Lebowitz, P H

    1997-01-01

    Typically, doctors have seemed unsuited for and uncomfortable with the idea of unions but with the current changes in practices and referral patterns, doctors are looking--at least warily--at unions. Two sets of laws apply to possible unionization of physicians; one, federal antitrust laws, the other, both federal and state labor laws as they apply to changes in the medical profession. Antitrust laws are designed to protect competition by prohibiting price fixing. Another typical antitrust issue that applies to healthcare is that of a group boycott or refusal to deal, where competitors try to coerce a third party to set prices where competitors want them set. Congress' earliest legislation to aide the labor movement involved exceptions to the antitrust laws. Some provisions of the laws are limited to workers who are employees, defined as someone who is employed by any person. Doctors are searching for solutions that provide the collective power of the labor laws without offending the antitrust laws. The question is whether doctors can form unions under these two conflicting forces. The first main issue is whether the doctor is or is not an employee. Although radiologic technologists, typically employees of hospitals or provider groups, have been unionized for years, doctors are usually not employees, at least not if they have their own practices. Although not employees, physicians may affiliate with a larger union to use that broader bargaining power, a purpose that is permissible under current law. Membership in a union does have its responsibilities and disadvantages. Some have suggested that the definition of employee be broadened to cover physician duties under managed care payer agreements, for example. Meanwhile, the Federal Trade Commission and the Justice Department are watching that non-employee physicians not use the union label to mask price fixing, boycotts or refusals to deal.

  8. Quantum Discord Cannot Be Shared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streltsov, Alexander; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2013-07-01

    Bohr proposed that the outcome of a measurement becomes objective and real, and, hence, classical, when its results can be communicated by classical means. In this work we revisit Bohr’s postulate using modern tools from quantum information theory. We find a full confirmation of Bohr’s idea: if a measurement device is in a nonclassical state, the measurement results cannot be communicated perfectly by classical means. In this case some part of the information in the measurement apparatus is lost in the process of communication: the amount of this lost information turns out to be the quantum discord. The information loss occurs even when the apparatus is not entangled with the system of interest. The tools presented in this work allow us to generalize Bohr’s postulate: we show that for pure system-apparatus states quantum communication does not provide any advantage when measurement results are communicated to more than one recipient. We further demonstrate the superiority of quantum communication to two recipients on a mixed system-apparatus state and show that this effect is fundamentally different from quantum state cloning.

  9. Monozygotic twins discordant for trisomy 13.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, K Wong; Slavin, T P; Graham, G; Hirata, G I; Balaraman, V; Seaver, L H

    2012-04-01

    Monozygotic twins with discordant karyotypes are rare. We report a case of monozygotic twins discordant for trisomy 13 by amniocyte karyotypes. Ultrasound revealed multiple congenital anomalies in Twin A (47,XY,+13), none in Twin B (46,XY), and monochorionic-diamniotic placentation. Zygosity testing performed both prenatally and after birth supported monozygosity. Twin A died in the neontal period. Twin B survived and had normal physical examination, but peripheral blood karyotype revealed 20% mosaicism for trisomy 13. Monochorionic-diamniontic placentation with vascular anastomoses was confirmed by pathological examination. In this paper, we discuss the various mechanisms by which monozygotic twins may have discordant karyotypes. The surviving twin, structurally and developmentally normal at 6 months of age, will be monitored for potential complications of uniparental disomy of chromosome 13 and trisomy 13 mosaicism.

  10. Interpreting quantum discord through quantum state merging

    SciTech Connect

    Madhok, Vaibhav; Datta, Animesh

    2011-03-15

    We present an operational interpretation of quantum discord based on the quantum state merging protocol. Quantum discord is the markup in the cost of quantum communication in the process of quantum state merging, if one discards relevant prior information. Our interpretation has an intuitive explanation based on the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy. We use our result to provide operational interpretations of other quantities like the local purity and quantum deficit. Finally, we discuss in brief some instances where our interpretation is valid in the single-copy scenario.

  11. Parental Marital Discord and Treatment Response in Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaya, Meredith M.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parental marital discord contributes to the development of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. Few studies, however, have examined the association between parental marital discord and youth's response to treatment. The present study examined the impact of interparental discord on treatment…

  12. Online Social Interchange, Discord, and Knowledge Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanuka, Heather; Anderson, Terry

    1998-01-01

    Presents the results of an exploratory multi-method evaluation study and transcript analysis of an online forum. Highlights include use of a constructivist interaction analysis model to help understand and assess online learning; social interchange; and social discord and knowledge construction. (Author/LRW)

  13. Entanglement as minimal discord over state extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shunlong

    2016-09-01

    The characterization and quantification of quantum correlations, which play an instrumental role in exploring and exploiting the quantum world, have been extensively and intensively studied in the past few decades. Of special prominence and significance are the concepts of entanglement and discord, which are usually regarded as very distinctive quantum correlations, with the latter going beyond the former. In this work we establish a direct and natural link between entanglement and discord via state extensions and reveal that entanglement is actually the intrinsic discord, by which we mean that entanglement is the irreducible residue of discord viewed from ambient spaces. Our approach, taking into account the contextuality of a quantum state and being of a global nature, stands in sharp contrast to the local operations and classical communication paradigm of entanglement, which focuses on the state itself via a local approach. Furthermore, we introduce a figure of merit which, on the one hand, captures the essence of entanglement, i.e., nonlocality and quantumness of correlations, and, on the other hand, leads to a quantitative decomposition of total correlations into classical correlations, dissonance, and entanglement. This demystifies the meaning of entanglement from the perspective of quantum measurements and provides a unified framework for the interplay of various correlations in terms of quantum measurements and mutual information.

  14. Screening for acute HIV infection in South Africa: finding acute and chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Ingrid V.; Chetty, Senica; Giddy, Janet; Reddy, Shabashini; Bishop, Karen; Lu, Zhigang; Losina, Elena; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2010-01-01

    Background The yield of screening for acute HIV infection among general medical patients in resource-scarce settings remains unclear. Our objective was to evaluate a strategy of pooled HIV plasma RNA to diagnose acute HIV infection in patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests in Durban, South Africa. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests from a routine HIV screening program in an outpatient department in Durban with an HIV prevalence of 48%. Study participants underwent venipuncture for pooled qualitative HIV RNA, and if positive, quantitative RNA, enzyme immunoassay and Western Blot (WB). Patients with negative or indeterminate WB and positive quantitative HIV RNA were considered acutely infected. Those with chronic infection (positive RNA and WB) despite negative or discordant rapid HIV tests were considered false negative rapid antibody tests. Results Nine hundred ninety-four participants were enrolled with either negative (N=976) or discordant (N=18) rapid test results. Eleven (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.6–2.0%) had acute HIV infection. Of the 994 patients, an additional 20 (2.0%, 95% CI: 1.3–.3.1%) had chronic HIV infection (false negative rapid test). Conclusions One percent of outpatients with negative or discordant rapid HIV tests in Durban, South Africa had acute HIV infection readily detectable through pooled serum HIV RNA screening. Pooled RNA testing also identified an additional 2% of patients with chronic HIV infection. HIV RNA screening has the potential to identify both acute and chronic HIV infections that are otherwise missed by standard HIV testing algorithms. PMID:20553336

  15. Thermal geometric discords in a two-qutrit system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ya-Li; Hou, Xi-Wen

    2016-06-01

    The investigation of quantum discord has mostly focused on two-qubit systems due to the complicated minimization involved in quantum discord for high-dimensional states. In this work, three geometric discords are studied for the thermal state in a two-qutrit system with various couplings, external magnetic fields, and temperatures as well, where the entanglement measured in terms of the generalized negativity is calculated for reference. It is shown that three geometric discords are more robust against temperature and magnetic field than the entanglement negativity. However, all four quantities exhibit a similar behavior at lower temperature and weak magnetic field. Remarkably, three geometric discords at finite temperature reveal the phenomenon of double sudden changes at different magnetic fields while the negativity does not. Moreover, the hierarchy among three discords is discussed. Those adjustable discords with the varied coupling, temperature, and magnetic field are useful for the understanding of quantum correlations in high-dimensional states and quantum information processing.

  16. Preservation of the geometric quantum discord in noisy environments

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ming-Liang; Tian, Dong-Ping

    2014-04-15

    Geometric description of quantum correlations is favored for their distinct physical significance. Geometric discords based on the trace distance and the Bures distance are shown to be well-defined quantum correlation measures. Here, we examine their particular dynamical behaviors under independent as well as common structured reservoirs and reveal their robustness against decoherence. We showed that the two well-defined geometric discords may be preserved well or even be improved and generated by the noisy process of the common reservoir. Moreover, we also provided a strategy for the long-time preservation of these two geometric discords in independent reservoirs. -- Highlights: •Inherent robustness of the trace distance and the Bures distance discord. •Generating geometric discord from classical states by the noisy process. •Improvement of the geometric discord in common reservoir. •The robust pathway for preserving discord in independent reservoirs.

  17. Streamlining HIV Testing for HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Leigler, Teri; Kallas, Esper; Schechter, Mauro; Sharma, Usha; Glidden, David; Grant, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-testing algorithms for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) should be optimized to minimize the risk of drug resistance, the time off PrEP required to evaluate false-positive screening results, and costs and to expedite the start of therapy for those confirmed to be infected. HIV rapid tests (RTs) for anti-HIV antibodies provide results in less than 1 h and can be conducted by nonlicensed staff at the point of care. In many regions, Western blot (WB) testing is required to confirm reactive RT results. WB testing, however, causes delays in diagnosis and adds expense. The iPrEx study evaluated the safety and efficacy of daily oral emtricitabine-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate among HIV-seronegative men and transgender women who have sex with men: HIV infection was assessed with two RTs plus WB confirmation, followed by HIV-1 plasma viral load testing. During the iPrEx study, there were 51,260 HIV status evaluations among 2,499 volunteers using RTs: 142 (0.28%) had concordant positive results (100% were eventually confirmed) and 19 (0.04%) had discordant results among 14 participants; 11 were eventually determined to be HIV infected. A streamlined approach using only one RT to screen and a second RT to confirm (without WB) would have had nearly the same accuracy. Discrepant RT results are best evaluated with nucleic acid testing, which would also increase sensitivity. PMID:25378570

  18. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewberry, David R.

    2005-01-01

    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions within graduate…

  19. Measurement-based method for verifying quantum discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh; Caves, Carlton M.; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a measurement-based method for verifying quantum discord of any bipartite quantum system. We show that by performing an informationally complete positive operator valued measurement (IC-POVM) on one subsystem and checking the commutativity of the conditional states of the other subsystem, quantum discord from the second subsystem to the first can be verified. This is an improvement upon previous methods, which enables us to efficiently apply our method to continuous-variable systems, as IC-POVM's are readily available from homodyne or heterodyne measurements. We show that quantum discord for Gaussian states can be verified by checking whether the peaks of the conditional Wigner functions corresponding to two different outcomes of heterodyne measurement coincide at the same point in the phase space. Using this method, we also prove that the only Gaussian states with zero discord are product states; hence, Gaussian states with Gaussian discord have nonzero quantum discord.

  20. Discordant bone marrow involvement in non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Brudno, Jennifer; Tadmor, Tamar; Pittaluga, Stefania; Nicolae, Alina; Polliack, Aaron; Dunleavy, Kieron

    2016-02-25

    A discordant lymphoma occurs where 2 distinct histologic subtypes coexist in at least 2 separate anatomic sites. Histologic discordance is most commonly observed between the bone marrow (BM) and lymph nodes (LNs), where typically aggressive lymphoma is found in a LN biopsy with indolent lymphoma in a BM biopsy. Although the diagnosis of discordance relied heavily on histopathology alone in the past, the availability of flow cytometry and molecular studies have aided the identification of this entity. The true prevalence and clinical ramifications of discordance remain controversial as available data are principally retrospective, and there is therefore little consensus to guide optimal management strategies. In this review, we examine the available literature on discordant lymphoma and its outcome, and discuss current therapeutic approaches. Future studies in discordant lymphoma should ideally focus on a large series of patients with adequate tissue samples and incorporate molecular analyses. PMID:26679865

  1. Sudden change of geometric quantum discord in finite temperature reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ming-Liang Sun, Jian

    2015-03-15

    We investigate sudden change (SC) behaviors of the distance-based measures of geometric quantum discords (GQDs) for two non-interacting qubits subject to the two-sided and the one-sided thermal reservoirs. We found that the GQDs defined by different distances exhibit different SCs, and thus the SCs are the combined result of the chosen discord measure and the property of a state. We also found that the thermal reservoir may generate states having different orderings related to different GQDs. These inherent differences of the GQDs reveal that they are incompatible in characterizing quantum correlations both quantitatively and qualitatively. - Highlights: • Comparable study of different distance-based geometric quantum discords. • Evolution of the geometric quantum discords in finite temperature reservoirs. • Different geometric quantum discords exhibit distinct sudden changes. • Nonunique states ordering imposed by different geometric quantum discords.

  2. Relating quantum discord with the quantum dense coding capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin; Qiu, Liang Li, Song; Zhang, Chi; Ye, Bin

    2015-01-15

    We establish the relations between quantum discord and the quantum dense coding capacity in (n + 1)-particle quantum states. A necessary condition for the vanishing discord monogamy score is given. We also find that the loss of quantum dense coding capacity due to decoherence is bounded below by the sum of quantum discord. When these results are restricted to three-particle quantum states, some complementarity relations are obtained.

  3. A Lower Bound of Quantum Discord for 2-Qutrit Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qianhui; Wang, Jing; Shen, Shuqian; Li, Ming

    2016-04-01

    We study the lower bound of quantum discord for 2-qutrit systems. By computing the mutual information and the classical correlations of a class of states for 2-qutrit system, an analytical and computable lower bound of discord has been derived. By selecting different coefficients as examples, we can compute the lower bound of discord for 2-qutrit systems directly. The result can be generalized to the case of high-dimensional quantum state and will help us understand and explore the discord of the high-dimensional state.

  4. Geometry and dynamics of one-norm geometric quantum discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiming; Qiu, Daowen; Mateus, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the geometry of one-norm geometric quantum discord and present a geometric interpretation of one-norm geometric quantum discord for a class of two-qubit states. It is found that one-norm geometric quantum discord has geometric behavior different from that described in Lang and Caves (Phys Rev Lett 105:150501, 2010), Li et al. (Phys Rev A 83:022321, 2011) and Yao et al. (Phys Lett A 376:358-364, 2012). We also compare the dynamics of the one-norm geometric quantum discord and other measures of quantum correlations under correlated noise. It is shown that different decoherent channels bring different influences to quantum correlations measured by concurrence, entropic quantum discord and geometric quantum discord, which depend on the memory parameter and decoherence parameter. We lay emphasis on the behaviors such as entanglement sudden death and sudden transition of quantum discord. Finally, we study the dynamical behavior of one-norm geometric quantum discord in one-dimensional anisotropic XXZ model by utilizing the quantum renormalization group method. It is shown that the one-norm geometric quantum discord demonstrates quantum phase transition through renormalization group approach.

  5. State of the Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Julie

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the corrupt leadership of two big-city teachers' unions, the Washington Teachers Union (WTU) and its Miami cousin, United Teachers of Dade (UTD), that took both unions to the brink of despair and financial ruin. While the feds were rifling through union files to build extensive criminal investigations, congress called Sandra…

  6. Physicians, unions, and antitrust.

    PubMed

    Hirshfeld, E B

    1999-01-01

    The increasing consolidation of our healthcare delivery systems and the concomitant push for perceived efficiencies, speed, and profits has laid the foundation for a renewed interest in unionization by many physicians. This Article analyzes the barriers to such unionization that are posed by the antitrust laws, and provides an analysis of how to proceed with unionization without violating those laws. The Article also analyzes the current status of physician ability to unionize, and surveys the present status of physician unions.

  7. Oxygen isotopic composition and U-Pb discordance in zircon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, A.L.; Kolodny, Y.; Chamberlain, C.P.; McWilliams, M.; Schmitt, A.K.; Wooden, J.

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated U-Pb discordance and oxygen isotopic composition of zircon using high-spatial resolution ??18O measurement by ion microprobe. ??18O in both concordant and discordant zircon grains provides an indication of the relationship between fluid interaction and discordance. Our results suggest that three characteristics of zircon are interrelated: (1) U-Pb systematics and concomitant age discordance, (2) ??18O and the water-rock interactions implied therein, and (3) zircon texture, as revealed by cathodoluminescence and BSE imaging. A key observation is that U-Pb-disturbed zircons are often also variably depleted in 18O, but the relationship between discordance and ??18O is not systematic. ??18O values of discordant zircons are generally lighter but irregular in their distribution. Textural differences between zircon grains can be correlated with both U-Pb discordance and ??18O. Discordant grains exhibit either a recrystallized, fractured, or strongly zoned CL texture, and are characteristic of 18O depletion. We interpret this to be a result of metamictization, leading to destruction of the zircon lattice and an increased susceptibility to lead loss. Conversely, grains that are concordant have less-expressed zoning and a smoother CL texture and are enriched in 18O. From this it is apparent that various stages of water-rock interaction, as evidenced by systematic variations in ??18O, leave their imprint on both the texture and U-Pb systematics of zircon. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Sources of gene tree discordance on oryza (poaceae) chromosome 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe new methods for characterizing gene tree discordance in phylogenomic datasets, which screen for deviations from neutral expectations, summarize variation in statistical support among gene trees, and allow comparison of the patterns of discordance induced by various analysis choices. Usin...

  9. Monozygotic twins with trisomy 18: a report of discordant phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Schlessel, J S; Brown, W T; Lysikiewicz, A; Schiff, R; Zaslav, A L

    1990-01-01

    The predicted incidence of liveborn monozygotic trisomy 18 twins is one per million births. The first case of liveborn monozygotic trisomy 18 twins was reported in 1989 and we report a second case in which striking phenotypic discordance existed. The probability of monozygotic trisomy 18 twinning and the mechanisms for phenotypic discordance in trisomic twins is discussed. Images PMID:2246775

  10. Exploring Knowing/Being through Discordant Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dall'Alba, Gloria; Barnacle, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Despite an increasing array of "quality indicators" and substantial investments in educating professionals, there continues to be clear evidence of discordant, or even negligent, practice by accredited professionals. We refer to discordant professional practice as being "out of tune" with what is accepted as good practice. In a…

  11. Multipartite distribution property of one way discord beyond measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the distribution property of one way discord in the multipartite system by introducing the concept of polygamy deficit for one way discord. The difference between one way discord and quantum discord is analogue to the one between entanglement of assistance and entanglement of formation. For tripartite pure states, two kinds of polygamy deficits are presented with the equivalent expressions and physical interpretations regardless of measurement. For four-partite pure states, we provide a condition which makes one way discord polygamy satisfied. In addition, we generalize these results to the case for N-partite pure states. Those results can be applicable to multipartite quantum systems and are complementary to our understanding of the shareability of quantum correlations.

  12. Experimental generation of quantum discord via noisy processes.

    PubMed

    Lanyon, B P; Jurcevic, P; Hempel, C; Gessner, M; Vedral, V; Blatt, R; Roos, C F

    2013-09-01

    Quantum systems in mixed states can be unentangled and yet still nonclassically correlated. These correlations can be quantified by the quantum discord and might provide a resource for quantum information processing tasks. By precisely controlling the interaction of two ionic qubits with their environment, we investigate the capability of noise to generate discord. Firstly, we show that noise acting on only one quantum system can generate discord between two. States generated in this way are restricted in terms of the rank of their correlation matrix. Secondly, we show that classically correlated noise processes are capable of generating a much broader range of discordant states with correlation matrices of any rank. Our results show that noise processes prevalent in many physical systems can automatically generate nonclassical correlations and highlight fundamental differences between discord and entanglement.

  13. Discordance of Prenatal and Neonatal Brain Development in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Niyati; Kang, Chaeryon; Wolfe, Honor M.; Hertzberg, Barbara S.; Smith, J. Keith; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido; Hamer, Robert M.; Gilmore, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Discordance of birth weight has been observed in twin pairs, though little is known about prenatal and early neonatal discordance of head and brain size, and the role that zygosity and chorionicity play in discordances of early brain development in twins. Aims To compare prenatal and neonatal discordances of head size in monozygotic –monochorionic (MZ-MC), monozygotic-dichorionic (MZ-DC), and same-sex dizygotic-dichorionic twin pairs (DZ). Study Design Subjects prospectively had ultrasounds at 22 and 32 weeks gestational age, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain MRI after birth. Subjects 88 twin pairs recruited from two university hospital prenatal diagnostic clinics; 22 MZ-MC, 17 MZ-DC, and 49 same sex DZ pairs. Outcome measures Discordance of head circumference (HC) and weight at 22 weeks, 32 weeks and birth, as well as intracranial volume (ICV) on neonatal MRI. Results There were no group differences in discordance of head circumference and weight on the 22 or 32 week ultrasounds, or at birth. MZ-MC twins tended to have numerically greater discordances of HC and weight. There was a significant group difference in ICV on neonatal MRI (ANOVA, p = 0.0143), with DZ twins having significantly greater discordance than MZ-MC (p = 0.028) or MZ-DC (p = 0.0131) twins. Conclusions This study indicates that zygosity and chorionicity do not contribute to significant discordances of head size in late prenatal development. DZ twins do have significantly greater discordances of ICV on neonatal MRI, suggesting a relatively greater genetic influence on brain growth in the first weeks after birth. PMID:18804925

  14. [HIV and reproductive choices].

    PubMed

    Boer, K; de Vries, J W; de Beaufort, I E

    1995-05-13

    It is estimated that there are about 120-150 hemophilic men infected with HIV in the Netherlands as well as 1000 men infected via intravenous drug use. The majority of them are in reproductive age with relationships with seronegative women. In the event they want to have a child, artificial insemination with donor sperm (KID) is an option. In 1994 there were 147 instances of insemination of 66 women with the processed semen of HIV-positive men and no infection resulted. The annual risk of HIV infection was 7.2% of a woman engaging in unprotected intercourse, according to a prospective Italian study. The risk of HIV infection per contact was estimated at 0.1-5.6%. However, it is not yet proven that processed sperm of an HIV-seropositive man can produce a pregnancy without the risk of infecting the woman. The risk of transmission of HIV to the fetus is higher in artificial insemination of a seropositive woman with the sperm of her partner. In vitro fertilization is not a sure method either for the prevention of HIV infection of the mother because of the possibility of an egg cell being infected before fertilization. HIV-infected pregnant women face the problems of caring for HIV-infected offspring. For HIV discordant couples the advice is to use both condoms for the prevention of infection and oral contraceptives for the prevention of pregnancy. In the case of a lesbian relationship, if the partners want to have a child, HIV infection is still a factor because of previous heterosexual contacts.

  15. Creating an African HIV Clinical Research and Prevention Trials Network: HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Anatoli; Price, Matt A.; Lakhi, Shabir; Karita, Etienne; Inambao, Mubiana; Sanders, Eduard J.; Anzala, Omu; Latka, Mary H.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Asiki, Gershim; Ssetaala, Ali; Ruzagira, Eugene; Allen, Susan; Farmer, Paul; Hunter, Eric; Mutua, Gaudensia; Makkan, Heeran; Tichacek, Amanda; Brill, Ilene K.; Fast, Pat; Stevens, Gwynn; Chetty, Paramesh; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Gilmour, Jill

    2015-01-01

    HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner. PMID:25602351

  16. Users and Union Catalogues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, R. J.; Booth, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Union catalogues have had an important place in libraries for many years. Their use has been little investigated. Recent interest in the relative merits of physical and virtual union catalogues and a recent collaborative project between a physical and several virtual union catalogues in the United Kingdom led to the opportunity to study how users…

  17. Non-Markovian effect on the quantum discord

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Bo; Xu Zhenyu; Chen Zeqian; Feng Mang

    2010-01-15

    We study the non-Markovian effect on the dynamics of the quantum discord by exactly solving a model consisting of two independent qubits subject to two zero-temperature non-Markovian reservoirs, respectively. Considering the two qubits initially prepared in Bell-like or extended Werner-like states, we show that there is no occurrence of the sudden death, but only instantaneous disappearance of the quantum discord at some time points, in comparison to the entanglement sudden death in the same range of the parameters of interest. This implies that the quantum discord is more useful than the entanglement to describe the quantum correlation involved in quantum systems.

  18. Epigenetic discordance at imprinting control regions in twins.

    PubMed

    Ollikainen, Miina; Craig, Jeffrey M

    2011-06-01

    Imprinting control regions are differentially methylated in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner and this methylation state is inherited through the germline. These regions control parent-specific monoallelic expression of their target genes. Genetically identical organisms show considerable variation in their epigenomes owing to environmental and stochastic influences creating fluctuations in phenotype. Monozygotic twin pairs discordant for imprinting disorders due to epigenetic changes at imprinting control regions are an example of phenotypic variation caused by extreme variations of the epigenome. Here, we discuss the within-pair epigenetic discordance at imprinted loci, both in phenotypically concordant and discordant monozygotic twin pairs. PMID:22122339

  19. Discord as a quantum resource for bi-partite communication

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, Helen M.; Assad, Syed M.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy; Gu, Mile; Modi, Kavan; Vedral, Vlatko; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2014-12-04

    Coherent interactions that generate negligible entanglement can still exhibit unique quantum behaviour. This observation has motivated a search beyond entanglement for a complete description of all quantum correlations. Quantum discord is a promising candidate. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that under certain measurement constraints, discord between bipartite systems can be consumed to encode information that can only be accessed by coherent quantum interactions. The inability to access this information by any other means allows us to use discord to directly quantify this ‘quantum advantage’.

  20. Witnessing quantum discord in 2xN systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bylicka, Bogna; Chruscinski, Dariusz

    2010-06-15

    Bipartite states with vanishing quantum discord are necessarily separable and hence positive partial transpose (PPT). We show that 2xN states satisfy additional property: the positivity of their partial transposition is recognized with respect to the canonical factorization of the original density operator. We call such states strong PPT (SPPT). Therefore, we provide a natural witness for a quantum discord: if a 2xN state is not SPPT it must contain nonclassical correlations measured by quantum discord. It is an analog of the celebrated Peres-Horodecki criterion: if a state is not PPT it must be entangled.

  1. Food Service and the College Union. College Unions at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterheld, Douglas C.

    This publication, one in a series of monographs on college unions, explores the importance, role, and function of food services in the college union. Major topics discussed include: (1) food service and the college union, (2) union food service and the campus, (3) union food service and the community, (4) organization of union food services, (5)…

  2. The potential value of discordant studies.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Many aspects of the clinical application of gated-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been well established by multiple trials and studies. However, its utility in the elderly (i.e., the Medicare population in the USA) remains unclear. This is an important population due to its rapid growth, coupled with the increasing prevalence of coronary artery disease with age. A paper in this issue, Predictive value of exercise myocardial perfusion imaging in the Medicare population: the impact of the ability to exercise, indicates that while gated-SPECT clearly directs the performance of interventions at the level of the coronary arteries in the elderly, outcomes are worse for those receiving an intervention vs. those receiving medical therapy. While some literature supports this observation, there are also well documented studies that indicate that the opposite is the case. As consumers of discordant studies, we find ourselves in the unenviable position of having to pull at the threads of evidence and follow them through in an attempt to reconcile the conflicting literature. This is reminiscent of the mythical Gregorian knot, a knot that was impossible to unravel by conventional means. However, it was "solved" by cutting it with a sword. In our case, the sword that we have is the removal of bias. It has been said that there are no unbiased studies, since we only measure what we believe and we tend to believe what we measure. This is further compounded in clinical practice since the Hippocratic Oath requires that the physician above all do no harm. Therefore it follows that whatever action is done is at least not detrimental to the patient. These are powerful belief systems that on the one hand allow us to rapidly discard "irrelevant" information and quickly get to the important point, but on the other hand they may inhibit us from seeing what is truly of value. Discordant and negative studies are important disruptors along the path to easy data

  3. The potential value of discordant studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Many aspects of the clinical application of gated-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been well established by multiple trials and studies. However, its utility in the elderly (i.e., the Medicare population in the USA) remains unclear. This is an important population due to its rapid growth, coupled with the increasing prevalence of coronary artery disease with age. A paper in this issue, Predictive value of exercise myocardial perfusion imaging in the Medicare population: the impact of the ability to exercise, indicates that while gated-SPECT clearly directs the performance of interventions at the level of the coronary arteries in the elderly, outcomes are worse for those receiving an intervention vs. those receiving medical therapy. While some literature supports this observation, there are also well documented studies that indicate that the opposite is the case. As consumers of discordant studies, we find ourselves in the unenviable position of having to pull at the threads of evidence and follow them through in an attempt to reconcile the conflicting literature. This is reminiscent of the mythical Gregorian knot, a knot that was impossible to unravel by conventional means. However, it was “solved” by cutting it with a sword. In our case, the sword that we have is the removal of bias. It has been said that there are no unbiased studies, since we only measure what we believe and we tend to believe what we measure. This is further compounded in clinical practice since the Hippocratic Oath requires that the physician above all do no harm. Therefore it follows that whatever action is done is at least not detrimental to the patient. These are powerful belief systems that on the one hand allow us to rapidly discard “irrelevant” information and quickly get to the important point, but on the other hand they may inhibit us from seeing what is truly of value. Discordant and negative studies are important disruptors along the path to easy data

  4. The potential value of discordant studies.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Many aspects of the clinical application of gated-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been well established by multiple trials and studies. However, its utility in the elderly (i.e., the Medicare population in the USA) remains unclear. This is an important population due to its rapid growth, coupled with the increasing prevalence of coronary artery disease with age. A paper in this issue, Predictive value of exercise myocardial perfusion imaging in the Medicare population: the impact of the ability to exercise, indicates that while gated-SPECT clearly directs the performance of interventions at the level of the coronary arteries in the elderly, outcomes are worse for those receiving an intervention vs. those receiving medical therapy. While some literature supports this observation, there are also well documented studies that indicate that the opposite is the case. As consumers of discordant studies, we find ourselves in the unenviable position of having to pull at the threads of evidence and follow them through in an attempt to reconcile the conflicting literature. This is reminiscent of the mythical Gregorian knot, a knot that was impossible to unravel by conventional means. However, it was "solved" by cutting it with a sword. In our case, the sword that we have is the removal of bias. It has been said that there are no unbiased studies, since we only measure what we believe and we tend to believe what we measure. This is further compounded in clinical practice since the Hippocratic Oath requires that the physician above all do no harm. Therefore it follows that whatever action is done is at least not detrimental to the patient. These are powerful belief systems that on the one hand allow us to rapidly discard "irrelevant" information and quickly get to the important point, but on the other hand they may inhibit us from seeing what is truly of value. Discordant and negative studies are important disruptors along the path to easy data

  5. Quantum Entanglement and Quantum Discord in Gaussian Open Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Isar, Aurelian

    2011-10-03

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable quantum entanglement and quantum discord for a system consisting of two noninteracting modes embedded in a thermal environment. Entanglement and discord are used to quantify the quantum correlations of the system. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable Gaussian state remains separable for all times. In the case of an entangled initial Gaussian state, entanglement suppression (entanglement sudden death) takes place for non-zero temperatures of the environment. Only for a zero temperature of the thermal bath the initial entangled state remains entangled for finite times. We analyze the time evolution of the Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the bipartite state, including entanglement, and show that quantum discord decays asymptotically in time under the effect of the thermal bath.

  6. Microevolutionary processes generate phylogenomic discordance at ancient divergences.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jeffrey C

    2013-06-01

    Stochastic population processes may cause differences between species histories and gene histories. These processes are assumed to only influence the most recent divergences in the tree of life; however, there may be underappreciated potential for microevolutionary processes to impact deep divergences. I used multispecies coalescent models to determine the impact of stochastic processes on deep phylogenomic histories. Here I show phylogenomic discordance between gene histories and species histories is expected at deep divergences for many eukaryotic taxa, and the probability of discordance increases with population size, generation time, and the number of species in the tree. Five eukaryotic clades (angiosperms, birds, harpaline beetles, mammals, and nymphalid butterflies) demonstrate significant discordance potential at divergences over 50 million years old, and this discordance potential is independent of the age of divergence. These findings demonstrate population processes acting over very short timescales will leave a lasting impact on genomic histories, even for divergence events occurring tens to hundreds of millions of years ago.

  7. Collapse–revival of quantum discord and entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Xue-Qun Zhang, Bo-Ying

    2014-10-15

    In this paper the correlations dynamics of two atoms in the case of a micromaser-type system is investigated. Our results predict certain quasi-periodic collapse and revival phenomena for quantum discord and entanglement when the field is in Fock state and the two atoms are initially in maximally mixed state, which is a special separable state. Our calculations also show that the oscillations of the time evolution of both quantum discord and entanglement are almost in phase and they both have similar evolution behavior in some time range. The fact reveals the consistency of quantum discord and entanglement in some dynamical aspects. - Highlights: • The correlations dynamics of two atoms in the case of a micromaser-type system is investigated. • A quasi-periodic collapse and revival phenomenon for quantum discord and entanglement is reported. • A phenomenon of correlations revivals different from that of non-Markovian dynamics is revealed. • The oscillations of time evolution of both quantum discord and entanglement are almost in phase in our system. • Quantum discord and entanglement have similar evolution behavior in some time range.

  8. Total lymphoid irradiation and discordant cardiac xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, E.; Dresdale, A.R.; Diehl, J.T.; Katzen, N.A.; Aronovitz, M.J.; Konstam, M.A.; Payne, D.D.; Cleveland, R.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation can prolong concordant cardiac xenografts. The effects of total lymphoid irradiation in a discordant xenograft model (guinea pig to rat) were studied with and without adjuvant pharmacologic immunosuppression. Inbred Lewis rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups. Group 1 (n = 6) served as a control group and rats received no immunosuppression. Group 2 (n = 5) received triple-drug therapy that consisted of intraperitoneal azathioprine (2 mg/kg), cyclosporine (20 mg/kg), and methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg) for 1 week before transplantation. Group 3 animals (n = 5) received 15 Gy of total lymphoid irradiation in 12 divided doses over a 3-week period. Group 4 (n = 6) received both triple-drug therapy and total lymphoid irradiation as described for groups 2 and 3. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay was performed to determine if a correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and rejection-free interval existed. Rejection was defined as cessation of graft pulsation and was confirmed by histologic test results. Only groups 1 and 2 showed a difference in survival (group 1, 6.9 +/- 1.0 minutes; group 2, 14.2 +/- 2.7 minutes, p = 0.02). Although total lymphoid irradiation did decrease complement-dependent cytotoxicity, linear regression revealed no correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and graft survival (coefficient of correlation, 0.30). Unlike concordant cardiac xenografts, total lymphoid irradiation with or without triple-drug therapy does not prolong graft survival.

  9. Monoamniotic monochorionic twins discordant for noncompaction cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ng, Dianna; Bouhlal, Yosr; Ursell, Philip C; Shieh, Joseph T C

    2013-06-01

    Occasionally "identical twins" are phenotypically different, raising the question of zygosity and the issue of genetic versus environmental influences during development. We recently noted monochorionic-monoamniotic twins, one of which had an isolated cardiac abnormality, noncompaction cardiomyopathy, a condition characterized by cardiac ventricular hypertrabeculation. We examined the prenatal course and subsequent pathologic correlation since ventricular morphogenesis may depend on early muscular contraction and blood flow. The monochorionic-monoamniotic female twin pair was initially identified since one fetus presented with increased nuchal translucency. Complete heart block was later identified in the fetus with nuchal translucency who did not survive after delivery. In contrast, the unaffected twin had normal cardiac studies both prenatally and postnatally. Pathologic analysis of the affected twin demonstrated noncompaction of the left ventricle with dysplasia of the aortic and pulmonary valves. Dissection of the cardiac conduction system disclosed atrioventricular bundle fibrosis. Maternal lupus studies, amniocentesis with karyotype, and studies for 22q11.2 were normal. To test for zygosity, we performed multiple STR marker analysis and found that all markers were shared even using nonblood tissues from the affected twin. These studies demonstrate that monozygotic twins that are monochorionic monoamniotic can be discordant for cardiac noncompaction. The results suggest further investigation into the potential roles of pathologic fibrosis, contractility, and blood flow in cardiac ventricle development. PMID:23636980

  10. Evaluation of two HIV antibody confirmatory assays: Geenius™ HIV1/2 Confirmatory Assay and the recomLine HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG Line Immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Friedrichs, I; Buus, C; Berger, A; Keppler, O T; Rabenau, H F

    2015-11-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of an HIV infection mainly depends on the detection of HIV-specific antibodies/HIV p24 antigen whereby different algorithms for the confirmation of reactive screening assays exist. The objective of the present study was to compare the performance of two supplemental HIV antibody confirmatory assays: the Geenius™ HIV1/2 Confirmatory Assay and the recomLine HIV-1 & HIV-2 IgG Line Immunoassay. Therefore 279 serum samples previously analyzed for HIV during routine diagnostics at the Institute for Medical Virology, National Reference Center for Retroviruses, University Hospital Frankfurt, were analyzed retrospectively. 96.8% samples had concordant results in both HIV confirmatory assays, whereby the Geenius Assay showed a discrimination rate of 100% while two HIV-1 samples were not typeable with the recomLine Assay. Overall assay sensitivity was 100% in both assays and specificity was 99.0% (recomLine Assay) and 93.4% (Geenius Assay), respectively. The κ-values for both assays indicated high agreement. Overall nine samples had discordant results from which four were from acutely EBV/CMV-infected patients and one from a patient with primary HIV-1 infection during seroconversion. In conclusion, both assays are well suited for the detection, confirmation and discrimination of HIV-1- and -2-specific antibodies.

  11. PREDICTORS OF DISCORDANCE BETWEEN PERCEIVED AND OBJECTIVE NEIGHBORHOOD DATA

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Erin J.; Malecki, Kristen C.; Engelman, Corinne D.; Walsh, Matthew C.; Bersch, Andrew J.; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Peppard, Paul E.; Nieto, F. Javier

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pathways by which the social and built environments affect health can be influenced by differences between perception and reality. This discordance is an important for understanding health impacts of the built environment. This study examines associations between perceived and objective measures of 12 non-residential destinations, as well as previously unexplored sociodemographic, lifestyle, neighborhood and urbanicity predictors of discordance. Methods Perceived neighborhood data were collected from participants of the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), using a self-administered questionnaire. Objective data were collected using the Wisconsin Assessment of the Social and Built Environment, an audit-based instrument assessing built environment features around each participant’s residence. Results Overall, there was relatively high agreement, ranging from 50% for proximity to parks to >90% for golf courses. Education, positive neighborhood perceptions, and rurality were negatively associated with discordance. Associations between discordance and depression, disease status, and lifestyle factors appeared to be modified by urbanicity level. Conclusions These data show perceived and objective neighborhood environment data are not interchangeable and the level of discordance is associated with or modified by individual and neighborhood factors, including level of urbanicity. These results suggest that consideration should be given to including both types of measures in future studies. PMID:24467991

  12. Power in a Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pam

    2009-01-01

    The work unions do in providing and supporting learning for their members rarely makes the news headlines, but it will be essential if people are to engage those workers who most need to acquire new and better skills to cope in the economic downturn. In this article, the author talks about the power in a union and describes UNISON, a comparatively…

  13. Teacher Unions 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher unions are hard to miss in the news lately. Newspapers, blogs, social media posts, magazine articles, and political speeches abound with talk of them. Teacher unions are a hot topic and one that probably was not covered in college classes. The noisy back-and-forth among partisans can be both mind-numbing and confusing, often creating a…

  14. Sustainability in the Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patrick; Taylor, John

    2012-01-01

    Operating as the center of student life, college unions have a central role to teach citizenship, social responsibility, and leadership. Unions can serve as locations for education and conversations about sustainability, as well as for organizations operationally and programmatically engaged in sustainable practices. In this chapter, the authors…

  15. My partner wants a child: A cross-sectional study of the determinants of the desire for children among mutually disclosed sero-discordant couples receiving care in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The percentages of couples in HIV sero-discordant relationships range from 5 to 31% in the various countries of Africa. Given the importance of procreation and the lack of assisted reproduction to avoid partner transmission, members of these couples are faced with a serious dilemma even after the challenge of disclosing their HIV status to their spouses. Identifying the determinants of the decision to have children among sero-discordant couples will help in setting reproductive intervention priorities in resource-poor countries. Methods We conducted a survey among 114 mutually disclosed sero-discordant couples (228 individuals) receiving HIV care at four centres in Greater Kampala, between June and December 2007. The data we collected was classified according to whether the man or the woman was HIV-positive. We carried out multivariate logistic regression modelling to determine factors (age, gender, and the influences of relatives and of health workers, ART knowledge, and disclosure) that are independently associated with a desire for children. Results The majority, 59%, of the participants, desired to have children. The belief that their partner wanted children was a major determinant of the desire to have children, irrespective of the HIV sero-status (adjusted odds ratio 24.0 (95% CI 9.15, 105.4)). Among couples in which the woman was HIV-positive, young age and relatives' expectations for children were significantly associated with increased fertility desire, while among couples in which the man was positive; knowledge of ART effectiveness was associated with increased fertility desire. Availability of information on contraception was associated with decreased fertility desire. Conclusions The gender of the positive partner affects the factors associated with a desire for children. Interventions targeting sero-discordant couples should explore contraceptive choices, the cultural importance of children, and partner communication. PMID:20465794

  16. Predicting discordance between self-reports of sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections with African American female adolescents: results from a 4-city study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Salazar, Laura F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Brown, Larry K; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert F; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-08-01

    This study examined correlates of the discordance between sexual behavior self-reports and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections. African American adolescent females (N = 964) from four U.S. cities were recruited for an HIV/STI prevention trial. Self-reported sexual behaviors, demographics, and hypothesized psychosocial antecedents of sexual risk behavior were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Urine specimens were collected and tested for three prevalent STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas) at each assessment. Seventeen percent of participants with a laboratory-confirmed STI reported either lifetime abstinence or recent abstinence from vaginal sex (discordant self-report). Lower STI knowledge, belief that fewer peers were engaging in sex, and belief that more peers will wait until marriage to have sex were associated with discordant reports. Discordance between self-reported abstinence and incident STIs was marked among African American female adolescents. Lack of STI knowledge and sexual behavior peer norms may result in underreporting of sexual behaviors.

  17. Incorporating couples-based approaches into HIV prevention for gay and bisexual men: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Purcell, David W; Mizuno, Yoko; Smith, Dawn K; Grabbe, Kristina; Courtenay-Quick, Cari; Tomlinson, Hank; Mermin, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Thirty years after the beginning of the HIV epidemic, gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively called MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV in the United States and continue to acquire a distressingly high number and proportion of new infections. Historically, HIV prevention for MSM has been focused on individual-level behavior change, rarely intervening with MSM as part of a couple. Yet, an estimated 33–67% of HIV infections among MSM are acquired from primary sexual partners, suggesting that work with MSM as couples could be an important contributor to prevention. Given the emergence of high impact combination HIV prevention, it is timely to consider how work with the broad variety of male couples can improve both personal and community health. Couples HIV testing and counseling for MSM is an important advance for identifying men who are unaware that they are HIV-positive, identifying HIV-discordant couples, and supporting men who want to learn their HIV status with their partner. Once men know their HIV status, new advances in biomedical prevention, which can dramatically reduce risk of HIV transmission or acquisition, allow men to make prevention decisions that can protect themselves and their partners. This paper highlights the present-day challenges and benefits of using a couples-based approach with MSM in the era of combination prevention to increase knowledge of HIV status, increase identification of HIV discordant couples to improve targeting prevention services,and support mutual disclosure of HIV status.

  18. Experimental entanglement activation from discord in a programmable quantum measurement.

    PubMed

    Adesso, Gerardo; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Nagali, Eleonora; Piani, Marco; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2014-04-11

    In quantum mechanics, observing is not a passive act. Consider a system of two quantum particles A and B: if a measurement apparatus M is used to make an observation on B, the overall state of the system AB will typically be altered. When this happens, no matter which local measurement is performed, the two objects A and B are revealed to possess peculiar correlations known as quantum discord. Here, we demonstrate experimentally that the very act of local observation gives rise to an activation protocol which converts discord into distillable entanglement, a stronger and more useful form of quantum correlations, between the apparatus M and the composite system AB. We adopt a flexible two-photon setup to realize a three-qubit system (A, B, M) with programmable degrees of initial correlations, measurement interaction, and characterization processes. Our experiment demonstrates the fundamental mechanism underpinning the ubiquitous act of observing the quantum world and establishes the potential of discord in entanglement generation.

  19. Quantum discord and entanglement in grover search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Bin; Zhang, Tingzhong; Qiu, Liang; Wang, Xuesong

    2016-06-01

    Imperfections and noise in realistic quantum computers may seriously affect the accuracy of quantum algorithms. In this article we explore the impact of static imperfections on quantum entanglement as well as non-entangled quantum correlations in Grover's search algorithm. Using the metrics of concurrence and geometric quantum discord, we show that both the evolution of entanglement and quantum discord in Grover algorithm can be restrained with the increasing strength of static imperfections. For very weak imperfections, the quantum entanglement and discord exhibit periodic behavior, while the periodicity will most certainly be destroyed with stronger imperfections. Moreover, entanglement sudden death may occur when the strength of static imperfections is greater than a certain threshold.

