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Sample records for hiv discordant unions

  1. Experience of sexual violence among women in HIV discordant unions after voluntary HIV counselling and testing

    PubMed Central

    Emusu, Donath; Ivankova, Nataliya; Jolly, Pauline; Kirby, Russell; Foushee, Herman; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Katongole, Drake; Ehiri, John

    2009-01-01

    HIV-serodiscordant relationships are those in which one partner is infected with HIV while the other is not. We investigated experiences of sexual violence among women in HIV discordant unions attending HIV post-test club services in Uganda. A volunteer sample of 26 women from three AIDS Information Centres in Uganda who reported having experienced sexual violence in a larger epidemiological study were interviewed, using the qualitative critical incident technique. Data were analysed using TEXTPACK, a software application for computer-assisted content analysis. Incidents of sexual violence narrated by the women included use of physical force and verbal threats. Overall, four themes that characterise the women’s experience of sexual violence emerged from the analysis: knowledge of HIV test results, prevalence of sexual violence, vulnerability and proprietary views and reactions to sexual violence. Alcohol abuse by the male partners was an important factor in the experience of sexual violence among the women. Their experiences evoked different reactions and feelings, including concern over the need to have children, fear of infection, desire to separate from their spouses/partners, helplessness, anger and suicidal tendencies. HIV counselling and testing centres should be supported with the capacity to address issues related to sexual violence for couples who are HIV discordant. PMID:20024712

  2. Sexual violence and associated factors among women in HIV discordant and concordant relationships in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Shuaib, Faisal M B; Ehiri, John E; Jolly, Pauline; Zhang, Qionghui; Emusu, Donath; Ngu, Julius; Foushee, Herman; Katongole, Drake; Kirby, Russell; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred

    2012-01-01

    HIV serodiscordance is a sexual partnership in which one partner is infected with HIV while the other is not. Managing emotional and sexual intimacy in HIV serodiscordant unions can be difficult due to concerns about HIV transmission and the challenge of initiating and maintaining safe sex. In situations where couples are jointly aware of their HIV status, women in serodiscordant unions may face increased risk of partner violence. We conducted an investigation to assess risk factors for HIV serodiscordance and determine if HIV serodiscordance is associated with incident sexual violence among a cohort of women attending HIV post-test club services at three AIDS Information Centers (AICs) in Uganda. Using a prospective study of 250 women, we elicited information about sexual violence using structured face-to-face interviews. Sexual violence and risk factors were assessed and compared among HIV positive women in HIV discordant unions, HIV negative women in discordant unions, and HIV negative women in negative concordant unions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between participants' serostatus and sexual violence. HIV negative women in serodiscordant relationships (36.1±11.1 years, range: 19-65 years) were significantly older than either HIV positive women in serodiscordant relationships (32.2±9.0 years, range: 18-56 years), or HIV negative women in concordant relationships (32.3±11.0 years, range: 18-62), (p=0.033). Early age at sexual debut was associated with a 2.4-fold increased risk of experiencing sexual violence (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.27-4.65). Based on unadjusted analysis, HIV positive women in discordant relationship were at highest risk for sexual violence compared to HIV negative women in discordant unions, and HIV negative women in negative concordant unions. HIV negative women in discordant relationships and those in concordant negative relationships showed no increased risk for sexual violence. However, couples' HIV

  3. Sexually Transmitted Infections among HIV-1-Discordant Couples

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Brandon L.; Kiarie, James N.; Morrison, Susan; John-Stewart, Grace C.; Kinuthia, John; Whittington, William L. H.; Farquhar, Carey

    2009-01-01

    Introduction More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples. Methods HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI. Results Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11%) females and 30 (7%) males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9%) and syphilis (2.6%). Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01), and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01) and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01). Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01). Conclusions Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519 PMID:20011596

  4. Should HIV discordant couples have access to assisted reproductive technologies?

    PubMed Central

    Spriggs, M; Charles, T

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we identify and evaluate arguments for and against offering assisted reproductive technologies (ART), specifically IVF, to HIV discordant couples (male partner HIV positive, female partner HIV negative). The idea of offering ART to HIV discordant couples generates concerns about safety and public health and raises questions such as: what is an acceptable level of risk to offspring and should couples who want this assistance be subject to selection criteria; should they undergo scrutiny about their suitability as parents when those who are able to conceive naturally face no such scrutiny and people with other illnesses are given access to ART? We conclude that offering ART to HIV discordant couples is likely to produce more benefit than harm and violates no ethical principles. Nevertheless, a decision to deny treatment need not constitute unjustified discrimination. PMID:14662810

  5. “I Do Not Take My Medicine while Hiding” - A Longitudinal Qualitative Assessment of HIV Discordant Couples’ Beliefs in Discordance and ART as Prevention in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    King, Rachel; Kim, Jiho; Nanfuka, Mastula; Shafic, Murisho; Nyonyitono, Maureen; Galenda, Florence; Moore, David

    2017-01-01

    Background HIV negative members of serostatus discordant couples are at high risk for HIV acquisition, but few interventions are in place to target them in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods In this study, we interviewed 28 couples, 3 times over a period of one year to understand their perceptions and attitudes around discordance, their relationship dynamics, their HIV risk behaviour, their beliefs and attitudes about antiretroviral therapy (ART) and their views of the community perceptions of discordance and treatment for HIV. Results Findings revealed that at baseline there were multiple complex explanations and interpretations about discordance among discordant couples and their surrounding community. Shifts in beliefs and attitudes about discordance, HIV risk reduction and ART over time were enabled through re-testing negative members of discordant couples and repeat counselling but some beliefs remain solidly embedded in cultural imperatives of the importance of childbearing as well as culturally determined and enforced gender roles. Conclusions Interventions that aim to target discordant couples must embrace the complex and dynamic understandings of HIV diagnosis and treatment in context of fluid relationships, and changing beliefs about HIV risk and treatment. PMID:28081158

  6. Discordance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, I. M.; Hanchar, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Half a century ago, discordant U-Pb ages of metamorphic zircon were viewed as Pb loss by diffusion. Various diffusionist schools of thought debated vigorously whether diffusion was episodic or continuous [1], but nobody questioned the reality of diffusive Pb loss. Only imaging by cathodoluminescence (CL) [2] and back-scattered electrons (BSE) [3] brought a paradigm change in U-Pb geochronology. In situ dating shows routinely accretion of young zircon rims onto older cores that never display Pb diffusion gradients across the interface. Other minerals (monazite, xenotime, etc.) show the same pattern: irregular patches of uniform age separated by sharp age gradients coinciding with petrologic boundaries. As U-Pb discordance is caused by diachronous, heterochemical mineral generations, zircon and monazite closure temperatures, and strict diffusionism, are irrelevant [4]. Knowing what to pay attention to, analytical protocols for U-Pb dating include both of the following: (i) CL/BSE characterization of phase mixtures; (ii) mass spectrometric analysis including U/Th ratios (and ideally trace element fingerprinting on the same fraction [5]). It is clear that the petrologic context is just as essential as mass spectrometry for accurate geochronology. The K-Ar community rarely uses imaging, and the tight context between microstructures, mineral chemistry, petrology and geochronology is missed. Yet the data would be clear if one looked for it. CL and/or BSE imaging and X-ray mapping of K-feldspar and micas is finding ubiquitous evidence of discrete patches of juxtaposed mineral generations. The Ca/Cl/K ratios in 39Ar-40Ar dating fulfill the same role as U/Th ratios in U-Pb dating for fingerprinting successive heterochemical mineral generations. Any linear correlation in a common-denominator three-isotope correlation diagram is certain evidence of binary mixing between heterochemical end-members. A correlation in a Ca/K vs Ar/K diagram requires two minerals having different