  20. Discordance between patient and surgeon satisfaction after total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ian A; Harris, Anita M; Naylor, Justine M; Adie, Sam; Mittal, Rajat; Dao, Alan T

    2013-05-01

    We surveyed 331 patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty pre-operatively, and patients and surgeons were both surveyed 6 and 12 months post-operatively. We identified variables (demographic factors, operative factors and patient expectations) as possible predictors for discordance in patient-surgeon satisfaction. At 12 months, 94.5% of surgeons and 90.3% of patients recorded satisfaction with the outcome. The discordance between patient and surgeon satisfaction was mainly due to patient dissatisfaction-surgeon satisfaction. In an adjusted analysis, the strongest predictors of discordance in patient-surgeon satisfaction were unmet patient expectations and the presence of complications. Advice to potential joint arthroplasty candidates regarding the decision to proceed with surgery should be informed by patient reported outcomes, rather than the surgeon's opinion of the likelihood of success.

  1. Sexual discordance and sexual partnering among heterosexual women.

    PubMed

    Nield, Jennifer; Magnusson, Brianna; Brooks, Christopher; Chapman, Derek; Lapane, Kate L

    2015-05-01

    This study examined characteristics of self-identified heterosexual women who were concordant or discordant in their sexual behavior and the association of discordance and sexual partnering among those aged 15-44 years from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (n = 7,353). Sexual concordance was defined as reporting a heterosexual identity and no female partners in the past year; discordance was reporting a heterosexual identity and having at least one female partner in the past year. Sexual partnering was defined as being concurrent, serially monogamous or monogamous with a male partner in the previous year. Polytomous logistic regression models evaluated the association between sexual discordance and sexual partnering. Among self-identified heterosexual, sexually active women, 11.2 % reported ever having had a same sex partner. Heterosexually discordant women who had both male and female partners in the previous year were 5.5 times as likely to report having a concurrent relationship (95 % CI 2.77-11.09) and 2.4 times as likely to report engaging in serially monogamous relationships (95 % CI 1.19-4.97) with male partners. Discordance between heterosexual identity and same sex behavior is a factor in risky behaviors. Women who have sex with women and men may act as bridges for the transmission of STDs, particularly to their female partners. Sexual education should include information inclusive of non-heteronormative behaviors and identities to provide sexual minorities with the tools and information they need. Clinical guidelines should ensure that all women are offered counseling and screening for reproductive and sexual health.

  2. Gene Tree Discordance Causes Apparent Substitution Rate Variation.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Fábio K; Hahn, Matthew W

    2016-07-01

    Substitution rates are known to be variable among genes, chromosomes, species, and lineages due to multifarious biological processes. Here, we consider another source of substitution rate variation due to a technical bias associated with gene tree discordance. Discordance has been found to be rampant in genome-wide data sets, often due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). This apparent substitution rate variation is caused when substitutions that occur on discordant gene trees are analyzed in the context of a single, fixed species tree. Such substitutions have to be resolved by proposing multiple substitutions on the species tree, and we therefore refer to this phenomenon as Substitutions Produced by ILS (SPILS). We use simulations to demonstrate that SPILS has a larger effect with increasing levels of ILS, and on trees with larger numbers of taxa. Specific branches of the species trees are consistently, but erroneously, inferred to be longer or shorter, and we show that these branches can be predicted based on discordant tree topologies. Moreover, we observe that fixing a species tree topology when performing tests of positive selection increases the false positive rate, particularly for genes whose discordant topologies are most affected by SPILS. Finally, we use data from multiple Drosophila species to show that SPILS can be detected in nature. Although the effects of SPILS are modest per gene, it has the potential to affect substitution rate variation whenever high levels of ILS are present, particularly in rapid radiations. The problems outlined here have implications for character mapping of any type of trait, and for any biological process that causes discordance. We discuss possible solutions to these problems, and areas in which they are likely to have caused faulty inferences of convergence and accelerated evolution.

  3. Discordant sex in one of three monozygotic triplets.

    PubMed Central

    Dallapiccola, B; Stomeo, C; Ferranti, G; Di Lecce, A; Purpura, M

    1985-01-01

    A case is reported of monozygotic triplets, discordant for phenotypic sex, in which the female presented at birth with the features of Turner's syndrome. Chromosomal analyses showed homogeneous 46,XY karyotypes in the lymphocytes of the three sibs, while a 45,X non-mosaic chromosome constitution was detected in skin fibroblasts of the female triplet. It is suggested that mitotic non-disjunction or anaphase lag occurring early during embryonic development accounted for the occurrence of monosomy X in one cell line of the affected triplet. Previous observations of monozygotic twin pairs discordant for chromosome constitutions are reviewed. Images PMID:3856681

  4. Entanglement irreversibility from quantum discord and quantum deficit.

    PubMed

    Cornelio, Marcio F; de Oliveira, Marcos C; Fanchini, Felipe F

    2011-07-01

    We relate the problem of irreversibility of entanglement with the recently defined measures of quantum correlation--quantum discord and one-way quantum deficit. We show that the entanglement of formation is always strictly larger than the coherent information and the entanglement cost is also larger in most cases. We prove irreversibility of entanglement under local operations and classical communication for a family of entangled states. This family is a generalization of the maximally correlated states for which we also give an analytic expression for the distillable entanglement, the relative entropy of entanglement, the distillable secret key, and the quantum discord.

  5. How discord underlies the noise resilience of quantum illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weedbrook, Christian; Pirandola, Stefano; Thompson, Jayne; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, Mile

    2016-04-01

    The benefits of entanglement can outlast entanglement itself. In quantum illumination, entanglement is employed to better detect reflecting objects in environments so noisy that all entanglement is destroyed. Here, we show that quantum discord—a more resilient form of quantum correlations—explains the resilience of quantum illumination. We introduce a quantitative relation between the performance gain in quantum illumination and the amount of discord used to encode information about the presence or absence of a reflecting object. This highlights discords role preserving the benefits of entanglement in entanglement breaking noise.

  6. Monochorionic dizygous twins presenting with blood chimerism and discordant sex.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Dominique; van Vugt, John M G; Gomes, Ingrid; van den Heuvel, Simone; van Heijst, Arno; Reuss, Annette; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedi L

    2013-08-01

    Monochorionic dizygous twins are probably more frequent than considered previously as many cases remain unrecognized, especially when the children have the same sex. Here we present a pair of dizygous, sex-discordant monochorionic twins who were conceived after artificial insemination. Histological examination of the placenta and extensive genetic studies of the healthy boy and girl clearly proved that they indeed were monochorionic dizygous twins with a fully joined blood circulation. We conclude that when counseling parents expecting monochorionic twins of discordant sex, not only a disorder of sexual differentiation in one of the twins should be addressed but also the possibility of dizygosity with a completely normal (sexual) development of both children.

  7. Quantification of quantum discord in a antiferromagnetic Heisenberg compound

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, H. Chakraborty, T. Mitra, C.

    2014-04-24

    An experimental quantification of concurrence and quantum discord from heat capacity (C{sub p}) measurement performed over a solid state system has been reported. In this work, thermodynamic measurements were performed on copper nitrate (CN, Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}⋅2.5H{sub 2}O) single crystals which is an alternating antiferromagnet Heisenberg spin 1/2 system. CN being a weak dimerized antiferromagnet is an ideal system to investigate correlations between spins. The theoretical expressions were used to obtain concurrence and quantum discord curves as a function of temperature from heat capacity data of a real macroscopic system, CN.

  8. Marital Discord and Subsequent Marital Dissolution: Perceptions of Nepalese Wives and Husbands.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Elyse

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the influence of marital discord on separation and divorce in a rural South Asian setting. We know little about how marital discord influences marital outcomes in settings with low personal freedom and limited access to independence. Using a sample of 674 couples from the Chitwan Valley Family Study in Nepal, this paper investigates the impact of marital discord on the rate of marital dissolution, and the extent to which wives' and husbands' perceptions of discord influence dissolution. Results reveal that (a) spouses' perceptions of marital discord increase the rate of marital dissolution, (b) both husbands' and wives' perceptions of discord have an important influence, and (c) the influence of wives' perceptions of discord is independent of their husbands' perceptions. Overall, these findings suggest that both spouses' perceptions of discord are important for marital outcomes, even in settings where the costs of marital dissolution are relatively high. PMID:25484450

  9. Marital Discord and Subsequent Marital Dissolution: Perceptions of Nepalese Wives and Husbands

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Elyse

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of marital discord on separation and divorce in a rural South Asian setting. We know little about how marital discord influences marital outcomes in settings with low personal freedom and limited access to independence. Using a sample of 674 couples from the Chitwan Valley Family Study in Nepal, this paper investigates the impact of marital discord on the rate of marital dissolution, and the extent to which wives’ and husbands’ perceptions of discord influence dissolution. Results reveal that (a) spouses’ perceptions of marital discord increase the rate of marital dissolution, (b) both husbands’ and wives’ perceptions of discord have an important influence, and (c) the influence of wives’ perceptions of discord is independent of their husbands’ perceptions. Overall, these findings suggest that both spouses’ perceptions of discord are important for marital outcomes, even in settings where the costs of marital dissolution are relatively high. PMID:25484450

  10. Nonparametric Test of Discordance with Ordered Alternatives for "J" Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, T. Mark

    Robustness and power of parametric, semi-parametric, and nonparametric tests of between-group discordance were compared in this simulation study. The empirical Type I error rates and power of nine tests were compared. When data were sampled from the any differences especially favor young women in single-sex Catholic secondary schools, and whether…

  11. Sex-discordant monochorionic twins with blood and tissue chimerism.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Buritica, David; Rojnueangnit, Kitiwan; Messiaen, Ludwine M; Mikhail, Fady M; Robin, Nathaniel H

    2015-04-01

    We report on a pair of normally conceived monochorionic/dizygotic (MC/DZ) sex discordant twins. The comparison of blood and skin genotypes revealed that the chimerism was also present in the skin. We conjecture about the developmental origins of this case.

  12. Evaluating evolutionary history in the face of high gene tree discordance in Australian Gehyra (Reptilia: Gekkonidae).

    PubMed

    Sistrom, M; Hutchinson, M; Bertozzi, T; Donnellan, S

    2014-07-01

    Species tree methods have provided improvements for estimating species relationships and the timing of diversification in recent radiations by allowing for gene tree discordance. Although gene tree discordance is often observed, most discordance is attributed to incomplete lineage sorting rather than other biological phenomena, and the causes of discordance are rarely investigated. We use species trees from multi-locus data to estimate the species relationships, evolutionary history and timing of diversification among Australian Gehyra-a group renowned for taxonomic uncertainty and showing a large degree of gene tree discordance. We find support for a recent Asian origin and two major clades: a tropically adapted clade and an arid adapted clade, with some exceptions, but no support for allopatric speciation driven by chromosomal rearrangement in the group. Bayesian concordance analysis revealed high gene tree discordance and comparisons of Robinson-Foulds distances showed that discordance between gene trees was significantly higher than that generated by topological uncertainty within each gene. Analysis of gene tree discordance and incomplete taxon sampling revealed that gene tree discordance was high whether terminal taxon or gene sampling was maximized, indicating discordance is due to biological processes, which may be important in contributing to gene tree discordance in many recently diversified organisms.

  13. Evaluating evolutionary history in the face of high gene tree discordance in Australian Gehyra (Reptilia: Gekkonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sistrom, M; Hutchinson, M; Bertozzi, T; Donnellan, S

    2014-01-01

    Species tree methods have provided improvements for estimating species relationships and the timing of diversification in recent radiations by allowing for gene tree discordance. Although gene tree discordance is often observed, most discordance is attributed to incomplete lineage sorting rather than other biological phenomena, and the causes of discordance are rarely investigated. We use species trees from multi-locus data to estimate the species relationships, evolutionary history and timing of diversification among Australian Gehyra—a group renowned for taxonomic uncertainty and showing a large degree of gene tree discordance. We find support for a recent Asian origin and two major clades: a tropically adapted clade and an arid adapted clade, with some exceptions, but no support for allopatric speciation driven by chromosomal rearrangement in the group. Bayesian concordance analysis revealed high gene tree discordance and comparisons of Robinson–Foulds distances showed that discordance between gene trees was significantly higher than that generated by topological uncertainty within each gene. Analysis of gene tree discordance and incomplete taxon sampling revealed that gene tree discordance was high whether terminal taxon or gene sampling was maximized, indicating discordance is due to biological processes, which may be important in contributing to gene tree discordance in many recently diversified organisms. PMID:24642886

  14. Comparison of the attempts of quantum discord and quantum entanglement to capture quantum correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Qasimi, Asma Al-; James, Daniel F. V.

    2011-03-15

    Measurements of quantum systems disturb their states. To quantify this nonclassical characteristic, Zurek and Ollivier [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 017901 (2001)] introduced the quantum discord, a quantum correlation that can be nonzero even when entanglement in the system is zero. Discord has aroused great interest as a resource that is more robust against the effects of decoherence and offers the exponential speed-up of certain computational algorithms. Here, we study general two-level bipartite systems and give general results on the relationship between discord, entanglement, and linear entropy. We also identify the states for which discord takes a maximal value for a given entropy or entanglement, thus placing strong bounds on entanglement-discord and entropy-discord relations. We find out that although discord and entanglement are identical for pure states, they differ when generalized to mixed states as a result of the difference in the method of generalization.

  15. Sexual health for people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Kathy; Ray, Sunanda

    2007-05-01

    Sexual health is defined in terms of well-being, but is challenged by the social, cultural and economic realities faced by women and men with HIV. A sexual rights approach puts women and men with HIV in charge of their sexual health. Accurate, accessible information to make informed choices and safe, pleasurable sexual relationships possible is best delivered through peer education and health professionals trained in empathetic approaches to sensitive issues. Young people with HIV especially need appropriate sex education and support for dealing with sexuality and self-identity with HIV. Women and men with HIV need condoms, appropriate services for sexually transmitted infections, sexual dysfunction and management of cervical and anogenital cancers. Interventions based on positive prevention, that combine protection of personal health with avoiding HIV/STI transmission to partners, are recommended. HIV counselling following a positive test has increased condom use and decreased coercive sex and outside sexual contacts among discordant couples. HIV treatment and care have reduced stigma and increased uptake of HIV testing and disclosure of positive status to partners. High adherence to antiretroviral therapy and safer sexual behaviour must go hand-in-hand. Sexual health services have worked with peer educators and volunteer groups to reach those at higher risk, such as sex workers. Technological advances in diagnosis of STIs, microbicide development and screening and vaccination for human papillomavirus must be available in developing countries and for those with the highest need globally.

  16. Theorizing "Big Events" as a potential risk environment for drug use, drug-related harm and HIV epidemic outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel R; Rossi, Diana; Braine, Naomi

    2009-05-01

    Political-economic transitions in the Soviet Union, Indonesia, and China, but not the Philippines, were followed by HIV epidemics among drug users. Wars also may sometimes increase HIV risk. Based on similarities in some of the causal pathways through which wars and transitions can affect HIV risk, we use the term "Big Events" to include both. We first critique several prior epidemiological models of Big Events as inadequately incorporating social agency and as somewhat imprecise and over-generalizing in their sociology. We then suggest a model using the following concepts: first, event-specific HIV transmission probabilities are functions of (a) the probability that partners are infection-discordant; (b) the infection-susceptibility of the uninfected partner; (c) the infectivity of the infected--as well as (d) the behaviours engaged in. These probabilities depend on the distributions of HIV and other variables in populations. Sexual or injection events incorporate risk behaviours and are embedded in sexual and injection partnership patterns and community networks, which in turn are shaped by the content of normative regulation in communities. Wars and transitions can change socio-economic variables that can sometimes precipitate increases in the numbers of people who engage in high-risk drug and sexual networks and behaviours and in the riskiness of what they do. These variables that Big Events affect may include population displacement; economic difficulties and policies; police corruption, repressiveness, and failure to preserve order; health services; migration; social movements; gender roles; and inter-communal violence--which, in turn, affect normative regulation, youth alienation, networks and behaviours. As part of these pathways, autonomous action by neighbourhood residents, teenagers, drug users and sex workers to maintain their economic welfare, health or happiness may affect many of these variables or otherwise mediate whether HIV epidemics follow

  17. Theorizing "Big Events" as a potential risk environment for drug use, drug-related harm and HIV epidemic outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel R; Rossi, Diana; Braine, Naomi

    2009-05-01

    Political-economic transitions in the Soviet Union, Indonesia, and China, but not the Philippines, were followed by HIV epidemics among drug users. Wars also may sometimes increase HIV risk. Based on similarities in some of the causal pathways through which wars and transitions can affect HIV risk, we use the term "Big Events" to include both. We first critique several prior epidemiological models of Big Events as inadequately incorporating social agency and as somewhat imprecise and over-generalizing in their sociology. We then suggest a model using the following concepts: first, event-specific HIV transmission probabilities are functions of (a) the probability that partners are infection-discordant; (b) the infection-susceptibility of the uninfected partner; (c) the infectivity of the infected--as well as (d) the behaviours engaged in. These probabilities depend on the distributions of HIV and other variables in populations. Sexual or injection events incorporate risk behaviours and are embedded in sexual and injection partnership patterns and community networks, which in turn are shaped by the content of normative regulation in communities. Wars and transitions can change socio-economic variables that can sometimes precipitate increases in the numbers of people who engage in high-risk drug and sexual networks and behaviours and in the riskiness of what they do. These variables that Big Events affect may include population displacement; economic difficulties and policies; police corruption, repressiveness, and failure to preserve order; health services; migration; social movements; gender roles; and inter-communal violence--which, in turn, affect normative regulation, youth alienation, networks and behaviours. As part of these pathways, autonomous action by neighbourhood residents, teenagers, drug users and sex workers to maintain their economic welfare, health or happiness may affect many of these variables or otherwise mediate whether HIV epidemics follow

  18. HIV transmission and related risk factors among serodiscordant couples in Liuzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Jing; Feng, Xian-Xiang; Fan, Yin-Guang; Jiang, Zhi-Yu; Zhong, Xiang-Hai; Li, Ming-Qiang; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroconversion of HIV-negative partners among HIV-discordant couples in Liuzhou, China, 1854 eligible HIV-serodiscordant couples were retrospectively identified through the HIV epidemiology and follow-up database from January 1, 1996 to June 30, 2013. Cox proportional-hazards model was used to examine risk factors related to HIV seroconversion of negative partners. Finally, 125 HIV seroconversion occurred over 4963.5 person-years, resulting in an overall HIV incidence of 2.52/100 person-years. HIV-positive partners with the last CD4 counts of 350 cells/ul or more were significantly protected against HIV seroconversion compared with those CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/ul (aHR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27-0.81, P < 0.01). Men with HIV-positive wives (aHR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.27-3.02, P < 0.01), HIV-positive partners who did not receive ART before their HIV-negative partners' seroconversion (aHR: 2.22, 95% CI, 1.41-3.51, P < 0.01) and patients reported intermittent condom use (aHR: 7.60, 95% CI, 4.37-13.21, P < 0.01) were associated with increased risk of HIV seroconversion. HIV-negative partners remain high risk of HIV infection in Liuzhou city. Comprehensive package of HIV prevention services should contribute to reduction in HIV transmission of discordant couples.

  19. General monogamy property of global quantum discord and the application

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Zhao, Li-Ming; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng

    2014-09-15

    We provide a family of general monogamy inequalities for global quantum discord (GQD), which can be considered as an extension of the usual discord monogamy inequality. It can be shown that those inequalities are satisfied under the similar condition for the holding of usual monogamy relation. We find that there is an intrinsic connection among them. Furthermore, we present a different type of monogamy inequality and prove that it holds under the condition that the bipartite GQDs do not increase when tracing out some subsystems. We also study the residual GQD based on the second type of monogamy inequality. As applications of those quantities, we investigate the GQDs and residual GQD in characterizing the quantum phase transition in the transverse field Ising model.

  20. Linking quantum discord to entanglement in a measurement.

    PubMed

    Streltsov, Alexander; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruss, Dagmar

    2011-04-22

    We show that a von Neumann measurement on a part of a composite quantum system unavoidably creates distillable entanglement between the measurement apparatus and the system if the state has nonzero quantum discord. The minimal distillable entanglement is equal to the one-way information deficit. The quantum discord is shown to be equal to the minimal partial distillable entanglement that is the part of entanglement which is lost, when we ignore the subsystem which is not measured. We then show that any entanglement measure corresponds to some measure of quantum correlations. This powerful correspondence also yields necessary properties for quantum correlations. We generalize the results to multipartite measurements on a part of the system and on the total system.

  1. Complementarity of quantum discord and classically accessible information

    SciTech Connect

    Zwolak, Michael P.; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2013-05-20

    The sum of the Holevo quantity (that bounds the capacity of quantum channels to transmit classical information about an observable) and the quantum discord (a measure of the quantumness of correlations of that observable) yields an observable-independent total given by the quantum mutual information. This split naturally delineates information about quantum systems accessible to observers – information that is redundantly transmitted by the environment – while showing that it is maximized for the quasi-classical pointer observable. Other observables are accessible only via correlations with the pointer observable. In addition, we prove an anti-symmetry property relating accessible information and discord. It shows that information becomes objective – accessible to many observers – only as quantum information is relegated to correlations with the global environment, and, therefore, locally inaccessible. Lastly, the resulting complementarity explains why, in a quantum Universe, we perceive objective classical reality while flagrantly quantum superpositions are out of reach.

  2. Complementarity of quantum discord and classically accessible information

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zwolak, Michael P.; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2013-05-20

    The sum of the Holevo quantity (that bounds the capacity of quantum channels to transmit classical information about an observable) and the quantum discord (a measure of the quantumness of correlations of that observable) yields an observable-independent total given by the quantum mutual information. This split naturally delineates information about quantum systems accessible to observers – information that is redundantly transmitted by the environment – while showing that it is maximized for the quasi-classical pointer observable. Other observables are accessible only via correlations with the pointer observable. In addition, we prove an anti-symmetry property relating accessible information and discord. Itmore » shows that information becomes objective – accessible to many observers – only as quantum information is relegated to correlations with the global environment, and, therefore, locally inaccessible. Lastly, the resulting complementarity explains why, in a quantum Universe, we perceive objective classical reality while flagrantly quantum superpositions are out of reach.« less

  3. Gaussian geometric discord in terms of Hellinger distance

    SciTech Connect

    Suciu, Serban Isar, Aurelian

    2015-12-07

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we address the quantification of general non-classical correlations in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems from a geometric perspective. We give a description of the Gaussian geometric discord by using the Hellinger distance as a measure for quantum correlations between two non-interacting non-resonant bosonic modes embedded in a thermal environment. We evaluate the Gaussian geometric discord by taking two-mode squeezed thermal states as initial states of the system and show that it has finite values between 0 and 1 and that it decays asymptotically to zero in time under the effect of the thermal bath.

  4. Complementarity of quantum discord and classically accessible information

    PubMed Central

    Zwolak, Michael; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2013-01-01

    The sum of the Holevo quantity (that bounds the capacity of quantum channels to transmit classical information about an observable) and the quantum discord (a measure of the quantumness of correlations of that observable) yields an observable-independent total given by the quantum mutual information. This split naturally delineates information about quantum systems accessible to observers – information that is redundantly transmitted by the environment – while showing that it is maximized for the quasi-classical pointer observable. Other observables are accessible only via correlations with the pointer observable. We also prove an anti-symmetry property relating accessible information and discord. It shows that information becomes objective – accessible to many observers – only as quantum information is relegated to correlations with the global environment, and, therefore, locally inaccessible. The resulting complementarity explains why, in a quantum Universe, we perceive objective classical reality while flagrantly quantum superpositions are out of reach.

  5. Vulnerable windows define susceptibility to alternans and spatial discordance.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Seth; Malhotra, Neha; Tung, Leslie

    2010-06-01

    Electrophysiological alternans is a beat-to-beat alternation of the action potential duration and/or Ca(2+) transient amplitude and is linked to ventricular arrhythmias. We investigated the significance of various rate parameters under different experimental conditions with respect to alternans incidence and the propensity for spiral wave formation. Voltage and Ca(2+) were optically mapped in monolayers of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Alternans did not occur at physiological temperature, but its incidence increased significantly at lowered temperatures. Pacing cycle length for spatially concordant alternans onset (PCL(C)), PCL for spatially discordant alternans onset (PCL(D)), and minimum cycle length for loss of 1:1 or 2:2 capture (MCL) also significantly increased with lower temperature but in a way such that the differences between PCL(C) and MCL and between PCL(D) and MCL widened. These results provided the rationale to identify the former difference as the alternans vulnerable window (AVW; in ms) and the latter difference as the discordant alternans vulnerable window (AVW(D); in ms). Computational simulations showed that interventions that widen AVW, including altered Ca(2+) cycling and enhanced K(+) currents, also promote alternans, regardless of whether PCL(C) or MCL increased or decreased. The simulation results were confirmed experimentally by addition of the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel agonist pinacidil. Mathematical analysis provided a theoretical basis linking the size of AVW to the incidence of alternans. Finally, experiments showed that the size of AVW(D) is related to the incidence of spatially discordant alternans and, additionally, to the incidence of spiral wave formation. In conclusion, vulnerable windows can be defined that are strongly correlated with alternans incidence, spatial discordance, and spiral wave formation.

  6. Methylomic analysis of monozygotic twins discordant for childhood psychotic symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L; Murphy, Therese M; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Viana, Joana; Hannon, Eilis; Pidsley, Ruth; Burrage, Joe; Dempster, Emma L; Wong, Chloe C Y; Pariante, Carmine M; Mill, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood psychotic symptoms are associated with increased rates of schizophrenia, other psychiatric disorders, and suicide attempts in adulthood; thus, elucidating early risk indicators is crucial to target prevention efforts. There is considerable discordance for psychotic symptoms between monozygotic twins, indicating that child-specific non-genetic factors must be involved. Epigenetic processes may constitute one of these factors and have not yet been investigated in relation to childhood psychotic symptoms. Therefore, this study explored whether differences in DNA methylation at age 10 were associated with monozygotic twin discordance for psychotic symptoms at age 12. The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study cohort of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) was assessed for age-12 psychotic symptoms and 24 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for symptoms were identified for methylomic comparison. Children provided buccal samples at ages 5 and 10. DNA was bisulfite modified and DNA methylation was quantified using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array. Differentially methylated positions (DMPs) associated with psychotic symptoms were subsequently tested in post-mortem prefrontal cortex tissue from adult schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls. Site-specific DNA methylation differences were observed at age 10 between monozygotic twins discordant for age-12 psychotic symptoms. Similar DMPs were not found at age 5. The top-ranked psychosis-associated DMP (cg23933044), located in the promoter of the C5ORF42 gene, was also hypomethylated in post-mortem prefrontal cortex brain tissue from schizophrenia patients compared to unaffected controls. These data tentatively suggest that epigenetic variation in peripheral tissue is associated with childhood psychotic symptoms and may indicate susceptibility to schizophrenia and other mental health problems. PMID:26479702

  7. Gut microbiomes of Malawian twin pairs discordant for kwashiorkor.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle I; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Manary, Mark J; Trehan, Indi; Mkakosya, Rajhab; Cheng, Jiye; Kau, Andrew L; Rich, Stephen S; Concannon, Patrick; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Liu, Jie; Houpt, Eric; Li, Jia V; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy; Knights, Dan; Ursell, Luke K; Knight, Rob; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2013-02-01

    Kwashiorkor, an enigmatic form of severe acute malnutrition, is the consequence of inadequate nutrient intake plus additional environmental insults. To investigate the role of the gut microbiome, we studied 317 Malawian twin pairs during the first 3 years of life. During this time, half of the twin pairs remained well nourished, whereas 43% became discordant, and 7% manifested concordance for acute malnutrition. Both children in twin pairs discordant for kwashiorkor were treated with a peanut-based, ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF). Time-series metagenomic studies revealed that RUTF produced a transient maturation of metabolic functions in kwashiorkor gut microbiomes that regressed when administration of RUTF was stopped. Previously frozen fecal communities from several discordant pairs were each transplanted into gnotobiotic mice. The combination of Malawian diet and kwashiorkor microbiome produced marked weight loss in recipient mice, accompanied by perturbations in amino acid, carbohydrate, and intermediary metabolism that were only transiently ameliorated with RUTF. These findings implicate the gut microbiome as a causal factor in kwashiorkor.

  8. Visual Bias Predicts Gait Adaptability in Novel Sensory Discordant Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Batson, Crystal D.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    We designed a gait training study that presented combinations of visual flow and support-surface manipulations to investigate the response of healthy adults to novel discordant sensorimotor conditions. We aimed to determine whether a relationship existed between subjects visual dependence and their postural stability and cognitive performance in a new discordant environment presented at the conclusion of training (Transfer Test). Our training system comprised a treadmill placed on a motion base facing a virtual visual scene that provided a variety of sensory challenges. Ten healthy adults completed 3 training sessions during which they walked on a treadmill at 1.1 m/s while receiving discordant support-surface and visual manipulations. At the first visit, in an analysis of normalized torso translation measured in a scene-movement-only condition, 3 of 10 subjects were classified as visually dependent. During the Transfer Test, all participants received a 2-minute novel exposure. In a combined measure of stride frequency and reaction time, the non-visually dependent subjects showed improved adaptation on the Transfer Test compared to their visually dependent counterparts. This finding suggests that individual differences in the ability to adapt to new sensorimotor conditions may be explained by individuals innate sensory biases. An accurate preflight assessment of crewmembers biases for visual dependence could be used to predict their propensities to adapt to novel sensory conditions. It may also facilitate the development of customized training regimens that could expedite adaptation to alternate gravitational environments.

  9. Gut microbiomes of Malawian twin pairs discordant for kwashiorkor

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michelle I.; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Manary, Mark J.; Trehan, Indi; Mkakosya, Rajhab; Cheng, Jiye; Kau, Andrew L.; Rich, Stephen S.; Concannon, Patrick; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Liu, Jie; Houpt, Eric; Li, Jia V.; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy; Knights, Dan; Ursell, Luke K.; Knight, Rob; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2013-01-01

    Kwashiorkor, an enigmatic form of severe acute malnutrition, is the consequence of inadequate nutrient intake plus additional environmental insults. To investigate the role of the gut microbiome, we studied 317 Malawian twin pairs during the first 3 years of life. During this time, half of the twin pairs remained well-nourished, while 43% became discordant and 7% manifested concordance for acute malnutrition. Both children in twin pairs discordant for kwashiorkor were treated with a peanut-based, ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF). Time-series metagenomic studies revealed that RUTF produced a transient maturation of metabolic functions in kwashiorkor microbiomes that regressed when RUTF was stopped. Previously frozen fecal communities from several discordant pairs were each transplanted into gnotobiotic mice. The combination of Malawian diet and kwashiorkor microbiome produced marked weight loss in recipient mice, accompanied by perturbations in amino acid, carbohydrate and intermediary metabolism that were only transiently ameliorated with RUTF. These findings implicate the gut microbiome as a causal factor in kwashiorkor. PMID:23363771

  10. Unions and Workplace Reorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissen, Bruce, Ed.

    The 11 chapters in this book focus on "The New American Workplace" and assess its adequacy or inadequacy as a guide for the U.S. labor movement in relation to new work systems. "Unions and Workplace Reorganization" (Bruce Nissen) introduces the subject. "The New American Workplace: A Labor Perspective" (AFL-CIO Committee on the Evolution of Work,…

  11. Marketing the College Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoef, Ted; Howe, Nanci

    Theory underlying marketing in the public sector is presented in combination with specific examples of marketing strategies and techniques used in college unions and student activities programs across the country. The subject of marketing is discussed under six major subject headings: (1) why marketing? (2) analyzing marketing opportunities; (3)…

  12. Teacher's Unions on Mainstreaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosnowsky, William P.; And Others

    Examined are three distinct forces--teacher unions, civil rights under law, and educational strategy--which have converged on the issue of educating those handicapped learners who, with proper support resources, can be maintained in regular graded classrooms. Briefly discussed are the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), the National Education…

  13. Heterosexual transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A M; Laga, M

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments concerning heterosexual transmission of HIV (review of 1988 literature only) suggest improved understanding of the pattern of spread and role of risk behaviors and biological cofactors in its transmission. 3 distinct patterns if HIV infection are known: heterosexual spread in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean, spread primarily among homosexuals and injecting drug users in Europe, North American and much of Latin America and Australia, and both homosexual and heterosexual transmission in Asia, the Pacific, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, where prevalence is low. In Africa an estimated 80% of cases are acquired heterosexually. Important risk factors are number of sex partners, sex with prostitutes, being a prostitute, being a sex partner of an infected person, and having a history of other sexually transmitted diseases. Prevalence rates have risen rapidly in Zaire and Kenya. In Africa, acquisition of HIV is related to sexual activity only. In contrast, in the U.S., heterosexual cases make up only 4% of all cases, and in Europe only 6%. Data on types of sexual transmission of HIV are mounting, in aggregate suggestive of a marked heterogeneity in infectivity and possibly susceptibility between individuals. Among couples where the man is positive, in some places individuals appear to be highly infective, notably those from Kinshasa, Zaire and Haiti, while other series of discordant couples the receptive partner remained seronegative for several years. Transmission from women to men appears to be less efficient than from men to women, as has been observed with other STDs such as gonorrhea. Biological cofactors implicated in enhanced HIV transmission appear to be advanced CDC Stage IV AIDS disease, with low T-helper lymphocyte counts and high antigenemia; concomitant STDS, especially those with genital ulceration; lack of circumcision; oral contraceptive use; practice of anal intercourse; inconsistent or no use of condoms. Theoretical models for

  14. ‘Testing Together Challenges the Relationship’: Consequences of HIV Testing as a Couple in a High HIV Prevalence Setting in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tabana, Hanani; Doherty, Tanya; Rubenson, Birgitta; Jackson, Debra; Ekström, Anna Mia; Thorson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective We conducted qualitative individual and combined interviews with couples to explore their experiences since the time of taking an HIV test and receiving the test result together, as part of a home-based HIV counselling and testing intervention. Methods This study was conducted in October 2011 in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, about 2 years after couples tested and received results together. Fourteen couples were purposively sampled: discordant, concordant negative and concordant positive couples. Findings Learning about each other’s status together challenged relationships of the couples in different ways depending on HIV status and gender. The mutual information confirmed suspected infidelity that had not been discussed before. Negative women in discordant partnerships remained with their positive partner due to social pressure and struggled to maintain their HIV negative status. Most of the couple relationships were characterized by silence and mistrust. Knowledge of sero-status also led to loss of sexual intimacy in some couples especially the discordant. For most men in concordant negative couples, knowledge of status was an awakening of the importance of fidelity and an opportunity for behaviour change, while for concordant positive and discordant couples, it was seen as proof of infidelity. Although positive HIV status was perceived as confirmation of infidelity, couples continued their relationship and offered some support for each other, living and managing life together. Sexual life in these couples was characterized by conflict and sometimes violence. In the concordant negative couples, trust was enhanced and behaviour change was promised. Conclusions Findings suggest that testing together as couples challenged relationships in both negative and positive ways. Further, knowledge of HIV status indicated potential to influence behaviour change especially among concordant negatives. In the discordant and concordant positive couples

  15. New Roles for Teachers Unions? Reform Unionism in School Decentralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Mayer, Anysia P.; Cobb, Casey D.; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Welton, Anjale

    2013-01-01

    Of late, teachers unions have worked together with district management in new and notable ways. This paper examines the role of teachers unions in shaping the Together Initiative (TI), which seeks to increase autonomy and broaden decision making in urban schools in one northeastern state. In general, state-level union leaders have taken more…

  16. Gut Microbiota Linked to Sexual Preference and HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Noguera-Julian, Marc; Rocafort, Muntsa; Guillén, Yolanda; Rivera, Javier; Casadellà, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Hildebrand, Falk; Zeller, Georg; Parera, Mariona; Bellido, Rocío; Rodríguez, Cristina; Carrillo, Jorge; Mothe, Beatriz; Coll, Josep; Bravo, Isabel; Estany, Carla; Herrero, Cristina; Saz, Jorge; Sirera, Guillem; Torrela, Ariadna; Navarro, Jordi; Crespo, Manel; Brander, Christian; Negredo, Eugènia; Blanco, Julià; Guarner, Francisco; Calle, Maria Luz; Bork, Peer; Sönnerborg, Anders; Clotet, Bonaventura; Paredes, Roger

    2016-03-01

    The precise effects of HIV-1 on the gut microbiome are unclear. Initial cross-sectional studies provided contradictory associations between microbial richness and HIV serostatus and suggested shifts from Bacteroides to Prevotella predominance following HIV-1 infection, which have not been found in animal models or in studies matched for HIV-1 transmission groups. In two independent cohorts of HIV-1-infected subjects and HIV-1-negative controls in Barcelona (n = 156) and Stockholm (n = 84), men who have sex with men (MSM) predominantly belonged to the Prevotella-rich enterotype whereas most non-MSM subjects were enriched in Bacteroides, independently of HIV-1 status, and with only a limited contribution of diet effects. Moreover, MSM had a significantly richer and more diverse fecal microbiota than non-MSM individuals. After stratifying for sexual orientation, there was no solid evidence of an HIV-specific dysbiosis. However, HIV-1 infection remained consistently associated with reduced bacterial richness, the lowest bacterial richness being observed in subjects with a virological-immune discordant response to antiretroviral therapy. Our findings indicate that HIV gut microbiome studies must control for HIV risk factors and suggest interventions on gut bacterial richness as possible novel avenues to improve HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction. PMID:27077120

  17. Gut Microbiota Linked to Sexual Preference and HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Noguera-Julian, Marc; Rocafort, Muntsa; Guillén, Yolanda; Rivera, Javier; Casadellà, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Hildebrand, Falk; Zeller, Georg; Parera, Mariona; Bellido, Rocío; Rodríguez, Cristina; Carrillo, Jorge; Mothe, Beatriz; Coll, Josep; Bravo, Isabel; Estany, Carla; Herrero, Cristina; Saz, Jorge; Sirera, Guillem; Torrela, Ariadna; Navarro, Jordi; Crespo, Manel; Brander, Christian; Negredo, Eugènia; Blanco, Julià; Guarner, Francisco; Calle, Maria Luz; Bork, Peer; Sönnerborg, Anders; Clotet, Bonaventura; Paredes, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The precise effects of HIV-1 on the gut microbiome are unclear. Initial cross-sectional studies provided contradictory associations between microbial richness and HIV serostatus and suggested shifts from Bacteroides to Prevotella predominance following HIV-1 infection, which have not been found in animal models or in studies matched for HIV-1 transmission groups. In two independent cohorts of HIV-1-infected subjects and HIV-1-negative controls in Barcelona (n = 156) and Stockholm (n = 84), men who have sex with men (MSM) predominantly belonged to the Prevotella-rich enterotype whereas most non-MSM subjects were enriched in Bacteroides, independently of HIV-1 status, and with only a limited contribution of diet effects. Moreover, MSM had a significantly richer and more diverse fecal microbiota than non-MSM individuals. After stratifying for sexual orientation, there was no solid evidence of an HIV-specific dysbiosis. However, HIV-1 infection remained consistently associated with reduced bacterial richness, the lowest bacterial richness being observed in subjects with a virological-immune discordant response to antiretroviral therapy. Our findings indicate that HIV gut microbiome studies must control for HIV risk factors and suggest interventions on gut bacterial richness as possible novel avenues to improve HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction. PMID:27077120

  18. Union Members Are Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  19. Racial Discrimination and Trade Unionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashenfelter, Orley

    1972-01-01

    Analyzes the likely determinants of a trade union's policy regarding race and estimates the effect of the presence of unionism on the average wage of black workers relative to that of white workers under various types of union organizational structure. (RJ)

  20. Quantum discord and geometry for a class of two-qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Li Bo; Wang Zhixi; Fei Shaoming

    2011-02-15

    We study the level surfaces of quantum discord for a class of two-qubit states with parallel nonzero Bloch vectors. The dynamic behavior of quantum discord under decoherence is investigated. It is shown that a class of X states has sudden transition between classical and quantum correlations under decoherence. Our results include the ones in M. D. Lang and C. M. Caves [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 150501 (2010)] as a special case and show new pictures and structures of quantum discord.

  1. European Union Regulations.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has been a leader in the development of both guidance and regulations to ensure food safety throughout the member states. Because of the free movement of food commodities among the countries that belong to the European Union, there is a great need to assure high quality monitoring of both imported food and member state products. The procedures and methods required need to be practical, state-of-the art, and harmonised. The European Commission has developed a network of laboratories and scientific studies to meet this goal. This chapter describes the current Regulations, Directives and Decisions of the European Commission that protect the food supply throughout Europe. Because imported food needs to comply with the EU requirements, and the need to have common compliance throughout the member states, the developed system could be a worldwide template for monitoring the food supply. In addition, the integral role of chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry is described.

  2. Gender and HIV infection in the context of alcoholism in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa account for more than half (58%) of people living with the HIV and it is the only continent where HIV prevalence is higher for women than for men. Studies have attributed alcoholism with the high rates of HIV infection due to its impact on sexual behaviour and arousal. African countries with high rates of alcoholism also reportedly have higher rates of HIV infection. This study explores rural communities' perspectives on the risk factors for HIV infection among women who are in alcohol discordant relationships where the man drinks alcohol excessively. Data were gathered through focus group discussions in rural central Kenya where alcoholism has reached epidemic levels. Key findings indicate the perceived severity of alcoholism, the perceived impact of alcoholism on men's reproductive health and the unmet sexual and reproductive needs of women in alcohol discordant relationships. Women engage in risky sexual behaviours in an attempt to meet these needs. Such risky behaviour in addition to alcohol-related sexual violence and low response-efficacy for safer sexual practices make them vulnerable to HIV infection and enhances the spread of HIV within communities. The study concludes that in preventing HIV infection among women in alcohol communities affected by alcohol, it is important to focus on their response efficacy. Intervention programmes that focus on HIV prevention among older married women and that integrate alcohol and HIV prevention are long overdue.

  3. Gender and HIV infection in the context of alcoholism in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa account for more than half (58%) of people living with the HIV and it is the only continent where HIV prevalence is higher for women than for men. Studies have attributed alcoholism with the high rates of HIV infection due to its impact on sexual behaviour and arousal. African countries with high rates of alcoholism also reportedly have higher rates of HIV infection. This study explores rural communities' perspectives on the risk factors for HIV infection among women who are in alcohol discordant relationships where the man drinks alcohol excessively. Data were gathered through focus group discussions in rural central Kenya where alcoholism has reached epidemic levels. Key findings indicate the perceived severity of alcoholism, the perceived impact of alcoholism on men's reproductive health and the unmet sexual and reproductive needs of women in alcohol discordant relationships. Women engage in risky sexual behaviours in an attempt to meet these needs. Such risky behaviour in addition to alcohol-related sexual violence and low response-efficacy for safer sexual practices make them vulnerable to HIV infection and enhances the spread of HIV within communities. The study concludes that in preventing HIV infection among women in alcohol communities affected by alcohol, it is important to focus on their response efficacy. Intervention programmes that focus on HIV prevention among older married women and that integrate alcohol and HIV prevention are long overdue. PMID:25920984

  4. Quantum discord in quantum random access codes and its connection to dimension witnesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Li, Hong-Wei; Zou, Xu-Bo; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2012-12-01

    We exploit quantum discord (and geometric discord) to detect quantum correlations present in a well-known communication model called quantum random access codes (QRACs), which has a variety of applications in quantum information theory. In spite of the fact that there is no entanglement between the two parts involved in this model, analytical derivation shows that the quantum discord is nonzero and highlights that quantum discord might be regarded as a figure of merit to characterize the quantum feature of QRACs, since this model has no classical counterparts. To gain further insight, we also investigate the dynamical behavior of quantum discord under some specific state rotations. In the two-state case, the connection between quantum discord and dimension witness is graphically discussed and intriguingly, our results illustrate that these two quantities are monotonically related to each other. For state encodings in the real |0>-|1> plane, we derive an explicit analytical expression of the geometric discord and find that geometric discord reaches the maximal value for the optimal encoding strategy. However, for arbitrary state encodings in the Bloch sphere, our numerical simulations reveal that maximal geometric discord could not coincide with optimal 2→1 QRAC.

  5. Experimental characterization of Gaussian quantum discord generated by four-wave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Ulrich; Glasser, Ryan T.; Glorieux, Quentin; Clark, Jeremy B.; Corzo, Neil V.; Lett, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally determine the Gaussian quantum discord present in two-mode squeezed vacuum generated by a four-wave mixing process in hot rubidium vapor. The frequency spectra of the discord as well as the quantum and classical mutual information are also measured. In addition, the effects of symmetric attenuation introduced into both modes of the squeezed vacuum on the Gaussian quantum discord, and the quantum mutual information and the classical correlations are examined experimentally. Finally, we show that due to the multi-spatial-mode nature of the four-wave mixing process, the Gaussian quantum discord may exhibit sub- or superadditivity depending on which spatial channels are selected.

  6. HIV Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov More information ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  7. Quantum discord as a resource for quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2014-11-07

    Quantum discord is the minimal bipartite resource which is needed for a secure quantum key distribution, being a cryptographic primitive equivalent to non-orthogonality. Its role becomes crucial in device-dependent quantum cryptography, where the presence of preparation and detection noise (inaccessible to all parties) may be so strong to prevent the distribution and distillation of entanglement. The necessity of entanglement is re-affirmed in the stronger scenario of device-independent quantum cryptography, where all sources of noise are ascribed to the eavesdropper.

  8. Epigenetic differences in monozygotic twins discordant for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Malki, K; Koritskaya, E; Harris, F; Bryson, K; Herbster, M; Tosto, M G

    2016-01-01

    Although monozygotic (MZ) twins share the majority of their genetic makeup, they can be phenotypically discordant on several traits and diseases. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that can be influenced by genetic, environmental and stochastic events and may have an important impact on individual variability. In this study we explored epigenetic differences in peripheral blood samples in three MZ twin studies on major depressive disorder (MDD). Epigenetic data for twin pairs were collected as part of a previous study using 8.1-K-CpG microarrays tagging DNA modification in white blood cells from MZ twins discordant for MDD. Data originated from three geographical regions: UK, Australia and the Netherlands. Ninety-seven MZ pairs (194 individuals) discordant for MDD were included. Different methods to address non independently-and-identically distributed (non-i.i.d.) data were evaluated. Machine-learning methods with feature selection centered on support vector machine and random forest were used to build a classifier to predict cases and controls based on epivariations. The most informative variants were mapped to genes and carried forward for network analysis. A mixture approach using principal component analysis (PCA) and Bayes methods allowed to combine the three studies and to leverage the increased predictive power provided by the larger sample. A machine-learning algorithm with feature reduction classified affected from non-affected twins above chance levels in an independent training-testing design. Network analysis revealed gene networks centered on the PPAR-γ (NR1C3) and C-MYC gene hubs interacting through the AP-1 (c-Jun) transcription factor. PPAR-γ (NR1C3) is a drug target for pioglitazone, which has been shown to reduce depression symptoms in patients with MDD. Using a data-driven approach we were able to overcome challenges of non-i.i.d. data when combining epigenetic studies from MZ twins discordant for MDD. Individually, the studies yielded

  9. Entanglement, discord, and the power of quantum computation

    SciTech Connect

    Brodutch, Aharon; Terno, Daniel R.

    2011-01-15

    We show that the ability to create entanglement is necessary for execution of bipartite quantum gates even when they are applied to unentangled states and create no entanglement. Starting with a simple example we demonstrate that to execute such a gate bilocally the local operations and classical communications (LOCC) should be supplemented by shared entanglement. Our results point to the changes in quantum discord, which is a measure of quantumness of correlations even in the absence of entanglement, as the indicator of failure of a LOCC implementation of the gates.

  10. Epigenetic differences in monozygotic twins discordant for major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Malki, K; Koritskaya, E; Harris, F; Bryson, K; Herbster, M; Tosto, M G

    2016-01-01

    Although monozygotic (MZ) twins share the majority of their genetic makeup, they can be phenotypically discordant on several traits and diseases. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that can be influenced by genetic, environmental and stochastic events and may have an important impact on individual variability. In this study we explored epigenetic differences in peripheral blood samples in three MZ twin studies on major depressive disorder (MDD). Epigenetic data for twin pairs were collected as part of a previous study using 8.1-K-CpG microarrays tagging DNA modification in white blood cells from MZ twins discordant for MDD. Data originated from three geographical regions: UK, Australia and the Netherlands. Ninety-seven MZ pairs (194 individuals) discordant for MDD were included. Different methods to address non independently-and-identically distributed (non-i.i.d.) data were evaluated. Machine-learning methods with feature selection centered on support vector machine and random forest were used to build a classifier to predict cases and controls based on epivariations. The most informative variants were mapped to genes and carried forward for network analysis. A mixture approach using principal component analysis (PCA) and Bayes methods allowed to combine the three studies and to leverage the increased predictive power provided by the larger sample. A machine-learning algorithm with feature reduction classified affected from non-affected twins above chance levels in an independent training-testing design. Network analysis revealed gene networks centered on the PPAR−γ (NR1C3) and C-MYC gene hubs interacting through the AP-1 (c-Jun) transcription factor. PPAR−γ (NR1C3) is a drug target for pioglitazone, which has been shown to reduce depression symptoms in patients with MDD. Using a data-driven approach we were able to overcome challenges of non-i.i.d. data when combining epigenetic studies from MZ twins discordant for MDD. Individually, the studies

  11. Quantum discord as a resource for quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Quantum discord is the minimal bipartite resource which is needed for a secure quantum key distribution, being a cryptographic primitive equivalent to non-orthogonality. Its role becomes crucial in device-dependent quantum cryptography, where the presence of preparation and detection noise (inaccessible to all parties) may be so strong to prevent the distribution and distillation of entanglement. The necessity of entanglement is re-affirmed in the stronger scenario of device-independent quantum cryptography, where all sources of noise are ascribed to the eavesdropper. PMID:25378231

  12. Epigenetic differences in monozygotic twins discordant for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Malki, K; Koritskaya, E; Harris, F; Bryson, K; Herbster, M; Tosto, M G

    2016-06-14

    Although monozygotic (MZ) twins share the majority of their genetic makeup, they can be phenotypically discordant on several traits and diseases. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that can be influenced by genetic, environmental and stochastic events and may have an important impact on individual variability. In this study we explored epigenetic differences in peripheral blood samples in three MZ twin studies on major depressive disorder (MDD). Epigenetic data for twin pairs were collected as part of a previous study using 8.1-K-CpG microarrays tagging DNA modification in white blood cells from MZ twins discordant for MDD. Data originated from three geographical regions: UK, Australia and the Netherlands. Ninety-seven MZ pairs (194 individuals) discordant for MDD were included. Different methods to address non independently-and-identically distributed (non-i.i.d.) data were evaluated. Machine-learning methods with feature selection centered on support vector machine and random forest were used to build a classifier to predict cases and controls based on epivariations. The most informative variants were mapped to genes and carried forward for network analysis. A mixture approach using principal component analysis (PCA) and Bayes methods allowed to combine the three studies and to leverage the increased predictive power provided by the larger sample. A machine-learning algorithm with feature reduction classified affected from non-affected twins above chance levels in an independent training-testing design. Network analysis revealed gene networks centered on the PPAR-γ (NR1C3) and C-MYC gene hubs interacting through the AP-1 (c-Jun) transcription factor. PPAR-γ (NR1C3) is a drug target for pioglitazone, which has been shown to reduce depression symptoms in patients with MDD. Using a data-driven approach we were able to overcome challenges of non-i.i.d. data when combining epigenetic studies from MZ twins discordant for MDD. Individually, the studies yielded

  13. Quantifying quantum discord and entanglement of formation via unified purifications

    SciTech Connect

    Cen Lixiang; Li Xinqi; Shao Jiushu; Yan Yijing

    2011-05-15

    We propose a scheme to evaluate the amount of quantum discord and entanglement of formation for mixed states and reveal their ordering relation via an intrinsic relationship between the two quantities distributed in the purification of different states. This approach enables us to achieve analytical expressions of the two measures for some quantum states, such as an arbitrary two-qubit density matrix reduced from pure three-qubit states and a class of rank-2 mixed states of 4x2 systems. Moreover, we apply the scheme to characterize fully the dynamic behavior of quantum correlations for the specified physical systems under decoherence.

  14. Quantum Discord of 2 n -Dimensional Bell-Diagonal States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Karimi, N.; Amidi, D.; Zahir Olyaei, H.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, using the concept of relative entropy as a distance measure of correlations we investigate the important issue of evaluating quantum correlations such as entanglement, dissonance and classical correlations for 2 n -dimensional Bell-diagonal states. We provide an analytical technique, which describes how we find the closest classical states(CCS) and the closest separable states(CSS) for these states. Then analytical results are obtained for quantum discord of 2 n -dimensional Bell-diagonal states. As illustration, some special cases are examined. Finally, we investigate the additivity relation between the different correlations for the separable generalized Bloch sphere states.

  15. Quantum discord as a resource for quantum cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Quantum discord is the minimal bipartite resource which is needed for a secure quantum key distribution, being a cryptographic primitive equivalent to non-orthogonality. Its role becomes crucial in device-dependent quantum cryptography, where the presence of preparation and detection noise (inaccessible to all parties) may be so strong to prevent the distribution and distillation of entanglement. The necessity of entanglement is re-affirmed in the stronger scenario of device-independent quantum cryptography, where all sources of noise are ascribed to the eavesdropper. PMID:25378231

  16. HIV Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat HIV infection (called antiretroviral therapy, or ART) the right way, every day and his or ... way, every day, the medicine to treat HIV (ART) reduces the amount of HIV (called “viral ...

  17. Arguments for and against HIV self-testing

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Brian R; Ballenger, Carl; Stekler, Joanne D

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 60% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are unaware of their infection, and stigma and discrimination continue to threaten acceptance of HIV testing services worldwide. Self-testing for HIV has garnered controversy for years and the debate reignited with the approval of a point-of-care test for over-the-counter sale in the US in 2012. Here, we present arguments for and against HIV self-testing. The case in support of HIV self-testing contends that: the modality is highly acceptable, especially among the most at-risk individuals; self-testing empowers users, thus helping to normalize testing; and mutual partner testing has the potential to increase awareness of risk and avert condomless sex between discordant partners. Arguments against HIV self-testing include: cost limits access to those who need testing most; false-negative results, especially during the window period, may lead to false reassurance and could promote sex between discordant partners at the time of highest infectivity; opportunities for counseling, linkage to care, and diagnosis of other sexually transmitted infections may be missed; and self-testing leads to potential for coercion between partners. Research is needed to better define the risks of self-testing, especially as performance of the assays improves, and to delineate the benefits of programs designed to improve access to self-test kits, because this testing modality has numerous potential advantages and drawbacks. PMID:25114592

  18. A Generalized Geometric Measurement of Quantum Discord: Exact Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hai-Tao; Tian, Jun-Long; Yang, Gui

    2016-02-01

    A generalization of the geometric measure of quantum discord is introduced in this article, based on Hellinger distance. Our definition has virtues of computability and independence of local measurement. In addition it also does not suffer from the recently raised critiques about quantum discord. The exact result can be obtained for bipartite pure states with arbitrary levels, which is completely determined by the Schmidt decomposition. For bipartite mixed states the exact result can also be found for a special case. Furthermore the generalization into multipartite case is direct. It is shown that it can be evaluated exactly when the measured state is invariant under permutation or translation. In addition the detection of quantum phase transition is also discussed for Lipkin–Meshkov–Glick and Dicke model. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11005002 and 11475004, New Century Excellent Talent of M.O.E (NCET-11-0937), and Sponsoring Program of Excellent Younger Teachers in universities in Henan Province under Grant No. 2010GGJS-181

  19. A Generalized Geometric Measurement of Quantum Discord: Exact Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Hai-Tao; Tian, Jun-Long; Yang, Gui

    2016-02-01

    A generalization of the geometric measure of quantum discord is introduced in this article, based on Hellinger distance. Our definition has virtues of computability and independence of local measurement. In addition it also does not suffer from the recently raised critiques about quantum discord. The exact result can be obtained for bipartite pure states with arbitrary levels, which is completely determined by the Schmidt decomposition. For bipartite mixed states the exact result can also be found for a special case. Furthermore the generalization into multipartite case is direct. It is shown that it can be evaluated exactly when the measured state is invariant under permutation or translation. In addition the detection of quantum phase transition is also discussed for Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick and Dicke model. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11005002 and 11475004, New Century Excellent Talent of M.O.E (NCET-11-0937), and Sponsoring Program of Excellent Younger Teachers in universities in Henan Province under Grant No. 2010GGJS-181

  20. Sexual life and fertility desire in long-term HIV serodiscordant couples in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Even though remarkable progress has been achieved, HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health priority. HIV discordant relationship is one of the emerging issues in HIV prevention endeavour. In Ethiopia, very little is known about HIV-serodiscordant couples particularly how they manage their sexual relationship and fertility desire. Therefore, we conduct this study with the aim of exploring the experiences of HIV discordant couples about their sexual life, and fertility desire in the context of long-term relationships in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A grounded theory approach was employed using in-depth interviews among 36 informants in ART/PMTCT centers of three public hospitals, a health center and one PLHIV association in Addis Ababa. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit 28 clients who lived in a discordant relationship and eight health care providers as key informants. Data collection and analysis were undertaken simultaneously using a constant comparison. The analysis was facilitated using OpenCode software. Results A grounded theory pertaining to sexual life and desire to have a child among HIV discordant couples emerged as “maintaining the relationship” as a core category. Couples pass through a social process of struggle to maintain their relationship. The causal conditions for couples to enter into the process of struggle to maintain their relationship were collectively categorized as “Entering in-to a transition” (knowing HIV serostatus) and this includes mismatch of desire to have a child, controversy on safe sex versus desire to have a child, and undeniable change in sexual desire and practice through time were the features in entering into-transition. Then after the transition, couples engaged in certain actions/strategies that are categorized as “dealing with discordancy” such as entertaining partner’s interest by scarifying once self interest to maintain their relationship. Conclusions HIV discordant couples

  1. Union Density and Hospital Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Koys, Daniel J; Martin, Wm Marty; LaVan, Helen; Katz, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the hospital outcomes of patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income per bed. They define union density as the percentage of a hospital's employees who are in unions, healthcare quality as its 30-day acute myocardial infraction (AMI; heart attack) mortality rate, and patient satisfaction as its overall Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems score. Using a random sample of 84 union and 84 nonunion hospitals from across the United States, multiple regression analyses show that union density is negatively related to patient satisfaction. Union density is not related to healthcare quality as measured by the AMI mortality rate or to net income per bed. This implies that unions per se are not good or bad for hospitals. The authors suggest that it is better for hospital administrators to take a Balanced Scorecard approach and be concerned about employee satisfaction, patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income. PMID:26652043

  2. Quantum discord of X-states as optimization of a one variable function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Naihuan; Yu, Bing

    2016-09-01

    We solve the quantum discord completely as an optimization of a certain one variable function for an arbitrary two qubit X state. Exact solutions of the quantum discord are obtained for several nontrivial regions of the five parametric space for the quantum state. Exceptional solutions are determined via an iterative algorithm.

  3. Family Discord, Parental Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring: 20-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya; Nomura, Yoko; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the independent effects of parental depression and family discord on offspring psychopathology among children at high and low risk of depression. Method: Family discord factors were assessed when subjects were approximately 17 years old, and offspring diagnoses were assessed about 20 years later. Parental and offspring…

  4. Parental Discord vs. Family Structure: Effects of Divorce on the Self-Esteem of Daughters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Barbara H.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of family structure and parental discord on the self-esteem of 199 female undergraduates were investigated. Family structure and happiness ratings were substantially related, with those separated rated as less happy. Parental discord appeared to lower the self-esteem of daughters, whereas separation of parents did not. (Author/LMO)

  5. Disentangling methodological and biological sources of gene tree discordance on oryza (poaceae) chromosome 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe new methods for characterizing gene tree discordance in phylogenomic datasets, which screen for deviations from neutral expectations, summarize variation in statistical support among gene trees, and allow comparison of the patterns of discordance induced by various analysis choices. Usin...

  6. Application of two tests of multivariate discordancy to fisheries data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, M.A.; Kocovsky, P.M.; Garner, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    The generalized (Mahalanobis) distance and multivariate kurtosis are two powerful tests of multivariate discordancies (outliers). Unlike the generalized distance test, the multivariate kurtosis test has not been applied as a test of discordancy to fisheries data heretofore. We applied both tests, along with published algorithms for identifying suspected causal variable(s) of discordant observations, to two fisheries data sets from Lake Erie: total length, mass, and age from 1,234 burbot, Lota lota; and 22 combinations of unique subsets of 10 morphometrics taken from 119 yellow perch, Perca flavescens. For the burbot data set, the generalized distance test identified six discordant observations and the multivariate kurtosis test identified 24 discordant observations. In contrast with the multivariate tests, the univariate generalized distance test identified no discordancies when applied separately to each variable. Removing discordancies had a substantial effect on length-versus-mass regression equations. For 500-mm burbot, the percent difference in estimated mass after removing discordancies in our study was greater than the percent difference in masses estimated for burbot of the same length in lakes that differed substantially in productivity. The number of discordant yellow perch detected ranged from 0 to 2 with the multivariate generalized distance test and from 6 to 11 with the multivariate kurtosis test. With the kurtosis test, 108 yellow perch (90.7%) were identified as discordant in zero to two combinations, and five (4.2%) were identified as discordant in either all or 21 of the 22 combinations. The relationship among the variables included in each combination determined which variables were identified as causal. The generalized distance test identified between zero and six discordancies when applied separately to each variable. Removing the discordancies found in at least one-half of the combinations (k=5) had a marked effect on a principal components

  7. Pediatric Residents' Perspective on Family-Clinician Discordance in Primary Care: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Connor, Katherine A; Fenick, Ada M

    2016-01-01

    The engagement of families in health maintenance is associated with better child health outcomes, but demographic discordance between families and clinicians may be a barrier to family engagement. Using a longitudinal qualitative study design, we conducted 15 semi-structured interviews with five pediatric residents who elected to facilitate group well child care (GWCC). Four themes describing residents' perceptions of the role of discordance in family-clinician engagement include: 1) discordance was not a barrier; 2) discordance leads to a lack of engagement and trust; 3) residents transcended discordance in GWCC because either GWCC led residents to change their communication techniques or because, with GWCC, parents have concordant adults in the room; and 4) the education residents obtained in GWCC allowed them to empathize with the families' health-related decisions. Finding ways in which pediatric providers can improve skills in family engagement may be an important step in decreasing health inequities.

  8. Monozygotic twins discordant for intermittent allergic rhinitis differ in mRNA and protein levels.

    PubMed

    Sjogren, A-K M; Barrenas, F; Muraro, A; Gustafsson, M; Saetrom, P; Wang, H; Benson, M

    2012-06-01

    Monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for complex diseases may help to find disease mechanisms that are not due to genetic variants. Intermittent allergic rhinitis (IAR) is an optimal disease model because it occurs at defined time points each year, owing to known external antigens. We hypothesized that MZ twins discordant for IAR could help to find gene expression differences that are not dependent on genetic variants. We collected blood outside of the season from MZ twins discordant for IAR, challenged their peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with pollen allergen in vitro, collected supernatants and isolated CD4+ T cells. We identified disease-relevant mRNAs and proteins that differed between the discordant MZ twins. By contrast, no differences in microRNA expression were found. Our results indicate that MZ twins discordant for IAR is an optimal model to identify disease mechanisms that are not due to genetic variants. PMID:22515200

  9. Pediatric Residents' Perspective on Family-Clinician Discordance in Primary Care: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Connor, Katherine A; Fenick, Ada M

    2016-01-01

    The engagement of families in health maintenance is associated with better child health outcomes, but demographic discordance between families and clinicians may be a barrier to family engagement. Using a longitudinal qualitative study design, we conducted 15 semi-structured interviews with five pediatric residents who elected to facilitate group well child care (GWCC). Four themes describing residents' perceptions of the role of discordance in family-clinician engagement include: 1) discordance was not a barrier; 2) discordance leads to a lack of engagement and trust; 3) residents transcended discordance in GWCC because either GWCC led residents to change their communication techniques or because, with GWCC, parents have concordant adults in the room; and 4) the education residents obtained in GWCC allowed them to empathize with the families' health-related decisions. Finding ways in which pediatric providers can improve skills in family engagement may be an important step in decreasing health inequities. PMID:27524749

  10. EPICE-HIV: An Epidemiologic Cost-Effectiveness Model for HIV Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vandewalle, Björn; Llibre, Josep M.; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Ustianowski, Andrew; Camacho, Ricardo; Smith, Colette; Miners, Alec; Ferreira, Diana; Félix, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research was to establish a new and innovative framework for cost-effectiveness modeling of HIV-1 treatment, simultaneously considering both clinical and epidemiological outcomes. EPICE-HIV is a multi-paradigm model based on a within-host micro-simulation model for the disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals and an agent-based sexual contact network (SCN) model for the transmission of HIV-1 infection. It includes HIV-1 viral dynamics, CD4+ T cell infection rates, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling. Disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals is driven by the interdependent changes in CD4+ T cell count, changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA, accumulation of resistance mutations and adherence to treatment. The two parts of the model are joined through a per-sexual-act and viral load dependent probability of disease transmission in HIV-discordant couples. Internal validity of the disease progression part of the model is assessed and external validity is demonstrated in comparison to the outcomes observed in the STaR randomized controlled clinical trial. We found that overall adherence to treatment and the resulting pattern of treatment interruptions are key drivers of HIV-1 treatment outcomes. Our model, though largely independent of efficacy data from RCT, was accurate in producing 96-week outcomes, qualitatively and quantitatively comparable to the ones observed in the STaR trial. We demonstrate that multi-paradigm micro-simulation modeling is a promising tool to generate evidence about optimal policy strategies in HIV-1 treatment, including treatment efficacy, HIV-1 transmission, and cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:26870960

  11. EPICE-HIV: An Epidemiologic Cost-Effectiveness Model for HIV Treatment.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Björn; Llibre, Josep M; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Ustianowski, Andrew; Camacho, Ricardo; Smith, Colette; Miners, Alec; Ferreira, Diana; Félix, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research was to establish a new and innovative framework for cost-effectiveness modeling of HIV-1 treatment, simultaneously considering both clinical and epidemiological outcomes. EPICE-HIV is a multi-paradigm model based on a within-host micro-simulation model for the disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals and an agent-based sexual contact network (SCN) model for the transmission of HIV-1 infection. It includes HIV-1 viral dynamics, CD4+ T cell infection rates, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling. Disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals is driven by the interdependent changes in CD4+ T cell count, changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA, accumulation of resistance mutations and adherence to treatment. The two parts of the model are joined through a per-sexual-act and viral load dependent probability of disease transmission in HIV-discordant couples. Internal validity of the disease progression part of the model is assessed and external validity is demonstrated in comparison to the outcomes observed in the STaR randomized controlled clinical trial. We found that overall adherence to treatment and the resulting pattern of treatment interruptions are key drivers of HIV-1 treatment outcomes. Our model, though largely independent of efficacy data from RCT, was accurate in producing 96-week outcomes, qualitatively and quantitatively comparable to the ones observed in the STaR trial. We demonstrate that multi-paradigm micro-simulation modeling is a promising tool to generate evidence about optimal policy strategies in HIV-1 treatment, including treatment efficacy, HIV-1 transmission, and cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:26870960

  12. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  13. Toward a More Perfect Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This article explores school districts such as New Haven (Connecticut) Public Schools, whose local union is an American Federation of Teachers (AFT) affiliate and where a shared concern for students has trumped the often adversarial union-management relationship. The author discusses what makes the successful contract negotiations headed by David…

  14. Unionization: The Viewpoint of Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Theodore Lewis

    A study was made to isolate factors which have systematic and repetitive effects on the unionization of librarians, particularly the professional librarian in the public library. The historical patterns of library unionism are summarized, and an analysis is made of the personal characteristics of librarians, their economic position, and employment…

  15. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  16. Teacher Unionization in School Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The role of unions in school governance is reviewed to note that labor operates in a larger context of principal-agent relationships. As agents for teachers, unions articulate the concerns that must be addressed if teachers are to be successfully enlisted in the struggle to reduce achievement gaps among at-risk students. Transcending industrial…

  17. Quantum discord bounds the amount of distributed entanglement.

    PubMed

    Chuan, T K; Maillard, J; Modi, K; Paterek, T; Paternostro, M; Piani, M

    2012-08-17

    The ability to distribute quantum entanglement is a prerequisite for many fundamental tests of quantum theory and numerous quantum information protocols. Two distant parties can increase the amount of entanglement between them by means of quantum communication encoded in a carrier that is sent from one party to the other. Intriguingly, entanglement can be increased even when the exchanged carrier is not entangled with the parties. However, in light of the defining property of entanglement stating that it cannot increase under classical communication, the carrier must be quantum. Here we show that, in general, the increase of relative entropy of entanglement between two remote parties is bounded by the amount of nonclassical correlations of the carrier with the parties as quantified by the relative entropy of discord. We study implications of this bound, provide new examples of entanglement distribution via unentangled states, and put further limits on this phenomenon.

  18. Thermal and magnetic quantum discord in Heisenberg models

    SciTech Connect

    Werlang, T.; Rigolin, Gustavo

    2010-04-15

    We investigate how quantum correlations [quantum discord (QD)] of a two-qubit one-dimensional XYZ Heisenberg chain in thermal equilibrium depend on the temperature T of the bath and also on an external magnetic field B. We show that the behavior of thermal QD differs in many unexpected ways from thermal entanglement. For example, we show situations where QD increases with T when entanglement decreases, cases where QD increases with T even in regions with zero entanglement, and that QD signals a quantum phase transition even at finite T. We also show that by properly tuning B or the interaction between the qubits we get nonzero QD for any T and we present an effect not seen for entanglement, the 'regrowth' of thermal QD.

  19. Geometric quantum discord and non-Markovianity of structured reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ming-Liang; Lian, Han-Li

    2015-11-01

    The reservoir memory effects can lead to information backflow and recurrence of the previously lost quantum correlations. We establish connections between the direction of information flow and variation of the geometric quantum discords (GQDs) measured respectively by the trace distance, the Hellinger distance, and the Bures distance for two qubits subjecting to the bosonic structured reservoirs, and unveil their dependence on a factor whose derivative signifies the (non-)Markovianity of the dynamics. By considering the reservoirs with Lorentzian and Ohmic-like spectra, we further demonstrated that the non-Markovianity induced by the backflow of information from the reservoirs to the system enhances the GQDs in most of the parameter regions. This highlights the potential of non-Markovianity as a resource for protecting the GQDs.

  20. Cardiac contraction induces discordant alternans and localized block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radszuweit, M.; Alvarez-Lacalle, E.; Bär, M.; Echebarria, B.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we use a simplified model of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling to study the effect of tissue deformation on the dynamics of alternans, i.e., alternations in the duration of the cardiac action potential, that occur at fast pacing rates and are known to be proarrhythmic. We show that small stretch-activated currents can produce large effects and cause a transition from in-phase to off-phase alternations (i.e., from concordant to discordant alternans) and to conduction blocks. We demonstrate numerically and analytically that this effect is the result of a generic change in the slope of the conduction velocity restitution curve due to electromechanical coupling. Thus, excitation-contraction coupling can potentially play a relevant role in the transition to reentry and fibrillation.

  1. Couple-level Motivations to Test for HIV for Gay Men in Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Beougher, Sean C.; Bircher, Anja E.; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Darbes, Lynae A.; Gómez Mandic, Carmen; Neilands, Torsten B.; Garcia, Carla C.; Hoff, Colleen C.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of HIV testing among gay men describe the motivations, facilitators and barriers, behaviors, and demographic characteristics of individuals who test. What little research focuses on HIV testing among gay men in relationships shows that they do not test regularly or, in some cases, at all – their motivations to test have not been investigated. With so little data on HIV testing for this population, and the continued privileging of individually-focused approaches, gay men in relationships fall into a blind spot of research and prevention efforts. This study examined motivations to test for HIV using qualitative data from both partners in 20 gay male couples. Analysis revealed that the partners’ motivations were either event-related (e.g., participants testing the beginning of their relationship or HIV-negative participants in an HIV-discordant relationship testing after risky episode with their discordant primary partner) or partner-related (e.g., participants testing in response to a request or suggestion to test from their primary partner or participants testing out of concern for their primary partner’s health and wellbeing). These data provide insight into relationship-oriented motivations to test for HIV for gay men in relationships and, in doing so, demonstrates their commitment to their primary partner and relationship. These motivations can be leveraged to increase HIV testing among gay men in relationships, a population that tests less often than single gay men, yet, until recently, has been underserved by prevention efforts. PMID:25550145

  2. Quantitative HIV-1 proviral DNA detection: a multicentre analysis.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, Anita; Zanchetta, Marisa; Vitone, Francesca; Antonelli, Guido; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Buonaguro, Luigi; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Clementi, Massimo; Abbate, Isabella; Canducci, Filippo; Monachetti, Alessia; Riva, Elisabetta; Rozera, Gabriella; Scagnolari, Carolina; Tagliamonte, Maria; Re, Maria Carla

    2010-10-01

    Despite the widespread use of molecular biology techniques, standardized methods for the measurement of HIV-1 proviral DNA are currently lacking and several discordant results are still present in different studies. To assess the clinical meaning of the proviral DNA load, a study group comprising seven different laboratories was set up to standardize a HIV-1 proviral DNA quantification method able to assess the DNA proviral load of the most relevant circulating HIV-1 subtypes. Reference samples (24 cellular samples infected with HIV-1 clade B, and 40 samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells containing different concentrations of plasmids expressing different HIV-1 clades) were distributed and tested blindly. All laboratories employed hTERT gene as housekeeping gene and primers within the gag gene to quantify different HIV-1 clades. Inter-laboratory results did not differ statistically but showed only minor variations concerning HIV-1 DNA amounts and different HIV clades, with a good agreement among the laboratories participating in the study. Since test standardization represents a key step for future application in clinical practice, further studies of the patients' samples are in progress to establish the real meaning and utility of the proviral DNA load for clinical management of HIV-1 infected patients. PMID:21213587

  3. Antiviral agents and HIV prevention: controversies, conflicts, and consensus

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Myron S.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Smith, M. Kumi; Powers, Kimberly A.; Kashuba, Angela D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Antiviral agents can be used to prevent HIV transmission before exposure as preexpo-sure prophylaxis (PrEP), after exposure as postexposure prophylaxis, and as treatment of infected people for secondary prevention. Considerable research has shed new light on antiviral agents for PrEP and for prevention of secondary HIV transmission. While promising results have emerged from several PrEP trials, the challenges of poor adherence among HIV-negative clients and possible increase in sexual risk behaviors remain a concern. In addition, a broader pipeline of antiviral agents for PrEP that focuses on genital tract pharmacology and safety and resistance issues must be developed. Antiretroviral drugs have also been used to prevent HIV transmission from HIV-infected patients to their HIV-discordant sexual partners. The HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 trial demonstrated nearly complete prevention of HIV transmission by early treatment of infection, but the generalizability of the results to other risk groups – including intravenous drug users and MSM – has not been determined. Most importantly, the best strategy for use of antiretroviral agents to reduce the spread of HIV at either the individual level or the population level has not been developed, and remains the ultimate goal of this area of investigation. PMID:22507927

  4. Women and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... HIV? What should pregnant women know about HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  5. Quantum discord of the two-atom system in non-Markovian environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Hong-Mei; Fang, Mao-Fa; Guo, You-Neng; Yang, Bai-Yuan

    2015-03-01

    The quantum discord of the two-atom system, which is in two independent Lorentzian reservoirs and in two independent Ohmic reservoirs with the Lorentz-Drude cutoff function, respectively, and the reservoirs are at zero temperature, is studied by applying the time-convolutionless master-equation method. We find that the quantum discord of the two-atom system is dependent on the characteristics of non-Markovian environments. The results show that the quantum discord can be effectively protected not only in Lorentzian reservoirs, but also in ohmic reservoirs with the Lorentz-Drude cutoff function. Finally, the physical interpretations for these results are given via the correlation function.

  6. Entanglement and discord of the superposition of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, Preeti; Rana, Swapan

    2011-03-15

    We calculate the analytic expression for geometric measure of entanglement for arbitrary superposition of two N-qubit canonical orthonormal Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and the same for two W states. In the course of characterizing all kinds of nonclassical correlations, an explicit formula for quantum discord (via relative entropy) for the former class of states has been presented. Contrary to the GHZ state, the closest separable state to the W state is not classical. Therefore, in this case, the discord is different from the relative entropy of entanglement. We conjecture that the discord for the N-qubit W state is log{sub 2}N.

  7. Geometric measure of pairwise quantum discord for superpositions of multipartite generalized coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, M.; Ahl Laamara, R.

    2012-07-01

    We give the explicit expressions of the pairwise quantum correlations present in superpositions of multipartite coherent states. A special attention is devoted to the evaluation of the geometric quantum discord. The dynamics of quantum correlations under a dephasing channel is analyzed. A comparison of geometric measure of quantum discord with that of concurrence shows that quantum discord in multipartite coherent states is more resilient to dissipative environments than is quantum entanglement. To illustrate our results, we consider some special superpositions of Weyl-Heisenberg, SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states which interpolate between Werner and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states.

  8. Hierarchy of Efficiently Computable and Faithful Lower Bounds to Quantum Discord.

    PubMed

    Piani, Marco

    2016-08-19

    Quantum discord expresses a fundamental nonclassicality of correlations that is more general than entanglement, but that, in its standard definition, is not easily evaluated. We derive a hierarchy of computationally efficient lower bounds to the standard quantum discord. Every nontrivial element of the hierarchy constitutes by itself a valid discordlike measure, based on a fundamental feature of quantum correlations: their lack of shareability. Our approach emphasizes how the difference between entanglement and discord depends on whether shareability is intended as a static property or as a dynamical process. PMID:27588837

  9. Hierarchy of Efficiently Computable and Faithful Lower Bounds to Quantum Discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piani, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Quantum discord expresses a fundamental nonclassicality of correlations that is more general than entanglement, but that, in its standard definition, is not easily evaluated. We derive a hierarchy of computationally efficient lower bounds to the standard quantum discord. Every nontrivial element of the hierarchy constitutes by itself a valid discordlike measure, based on a fundamental feature of quantum correlations: their lack of shareability. Our approach emphasizes how the difference between entanglement and discord depends on whether shareability is intended as a static property or as a dynamical process.

  10. HIV/AIDS and Infertility: Emerging Problems in the Era of Highly Active Antiretrovirals

    PubMed Central

    Kushnir, Vitaly A.; Lewis, William

    2011-01-01

    Objective To review the effects of HIV/AIDS, associated co-morbid conditions, and side effects of antiretroviral treatment on fertility. Design A Pubmed computer search was performed to identify relevant articles. Setting Research institution. Intervention(s) None. Result(s) Biological alterations in reproductive physiology may account for sub-fertility in patients infected with HIV. Psychosocial factors in patients with HIV infection may affect reproductive desires and outcomes. Antiretroviral medications may have direct toxicity on gametes and embryos. Available evidence indicates that fertility treatments can be a safe option for HIV-discordant couples; although, potential risk of viral transmission cannot be completely eliminated. Conclusion(s) Reproductive desires are increasingly becoming prominent in the healthcare of young HIV-infected patients. Additional data is needed to address the effect of HIV and its treatments on fertility and reproductive outcomes. PMID:21722892

  11. Using provider performance incentives to increase HIV testing and counseling services in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    de Walque, Damien; Gertler, Paul J; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Kwan, Ada; Vermeersch, Christel; de Dieu Bizimana, Jean; Binagwaho, Agnès; Condo, Jeanine

    2015-03-01

    Paying for performance provides financial rewards to medical care providers for improvements in performance measured by utilization and quality of care indicators. In 2006, Rwanda began a pay for performance scheme to improve health services delivery, including HIV/AIDS services. Using a prospective quasi-experimental design, this study examines the scheme's impact on individual and couples HIV testing. We find a positive impact of pay for performance on HIV testing among married individuals (10.2 percentage points increase). Paying for performance also increased testing by both partners by 14.7 percentage point among discordant couples in which only one of the partners is an AIDS patient.

  12. Perceived HIV status is a key determinant of unprotected anal intercourse within partnerships of men who have sex with men in Amsterdam.

    PubMed

    Matser, Amy; Heijman, Titia; Geskus, Ronald; de Vries, Henry; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Speksnijder, Arjen; Xiridou, Maria; Fennema, Han; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten

    2014-12-01

    The practice of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) involves at least two partners. We examined the associations between insertive or receptive UAI and perceived HIV seroconcordance and partnership type in self-perceived HIV-negative and self-perceived HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM (age ≥ 18 years) were recruited for a cross-sectional survey at the sexually transmitted infections clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, in 2008-2009. Participants completed a questionnaire concerning partnerships in the preceding 6 months. Associations were quantified via multinomial logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations. The outcomes were 'no, or safe anal intercourse', 'insertive UAI', and 'receptive UAI'. We included 5,456 partnerships from 1,890 self-perceived HIV-negative men and 1,861 partnerships from 558 self-perceived HIV-positive men. Within the partnerships, perceived HIV status of the partner was an important determinant of UAI (p < 0.001). Among HIV-negative men, perceived HIV discordance was negatively associated with receptive UAI compared with no or safe UAI (OR 0.57; 95 % CI 0.36-0.92); when the partners were more familiar with each other, the risk of receptive UAI was increased relative to no or safe anal intercourse. Among HIV-positive men, perceived HIV discordance was negatively associated with insertive UAI (OR 0.05; 95 % CI 0.03-0.08). Within partnerships, perceived HIV status of the partner was one of the strongest determinants of UAI among self-perceived HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM, and discordant serostatus was negatively associated with UAI. The findings suggest that serosorting is one of the main strategies when engaging in UAI.

  13. Risk of Anal Cancer in People Living with HIV: Addressing Anal Health in the HIV Primary Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Walker, Crystal Martin; Likes, Wendy; Bernard, Marye; Kedia, Satish; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Anal health and anal cancer are rarely addressed in HIV primary care. We sought to understand factors that impeded or promoted addressing anal health in HIV primary care from providers' perspectives. In this exploratory study, HIV primary care providers from the Mid-South region of the United States participated in brief individual interviews. We analyzed transcribed data to identify barriers and facilitators to addressing anal health. Our study sample included five physicians and four nurse practitioners. The data revealed a number of barriers such as perception of patient embarrassment, provider embarrassment, external issues such as time constraints, demand of other priorities, lack of anal complaints, lack of resources, and gender discordance. Facilitators included awareness, advantageous circumstances, and the patient-provider relationship. Anal health education should be prioritized for HIV primary care providers. Preventive health visits should be considered to mitigate time constraints, demands for other priorities, and unequal gender opportunities. PMID:27080925

  14. The relation between the quantum discord and quantum teleportation: The physical interpretation of the transition point between different quantum discord decay regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszak, K.; Cywiński, Ł.

    2015-10-01

    We study quantum teleportation via Bell-diagonal mixed states of two qubits in the context of the intrinsic properties of the quantum discord. We show that when the quantum-correlated state of the two qubits is used for quantum teleportation, the character of the teleportation efficiency changes substantially depending on the Bell-diagonal-state parameters, which can be seen when the worst-case-scenario or best-case-scenario fidelity is studied. Depending on the parameter range, one of two types of single-qubit states is hardest/easiest to teleport. The transition between these two parameter ranges coincides exactly with the transition between the range of classical correlation decay and quantum correlation decay characteristic for the evolution of the quantum discord. The correspondence provides a physical interpretation for the prominent feature of the decay of the quantum discord.

  15. Gaussian geometric discord of two-mode systems in a thermal environment

    SciTech Connect

    Suciu, Serban Isar, Aurelian

    2014-11-24

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the Gaussian geometric discord for a system consisting of two non-interacting non-resonant bosonic modes embedded in a thermal environment. We take as initial state of the system a two-mode squeezed thermal state and describe the time evolution of the Gaussian geometric discord under the influence of the thermal bath. By tracing the distance between the state of the considered subsystem and the closest classical-quantum Gaussian state we evaluate the Gaussian geometric discord for all times and temperatures. The geometric discord has finite values between 0 and 1 and decreases asymptotically to zero at large times and temperatures with oscillations on the time axis.

  16. Prenatal diagnosis and management of monozygotic twins discordant for turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gou, Chenyu; Gao, Yu; Chen, Baojiang; Fang, Qun

    2014-01-01

    Discordance for Turner syndrome in monozygotic (MZ) twins, which is known as heterokaryotypia, is very rare in MZ pregnancies. The combined effect of idiochromosome loss due to an anaphase lag and the relocation of discordant blastomeres may trigger the twinning procedure and discordance of Turner syndrome. We present 2 cases of MZ twins discordant for Turner syndrome that were diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound and cytogenetic studies (one fetus was 45,X and the other 46,XX). Both cases, which involved monochorionic (MC) diamniotic twins, underwent selective feticide and had favorable outcomes for the remaining twin. Ultrasound, amniocentesis of both sacs (dual amniocentesis) and zygosity determination are indispensable in diagnosing heterokaryotypia. Selective feticide is a treatment option in cases of heterokaryotypic MC diamniotic twins, and in our cases, it resulted in favorable outcomes for the remaining twin.

  17. Planned and Post Hoc Comparisons in Tests of Concordance and Discordance for G Groups of Judges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serlin, Ronald C.; Marascuilo, Leonard A.

    1983-01-01

    Two alternatives to the problems of conducting planned and post hoc comparisons in tests of concordance and discordance for G groups of judges are examined. The two models are illustrated using existing data. (Author/JKS)

  18. Quantum discord and entanglement of two atoms in a micromaser-type system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xue-Qun; Wang, Fu-Zhong

    2016-06-01

    The correlations dynamics of two atoms in the case of a micromaser-type system is investigated. We show that the entangled state can be created by initially maximally mixed state and there exist collapse and revival phenomena for the time evolutions of both entanglement and quantum discord under the system considered as the field is initially in the Fock state. Our results confirm that entanglement and quantum discord have similar behaviors in certain time ranges, such as their oscillations during the time evolution being almost in phase, but they also present significant differences, such as quantum discord being maintained even after the complete loss of entanglement. Furthermore, we exhibit clearly that the dynamics of quantum discord under the action of environment are intimately related to the generation and evolution of entanglement.

  19. Discord and entanglement in non-Markovian environments at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Hong-Mei; Fang, Mao-Fa

    2016-09-01

    The dynamic evolutions of the discord and entanglement of two atoms immersed in two independent Lorentzian reservoirs at zero and finite temperatures have been investigated by using the time-convolutionless master-equation method. Our results show that, nonzero temperature can induce the entanglement sudden death and accelerate the decays of discord and entanglement. The discord and the entanglement have different robustness for different initial states and their robustness may change under certain conditions. When both the non-Markovian effect and detuning are present simultaneously, due to the memory and feedback effect of non-Markovian reservoirs, the discord and entanglement can be effectively protected even at nonzero temperature by increasing the non-Markovian effect and the detuning. Project supported by the Science and Technology Plan of Hunan Province, China (Grant No. 2010FJ3148), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374096), and the Doctoral Science Foundation of Hunan Normal University, China.

  20. Discord and entanglement in non-Markovian environments at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Hong-Mei; Fang, Mao-Fa

    2016-09-01

    The dynamic evolutions of the discord and entanglement of two atoms immersed in two independent Lorentzian reservoirs at zero and finite temperatures have been investigated by using the time-convolutionless master-equation method. Our results show that, nonzero temperature can induce the entanglement sudden death and accelerate the decays of discord and entanglement. The discord and the entanglement have different robustness for different initial states and their robustness may change under certain conditions. When both the non-Markovian effect and detuning are present simultaneously, due to the memory and feedback effect of non-Markovian reservoirs, the discord and entanglement can be effectively protected even at nonzero temperature by increasing the non-Markovian effect and the detuning. Project supported by the Science and Technology Plan of Hunan Province, China (Grant No. 2010FJ3148), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374096), and the Doctoral Science Foundation of Hunan Normal University, China.

  1. Geometric quantum discord of a Jaynes-Cummings atom and an isolated atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Hua-Ping

    2015-12-01

    We studied the geometric quantum discord of a quantum system consisting of a Jaynes-Cummings (JC) atom, a cavity and an isolated atom. The analytical expressions of the geometric quantum discord for two atoms, every atom with a cavity and the total system were obtained. We showed that the geometric quantum discord is not always zero when the entanglement falls to zero for a two-atom subsystem; the geometric measurement of the quantum discord of the total system developed periodically with a single frequency if the initial two-atom state was not entangled, otherwise, it oscillated with two or four frequencies according to whether the cavity was initially empty or not, respectively.

  2. What predicts intention-behavior discordance? A review of the action control framework.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2013-10-01

    The physical activity intention-behavior gap is a focus of considerable research. The purpose of this article is to overview contemporary evidence for predictors of this intention-behavior discordance using the action control framework developed in our laboratories. We propose the hypothesis that intention-behavior discordance is from motivational (affective attitude, perceived behavioral control), self-regulatory (behavioral processes), and habitual (automaticity) constructs. PMID:23873134

  3. Disentangling methodological and biological sources of gene tree discordance on Oryza (Poaceae) chromosome 3.

    PubMed

    Zwickl, Derrick J; Stein, Joshua C; Wing, Rod A; Ware, Doreen; Sanderson, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    We describe new methods for characterizing gene tree discordance in phylogenomic data sets, which screen for deviations from neutral expectations, summarize variation in statistical support among gene trees, and allow comparison of the patterns of discordance induced by various analysis choices. Using an exceptionally complete set of genome sequences for the short arm of chromosome 3 in Oryza (rice) species, we applied these methods to identify the causes and consequences of differing patterns of discordance in the sets of gene trees inferred using a panel of 20 distinct analysis pipelines. We found that discordance patterns were strongly affected by aspects of data selection, alignment, and alignment masking. Unusual patterns of discordance evident when using certain pipelines were reduced or eliminated by using alternative pipelines, suggesting that they were the product of methodological biases rather than evolutionary processes. In some cases, once such biases were eliminated, evolutionary processes such as introgression could be implicated. Additionally, patterns of gene tree discordance had significant downstream impacts on species tree inference. For example, inference from supermatrices was positively misleading when pipelines that led to biased gene trees were used. Several results may generalize to other data sets: we found that gene tree and species tree inference gave more reasonable results when intron sequence was included during sequence alignment and tree inference, the alignment software PRANK was used, and detectable "block-shift" alignment artifacts were removed. We discuss our findings in the context of well-established relationships in Oryza and continuing controversies regarding the domestication history of O. sativa.