  7. The prevalence of HSV-2 infection in HIV-1 discordant couples.

    PubMed

    Duan, S; Ding, Y; Wu, Z; Rou, K; Yang, Y; Wang, J; Gao, M; Ye, R; Xiang, L; He, N

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of HSV-2 discordance and concordance in HIV-1-discordant couples. This study used the baseline data from a cohort study of HIV-1-discordant couples in Dehong prefecture of Yunnan province, China. Of 954 participating couples, 42·4% were affected by HSV-2, of which 20·4% were HSV-2-concordant positive, 7·6% were HSV-2-discordant where the male was HSV-2 positive, and 14·4% were HSV-2 discordant where the female was HSV-2 positive. Compared to HSV-2-negative concordance, HSV-2 discordance with an HSV-2-positive male spouse was significantly associated with characteristics of the male spouse, including Han ethnicity and being in a second marriage. HSV-2 discordance with an HSV-2-positive female spouse was significantly associated with characteristics of the female spouse, including Han ethnicity, having engaged in commercial sex, having a sexual relationship of <3 years and being HIV-1 infected. Compared to HSV-2 discordance, HSV-2-positive concordance was significantly associated with an education level of middle school or higher for both spouses, a sexual relationship of ⩾3 years, more frequent sex and having an HIV-1-infected male spouse. The findings highlight the need for HSV-2 prevention and treatment efforts to reduce HSV-2 transmission in this population, and emphasize the importance of implementing prevention interventions early in couples' relationships.

  8. HIV and HCV discordant injecting partners and their association to drug equipment sharing.

    PubMed

    De, Prithwish; Cox, Joseph; Boivin, Jean-Francois; Platt, Robert W; Jolly, Ann M; Alexander, Paul E

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between HIV and HCV discordant infection status and the sharing of drug equipment by injection drug users (IDUs). IDUs were recruited from syringe exchange and methadone treatment programmes in Montreal, Canada. Characteristics of participants and their injecting partners were elicited using a structured questionnaire. Among 159 participants and 245 injecting partners, sharing of syringes and drug preparation equipment did not differ between concordant or discordant partners, although HIV-positive subjects did not share with HIV-negative injectors. Sharing of syringes was positively associated with discordant HIV status (OR=1.85) and negatively with discordant HCV status (OR=0.65), but both results were not statistically significant. Sharing of drug preparation equipment was positively associated with both discordant HIV (OR=1.61) and HCV (OR=1.18) status, but both results were non-significant. Factors such as large injecting networks, frequent mutual injections, younger age, and male gender were stronger predictors of equipment sharing. In conclusion, IDUs do not appear to discriminate drug equipment sharing partners based at least on their HCV infection status. The results warrant greater screening to raise awareness of infection status, post-test counselling to promote status disclosure among partners, and skill-building to avoid equipment sharing between discordant partners.

  9. Antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission in HIV-discordant couples

    PubMed Central

    Anglemyer, Andrew; Rutherford, George W; Horvath, Tara; Baggaley, Rachel C; Egger, Matthias; Siegfried, Nandi

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral drugs have been shown to reduce risk of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are also widely used for post-exposure prophylaxis for parenteral and sexual exposures. Sexual transmission may be lower in couples in which one partner is infected with HIV and the other is not and the infected partner is on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Objectives To determine if ART use in an HIV-infected member of an HIV-discordant couple is associated with lower risk of HIV transmission to the uninfected partner compared to untreated discordant couples. Search methods We used standard Cochrane methods to search electronic databases and conference proceedings with relevant search terms without limits to language. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCT), cohort studies and case-control studies of HIV-discordant couples in which the HIV-infected member of the couple was being treated or not treated with ART Data collection and analysis Abstracts of all trials identified by electronic or bibliographic scanning were examined independently by two authors. We initially identified 3,833 references and examined 87 in detail for study eligibility. Data were abstracted independently using a standardised abstraction form. Main results One RCT and nine observational studies were included in the review. These ten studies identified 2,112 episodes of HIV transmission, 1,016 among treated couples and 1,096 among untreated couples. The rate ratio for the single randomised controlled trial was 0.04 [95% CI 0.00, 0.27]. All index partners in this study had CD4 cell counts at baseline of 350–550 cells/µL. Similarly, the summary rate ratio for the nine observational studies was 0.58 [95% CI 0.35, 0.96], with substantial heterogeneity (I2=64%). After excluding two studies with inadequate person-time data, we estimated a summary rate ratio of 0.36 [95%CI 0.17, 0.75] with substantial heterogeneity (I2=62%). We also performed

  10. Can the Catholic Church agree to condom use by HIV-discordant couples?

    PubMed

    Bovens, L

    2009-12-01

    Does the position of the Roman Catholic Church on contraception also imply that the usage of condoms by HIV-discordant couples is illicit? A standard argument is to appeal to the doctrine of double effect to condone such usage, but this meets with the objection that there exists an alternative action that brings about the good effect-namely, abstinence. I argue against this objection, because an HIV-discordant couple does not bring about any bad outcome through condom usage-there is no disrespect displayed for the generative function of sex. One might retort that the badness of condom usage consists in thwarting the unitive function of sex. I argue that also this objection cannot be upheld. In conclusion, if there are no in-principle objections against condom usage for HIV-discordant couples, then policies that deny access to condoms to such couples are indefensible. HIV-discordant couples have a right to continue consummating their marriage in a manner that is minimally risky and this right cannot be trumped by utilitarian concerns that the distribution of condoms might increase promiscuity and along with it the HIV infection rate.

  11. Relation of cerebrospinal fluid/plasma HIV-RNA discordance with neurocognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Graciela; López-González, M; Monzón-Falconi, J F; Soto-Hernández, J L; Perales-Martínez, D; López-Vejar, C

    2015-01-01

    Neurological involvement is common in patients infected with HIV. The effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs in lowering the levels of HIV-RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is limited by their inability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Discordance in CSF/plasma HIV-RNA levels may have a bearing on the progression of neurological disease in these patients. We report a woman with subacute neurocognitive impairment and abnormal findings on brain MRI, in whom there was a discordance between CSF/plasma HIV-RNA levels. The patient improved after a change in her highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. We also reviewed the available literature on the subject and found seven articles describing 27 patients.