  4. Dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord in the Tavis-Cummings model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juliana; Rodríguez, Boris A.

    2016-06-01

    We revisit the problem of the dynamics of quantum correlations in the Tavis-Cummings model. Our results show that the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord are far from being trivial or intuitive. We find states with the same entanglement but different discord and states where the two quantifiers give opposite information about correlations at a certain time. We furthermore show that many of the dynamical features of quantum discord attributed to dissipation are already present in the exact framework and are due to the characteristic quantum nonlinearity of the model and to the choice of initial conditions. Through a comprehensive analysis of pure and mixed initial conditions, we find a fascinating range of phenomena that can be used for experimental purposes. We propose an experiment called quantum discord gates where for a given pure initial condition discord is zero or non-zero depending on the number of photons in the cavity. Given the marginal character of states with zero discord this result is not only completely counterintuitive but is also useful as a way to count photons.

  5. Degree and rate of growth discordance in dichorionic twins conceived by in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Egic, Amira S; Mojovic, Donka V; Milovanovic, Zagorka M; Jurisic, Aleksandar B; Srbinovic, Ljubomir P; Krsmanovic, Suzana P; Karadzov-Orlic, Natasa T

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Our objective was to estimate degree and rate of discordant growth and its impact on perinatal outcome in dichorionic twin pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF) compared to those conceived spontaneously. Study Design. Growth discordance was defined as 90th percentiles for the study population. Adverse perinatal outcome was defined as 5-minute Apgar score <7 and/or admission to neonatal intensive care unit. Results. In the total study population of dichorionic twins (176 conceived by IVF and 215 spontaneously), 30% discordant growth represented the 90th percentile. After adjusting for gestational age, discordant twins conceived by IVF or spontaneously were at higher risk for adverse perinatal outcome (hazard ratio 4.4; 95% CI 2.4-8.3, P < 0.0001; hazard ratio 2.5; 95% CI 1.5-4.4, P = 0.001, resp.). Similar rates of 5-minute Apgar score <7, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, and delivery <34 weeks were found between discordant twins conceived by IVF and those conceived spontaneously. Conclusion. Dichorionic twins conceived by IVF are at similar risk for the rate and degree of discordant growth and adverse perinatal outcome compared to dichorionic twins conceived spontaneously.

  6. Non-local correlation and quantum discord in two atoms in the non-degenerate model

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, A.-B.A.

    2012-12-15

    By using geometric quantum discord (GQD) and measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN), quantum correlation is investigated for two atoms in the non-degenerate two-photon Tavis-Cummings model. It is shown that there is no asymptotic decay for MIN while asymptotic decay exists for GQD. Quantum correlations can be strengthened by introducing the dipole-dipole interaction. The evolvement period of quantum correlation gets shorter with the increase in the dipole-dipole parameter. It is found that there exists not only quantum nonlocality without entanglement but also quantum nonlocality without quantum discord. Also, the MIN and GQD are raised rather than entanglement, and also with weak initial entanglement, there are MIN and entanglement in a interval of death quantum discord. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Geometric quantum discord (GQD) and measurement induced nonlocality (MIN) are used to investigate the correlations of two two-level atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is no asymptotic decay for MIN while asymptotic decay exists for GQD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum correlations can be strengthened by introducing the dipole-dipole interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There exists not only quantum nonlocality without entanglement but also without discord. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weak initial entanglement leads to MIN and entanglement in intervals of death discord.

  7. DNA Methylation Changes in the IGF1R Gene in Birth Weight Discordant Adult Monozygotic Twins.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Van Dongen, Jenny; Tan, Qihua; Willemsen, Gonneke; Christiansen, Lene; Boomsma, Dorret I; Spector, Tim D; Valdes, Ana M; Bell, Jordana T

    2015-12-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) can have an impact on health outcomes in later life, especially in relation to pre-disposition to metabolic disease. Several studies suggest that LBW resulting from restricted intrauterine growth leaves a footprint on DNA methylation in utero, and this influence likely persists into adulthood. To investigate this further, we performed epigenome-wide association analyses of blood DNA methylation using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip profiles in 71 adult monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs who were extremely discordant for birth weight. A signal mapping to the IGF1R gene (cg12562232, p = 2.62 × 10(-8)), was significantly associated with birth weight discordance at a genome-wide false-discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05. We pursued replication in three additional independent datasets of birth weight discordant MZ pairs and observed the same direction of association, but the results were not significant. However, a meta-analysis across the four independent samples, in total 216 birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs, showed a significant positive association between birth weight and DNA methylation differences at IGF1R (random-effects meta-analysis p = .04), and the effect was particularly pronounced in older twins (random-effects meta-analysis p = .008, 98 older birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs). The results suggest that severe intra-uterine growth differences (birth weight discordance >20%) are associated with methylation changes in the IGF1R gene in adulthood, independent of genetic effects.

  8. Cough Aerosol Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Insights on TST / IGRA Discordance and Transmission Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jones-López, Edward C.; White, Laura F.; Kirenga, Bruce; Mumbowa, Francis; Ssebidandi, Martin; Moine, Stephanie; Mbabazi, Olive; Mboowa, Gerald; Ayakaka, Irene; Kim, Soyeon; Thornton, Christina S.; Okwera, Alphonse; Joloba, Moses; Fennelly, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale The diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) is complicated by the absence of a gold standard. Discordance between tuberculin skin tests (TST) and interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) occurs in 10–20% of individuals, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Methods We analyzed data from a prospective household contact study that included cough aerosol culture results from index cases, environmental and contact factors. We assessed contacts for LTBI using TST and IGRA at baseline and six weeks. We examined TST/IGRA discordance in qualitative and quantitative analyses, and used multivariable logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations to analyze predictors of discordance. Measurements and Results We included 96 TB patients and 384 contacts. Discordance decreased from 15% at baseline to 8% by six weeks. In adjusted analyses, discordance was related to less crowding (p = 0.004), non-cavitary disease (OR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.02–1.96; p = 0.03), and marginally with BCG vaccination in contacts (OR 1.40, 95% CI: 0.99–1.98, p = 0.06). Conclusions We observed significant individual variability and temporal dynamism in TST and IGRA results in household contacts of pulmonary TB cases. Discordance was associated with a less intense infectious exposure, and marginally associated with a BCG-mediated delay in IGRA conversion. Cough aerosols provide an additional dimension to the assessment of infectiousness and risk of infection in contacts. PMID:26394149

  9. HIV testing, care, and treatment experiences among the steady male partners of female sex workers living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul J; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Male steady partners of female sex workers (FSW) living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent a key population for treatment as prevention and/or pre-exposure prophylaxis interventions. This study uses data collected from male steady partners who were referred by FSW living with HIV participating in a multi-level HIV prevention and care intervention in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. We conducted a socio-behavioral survey and HIV testing with all men (n = 64) and 16 in-depth interviews with a sub-sample to obtain more depth. Thirty-five of the 64 participants were living with HIV; 27 were previously diagnosed and 8 were diagnosed during our study. As a result, 45% of men were members of sero-discordant sexual partnerships. Of men with no previous HIV diagnosis (n = 37), 15 had never been tested for HIV and nine had not been tested in the past two years. Ninety-three percent of men previously diagnosed with HIV reported receiving HIV care in the past 6 months and 78% were taking anti-retrovirals. Low HIV testing was partly due to men not feeling at risk for HIV, despite having an HIV-infected partner. Additionally, a lack of tailored care inhibited engagement in anti-retroviral treatment for those infected. HIV testing was low, highlighting a need for test-and-treat strategies. Men not living with HIV would benefit from regular testing and would be good candidates for pre-exposure prophylaxis. While almost all men who had been diagnosed with HIV were engaged in care and adherent to anti-retroviral therapy, future research should assess whether they are achieving optimal HIV outcomes for their health and prevention of ongoing transmission.

  10. Discordant introgression in a rapidly expanding hybrid swarm.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jessica L; Blum, Mike J; Walters, David M; Porter, Brady A; Burkhead, Noel; Freeman, Byron

    2012-06-01

    The erosion of species boundaries can involve rapid evolutionary change. Consequently, many aspects of the process remain poorly understood, including the formation, expansion, and evolution of hybrid swarms. Biological invasions involving hybridization present exceptional opportunities to study the erosion of species boundaries because timelines of interactions and outcomes are frequently well known. Here, we examined clinal variation across codominant and maternally inherited genetic markers as well as phenotypic traits to characterize the expansion and evolution of a hybrid swarm between native Cyprinella venusta and invasive Cyprinella lutrensis minnows. Discordant introgression of phenotype, microsatellite multilocus genotype, and mtDNA haplotype indicates that the observable expansion of the C. venusta × C. lutrensis hybrid swarm is a false invasion front. Both parental and hybrid individuals closely resembling C. lutrensis are numerically dominant in the expansion wake, indicating that the non-native parental phenotype may be selectively favored. These findings show that cryptic introgression can extend beyond the phenotypic boundaries of hybrid swarms and that hybrid swarms likely expand more rapidly than can be documented from phenotypic variation alone. Similarly, dominance of a single parental phenotype following an introduction event may lead to instances of species erosion being mistaken for species displacement without hybridization. PMID:25568058

  11. [Discordant pattern, visual identification of myocardial viability with PET].

    PubMed

    Alexánderson, E; Ricalde, A; Zerón, J; Talayero, J A; Cruz, P; Adame, G; Mendoza, G; Meave, A

    2006-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) as a non-invasive imaging method for studying cardiac perfusion and metabolism has turned into the gold standard for detecting myocardial viability. The utilization of 18 FDG as a tracer for its identification permits to spot the use of exogenous glucose by the myocardium segments. By studying and comparing viability and perfusion results, for which the latter uses tracers such as 13N-ammonia, three different patterns for myocardial viability evaluation arise:. transmural concordant pattern, non-transmural concordant pattern, and the discordant pattern; the last one exemplifies the hibernating myocardium and proves the presence of myocardial viability. The importance of its detection is fundamental for the study of an ischemic patient, since it permits the establishment of and exact diagnosis, prognosis, and the best treatment option. It also allows foreseeing functional recovery of the affected region as well as the ejection fraction rate after revascularization treatment if this is determined as necessary. All these elements regarding viability are determinant in order to reduce adverse events and help improving patients' prognosis. PMID:17315610

  12. Discordant introgression in a rapidly expanding hybrid swarm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, Jessica L.; Blum, Mike J.; Walters, David M.; Porter, Brady A.; Burkhead, Noel; Freeman, Byron

    2012-01-01

    The erosion of species boundaries can involve rapid evolutionary change. Consequently, many aspects of the process remain poorly understood, including the formation, expansion, and evolution of hybrid swarms. Biological invasions involving hybridization present exceptional opportunities to study the erosion of species boundaries because timelines of interactions and outcomes are frequently well known. Here, we examined clinal variation across codominant and maternally inherited genetic markers as well as phenotypic traits to characterize the expansion and evolution of a hybrid swarm between native Cyprinella venusta and invasive Cyprinella lutrensis minnows. Discordant introgression of phenotype, microsatellite multilocus genotype, and mtDNA haplotype indicates that the observable expansion of the C. venusta x C. lutrensis hybrid swarm is a false invasion front. Both parental and hybrid individuals closely resembling C. lutrensis are numerically dominant in the expansion wake, indicating that the non-native parental phenotype may be selectively favored. These findings show that cryptic introgression can extend beyond the phenotypic boundaries of hybrid swarms and that hybrid swarms likely expand more rapidly than can be documented from phenotypic variation alone. Similarly, dominance of a single parental phenotype following an introduction event may lead to instances of species erosion being mistaken for species displacement without hybridization.

  13. Discordant patterns of evolutionary differentiation in two Neotropical treefrogs.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Jeanne M; Duryea, M Catherine; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2009-04-01

    Comparative studies of codistributed taxa test the degree to which historical processes have shaped contemporary population structure. Discordant patterns of lineage divergence among taxa indicate that species differ in their response to common historical processes. The complex geologic landscape of the Isthmus of Central America provides an ideal setting to test the effects of vicariance and other biogeographic factors on population history. We compared divergence patterns between two codistributed Neotropical frogs (Dendropsophus ebraccatus and Agalychnis callidryas) that exhibit colour pattern polymorphisms among populations, and found significant differences between them in phenotypic and genetic divergence among populations. Colour pattern in D. ebraccatus did not vary with genetic or geographic distance, while colour pattern co-varied with patterns of gene flow in A. callidryas. In addition, we detected significant species differences in the phylogenetic history of populations, gene flow among them, and the extent to which historical diversification and recent gene flow have been restricted by five biogeographic barriers in Costa Rica and Panama. We inferred that alternate microevolutionary processes explain the unique patterns of diversification in each taxon. Our study underscores how differences in selective regimes and species-typical ecological and life-history traits maintain spatial patterns of diversification. PMID:19368645

  14. NOTE: Trends of discordant fetal growth in monochorionic twin pregnancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Umur, Asli

    2000-08-01

    We derived simple analytical relations representing trends of discordant fetal growth in monochorionic twins developing the twin-twin transfusion syndrome from an approximation of previously developed model equations. In severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome cases, the difference between the estimated fetal weights of both twins increases proportional to (t-5)5 (t denotes gestational age in weeks) and the sum of both weights increases proportional to t3. Hence, the ratio between the difference of estimated fetal weights and the average of the two weights (difference average ratio) increases in proportion to (t-5)5/t3. In mild cases, the difference between estimated fetal weights as well as the sum of the two weights increases proportional to t3. Therefore, the difference average ratio becomes a constant. Comparison with clinical data of severe and mild cases showed surprisingly good agreement except after laser coagulation of placental anastomoses. These relations may therefore enable us to distinguish between severe and mild developing twin-twin transfusion syndrome cases.

  15. Hippocampal MRI volumetry in cognitively discordant monozygotic twin pairs

    PubMed Central

    Jarvenpaa, T; Laakso, M; Rossi, R; Koskenvuo, M; Kaprio, J; Raiha, I; Kurki, T; Laine, M; Frisoni, G; Rinne, J

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether hippocampal atrophy, a proxy for incipient Alzheimer's disease, can be detected in non-demented monozygotic co-twins of demented twins by using volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Seven pairs of monozygotic female twins discordant for cognitive function (mean (SD) age 75 (4) years), and 10 age and education matched healthy controls (seven women, three men; mean age 73 (3) years) were studied with volumetric MRI. Results: The mean normalised right hippocampal volume was 31% lower (p = 0.002) in the demented twins, and 6% lower (p = 0.45) in the non-demented twins than in the controls. In the left hippocampus, the mean normalised volume was 36% lower (p<0.001) in the demented twins, and 9% lower (p = 0.13) in the non-demented twins than in the controls. Conclusions: Significant hippocampal atrophy was detected in the demented twins compared with the controls. This is in line with previous imaging and pathological studies, with hippocampus showing the early changes in Alzheimer's disease. In the non-demented twins, only a minor, non-significant reduction was observed in the hippocampal volumes compared with the controls. This could reflect gene–environment interactions that have protected the non-demented twins longer than their demented co-twins and contributed to the relative preservation of their hippocampal volumes, or it could be a sign of preclinical Alzheimer's disease in the non-demented twins. PMID:14707319

  16. Comparing diagnostic tests: trials in people with discordant test results.

    PubMed

    Hooper, R; Díaz-Ordaz, K; Takeda, A; Khan, K

    2013-06-30

    Diagnostic tests are traditionally compared for accuracy against a gold standard but can also be compared prospectively in a trial. A conventional trial comparing two tests would randomize each participant to a testing strategy, but a more efficient alternative is to give both tests to all participants and follow up those with discordant results. Participants could be randomized before or after testing. The statistical analysis of such a trial has not previously been described. We investigated two estimates of the risk difference for a binary outcome: one based on analysing outcomes as if from a conventional trial and one combining estimates of different parameters in the manner of a decision analysis. We show that the trial estimate and decision analysis estimate are both unbiased and derive approximate formulae for their standard errors. By using the decision analysis estimate (but not the trial estimate), the same precision can be achieved by randomizing before testing as by randomizing after. To avoid destroying equipoise, and to allow consenting and randomizing to be carried out at the same visit, we recommend randomizing before testing. Giving both tests to all participants means fewer need to be recruited: in one example from the literature, the proposed design was nearly four times more efficient in this sense than a conventional trial design. PMID:23172716

  17. Discordant introgression in a rapidly expanding hybrid swarm.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jessica L; Blum, Mike J; Walters, David M; Porter, Brady A; Burkhead, Noel; Freeman, Byron

    2012-06-01

    The erosion of species boundaries can involve rapid evolutionary change. Consequently, many aspects of the process remain poorly understood, including the formation, expansion, and evolution of hybrid swarms. Biological invasions involving hybridization present exceptional opportunities to study the erosion of species boundaries because timelines of interactions and outcomes are frequently well known. Here, we examined clinal variation across codominant and maternally inherited genetic markers as well as phenotypic traits to characterize the expansion and evolution of a hybrid swarm between native Cyprinella venusta and invasive Cyprinella lutrensis minnows. Discordant introgression of phenotype, microsatellite multilocus genotype, and mtDNA haplotype indicates that the observable expansion of the C. venusta × C. lutrensis hybrid swarm is a false invasion front. Both parental and hybrid individuals closely resembling C. lutrensis are numerically dominant in the expansion wake, indicating that the non-native parental phenotype may be selectively favored. These findings show that cryptic introgression can extend beyond the phenotypic boundaries of hybrid swarms and that hybrid swarms likely expand more rapidly than can be documented from phenotypic variation alone. Similarly, dominance of a single parental phenotype following an introduction event may lead to instances of species erosion being mistaken for species displacement without hybridization.

  18. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  19. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  20. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  1. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  2. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  3. FORT UNION DEEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2002-09-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback

  4. FORT UNION DEEP

    SciTech Connect

    Lyle A. Johnson Jr.

    2002-03-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) is currently the hottest area of energy development in the Rocky Mountain area. The Powder River Basin (PRB) is the largest CBM area in Wyoming and has attracted the majority of the attention because of its high permeability and relatively shallow depth. Other Wyoming coal regions are also being targeted for development, but most of these areas have lower permeability and deeper coal seams. This project consists of the development of a CBM stimulation system for deep coal resources and involves three work areas: (1) Well Placement, (2) Well Stimulation, and (3) Production Monitoring and Evaluation. The focus of this project is the Washakie Basin. Timberline Energy, Inc., the cosponsor, has a project area in southern Carbon County, Wyoming, and northern Moffat County, Colorado. The target coal is found near the top of the lower Fort Union formation. The well for this project, Evans No.1, was drilled to a depth of 2,700 ft. Three coal seams were encountered with sandstone and some interbedded shale between seams. Well logs indicated that the coal seams and the sandstone contained gas. For the testing, the upper seam at 2,000 ft was selected. The well, drilled and completed for this project, produced very little water and only occasional burps of methane. To enhance the well, a mild severity fracture was conducted to fracture the coal seam and not the adjacent sandstone. Fracturing data indicated a fracture half-length of 34 ft, a coal permeability of 0.2226 md, and permeability of 15.3 md. Following fracturing, the gas production rate stabilized at 10 Mscf/day within water production of 18 bpd. The Western Research Institute (WRI) CBM model was used to design a 14-day stimulation cycle followed by a 30-day production period. A maximum injection pressure of 1,200 psig to remain well below the fracture pressure was selected. Model predictions were 20 Mscf/day of air injection for 14 days, a one-day shut-in, then flowback. The predicted flowback

  5. Get Tested for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for HIV Browse Sections The Basics Overview What Is HIV? ... 1 of 7 sections The Basics: What Is HIV? What is HIV? HIV stands for human immunodeficiency ...

  6. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  7. Use of alternative treatments by chronic fatigue syndrome discordant twins.

    PubMed

    Afari; Eisenberg; Herrell; Goldberg; Kleyman; Ashton; Buchwald

    2000-03-21

    Background: Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have been faced with difficulties in diagnosis and lack of effective treatments. Anecdotal evidence suggests that use of alternative treatments may be common in these patients. Our primary objective was to compare the prevalence and patterns of alternative medicine use among twins who met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) CFS criteria to that of their non-CFS co-twins. Secondary goals were to assess how often alternative medicine use was discussed with physicians and the perceived benefit of these therapies. Methods: Sixty-three twin pairs discordant for CFS completed a survey about their use of 22 alternative therapies. Matched pair odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to examine differences in the use between CFS twins and their non-CFS co-twins. Results: 91% of twins with CFS and 71% of non-CFS twins had used at least 1 alternative treatment in their lifetime. Twins with CFS were more likely to use homeopathy, mega-vitamins, herbal therapies, biofeedback, relaxation/meditation, guided imagery, massage therapy, energy healing, religious healing by others, and self-help groups than their non-CFS counterparts. A large proportion of all twins found alternative therapies helpful; however, only 42% of those with CFS and 23% of those without CFS discussed their use of alternative medicine with a physician. Conclusions: Individuals with CFS frequently used alternative medical treatments yet rarely communicated this use to their medical doctor. Future research should ascertain the usefulness of alternative practices in the management of CFS.

  8. Proton MRS in twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lutkenhoff, E S; van Erp, T G; Thomas, M A; Therman, S; Manninen, M; Huttunen, M O; Kaprio, J; Lönnqvist, J; O'Neill, J; Cannon, T D

    2010-03-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) neurometabolite abnormalities have been detected widely in subjects with and at risk for schizophrenia. We hypothesized that such abnormalities would be present both in patients with schizophrenia and in their unaffected twin siblings. We acquired magnetic resonance spectra (TR/TE=3000/30 ms) at voxels in the mesial prefrontal gray matter, left prefrontal white matter and left hippocampus in 14 twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia (2 monozygotic, 12 dizygotic), 13 healthy twin pairs (4 monozygotic, 9 dizygotic) and 1 additional unaffected co-twin of a schizophrenia proband. In the mesial prefrontal gray matter voxel, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine+phosphocreatine (Cr), glycerophosphocholine+phosphocholine (Cho) and myo-inositol (mI) did not differ significantly between patients with schizophrenia, their unaffected co-twins or healthy controls. However, glutamate (Glu) was significantly lower in patients with schizophrenia (31%, percent difference) and unaffected co-twins (21%) than in healthy controls (collapsed across twin pairs). In the left hippocampus voxel, levels of NAA (23%), Cr (22%) and Cho (36%) were higher in schizophrenia patients compared with controls. Hippocampal NAA (25%), Cr (22%) and Cho (37%) were also significantly higher in patients than in their unaffected co-twins. Region-to-region differences in metabolite levels were also notable within all three diagnosis groups. These findings suggest that (1)H MRS neurometabolite abnormalities are present not only in patients with schizophrenia, but also in their unaffected co-twins. Thus, reduced mesial prefrontal cortical Glu and elevated hippocampal NAA, Cr and Cho may represent trait markers of schizophrenia risk and, when exacerbated, state markers of schizophrenia itself. PMID:18645571

  9. Estrogen, progesterone, and HER2/neu receptor discordance between primary and metastatic breast tumours-a review.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C; Hilton, J; Clemons, M; Mazzarello, S; Hutton, B; Haggar, F; Addison, C L; Kuchuk, I; Zhu, X; Gelmon, K; Arnaout, A

    2016-09-01

    Discordance in estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and HER2/neu status between primary breast tumours and metastatic disease is well recognized. In this review, we highlight how receptor discordance between primary tumours and paired metastasis can help elucidate the mechanism of metastasis but can also effect patient management and the design of future trials. Discordance rates and ranges were available from 47 studies (3384 matched primary and metastatic pairs) reporting ER, PR, and HER2/neu expression for both primary and metastatic sites. Median discordance rates for ER, PR, and HER2/neu were 14 % (range 0-67 %, IQR 9-25 %), 21 % (range 0-62 %, IQR 15-41 %), and 10 % (range 0-44 %, IQR 4-17 %), respectively. Loss of receptor expression was more common (9.17 %) than gain (4.51 %). Discordance rates varied amongst site of metastasis with ER discordance being highest in bone metastases suggesting that discordance is a true biological phenomenon. Discordance rates vary for both the biomarker and the metastatic site. Loss of expression is more common than gain. This can affect patient management as it can lead to a reduction in both the efficacy and availability of potential therapeutic agents. Future studies are recommended to explore both the mechanisms of discordance as well as its impact on patient outcome and management.

  10. Differentially Methylated Genomic Regions in Birth-Weight Discordant Twin Pairs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mubo; Baumbach, Jan; Vandin, Fabio; Röttger, Richard; Barbosa, Eudes; Dong, Mingchui; Frost, Morten; Christiansen, Lene; Tan, Qihua

    2016-03-01

    Poor nutrition during critical growth phases may alter the structural and physiologic development of vital organs thus "programming" the susceptibility to adult-onset diseases and disease-related health conditions. Epigenome-wide association studies have been performed in birth-weight discordant twin pairs to find evidence for such "programming" effects, but no significant results emerged. We further investigated this issue using a new computational approach: Instead of probing single genomic sites for significant alterations in epigenetic marks, we scan for differentially methylated genomic regions. Whole genome DNA methylation levels were measured in whole blood from 150 pairs of adult identical twins discordant for birth-weight. Intrapair differential DNA methylation was associated with qualitative (large or small) and quantitative (percentage) birth-weight discordance at each genomic site using regression models adjusting for age and sex. Based on the regression results, genomic regions with consistent alteration patterns of DNA methylation were located and tested for significant robustness using computational permutation tests. This yielded an interesting genomic region on chromosome 1, which is significantly differentially methylated for quantitative birth-weight discordance. The region covers two genes (TYW3 and CRYZ) both reportedly associated with metabolism. We conclude that prenatal conditions for birth-weight discordance may result in persistent epigenetic modifications potentially affecting even adult health. PMID:26831219

  11. The road not taken: life experiences in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for major depression

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, KS; Halberstadt, LJ

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to understand how environmental experiences contribute to risk for major depression (MD), we conducted joint autobiographical interviews with 14 pairs of monozygotic twins (mean age 51.2) rigorously discordant for a lifetime history of MD. Twelve of the pairs could be sorted into four broad categories. In two pairs, discordance was associated with a single traumatic event occurring to the affected twin. In seven pairs, the well twin had one stable, long-term, successful romantic relationship, whereas the affected co-twin had romantic reversals one or more of which precipitated depressive episodes. These pairs varied in the degree to which the romantic problems seemed to arise from bad luck or poor choices. In one pair, occupational difficulties were strongly related to discordance in experiences with MD. In two pairs, several mechanisms seemed to be at work. Discordance in the quality of intimate love relationships was the most common etiological factor revealed by interview in these discordant pairs, with single dramatic events and occupational problems being considerably rarer. Even in this best of natural experiments, the causal interrelationship between personality, environment and depressive episodes was not always clear. Many pairs illustrated the protective effects of planfulness and the malignant effect of cumulative continuity where early difficulties in relationships shaped the subsequent life course. These results speak both to the importance of environmental influences on human well-being and psychopathology, and the complexity of the causal paths underlying their effects. PMID:22641178

  12. Food reinforcement and delay discounting in zBMI-discordant siblings ☆

    PubMed Central

    Feda, Denise M.; Roemmich, James N.; Roberts, April; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The interaction of food reinforcement and the inability to delay gratification are related to adult energy intake and obesity. This study was designed to test the association of sibling pair differences in relative reinforcing efficacy of food and delay discounting on sibling pair differences in zBMI scores of same-gender zBMI-discordant siblings. Design and methods We tested main and interactive relationships between delay discounting and relative reinforcing efficacy of food on zBMI discordance in 14 zBMI-discordant biological sibling pairs (6 female pairs) using a discordant sibling study design. Results Sibling pair differences in relative reinforcing efficacy of food were associated with sibling pair differences in zBMI (p = 0.046); this effect was moderated by delay discounting (p < 0.002). Sibling pairs with greater differences in relative reinforcing efficacy and delay discounting had greater differences in zBMI. Conclusions The combination of greater sibling pair differences in delay discounting and relative reinforcing efficacy is associated with greater discordance in zBMI in adolescent sibling pairs. PMID:25464024

  13. "Parent Unions" Join Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Whether they're organizing events, buttonholing legislators, or simply trading ideas and information, a growing number of "parent unions" are attempting to stake out a place in policy debates over education in states and districts, amid a crowded field of actors and advocates. As the term implies, some of these organizations see themselves as…

  14. Models of Union University Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenstein, Faul; Stack, Hal

    1980-01-01

    The issues common to all models of educational programs are explored as an introduction to the varying ways unions and universities can work together. Cost and lack of time are seen as the most common obstacles confronted by workers interested in furthering their education. (Author/MLW)

  15. Unionization among College Faculty--1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Joel M., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of data concerning unionization among college faculty during 1988 is presented. The following topics are discussed: (1) agents elected; (2) American Federation of Teachers; (3) National Education Association; (4) American Association of University Professors; (5) "no-agent" elections; (6) decertifications; (7) strikes; (8) legislation;…

  16. HIV chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Douglas D.

    2001-04-01

    The use of chemotherapy to suppress replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has transformed the face of AIDS in the developed world. Pronounced reductions in illness and death have been achieved and healthcare utilization has diminished. HIV therapy has also provided many new insights into the pathogenesis and the viral and cellular dynamics of HIV infection. But challenges remain. Treatment does not suppress HIV replication in all patients, and the emergence of drug-resistant virus hinders subsequent treatment. Chronic therapy can also result in toxicity. These challenges prompt the search for new drugs and new therapeutic strategies to control chronic viral replication.

  17. Risky Sexual Behaviors in Immigrant Adolescent Girls from the Former Soviet Union: Role of Natal and Host Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeltova, Ida; Fish, Marian C.; Revenson, Tracey A.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, schools have been increasingly involved in youth's health-related behavior, particularly risky health behaviors (e.g., HIV/AIDS and pregnancy prevention programs). This study examined how acculturation processes among adolescent girls who are recent immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) affect their practices of risky…

  18. A pair of monozygotic twins discordant for homosexuality: sex-dimorphic behavior and penile volume responses.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N; Blaszczynski, A

    1980-04-01

    In reports of identical twins discordant for homosexuality, the homosexual twins showed the effeminacy syndrome in childhood. This has been considered evidence that the homosexuality comes from the twin himself. The possibility that the heterosexual twin was denying homosexuality has never been excluded. A pair of identical male twins discordant for homosexuality are reported. They showed significant differences in their penile volume responses to moving pictures of male and female nudes indicative of sexual orientations consistent with their statements. The homosexual twin showed the effeminacy syndrome. Aspects of the syndrome can be induced in mammals by altering their hormonal environment during some critical period in their intrauterine development. Discordance for homosexuality in identical twins could be due to one's being exposed to a different hormonal level during such a critical period.

  19. Geometric discord: A resource for increments of quantum key generation through twirling

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaohua; Zhou, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we consider a scenario where an arbitrary two-qubit pure state is applied for the quantum key generation (QKG). Using the twirling procedure to convert the pure state into a Werner state, the error rate of the key can be reduced by a factor of 2/3. This effect indicates that entanglement is not the sufficient resource of QKG protocol since it is not increased in the twirling procedure. Based on the fact that the geometric discord is increased in the twirling procedure, we argue that the geometric discord should be taken as a necessary resource for the QKG task. Besides the pure state, we also give other two types of mixtures where twirling may increase the discord and reduce the error rate of the generated key. PMID:26306717

  20. Identical twin discordance for the Brachmann-de Lange syndrome revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Carakushansky, G.; Goncalves, M.R.; Kahn, E.

    1996-06-14

    The only known twin pair evidently discordantly affected for the BDLS (Brachmann-de Lange syndrome) and who had been considered monozygotic (MZ) based on blood analysis remained a problem because biological zygosity determination needed further typing. In this report we review the clinical findings of this pair of twins at the age of 20. The use of DNA fingerprinting with three multilocus probes, F10, DNT24, and 33.6, allowed us to present evidence of monozygosity with a high degree of certainty. The significance of this confirmation of discordance in determining the cause of BDLS is discussed. Intensive comparative genomic studies of the discordant twin sisters may be useful to unravel the molecular genetics of this enigmatic pattern of malformation. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Genetic and epigenetic analysis of monozygotic twins discordant for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Christian P; Edelman, Daniel C; Wang, Yonghong; Meltzer, Paul S; Greene, Mark H

    2014-01-01

    Despite the notion that monozygotic (identical) twins share 100% identical genetic information, genetic differences among monozygotic twin pairs do occur and can be explained by mechanisms occurring during post-zygotic events. Despite such twins being fundamentally "identical", these post-zygotic genetic changes may give rise to phenotypic differences and genetic diseases. Consequently, studies of monozygotic twin pairs discordant for specific genetic diseases represent an important tool for the identification of disease genes. We used array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and methylation arrays to search for genetic and epigenetic differences in blood drawn from four monozygotic twin pairs discordant for testicular germ cell tumors. No consistent differences were identified. A larger twin study would be required to achieve confident discovery of very subtle differences between monozygotic twins discordant for testicular germ cell tumors. PMID:25379132

  2. How discordant morphological and molecular evolution among microorganisms can revise our notions of biodiversity on earth

    PubMed Central

    Lahr, Daniel J. G.; Laughinghouse, H. Dail; Oliverio, Angela; Gao, Feng; Katz, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Microscopy has revealed a tremendous diversity of bacterial and eukaryotic forms. More recent molecular analyses show discordance in estimates of biodiversity based on morphological analyses. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of the diversity of microbial forms have revealed evidence of convergence at scales as large as interdomain – i.e. convergent forms shared between bacteria and eukaryotes. Here, we highlight examples of such discordance, focusing on exemplary lineages such as testate amoebae, ciliates and cyanobacteria, which have long histories of morphological study. We discuss examples in two categories: 1) morphologically identical (or highly similar) individuals that are genetically distinct and 2) morphologically distinct individuals that are genetically distinct. We argue that hypotheses about discordance can be tested using the concept of neutral morphologies, or more broadly neutral phenotypes, as a null hypothesis. PMID:25156897

  3. Robustness measure of hybrid intra-particle entanglement, discord, and classical correlation with initial Werner state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, P.; Sarkar, D.

    2016-02-01

    Quantum information processing is largely dependent on the robustness of non-classical correlations, such as entanglement and quantum discord. However, all the realistic quantum systems are thermodynamically open and lose their coherence with time through environmental interaction. The time evolution of quantum entanglement, discord, and the respective classical correlation for a single, spin-1/2 particle under spin and energy degrees of freedom, with an initial Werner state, has been investigated in the present study. The present intra-particle system is considered to be easier to produce than its inter-particle counterpart. Experimentally, this type of system may be realized in the well-known Penning trap. The most stable correlation was identified through maximization of a system-specific global objective function. Quantum discord was found to be the most stable, followed by the classical correlation. Moreover, all the correlations were observed to attain highest robustness under initial Bell state, with minimum possible dephasing and decoherence parameters.

  4. Partnership Creates Centre for Union Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Carol; Roman, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    A unique cooperative venture between the city of Coventry and local trade unions is establishing a library collection of books, periodicals, historical documents, tapes, and films dealing with unions, labor studies, and industrial problems. (JAB)

  5. Discordance of Estrogen & Progesterone Receptors After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer- an Indian Study.

    PubMed

    Anand, Aravindh Sivanandan; Velayudhan, Sandeep Thekoot

    2016-09-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy forms the initial modality of treatment for primarily inoperable locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Breast cancer is characterized by cellular heterogeneity. A change in hormone receptor status after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) has important therapeutic and prognostic consequences. Data on the influence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) are limited. The primary objective of this study is to compare hormone receptor (HR) status before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (discordance) in Indian patients. The secondary objective is to study correlation between tumor response and hormone receptor expression. This is a descriptive study of 78 LABC patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy from October 2012 to October 2014. All patients who underwent core biopsy and ER/PR assessment before and after NACT were included in the study. Data was collected prospectively from each patient in a structured proforma. Patients were classified as Group A (ER+, PR+), Group B (ER+, PR-), Group C (ER-, PR+), Group D (ER-, PR-). The HR discordance rate & response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was assessed. Total HR discordance rate was 21.7 %. The ER discordance was 8.7 % and PR discordance was 13 %. PR positive to PR negative discordance was the predominant one. The pathological complete remission (pCR) rate of endocrine responsive patients was 10.2 % and in the endocrine unresponsive group it was 13.8 %. ER/PR status can change after chemotherapy, hence they need to be re-evaluated after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This becomes therapeutically important when receptor negative becomes positive. PMID:27651692

  6. Discordance of Estrogen & Progesterone Receptors After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer- an Indian Study.

    PubMed

    Anand, Aravindh Sivanandan; Velayudhan, Sandeep Thekoot

    2016-09-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy forms the initial modality of treatment for primarily inoperable locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Breast cancer is characterized by cellular heterogeneity. A change in hormone receptor status after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) has important therapeutic and prognostic consequences. Data on the influence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) are limited. The primary objective of this study is to compare hormone receptor (HR) status before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (discordance) in Indian patients. The secondary objective is to study correlation between tumor response and hormone receptor expression. This is a descriptive study of 78 LABC patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy from October 2012 to October 2014. All patients who underwent core biopsy and ER/PR assessment before and after NACT were included in the study. Data was collected prospectively from each patient in a structured proforma. Patients were classified as Group A (ER+, PR+), Group B (ER+, PR-), Group C (ER-, PR+), Group D (ER-, PR-). The HR discordance rate & response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was assessed. Total HR discordance rate was 21.7 %. The ER discordance was 8.7 % and PR discordance was 13 %. PR positive to PR negative discordance was the predominant one. The pathological complete remission (pCR) rate of endocrine responsive patients was 10.2 % and in the endocrine unresponsive group it was 13.8 %. ER/PR status can change after chemotherapy, hence they need to be re-evaluated after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This becomes therapeutically important when receptor negative becomes positive.

  7. Entanglement and quantum discord dynamics of two atoms under practical feedback control

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yang; Luo Bin; Guo Hong

    2011-07-15

    We study the dynamics of two identical atoms resonantly coupled to a single-mode cavity under practical feedback control, and focus on the detection inefficiency. The entanglement is induced to vanish in finite time by the inefficiency of detection. Counterintuitively, the asymptotic entanglement and quantum discord can be increased by the inefficiency of detection. The noise of detection triggers the control field to create entanglement and discord when no photons are emitted from the atoms. Furthermore, sudden change happens to the dynamics of entanglement.

  8. Quantum correlations in Gaussian states via Gaussian channels: steering, entanglement, and discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong-Xiao; Wang, Shuhao; Li, Qiting; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan

    2016-06-01

    Here we study the quantum steering, quantum entanglement, and quantum discord for Gaussian Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states via Gaussian channels. And the sudden death phenomena for Gaussian steering and Gaussian entanglement are theoretically observed. We find that some Gaussian states have only one-way steering, which confirms the asymmetry of quantum steering. Also we investigate that the entangled Gaussian states without Gaussian steering and correlated Gaussian states own no Gaussian entanglement. Meanwhile, our results support the assumption that quantum entanglement is intermediate between quantum discord and quantum steering. Furthermore, we give experimental recipes for preparing quantum states with desired types of quantum correlations.

  9. Comparison of quantum discord and relative entropy in some bipartite quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdian, M.; Arjmandi, M. B.

    2016-04-01

    The study of quantum correlations in high-dimensional bipartite systems is crucial for the development of quantum computing. We propose relative entropy as a distance measure of correlations may be measured by means of the distance from the quantum state to the closest classical-classical state. In particular, we establish relations between relative entropy and quantum discord quantifiers obtained by means of orthogonal projection measurements. We show that for symmetrical X-states density matrices the quantum discord is equal to relative entropy. At the end of paper, various examples of X-states such as two-qubit and qubit-qutrit have been demonstrated.

  10. A new method for evaluating age distributions of detrital zircon datasets by incorporating discordant data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reimink, Jesse; Davies, Joshua; Rojas, Xavier; Waldron, John

    2015-04-01

    U-Pb ages from detrital zircons play an important role in sediment provenance studies. However, U-Pb ages from detrital zircon populations often contain a discordant component, which is traditionally removed before the age data are interpreted. Many different processes can create discordant analyses, with the most important being Pb-loss and mixing of distinct zircon age domains during analysis. Discordant ages contain important information regarding the history of a detrital zircon population, for example the timing of Pb-loss or metamorphism, and removing these analyses may significantly bias a zircon dataset. Here we present a new technique for analyzing detrital zircon populations that uses all U-Pb analyses, independent of discordance. We have developed computer code that evaluates the relative likelihood of discordia lines based on their proximity to discordant data points. When two or more data points lie on or near a discordia line the likelihood associated with that line increases. The upper and lower intercepts of each discordia line, as well as the relative likelihood along that line, are stored, and the likelihood of upper and lower intercepts are plotted with age. There are many benefits to using this technique for analysis of detrital zircon datasets. By utilizing the discordant analyses we allow for the addition of upper and lower intercept information to conventional analysis techniques (i.e. probability density functions or kernel density estimators). We are then able to use a much stricter discordance filter (e.g. < 3%) when analyzing 'concordant' data, thereby increasing the reliability of Pb/Pb ages used in the traditional analysis. Additionally, by not rejecting discordant data from zircon datasets we potentially reduce the overall bias in the analysis, which is a critical step in detrital zircon studies. This new technique is relatively quick and uses traditional analytical results, while the upper and lower intercept information is obtained

  11. Discordant phenotypes in monozygotic twins with identical de novo WT1 mutation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zihua; Yang, Yonghui; Feng, Dongning

    2012-06-01

    Mutations in the WT1 gene, leading to Denys-Drash syndrome and Frasier syndrome, can also cause isolated steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (ISRNS). Previous studies have reported six pairs of monozygotic twins with WT1 mutations, including one presenting with discordant phenotypes with identical WT1 mutations being of paternal origin and five pairs of monozygotic twins presenting the same phenotype with identical WT1 mutations. In this study, we report on female monozygotic twins showing discordant phenotypes with an identical de novo WT1 mutation, R394W, and presenting incomplete Denys-Drash syndrome and ISRNS. PMID:26069768

  12. One-norm geometric quantum discord and critical point estimation in the XY spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chang-Cheng; Wang, Yao; Guo, Jin-Liang

    2016-11-01

    In contrast with entanglement and quantum discord (QD), we investigate the thermal quantum correlation in terms of Schatten one-norm geometric quantum discord (GQD) in the XY spin chain, and analyze their capabilities in detecting the critical point of quantum phase transition. We show that the one-norm GQD can reveal more properties about quantum correlation between two spins, especially for the long-range quantum correlation at finite temperature. Under the influences of site distance, anisotropy and temperature, one-norm GQD and its first derivative make it possible to detect the critical point efficiently for a general XY spin chain.

  13. Effect of Couples Counselling on Reported HIV Risk Behaviour among HIV Serodiscordant Couples by ART Use, HIV Status and Gender in Rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    King, Rachel; Min, Jeong; Birungi, Josephine; Nyonyintono, Maureen; Muldoon, Katherine A.; Khanakwa, Sarah; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Moore, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined several measures of self-reported HIV risk behaviour in mutually disclosed sero-discordant couples over time to see if a couples counselling intervention was associated with changes in these behaviors. Methods We analysed data from a prospective cohort study of HIV sero-discordant couples in Jinja, Uganda collected between June 2009 and December 2011. Participants received couples counselling, at 3-monthly intervals. We examined trends in reported condom-use, number of concurrent sexual partners, knowledge of HIV serostatus of concurrent partners and condom use of concurrent partners using Generalized Estimating Equation models, comparing responses at study enrollment with responses at six, 12 18 and 24 months of follow-up. Results A total of 586 couples were enrolled and the female member was HIV positive in 255 (44%) of them. The median age for female participants was 35 years and 42 years for men. Reported condom use at last sex with spouse increased over time (p<0.001) with the largest increases found among couples where the positive participant never received ART during the study(an increase from 68.8% at enrollment to 97.1% at 24 months). Male participants reported reductions in the number of concurrent sexual partners (p<0.001), increase in the knowledge of the HIV serostatus of these partners (p = 0.001) and a trend towards improved condom-use among non-primary partners (p = 0.070). Reported reduced risky behaviors did not wane over the study period. Conclusion Couples counselling resulted in increased condom use among all participants and among men the intervention resulted in reductions in risk behaviour with concurrent sexual partners. Routine counselling for serodiscordant couples should be integrated in routine ART care programs. PMID:26384103

  14. The First Attempts to Unionize the Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Timothy Reese

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: Faculty unionization is an important topic in modern higher education, but the history of the phenomenon has not yet been fully considered. This article brings together issues of professionalization and unionization and provides needed historical background to ongoing unionization efforts and debates. Purpose/Objective/Research…

  15. Teacher Union Contracts and High School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    Are teachers unions and collective bargaining agreements barriers to high school reform and redesign efforts in Washington, California, and Ohio? The short answer: sometimes, but not as often as many educators seem to think. Rather than wade into the pro- versus anti-union debate, this report instead aims to offer guidance for educators, unions,…

  16. A Different Role for Teachers Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Marc

    2012-01-01

    American teachers unions are increasingly the target of measures, authored by friends and foes alike, intended to limit their power, or even eviscerate them. Looking at this scene, one would never guess that the countries that are among the top 10 in student performance have some of the strongest teachers unions in the world. Are those unions in…

  17. Unionizing: A Guide for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; And Others

    Including excerpts from contracts protecting unionized child care workers, this booklet explains basic terminology and facts about unionizing and addresses child care workers' concerns. Section 1 answers commonly asked questions about unions and offers advice about how to answer parents' questions about workers' attempts to organize. Section 2…

  18. Are Charter School Unions Worth the Bargain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    About 12 percent of all charter schools have bargaining agreements. Why do charter schools unionize? What is in these charter school contracts? Can they be considered innovative or models for union reform? And how do they compare to traditional district/union teacher contracts? Center on Reinventing Public Education legal analyst Mitch Price…

  19. Is Marital Discord Taxonic and Can Taxonic Status Be Assessed Reliably? Results from a National, Representative Sample of Married Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisman, Mark A.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Snyder, Douglas K.

    2008-01-01

    Addressing potential weaknesses in an earlier investigation, the authors examined the latent structure of marital discord using 4 product indicators from the Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Revised (Snyder, 1997) in a representative sample of community couples (N = 1,020). Results from 3 taxometric procedures suggested that marital discord is…

  20. The Use of Discordant MZ Twins to Generate Hypotheses regarding Non-Shared Environmental Influence on Anxiety in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asbury, Kathryn; Dunn, Judy; Plomin, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Non-shared environmental influence (NSE) has been found to account for around 50 percent of anxiety variance, but specific NSE factors have not been identified. Discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins can be used to generate relevant hypotheses because MZ discordance can be caused by NSE, but not by genes or shared environment. Of 1590 MZ pairs teacher…

  1. Hormonal Contraceptive Use Among HIV-Positive Women and HIV Transmission Risk to Male Partners, Zambia, 1994–2012

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Kristin M.; Kilembe, William; Vwalika, Bellington; Ravindhran, Preeti; Khu, Naw Htee; Brill, Ilene; Chomba, Elwyn; Johnson, Brent A.; Haddad, Lisa B.; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Evidence on the association between female-to-male human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission risk and hormonal contraception is sparse and conflicting. Methods. Heterosexual HIV-discordant couples from Lusaka, Zambia, were followed longitudinally at 3 month-intervals from 1994 to 2012. The impact of hormonal contraception on time to HIV transmission from HIV-positive women to their HIV-negative male partners (M−F+) was evaluated. Results. Among 1601 M−F+ couples, 171 genetically linked HIV transmissions occurred in men over 3216 couple-years (5.3 transmissions/100 couple-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.5–6.2). In multivariable Cox models, neither injectable (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.6; 95% CI, .4–1.2), oral contraceptive pill (aHR, 0.8; 95% CI, .3–2.1), nor implant (aHR, 0.8; 95% CI, .5–1.4) use was associated with HIV transmission, relative to nonhormonal methods, after controlling for the man's age at baseline and time-varying measures of pregnancy, self-reported unprotected sex with the study partner, sperm present on a vaginal swab wet mount, genital inflammation of either partner, genital ulceration of the man, and first follow-up interval. Sensitivity analyses, including marginal structural modeling and controlling for viral load and fertility intentions available in a subset of couples, led to similar conclusions. Conclusions. Our findings suggest null associations between hormonal contraception and risk of female-to-male HIV transmission. We support efforts to increase the contraceptive method mix for all women, regardless of HIV serostatus, along with reinforced condom counseling for HIV-serodiscordant couples. PMID:27462093

  2. Contemporary perceptions of unionization in the medical profession: a study of attitudes of unionized and non-union physicians.

    PubMed

    Klover, J A; Stephens, D B; Luchsinger, V P

    1980-01-01

    This study investigated current perceptions of a sample of unionized and non-unionized physicians toward the concept of collective bargaining. Specific areas for study were the issues that have motivated and might motivate physicians to unionize, as well as the individuals or institutions physicians perceive as the opponent in collective bargaining. The analysis showed that economic considerations and the imposition of external controls on the practice of medicine dominate the physicians' perceptions. Government and health insurance companies are perceived as the primary adversaries. Perceptual differences between unionized and non-unionized physicians were shown to be small.

  3. HIV Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person. The contamination occurs when infected blood from a caregiver’s mouth ... pre-chewed by an HIV-infected person. The contamination occurs when infected blood from a caregiver’s mouth ...

  4. Teacher Unionism as Mission and Battle; Success and Crisis in French Teacher Unions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Frances C.

    In France, the National Education Federation (Federation d'Education Nationale (FEN)) and its major constituent union, the National Union of Elementary and Middle School Teachers (Syndicat National des Instituteurs et des Professeurs d'Enseignment General de College (SNI-PEGC)), are examples of "intelligent trade unions," i.e., unions that hold a…

  5. HIV status, gender, and marriage dynamics among adults in Rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Anglewicz, Philip; Reniers, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Marriage and partnerships bring about non-negligible health risks in populations with generalized HIV epidemics, and concerns about the possible transmission of HIV thus often factor in the decision-making about partnership formation and dissolution. The awareness of and responses to HIV risk stemming from regular sexual partners have been well documented in African populations, but few studies have estimated the effects of observed HIV status on marriage decisions and outcomes. We study marriage dissolution and remarriage using longitudinal data with repeated HIV and marital status measurements from rural Malawi. Results indicate that HIV positive individuals face greater risks of union dissolution (both via widowhood and divorce) and lower remarriage rates. Modeling studies suggest that the exclusion of HIV positives from the marriage or partnerships market will decelerate the propagation of HIV. PMID:25469927

  6. 40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN HOUSE (9 UNION STREET) AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  7. 75 FR 57820 - National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Approval of National Credit Union Administration restoration plan. On September 16, 2010, the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) implemented a Restoration Plan for the National...

  8. Procedure for developing Union position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1. Position statements will be restricted to those issues that fall within the guidelines approved by the Council. 2. Requests for position statements are referred immediately to the Public Affairs Committee. 3. If a request seems to fall within Union guidelines, the committee will recommend that the President of the Union appoint an independent panel charged with drafting a statement. The panel will include at least one member nominated by the Public Affairs Committee, the originator of the request, and one member of Council. 4. The Council and the membership will be informed that the panel is working on the issue and that comments are welcome. 5. The panel will prepare a statement for circulation to the Council of the Union. 6. Members of Council (or Executive Committee when timeliness is critical) will be asked to vote or to comment on the proposed statement. This vote is to be taken at regularly scheduled meetings except where timeliness is critical. Concurrence of two thirds is required for adoption. 7. All adopted position statements will be published in Eos as soon as possible. 8. Once a statement has been approved, the Public Affairs Committee will endeavor to apply its expertise to making advocacy of its contents as effective as possible.

  9. ART influences HIV persistence in the female reproductive tract and cervicovaginal secretions

    PubMed Central

    Olesen, Rikke; Swanson, Michael D.; Kovarova, Martina; Nochi, Tomonori; Chateau, Morgan; Honeycutt, Jenna B.; Long, Julie M.; Denton, Paul W.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Richardson, Amy; Tolstrup, Martin; Østergaard, Lars; Wahl, Angela; Garcia, J. Victor

    2016-01-01

    The recently completed HIV prevention trials network study 052 is a landmark collaboration demonstrating that HIV transmission in discordant couples can be dramatically reduced by treating the infected individual with antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the cellular and virological events that occur in the female reproductive tract (FRT) during ART that result in such a drastic decrease in transmission were not studied and remain unknown. Here, we implemented an in vivo model of ART in BM/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice in order to better understand the ability of ART to prevent secondary HIV transmission. We demonstrated that the entire FRT of BLT mice is reconstituted with human CD4+ cells that are shed into cervicovaginal secretions (CVS). A high percentage of the CD4+ T cells in the FRT and CVS expressed CCR5 and therefore are potential HIV target cells. Infection with HIV increased the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in CVS of BLT mice. Furthermore, HIV was present in CVS during infection. Finally, we evaluated the effect of ART on HIV levels in the FRT and CVS and demonstrated that ART can efficiently suppress cell-free HIV-RNA in CVS, despite residual levels of HIV-RNA+ cells in both the FRT and CVS. PMID:26854925

  10. HIV Medication Adherence

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Medication Adherence (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Medication adherence means sticking ... exactly as prescribed. Why is adherence to an HIV regimen important? Adherence to an HIV regimen gives ...

  11. HIV among Transgender People

    MedlinePlus

    ... of transgender Virginians . Richmond, VA: Virginia HIV Community Planning Committee and Virginia Department of Health; 2007. Accessed April 14, 2016. Additional ... HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS ...

  12. 12 CFR 701.26 - Credit union service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit union service contracts. 701.26 Section 701.26 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.26 Credit union service contracts. A Federal credit union may act as a representative of...

  13. Divergent Perspectives on Language-Discordant Mobile Medical Professionals' Communication with Colleagues: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasiorek, Jessica; van de Poel, Kris

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how language-discordant mobile medical professionals (MMPs), defined as doctors who work in foreign countries, cultures, and languages, interact with their colleagues. The number of MMPs around the world is growing, and their interactions with colleagues have direct consequences for both patients' health and their own…

  14. Alexithymia predicts arousal-based processing deficits and discordance between emotion response systems during emotional imagery.

    PubMed

    Peasley-Miklus, Catherine E; Panayiotou, Georgia; Vrana, Scott R

    2016-03-01

    Alexithymia is believed to involve deficits in emotion processing and imagery ability. Previous findings suggest that it is especially related to deficits in processing the arousal dimension of emotion, and that discordance may exist between self-report and physiological responses to emotional stimuli in alexithymia. The current study used a well-established emotional imagery paradigm to examine emotion processing deficits and discordance in participants (N = 86) selected based on their extreme scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Physiological (skin conductance, heart rate, and corrugator and zygomaticus electromyographic responses) and self-report (valence, arousal ratings) responses were monitored during imagery of anger, fear, joy, and neutral scenes and emotionally neutral high arousal (action) scenes. Results from regression analyses indicated that alexithymia was largely unrelated to responses on valence-based measures (facial electromyography, valence ratings), but that it was related to arousal-based measures. Specifically, alexithymia was related to higher heart rate during neutral and lower heart rate during fear imagery. Alexithymia did not predict differential responses to action versus neutral imagery, suggesting specificity of deficits to emotional contexts. Evidence for discordance between physiological responses and self-report in alexithymia was obtained from within-person analyses using multilevel modeling. Results are consistent with the idea that alexithymic deficits are specific to processing emotional arousal, and suggest difficulties with parasympathetic control and emotion regulation. Alexithymia is also associated with discordance between self-reported emotional experience and physiological response to emotion, consistent with prior evidence.

  15. Methylomic analysis of monozygotic twins discordant for autism spectrum disorder and related behavioural traits.

    PubMed

    Wong, C C Y; Meaburn, E L; Ronald, A; Price, T S; Jeffries, A R; Schalkwyk, L C; Plomin, R; Mill, J

    2014-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) defines a group of common, complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Although the aetiology of ASD has a strong genetic component, there is considerable monozygotic (MZ) twin discordance indicating a role for non-genetic factors. Because MZ twins share an identical DNA sequence, disease-discordant MZ twin pairs provide an ideal model for examining the contribution of environmentally driven epigenetic factors in disease. We performed a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in a sample of 50 MZ twin pairs (100 individuals) sampled from a representative population cohort that included twins discordant and concordant for ASD, ASD-associated traits and no autistic phenotype. Within-twin and between-group analyses identified numerous differentially methylated regions associated with ASD. In addition, we report significant correlations between DNA methylation and quantitatively measured autistic trait scores across our sample cohort. This study represents the first systematic epigenomic analyses of MZ twins discordant for ASD and implicates a role for altered DNA methylation in autism. PMID:23608919

  16. Exploring Discordance between Self-Efficacy and Writing Performance among Low-Literate Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Michail, Domna

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores accordance or discordance between efficacy beliefs of adult students and their writing performance, using a mixed methods design. The participants are 33 students with learning disabilities (LD) and 35 low-achieving (LA) students, who were attending two Second-Chance Schools (SCSs), a specific type of adult education.…

  17. Genetic, environmental and stochastic factors in monozygotic twin discordance with a focus on epigenetic differences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Genetic-epidemiological studies on monozygotic (MZ) twins have been used for decades to tease out the relative contributions of genes and the environment to a trait. Phenotypic discordance in MZ twins has traditionally been ascribed to non-shared environmental factors acting after birth, however recent data indicate that this explanation is far too simple. In this paper, we review other reasons for discordance, including differences in the in utero environment, genetic mosaicism, and stochastic factors, focusing particularly on epigenetic discordance. Epigenetic differences are gaining increasing recognition. Although it is clear that in specific cases epigenetic alterations provide a causal factor in disease etiology, the overall significance of epigenetics in twin discordance remains unclear. It is also challenging to determine the causality and relative contributions of environmental, genetic, and stochastic factors to epigenetic variability. Epigenomic profiling studies have recently shed more light on the dynamics of temporal methylation change and methylome heritability, yet have not given a definite answer regarding their relevance to disease, because of limitations in establishing causality. Here, we explore the subject of epigenetics as another component in human phenotypic variability and its links to disease focusing particularly on evidence from MZ twin studies. PMID:22898292

  18. Dynamics of Gaussian discord between two oscillators interacting with a common environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, José Nahuel; Paz, Juan Pablo

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the evolution of the Gaussian discord between two resonant harmonic oscillators coupled to a common environment. For this, we use the same tools we applied before to fully characterize the evolution of the entanglement in this system [Paz and Roncaglia, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.220401 100, 220401 (2008)]. The asymptotic value of Gaussian discord is obtained as a function of parameters characterizing the environment (temperature, couplings, etc.) and the initial state of the system (initial squeezing, initial purity, etc.) The type of Gaussian measurement optimizing the extraction of information between the oscillators is fully characterized by means of a phase diagram. Such a diagram (with phases corresponding to homodyne or heterodyne measurements) has similar topology to the one describing dynamical phases for the entanglement. We present evidence pointing to the fact that Gaussian discord is not always a good approximation of true discord as the asymptotic value of the former is shown to be a nondecreasing function of temperature (in the high-temperature regime), reaching an asymptotic value of ln(2) for a pure initial state (and lower values for mixed initial states).

  19. Anxiety Disorders and Latinos: The Role of Family Cohesion and Family Discord

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Jacob B.; Denton, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Family cohesion has shown to be associated with lower psychological distress and other risk behaviors for Latinos, but little is known about the relationship of family cohesion, family discord, and anxiety disorders. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (n = 2,554), this study examines the relationship between family…

  20. Probing quantum entanglement, quantum discord, classical correlation, and the quantum state without disturbing them

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhenni; Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui

    2011-01-15

    We present schemes for a type of one-parameter bipartite quantum state to probe quantum entanglement, quantum discord, the classical correlation, and the quantum state based on cavity QED. It is shown that our detection does not influence all these measured quantities. We also discuss how the spontaneous emission introduced by our probe atom influences our detection.

  1. Is there a genetic basis for Fuchs' heterochromic uveitis? Discordance in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, N P; Read, A P

    1992-01-01

    One pair, and probably two pairs, of monozygotic twins are reported with discordance for Fuchs' heterochromic uveitis (FHU). Regular Mendelian inheritance of this disease is now proved to be impossible. The heritability of FHU is low and may be zero. The possibility of any genetic predisposition to the disease and its association with 'simple' heterochromia are discussed. Images PMID:1739686

  2. Causes of Discordance between Allometries at and above Species Level: An Example with Aquatic Beetles.

    PubMed

    Higginson, Dawn M; Badyaev, Alexander V; Segraves, Kari A; Pitnick, Scott

    2015-08-01

    Covariation among organismal traits is nearly universal, occurring both within and among species (static and evolutionary allometry, respectively). If conserved developmental processes produce similarity in static and evolutionary allometry, then when species differ in development, it should be expressed in discordance between allometries. Here, we investigate whether rapidly evolving developmental processes result in discordant static and evolutionary allometries attributable to trade-offs in resource acquisition, allocation, or growth across 30 species of aquatic beetles. The highly divergent sperm phenotypes of these beetles might be an important contributor to allometric evolution of testis and accessory gland mass through altered requirements for the production of sperm and seminal fluids. We documented extensive discordance between static and evolutionary allometries, indicating that allometric relationships are flexibly modified over short time periods but subject to constraint over longer time spans. Among species, sperm phenotype did not influence relative investment in accessory glands but was weakly associated with investment in testes. Furthermore, except when sperm were long and simple, sperm phenotype was not associated with species-specific modification of the allometry of testis/accessory gland mass and body size. Our results demonstrate the utility of allometric discordance to infer species differences in the provisioning and growth of concurrently developing traits.

  3. Affiliative and Instrumental Marital Discord, Mother's Negative Affect, and Children's Negative Interactions with Unfamiliar Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookston, Jeffrey T.; Harrist, Amanda W.; Ainslie, Ricardo C.

    2003-01-01

    Indices of marital discord and mother-child affective processes were used to predict levels of negativity children displayed with unfamiliar peers. Thirty-nine mothers and their 5-year-olds were observed with 5-7 other mother-child dyads during a 30-minute free play session. Mother and child negativity were coded and two types of marital discord…

  4. Disentangling the complex association between female genital cutting and HIV among Kenyan women.

    PubMed

    Maslovskaya, Olga; Brown, James J; Padmadas, Sabu S

    2009-11-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) is a widespread cultural practice in Africa and the Middle East, with a number of potential adverse health consequences for women. It was hypothesized by Kun (1997) that FGC increases the risk of HIV transmission through a number of different mechanisms. Using the 2003 data from the Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS), this study investigates the potential association between FGC and HIV. The 2003 KDHS provides a unique opportunity to link the HIV test results with a large number of demographic, social, economic and behavioural characteristics of women, including women's FGC status. It is hypothesized that FGC increases the risk of HIV infection if HIV/AIDS is present in the community. A multilevel binary logistic regression technique is used to model the HIV status of women, controlling for selected individual characteristics of women and interaction effects. The results demonstrate evidence of a statistically significant association between FGC and HIV, after controlling for the hierarchical structure of the data, potential confounding factors and interaction effects. The results show that women who had had FGC and a younger or the same-age first-union partner have higher odds of being HIV positive than women with a younger or same-age first-union partner but without FGC; whereas women who had had FGC and an older first-union partner have lower odds of being HIV positive than women with an older first-union partner but without FGC. The findings suggest the behavioural pathway of association between FGC and HIV as well as an underlying complex interplay of bio-behavioural and social variables being important in disentangling the association between FGC and HIV.

  5. [HIV lipodystrophy].

    PubMed

    Snopková, S; Matýsková, M; Povolná, K; Polák, P; Husa, P

    2010-12-01

    Combined antiretroviral therapy results in extraordinary decrease of morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients and in an essential change of the HIV/AIDS disease prognosis. However, long-term intake of antiretroviral medicaments is related to occurrence of metabolic and morphological abnormalities, of which some have been combined into a new syndrome--the so called HIV lipodystrophy. The HIV lipodystrophy syndrome covers metabolic and morphological changes. Metabolic changes include dyslipidaemia with hypercholesterolaemia and/or hypertriglyceridaemia, insulin resistance with hyperinsulinaemia and hyperlaktataemia. Morphological changes have the nature of lipoatrophia (loss of subcutaneous fat--on the cheeks, on extremities, on buttocks and marked prominence of surface veins) or lipohypertrophia (growth of fat tissue--on the chest, in the dorsocervical area, lipomatosis of visceral tissues and organs, fat accumulation in the abdominal area). Several HIV lipodystrophy features are very similar to the metabolic syndrome of the general population. That is why this new syndrome represents a prospective risk of premature atherosclerosis and increase of the cardiovascular risk in young HIV positive individuals. The article mentions major presented studies dealing with the relation of antiretroviral treatment and the cardiovascular risk. The conclusions of the studies are not unequivocal--this is, among others, given by the reason that their length is short from the viewpoint of atherogenesis. The major risk of subclinical atherosclerosis acceleration seems to be related to the deep immunodeficiency and low number of CD4+ lymphocytes and florid, uncontrolled HIV infection with a high number of HIV-1 RNA copies actually circulating in the plasma. The question, whether metabolic and morphological changes related to HIV and cART carry a similar atherogenic potential as in the general population, remains open for future. PMID:21261108

  6. MOBILIZING COMMUNITIES AROUND HIV PREVENTION FOR YOUTH: HOW THREE COALITIONS APPLIED KEY STRATEGIES TO BRING ABOUT STRUCTURAL CHANGES

    PubMed Central

    Chutuape, Kate S.; Willard, Nancy; Sanchez, Kenia; Straub, Diane M.; Ochoa, Tara N.; Howell, Kourtney; Rivera, Carmen; Ramos, Ibrahim; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, HIV prevention efforts must focus on altering features of the social and physical environment to reduce risks associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. Community coalitions provide a vehicle for bringing about sustainable structural changes. This article shares lessons and key strategies regarding how three community coalitions located in Miami and Tampa, Florida, and San Juan, Puerto Rico engaged their respective communities in bringing about structural changes affecting policies, practices and programs related to HIV prevention for 12–24-year-olds. Outcomes of this work include increased access to HIV testing and counseling in the juvenile correctional system (Miami), increased monitoring of sexual abuse between young women and older men within public housing, and support services to deter age discordant relationships (Tampa) and increased access to community-based HIV testing (San Juan). PMID:20166784

  7. Asthma discordance in twins is linked to epigenetic modifications of T cells.

    PubMed

    Runyon, R Scott; Cachola, Leslie M; Rajeshuni, Nitya; Hunter, Tessa; Garcia, Marco; Ahn, Regina; Lurmann, Fred; Krasnow, Ruth; Jack, Lisa M; Miller, Rachel L; Swan, Gary E; Kohli, Arunima; Jacobson, Amanda C; Nadeau, Kari C

    2012-01-01

    T cells mediate the inflammatory responses observed in asthma among genetically susceptible individuals and have been suspected to be prone to epigenetic regulation. However, these relationships are not well established from past clinical studies that have had limited capacity to control for the effects of variable genetic predisposition and early environmental exposures. Relying on a cohort of monozygotic twins discordant for asthma we sought to determine if epigenetic modifications in T cells were associated with current asthma and explored whether such modifications were associated with second hand smoke exposures. Our study was conducted in a monozygotic twin cohort of adult twin pairs (n = 21) all discordant for asthma. Regulatory T cell (Treg) and effector T cell (Teff) subsets were assessed for levels of cellular function, protein expression, gene expression and CpG methylation within Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and interferon gamma-γ (IFNγ) loci. Comparisons by asthma and current report of exposure to second hand smoke were made. Treg from asthmatic discordant twins demonstrated decreased FOXP3 protein expression and impaired Treg function that was associated with increased levels of CpG methylation within the FOXP3 locus when compared to their non-asthmatic twin partner. In parallel, Teff from discordant asthmatic twins demonstrated increased methylation of the IFNγ locus, decreased IFNγ expression and reduced Teff function when compared to Teff from the non-asthmatic twin. Finally, report of current exposure to second hand smoke was associated with modifications in both Treg and Teff at the transcriptional level among asthmatics. The results of the current study provide evidence for differential function of T cell subsets in monozygotic twins discordant for asthma that are regulated by changes in DNA methylation. Our preliminary data suggest exposure to second hand smoke may augment the modified T cell responses associated with asthma. PMID:23226205

  8. Nanogeochronology of discordant zircon measured by atom probe microscopy of Pb-enriched dislocation loops

    PubMed Central

    Peterman, Emily M.; Reddy, Steven M.; Saxey, David W.; Snoeyenbos, David R.; Rickard, William D. A.; Fougerouse, Denis; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic discordance is a common feature in zircon that can lead to an erroneous age determination, and it is attributed to the mobilization and escape of radiogenic Pb during its post-crystallization geological evolution. The degree of isotopic discordance measured at analytical scales of ~10 μm often differs among adjacent analysis locations, indicating heterogeneous distributions of Pb at shorter length scales. We use atom probe microscopy to establish the nature of these sites and the mechanisms by which they form. We show that the nanoscale distribution of Pb in a ~2.1 billion year old discordant zircon that was metamorphosed c. 150 million years ago is defined by two distinct Pb reservoirs. Despite overall Pb loss during peak metamorphic conditions, the atom probe data indicate that a component of radiogenic Pb was trapped in 10-nm dislocation loops that formed during the annealing of radiation damage associated with the metamorphic event. A second Pb component, found outside the dislocation loops, represents homogeneous accumulation of radiogenic Pb in the zircon matrix after metamorphism. The 207Pb/206Pb ratios measured from eight dislocation loops are equivalent within uncertainty and yield an age consistent with the original crystallization age of the zircon, as determined by laser ablation spot analysis. Our results provide a specific mechanism for the trapping and retention of radiogenic Pb during metamorphism and confirm that isotopic discordance in this zircon is characterized by discrete nanoscale reservoirs of Pb that record different isotopic compositions and yield age data consistent with distinct geological events. These data may provide a framework for interpreting discordance in zircon as the heterogeneous distribution of discrete radiogenic Pb populations, each yielding geologically meaningful ages.

  9. Gut DNA viromes of Malawian twins discordant for severe acute malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Alejandro; Blanton, Laura V; Cao, Song; Zhao, Guoyan; Manary, Mark; Trehan, Indi; Smith, Michelle I; Wang, David; Virgin, Herbert W; Rohwer, Forest; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2015-09-22

    The bacterial component of the human gut microbiota undergoes a definable program of postnatal development. Evidence is accumulating that this program is disrupted in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and that their persistent gut microbiota immaturity, which is not durably repaired with current ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) interventions, is causally related to disease pathogenesis. To further characterize gut microbial community development in healthy versus malnourished infants/children, we performed a time-series metagenomic study of DNA isolated from virus-like particles (VLPs) recovered from fecal samples collected during the first 30 mo of postnatal life from eight pairs of mono- and dizygotic Malawian twins concordant for healthy growth and 12 twin pairs discordant for SAM. Both members of discordant pairs were sampled just before, during, and after treatment with a peanut-based RUTF. Using Random Forests and a dataset of 17,676 viral contigs assembled from shotgun sequencing reads of VLP DNAs, we identified viruses that distinguish different stages in the assembly of the gut microbiota in the concordant healthy twin pairs. This developmental program is impaired in both members of SAM discordant pairs and not repaired with RUTF. Phage plus members of the Anelloviridae and Circoviridae families of eukaryotic viruses discriminate discordant from concordant healthy pairs. These results disclose that apparently healthy cotwins in discordant pairs have viromes associated with, although not necessarily mediators, of SAM; as such, they provide a human model for delineating normal versus perturbed postnatal acquisition and retention of the gut microbiota's viral component in populations at risk for malnutrition.

  10. Nanogeochronology of discordant zircon measured by atom probe microscopy of Pb-enriched dislocation loops.

    PubMed

    Peterman, Emily M; Reddy, Steven M; Saxey, David W; Snoeyenbos, David R; Rickard, William D A; Fougerouse, Denis; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R C

    2016-09-01

    Isotopic discordance is a common feature in zircon that can lead to an erroneous age determination, and it is attributed to the mobilization and escape of radiogenic Pb during its post-crystallization geological evolution. The degree of isotopic discordance measured at analytical scales of ~10 μm often differs among adjacent analysis locations, indicating heterogeneous distributions of Pb at shorter length scales. We use atom probe microscopy to establish the nature of these sites and the mechanisms by which they form. We show that the nanoscale distribution of Pb in a ~2.1 billion year old discordant zircon that was metamorphosed c. 150 million years ago is defined by two distinct Pb reservoirs. Despite overall Pb loss during peak metamorphic conditions, the atom probe data indicate that a component of radiogenic Pb was trapped in 10-nm dislocation loops that formed during the annealing of radiation damage associated with the metamorphic event. A second Pb component, found outside the dislocation loops, represents homogeneous accumulation of radiogenic Pb in the zircon matrix after metamorphism. The (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratios measured from eight dislocation loops are equivalent within uncertainty and yield an age consistent with the original crystallization age of the zircon, as determined by laser ablation spot analysis. Our results provide a specific mechanism for the trapping and retention of radiogenic Pb during metamorphism and confirm that isotopic discordance in this zircon is characterized by discrete nanoscale reservoirs of Pb that record different isotopic compositions and yield age data consistent with distinct geological events. These data may provide a framework for interpreting discordance in zircon as the heterogeneous distribution of discrete radiogenic Pb populations, each yielding geologically meaningful ages. PMID:27617295

  11. Nanogeochronology of discordant zircon measured by atom probe microscopy of Pb-enriched dislocation loops

    PubMed Central

    Peterman, Emily M.; Reddy, Steven M.; Saxey, David W.; Snoeyenbos, David R.; Rickard, William D. A.; Fougerouse, Denis; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic discordance is a common feature in zircon that can lead to an erroneous age determination, and it is attributed to the mobilization and escape of radiogenic Pb during its post-crystallization geological evolution. The degree of isotopic discordance measured at analytical scales of ~10 μm often differs among adjacent analysis locations, indicating heterogeneous distributions of Pb at shorter length scales. We use atom probe microscopy to establish the nature of these sites and the mechanisms by which they form. We show that the nanoscale distribution of Pb in a ~2.1 billion year old discordant zircon that was metamorphosed c. 150 million years ago is defined by two distinct Pb reservoirs. Despite overall Pb loss during peak metamorphic conditions, the atom probe data indicate that a component of radiogenic Pb was trapped in 10-nm dislocation loops that formed during the annealing of radiation damage associated with the metamorphic event. A second Pb component, found outside the dislocation loops, represents homogeneous accumulation of radiogenic Pb in the zircon matrix after metamorphism. The 207Pb/206Pb ratios measured from eight dislocation loops are equivalent within uncertainty and yield an age consistent with the original crystallization age of the zircon, as determined by laser ablation spot analysis. Our results provide a specific mechanism for the trapping and retention of radiogenic Pb during metamorphism and confirm that isotopic discordance in this zircon is characterized by discrete nanoscale reservoirs of Pb that record different isotopic compositions and yield age data consistent with distinct geological events. These data may provide a framework for interpreting discordance in zircon as the heterogeneous distribution of discrete radiogenic Pb populations, each yielding geologically meaningful ages. PMID:27617295

  12. Gut DNA viromes of Malawian twins discordant for severe acute malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Alejandro; Blanton, Laura V.; Cao, Song; Zhao, Guoyan; Manary, Mark; Trehan, Indi; Smith, Michelle I.; Wang, David; Virgin, Herbert W.; Rohwer, Forest; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial component of the human gut microbiota undergoes a definable program of postnatal development. Evidence is accumulating that this program is disrupted in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and that their persistent gut microbiota immaturity, which is not durably repaired with current ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) interventions, is causally related to disease pathogenesis. To further characterize gut microbial community development in healthy versus malnourished infants/children, we performed a time-series metagenomic study of DNA isolated from virus-like particles (VLPs) recovered from fecal samples collected during the first 30 mo of postnatal life from eight pairs of mono- and dizygotic Malawian twins concordant for healthy growth and 12 twin pairs discordant for SAM. Both members of discordant pairs were sampled just before, during, and after treatment with a peanut-based RUTF. Using Random Forests and a dataset of 17,676 viral contigs assembled from shotgun sequencing reads of VLP DNAs, we identified viruses that distinguish different stages in the assembly of the gut microbiota in the concordant healthy twin pairs. This developmental program is impaired in both members of SAM discordant pairs and not repaired with RUTF. Phage plus members of the Anelloviridae and Circoviridae families of eukaryotic viruses discriminate discordant from concordant healthy pairs. These results disclose that apparently healthy cotwins in discordant pairs have viromes associated with, although not necessarily mediators, of SAM; as such, they provide a human model for delineating normal versus perturbed postnatal acquisition and retention of the gut microbiota’s viral component in populations at risk for malnutrition. PMID:26351661

  13. Nanogeochronology of discordant zircon measured by atom probe microscopy of Pb-enriched dislocation loops.

    PubMed

    Peterman, Emily M; Reddy, Steven M; Saxey, David W; Snoeyenbos, David R; Rickard, William D A; Fougerouse, Denis; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R C

    2016-09-01

    Isotopic discordance is a common feature in zircon that can lead to an erroneous age determination, and it is attributed to the mobilization and escape of radiogenic Pb during its post-crystallization geological evolution. The degree of isotopic discordance measured at analytical scales of ~10 μm often differs among adjacent analysis locations, indicating heterogeneous distributions of Pb at shorter length scales. We use atom probe microscopy to establish the nature of these sites and the mechanisms by which they form. We show that the nanoscale distribution of Pb in a ~2.1 billion year old discordant zircon that was metamorphosed c. 150 million years ago is defined by two distinct Pb reservoirs. Despite overall Pb loss during peak metamorphic conditions, the atom probe data indicate that a component of radiogenic Pb was trapped in 10-nm dislocation loops that formed during the annealing of radiation damage associated with the metamorphic event. A second Pb component, found outside the dislocation loops, represents homogeneous accumulation of radiogenic Pb in the zircon matrix after metamorphism. The (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratios measured from eight dislocation loops are equivalent within uncertainty and yield an age consistent with the original crystallization age of the zircon, as determined by laser ablation spot analysis. Our results provide a specific mechanism for the trapping and retention of radiogenic Pb during metamorphism and confirm that isotopic discordance in this zircon is characterized by discrete nanoscale reservoirs of Pb that record different isotopic compositions and yield age data consistent with distinct geological events. These data may provide a framework for interpreting discordance in zircon as the heterogeneous distribution of discrete radiogenic Pb populations, each yielding geologically meaningful ages.

  14. HIV among Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS ... HIV infection—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2013 . HIV Surveillance Special Report 13 . Accessed January ...

  15. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  16. Knowledge of HIV Serodiscordance, Transmission, and Prevention among Couples in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kilembe, William; Wall, Kristin M.; Mokgoro, Mammekwa; Mwaanga, Annie; Dissen, Elisabeth; Kamusoko, Miriam; Phiri, Hilda; Sakulanda, Jean; Davitte, Jonathan; Reddy, Tarylee; Brockman, Mark; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Allen, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Couples’ voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) significantly decreases HIV transmission within couples, the largest risk group in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is not currently offered in most HIV testing facilities. To roll out such an intervention, understanding locale-specific knowledge barriers is critical. In this study, we measured knowledge of HIV serodiscordance, transmission, and prevention before and after receipt of CVCT services in Durban. Design Pre- and post-CVCT knowledge surveys were administered to a selection of individuals seeking CVCT services. Methods Changes in knowledge scores were assessed with McNemar Chi-square tests for balanced data and generalized estimating equation methods for unbalanced data. Results The survey included 317 heterosexual black couples (634 individuals) who were primarily Zulu (87%), unemployed (47%), and had at least a secondary level education (78%). 28% of couples proved to be discordant. Only 30% of individuals thought serodiscordance between couples was possible pre‐CVCT compared to 95% post-CVCT. One-third thought there was at least one benefit of CVCT pre‐CVCT, increasing to 96% post‐CVCT. Overall, there were positive changes in knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention. However, many respondents thought all HIV positive mothers give birth to babies with AIDS (64% pre-CVCT, 59% post-CVCT) and that male circumcision does not protect negative men against HIV (70% pre-CVCT, 67% post-CVCT). Conclusions CVCT was well received and was followed by improvements in understanding of discordance, the benefits of joint testing, and HIV transmission. Country-level health messaging would benefit from targeting gaps in knowledge about serodiscordance, vertical transmission, and male circumcision. PMID:25894583

  17. European Union a New Babylon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  18. Quantum discord length is enhanced while entanglement length is not by introducing disorder in a spin chain.

    PubMed

    Sadhukhan, Debasis; Roy, Sudipto Singha; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R; Sen De, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-01-01

    Classical correlation functions of ground states typically decay exponentially and polynomially, respectively, for gapped and gapless short-range quantum spin systems. In such systems, entanglement decays exponentially even at the quantum critical points. However, quantum discord, an information-theoretic quantum correlation measure, survives long lattice distances. We investigate the effects of quenched disorder on quantum correlation lengths of quenched averaged entanglement and quantum discord, in the anisotropic XY and XYZ spin glass and random field chains. We find that there is virtually neither reduction nor enhancement in entanglement length while quantum discord length increases significantly with the introduction of the quenched disorder.

  19. Quantum discord length is enhanced while entanglement length is not by introducing disorder in a spin chain.

    PubMed

    Sadhukhan, Debasis; Roy, Sudipto Singha; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R; Sen De, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-01-01

    Classical correlation functions of ground states typically decay exponentially and polynomially, respectively, for gapped and gapless short-range quantum spin systems. In such systems, entanglement decays exponentially even at the quantum critical points. However, quantum discord, an information-theoretic quantum correlation measure, survives long lattice distances. We investigate the effects of quenched disorder on quantum correlation lengths of quenched averaged entanglement and quantum discord, in the anisotropic XY and XYZ spin glass and random field chains. We find that there is virtually neither reduction nor enhancement in entanglement length while quantum discord length increases significantly with the introduction of the quenched disorder. PMID:26871048

  20. The relationship between labor unions and safety in US airlines: Is there a "union effect?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapf, Renee Catherine

    Every airline union claims to work for safety and presents anecdotes where greater airline safety has been achieved through union efforts. The effect unionization has on safety outcomes in U.S. commercial airlines, however, wasn't found to be previously tested. Studies have shown that in industries such as coal mining, retail, and construction, unionization does lead to an increase in safety. This study evaluated the safety rates of 15 major US commercial airlines to compare the difference between unionized and non-unionized airlines. These safety rates were compared based on if and how long each airline's pilots and flight attendants have been unionized, to determine if unionization had an effect on safety outcomes. The 15 airlines included in the study identified as operating most of the years between 1990 and 2013, with annual departures averaging over 130,000, available through the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Accident and Incident information was acquired through the National Transportation Safety Board database. The number of accident and incidents divided by the total departures at each airline was used as the safety rate. Union websites provided information on unionization at the airlines. Due to the complex nature of the aviation industry, a number of confounding factors could have affected the tests, including mergers, route structures, and legislation. To help control for these confounding factors, this study was limited to airlines with a stable presence in the industry over time, which limited the number of airlines included. No significant difference was found between unionized and non-unionized airlines in this study, though the mean safety rate of unionized airlines was found be better than non-unionized airlines. This study did not take into account safety improvements that were union-backed and eventually required at all airlines, regardless of unionization. Due to the large sample size of the small population the difference in safety rate

  1. "How can I tell?" Consequences of HIV status disclosure among couples in eastern African communities in the context of an ongoing HIV "test-and-treat" trial.

    PubMed

    Maeri, Irene; El Ayadi, Alison; Getahun, Monica; Charlebois, Edwin; Akatukwasa, Cecilia; Tumwebaze, Dennis; Itiakorit, Harriet; Owino, Lawrence; Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Ssemmondo, Emmanuel; Sang, Norton; Kabami, Jane; Clark, Tamara D; Petersen, Maya; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane; Camlin, Carol S

    2016-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS anticipate HIV-related stigma and fear disclosure to intimate partners. Yet, disclosure is critical to reducing HIV transmission and improving care engagement. This qualitative study characterized HIV disclosure experiences and normative beliefs among couples in communities participating in an HIV test-and-treat trial in Kenya and Uganda (Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health, NCT#01864603). In-depth interviews were conducted with care providers (n = 50), leaders (n = 32) and members (n = 112) of eight communities. Data were analyzed using grounded theoretical approaches and Atlas.ti software. Findings confirmed gender differences in barriers to disclosure: while both men and women feared blame and accusation, women also feared violence and abandonment ("I did not tell my husband because [what if] I tell him and he abandons me at the last moment when I am in labor?"). Positive consequences included partner support for increased care-seeking and adherence ("My husband keeps on reminding me 'have you taken those drugs?'") Yet negative consequences included partnership dissolution, blame, and reports of violence ("some men beat their wives just because of that [bringing HIV medications home]"). Among HIV-infected individuals in discordant relationships, men more often reported supportive spouses ("we normally share [HIV-risk-reduction strategies] since I have been infected and she is HIV negative"), than did women ("my husband refused to use condoms and even threatened to marry another wife"). Care providers lent support for HIV-positive women who wanted to engage partners in testing but feared negative consequences: "They engaged the two of us in a session and asked him if we could all test." Findings demonstrate differing experiences and support needs of women and men living with HIV in eastern Africa, with HIV-positive women in discordant couples particularly vulnerable to negative consequences of disclosure

  2. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation*

    PubMed Central

    C. Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about “precocious exits” from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization (“street” violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation—differentiating between marriage and cohabitation—in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance. PMID:24431471

  3. Hospital RN job satisfaction and nurse unions.

    PubMed

    Seago, Jean Ann; Spetz, Joanne; Ash, Michael; Herrera, Carolina-Nicole; Keane, Dennis

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether unionization is associated with job satisfaction among RNs in the United States using nationally representative surveys of RNs. Factors that predict job satisfaction for RNs in healthcare continue to be of great concern to nurse administrators and managers because job satisfaction remains an important aspect of nurse retention. In addition, the notion of having unions for RNs has also gained prominence on the national stage. The relationship between RN job satisfaction and having an RN union has rarely been studied, but in 2 studies, a paradox was found; hospitals with RN unions had higher job dissatisfaction but greater retention. This study will test the relationship between having an RN union and job satisfaction with data that are both more recent and nationally representative. We analyze the public-use data from the 2004 and 2008 National Sample Surveys of Registered Nurses. In both 2004 and 2008, union representation was negatively associated with job satisfaction, although this relationship was not statistically significant in 2008. Some nurse administrators and executives would not be surprised by this finding. However, although union nurses may express more dissatisfaction, they may also be more vocal and less fearful about voicing concerns. If managers can harness this ability of the nurses to be articulate and outspoken, working with unions and union nurses can be productive and satisfying.

  4. Running a successful campaign against unionization.

    PubMed

    Block, Velinda J; Jamerson, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    Unions, once rare in healthcare, are now targeting hospital employees as potential members. In an industry that has seen an increase in regulations, mergers and acquisitions, rising financial pressures, and changing working conditions, it is easy to understand why discontented employees are being targeted by unions now more than ever. Hospital leaders must look to lessons learned in other organizations to develop strategies that will ensure a successful campaign. In 2003, St. Louis Children's Hospital defeated the Missouri Nurses Association/United American Nurse with a 77% no vote. The authors describe an overview of unionization in healthcare and the strategies they used to successfully win this union election.

  5. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation.

    PubMed

    C Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F; Wilczak, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about "precocious exits" from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization ("street" violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation-differentiating between marriage and cohabitation-in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance.

  6. Parallel rapid HIV testing in pregnant women at Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Viani, Rolando M; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Spector, Stephen A

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of parallel rapid HIV testing and the presence of HIV-associated risk factors in pregnant women with unknown HIV status in Baja California, Mexico. Pregnant women attending the delivery unit or the prenatal clinic at Tijuana General Hospital had blood drawn for parallel rapid HIV testing with Determine™ HIV-1/2 and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen(®) HIV. The parallel rapid HIV test performance was compared to the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and western blot. From September 2007 to July 2008, 1,383 (94%) of 1,464 women in labor and 1,992 (96%) of 2,075 women in prenatal care were enrolled. The HIV seroprevalence among women screened during labor (19/1,383, 1.37%, 95% CI: 0.85-2.18%) was significantly higher compared to those seeking prenatal care (5/1,992, 0.25%, 95% CI: 0.09-0.62%; p<0.001). Of 25 pregnant women testing positive by parallel rapid HIV testing 24 had a positive confirmatory western blot and one (0.03%) was confirmed as false positive. Additionally, two (0.06%) women had parallel rapid HIV discordant testing results; both tested negative by western blot. All women who tested negative by rapid testing had negative results on pooled EIA antibody testing. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parallel rapid HIV testing were 100%, 99.9%, 96%, and 100%, respectively. These findings document a very high acceptance rate and an excellent performance of the parallel rapid HIV testing strategy during pregnancy.

  7. union publique HR

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-30

    Chers Collègues,Je me permets de vous rappeler qu'une réunion publique organisée par le Département HR se tiendra aujourd'hui:Vendredi 30 avril 2010 à 9h30 dans l'Amphithéâtre principal (café offert dès 9h00).Durant cette réunion, des informations générales seront données sur:le CERN Admin e-guide, qui est un nouveau guide des procédures administratives du CERN ayant pour but de faciliter la recherche d'informations pratiques et d'offrir un format de lecture convivial;le régime d'Assurance Maladie de l'Organisation (présentation effectuée par Philippe Charpentier, Président du CHIS Board) et;la Caisse de Pensions (présentation effectuée par Théodore Economou, Administrateur de la Caisse de Pensions du CERN).Une transmission simultanée de cette réunion sera assurée dans l'Amphithéâtre BE de Prévessin et également disponible à l'adresse suivante: http://webcast.cern.chJe me réjouis de votre participation!Meilleures salutations,Anne-Sylvie CatherinChef du Département des Ressources humaines__________________________________________________________________________________Dear Colleagues,I should like to remind you that a plublic meeting organised by HR Department will be held today:Friday 30 April 2010 at 9:30 am in the Main Auditorium (coffee from 9:00 am).During this meeting, general information will be given about:the CERN Admin e-guide which is a new guide to the Organization's administrative procedures, drawn up to facilitate the retrieval of practical information and to offer a user-friendly format;the CERN Health Insurance System (presentation by Philippe Charpentier, President of the CHIS Board) and;the Pension Fund (presentation by Theodore Economou, Administrator of the CERN Pension Fund).A simultaneous transmission of this meeting will be broadcast in the BE Auditorium at Prévessin and will also be available at the following address. http://webcast.cern.chI look forward to your participation!Best regards,Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  8. HIV Latency

    PubMed Central

    Siliciano, Robert F.; Greene, Warner C.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 can establish a state of latent infection at the level of individual T cells. Latently infected cells are rare in vivo and appear to arise when activated CD4+ T cells, the major targets cells for HIV-1, become infected and survive long enough to revert back to a resting memory state, which is nonpermissive for viral gene expression. Because latent virus resides in memory T cells, it persists indefinitely even in patients on potent antiretroviral therapy. This latent reservoir is recognized as a major barrier to curing HIV-1 infection. The molecular mechanisms of latency are complex and include the absence in resting CD4+ T cells of nuclear forms of key host transcription factors (e.g., NFκB and NFAT), the absence of Tat and associated host factors that promote efficient transcriptional elongation, epigenetic changes inhibiting HIV-1 gene expression, and transcriptional interference. The presence of a latent reservoir for HIV-1 helps explain the presence of very low levels of viremia in patients on antiretroviral therapy. These viruses are released from latently infected cells that have become activated and perhaps from other stable reservoirs but are blocked from additional rounds of replication by the drugs. Several approaches are under exploration for reactivating latent virus with the hope that this will allow elimination of the latent reservoir. PMID:22229121

  9. Teacher Unionism in Changing Times: Is This the Real "New Unionism"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a case study of union change in an environment in which radical school restructuring is taking place, and active strategies to weaken and marginalize organized teachers are being pursued by the state. The case study union is the National Union of Teachers in England. The article explores a number of different strategies open…

  10. Unidirectional Pinning and Hysteresis of Spatially Discordant Alternans in Cardiac Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Karma, Alain; Restrepo, Juan G.