  12. Antiretroviral Therapy Reduces HIV Transmission in Discordant Couples in Rural Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Na; Duan, Song; Ding, Yingying; Rou, Keming; McGoogan, Jennifer M.; Jia, Manhong; Yang, Yuecheng; Wang, Jibao; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Wu, Zunyou

    2013-01-01

    Background Although HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) via early antiretroviral therapy (ART) has proven to reduce transmissions among HIV-serodiscordant couples, its full implementation in developing countries remains a challenge. In this study, we determine whether China's current HIV treatment program prevents new HIV infections among discordant couples in rural China. Methods A prospective, longitudinal cohort study was conducted from June 2009 to March 2011, in rural Yunnan. A total of 1,618 HIV-discordant couples were eligible, 1,101 were enrolled, and 813 were followed for an average of 1.4 person-years (PY). Routine ART was prescribed to HIV-positive spouses according to eligibility (CD4<350 cells/µl). Seroconversion was used to determine HIV incidence. Results A total of 17 seroconversions were documented within 1,127 PY of follow-up, for an overall incidence of 1.5 per 100 PY. Epidemiological and genetic evidence confirmed that all 17 seroconverters were infected via marital secondary sexual transmission. Having an ART-experienced HIV-positive partner was associated with a lower rate of seroconvertion compared with having an ART-naïve HIV-positive partner (0.8 per 100 PY vs. 2.4 per 100 PY, HR = 0.34, 95%CI = 0.12–0.97, p = 0.0436). While we found that ART successfully suppressed plasma viral load to <400 copies/ml in the majority of cases (85.0% vs. 19.5%, p<0.0001 at baseline), we did document five seroconversions among ART-experienced subgroup. Conclusions ART is associated with a 66% reduction in HIV incidence among discordant couples in our sample, demonstrating the effectiveness of China's HIV treatment program at preventing new infections, and providing support for earlier ART initiation and TasP implementation in this region. PMID:24236010

  13. Enhancing acceptability and use of sexual barrier products among HIV concordant and discordant couples.

    PubMed

    Jones, Deborah; Kashy, Deborah; Villar-Loubet, Olga; Weiss, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Strategies to prevent HIV transmission may benefit from addressing both individual and dyadic factors. This study compared the impact of group and individual interventions on the acceptability of sexual barrier products among HIV sero-concordant and discordant couples, and evaluated the contribution of couple members' perceived product acceptability to their sexual barrier use. Participants (n = 216 couples) were multicultural couples in Miami, Florida. Longitudinal multilevel modeling and the actor-partner interdependence model were used for analyses. Product acceptability increased more among female group participants, and acceptability of male condoms increased more among sero-discordant couples in the group. Additionally, acceptability of products associated with prevention of STDS/HIV and pregnancy increased more among sero-concordant couples in the group condition. Both actor and partner product acceptability predicted use. Results support the use of group interventions targeting both partners in relationships in prevention programs designed to enhance sexual barrier use.

  14. Hormonal contraception does not increase women's HIV acquisition risk in Zambian discordant couples, 1994–2012

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Kristin M.; Kilembe, William; Vwalika, Bellington; Khu, Naw Htee; Brill, Ilene; Chomba, Elwyn; Johnson, Brent A.; Haddad, Lisa; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of hormonal contraceptive methods on risk of HIV acquisition among HIV-negative women cohabiting with HIV-positive male partners. Study design From 1994–2012, HIV discordant couples recruited from a couples’ voluntary HIV counseling and testing center in Lusaka, Zambia were followed longitudinally. HIV-negative partners were tested quarterly. This analysis is restricted to couples in which the man was HIV-positive and the woman was HIV-negative at enrollment and the man was not on antiretroviral treatment. Multivariate Cox models evaluated associations between time-varying contraceptive methods and HIV acquisition among women. Sensitivity analyses explored exposure misclassification and time-varying confounder mediation. Results Among 1393 couples, 252 incident infections occurred in women over 2842 couple-years (8.9 infections per 100 couple-years; 95% CI, 7.8–10.0). Multivariate Cox models indicated that neither injectable [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=1.2; 95% CI, 0.8–1.7], oral contraceptive pill (OCP, aHR=1.3; 95% CI, 0.9–1.8), or implant (aHR=1.1; 95% CI, 0.5–2.2) use was significantly associated with HIV acquisition relative to non-hormonal contraception controlling for woman's age, literacy and time-varying measures of genital ulceration/inflammation. This remained true when only looking at the subset of infections acquired from the spouse (82% of infections) and additionally controlling for baseline HIV viral load of the male partner, pregnancy status, and time-varying measures of sperm on a vaginal swab wet prep and self-reported unprotected sex. OCP and injectable users reported more unprotected sex (p<.001), and OCP users were more likely to have sperm on vaginal swab (p=.1) than nonhormonal method users. Conclusions We found no association between hormonal contraception and HIV acquisition risk in women. Condom use and reinforced condom counseling should always be recommended for HIV discordant couples. HIV

  15. Characteristics of Age-discordant Partnerships Associated with HIV Risk Among Young South African Women (HPTN 068)

    PubMed Central

    Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Hughes, James P.; Jennings, Larissa; MacPhail, Catherine; Williamson, Brian; Selin, Amanda; Kathleen, Kahn; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Pettifor, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sexual liaisons between older men and younger women have been linked to greater risk of HIV acquisition. This study aims to: 1) identify psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with age-discordant (partner ≥ 5 years older) versus age-concordant partnerships (−1discordance and young South African women’s sexual behavior. Methods We used generalized estimating equations to analyze responses from 656 sexually-experienced females (aged 13-20 years) from rural Mpumalanga province. Results Partner age discordance was associated with greater odds of reporting both more frequent sex (adjusted odd ratio [aOR] = 1.77, 95% CI 1.20-2.60) and having a partner with concurrent partnerships (aOR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.22-2.57). Age-discordant partnerships were associated with greater odds of: casual partnerships (aOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.06-2.13), having a partner with concurrent partnerships (aOR 1.71, 95% CI 1.19-2.46) and more frequent intercourse (i.e., having sex at least 2 or 3 times per month) (aOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.39-3.00). They were associated with lower odds of reporting condom use at last sex (aOR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.98) and always using condoms (aOR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-0.88) in age-discordant partnerships. Conclusion Our findings suggest that a history of age-discordant partnerships, and to a lesser extent having an age-discordant partner, is linked to HIV risk among young South African women; however, the link between partner age discordance and HIV risk may be more strongly related to the characteristics of age-discordant partnerships than to characteristics of young women who form such partnerships. PMID:26977748

  16. Qualitative Analysis of an Educational Intervention with HIV-Discordant Heterosexual Latino Couples

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This qualitative analysis elucidates the potential elements of the intervention that may be effective in terms of a) increasing knowledge about HIV/AIDS in the members of this population; b) increasing the use of male condoms and the practice of mutual masturbation; and c) changing opinions toward male condom use and mutual masturbation. Methods Five heterosexual HIV-discordant couples participated in the adapted intervention, which consisted of four three-hour-long sessions. One month after the intervention, we conducted a qualitative semi-structured interview with every participant to evaluate issues related to the process and content of the activities comprising the intervention, the impact of the intervention, logistics, and recruitment and retention as well as to make a more general evaluation. The information was submitted to qualitative content analysis. Results After the intervention, participants reported having better attitudes regarding safer sex, particularly in terms of condom use. A reason given by the participants to feel more positive toward condom use and mutual masturbation was that these practices could prevent the infection of the HIV-negative partner. Conclusion This study provides important evidence of an intervention that promises to be efficacious in preventing some high-risk sexual behaviors among Latino HIV-discordant heterosexual couples. The evidence presented seems to suggest that an intervention that includes basic relevant information about HIV/AIDS, that explains the benefits of condom use and other safer sex options, and that provides effective negotiation and communication strategies could significantly reduce HIV transmission among these couples. PMID:22263299

  17. Effectiveness of semen washing to prevent HIV transmission and assist pregnancy in HIV-discordant couples: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zafer, Maryam; Horvath, Hacsi; Mmeje, Okeoma; van der Poel, Sheryl; Semprini, Augusto; Rutherford, George; Brown, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of semen washing in HIV-discordant couples in which the male partner is infected Design Systematic review and meta-analysis Setting All countries Patient(s) Forty single-arm, open label studies among HIV-discordant couples that underwent intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using washed semen Intervention(s) Semen washing followed by IUI, IVF, or IVF/ICSI Main outcome measure(s) Primary outcome: HIV transmission to HIV-uninfected women; secondary outcomes: HIV transmission to newborns and proportion of couples achieving a clinical pregnancy Result(s) No HIV transmission occurred in 11,585 cycles of assisted reproduction using washed semen among 3,994 women (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0–0.0001). Among the subset of HIV-infected men without plasma viral suppression at the time of semen washing, no HIV seroconversions occurred among 1,023 women following 2,863 cycles of assisted reproduction using washed semen (95%CI= 0–0.0006). Studies that measured HIV transmission to infants reported no cases of vertical transmission (0/1,026, 95% CI= 0–0.0029). Overall, 56.3% (2,357/4,184, 95%CI=54.8%–57.8%) of couples achieved a clinical pregnancy using washed semen. Conclusion(s) Semen washing appears to significantly reduce the risk of transmission in HIV-discordant couples desiring children, regardless of viral suppression in the male partner. There are no randomized, controlled studies or studies from low-income countries, especially those with a large burden of HIV. Continued development of lower-cost semen washing and assisted reproduction technologies is needed. Integration of semen washing into HIV prevention interventions could help further reduce the spread of HIV. PMID:26688556

  18. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E.; Campbell, Chadwick K.; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City—a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP. PMID:26057304

  19. Attitudes Towards PrEP and Anticipated Condom Use Among Concordant HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Colleen C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Bircher, Anja E; Campbell, Chadwick K; Grisham, Kirk; Neilands, Torsten B; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari

    2015-07-01

    Since the July 2012 approval by the FDA of emtricitabine/ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada) for use as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV, its feasibility and acceptability has been under study. HIV-discordant couples are likely targets for PrEP but little is known about how this new prevention tool impacts relationships. We examined, among gay male couples, the acceptability of individual and partner use of PrEP and intentions to use condoms with primary and outside partners in the context of PrEP use. Data are from two independent samples of couples recruited in the San Francisco bay area and New York City-a qualitative one (N=48 couples) between March and November, 2011, and a quantitative one (N=171 couples) between June, 2012 and May, 2013. Data were categorized by couple HIV status and general linear models; chi-square tests of independence were used to examine condom-use intentions with primary and outside partners, by sexual risk profile, and race. Almost half of the HIV-negative couples felt PrEP was a good HIV prevention strategy for themselves and their partner. Over half reported that they would not change their current condom use if they or their partner were taking PrEP. However, approximately 30% of HIV-negative couples reported that they would stop using condoms or use them less with primary and outside partners if they were on PrEP or if their partner was on PrEP. A large percentage of couples view PrEP positively. However, to ensure safety for both partners, future programing must consider those who intend not to use condoms while on PrEP.

  20. Ethical Dilemma and Management of Infertility in HIV Seropositive Discordant Couples: A Case Study in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Umeora, Ouj; Chukwuneke, Fn

    2013-01-01

    The traditional African society places an invaluable premium on procreation and, in some communities, a woman's place in her matrimony is only confirmed on positive reproductive outcome. Infertility is rife in Nigeria, and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection is a global pandemic, which has led to a drop in life expectancy across the world. In Nigeria, a number of cultural norms relating to gender roles and power dynamics constitute a serious barrier to issues of sexuality and infertility. Couples are concerned about their infertility diagnostic test being disclosed to each other, especially before marriage. This concern is understandable, especially in an environment that lacks the modern concepts and attitude toward sexual matters. This is complicated by the advent of HIV/AIDS infection and the societal mind-set that look at seropostive individuals as transgressors. At present, sexual and reproductive health rights are currently not in place because ethical issues are not given prominence by many physicians in Nigeria. A case of an infertile and seropostive discordant couple, which raised a lot of medical and ethical concerns, is presented here to awaken the consciousness of Nigerian physicians and stimulate discussions on the ethical matters such as this in clinical practice.

  1. Factors Associated with Immunological Discordance in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy with Complete Viral Suppression in a Resource-Limited Setting.

    PubMed

    Mingbunjerdsuk, Pornpimol; Asdamongkol, Nakhon; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek

    2015-01-01

    "Immunological discordance," i.e., immunological failure despite complete viral suppression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), is associated with increased risk of AIDS or death. To evaluate risk factors for immunological discordance in a resource-limited setting in which patients usually present late with low CD4 cell counts, we conducted a case-control study among HIV-infected patients receiving ART and having undetectable HIV RNA. The study included patients with immunological discordance (cases), which was defined as CD4 cell count < 30% above baseline and absolute CD4 cell count < 200 cells/mm(3) at the first 12 months of undetectable HIV RNA (<50 copies/mL). Patients without immunological discordance were included as controls. Of 142 patients (44 cases; 98 controls), the mean age was 38.6 ± 9.4 years and 67.6% were men; 65.5% had history of opportunistic infections. In multivariate analysis, only baseline CD4 cell count < 100 cells/mm(3) (odd ratio [OR], 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-6.14; P = 0.040) and history of lost to follow-up (OR, 11.04; 95% CI, 2.87-42.46; P < 0.001) were significantly associated with immunological discordance. Early initiation of ART and intervention to improve regular clinic visit compliance and adherence to ART are crucial to prevent immunological discordance among HIV-infected patients.