    2012-03-01

    Spatially discordant alternans is a widely observed pattern of voltage and calcium signals in cardiac tissue that can precipitate lethal cardiac arrhythmia. Using spatially coupled iterative maps of the beat-to-beat dynamics, we explore this pattern’s dynamics in the regime of a calcium-dominated period-doubling instability at the single-cell level. We find a novel nonlinear bifurcation associated with the formation of a discontinuous jump in the amplitude of calcium alternans at nodes separating discordant regions. We show that this jump unidirectionally pins nodes by preventing their motion away from the pacing site following a pacing rate decrease but permitting motion towards this site following a rate increase. This unidirectional pinning leads to strongly history-dependent node motion that is strongly arrhythmogenic.

  11. Classifying directional Gaussian entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, and discord.

    PubMed

    He, Q Y; Gong, Q H; Reid, M D

    2015-02-13

    Using Venn diagrams, we classify the different types of two-mode Gaussian continuous variable quantum correlation including directional entanglement and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering. We establish unified signatures for one- and two-way quantum steering, entanglement, and discord beyond entanglement in terms of an EPR-type variance. By focusing on Gaussian states, we link an optimized condition for entanglement based on an EPR variance to the Simon-Peres condition. This allows us to quantify the asymmetry of the Gaussian entanglement, and to relate the asymmetry to a directional quantum teleportation protocol where Alice and Bob possess asymmetrically noisy channels. Our analysis enables a determination of the type and direction of quantum correlation in a way that is easily measured in experiment. We also find that for symmetric states, when discord exceeds a certain threshold, the states are necessarily steerable.

  12. Pairwise Quantum Discord for a Symmetric Multi-Qubit System in Different Types of Noisy Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, You-Neng; Zeng, Ke; Wang, Guo-You

    2016-06-01

    We study the pairwise quantum discord (QD) for a symmetric multi-qubit system in different types of noisy channels, such as phase-flip, amplitude damping, phase-damping, and depolarizing channels. Using the QD and geometric quantum discord (GMQD) to quantify quantum correlations, some analytical and numerical results are presented. The results show that, the QD dynamics is strongly related to the number of spin particles N as well as the initial parameter 𝜃 of the one-axis twisting collective state. With the number of spin particles N increasing, the amount of the QD increases. However, when the amount of the QD arrives at a stable maximal value, the QD is independence of the number of spin particles N increasing. The behavior of the QD is symmetrical during a period 0 ≤ 𝜃 ≤ 2 π. Moreover, we compare the QD dynamics with the GMQD for a symmetric multi-qubit system in different types of noisy channels.

  13. Classifying directional Gaussian entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, and discord.

    PubMed

    He, Q Y; Gong, Q H; Reid, M D

    2015-02-13

    Using Venn diagrams, we classify the different types of two-mode Gaussian continuous variable quantum correlation including directional entanglement and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering. We establish unified signatures for one- and two-way quantum steering, entanglement, and discord beyond entanglement in terms of an EPR-type variance. By focusing on Gaussian states, we link an optimized condition for entanglement based on an EPR variance to the Simon-Peres condition. This allows us to quantify the asymmetry of the Gaussian entanglement, and to relate the asymmetry to a directional quantum teleportation protocol where Alice and Bob possess asymmetrically noisy channels. Our analysis enables a determination of the type and direction of quantum correlation in a way that is easily measured in experiment. We also find that for symmetric states, when discord exceeds a certain threshold, the states are necessarily steerable. PMID:25723192

  14. Discordant Growth of Monozygotic Twins Starts at the Blastocyst Stage: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Noli, Laila; Capalbo, Antonio; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2015-01-01

    Summary Discordant growth is a common complication of monochorionic/diamniotic pregnancies; in approximately 50% of cases, the cause is unknown. The case presented here suggests that discordant growth of monozygotic twins could start during preimplantation development. Two inner cell masses (ICMs) within the same blastocyst may originate in uneven splitting of a single “parental” ICM, or the two ICMs may be formed independently de novo. We studied the transcriptomes of two morphologically distinct ICMs within a single blastocyst using high-resolution RNA sequencing. The data indicated that the two ICM were at different stages of development; one was in the earliest stages of lineage commitment, while the other had already differentiated into epiblast and primitive endoderm. IGF1-mediated signaling is likely to play a key role in ICM growth and to be the major driver behind these differences. PMID:26584541

  15. Discordant Growth of Monozygotic Twins Starts at the Blastocyst Stage: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Noli, Laila; Capalbo, Antonio; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2015-12-01

    Discordant growth is a common complication of monochorionic/diamniotic pregnancies; in approximately 50% of cases, the cause is unknown. The case presented here suggests that discordant growth of monozygotic twins could start during preimplantation development. Two inner cell masses (ICMs) within the same blastocyst may originate in uneven splitting of a single "parental" ICM, or the two ICMs may be formed independently de novo. We studied the transcriptomes of two morphologically distinct ICMs within a single blastocyst using high-resolution RNA sequencing. The data indicated that the two ICM were at different stages of development; one was in the earliest stages of lineage commitment, while the other had already differentiated into epiblast and primitive endoderm. IGF1-mediated signaling is likely to play a key role in ICM growth and to be the major driver behind these differences.

  16. Classifying Directional Gaussian Entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering, and Discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Q. Y.; Gong, Q. H.; Reid, M. D.

    2015-02-01

    Using Venn diagrams, we classify the different types of two-mode Gaussian continuous variable quantum correlation including directional entanglement and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering. We establish unified signatures for one- and two-way quantum steering, entanglement, and discord beyond entanglement in terms of an EPR-type variance. By focusing on Gaussian states, we link an optimized condition for entanglement based on an EPR variance to the Simon-Peres condition. This allows us to quantify the asymmetry of the Gaussian entanglement, and to relate the asymmetry to a directional quantum teleportation protocol where Alice and Bob possess asymmetrically noisy channels. Our analysis enables a determination of the type and direction of quantum correlation in a way that is easily measured in experiment. We also find that for symmetric states, when discord exceeds a certain threshold, the states are necessarily steerable.

  17. Relationship between Discordance in Parental Monitoring and Behavioral Problems among Chilean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Ma, Julie; Castillo, Marcela; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of discrepancies between parent and youth reports of perceived parental monitoring in adolescent problem behaviors with a Chilean sample (N= 850). Higher levels of discordance concerning parental monitoring predicted greater levels of maladaptive youth behaviors. A positive association between parent-youth discordance and externalizing problems indicated that large adult-youth disagreement in parental monitoring may impose a great risk, despite protective efforts of parental monitoring. Although the direct relationship between parental monitoring and youth internalizing behaviors was not significant, parent-youth incongruence in monitoring was associated with greater levels of internalizing behaviors. Therefore, differing assessments of parental behaviors, as an indicator of less optimal family functioning, may provide important information about youth maladjustment and may potentially provide a beginning point for family-focused intervention. PMID:23097593

  18. Quantum Discord and Entanglement of Quasi-Werner States Based on Bipartite Entangled Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Maurya, Ajay K.; Prakash, Hari

    2016-06-01

    Present work is an attempt to compare quantum discord and quantum entanglement of quasi-Werner states formed with the four bipartite entangled coherent states (ECS) used recently for quantum teleportation of a qubit encoded in superposed coherent state. Out of these, the quasi-Werner states based on maximally ECS due to its invariant nature under local operation is independent of measurement basis and mean photon numbers, while for quasi-Werner states based on non-maximally ECS, it depends upon measurement basis as well as on mean photon number. However, for large mean photon numbers since non-maximally ECS becomes almost maximally entangled therefore dependence of quantum discord for non-maximally ECS based quasi-Werner states on the measurement basis disappears.

  19. Quality of Relationship and sexual risk behaviors among HIV couples in Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Vamos, Szonja; Cook, Ryan; Chitalu, Ndashi; Mumbi, Miriam; Weiss, Stephen M.; Jones, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Relationship quality and partner dynamics provide important insights into understanding sexual behavior within HIV sero-positive and -discordant couples. Individuals in long-term partnerships may be vulnerable to HIV/STI infection within their relationships due to misperceptions of their partners risk behaviors and potential concurrent (e.g., extramarital, non-primary) sexual partnerships. This study sought to examine relationship quality among HIV sero-positive and – discordant couples in Zambia, and its association with safer sex behavior. This study utilized data drawn from an ongoing translational study, The Partnership II Project – a couples based sexual risk reduction intervention in Lusaka, Zambia. Couples (n = 240) were assessed on demographics, relationship quality, and sexual risk behavior. Overall, couples perceiving their relationships more positively engaged in less risky sexual behavior (i.e., more condom use (b = .011, t = 3.14, p = .002) and fewer partners (χ2 = 11.4, p = .003). Within the dyad, condom use was “actor driven,” indicating that the association between relationship quality and condom use did not depend on the partner’s evaluation of the relationship. Safer sex behavior was positively influenced by communication about condoms. Results support the paradigm shift from prevention strategies with HIV positive and at-risk individuals to concentrated efforts addressing male-female dyads, and suggest that interventions to address the role of couples’ relationship quality, a modifiable target for decreasing sexual risk behavior, are needed. PMID:23336258

  20. Between-Subject Variability in Healthy Eyes as a Primary Source of Structural–Functional Discordance in Patients With Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ashimatey, Bright S.; Swanson, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To test with an independent data set the finding that between-subject variability in healthy eyes is the primary source of structural–functional discordance in patients with glaucoma. Methods Neuroretinal rim area, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and perimetric data were analyzed for one eye in each of 55 control subjects and for 245 right eyes of patients in the United Kingdom Glaucoma Treatment Study. Data were gathered with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT), Stratus Optical Coherence Tomograph (OCT), and Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA). Discordance was quantified as width of the limits of agreement from a Bland-Altman analysis of depth of defect. The ratio of variances (F test) for the patient and control groups was computed for comparisons of HFA-OCT, HFA-HRT, and OCT-HRT. Bonferroni adjustment required P less than 0.017 for statistical significance. The discordance in the patients was also quantified as the 95% prediction interval computed from the discordance in controls using the Hood-Kardon model for the HFA-OCT comparison. Results The F ratio comparing discordance in patients and controls was 0.77, 1.43, and 1.32 for the HFA-OCT, HFA-HRT, and OCT-HRT comparisons with P values 0.88, 0.06, and 0.11, respectively. For the Hood-Kardon model, 4.7% of the patients had discordance outside the 95% prediction interval computed from the discordance in controls. Similar results were obtained when all comparisons were repeated for left eyes of patients. Conclusions These results confirm previous findings that between-subject variability in healthy eyes is the primary source of structural–functional discordance in patients with glaucoma, and extends this finding to a structural–structural comparison. PMID:26873511

  1. Reexamining the significance of concordance vs. discordance for pluton emplacement models

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T.K. Jr.; Paterson, S.R. )

    1993-04-01

    Traditionally, discordant pluton/country-rock contact relationships are attributed to passive'' pluton emplacement, whereas concordant relationships are attributed to forceful'' pluton emplacement. Actually, concordance and discordance from a continuum (0 to 90[degree]), vary strongly around single plutons. The degree of discordance along a contact segment depends on many factors, including: (1) geometry, intensity, and mechanisms of emplacement-related deformation; (2) initial relative orientation of country rock structures and the pluton margin; (3) strain significance of country-rock structures; and (4) effects of pre-, syn- and post-emplacement regional deformation. Discordance records the truncation and subsequent transfer of country-rock material out of the path of the ascending magma, either in a horizontally-directed sense or in a vertically-directed sense. Roof structures should indicate the dominant direction of country-rock material transfer. The roof rocks above a pluton emplaced primarily by horizontal country-rock transfer must be either structurally detached or highly extended, whereas roof rocks are expected to be unextended above a pluton emplaced primarily by vertical country-rock material transfer. The authors initial observations from contiguous pluton roofs and walls, such as the Yerington batholith, Nevada, Mt. Stewart batholith, Washington, and the Mt. Powell batholith, Montana, suggest that vertical, downward country-rock material transfer has been important during emplacement of these shallow- to moderate-level plutons. They believe that erosional removal of the roof rocks from many plutons may have biased previous interpretations of emplacement mechanisms, and that vertical country-rock material transfer processes, such as stopping, may be more prevalent than currently recognized.

  2. Using NS5B Sequencing for Hepatitis C Virus Genotyping Reveals Discordances with Commercial Platforms.

    PubMed

    Chueca, Natalia; Rivadulla, Isidro; Lovatti, Rubén; Reina, Gabriel; Blanco, Ana; Fernandez-Caballero, Jose Angel; Cardeñoso, Laura; Rodriguez-Granjer, Javier; Fernandez-Alonso, Miriam; Aguilera, Antonio; Alvarez, Marta; Galán, Juan Carlos; García, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the correct assignment of HCV genotypes by three commercial methods-Trugene HCV genotyping kit (Siemens), VERSANT HCV Genotype 2.0 assay (Siemens), and Real-Time HCV genotype II (Abbott)-compared to NS5B sequencing. We studied 327 clinical samples that carried representative HCV genotypes of the most frequent geno/subtypes in Spain. After commercial genotyping, the sequencing of a 367 bp fragment in the NS5B gene was used to assign genotypes. Major discrepancies were defined, e.g. differences in the assigned genotype by one of the three methods and NS5B sequencing, including misclassification of subtypes 1a and 1b. Minor discrepancies were considered when differences at subtype levels, other than 1a and 1b, were observed. The overall discordance with the reference method was 34% for Trugene and 15% for VERSANT HCV2.0. The Abbott assay correctly identified all 1a and 1b subtypes, but did not subtype all the 2, 3, 4 and 5 (34%) genotypes. Major discordances were found in 16% of cases for Trugene HCV, and the majority were 1b- to 1a-related discordances; major discordances were found for VERSANT HCV 2.0 in 6% of cases, which were all but one 1b to 1a cases. These results indicated that the Trugene assay especially, and to a lesser extent, Versant HCV 2.0, can fail to differentiate HCV subtypes 1a and 1b, and lead to critical errors in clinical practice for correctly using directly acting antiviral agents. PMID:27097040

  3. Clinical-scintigraphy discordance in a case of malignant external otitis.

    PubMed

    Morales-Avellaneda, T; González-Ramírez, A I; Rodríguez-Alfonso, B; Mucientes-Rasilla, J; García-Berrocal, J R; De Diego, B

    2012-09-01

    We report the case of an immunocompromised female patient with external otitis, who developed a picture of external otitis with poor response to conventional treatment and subsequent isolation of Pseudomona Aeruginosa in the ear secretion culture. The final diagnosis was malignant external otitis. Our objective is to describe the scintigraphic findings as well as to analyze their correlation with the clinical pattern and to evaluate the possible causes of the discordance found. PMID:23067529

  4. Discordance between ambulatory versus clinic blood pressure according to global cardiovascular risk group

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jinho; Park, Sung Ha; Kim, Ju Han; Ihm, Sang Hyun; Kim, Kwang-il; Kim, Woo Shik; Pyun, Wook Bum; Kim, Yu-Mi; Choi, Sung-il; Kim, Soon Kil

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: The detection of white coat hypertension (WCH), treated normalized hypertension, and masked hypertension (MH) is important to improve the effectiveness of hypertension management. However, whether global cardiovascular risk (GCR) profile has any effect on the discordance between ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and clinic blood pressure (CBP) is unknown. Methods: Data from 1,916 subjects, taken from the Korean Multicenter Registry for ABP monitoring, were grouped according to diagnostic and therapeutic thresholds for CBP and ABP (140/90 and 135/85 mmHg, respectively). GCR was assessed using European Society of Hypertension 2007 guidelines. Results: The mean subject age was 54.1 ± 14.9 years, and 48.9% of patients were female. The discordancy rate between ABP and CBP in the untreated and treated patients was 32.5% and 26.5%, respectively (p = 0.02). The prevalence of WCH or treated normalized hypertension and MH was 14.4% and 16.0%, respectively. Discordance between ABP and CBP was lower in the very high added-risk group compared to the moderate added-risk group (odds ratio [OR], 0.649; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.487 to 0.863; p = 0.003). The prevalence of WCH or treated normalized hypertension was also lower in the very high added-risk group (OR, 0.451; 95% CI, 0.311 to 0.655). Conclusions: Discordance between ABP and CBP was observed more frequently in untreated subjects than in treated subjects, and less frequently in the very high added-risk group, which was due mainly to the lower prevalence of WCH or treated normalized hypertension. PMID:26354055

  5. Using NS5B Sequencing for Hepatitis C Virus Genotyping Reveals Discordances with Commercial Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Chueca, Natalia; Rivadulla, Isidro; Lovatti, Rubén; Reina, Gabriel; Blanco, Ana; Fernandez-Caballero, Jose Angel; Cardeñoso, Laura; Rodriguez-Granjer, Javier; Fernandez-Alonso, Miriam; Aguilera, Antonio; Alvarez, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the correct assignment of HCV genotypes by three commercial methods—Trugene HCV genotyping kit (Siemens), VERSANT HCV Genotype 2.0 assay (Siemens), and Real-Time HCV genotype II (Abbott)—compared to NS5B sequencing. We studied 327 clinical samples that carried representative HCV genotypes of the most frequent geno/subtypes in Spain. After commercial genotyping, the sequencing of a 367 bp fragment in the NS5B gene was used to assign genotypes. Major discrepancies were defined, e.g. differences in the assigned genotype by one of the three methods and NS5B sequencing, including misclassification of subtypes 1a and 1b. Minor discrepancies were considered when differences at subtype levels, other than 1a and 1b, were observed. The overall discordance with the reference method was 34% for Trugene and 15% for VERSANT HCV2.0. The Abbott assay correctly identified all 1a and 1b subtypes, but did not subtype all the 2, 3, 4 and 5 (34%) genotypes. Major discordances were found in 16% of cases for Trugene HCV, and the majority were 1b- to 1a-related discordances; major discordances were found for VERSANT HCV 2.0 in 6% of cases, which were all but one 1b to 1a cases. These results indicated that the Trugene assay especially, and to a lesser extent, Versant HCV 2.0, can fail to differentiate HCV subtypes 1a and 1b, and lead to critical errors in clinical practice for correctly using directly acting antiviral agents. PMID:27097040

  6. 12 CFR 701.2 - Federal credit union bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal credit union bylaws. 701.2 Section 701.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.2 Federal credit union bylaws. (a) Federal...

  7. Teacher Union Legitimacy: Shifting the Moral Center for Member Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popiel, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method case study explored teacher union members' beliefs about the teacher union and their reasons for being active or inactive in the union. Findings suggest that teacher unions have gained pragmatic and cognitive legitimacy (Chaison and Bigelow in Unions and legitimacy. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 2002), but that…

  8. Increase in frequencies of circulating Th-17 cells correlates with microbial translocation, immune activation and exhaustion in HIV-1 infected patients with poor CD4 T-cell reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Valiathan, Ranjini; Asthana, Deshratn

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed the association of circulating Th-17 cells (cTh-17) with immune activation (IA), immune exhaustion (IE) and regulatory T-cells (T-regs) in 20 human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infected patients with impaired restoration of CD4 T-cell counts despite prolonged suppression of plasma viremia (discordant) and compared it with 20 HIV-1 infected patients showing good immunologic and virologic responses (concordant) following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Discordant HIV-1 infected patients showed significantly higher frequencies of cTh-17 cells compared to concordant patients and healthy controls after PMA+Ionomicin stimulation. Discordant patients also showed higher CD4 T-cell immune activation (HLA-DR+CD38+) than concordant patients which directly correlated with microbial translocation. Additionally, CD4 T-cells of discordant patients showed higher frequencies of CD4 T-cells expressing multiple immune exhaustion markers (Tim3+PD-1+) which correlated with immune activation indicating that combined analysis of inhibitory molecules along with PD-1 might be a better predictor for immune exhaustion of CD4 T-cells. Increased cTh-17 cell frequency correlated inversely with CD4 T-cell percentages and absolute counts and directly with CD4 T-cell immune activation and T-reg frequencies. Persistent CD4 T-cell immune activation might favor differentiation of activated CD4 T-cells toward cTh-17 phenotype in discordant patients. Discordant patients had significantly lower baseline CD4 T-cell counts and higher viral load at the initiation of HAART and higher immune activation and immune exhaustion after being on HAART for long time indicating that these factors might be associated with an increase in cTh-17 cell frequency, thus, increasing the risk of disease progression despite virologic control.

  9. Opioid Use Trajectories, Injection Drug Use, and Hepatitis C Virus Risk Among Young Adult Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union Living in New York City.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Honoria; Marsch, Lisa A; Deren, Sherry; Straussner, Shulamith L A; Teper, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that young former Soviet Union immigrants in New York City have high rates of non-medical prescription opioid and heroin use, drug injection and injection-related risk behavior, making them vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, overdose and associated harms. This group has been the focus of little research, however. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative data from 80 former Soviet immigrants (ages 18-29) to characterize their opioid use trajectories, injection risk behavior, HCV/HIV testing histories and self-reported HCV/HIV serostatus, and provides clinically meaningful data to inform tailored education, prevention and harm reduction interventions.

  10. The Dynamics of Geometric Discord and its Transfer in Atom-Cavity System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Song, Xue-Ke; Ye, Liu

    2013-09-01

    The dynamics of geometric discord (GD) and its transfer in a dissipative system consisting of two independent atom-cavity-reservoir subsystems under the strong coupling and the weak coupling regimes is studied. It is shown that the GD of the atoms and the cavities oscillatorily decays to zero while the reservoirs begin to present nonzero geometric quantum discord already immediately after t = 0 in the strong coupling regime. However, in the weak coupling regime, the GD between the atoms progressively decays becoming zero and the discord between the reservoirs arises from zero to a steady value, while the cavities remain almost uncorrelated during the evolution. We also show that the amount of GD contained in atoms and reservoirs depends on the purity p and it is proportional to p, the smaller the value of p the smaller the amount of GD. It is worth noting that, in both strong coupling and the weak coupling regimes, the results show that GD initially stored in the atoms will eventually be completely transferred to the reservoirs, independent of the parameters, but the transfer is mediated via the cavities in the strong coupling regime, while it is almost directly in the weak coupling regime.

  11. Integrative Taxonomy Recognizes Evolutionary Units Despite Widespread Mitonuclear Discordance: Evidence from a Rotifer Cryptic Species Complex.

    PubMed

    Papakostas, Spiros; Michaloudi, Evangelia; Proios, Konstantinos; Brehm, Michaela; Verhage, Laurens; Rota, Jadranka; Peña, Carlos; Stamou, Georgia; Pritchard, Victoria L; Fontaneto, Diego; Declerck, Steven A J

    2016-05-01

    Mitonuclear discordance across taxa is increasingly recognized as posing a major challenge to species delimitation based on DNA sequence data. Integrative taxonomy has been proposed as a promising framework to help address this problem. However, we still lack compelling empirical evidence scrutinizing the efficacy of integrative taxonomy in relation to, for instance, complex introgression scenarios involving many species. Here, we report remarkably widespread mitonuclear discordance between about 15 mitochondrial and 4 nuclear Brachionus calyciflorus groups identified using different species delimitation approaches. Using coalescent-, Bayesian admixture-, and allele sharing-based methods with DNA sequence or microsatellite data, we provide strong evidence in support of hybridization as a driver of the observed discordance. We then describe our combined molecular, morphological, and ecological approaches to resolving phylogenetic conflict and inferring species boundaries. Species delimitations based on the ITS1 and 28S nuclear DNA markers proved a more reliable predictor of morphological variation than delimitations using the mitochondrial COI gene. A short-term competition experiment further revealed systematic differences in the competitive ability between two of the nuclear-delimited species under six different growth conditions, independent of COI delimitations; hybrids were also observed. In light of these findings, we discuss the failure of the COI marker to estimate morphological stasis and morphological plasticity in the B. calyciflorus complex. By using B. calyciflorus as a representative case, we demonstrate the potential of integrative taxonomy to guide species delimitation in the presence of mitonuclear phylogenetic conflicts.

  12. Quantum Discord Behaviors in Two Qubits Spin Squeezing Model with Intrinsic Decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo-Hui, Yang; Bing-Bing, Zhang

    2016-05-01

    By taking into account the intrinsic decoherence and the external magnetic field, quantum discord(QD) behaviors in two-qubit spin squeezing model are investigated in detail. It is found that the magnitude of quantum discord is strongly dependent on the initial states, the squeezing interaction μ, the magnetic field Ω and the purity r of initial states. With t → ∞, one can obtain the steady quantum discord (SQD) value, the environmental decoherence cannot entirely destroy the quantum correlation. Based on the analysis of the SQD, the conditions about the existence of SQD are obtained with different initial states. Varying the parameters μ, Ω and r not only can weaken the effects of decoherence but also can improve the magnitude of QD and SQD. The effects of the parameters μ and Ω on the QD and SQD display so different and complicated features that one cannot get an uniform law about them, while the values of QD and SQD are improved with increasing r. Properly tuning the parameters μ, Ω and r, one can obtain a larger value of QD or SQD.

  13. Analysis of discordant Affymetrix probesets casts serious doubt on idea of microarray data reutilization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Affymetrix microarray technology allows one to investigate expression of thousands of genes simultaneously upon a variety of conditions. In a popular U133A microarray platform, the expression of 37% of genes is measured by more than one probeset. The discordant expression observed for two different probesets that match the same gene is a widespread phenomenon which is usually underestimated, ignored or disregarded. Results Here we evaluate the prevalence of discordant expression in data collected using Affymetrix HG-U133A microarray platform. In U133A, about 30% of genes annotated by two different probesets demonstrate a substantial correlation between independently measured expression values. To our surprise, sorting the probesets according to the nature of the discrepancy in their expression levels allowed the classification of the respective genes according to their fundamental functional properties, including observed enrichment by tissue-specific transcripts and alternatively spliced variants. On another hand, an absence of discrepancies in probesets that simultaneously match several different genes allowed us to pinpoint non-expressed pseudogenes and gene groups with highly correlated expression patterns. Nevertheless, in many cases, the nature of discordant expression of two probesets that match the same transcript remains unexplained. It is possible that these probesets report differently regulated sets of transcripts, or, in best case scenario, two different sets of transcripts that represent the same gene. Conclusion The majority of absolute gene expression values collected using Affymetrix microarrays may not be suitable for typical interpretative downstream analysis. PMID:25563078

  14. Monozygotic twin discordant for Down syndrome: mos 47,XX,+21/46,XX and 46,XX.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sun Ah; Ko, Jung Min; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won; Choi, Jin Sun; Oh, Sun Kyung

    2013-08-01

    Monozygotic twins, developed from a single zygote, are almost identical in clinical phenotype and concordant karyotypes. Monozygotic twins with discordant karyotypes are thought to be quite rare. Here, we report monochorionic-diamniotic twins discordant for Down syndrome. On findings of prenatal ultrasonography, nuchal translucency thickness was different between twins, and suggested that one of the twins was at high risk for having chromosomal abnormalities including Down syndrome. The twins were monochorionic-diamniotic; therefore, chorionic villi sampling of the common placenta was performed. The karyotype of the chorionic villi cells was 46,XX, and pregnancy was maintained. After delivery, dysmorphic clinical features suggesting Down syndrome were found in one of the twins, while the other twin showed a morphologically normal appearance. Karyotypes of peripheral blood leukocytes were repeatedly normal in the dysmorphic twin; however, the karyotype of skin fibroblasts from the dysmorphic twin indicated Down syndrome mosaicism; 47,XX,+21[99]/46,XX[2]. The karyotype of skin fibroblasts from the morphologically normal twin was 46,XX. Monozygosity of the twins was confirmed by a short tandem repeat analysis using 16 polymorphic markers. A mitotic nondisjunction followed by the twinning would explain the discordant karyotypes between monozygotic twins.

  15. Mito-nuclear discordance in the degree of population differentiation in a marine goby.

    PubMed

    Larmuseau, M H D; Raeymaekers, J A M; Hellemans, B; Van Houdt, J K J; Volckaert, F A M

    2010-12-01

    An increasing number of phylogeographic studies on marine species shows discordant patterns in the degree of population differentiation between nuclear and mitochondrial markers. To understand better which factors have the potential to cause these patterns of discordance in marine organisms, a population genetic study was realized on the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas 1770; Gobiidae, Teleostei). Sand gobies from eight European locations were genotyped at eight microsatellite markers. Microsatellites confirmed the global phylogeographical pattern of P. minutus observed with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and nuclear allozyme markers. Three groups consistent with the mitochondrial lineages were defined (the Mediterranean, Iberian and North Atlantic groups) and indications of a recent founder event in the northern Baltic Sea were found. Nevertheless, differences in the degree of population differentiation between the nuclear and mitochondrial markers were large (global F(ST)-values for microsatellites=0.0121; for allozymes=0.00831; for mtDNA=0.4293). Selection, sex-biased dispersal, homoplasy and a high effective population size are generally accepted as explanations for this mitonuclear discrepancy in the degree of population differentiation. In this study, selection on mtDNA and microsatellites, male-biased dispersal and homoplasy on microsatellite markers are unlikely to be a main cause for this discrepancy. The most likely reason for the discordant pattern is a recent demographical expansion of the sand goby, resulting in high effective population sizes slowing down the differentiation of nuclear DNA.

  16. Discordant assessment of lupus activity between patients and their physicians: the Singapore experience.

    PubMed

    Leong, K P; Chong, E Y Y; Kong, K O; Chan, S P; Thong, B Y H; Lian, T Y; Chng, H H; Koh, E T; Teh, C L; Lau, T C; Law, W G; Cheng, Y K; Badsha, H; Chew, L C; Yong, W H; Howe, H S

    2010-01-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus often assess their disease activity differently from their physicians. We studied the factors associated with this discordance. The data provided by 534 systemic lupus erythematosus patients were analyzed. We compared the physician and patient assessments of lupus activity on a visual-assessment scale from the same visit. We collected clinical data and scores from MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Quality-of-Life Questionnaire, Rheumatology Attitudes Index, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index, and revised Systemic Lupus Activity Measure. Patients tended to score their disease activity higher than do their physicians, when these factors were present: poorer general health assessment, presence of thrombocytopenia, hypertension and urinary sediments, and difficulty in carrying groceries. Physicians tended to score the disease activity higher than do the patients in these circumstances proteinuria, hemolysis, use of azathioprine or cyclophosphamide, tiredness, photosensitivity, higher revised Systemic Lupus Activity Measure score, casturia, and patient report of being more easily ill than are other patients. There was only moderate correlation between the discordance in the baseline and the subsequent visits. The physician assessment of disease activity at baseline correlated better with an objective measure of disease activity (revised Systemic Lupus Activity Measure) in the subsequent visit than the patient assessment. In conclusion, discordance in the perception of disease activity between patients and physicians may be amenable to intervention.

  17. What monozygotic twins discordant for phenotype illustrate about mechanisms influencing genetic forms of neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Ketelaar, M E; Hofstra, E M W; Hayden, M R

    2012-04-01

    As monozygotic (MZ) twins are believed to be genetically identical, discordance for disease phenotype between MZ twins has been used in genetic research to understand the contribution of genetic vs environmental factors in disease development. However, recent studies show that MZ twins can differ both genetically and epigenetically. Screening MZ twins for genetic and/or epigenetic differences could be a useful and novel approach to identify modifying factors influencing phenotypic expression of disease. MZ twins that are phenotypically discordant for monogenic diseases are of special interest. Such occurrences have been described for Huntington's disease, spinocerebellar ataxias, as well as for familial forms of Alzheimer's disease. By comparing MZ twins that are phenotypically discordant, crucial factors influencing the phenotypic expression of the disease could be identified, which may be of relevance for understanding disease pathogenesis and variability in disease phenotype. Overall, understanding the crucial factors in development of a neurodegenerative disorder will have relevance for predictive testing, preventive treatment and could help to identify novel therapeutic targets. PMID:21981075

  18. Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion in monozygotic twins with discordant phenotype and deletion size.

    PubMed

    Halder, Ashutosh; Jain, Manish; Chaudhary, Isha; Varma, Binuja

    2012-01-01

    We report on a pair of male monozygotic twins with 22q11.2 microdeletion, discordant phenotype and discordant deletion size. The second twin had findings suggestive of DiGeorge syndrome, while the first twin had milder anomalies without any cardiac malformation. The second twin had presented with intractable convulsion, cyanosis and cardiovascular failure in the fourth week of life and expired on the sixth week of life, whereas the first twin had some characteristic facial appearance with developmental delay but no other signs of the 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome including cardiovascular malformation. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis had shown a microdeletion on the chromosome 22q11.2 in both twins. The interphase FISH did not find any evidence for the mosaicism. The genomic DNA microarray analysis, using HumanCytoSNP-12 BeadChip (Illumina), was identical between the twins except different size of deletion of 22q11.2. The zygosity using HumanCytoSNP-12 BeadChip (Illumina) microarray analysis suggested monozygosity. This observation indicates that altered size of the deletion may be the underlying etiology for the discordance in phenotype in monozygotic twins. We think early post zygotic events (mitotic non-allelic homologous recombination) could have been played a role in the alteration of 22q11.2 deletion size and, thus phenotypic variability in the monozygotic twins. PMID:22413934

  19. Integration of DNA sequence and DNA methylation changes in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Castellani, C A; Melka, M G; Gui, J L; O'Reilly, R L; Singh, S M

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability (80%), extensive genetic heterogeneity, environmental contributions and only 50% concordance in discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins. Discordant MZ twins provide an exceptional opportunity to assess patient specific genome-wide genetic and epigenetic changes that may account for the disease phenotype. A combined analysis of genetic and epigenetic changes on the same twin pairs is expected to provide a more effective approach for two reasons. First, it is now possible to generate relatively reliable complete genome sequences as well as promoter methylation states on an individual level and second, the unaffected twin that originated from the same zygote provides a near perfect genetic match for contrast and comparison. This report deals with the combined analysis of DNA sequence data and methylation data on two pairs of discordant MZ twins that have been clinically followed for over 20 years. Results on Family 1 show that 58 genes differ in DNA sequence as well as promoter methylation in a schizophrenia-affected twin as compared to her healthy co-twin. The corresponding number for family 2 was 13. The two lists are over represented by neuronal genes and include a number of known schizophrenia candidate genes and drug targets. The results argue that changes in multiple genes via co-localized genetic and epigenetic alteration contribute to a liability threshold that is necessary for development of schizophrenia. This novel hypothesis, although logical, remains to be validated.

  20. 29 CFR 452.75 - Union newspapers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Union newspapers. 452.75 Section 452.75 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS... OF 1959 Campaign Safeguards § 452.75 Union newspapers. The provisions of section 401(g) prohibit...

  1. Fashion Institute of Technology Union Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fashion Inst. of Tech., New York, NY.

    This document presents the union contract of the Fashion Institute of Technology. Articles cover union recognition; governance; welfare; grievance; leaves of absence and sick leave; salary and checkoff; academic calendar; matters not covered; duration; personnel files; conformity to law-savings clause; appointment-faculty; promotion-faculty;…

  2. Trade Unions and the Humanisation of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchobanian, R.

    1975-01-01

    After pointing out possible prejudicial consequences of job restructuring both for occupational and economic interests of workers and for the structure and activities of the trade union movement, various trade union reactions and attitudes to work humanization are analyzed. Available from: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211,…

  3. Personnel practices can help discourage unionization.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, H L

    1989-09-01

    Unionization presents a potential source of cost escalation for hospitals, particularly involving health benefits. The best way to minimize chances that staff members will opt for union representation is to develop personnel practices that demonstrate management's commitment to treating employees fairly, such as providing competitive salaries and benefits, scheduling regular meetings to address worker questions, and developing detailed policy handbooks.

  4. 76 FR 10209 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... recently finalized changes to its Corporate Credit Union Rule, 12 CFR part 704. 75 FR 64786 (October 20... requirements and process for chartering corporate Federal credit unions (FCUs). 75 FR 60651 (October 1, 2010... requisite skills--including leadership--to make the proposed corporate a success. One commenter...

  5. Unions' Deals with Brokers Raise Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    The New York state attorney general's office is close to announcing a settlement with the 525,000-member New York State United Teachers over a relationship between the union and ING Group, a large financial-services company based in the Netherlands. In that arrangement, the union's Member Benefits division--a separate trust that provides…

  6. 75 FR 60651 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... marketing strategies for financial and correspondent services, including the ability of the proposed... substantiate projections); and (17) Services and marketing strategies for financial and correspondent services... unions may wish to form new corporate credit unions. NCUA first issued guidance on chartering...

  7. Women in Trade Unions: Organizing the Unorganized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Margaret Hosmer, Ed.; Mitter, Swasti, Ed.

    This book contains a comparative survey of efforts to organize female workers in trade unions in both developing and industrialized nations and 19 case studies of efforts to organize female workers in selected occupations. The following papers are included: "A Comparative Survey" (Swasti Mitter); "The Union of Women Domestic Employees, Recife,…

  8. Why Union Activists Write Good Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Helena H.

    2013-01-01

    The representative structure of a union is a maze which, when travelled as a narrative, has drama at every turn. It sets up expectations, pits good against evil, involves many characters with different interests, keeps the clock ticking, and offers opportunities for happy endings (and disappointments) at every level. Union members who are not…

  9. The Defense of Teachers' Trade Union Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin, Luce

    1990-01-01

    The author sees cause for concern in the number of complaints to the International Labour Organisation alleging violations of teachers' union rights. She examines the right of public employees to organize and strike and government interference, concluding that greater protection for teachers' unions may be needed. (SK)

  10. Women and Unions: Forging a Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobble, Dorothy Sue, Ed.

    This book contains the views of 40 contributors on women and unions, organized into 15 chapters on six topics: Closing the Wage Gap; Meeting Family Needs; Temporary and Part-Time Work: Opportunity or Danger?; Homework; Developing a Realistic Approach; New Directions in Organizing and Representing Women; and Female Leadership and Union Cultures:…

  11. My intention was a child but I was very afraid: fertility intentions and HIV risk perceptions among HIV-serodiscordant couples experiencing pregnancy in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ngure, Kenneth; Baeten, Jared M; Mugo, Nelly; Curran, Kathryn; Vusha, Sophie; Heffron, Renee; Celum, Connie; Shell-Duncan, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    We sought to understand fertility intentions and HIV risk considerations among Kenyan HIV-serodiscordant couples who became pregnant during a prospective study. We conducted individual in-depth interviews (n = 36) and focus group discussions (n = 4) and performed qualitative data analysis and interpretation using an inductive approach. Although most of the couples were aware of the risk of horizontal and vertical HIV transmission, almost all couples reported that they had intended to become pregnant and that the desire for children superseded HIV risk considerations. Motivations for pregnancy were numerous and complex: satisfying desired family size, desire for biological children, maintaining stability of the union, and sociocultural pressures. Couples desired strategies to reduce HIV risk during conception, but expressed hesitation toward assisted reproductive technologies as unnatural. HIV prevention programs should therefore address conception desires and counsel about coordinated periconception risk-reduction strategies.

  12. My intention was a child but I was very afraid: Fertility intentions and HIV risk perceptions among HIV serodiscordant couples experiencing pregnancy in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ngure, Kenneth; Baeten, Jared M.; Mugo, Nelly; Curran, Kathryn; Vusha, Sophie; Heffron, Renee; Celum, Connie; Shell-Duncan, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    We sought to understand fertility intentions and HIV risk considerations among Kenyan HIV serodiscordant couples who became pregnant during a prospective study. We conducted individual in-depth interviews (n=36) and focus group discussions (n=4) and performed qualitative data analysis and interpretation using an inductive approach. Although most of the couples were aware of the risk of horizontal and vertical HIV transmission, almost all couples reported that they had intended to become pregnant and that the desire for children superseded HIV risk considerations. Motivations for pregnancy were numerous and complex: satisfying desired family size, desire for biological children, maintaining stability of the union and sociocultural pressures. Couples desired strategies to reduce HIV risk during conception, but expressed hesitation towards assisted reproductive technologies as unnatural. HIV prevention programs should therefore address conception desires and counsel about coordinated peri-conception risk reduction strategies. PMID:24779445

  13. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/8/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  14. Camp HIV.

    PubMed

    Grodeck, B

    1995-01-01

    Innovative retreats for HIV-positive travelers specialize in stress reduction and alternative healing. The author gives a first-hand account of experiencing a wellness vacation for the HIV-positive. Although wellness retreats are nothing new, a San Francisco-based travel company picked the island of Hawaii as the specialized testing ground. The retreats guarantee a safe environment with a dose of restoration. Individuals spend seven days at the retreat center, Kalani Honua. Stress management workshops focus on yoga, principles of meditation, psychic healings, acupressure, relationship and communication, and massage.

  15. Trends in unionization of nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Sojourner, Aaron J; Grabowski, David C; Chen, Min; Town, Robert J

    Unionization may have important implications for the delivery of nursing home care, but little is known about this phenomenon. Since 1985, the proportion of nursing home workers covered by union contracts declined from 14.6% to 9.9%. The first national-scale data on facility-level unionization reveals that unions are more common in nursing homes with more residents, in hospital-based or chain-affiliated facilities, and in facilities serving a higher proportion of Medicaid patients. With new federal policy proposals aimed at substantially lowering the cost of organizing workers, policymakers will want to consider the potential impact of nursing home unionization on worker, patient, and market outcomes.

  16. Fertility Decision-Making Among Kenyan HIV-Serodiscordant Couples Who Recently Conceived: Implications for Safer Conception Planning.

    PubMed

    Pintye, Jillian; Ngure, Kenneth; Curran, Kathryn; Vusha, Sophie; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M; Heffron, Renee

    2015-09-01

    HIV-serodiscordant couples often choose to attempt pregnancy despite their HIV transmission risk. Optimizing delivery of HIV risk reduction strategies during peri-conception periods (i.e., safer conception) requires understanding how HIV-serodiscordant couples approach fertility decisions. We conducted 36 in-depth individual interviews with male and female partners of Kenyan heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples who recently conceived. Transcripts were analyzed by gender and HIV serostatus using open coding. Matrices were used to identify patterns and emerging themes. Most participants expressed acceptance of being in an HIV-serodiscordant couple and affirmed their resilience to live with serodiscordance and achieve their fertility goals. Overall, while the goal for childbearing was unchanged, conception became an urgent desire so that both partners could experience childrearing together while the HIV-infected partner was still healthy. Children also add value to the relationship, and multiple children were a commonly expressed desire. Couples' desires dominated those of individual partners in fertility decision-making, but male preferences were more influential when the individual desires differed. Values and preferences of the couple as a unit may mediate fertility decision-making in HIV-discordant couples. Thus, it is important that safer conception programs include both partners when appropriate and consider the relationship context during risk reduction counseling and when recommending risk reduction interventions. PMID:26301703

  17. Plasma viremia titration and RNA quantitation in ICD-p24 negative HIV type-1-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Ercoli, L; Sarmati, L; el-Sawaf, G; Cochi, S; Lanti, T; Iudicone, P; Guglielmetti, M; Giannini, G; Galluzzo, C; Tomino, C

    1995-10-01

    Quantitative culture of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was performed on 202 plasma samples obtained from asymptomatic and early symptomatic HIV-1 infected patients (mean CD4+ count: 186/mm3) before antiretroviral therapy was started. HIV could be isolated from 84% of the plasma samples (titers ranging from 10(0) to 10(2.75) TCID50/ml). Immune complex dissociated p24 antigen (ICD-p24) was detected in 66% of the samples. Only 23 samples (11%) were negative for both ICD-p24 as well as HIV culture. Discordant results were obtained in 55 samples, and 45 samples negative for ICD-p24 were positive for HIV culture. A significant proportion (42%) of patients that were negative for ICD-p24 belonged to a very advanced group with very low CD4+ cell count. However, almost 90% of these ICD-p24 negative samples were positive for HIV plasma viremia, stressing the value of this virological marker in patients with low CD4+ cell count and without any detectable ICD-p24 antigenemia. HIV-1 RNA was detected in all ICD-p24 negative plasma samples tested by the branched DNA (bDNA) assay. A very good correlation was found between high RNA copy number and HIV plasma isolation in samples obtained from patients with low CD4+ cell count, suggesting that HIV-1 RNA quantitation may also reflect viral infectivity of plasma.