  2. Community perceptions of childbearing and use of safer conception strategies among HIV-discordant couples in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Breitnauer, Brooke T; Mmeje, Okeoma; Njoroge, Betty; Darbes, Lynae A; Leddy, Anna; Brown, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Safer conception strategies (SCS) have the potential to decrease HIV transmission among HIV-discordant couples who desire children. Community perceptions of SCS may influence the scale-up and uptake of these services, but little is known about how communities will react to these strategies. Without community support for SCS, their success as an HIV prevention tool may be limited. The objective of this study is to characterize community perceptions of SCS for HIV-discordant couples in Kisumu, Kenya, to inform ongoing and future safer conception intervention studies in low-resource settings. Methods We conducted six focus group discussions and 11 in-depth-interviews in Kisumu, Kenya, among a diverse group (N=59) of community members, including men, women, youth (age 19–25), community health workers and local leaders. An iterative qualitative analysis using a grounded theory approach was employed. Results and discussion All participants emphasized the importance of childbearing in their society and the right to have children, regardless of an individual's HIV status. While most participants believed that HIV-discordant couples should be allowed to have children, they discussed several barriers to the uptake of SCS such as HIV-related stigma, fear of HIV transmission to the uninfected partner and child, fear of unfamiliar medical procedures and lack of information among community members and health care providers about HIV prevention interventions that allow safer conception. Access to information, community experiences with successful safer conception interventions, healthcare provider training, male engagement and community mobilization may help overcome these barriers. Though assisted reproduction strategies generated the most negative reactions from participants, our results suggest that with education and explanation of these services, participants express interest in these strategies and want them to be offered in their community. Conclusions Many

  3. Evidence of marked sexual behavior change associated with low HIV-1 seroconversion in 149 married couples with discordant HIV-1 serostatus: experience at an HIV counselling center in Zaire.

    PubMed

    Kamenga, M; Ryder, R W; Jingu, M; Mbuyi, N; Mbu, L; Behets, F; Brown, C; Heyward, W L

    1991-01-01

    To determine the effect of an HIV-1 counselling program on 149 married Zairian couples with discordant HIV-1 serology, the rates of HIV-1 seroconversion and reported condom utilization have been observed during 382.4 person-years of follow-up (minimum follow-up time per couple of 6 months). Before determination of HIV-1 serostatus and counselling, less than 5% of these couples had ever used a condom. One month after notification of HIV-1 serostatus and counselling, 70.7% of couples reported using condoms during all episodes of sexual intercourse. At 18 months follow-up, 77.4% of the 140 couples still being followed reported continued use of condoms during all episodes of sexual intercourse. At the time of notification of HIV-1 serostatus, 18 couples experienced acute psychological distress. Home-based counselling by trained nurses resolved these difficulties in all but three couples who subsequently divorced. Intensive counselling following notification of HIV-1 serostatus led to low rates of HIV-1 seroconversion (3.1% per 100 person-years of observation) in Zairian married couples with discordant HIV-1 serostatus who voluntarily attended an HIV counselling center.

  4. Oblique discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    Discord and entanglement characterize two kinds of quantum correlations, and discord captures more correlation than entanglement in the sense that even separable states may have nonzero discord. In this paper, we propose a new kind of quantum correlation that we call as oblique discord. A zero-discord state corresponds to an orthonormal basis, while a zero-oblique-discord state corresponds to a basis which is not necessarily orthogonal. Under this definition, the set of zero-discord states is properly contained inside the set of zero-oblique-discord states, and the set of zero-oblique-discord states is properly contained inside the set of separable states. We give a characterization of zero-oblique-discord states via quantum mapping, provide a geometric measure for oblique discord, and raise a conjecture, which if it holds, then we can define an information-theoretic measure for oblique discord. Also, we point out that the definition of oblique discord can be properly extended to some different versions just as the case of quantum discord.

  5. KIR-HLA-A and B alleles of the Bw4 epitope against HIV infection in discordant heterosexual couples in Chaco Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Habegger de Sorrentino, Alicia; Sinchi, Jessica L; Marinic, Karina; López, Rosana; Iliovich, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Activating and inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and their ligands HLA-Bw4 (loci A and B) were studied by way of establishing whether they can contribute to protection against HIV-1 infection in highly exposed and persistently seronegative (HESN) patients. Twenty-three HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples, 100 HIV-1+ patients and 200 healthy individuals were included in this retrospective case–control study. HLA typing was performed by means of PCR followed by sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe reverse hybridization. KIR3DL1 and KIR3DS1 were studied by PCR sequence-specific primers. The frequency of KIR3DS1(3DS1/3DL1)-Bw4 combination was significantly higher in HESN patients versus the discordant couples (P = 0·0003) and HIV-1+ patients (P = 0·0001). Conversely, the KIR3DL1/KIR3DL1 homozygosity was significantly decreased in HESN patients versus the discordant couples (P = 0·00003), and HIV-1+ patients (P = 0·00066). The frequency of HLA-A*32 and HLA-B*44 was higher in HESN versus their discordant couples (P = 0·009; P = 0·049), and HIV-1+ patients (P = 0·00002; P = 0·0001). This had greater significance in combination with KIR3DS1 (3DS1/3DL1). KIR3DS1(3DS1/3DL1) could have a greater effect on protection against HIV-1 infection in HESN patients when bound to a specific HLA allele, in this case HLA-A*32 and HLA-B*44, both Bw4 alleles. The differences probably arise both in the HLA alleles and in the subtypes of KIR receptors depending on the ethnic group studied. PMID:23789883

  6. Risk Reduction Among HIV-Seroconcordant and -Discordant Couples: The Zambia NOW2 Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kashy, Deborah; Chitalu, Ndashi; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mumbi, Mirriam; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Heterosexual HIV transmission remains the leading cause of HIV incidence in adult men and women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed whether an HIV risk-reduction intervention would be more likely to increase sexual barrier acceptability and decrease risk behavior when delivered to couples in gender concordant groups or in an individual format. This study also examined the mutual impact of couple members as a source of influence on acceptability, and assessed whether product acceptability, intimate partner violence (IPV), and/or partner communication predicted sexual barrier use. HIV seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples (n=216) were recruited in Lusaka, Zambia, and randomized to a four session gender-concordant intervention. Participants were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Willingness to use barriers (p=0.012), acceptability (p<0.001), and barrier use (p<0.001) increased over time in both conditions, and were influenced by gender preferences. IPV decreased (p=0.040) and positive communication increased (p<0.001) in both conditions. Individual and gender concordant group sessions achieved similar increases in sexual barrier use following the intervention. Results highlight the influence of partners as well as product acceptability as predictors of sexual barrier use among couples in sub-Saharan Africa. Future prevention studies should consider both product acceptability and partner influence to achieve optimal sexual risk behavior outcomes. PMID:24983201

  7. Discordance of Cognitive and Academic Achievement Outcomes in Youth with Perinatal HIV Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Garvie, Patricia A.; Zeldow, Bret; Malee, Kathleen; Nichols, Sharon L.; Smith, Renee A.; Wilkins, Megan L.; Williams, Paige L.

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate achievement in youth with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) compared to HIV-exposed uninfected peers (HEU), and to examine differential effects of HIV on cognition-achievement concordance. Methods Cognition and achievement were assessed using standardized measures. IQ-derived predicted achievement scores were subtracted from observed achievement scores to calculate discrepancy values. Linear regression models were used to compare achievement discrepancies between PHIV and HEU, adjusting for demographic covariates. Results Participants: 295 PHIV and 167 HEU youth; 71% black, 48% male, mean age 13.1 and 11.3 years, respectively. PHIV youth were relatively healthy (mean CD4%, 32%; viral load ≤400 copies/mL, 72%). PHIV and HEU youth had cognitive and achievement scores significantly below population norm means (p<0.001), but did not differ in cognition (mean FSIQ=86.7 vs. 89.4, respectively). In unadjusted models, HEU outperformed PHIV youth on Total Achievement (TA; mean=89.2 vs. 86.0, p=0.04) and Numerical Operations (NO; mean=88.8 vs. 82.9, p<0.001); no differences remained after adjustment. Mean observed-predicted achievement discrepancies reflected “underachievement”. History of encephalopathy predicted poorer achievement (p=0.039) and greater underachievement, even after adjustment. PHIV showed greater underachievement than HEU for NO (p<0.001) and TA (p=0.03), but these differences did not persist in adjusted models. Conclusions Both PHIV and HEU youth demonstrated lower achievement than normative samples, and underachieved relative to predicted achievement scores. Observed-predicted achievement discrepancies were associated with prior encephalopathy, older age and other non-HIV factors. PHIV youth with prior encephalopathy had significantly lower achievement and greater underachievement compared to PHIV without encephalopathy and HEU youth, even in adjusted models. PMID:25361033

  8. Discordant Immune Response with Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1: A Systematic Review of Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Christine; Gaskell, Katherine M.; Richardson, Marty; Klein, Nigel; Garner, Paul; MacPherson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background A discordant immune response (DIR) is a failure to satisfactorily increase CD4 counts on ART despite successful virological control. Literature on the clinical effects of DIR has not been systematically evaluated. We aimed to summarise the risk of mortality, AIDS and serious non-AIDS events associated with DIR with a systematic review. Methods The protocol is registered with the Centre for Review Dissemination, University of York (registration number CRD42014010821). Included studies investigated the effect of DIR on mortality, AIDS, or serious non-AIDS events in cohort studies or cohorts contained in arms of randomised controlled trials for adults aged 16 years or older. DIR was classified as a suboptimal CD4 count (as defined by the study) despite virological suppression following at least 6 months of ART. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library to December 2015. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane tool for assessing risk of bias in cohort studies. Two authors applied inclusion criteria and one author extracted data. Risk ratios were calculated for each clinical outcome reported. Results Of 20 studies that met the inclusion criteria, 14 different definitions of DIR were used. Risk ratios for mortality in patients with and without DIR ranged between 1.00 (95% CI 0.26 to 3.92) and 4.29 (95% CI 1.96 to 9.38) with the majority of studies reporting a 2 to 3 fold increase in risk. Conclusions DIR is associated with a marked increase in mortality in most studies but definitions vary widely. We propose a standardised definition to aid the development of management options for DIR. PMID:27284683

  9. HIV-Negative Partnered Men's Willingness to Use Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Factors Among an Internet Sample of U.S. HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Research on male couples' willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is critically lacking. Methods: A cross-sectional 2011 Internet survey collected dyadic data from 275 HIV-negative and 58 HIV-discordant male couples to describe 631 HIV-negative partnered mens' willingness to use PrEP and associated couple-level demographic and behavioral factors with multivariate multilevel modeling. Results: Fifty-three percent were very to extremely likely to use PrEP. Willingness was positively associated with being in a mixed race and behaviorally non-monogamous relationship, and with amyl nitrate use with sex outside the relationship. Willingness was negatively associated with having a college education. Conclusion: Prevention efforts should educate male couples about the potential benefits of PrEP. PMID:26790016

  10. HIV research productivity and structural factors associated with HIV research output in European Union countries: a bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Uusküla, A; Toompere, K; Laisaar, K T; Rosenthal, M; Pürjer, M L; Knellwolf, A; Läärä, E; Des Jarlais, D C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess HIV/AIDS research productivity in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU), and the structural level factors associated with levels of HIV/AIDS research productivity. Methods A bibliometric analysis was conducted with systematic search methods used to locate HIV/AIDS research publications (period of 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2011; search databases: MEDLINE (Ovid, PubMed), EMBASE, ISI-Thomson Web of Science; no language restrictions). The publication rate (number of HIV/AIDS research publications per million population in 10 years) and the rate of articles published in HIV/AIDS journals and selected journals with moderate to very high (IF ≥3) 5-year impact factors were used as markers for HIV research productivity. A negative binomial regression model was fitted to assess the impact of structural level factors (sociodemographic, health, HIV prevalence and research/development indicators) associated with the variation in HIV research productivity. Results The total numbers of HIV/AIDS research publications in 2002–2011 by country ranged from 7 to 9128 (median 319). The median publication rate (per million population in 10 years) was 45 (range 5–150) for all publications. Across all countries, 16% of the HIV/AIDS research was published in HIV/AIDS journals and 7% in selected journals with IF ≥3. Indicators describing economic (gross domestic product), demographic (size of the population) and epidemiological (HIV prevalence) conditions as well as overall scientific activity (total research output) in a country were positively associated with HIV research productivity. Conclusions HIV research productivity varies noticeably across EU countries, and this variation is associated with recognisable structural factors. PMID:25649212

  11. HIV/AIDS in the countries of the former Soviet Union: societal and attitudinal challenges.

    PubMed

    Rechel, Bernd

    2010-06-01

    For several years, some of the countries of the former Soviet Union have experienced the fastest growing HIV epidemic in the world, with the vast majority of reported infections contracted through injecting drug use. However, most governments of the region have been slow to recognize the severity of the problem. The scope and coverage of governmental HIV/AIDS programmes have remained very limited. Harm reduction programmes are mainly financed by external donors, while substitution treatment remains illegal in Russia and unavailable in some other countries of the region. Being based on a review of published and grey literature, this paper explores attitudinal and societal barriers to scaling up HIV programmes in the countries of the former Soviet Union. A major challenge in many countries is negative public attitudes towards people living with HIV, as well as towards those most at risk of contracting the disease: injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. This extends to the actions of state authorities which often pursue a punitive approach to drug users, with high rates of incarceration for minor drug offences. While many of the findings reported here relate to the Russian Federation, there is reason to believe that similar challenges exist in many other countries of the former Soviet Union. More needs to be done to document challenges to HIV prevention and treatment programmes across the region, so that policy interventions can be more effective.