  18. Fertility Decision-Making Among Kenyan HIV-Serodiscordant Couples Who Recently Conceived: Implications for Safer Conception Planning.

    PubMed

    Pintye, Jillian; Ngure, Kenneth; Curran, Kathryn; Vusha, Sophie; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M; Heffron, Renee

    2015-09-01

    HIV-serodiscordant couples often choose to attempt pregnancy despite their HIV transmission risk. Optimizing delivery of HIV risk reduction strategies during peri-conception periods (i.e., safer conception) requires understanding how HIV-serodiscordant couples approach fertility decisions. We conducted 36 in-depth individual interviews with male and female partners of Kenyan heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples who recently conceived. Transcripts were analyzed by gender and HIV serostatus using open coding. Matrices were used to identify patterns and emerging themes. Most participants expressed acceptance of being in an HIV-serodiscordant couple and affirmed their resilience to live with serodiscordance and achieve their fertility goals. Overall, while the goal for childbearing was unchanged, conception became an urgent desire so that both partners could experience childrearing together while the HIV-infected partner was still healthy. Children also add value to the relationship, and multiple children were a commonly expressed desire. Couples' desires dominated those of individual partners in fertility decision-making, but male preferences were more influential when the individual desires differed. Values and preferences of the couple as a unit may mediate fertility decision-making in HIV-discordant couples. Thus, it is important that safer conception programs include both partners when appropriate and consider the relationship context during risk reduction counseling and when recommending risk reduction interventions.

  19. Fertility Decision-Making Among Kenyan HIV-Serodiscordant Couples Who Recently Conceived: Implications for Safer Conception Planning

    PubMed Central

    Pintye, Jillian; Ngure, Kenneth; Curran, Kathryn; Vusha, Sophie; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract HIV-serodiscordant couples often choose to attempt pregnancy despite their HIV transmission risk. Optimizing delivery of HIV risk reduction strategies during peri-conception periods (i.e., safer conception) requires understanding how HIV-serodiscordant couples approach fertility decisions. We conducted 36 in-depth individual interviews with male and female partners of Kenyan heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples who recently conceived. Transcripts were analyzed by gender and HIV serostatus using open coding. Matrices were used to identify patterns and emerging themes. Most participants expressed acceptance of being in an HIV-serodiscordant couple and affirmed their resilience to live with serodiscordance and achieve their fertility goals. Overall, while the goal for childbearing was unchanged, conception became an urgent desire so that both partners could experience childrearing together while the HIV-infected partner was still healthy. Children also add value to the relationship, and multiple children were a commonly expressed desire. Couples' desires dominated those of individual partners in fertility decision-making, but male preferences were more influential when the individual desires differed. Values and preferences of the couple as a unit may mediate fertility decision-making in HIV-discordant couples. Thus, it is important that safer conception programs include both partners when appropriate and consider the relationship context during risk reduction counseling and when recommending risk reduction interventions. PMID:26301703

  20. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... Task Force. Final Update Summary: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening. July 2015. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/ ...

  1. Hypomethylation within gene promoter regions and type 1 diabetes in discordant monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Elboudwarej, Emon; Cole, Michael; Briggs, Farren B S; Fouts, Alexandra; Fain, Pamela R; Quach, Hong; Quach, Diana; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Criswell, Lindsey A; Lane, Julie A; Steck, Andrea K; Barcellos, Lisa F; Noble, Janelle A

    2016-04-01

    Genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D) is well supported by epidemiologic evidence; however, disease risk cannot be entirely explained by established genetic variants identified so far. This study addresses the question of whether epigenetic modification of the inherited DNA sequence may contribute to T1D susceptibility. Using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array (450k), a total of seven long-term disease-discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs and five pairs of HLA-identical, disease-discordant non-twin siblings (NTS) were examined for associations between DNA methylation (DNAm) and T1D. Strong evidence for global hypomethylation of CpG sites within promoter regions in MZ twins with TID compared to twins without T1D was observed. DNA methylation data were then grouped into three categories of CpG sites for further analysis, including those within: 1) the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, 2) non-MHC genes with reported T1D association through genome wide association studies (GWAS), and 3) the epigenome, or remainder of sites that did not include MHC and T1D associated genes. Initial results showed modest methylation differences between discordant MZ twins for the MHC region and T1D-associated CpG sites, BACH2, INS-IGF2, and CLEC16A (DNAm difference range: 2.2%-5.0%). In the epigenome CpG set, the greatest methylation differences were observed in MAGI2, FANCC, and PCDHB16, (DNAm difference range: 6.9%-16.1%). These findings were not observed in the HLA-identical NTS pairs. Targeted pyrosequencing of five candidate CpG loci identified using the 450k array in the original discordant MZ twins produced similar results using control DNA samples, indicating strong agreement between the two DNA methylation profiling platforms. However, findings for the top five candidate CpG loci were not replicated in six additional T1D-discordant MZ twin pairs. Our results indicate global DNA hypomethylation within gene promoter regions may contribute to T

  2. Early onset alcohol use and self-harm: A discordant twin analysis

    PubMed Central

    Few, Lauren R.; Werner, Kimberly B.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Trull, Timothy; Nock, Matthew K.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Deitz, Sarah K.; Glowinski, Anne L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Statham, Dixie J.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew; Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-harm has considerable societal and economic costs and has been extensively studied in relation to alcohol involvement. Whereas early onset alcohol use (EAU) has been causally linked to maladaptive clinical outcomes, its association with self-harm is less well characterized. The current study aimed to further examine the link between EAU and both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempt (SA), and elucidate shared familial and causal/individual-specific pathways that explain this co-occurrence. Methods Using data from 6,082 Australian same-sex twin pairs (1,732 MZ and 1,309 DZ), ages 23-40, we examined prevalence rates of NSSI and SA among twin pairs concordant and discordant for EAU. Conditional logistic regression, controlling for early clinical covariates and the influence of zygosity on EAU, was used to examine the odds ratio (OR) of self-harm within twin pairs discordant for EAU. Results Prevalence rates of both NSSI and SA were highest among twin pairs concordant for EAU and for twins who reported EAU within discordant twin pairs. Results from discordant twin analyses revealed nearly four-fold increased odds of SA for the twin who endorsed EAU, and this OR was equal across monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. EAU also was associated with elevated odds of NSSI (OR=7.62), although this was only the case for DZ twins in discordant pairs. Conclusions The equivalent increase in odds of SA for both MZ and DZ twins suggests that causal or individual-specific influences explain the link between EAU and SA. For NSSI, elevated odds for DZ twins and nonsignificant findings for MZ twins implicate correlated genetic factors in the association between EAU and NSSI. Future studies should test mechanisms through which EAU may causally influence SA, as well as examine whether genetic risk for third variables (e.g., negative urgency, stress reactivity) may explain the genetic overlap between EAU and NSSI. PMID:26463647

  3. HIV/AIDS surveillance in Europe: update 2007.

    PubMed

    van de Laar, M J; Likatavicius, G; Stengaard, A R; Donoghoe, M C

    2008-12-11

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains of major public health importance in Europe, with evidence of increasing transmission of HIV in several countries. This article provides an overview of HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) surveillance data, and indicates that since 2000 the rate of newly reported cases of HIV per million population has almost doubled in Europe. In 2007, a total of 48,892 cases of HIV infection were reported from 49 of 53 countries in the Region, with the highest rates in Estonia, Ukraine, Portugal and the Republic of Moldova. In the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries, the predominant mode of transmission for HIV infection is sex between men followed by heterosexual contact. Injecting drug use is still the main mode of transmission in the eastern part of the WHO European region, while in the central part heterosexual contact is the predominant mode of transmission. In 2007, the reported number of AIDS cases diagnosed decreased in the Region overall, except in the eastern part. HIV/AIDS surveillance data are vital to monitor the trends of the HIV epidemic and evaluate public health responses. PMID:19087870

  4. HIV Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... the right way, every day. If you have health insurance, your insurer is required to cover some medicines ... to treat HIV. If you don’t have health insurance, or you’re unable to afford your co- ...

  5. Intracellular and cell-free (infectious) HIV-1 in rectal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, M; Favia, A; Monno, L; Lopalco, P; Caputi, O; Scardigno, A C; Pastore, G; Fiore, J R; Angarano, G

    2001-12-01

    The intestinal mucosa contains most of the total lymphocyte pool and plays an important role in viral transmission, but only slight attention has been given to the immunological and virological aspects of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection at this site. In this study, before initiating or changing antiretroviral therapy, paired blood samples and rectal biopsies (RB) were obtained from 26 consecutive HIV-infected subjects. HIV-1 isolation and biological characterization, DNA, and HIV-1 RNA titration were assessed, as were in vitro tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-beta (IL-1beta) spontaneous production. The rate of HIV-1 isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and RBs was 75% and 58%, respectively. All RB-derived isolates were nonsyncytium inducing (NSI), independent of the phenotype of blood-derived isolates. Proviral DNA and detectable HIV-1 RNA levels were measured in 100% and 77% of RBs, respectively. A statistical correlation was observed between HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA levels in rectal mucosa (P = 0.0075), whereas no correlation was found between these levels in blood samples (P > 0.05). Antiretroviral treatment did not seem to influence HIV-1 detection in RBs. Higher levels of in vitro proinflammmatory cytokine production were found in the RBs of most infected patients when compared with healthy controls. Therefore, the rectal mucosa is an important HIV-1 reservoir that demonstrates a discordant viral evolution with respect to blood. Both the virus type and the mucosa pathway of immunoactive substances might have important implications for therapeutic decision-making and monitoring and could influence the bidirectional transmission of HIV-1 in mucosal surfaces.

  6. Preventing HIV with Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you are exposed to ... to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites National HIV and ...

  7. Older People and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... common than they were before the use of anti-HIV drugs. It is difficult to know what is causing mental problems in older people with HIV. Is it normal aging, or is it HIV disease? Research studies have ...

  8. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    HIV infection; Infection - HIV; Human immunodeficiency virus; Acquired immune deficiency syndrome ... Symptoms related to acute HIV infection (when a person is first infected) can be similar to the flu or other viral illnesses. They include: Fever and ...

  9. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  10. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  11. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  12. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  13. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV infections. HIV infection is often diagnosed through rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), which detect the presence or absence of ... accuracy. It is important to note that serological tests detect antibodies produced ... pathogens, rather than direct detection of HIV itself. Most ...

  14. HIV testing in India.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Srikanth; Pereira, Michael; Tripathy, Sriram Prasad

    2012-06-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) has initiated programs for HIV/AIDS control in India. Algorithms for HIV testing have been developed for India. NACO programs have resulted in HIV situation improving over the last decade.

  15. Frequency of False Positive Rapid HIV Serologic Tests in African Men and Women Receiving PrEP for HIV Prevention: Implications for Programmatic Roll-Out of Biomedical Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ndase, Patrick; Celum, Connie; Kidoguchi, Lara; Ronald, Allan; Fife, Kenneth H.; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Donnell, Deborah; Baeten, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rapid HIV assays are the mainstay of HIV testing globally. Delivery of effective biomedical HIV prevention strategies such as antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) requires periodic HIV testing. Because rapid tests have high (>95%) but imperfect specificity, they are expected to generate some false positive results. Methods We assessed the frequency of true and false positive rapid results in the Partners PrEP Study, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of PrEP. HIV testing was performed monthly using 2 rapid tests done in parallel with HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) confirmation following all positive rapid tests. Results A total of 99,009 monthly HIV tests were performed; 98,743 (99.7%) were dual-rapid HIV negative. Of the 266 visits with ≥1 positive rapid result, 99 (37.2%) had confirmatory positive EIA results (true positives), 155 (58.3%) had negative EIA results (false positives), and 12 (4.5%) had discordant EIA results. In the active PrEP arms, over two-thirds of visits with positive rapid test results were false positive results (69.2%, 110 of 159), although false positive results occurred at <1% (110/65,945) of total visits. Conclusions When HIV prevalence or incidence is low due to effective HIV prevention interventions, rapid HIV tests result in a high number of false relative to true positive results, although the absolute number of false results will be low. Program roll-out for effective interventions should plan for quality assurance of HIV testing, mechanisms for confirmatory HIV testing, and counseling strategies for persons with positive rapid test results. PMID:25885664

  16. Ethnic Minority-Majority Unions in Estonia.

    PubMed

    van Ham, Maarten; Tammaru, Tiit

    2011-08-01

    Ethnic minority-majority unions-also referred to as mixed ethnic unions-are often seen as the ultimate evidence of the integration of ethnic minorities into their host societies. We investigated minority-majority unions in Estonia, where ethnic minorities account for one-third of the total population (Russians 26%, followed by Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Finns and other smaller groups). Using data from the 2000 Estonian census and regression models, we found that Slavic women are less likely to be in minority-majority unions than are members of other minority groups, with Russians being the least likely. Finns, who are culturally most similar to the Estonian majority population, are the most likely to form a union with an Estonian. For ethnic minority women, the likelihood of being in minority-majority unions is highest in rural areas and increases over generations, with third-generation immigrants being the most likely. Estonian women are most likely to have a minority partner when they or their parents were born abroad and when they live in urban areas. Our findings suggest that both the opportunity to meet potential partners and openness to other ethnic groups are important factors for understanding the dynamics of minority-majority unions. PMID:21957324

  17. Attitudes towards couples-based HIV testing among MSM in three US cities.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Sullivan, Patrick S; Salazar, Laura F; Gratzer, Beau; Allen, Susan; Seelbach, Erick

    2011-04-01

    Couples-based voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT)--in which couples receive counseling and their HIV test results together--has been shown to be an effective strategy among heterosexual sero-discordant couples in Africa for reducing HIV transmission by initiating behavioral change. This study examined attitudes towards CVCT among men who have sex with men (MSM) in three US cities. Four focus group discussions (FGD) were held with MSM in Atlanta, Chicago, and Seattle. Although initially hesitant, participants reported an overwhelming acceptance of CVCT. CVCT was seen as a sign of commitment within a relationship and was reported to be more appropriate for men in longer-term relationships. CVCT was also seen as providing a forum for the discussion of risk-taking within the relationship. Our results suggest that there may be a demand for CVCT among MSM in the United States, but some modifications to the existing African CVCT protocol may be needed.

  18. Evaluation of a Cost Effective In-House Method for HIV-1 Drug Resistance Genotyping Using Plasma Samples

    PubMed Central

    Chaturbhuj, Devidas N.; Nirmalkar, Amit P.; Paranjape, Ramesh S.; Tripathy, Srikanth P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Validation of a cost effective in-house method for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping using plasma samples. Design The validation includes the establishment of analytical performance characteristics such as accuracy, reproducibility, precision and sensitivity. Methods The accuracy was assessed by comparing 26 paired Virological Quality Assessment (VQA) proficiency testing panel sequences generated by in-house and ViroSeq Genotyping System 2.0 (Celera Diagnostics, US) as a gold standard. The reproducibility and precision were carried out on five samples with five replicates representing multiple HIV-1 subtypes (A, B, C) and resistance patterns. The amplification sensitivity was evaluated on HIV-1 positive plasma samples (n = 88) with known viral loads ranges from 1000–1.8 million RNA copies/ml. Results Comparison of the nucleotide sequences generated by ViroSeq and in-house method showed 99.41±0.46 and 99.68±0.35% mean nucleotide and amino acid identity respectively. Out of 135 Stanford HIVdb listed HIV-1 drug resistance mutations, partial discordance was observed at 15 positions and complete discordance was absent. The reproducibility and precision study showed high nucleotide sequence identities i.e. 99.88±0.10 and 99.82±0.20 respectively. The in-house method showed 100% analytical sensitivity on the samples with HIV-1 viral load >1000 RNA copies/ml. The cost of running the in-house method is only 50% of that for ViroSeq method (112$ vs 300$), thus making it cost effective. Conclusions The validated cost effective in-house method may be used to collect surveillance data on the emergence and transmission of HIV-1 drug resistance in resource limited countries. Moreover, the wide applications of a cost effective and validated in-house method for HIV-1 drug resistance testing will facilitate the decision making for the appropriate management of HIV infected patients. PMID:24533056

  19. [Collective bargaining and trade unions in nursing].

    PubMed

    de Villiers, L

    1993-02-01

    Nurses are apparently striving towards collective bargaining in order to meet their professional and personal needs. The reasons might be rapid social change and dissatisfaction with values and norms imposed on them. Although the nursing profession has been represented by a professional association since 1914, interest in labour unions is increasing. Various factors, such as administrative practices, support the interest in labour unions. Although labour unions promise a utopia to potential members, membership leads to advantages and disadvantages both for the profession and the individual. PMID:8510725

  20. [Collective bargaining and trade unions in nursing].

    PubMed

    de Villiers, L

    1993-02-01

    Nurses are apparently striving towards collective bargaining in order to meet their professional and personal needs. The reasons might be rapid social change and dissatisfaction with values and norms imposed on them. Although the nursing profession has been represented by a professional association since 1914, interest in labour unions is increasing. Various factors, such as administrative practices, support the interest in labour unions. Although labour unions promise a utopia to potential members, membership leads to advantages and disadvantages both for the profession and the individual.

  1. The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Billo, Nils; Castro, José Luis; Jones, Sinéad; Rusen, I D; Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Fussell, Mark; Fujiwara, Paula I; Harries, Anthony D; Enarson, Donald A

    2009-12-01

    The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) is the oldest international non-governmental organization involved in the fight against tuberculosis. This review documents the history and structure of The Union up to 2009, and describes the achievements that have taken place in the field of tuberculosis and lung health. The progress made in tackling the major killer (pneumonia) of children less than 5 years of age, the barrier to affordable essential asthma medicines, the complex issue of tobacco control, the move into the realm of HIV and AIDS, and new ideas and activities around the increasingly important domain of operational research are described and discussed. Finally, as with many institutions that have seen a rapid phase of growth, expansion and decentralisation to regional offices around the world, the review highlights the internal strategic initiative that aims to fine-tune the organisational structure, clarify lines of authority, create more efficient business, human resource and financial systems and revise, where necessary, The Union's guiding mission, vision and values for the future. PMID:24036555

  2. Tips for Carpeting Your Student Union Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbacci, Diann

    2001-01-01

    Presents guidelines for enhancing the investment value of carpeting in student union buildings, foyers and hallways, administrative offices, cafeterias and food courts, and recreation areas. Color coordination is briefly discussed. (GR)

  3. Hospital union election activity, 1974-85

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Edmund R.; Rakich, Jonathon S.

    1988-01-01

    This study, using National Labor Relations Board data and American Hospital Association data, reports on the status of union election activity in the hospital industry for a 65-month period, January 1980-May 1985, and contrasts it with earlier data for a similar 65-month time period (1974-79). Together these data provide a comprehensive overview of union election activity in non-Federal, nongovernment hospitals since the passage of the 1974 Nonprofit Hospital Amendments to the Taft-Hartley Act. The study analyzes union, election, hospital, and environmental characteristics. Comparisons over the two time periods show that, while union victory rates in hospital elections have remained constant, the total number of elections has declined dramatically in the hospital industry. PMID:10312518

  4. Children's Literature in the Soviet Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, D. D.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Children's literature in the Soviet Union is of four types: 17 stories based on old tales, adaptations from great Russian literature, original writings for children, and translations from foreign works. (JH)

  5. Heritability of thyroid peroxidase autoantibody levels in type 1 diabetes: evidence from discordant twin pairs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Hawa, Mohammed I.; Rijsdijk, Frühling V.; Fain, Pamela R.; Paschou, Stavroula A.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Steck, Andrea K.; Snieder, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis The discordance status of (autoimmune) type 1 diabetes within monozygotic twin pairs points to the importance of environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the environmental events causing type 1 diabetes influence thyroid autoimmunity. Methods Monozygotic and dizygotic twins discordant for type 1 diabetes from the UK and USA were tested for thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies (TPOA) by radioimmunoassay. Using quantitative genetic model fitting of a liability-threshold model we estimated the contribution of genetic (heritability) and environmental factors to TPOA. Results TPOA positivity was higher in females than in males in both cohorts and was associated with later age at diagnosis in the UK and combined cohorts (p<0.01). TPOA did not specifically segregate with type 1 diabetes in the twin pairs (p>0.2 in all groups). The best-fitting models showed heritability (95% CI) estimates for TPOA of 63% (37%, 80%) for the UK and 80% (51%, 92%) for US twins, while the best-fitting meta-analysis model of the two twin cohorts combined included additive genetic and unique environmental factors with a heritability estimate of 69% (50%, 82%). Conclusions/interpretation Risk of thyroid autoimmunity, defined by TPOA, in the context of autoimmune diabetes is, substantially, genetically determined in discordant twin pairs. Environmental factors leading to type 1 diabetes were not the same as those involved with thyroid autoimmunity. It follows that it is as important to investigate for thyroid autoimmunity in relatives of type 1 diabetes patients as it is in the patients themselves. PMID:26070305

  6. Prenatal diagnosis of female monozygotic twins discordant for Turner syndrome: implications for prenatal genetic counselling.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, B; Yardin, C; Briault, S; Belin, V; Lienhardt, A; Aubard, Y; Battin, J; Servaud, M; Philippe, H J; Lacombe, D

    2002-08-01

    We describe a set of monozygotic (MZ) female twins, one of whom presented with a typical Turner syndrome (TS) phenotype and the other a normal female phenotype. Prenatal fetal ultrasonographic examination showed a monochorial diamniotic pregnancy with a hygroma colli and growth delay in Twin A and no anomalies in Twin B. Karyotypic analysis performed on fetal blood samples demonstrated a 46,XX/45,X (23/2) mosaicism in Twin A and a normal 46,XX chromosome constitution in Twin B. At birth, Twin A presented with a typical TS and Twin B had a normal female phenotype. Postnatal cytogenetic investigation of blood lymphocytes showed the same 46,XX/45,X mosaicism in both twins: 46,XX/45,X (40/7) in Twin A and 46,XX/45,X (40/5) in Twin B. Further investigations at the age of 10 months showed in Twin A a 46,XX/45,X (98/2) mosaicism in lymphocytes and 100% of 45,X (50 analysed cells) in fibroblasts, and in Twin B a normal 46,XX (100 analysed cells) chromosome constitution in lymphocytes but a mild 46,XX/45,X (78/2) mosaicism in fibroblasts. Monozygosity was confirmed by molecular analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of prenatal diagnosis of MZ female twins discordant for TS. Review of reported sets of MZ female twins (eight cases) or triplets (one case) discordant for TS shows, as in the present case, that the phenotype correlates better with the chromosomal distribution of mosaicism in fibroblasts than in lymphocytes. In the blood of MZ twins chimerism may modify the initial allocation of the mosaicism. These results suggest that, in cases of prenatal diagnosis of MZ female twins discordant for TS, the phenotype of each twin would be better predicted from karyotype analysis of cells from amniotic fluid than from fetal blood.

  7. Skepticism, truth as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: grounds for resolving the discord between science and religion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staver, John R.

    2010-03-01

    Science and religion exhibit multiple relationships as ways of knowing. These connections have been characterized as cousinly, mutually respectful, non-overlapping, competitive, proximate-ultimate, dominant-subordinate, and opposing-conflicting. Some of these ties create stress, and tension between science and religion represents a significant chapter in humans' cultural heritage before and since the Enlightenment. Truth, knowledge, and their relation are central to science and religion as ways of knowing, as social institutions, and to their interaction. In religion, truth is revealed through God's word. In science, truth is sought after via empirical methods. Discord can be viewed as a competition for social legitimization between two social institutions whose goals are explaining the world and how it works. Under this view, the root of the discord is truth as correspondence. In this concept of truth, knowledge corresponds to the facts of reality, and conflict is inevitable for many because humans want to ask which one—science or religion—gets the facts correct. But, the root paradox, also known as the problem of the criterion, suggests that seeking to know nature as it is represents a fruitless endeavor. The discord can be set on new ground and resolved by taking a moderately skeptical line of thought, one which employs truth as coherence and a moderate form of constructivist epistemology. Quantum mechanics and evolution as scientific theories and scientific research on human consciousness and vision provide support for this line of argument. Within a constructivist perspective, scientists would relinquish only the pursuit of knowing reality as it is. Scientists would retain everything else. Believers who hold that religion explains reality would come to understand that God never revealed His truth of nature; rather, He revealed His truth in how we are to conduct our lives.

  8. Discordant sex in monozygotic XXY/XX twins: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tachon, G; Lefort, G; Puechberty, J; Schneider, A; Jeandel, C; Boulot, P; Prodhomme, O; Meyer, P; Taviaux, S; Touitou, I; Pellestor, F; Geneviève, D; Gatinois, V

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of discordant phenotypic sex in monozygotic twins mosaic 47,XXY/46,XX: monozygotic heterokaryotypic twins. The twins presented with cognitive and comprehension delay, behavioural and language disorders, all symptoms frequently reported in Klinefelter syndrome. Molecular zygosity analysis with several markers confirmed that the twins are in effect monozygotic (MZ). Array comparative genomic hybridization found no evidence for the implication of copy number variation in the phenotypes. Ultrasound scans of the reproductive organs revealed no abnormalities. Endocrine tests showed a low testosterone level in Twin 1 (male phenotype) and a low gonadotrophin level in Twin 2 (female phenotype) which, combined with the results from ultrasound examination, provided useful information for potentially predicting the future fertility potential of the twins. Blood karyotypes revealed the presence of a normal 46,XX cell line and an aneuploïd 47,XXY cell line in both patients. Examination of the chromosome constitutions of various tissues such as blood, buccal smear and urinary sediment not surprisingly showed different proportions for the 46,XX and 47,XXY cell lines, which most likely explains the discordant phenotypic sex and mild Klinefelter features. The most plausible underlying biological mechanism is a post-zygotic loss of the Y chromosome in an initially 47,XXY zygote. This would result in an embryo with both 46,XX and 47,XXY cells lines which could subsequently divide into two monozygotic embryos through a twinning process. The two cell lines would then be distributed differently between tissues which could result in phenotypic discordances in the twins. These observations emphasize the importance of regular paediatric evaluations to determine the optimal timing for fertility preservation measures and to detect new Klinefelter features which could appear throughout childhood in the two subjects.

  9. Comparison of Genomic and Epigenomic Expression in Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Rett Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Kunio; Yang, Chunshu; Minakuchi, Yohei; Ohori, Kenta; Soutome, Masaki; Hirasawa, Takae; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Adachi, Noboru; Suzuki, Seiko; Itoh, Masayuki; Goto, Yu-Ichi; Andoh, Tomoko; Kurosawa, Hiroshi; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Masayuki; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kubota, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    Monozygotic (identical) twins have been widely used in genetic studies to determine the relative contributions of heredity and the environment in human diseases. Discordance in disease manifestation between affected monozygotic twins has been attributed to either environmental factors or different patterns of X chromosome inactivation (XCI). However, recent studies have identified genetic and epigenetic differences between monozygotic twins, thereby challenging the accepted experimental model for distinguishing the effects of nature and nurture. Here, we report the genomic and epigenomic sequences in skin fibroblasts of a discordant monozygotic twin pair with Rett syndrome, an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by autistic features, epileptic seizures, gait ataxia and stereotypical hand movements. The twins shared the same de novo mutation in exon 4 of the MECP2 gene (G269AfsX288), which was paternal in origin and occurred during spermatogenesis. The XCI patterns in the twins did not differ in lymphocytes, skin fibroblasts, and hair cells (which originate from ectoderm as does neuronal tissue). No reproducible differences were detected between the twins in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertion-deletion polymorphisms (indels), or copy number variations. Differences in DNA methylation between the twins were detected in fibroblasts in the upstream regions of genes involved in brain function and skeletal tissues such as Mohawk Homeobox (MKX), Brain-type Creatine Kinase (CKB), and FYN Tyrosine Kinase Protooncogene (FYN). The level of methylation in these upstream regions was inversely correlated with the level of gene expression. Thus, differences in DNA methylation patterns likely underlie the discordance in Rett phenotypes between the twins. PMID:23805272

  10. Referring Physicians’ Discordance with the Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Guidelines: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos, Jorge M; Smith, Lisa M; Varosy, Paul D.; Dehlendorf, Christine; Marcus, Gregory M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ACC/AHA/HRS Guidelines provide patient selection criteria for primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). For unknown reasons, guideline discordant practice is common. OBJECTIVE To determine referring physicians’ concordance with the primary prevention ICD guidelines. METHODS We mailed a survey regarding ICD guidelines and individual practice characteristics to a random national sample of 3,000 physicians, 1/3rd each specializing in family medicine, internal medicine, and general cardiology, selected from the American Medical Association Masterfile. RESULTS Sixty-four percent with correct contact information responded. Three hundred and ninety-five (28%, 95% CI 25–30%) respondents never refer patients with the intent of consideration for a primary prevention ICD, including 7% (95% CI 5–10%) of cardiologists. Two hundred and twelve (15%, 95% CI 13–17%) believe ventricular arrhythmias are required before a primary prevention ICD is indicated; 525 (36%, 95% CI 34–39%) believe an ejection fraction > 40% warrants a primary prevention ICD; and 361 (25%, 95% CI 23–27%) would refer a patient for a primary prevention ICD within 40 days of a myocardial infarction. In multivariate analyses, family practice physicians and physicians residing in the Western US most often provided guideline-discordant answers, while cardiologists and those that refer to an electrophysiologist most often provided guideline-concordant answers. Primary care physicians that manage heart failure patients without referral to a subspecialist were not more likely to provide guideline concordant answers. CONCLUSIONS Answers discordant with the primary prevention ICD guidelines were common, suggesting that referring physician beliefs are an important barrier to appropriate patient referrals for primary prevention ICD implantation. PMID:22306794

  11. Individual performance in relation to cytonuclear discordance in a northern contact zone between long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) lineages.

    PubMed

    Lee-Yaw, Julie A; Jacobs, Chris G C; Irwin, Darren E

    2014-09-01

    Cytonuclear discordance in contact zones between related lineages is common, with mitochondrial clines often being displaced from clines in nuclear allele frequency. Proposed explanations for such a pattern include adaptive introgression of mtDNA or a neutral wake of mtDNA being left behind following hybrid zone movement. However, studies investigating these hypotheses are rare. Our previous survey of genetic variation in the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) highlighted a potential case of cytonuclear discordance between two lineages in western Canada. Here, we use additional markers and samples to clarify the extent of this discordance. We simultaneously assess the feeding performance of individuals in a common environment to test for an association between mitotype and individual performance. The genetic results confirm a general pattern of cytonuclear discordance in the focal region. However, we also observed more limited introgression of a diagnostic nuclear marker. Intriguingly, although there were differences in individual performance associated with the transition between mitotypes, these differences were not fully explained by mitotype. Instead, the lowest performance was observed in individuals demonstrating the greatest mismatch between mtDNA and all nuclear markers, suggesting the potential for cytonuclear incompatibilities to be acting. These results highlight the complexity of understanding the causes and consequences of mtDNA introgression and cytonuclear discordance in contact zones.

  12. What can we learn from the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord in the Tavis-Cummings model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juliana; Rodriguez, Boris A.

    We revisit the problem of the dynamics of quantum correlations in the exact Tavis-Cummings model. We show that many of the dynamical features of quantum discord attributed to dissipation are already present in the exact framework and are due to the well known non-linearities in the model and to the choice of initial conditions. Through a comprehensive analysis, supported by explicit analytical calculations, we find that the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord are far from being trivial or intuitive. In this context, we find states that are indistinguishable from the point of view of entanglement and distinguishable from the point of view of quantum discord, states where the two quantifiers give opposite information and states where they give roughly the same information about correlations at a certain time. Depending on the initial conditions, this model exhibits a fascinating range of phenomena that can be used for experimental purposes such as: Robust states against change of manifold or dissipation, tunable entanglement states and states with a counterintuitive sudden birth as the number of photons increase. We furthermore propose an experiment called quantum discord gates where discord is zero or non-zero depending on the number of photons. This work was supported by the Vicerrectoria de Investigacion of the Universidad Antonio Narino, Colombia under Project Number 20141031 and by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion (COLCIENCIAS) of Colombia under Grant Number.

  13. Physician unionization efforts gain momentum, support.

    PubMed

    Keating, G C

    1999-11-01

    Physicians increasingly are assuming the status of employees in healthcare organizations. Physicians also are seeing restrictions imposed on their practices by healthcare organizations seeking to control costs of care delivery. These trends have led a growing number of physicians to attempt to organize into unions. Obstacles to physician unionization efforts have included Federal antitrust laws that prohibit physicians from organizing, as well as physician reluctance to engage in organized activities they see as antithetical to their professional duties (e.g., strikes). In addition, physicians' attempts to unionize frequently have failed due to provisions of the National Labor Relations Act, which authorize collective bargaining only among individuals designated as "employees." Physicians seeking to form unions often are thwarted by the argument that they are not employees, but rather students, independent contractors, or supervisors, and therefore not entitled to protection under the act. Nonetheless, a number of recent developments, such as the American Medical Association's decision to endorse unionization by physicians and the National Labor Relations Board's decision that attending physicians should be regarded as employees, not supervisors, are creating a climate more conducive to physician unionization in the United States.

  14. Discordance of exercise thallium testing with coronary arteriography in patients with atypical presentations

    SciTech Connect

    Bungo, M.W.; Leland, O.S. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Eighty-one patients with diagnostically difficult clinical presentations suggesting coronary disease underwent symptom-limited maximal-exercise treadmill testing (ETT) and exercise radionuclide scanning with /sup 201/Tl. Results of these tests were in agreement in only 47 percent of the cases. Either exercise thallium or ETT was positive in 94 percent of patients with disease. Among a population with a disease prevalence of 67 percent, agreement between exercise thallium an ETT predicted disease in 92 percent of instances or excluded disease in 82 percent of instances. Frequent discordance between these two tests in 53 percent of the cases unfortunately limits this usefulness.

  15. Efficacy of Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation to Improve Locomotor Performance in a Discordant Sensory Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temple, D. R.; De Dios, Y. E.; Layne, C. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to microgravity face sensorimotor challenges incurred when readapting to a gravitational environment. Sensorimotor Adaptability (SA) training has been proposed as a countermeasure to improve locomotor performance during re-adaptation, and it is suggested that the benefits of SA training may be further enhanced by improving detection of weak sensory signals via mechanisms such as stochastic resonance when a non-zero level of stochastic white noise based electrical stimulation is applied to the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS). The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of using SVS to improve short-term adaptation in a sensory discordant environment during performance of a locomotor task.

  16. DNA methylation profiling in breast cancer discordant identical twins identifies DOK7 as novel epigenetic biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Esteller, Manel

    2013-01-01

    Using whole blood from 15 twin pairs discordant for breast cancer and high-resolution (450K) DNA methylation analysis, we identified 403 differentially methylated CpG sites including known and novel potential breast cancer genes. Confirming the results in an independent validation cohort of 21 twin pairs determined the docking protein DOK7 as a candidate for blood-based cancer diagnosis. DNA hypermethylation of the promoter region was also seen in primary breast cancer tissues and cancer cell lines. Hypermethylation of DOK7 occurs years before tumor diagnosis, suggesting a role as a powerful epigenetic blood-based biomarker as well as providing insights into breast cancer pathogenesis. PMID:23054610

  17. DNA methylation profiling in breast cancer discordant identical twins identifies DOK7 as novel epigenetic biomarker.

    PubMed

    Heyn, Holger; Carmona, F Javier; Gomez, Antonio; Ferreira, Humberto J; Bell, Jordana T; Sayols, Sergi; Ward, Kirsten; Stefansson, Olafur A; Moran, Sebastian; Sandoval, Juan; Eyfjord, Jorunn E; Spector, Tim D; Esteller, Manel

    2013-01-01

    Using whole blood from 15 twin pairs discordant for breast cancer and high-resolution (450K) DNA methylation analysis, we identified 403 differentially methylated CpG sites including known and novel potential breast cancer genes. Confirming the results in an independent validation cohort of 21 twin pairs determined the docking protein DOK7 as a candidate for blood-based cancer diagnosis. DNA hypermethylation of the promoter region was also seen in primary breast cancer tissues and cancer cell lines. Hypermethylation of DOK7 occurs years before tumor diagnosis, suggesting a role as a powerful epigenetic blood-based biomarker as well as providing insights into breast cancer pathogenesis. PMID:23054610

  18. A case study of brain morphometry in triplets discordant for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Elizabeth I; Giedd, Jay N; Lee, Nancy Raitano

    2015-05-01

    Down syndrome, the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability, offers the opportunity to explore the associations between genetics and both neuroanatomic and neuropsychological phenotypes. This case report summarizes the findings of a neuroimaging and neuropsychology study of two adolescent females with Down syndrome and their same-sex discordant triplet siblings (one from each family; n = 4). Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and surface based morphometric approaches, we offer the first in vivo report of cortical surface area reductions and increases in the thickness of the cortical sheet in youth with Down syndrome relative to their typically developing same-sex triplet siblings.

  19. Anatomic vs. Acquired Image Frame Discordance in Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Minimum Rim Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongli; Hardin, Christy; Reyes, Luke; Reynaud, Juan; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Fortune, Brad; Demirel, Shaban; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To quantify the effects of using the fovea to Bruch's membrane opening (FoBMO) axis as the nasal-temporal midline for 30° sectoral (clock-hour) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) optic nerve head (ONH) minimum rim width (MRW) and area (MRA) calculations. Methods The internal limiting membrane and BMO were delineated within 24 radial ONH B-scans in 222 eyes of 222 participants with ocular hypertension and glaucoma. For each eye the fovea was marked within the infrared reflectance image, the FoBMO angle (θ) relative to the acquired image frame (AIF) horizontal was calculated, the ONH was divided into 30°sectors using a FoBMO or AIF nasal/temporal axis, and SDOCT MRW and MRA were quantified within each FoBMO vs. AIF sector. For each sector, focal rim loss was calculated as the MRW and MRA gradients (i.e. the difference between the value for that sector and the one clockwise to it divided by 30°). Sectoral FoBMO vs. AIF discordance was calculated as the difference between the FoBMO and AIF values for each sector. Generalized estimating equations were used to predict the eyes and sectors of maximum FoBMO vs. AIF discordance. Results The mean FoBMO angle was −6.6±4.2° (range: −17° to +7°). FoBMO vs. AIF discordance in sectoral mean MRW and MRA was significant for 7 of 12 and 6 of 12 sectors, respectively (p<0.05, Wilcoxon test, Bonferroni correction). Eye-specific, FoBMO vs. AIF sectoral discordance was predicted by sectoral rim gradient (p<0.001) and FoBMO angle (p<0.001) and achieved maximum values of 83% for MRW and 101% for MRA. Conclusions Using the FoBMO axis as the nasal-temporal axis to regionalize the ONH rather than a line parallel to the AIF horizontal axis significantly influences clock-hour SDOCT rim values. This effect is greatest in eyes with large FoBMO angles and sectors with focal rim loss. PMID:24643069

  20. Sonar cephalometry in twin pregnancy: discordancy of the biparietal diameter after 28 weeks' gestation.

    PubMed

    Leveno, K J; Santos-Ramos, R; Duenhoelter, J H; Reisch, J S; Whalley, P J

    1980-11-15

    Sonar measured biparietal diameter (BPD) differences of twin paires were examined in 123 twin pregnancies at or beyond 28 weeks' gestation. Among 117 liveborn sets, the risk of a twin infant being small for gestational age was threefold greater when paired BPD differences were 5 mm or more compared to 4 mm or less. The incidence of fetal death increased from 2.7% for twin pairs with 0 to 6 mm BPD differences to 20% when the difference was 7 mm or more. Sonar cephalometry may be helpful in the antepartum evaluation of twin pregnancies, although detection of BPD discordancy does not preclude normal twin outcome.

  1. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research.

  2. Shared snorkel leads to coerced HIV test, suit alleges.

    PubMed

    1998-08-21

    An African-American mother is suing an Illinois clinic and a community center, alleging that they pressured her into having her son tested for HIV and strep throat because he shared a snorkel with a white boy at a public swimming pool. The mother contends that the community center pressured her because the white boy's mother insisted on the tests and threatened to sue the community center. The American Civil Liberties Union of Illinois has accused the community center and the clinic that performed the tests of racially motivated discrimination and violations of the state HIV testing and confidentiality laws. Also named in the suit is the doctor who performed the tests.

  3. 12 CFR 704.3 - Corporate credit union capital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corporate credit union capital. 704.3 Section... CORPORATE CREDIT UNIONS § 704.3 Corporate credit union capital. (a) Capital plan. A corporate credit union... strategies which provide for the building of capital consistent with regulatory requirements, the...

  4. Open-Source Unionism: New Workers, New Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Julie M.

    2004-01-01

    In "Open-Source Unionism: Beyond Exclusive Collective Bargaining," published in fall 2002 in the journal Working USA, labor scholars Richard B. Freeman and Joel Rogers use the term "open-source unionism" to describe a form of unionization that uses Web technology to organize in hard-to-unionize workplaces. Rather than depend on the traditional…

  5. Trade Union Mergers: A Survey of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, Grant

    2000-01-01

    Examines trade union mergers highlighting merger forms, merger motivation, role played by union officers, and merger waves. Discusses the consequences of mergers on members and union performance and concludes that union merger activity has had little impact. (Contains 74 references.) (JOW)

  6. 12 CFR 741.222 - Credit union service organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit union service organizations. 741.222 Section 741.222 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... credit union service organizations (CUSOs) and the requirement to maintain separate corporate...

  7. Union Views on Job Evaluation: 1971 vs. 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janes, Harold D.

    1979-01-01

    Compares 1978 survey results to those of 1971 survey on union's job evaluation views. Thirty-nine unions out of 180 American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations and other selected unions responded to questions on job evaluation preferences, practices, origination, problems, and union policies. Results indicated modest trend…

  8. HIV Structural Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  9. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  10. Secondary HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Temoshok, L R; Frerichs, R R

    1998-06-01

    Primary HIV prevention, preventing HIV exposure among uninfected persons, has been the focus of much attention. However, secondary HIV prevention, preventing HIV transmission from infected people to their uninfected contacts, has not received as much interest or attention from HIV researchers, clinicians, and policymakers. The concept of secondary HIV prevention, as distinguished from primary prevention, is clarified, and the current and future strategies to further secondary HIV prevention efforts are explored. Secondary prevention strategies can be incorporated into comprehensive programs and result in shifts in attitudes and behaviors. This could reduce the size of the epidemic, while also benefiting the individual and his or her close relationships.

  11. The Role of BDNF Genotype, Parental Depression, and Relationship Discord in Predicting Early-Emerging Negative Emotionality

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Klein, Daniel N.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Durbin, C. Emily; Sheikh, Haroon I.; Singh, Shiva M.