  12. HIV-Negative Partnered Men's Willingness to Use Non-Occupational Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and Associated Factors in a U.S. Sample of HIV-Negative and HIV-Discordant Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Sophus, Amber I.; Petroll, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) is an underutilized biomedical option for HIV prevention. Few studies have assessed male couples' knowledge of and willingness to use nPEP. Methods: Cross-sectional dyadic data from 275 HIV-negative and 58 HIV-discordant male couples were used to describe HIV-negative, partnered men's awareness of and willingness to use nPEP, and factors associated with their willingness to use nPEP. Data were analyzed with the use of multivariate multilevel modeling. Results: Less than a third of the men were aware of nPEP, yet 73% were very-to-extremely likely to use nPEP. Partnered men's willingness to use nPEP was positively associated with having an individual income less than $30,000 USD and serosorting within the relationship. Willingness to use nPEP was negatively associated with greater age difference between primary partners and with higher scores on measures of couples' investment in their relationship. Conclusion: Efforts should be made to increase male couples' awareness of nPEP and how to access nPEP. Uptake of nPEP has the potential to help avert new HIV infections among male couples. PMID:26789400

  13. "I never thought that it would happen … " Experiences of HIV seroconverters among HIV-discordant partnerships in a prospective HIV prevention study in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ngure, Kenneth; Vusha, Sophie; Mugo, Nelly; Emmanuel-Fabula, Mira; Ngutu, Mariah; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M; Heffron, Renee

    2016-12-01

    In spite of access to behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies, HIV transmission occurs. For HIV-serodiscordant couples, prevention programs can be tailored to address individual and couples' needs to preserve their relationship while minimizing HIV risk. Programs for serodiscordant couples may benefit from learning from experiences of couples who transmit HIV. We conducted 20 individual in-depth interviews with 10 initially HIV-serodiscordant couples who transmitted HIV during prospective follow-up at a peri-urban research site in Thika, Kenya. Data were analyzed inductively to identify situations that led to prevention failure and coping mechanisms. Inconsistent condom use driven by low HIV risk perception and alcohol use often preceded seroconversion while persistent blame frequently hindered couples' communication soon after seroconversion. In this emerging era of antiretroviral-based HIV prevention, couples' counseling can capitalize on opportunities to foster a supportive environment to discuss initiation and adherence to time-limited pre-exposure prophylaxis and lifelong antiretroviral therapy, in addition to strategies to reduce alcohol use, diffuse blame, and use condoms.

  14. [HIV antibody detection results in patients seeking medical care in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, 2003-2014].

    PubMed

    Song, X J; Qiu, Z F; Cao, W; Xie, J; Zhang, Z J; Xu, S X; Li, T S

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To better understand the infection status of HIV in the patients seeking medical care in Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Methods: The HIV detection data of the patients in the hospital from 2003-2014 were collected for a statistical analysis with software SPSS 19.0. Results: A total of 715 421 patients were screened, and 1 012 (0.14%) patients were HIV positive, and HIV infection were confirmed in 776 (0.11%) patients by Western Blot testing. The detection rate of HIV infection increased from 0.05% in 2003 to 0.17% in 2014 (trend χ(2)=66.83 , P=0.000), and the increase during 2012-2014 was obvious. Of the 776 newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals, 631 (81.31%) were men and 145 (18.69%) were women. The percentage of the males infected with HIV increased from 50.00% to 90.26% (trend χ(2)=58.41, P=0.000). The median age was 36 years (interquartile range: 27-43), and the age group 18-50 years were mostly affected. In the 776 patients infected with HIV, 634 (81.70% ) were infected through sexual contacts, and the proportion of sexual transmissions increased with year (trend χ(2)=126.38, P=0.000). The proportion of infected men who have sex with men (MSM) increased from 0% in 2003 to 53.90% in 2014 (trend χ(2)=11.96, P=0.001), similar to the trend in western countries. The proportion of infected patients who were not married increased from 18.75% to 42.21% (trend χ(2)=43.74, P=0.000). The top three source departments of HIV/AIDS cases were internal medicine (51.03%), emergency room (18.30%) and dermatology (13.53%). The proportion of the HIV/AIDS patients from department of gynecology and obstetrics declined from 18.75% in 2003 to 2.60% in 2014. No HIV/AIDS patients were detected in department of surgery, department of otorhinolaryngology, department of ophthalmology, department of stomatology and health examination center in 2003, but 14 cases (9.10%), 11 cases (7.14%) and 4 cases (2.60%) were detected in these departments respectively in 2014

  15. Discordance in HIV-positive patient and healthcare provider perspectives on death, dying, and end-of-life care

    PubMed Central

    Mosack, Katie E.; Wandrey, Rachael L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how HIV-positive patients and infectious disease healthcare providers think about death, dying, and end-of-life care planning. We conducted separate in-depth qualitative interviews with 47 patients and 11 providers. Interview data were transcribed and analyzed using a secondary comparative method. Patients and providers demonstrated profound differences in their perspectives on patient empowerment and attributions of control related to disease progression, imminence of death, and end-of-life care decision-making. Notably, patients described fears related to life-extending interventions that generally went unaddressed within the clinical context. We argue for the routinization of end-of-life care discussions and suggest novel research approaches to improve patient empowerment and medical engagement. PMID:24316681

  16. Discordance in HIV-positive patient and health care provider perspectives on death, dying, and end-of-life care.

    PubMed

    Mosack, Katie E; Wandrey, Rachael L

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how HIV-positive patients and infectious disease health care providers think about death, dying, and end-of-life care (EOLC) planning. We conducted separate in-depth qualitative interviews with 47 patients and 11 providers. Interview data were transcribed and analyzed using a secondary comparative method. Patients and providers demonstrated profound differences in their perspectives on patient empowerment and attributions of control related to disease progression, imminence of death, and EOLC decision making. Notably, patients described fears related to life-extending interventions that generally went unaddressed within the clinical context. We argue for the routinization of EOLC discussions and suggest novel research approaches to improve patient empowerment and medical engagement.