    2012-01-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene is a plausible candidate for early-emerging negative emotionality (NE), and evidence suggests that the effects of this gene may be especially salient in the context of familial risk for child maladjustment. We therefore examined whether the BDNF val66met polymorphism was associated with child NE in the context of parental depression and relationship discord. A sample of 413 three-year-old children was assessed for NE using standardized laboratory measures. Parents completed clinical interviews and a measure of marital satisfaction. Children with at least one BDNF met allele exhibited elevated NE when a parent had a history of depressive disorder, or when relationship discord was present. In contrast, this allele was associated with especially low NE when parent depression was absent, and when the parental relationship was not discordant. Findings suggest that the BDNF met allele confers increased child sensitivity to both positive and negative familial influences. PMID:20921572

  12. Scholarly Discord

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrinelli, Lara

    2009-01-01

    Even with President Barack Obama's promises to close the Guantanamo Bay detention camp and withdraw troops from Iraq, the subject of torture keeps making the news. With all that detainees have had to endure during their incarcerations--the recent memos detail stress positions, cramped confinement, and waterboarding, among other tactics--perhaps…

  13. Impact of the Prevalence of Concordant and Discordant Conditions on the Quality of Diabetes Care in Family Practices in England

    PubMed Central

    Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Stevens, Sarah; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Dalton, Andrew R. H.; Griffiths, Robert I.; Campbell, John L.; Doran, Tim; Valderas, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the prevalence of both diabetes-concordant and diabetes-discordant conditions and the quality of diabetes care at the family practice level in England. We hypothesized that the prevalence of concordant (or discordant) conditions would be associated with better (or worse) quality of diabetes care. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study using practice-level data (7,884 practices). We estimated the practice-level prevalence of diabetes and 15 other chronic conditions, which were classified as diabetes concordant (ie, with the same pathophysiologic risk profile and therefore more likely to be part of the same management plan) or diabetes discordant (ie, not directly related in either their pathogenesis or management). We measured quality of diabetes care with diabetes-specific indicators (8 processes and 3 intermediate outcomes of care). We used linear regression models to quantify the effect of the prevalence of the conditions on aggregate achievement rate for quality of diabetes care. RESULTS Consistent with the proposed model, the prevalence rates of 4 of 7 concordant conditions (obesity, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure) were positively associated with quality of diabetes care. Similarly, negative associations were observed as predicted for 2 of the 8 discordant conditions (epilepsy, mental health). Observations for other concordant and discordant conditions did not match predictions in the hypothesized model. CONCLUSIONS The quality of diabetes care provided in English family practices is associated with the prevalence of other major chronic conditions at the practice level. The nature and direction of the observed associations cannot be fully explained by the concordant-discordant model. PMID:26553890

  14. Discordances between Interpretation Algorithms for Genotypic Resistance to Protease and Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Are Subtype Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Snoeck, Joke; Kantor, Rami; Shafer, Robert W.; Van Laethem, Kristel; Deforche, Koen; Carvalho, Ana Patricia; Wynhoven, Brian; Soares, Marcelo A.; Cane, Patricia; Clarke, John; Pillay, Candice; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Ariyoshi, Koya; Holguin, Africa; Rudich, Hagit; Rodrigues, Rosangela; Bouzas, Maria Belen; Brun-Vézinet, Françoise; Reid, Caroline; Cahn, Pedro; Brigido, Luis Fernando; Grossman, Zehava; Soriano, Vincent; Sugiura, Wataru; Phanuphak, Praphan; Morris, Lynn; Weber, Jonathan; Pillay, Deenan; Tanuri, Amilcar; Harrigan, Richard P.; Camacho, Ricardo; Schapiro, Jonathan M.; Katzenstein, David; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke

    2006-01-01

    The major limitation of drug resistance genotyping for human immunodeficiency virus remains the interpretation of the results. We evaluated the concordance in predicting therapy response between four different interpretation algorithms (Rega 6.3, HIVDB-08/04, ANRS [07/04], and VGI 8.0). Sequences were gathered through a worldwide effort to establish a database of non-B subtype sequences, and demographic and clinical information about the patients was gathered. The most concordant results were found for nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (93%), followed by protease inhibitors (84%) and nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTIs) (76%). For therapy-naive patients, for nelfinavir, especially for subtypes C and G, the discordances were driven mainly by the protease (PRO) mutational pattern 82I/V + 63P + 36I/V for subtype C and 82I + 63P + 36I + 20I for subtype G. Subtype F displayed more discordances for ritonavir in untreated patients due to the combined presence of PRO 20R and 10I/V. In therapy-experienced patients, subtype G displayed a lot of discordances for saquinavir and indinavir due to mutational patterns involving PRO 90 M and 82I. Subtype F had more discordance for nelfinavir attributable to the presence of PRO 88S and 82A + 54V. For the NRTIs lamivudine and emtricitabine, CRF01_AE had more discordances than subtype B due to the presence of RT mutational patterns 65R + 115 M and 118I + 215Y, respectively. Overall, the different algorithms agreed well on the level of resistance scored, but some of the discordances could be attributed to specific (subtype-dependent) combinations of mutations. It is not yet known whether therapy response is subtype dependent, but the advice given to clinicians based on a genotypic interpretation algorithm differs according to the subtype. PMID:16436728

  15. Nanoscale evidence for uranium mobility in zircon and the discordance of U-Pb chronometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; Bingen, Bernard; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Bosse, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) images coupled with U-Pb isotopic analysis give new insight into mobility of U and Pb in zircon. Zircon crystals included in xenotime and in plagioclase of a pegmatitic assemblage comprising euxenite correspond to irradiation related alteration of zircon with amorphization, microporosity, swelling, radial cracking, and uptake of non-formula cations like Ca, leading to increased discordance of the U-Pb system. Fractures and pores represent the vectors for fluid mediated open system behavior. STEM images demonstrate the presence of U-rich clusters (<70 nm) with uraninite structure within the porosity. At high magnification, pores are surrounded by a low density halo (<100 nm) and are coated by a high density wall (<50 nm) enriched in U or Ca or both. We interpret the spatial link between U, Ca and porosity as evidence for U uptake. Alteration of euxenite crystals into pyrochlore in the rock led to liberation of U and Ca. These elements were transported by fluids through cracks and incorporated within zircon thanks to porosity by a diffusion-reaction process. The data on this uncommon sample demonstrate that discordance of the U-Pb system in zircon affected by radiation damage includes a component of U-mobility (U-gain-U-loss) superimposed on Pb-mobility (Pb loss-Pb gain).

  16. Mitochondrial DNA Variation and Heteroplasmy in Monozygotic Twins Clinically Discordant for Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Souren, Nicole Y P; Gerdes, Lisa A; Kümpfel, Tania; Lutsik, Pavlo; Klopstock, Thomas; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Walter, Jörn

    2016-08-01

    We examined the debated link between mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation and multiple sclerosis (MS) using 49 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs clinically discordant for MS, which enables to associate de novo mtDNA variants, skewed heteroplasmy, and mtDNA copy number with MS manifestation. Ultra-deep sequencing of blood-derived mtDNA revealed 25 heteroplasmic variants with potentially pathogenic features in 18 pairs. All variants were pair-specific and had low and/or similar heteroplasmy levels in both cotwins. In one pair, a confirmed pathogenic variant (m.11778G>A, heteroplasmy ∼50%) associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy was detected. Detailed diagnostic investigation revealed subclinical MS signs in the prior nondiseased cotwin. Moreover, neither mtDNA deletions nor copy-number variations were involved. Furthermore, the majority of heteroplasmic variants were shared among MZ twins and exhibited more similar heteroplasmy levels in the same tissue of MZ twins as compared with different tissues of the same individual. Heteroplasmy levels were also more similar within MZ twins compared with nonidentical siblings. Our analysis excludes mtDNA variation as a major driver of the discordant clinical manifestation of MS in MZ twins, and provides valuable insights into the occurrence and distribution of heteroplasmic variants within MZ twins and nonidentical siblings, and across different tissues. PMID:27119776

  17. Thermal Quantum Discord in Pure Dzyaloshinskii—Moriya Model with Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da-Chuang; Li, Xiao-Man; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the effects of the directions of Dzyaloshinskii—Moriya (DM) interaction vector and magnetic field on the quantum discord in the pure DM model. For different directions of DM vector, we find that there are different optimal parameter components of magnetic field. Moreover, we find that the optimal parameter components rules are the same for the Hamiltonian H1 and H2. According to the rules, for a certain axial DM vector, we can get the maximal quantum discord by adjusting the direction of the external magnetic field, which is feasible under the current experimental technology. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11204061, 11374085, 11104057, and 11204002, the Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation under Grant No. 1408085MA16, the Anhui Provincial Candidates for Academic and Technical Leaders Foundation under Grant No. 2015H052, the discipline top-notch talents Foundation and the Excellent Young Talents Support Plan of Anhui Provincial Universities. Ming Yang is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11274010, the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education under Grant No. 20113401110002, the 211 Project of Anhui University, and the Personnel Department of Anhui Province

  18. [Prenatal diagnosis of five cases of monochorionic-diamniotic twins discordant for karyotype analysis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianzhu; Zhou, Yi; Lin, Shaobin; Chen, Baojiang; Xie, Yingjun

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the mechanism and diagnostic method for monochorionic-diamniotic twins discordant for karyotype analysis. METHODS Dual amniocentesis was performed on five pairs of monochorionic-diamniotic twins, which all consisted of a normal twin and one with multiple malformations revealed by ultrasound. Karyotype analysis was performed on amniocytes derived from each of the twins. Zygosity was also determined with DNA extracted from amniocytes with 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers. RESULTS Three cases of 45,X, one case of 47,XX,+9 and one case of 47,XY,+18 were detected among the abnormal twins, while the normal fetuses all had a normal karyotype. DNA analysis suggested that, in all cases, the twins have shared the 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers, which confirmed their monozygosity. CONCLUSION Monochorionic-diamniotic twins may be discordant for karyotyping, for which anaphase lagging, chromosomal non-disjunction and trisomy rescue may be the underlying reasons. As a simple method, dual amniocentesis can be used to obtain amniotic fluid samples for karyotype analysis and determination of zygosity for such twins. PMID:26418994

  19. A Discordant Monozygotic Twin Design Shows Blunted Cortisol Reactivity Among Bullied Children

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Danese, Andrea; Bowes, Lucy; Shakoor, Sania; Ambler, Antony; Pariante, Carmine M.; Papadopoulos, Andrew S.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood adverse experiences are known to engender persistent changes in stress-related systems and brain structures involved in mood, cognition, and behavior in animal models. Uncertainty remains about the causal effect of early stressful experiences on physiological response to stress in human beings, as the impact of these experiences has rarely been investigated while controlling for both genetic and shared environmental influences. Method We tested whether bullying victimization, a repeated adverse experience in childhood, influences cortisol responses to a psychosocial stress test (PST) using a discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin design. Thirty pairs (43.3% males) of 12-year-old MZ twins discordant for bullying victimization were identified in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994–1995 cohort of families with twins. Results Bullied and nonbullied MZ twins showed distinct patterns of cortisol secretion after the PST. Specifically, bullied twins exhibited a blunted cortisol response compared with their nonbullied MZ co-twins, who showed the expected increase. This difference in cortisol response to stress could not be attributed to children's genetic makeup, their familial environments, pre-existing and concomitant individual factors, or the perception of stress and emotional response to the PST. Conclusion Results from this natural experiment provide support for a causal effect of adverse childhood experiences on the neuroendocrine response to stress. PMID:21621141

  20. Discordance between living and death assemblages as evidence for anthropogenic ecological change

    PubMed Central

    Kidwell, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Mismatches between the composition of a time-averaged death assemblage (dead remains sieved from the upper mixed-zone of the sedimentary column) and the local living community are typically attributed to natural postmortem processes. However, statistical analysis of 73 molluscan data sets from estuaries and lagoons reveals significantly poorer average “live-dead agreement” in settings of documented anthropogenic eutrophication (AE) than in areas where AE and other human impacts are negligible. Taxonomic similarity of paired live and dead species lists declines steadily among areas as a function of AE severity, and, for data sets comprising only adults, rank-order agreement in species abundance drops where AE is suspected. The observed live-dead differences in composition are consistent with eutrophication (anomalous abundance of seagrass-dwellers and/or scarcity of organic-loving species in the death assemblage), suggesting compositional inertia of death assemblages to recent environmental change. Molluscan data sets from open shelf settings (n = 34) also show higher average live-dead discordance in areas of AE. These results indicate that (i) live-dead discordance in surficial grab samples provides valuable evidence for strong anthropogenic modification of benthic communities, (ii) actualistic estimates of the ecological fidelity of molluscan death assemblages tend to be erroneously pessimistic when conducted in nonpristine settings, and (iii) based on their high fidelity in pristine study areas, death assemblages are a promising means of reconstructing otherwise elusive preimpact ecological baselines from sedimentary records. PMID:17965231

  1. Changes in children's appraisals of marital discord from childhood through adolescence.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Melissa K; Stocker, Clare M

    2007-09-01

    The study examined how children's appraisals of marital conflict (threat and self-blame) changed across development, whether changes in exposure to marital conflict were associated with corresponding changes in appraisals, and whether the appraisal process was different for boys and girls. Data were collected on 112 families (224 children) at 4 time points. At each wave, children (mean ages ranged from 8 to 19) provided information on their appraisals of marital conflict, and parents provided information on children's exposure to marital conflict. Results indicated that appraisals of threat declined rapidly from childhood to adolescence and then declined less rapidly across adolescence; appraisals of self-blame showed little change over time. Second, changes in exposure to marital discord covaried with changes in threat over time, but not with changes in self-blame. Finally, boys experienced more self-blame than girls on average, and gender moderated the association between exposure to marital discord and threat. Results suggest that development, exposure to marital conflict, and gender are important in determining why some children appraise their parents' disputes negatively. PMID:17874927

  2. Discordances between follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in female infertility

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) represent the two most frequently utilized laboratory tests in determining ovarian reserve (OR). This study determined the clinical significance of their concordance and discordance in female infertility patients. Methods We investigated 366 consecutive infertility patients (350 reached IVF), excluding women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). They were considered to have normal FSH and AMH if values fell within age-specific (as-) 95% confidence intervals (CI), and to suffer from diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) if FSH exceeded and/or AMH fell below those. The two hormones, thus, could be concordant (Group I), both normal (IA) or abnormal (IB), show normal AMH/abnormal FSH (Group II) or normal FSH/abnormal AMH (Group III). Oocyte yields, stratified for age categories, were then studied in each group as reflection of OR. Results Oocyte yields significantly decreased from groups IA to II to III and IB. Predictive values of as-FSH/AMH patterns changed, however, at different ages. Except at very young and very old ages, normal as-AMH better predicted higher oocytes yields than normal as-FSH, though above age 42 years normal as-FSH predicts good oocyte yields even with abnormally low AMH. Under age 42 discrepancies between as- FSH and as-AMH remain similarly predictive of oocyte yields at all ages. Discussion Concordances and discordances between as-FSH and as-AMH improve OR assessments and predictability of oocyte yields in IVF. PMID:20565808

  3. Comparative performance of four single extreme outlier discordancy tests from Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Verma, Surendra P; Díaz-González, Lorena; Rosales-Rivera, Mauricio; Quiroz-Ruiz, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Using highly precise and accurate Monte Carlo simulations of 20,000,000 replications and 102 independent simulation experiments with extremely low simulation errors and total uncertainties, we evaluated the performance of four single outlier discordancy tests (Grubbs test N2, Dixon test N8, skewness test N14, and kurtosis test N15) for normal samples of sizes 5 to 20. Statistical contaminations of a single observation resulting from parameters called δ from ±0.1 up to ±20 for modeling the slippage of central tendency or ε from ±1.1 up to ±200 for slippage of dispersion, as well as no contamination (δ = 0 and ε = ±1), were simulated. Because of the use of precise and accurate random and normally distributed simulated data, very large replications, and a large number of independent experiments, this paper presents a novel approach for precise and accurate estimations of power functions of four popular discordancy tests and, therefore, should not be considered as a simple simulation exercise unrelated to probability and statistics. From both criteria of the Power of Test proposed by Hayes and Kinsella and the Test Performance Criterion of Barnett and Lewis, Dixon test N8 performs less well than the other three tests. The overall performance of these four tests could be summarized as N2≅N15 > N14 > N8.

  4. Comparative Performance of Four Single Extreme Outlier Discordancy Tests from Monte Carlo Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-González, Lorena; Quiroz-Ruiz, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Using highly precise and accurate Monte Carlo simulations of 20,000,000 replications and 102 independent simulation experiments with extremely low simulation errors and total uncertainties, we evaluated the performance of four single outlier discordancy tests (Grubbs test N2, Dixon test N8, skewness test N14, and kurtosis test N15) for normal samples of sizes 5 to 20. Statistical contaminations of a single observation resulting from parameters called δ from ±0.1 up to ±20 for modeling the slippage of central tendency or ε from ±1.1 up to ±200 for slippage of dispersion, as well as no contamination (δ = 0 and ε = ±1), were simulated. Because of the use of precise and accurate random and normally distributed simulated data, very large replications, and a large number of independent experiments, this paper presents a novel approach for precise and accurate estimations of power functions of four popular discordancy tests and, therefore, should not be considered as a simple simulation exercise unrelated to probability and statistics. From both criteria of the Power of Test proposed by Hayes and Kinsella and the Test Performance Criterion of Barnett and Lewis, Dixon test N8 performs less well than the other three tests. The overall performance of these four tests could be summarized as N2≅N15 > N14 > N8. PMID:24737992

  5. Discordance between living and death assemblages as evidence for anthropogenic ecological change.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Susan M

    2007-11-01

    Mismatches between the composition of a time-averaged death assemblage (dead remains sieved from the upper mixed-zone of the sedimentary column) and the local living community are typically attributed to natural postmortem processes. However, statistical analysis of 73 molluscan data sets from estuaries and lagoons reveals significantly poorer average "live-dead agreement" in settings of documented anthropogenic eutrophication (AE) than in areas where AE and other human impacts are negligible. Taxonomic similarity of paired live and dead species lists declines steadily among areas as a function of AE severity, and, for data sets comprising only adults, rank-order agreement in species abundance drops where AE is suspected. The observed live-dead differences in composition are consistent with eutrophication (anomalous abundance of seagrass-dwellers and/or scarcity of organic-loving species in the death assemblage), suggesting compositional inertia of death assemblages to recent environmental change. Molluscan data sets from open shelf settings (n = 34) also show higher average live-dead discordance in areas of AE. These results indicate that (i) live-dead discordance in surficial grab samples provides valuable evidence for strong anthropogenic modification of benthic communities, (ii) actualistic estimates of the ecological fidelity of molluscan death assemblages tend to be erroneously pessimistic when conducted in nonpristine settings, and (iii) based on their high fidelity in pristine study areas, death assemblages are a promising means of reconstructing otherwise elusive preimpact ecological baselines from sedimentary records.

  6. Glycolysis-induced discordance between glucose metabolic rates measured with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, R F; Lear, J L

    1989-12-01

    We have developed an autoradiographic method for estimating the oxidative and glycolytic components of local CMRglc (LCMRglc), using sequentially administered [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [14C]-6-glucose (GLC). FDG-6-phosphate accumulation is proportional to the rate of glucose phosphorylation, which occurs before the divergence of glycolytic (GMg) and oxidative (GMo) glucose metabolism and is therefore related to total cerebral glucose metabolism GMt: GMg + GMo = GMt. With oxidative metabolism, the 14C label of GLC is temporarily retained in Krebs cycle-related substrate pools. We hypothesize that with glycolytic metabolism, however, a significant fraction of the 14C label is lost from the brain via lactate production and efflux from the brain. Thus, cerebral GLC metabolite concentration may be more closely related to GMo than to GMt. If true, the glycolytic metabolic rate will be related to the difference between FDG- and GLC-derived LCMRglc. Thus far, we have studied normal awake rats, rats with limbic activation induced by kainic acid (KA), and rats visually stimulated with 16-Hz flashes. In KA-treated rats, significant discordance between FDG and GLC accumulation, which we attribute to glycolysis, occurred only in activated limbic structures. In visually stimulated rats, significant discordance occurred only in the optic tectum.

  7. Novel epigenetic changes unveiled by monozygotic twins discordant for smoking habits.

    PubMed

    Allione, Alessandra; Marcon, Francesca; Fiorito, Giovanni; Guarrera, Simonetta; Siniscalchi, Ester; Zijno, Andrea; Crebelli, Riccardo; Matullo, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoking affects the epigenome and could increase the risk of developing diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disorders. Changes in DNA methylation associated with smoking may help to identify molecular pathways that contribute to disease etiology. Previous studies are not completely concordant in the identification of differentially methylated regions in the DNA of smokers. We performed an epigenome-wide DNA methylation study in a group of monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for smoking habits to determine the effect of smoking on DNA methylation. As MZ twins are considered genetically identical, this model allowed us to identify smoking-related DNA methylation changes independent from genetic components. We investigated the whole blood genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in 20 MZ twin pairs discordant for smoking habits by using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We identified 22 CpG sites that were differentially methylated between smoker and non-smoker MZ twins by intra-pair analysis. We confirmed eight loci already described by other groups, located in AHRR, F2RL3, MYOG1 genes, at 2q37.1 and 6p21.33 regions, and also identified several new loci. Moreover, pathway analysis showed an enrichment of genes involved in GTPase regulatory activity. Our study confirmed the evidence of smoking-related DNA methylation changes, emphasizing that well-designed MZ twin models can aid the discovery of novel DNA methylation signals, even in a limited sample population. PMID:26043106

  8. Hypermethylation of serotonin transporter gene in bipolar disorder detected by epigenome analysis of discordant monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, H; Iwamoto, K; Bundo, M; Ueda, J; Miyauchi, T; Komori, A; Kazuno, A; Adati, N; Kusumi, I; Okazaki, Y; Ishigooka, J; Kojima, T; Kato, T

    2011-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mental disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. Serotonin transporter (HTT) is a target of antidepressants and is one of the strongest candidate molecules of mood disorder, however, genetic study showed equivocal results. Here, we performed promoter-wide DNA methylation analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from two pairs of monozygotic twins discordant for BD. To rule out the possible discordance of copy number variation (CNV) between twins, we performed CNV analysis and found the copy number profiles were nearly identical between the twin pairs except for immunoglobulin-related regions. Among the three genes we obtained as candidate regions showing distinct difference of DNA methylation between one of the two pairs, hypermethylation of SLC6A4, encoding HTT, in the bipolar twin was only confirmed by bisulfite sequencing. Then, promoter hypermethylation of SLC6A4 in LCLs of BD patients was confirmed in a case-control analysis. DNA methylation of SLC6A4 was significantly correlated with its mRNA expression level in individuals with the S/S genotype of HTTLPR, and mRNA expression level was lower in BD patients carrying the S/S genotype. Finally, DNA methylation of the same site was also higher in the postmortem brains of BD patients. This is the first study to report the role of epigenetic modification of SLC6A4 in BD using an unbiased approach, which provides an insight for its pathophysiology. PMID:22832526

  9. Neonatal morbidity in growth-discordant monochorionic twins: comparison between the larger and the smaller twin.

    PubMed

    Lopriore, Enrico; Sluimers, Carolien; Pasman, Suzanne A; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J

    2012-08-01

    Fetal growth restriction in singletons has been shown to enhance fetal lung maturation and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome due to increased endogenous steroid production. However, data on lung maturation in growth-discordant monochorionic (thus, identical) twins are lacking. Our objective was to compare the risk of severe neonatal morbidity between the larger and the smaller twin in monochorionic twins with birth weight discordance (BWD). We included in the study all consecutive monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies with severe BWD (≥25%) and two live-born twins delivered at our center (n=47 twin pairs). We compared the incidence of neonatal morbidity, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and cerebral lesions between the larger and the smaller co-twin. The incidence of severe neonatal morbidity in the larger and smaller twin was 38% (18/47) and 19% (9/47), respectively (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-7.44) and was due primarily to the higher incidence of RDS, 32% (15/47) and 6% (3/47), respectively (OR 6.88, 95% CI 1.66-32.83). In conclusion, this study shows that the larger twin in monochorionic twin pairs with BWD is at increased risk of severe neonatal morbidity, particularly RDS, compared to the smaller twin. PMID:22854118

  10. Gene expression differences in skin fibroblasts in identical twins discordant for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Caramori, M Luiza; Kim, Youngki; Moore, Jason H; Rich, Stephen S; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Kikyo, Nobuaki; Mauer, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Clinical studies suggest metabolic memory to hyperglycemia. We tested whether diabetes leads to persistent systematic in vitro gene expression alterations in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) compared with their monozygotic, nondiabetic twins. Microarray gene expression was determined in skin fibroblasts (SFs) of five twin pairs cultured in high glucose (HG) for ∼6 weeks. The Exploratory Visual Analysis System tested group differences in gene expression levels within KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways. An overabundance of differentially expressed genes was found in eight pathways: arachidonic acid metabolism (P = 0.003849), transforming growth factor-β signaling (P = 0.009167), glutathione metabolism (P = 0.01281), glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor (P = 0.01949), adherens junction (P = 0.03134), dorsal-ventral axis formation (P = 0.03695), proteasome (P = 0.04327), and complement and coagulation cascade (P = 0.04666). Several genes involved in epigenetic mechanisms were also differentially expressed. All differentially expressed pathways and all the epigenetically relevant differentially expressed genes have previously been related to HG in vitro or to diabetes and its complications in animal and human studies. However, this is the first in vitro study demonstrating diabetes-relevant gene expression differences between T1D-discordant identical twins. These SF gene expression differences, persistent despite the HG in vitro conditions, likely reflect "metabolic memory", and discordant identical twins thus represent an excellent model for studying diabetic epigenetic processes in humans. PMID:22315306

  11. A discordance between mtDNA diversity and blood-protein heterozygosity in Northern Siberian populations

    SciTech Connect

    Malyarchuk, B.A.

    1996-11-01

    Jorde et al. reported a discordance between mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA) sequence diversities among Africans, Asians, and Europeans. These authors noted that the degree of relatedness estimated for these groups, as displayed in neighbor-joining trees, differs depending on whether mtDNA or nDNA data are used. A similar discordance is observed between northern Siberian aboriginal populations. Among northern Asian peoples, the greatest degree of heterozygosity in blood-protein genes is found in the northernmost groups, with decreasing nDNA diversity at these loci in the more southerly groups. Thus, of 35 loci examined in Asiatic Eskimo, Chukchi, and Koryak individuals, 12 were found to be polymorphic: AcP*1, PGM*1, PGD, GPT, GLO*1 EsD, Hp, Pp, E*2 Gc, ABO, and PTC. The average heterozygosity of these groups, from northernmost to southernmost, is as follows: Eskimo (n =402), .333 {+-} .003; coastal Chukchi (n = 1,776), .329 {+-} .004; reindeer Chukchi (n = 559), .306 {+-} .007; and Kamchatkan Koryak (n = 675), .259 {+-} .006. These differences in heterozygosity value are significant (P < .01), except for the comparison of the Eskimo and coastal Chukchi data (P < .1). 7 refs.

  12. Glycolysis-induced discordance between glucose metabolic rates measured with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, R.F.; Lear, J.L. )

    1989-12-01

    We have developed an autoradiographic method for estimating the oxidative and glycolytic components of local CMRglc (LCMRglc), using sequentially administered ({sup 18}F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and ({sup 14}C)-6-glucose (GLC). FDG-6-phosphate accumulation is proportional to the rate of glucose phosphorylation, which occurs before the divergence of glycolytic (GMg) and oxidative (GMo) glucose metabolism and is therefore related to total cerebral glucose metabolism GMt: GMg + GMo = GMt. With oxidative metabolism, the {sup 14}C label of GLC is temporarily retained in Krebs cycle-related substrate pools. We hypothesize that with glycolytic metabolism, however, a significant fraction of the {sup 14}C label is lost from the brain via lactate production and efflux from the brain. Thus, cerebral GLC metabolite concentration may be more closely related to GMo than to GMt. If true, the glycolytic metabolic rate will be related to the difference between FDG- and GLC-derived LCMRglc. Thus far, we have studied normal awake rats, rats with limbic activation induced by kainic acid (KA), and rats visually stimulated with 16-Hz flashes. In KA-treated rats, significant discordance between FDG and GLC accumulation, which we attribute to glycolysis, occurred only in activated limbic structures. In visually stimulated rats, significant discordance occurred only in the optic tectum.

  13. Perinatal Outcome of Discordant Anomalous Twins: A Single-Center Experience in a Developing Country.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Tatiana R M M; Carvalho, Paulo R N; Flosi, Fernanda B; Baião, Ana Elisa R; Junior, Sant Claire G

    2016-08-01

    A dramatic increase in twin pregnancies has been observed in the past few decades, primarily related to assisted reproductive techniques (ART) and increased average maternal age during pregnancy. Multiple pregnancies, compared to singleton pregnancies, are associated with greater perinatal morbidity and mortality. The present study evaluated the perinatal outcomes of pregnancies with discordant anomalous twins in a tertiary maternity ward in a developing country. Data were retrospectively collected from the Instituto Fernandes Figueira/FIOCRUZ, Brazil between January 2002 and December 2014. We identified 74 twin pregnancies with discordant anomalous twins. Final data analysis was based on 40 pregnancies. Congenital defects were classified according to the International Classification of Diseases: ICD-10: the digestive system was responsible in 27 (34%) cases; the central nervous system was responsible in 18 (22%) cases; the urinary tract was responsible in 14 (17%) cases; and the circulatory system was responsible in 14 (17%) cases. A total of 19 deaths occurred during the study period, and delivery before 30.4 weeks was a significant prediction of fetal death (p = .01). The presence of hydrops in the affected fetus was related to a higher number of deaths in healthy fetuses and contributed to a worse prognosis. The presence of this condition was the cause of 12 (55.6%) deaths in healthy fetuses. A 10 times higher risk of death of a normal co-twin was observed in cases of death of the anomalous twin (p = .002, OR 10.55, 95% CI: 1.9-58.52). PMID:27321141

  14. Do Unions Matter? An Examination of the Historical and Contemporary Role of Labor Unions in the Social Work Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Jessica; Rosenberg, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    The attitudes among social workers toward labor unions are a topic of significance. Historically, social workers have had an ambivalent relationship with unions. This article analyzes the extent to which unions matter to social workers and whether unions represent the interests of professional social workers. The relationship between social work…

  15. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Lactic Acidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV medicines. All HIV medicines in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drug class may cause lactic acidosis, but ... some HIV medicines. HIV medicines in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drug class can cause the body to ...

  16. Regional Utilization of the Union Catalog of Medical Periodicals System

    PubMed Central

    Sprinkle, Michael D.

    1969-01-01

    This paper describes regional utilization of the Union Catalog of Medical Periodicals system and data base in producing union lists outside Metropolitan New York, the area served by the Union Catalog. A basic introduction to the Medical Library Center of New York's UCMP system is set forth, demonstrating the system's value in the production of such medical and paramedical union lists throughout the country. Several applications are then described, showing how these union lists were produced. PMID:5789816

  17. History and Status of the CIS Customs Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, T.M.; Erickson, S.A.

    1999-08-31

    This report explores the history of the CIS Customs Union and the major obstacles the Union faces in its implementation. Investigation of the Customs Union is necessary as its implementation could effect the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Program. Russian Customs contends that radiation detectors should not be installed along the Customs Union members borders of as the borders will be dissolved when the Union is implemented.

  18. Risk analysis. HIV / AIDS country profile: Mozambique.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    Mozambique's National STD/AIDS Control Program (NACP) estimates that, at present, about 8% of the population is infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The epidemic is expected to peak in 1997. By 2001, Mozambique is projected to have 1,650,000 HIV-positive adults 15-49 years of age, of whom 500,000 will have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 500,000 AIDS orphans. Incidence rates are highest in the country's central region, the transport corridors, and urban centers. The rapid spread of HIV has been facilitated by extreme poverty, the social upheaval and erosion of traditional norms created by years of political conflict and civil war, destruction of the primary health care infrastructure, growth of the commercial sex work trade, and labor migration to and from neighboring countries with high HIV prevalence. Moreover, about 10% of the adult population suffers from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including genital ulcers. NACP, created in 1988, is attempting to curb the further spread of HIV through education aimed at changing high-risk behaviors and condom distribution to prevent STD transmission. Theater performances and radio/television programs are used to reach the large illiterate population. The integration of sex education and STD/AIDS information in the curricula of primary and secondary schools and universities has been approved by the Ministry of Education. Several private companies have been persuaded to distribute condoms to their employees. Finally, the confidentiality of HIV patients has been guaranteed. In 1993, the total AIDS budget was US $1.67 million, 50% of which was provided by the European Union. The European Commission seeks to develop a national strategy for managing STDs within the primary health care system.

  19. Risk analysis. HIV / AIDS country profile: Mozambique.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    Mozambique's National STD/AIDS Control Program (NACP) estimates that, at present, about 8% of the population is infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The epidemic is expected to peak in 1997. By 2001, Mozambique is projected to have 1,650,000 HIV-positive adults 15-49 years of age, of whom 500,000 will have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 500,000 AIDS orphans. Incidence rates are highest in the country's central region, the transport corridors, and urban centers. The rapid spread of HIV has been facilitated by extreme poverty, the social upheaval and erosion of traditional norms created by years of political conflict and civil war, destruction of the primary health care infrastructure, growth of the commercial sex work trade, and labor migration to and from neighboring countries with high HIV prevalence. Moreover, about 10% of the adult population suffers from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including genital ulcers. NACP, created in 1988, is attempting to curb the further spread of HIV through education aimed at changing high-risk behaviors and condom distribution to prevent STD transmission. Theater performances and radio/television programs are used to reach the large illiterate population. The integration of sex education and STD/AIDS information in the curricula of primary and secondary schools and universities has been approved by the Ministry of Education. Several private companies have been persuaded to distribute condoms to their employees. Finally, the confidentiality of HIV patients has been guaranteed. In 1993, the total AIDS budget was US $1.67 million, 50% of which was provided by the European Union. The European Commission seeks to develop a national strategy for managing STDs within the primary health care system. PMID:12320532

  20. 75 FR 15573 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... access to that network if it becomes a bank. Likewise, some ATM networks limit their services to credit... merging into banks. The proposal also amends some of the existing regulatory procedures applicable to insured credit union mergers with other credit unions and conversions to banks. DATES: Comments must...

  1. This Union Cause: An Illustrated History of Labor Unions in America. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, Detroit, MI.

    This pamphlet on labor history highlights some of labor's economic and political actions during the past 200 years. The purpose is to provide inspiration and motivation for greater participation in union work. The introduction explains the purpose of unions--to pursue economic independence and social stature for all individuals--for defenseless…

  2. 78 FR 33445 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access For Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is issuing a Notice of Funding Opportunity (NOFO) to invite eligible credit unions to submit applications for participation in the OSCUI Grant Program (a.k.a. Community Development Revolving Loan Fund (CDRLF)), subject to funding availability. The OSCUI Grant Program serves as a source of financial support, in the form of technical assistance......

  3. Item-Level Discordance in Parent and Adolescent Reports of Parenting Behavior and Its Implications for Adolescents' Mental Health and Relationships with Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurizi, Laura K.; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of discordance between parents' and children's ratings of the child's mental health symptoms or of parenting behavior until recently has been treated as a problem of reliability. More recent work has sought to identify factors that may influence discordance, yet much remains to be learned about why informants' ratings of…

  4. A qualitative analysis of male couples' coping with HIV: Disentangling the "we".

    PubMed

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Comfort, Megan; Wood, Troy; Neilands, Torsten B; Johnson, Mallory O

    2016-10-01

    Research suggests that optimal couple functioning depends on adopting a "we" orientation to health. Using qualitative data from 20 male couples in which at least one partner was HIV-positive, we examined how couples viewed their health involvement and its relation to social support. One group described their health as highly interconnected; in a second group, at least one partner viewed health as a personal responsibility. Results revealed that there was not a uniform "we" approach toward health; rather, sero-concordance, sero-discordance, and coping with other chronic illnesses strongly contributed to orientations toward health. Orientations toward health were not found to determine social support.

  5. Nonmarital Fertility, Union History, and Women's Wealth.

    PubMed

    Painter, Matthew; Frech, Adrianne; Williams, Kristi

    2015-02-01

    We use more than 20 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to examine wealth trajectories among mothers following a nonmarital first birth. We compare wealth according to union type and union stability, and we distinguish partners by biological parentage of the firstborn child. Net of controls for education, race/ethnicity, and family background, single mothers who enter into stable marriages with either a biological father or stepfather experience significant wealth advantages over time (more than $2,500 per year) relative to those who marry and divorce, cohabit, or remain unpartnered. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for unequal selection into marriage support these findings and demonstrate that race (but not ethnicity) and age at first birth structure mothers' access to later marriage. We conclude that not all single mothers have equal access to marriage; however, marriage, union stability, and paternity have distinct roles for wealth accumulation following a nonmarital birth.

  6. Is there a physician union in your future?

    PubMed

    McGraw, S E; Rodriguez, T A

    1997-01-01

    Physician unions are in the news. Patient management and patient care decisions are increasingly being taken out of the hands of physicians and put into the hands of "The Suits." To take their case for a return to physician-driven patient care to the people, some physicians are joining unions. Some are even collectively bargaining for salary and other issues that are historically more closely associated with unions. The simple fact is that physician unions exist and the number of physicians joining them is expected to increase. What are the pros and cons of unionization? What motivates physicians to join unions, and what potential negative and positive factors are associated with physician unionization? This article reviews the pros and cons and the issues related to physician unions, for physicians attempting to answer the question, "Is there a union in my future?"

  7. [European Union fight against smoking related activitiy].

    PubMed

    Calvete Oliva, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This study is aimed at providing information concerning the provisions adopted by the European Union on both a compulsory and non-compulsory basis for its member States related in one way or another to the fight against smoking. To this end, a review is made of all of the provisions published in the Official Journal of the European Union as of the first published in 1986 up to March 2005, commenting upon the aspects of each provision having to do with the subject stated above.

  8. [Legalization of consensual unions in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pebley, A R; Goldman, N

    1986-01-01

    Data examined in this study are from the 1976 Mexican Fertility Survey. The authors review previous findings and compare information from this survey with data from the 1969 PECFAL Survey. They then examine the types of consensual union and factors such as women's age, educational status, occupation, premarital fertility, and rural or urban residence. The focus of the study is on the extent to which consensual unions eventually become legal marriages. The authors also investigate the increasing probability of termination of marriage through divorce or separation, especially in urban areas. PMID:12314402

  9. Attention Problems and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Discordant and Concordant Monozygotic Twins: Evidence of Environmental Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehn, Hanne; Derks, Eske M.; Hudziak, James J.; Heutink, Peter; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study familial and nonfamilial environmental influences on attention problems and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in monozygotic twins discordant and concordant-high and low for these traits. Method: Ninety-five twin pairs from The Netherlands Twin Register were selected. Longitudinal survey data were collected at 1,…

  10. Discordant hepatic uptake between Tc-99m sulfur colloid and Tc-99m DISIDA in hypervitaminosis A

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, L.M.; McCartney, W.H.; Mauro, M.A.; Davidson, R.A.

    1984-02-01

    Scintigraphic findings in a patient with biopsy-proven hypervitaminosis A included markedly impaired hepatic uptake of Tc-99m sulfur colloid but essentially normal uptake of Tc-99m DISIDA. This case presents a potential cause for image discordance with these two agents.

  11. Copy number detection in discordant monozygotic twins of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) and Esophageal Atresia (EA) cohorts.

    PubMed

    Veenma, Danielle; Brosens, Erwin; de Jong, Elisabeth; van de Ven, Cees; Meeussen, Connie; Cohen-Overbeek, Titia; Boter, Marjan; Eussen, Hubertus; Douben, Hannie; Tibboel, Dick; de Klein, Annelies

    2012-03-01

    The occurrence of phenotypic differences between monozygotic (MZ) twins is commonly attributed to environmental factors, assuming that MZ twins have a complete identical genetic make-up. Yet, recently several lines of evidence showed that both genetic and epigenetic factors could have a role in phenotypic discordance after all. A high occurrence of copy number variation (CNV) differences was observed within MZ twin pairs discordant for Parkinson's disease, thereby stressing on the importance of post-zygotic mutations as disease-predisposing events. In this study, the prevalence of discrepant CNVs was analyzed in discordant MZ twins of the Esophageal Atresia (EA) and Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) cohort in the Netherlands. Blood-derived DNA from 11 pairs (7 EA and 4 CDH) was screened using high-resolution SNP arrays. Results showed an identical copy number profile in each twin pair. Mosaic chromosome gain or losses could not be detected either with a detection threshold of 20%. Some of the germ-line structural events demonstrated in five out of eleven twin pairs could function as a susceptible genetic background. For example, the 177-Kb loss of chromosome 10q26 in CDH pair-3 harbors the TCF7L2 gene (Tcf4 protein), which is implicated in the regulation of muscle fiber type development and maturation. In conclusion, discrepant CNVs are not a common cause of twin discordancy in these investigated congenital anomaly cohorts. PMID:22071887

  12. Self-Reported Peer Victimization: Concordance and Discordance between Measures of Bullying and Peer Aggression among Swedish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellström, Lisa; Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined concordance and discordance between a measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression with respect to the number of students identified as victims. Swedish adolescents (N = 1,760) completed a web-based questionnaire. A measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression were compared in order to elucidate the unique…

  13. Practice Parameter on Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual Sexual Orientation, Gender Nonconformity, and Gender Discordance in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medicus, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents who are growing up gay, lesbian, bisexual, gender nonconforming, or gender discordant experience unique developmental challenges. They are at risk for certain mental health problems, many of which are significantly correlated with stigma and prejudice. Mental health professionals have an important role to play in fostering…

  14. Self-efficacy as a mediator of the relationship between perceived union barriers and women's participation in union activities.

    PubMed

    Bulger, C A; Mellor, S

    1997-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of union self-efficacy (expectations of success in pursuit of union activities) as a mediator of the relationship between perceptions of barriers to union participation and women's participation in union activities (N = 89). Perceived barriers were defined in 4 domains (community, family, union, work), and self-efficacy was operationalized based on C. Lee and P. Bobko's (1994) analysis of self-efficacy measures (self-efficacy magnitude, self-efficacy strength). Union self-efficacy was found to mediate the relationship between the magnitude of perceived union barriers and the magnitude of union participation, although mediation was limited to women with weak union self-efficacy. Implications for designing training and intervention programs to enhance women's participation in the face of perceived barriers are discussed.

  15. Discordance of exercise thallium testing with coronary arteriography in patients with atypical presentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bungo, M. W.; Leland, O. S., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Eighty-one patients with diagnostically difficult clinical presentations suggesting coronary artery disease underwent symptom-limited maximal-exercise treadmill testing (ETT) and exercise radionuclide scanning with thallium-201 followed by coronary angiography. Results showed that in nearly half of the patients (47%) these tests were in agreement, while either exercise thallium or ETT was positive in 94% of patients with coronary artery disease. It was found that agreement between exercise thallium and ETT tests predicted disease in 92% of the instances or excluded disease in 82% of the instances. It is concluded that despite frequent discord between these two tests in 53% of the cases, a significant gain in exclusive diagnostic capability is realized when applied to a patient population anticipated to have a disease prevalence equal to the 67% encountered in this study.

  16. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of Clostridium difficile infection in patients with discordant diagnostic test results.

    PubMed

    Kaltsas, Anna; Simon, Matt; Unruh, Larissa H; Son, Crystal; Wroblewski, Danielle; Musser, Kimberlee A; Sepkowitz, Kent; Babady, N Esther; Kamboj, Mini

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients with discordant test results for the cytotoxin assay (CYT) and PCR assays. A retrospective study from May to August 2008 and March to May 2010 was performed. CDI was diagnosed in 128 patients. PCR increased the yield of C. difficile cases by 2-fold compared to that of the CYT assay. Fifty-six cases (44%) were detected by PCR only (CYT negative). Forty-nine percent of patients with non-NAP1 strains were detected by PCR only, compared to 28% of those infected with NAP1 strains (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found in the clinical severity of illness and outcome among patients that tested positive for CDI by both tests (CYT and PCR) compared to those that tested positive by PCR only. PMID:22238444

  17. Discordant pattern of BRCA1 gene epimutation in blood between mothers and daughters.

    PubMed

    Wojdacz, Tomasz K; Harari, Florencia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2015-07-01

    Methylation of the promoter of BRCA1 gene in peripheral blood (epimutation) has been associated with increased risk for breast cancer. Some studies have indicated that this epimutation is of constitutional origin and hence it could potentially be transmitted across generations. We used methylation sensitive high resolution melting technique to measure methylation of BRCA1 promoter in blood samples from 226 healthy women from the Andean region in Salta province, northern Argentina. In total 29 (13%) of the women showed detectable methylation of this gene. The analyses of mother-daughter pairs in this study, showed discordant methylation of BRCA1 between generations, with mothers tested positive for BRCA1 methylation in blood having daughters without signs of BRCA1 methylation, and vice versa. Our results show that the BRCA1 epimutation is unlikely transmitted from mother to daughters and hence may be a consequence of environmental exposure. PMID:25878326

  18. Benign neck masses showing restricted diffusion: Is there a histological basis for discordant behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Das, Abanti; Bhalla, Ashu S; Sharma, Raju; Kumar, Atin; Sharma, Meher; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Thakar, Alok; Sharma, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) evolved as a complementary tool to morphologic imaging by offering additional functional information about lesions. Although the technique utilizes movement of water molecules to characterize biological tissues in terms of their cellularity, there are other factors related to the histological constitution of lesions which can have a significant bearing on DWI. Benign lesions with atypical histology including presence of lymphoid stroma, inherently increased cellularity or abundant extracellular collagen can impede movement of water molecules similar to malignant tissues and thereby, show restricted diffusion. Knowledge of these atypical entities while interpreting DWI in clinical practice can avoid potential misdiagnosis. This review aims to present an imaging spectrum of such benign neck masses which, owing to their distinct histology, can show discordant behavior on DWI. PMID:26981226

  19. Discordance in recovery between altered locomotion and muscle atrophy induced by simulated microgravity in rats.

    PubMed

    Tajino, Junichi; Ito, Akira; Nagai, Momoko; Zhang, Xiangkai; Yamaguchi, Shoki; Iijima, Hirotaka; Aoyama, Tomoki; Kuroki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to a microgravity environment leads to adverse effects in motion and musculoskeletal properties. However, few studies have investigated the recovery of altered locomotion and muscle atrophy simultaneously. The authors investigated altered locomotion in rats submitted to simulated microgravity by hindlimb unloading for 2 weeks. Motion deficits were characterized by hyperextension of the knees and ankle joints and forward-shifted limb motion. Furthermore, these locomotor deficits did not revert to their original form after a 2-week recovery period, although muscle atrophy in the hindlimbs had recovered, implying discordance in recovery between altered locomotion and muscle atrophy, and that other factors such as neural drives might control behavioral adaptations to microgravity. PMID:25789843

  20. U-Th-Pb age of the Barwell chondrite - Anatomy of a 'discordant' meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, D. M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Hutchison, R.

    1979-01-01

    A Pb-Pb internal isochron for the Barwell L5-6 chondrite yields an age of 4.530 plus or minus 0.005 billion years, using the measured U-238/U-235 ratio of 135.24 plus or minus .17. If the terrestrial U isotope composition is used, an age of 4.559 billion years is obtained. The Pb isotopic composition is distinctly different from that of a terrestrial contaminant found in the fusion crust of the Barwell stone. When the U-Th-Pb data are plotted on the concordia diagram, the data define a line that intersects the concordia curve at approximately 4.53 and 0 billion years, and nearly all of the data plot above the concordia curve, regardless of the initial Pb correction. This discordancy and the Pb isotopic composition of the triolite are attributed to a recent reequilibration of Pb and not to terrestrial contamination.