  17. ‘Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials’: Discordant discourses between western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women

    PubMed Central

    DE JESUS, Maria; CARRETE, Claudia; MAINE, Cathleen; NALLS, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the United States and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than U.S.-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women’s HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington DC Metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one’s spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one’s family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one’s spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25616443

  18. "Getting tested is almost like going to the Salem witch trials": discordant discourses between Western public health messages and sociocultural expectations surrounding HIV testing among East African immigrant women.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria; Carrete, Claudia; Maine, Cathleen; Nalls, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Washington, DC, has the highest AIDS diagnosis rate in the USA, and Black women are disproportionately affected. Although HIV testing is the first entryway into vital treatment services, evidence reveals that foreign-born blacks have a lower rate of recent HIV testing than US-born blacks. To date, however, there are no studies that examine the culture-specific perceptions of HIV testing among East African immigrant women (who comprise a large share of Black Africans in DC) to better understand their potential barriers to testing. Adopting the PEN-3 cultural model as our theoretical framework, the main objective of this study was to examine East African women's HIV testing perceptions and partner communication norms. Between October 2012 and March 2013, trained interviewers conducted a total of 25 interviews with East African women in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. For triangulation purposes, data collection consisted of both in-depth, semi-structured interviews and cognitive interviews, in which participants were administered a quantitative survey and assessed on how they interpreted items. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed a systematic pattern of discordant responses across participants. While they were aware of messages related to Western public health discourse surrounding HIV testing (e.g., Everyone should get tested for HIV; One should talk to one's spouse about HIV testing), divergent sociocultural expectations rooted in cultural and religious beliefs prevailed (e.g., Getting an HIV test brings shame to the person who got tested and to one's family; it implies one is engaging in immoral behavior; One should not talk with one's spouse about HIV testing; doing so breaks cultural norms). Implications of using a culture-centered model to examine the role of sociocultural expectations in HIV prevention research and to develop culturally responsive prevention strategies are discussed.

  19. Ghost Imaging without Discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Venkatraman, Dheera; Wong, Franco N. C.

    2013-05-01

    Ragy and Adesso argue that quantum discord is involved in the formation of a pseudothermal ghost image. We show that quantum discord plays no role in spatial light modulator ghost imaging, i.e., ghost-image formation based on structured illumination realized with laser light that has undergone spatial light modulation by the output from a pseudorandom number generator. Our analysis thus casts doubt on the degree to which quantum discord is necessary for ghost imaging.

  20. Nonzero Classical Discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghiu, Vlad; de Oliveira, Marcos C.; Sanders, Barry C.

    2015-07-01

    Quantum discord is the quantitative difference between two alternative expressions for bipartite mutual information, given respectively in terms of two distinct definitions for the conditional entropy. By constructing a stochastic model of shared states, classical discord can be similarly defined, quantifying the presence of some stochasticity in the measurement process. Therefore, discord can generally be understood as a quantification of the system's state disturbance due to local measurements, be it quantum or classical. We establish an operational meaning of classical discord in the context of state merging with noisy measurement and thereby show the quantum-classical separation in terms of a negative conditional entropy.

  1. Knowledge, attitude and behavioral intention to act regarding HIV infection and prevention in immigrants from the Former Soviet Union in Germany: a comparative study with the native population.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Laura; Matterne, Uwe; Crispin, Alexander; Ruzicka, Thomas; Zippel, Stefan A; Kuznetsov, Alexander V

    2013-02-01

    In Germany, immigrants from Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries represent one of the largest immigrant groups. Some FSU countries face the highest HIV prevalence in the region of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. However, the HIV knowledge, attitude and behavioral intent have not been investigated in FSU immigrants compared to the native population yet. A cross-sectional anonymous survey among 1,205 FSU immigrants and 435 native Germans (aged 18-65 years) in Bavaria. Data analysis from the participating 435 (36 %) immigrants and 334 (76.8 %) natives showed that the immigrants were less knowledgeable (p < .001) about HIV transmission (median score 8 vs. 9, ranged from 0 to 10) and HIV prevention (4 vs. 5, ranged from 0 to 6) than the native Germans, especially with regard to HIV transmission during anal (67 vs. 79.1 %; OR = 1.86 [1.32-2.62]) and oral (49.7 vs. 61.8 %; OR = 1.63 [1.21-2.20]) intercourse and showed a high misconception rate. Age and education were associated with knowledge about sexual HIV transmission; male gender, age and education with HIV prevention by single-use of needles/syringes. In case of a suspected HIV contraction, fewer immigrants would request a test; in case of a confirmed HIV diagnosis fewer would use a condom or inform their sexual partner(s). This first comparative study indicates an urgent need for HIV/AIDS education among FSU immigrants.

  2. Topology of quantum discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Nga T. T.; Joynt, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Quantum discord is an important measure of quantum correlations that can serve as a resource for certain types of quantum information processing. Like entanglement, discord is subject to destruction by external noise. The routes by which this destruction can take place depends on the shape of the hypersurface of zero discord C in the space of generalized Bloch vectors. For 2 qubits, we show that with a few points subtracted, this hypersurface is a simply-connected 9-dimensional manifold embedded in a 15-dimensional background space. We do this by constructing an explicit homeomorphism from a known manifold to the subtracted version of C . We also construct a coordinate map on C that can be used for integration or other purposes. This topological characterization of C has important implications for the classification of the possible time evolutions of discord in physical models. The classification for discord contrasts sharply with the possible evolutions of entanglement. We classify the possible joint evolutions of entanglement and discord. There are 9 allowed categories: 6 categories for a Markovian process and 3 categories for a non-Markovian process, respectively. We illustrate these conclusions with an anisotropic XY spin model. All 9 categories can be obtained by adjusting parameters in this model.

  3. Scale up use of family planning services to prevent maternal transmission of HIV among discordant couples: a cross-sectional study within a resource-limited setting

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Martin; Yuan, HongFang; Tchoua Kemayou, Aude Laure; Songo, Emmanuel Ancel; Yang, Fan; Ma, XiuLan; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing

    2016-01-01

    Background Integration of family planning services (FPS) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care for HIV-infected women is an important aspect of the global prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) strategy. We assessed the integration of FPS into routine care of HIV-infected mothers by evaluating the uptake and barriers of contraception and PMTCT services. Methods We conducted an interventional study using the interrupted time series approach in the health care facilities located in Yaounde, Cameroon. First, structured questionnaires related to family planning use, PMTCT services use, and infection risk of the sexual partner were administered to the first trimester pregnant women who were HIV infected and living with uninfected partners. Second, 2 weeks before the delivery date, the women were interviewed according to the prior counseling interventions received, in order to assess their behavior on FPS, antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, delivery option, and infant nourishment to be adopted. P-values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant in the statistical analyses. Results Of 94 HIV-infected women, 69% were stable couples. Only 13% of women had attended FPS before conception. Although the vast majority were knowledgeable about modern and traditional contraception methods, only 19% had experienced effective contraceptive methods. However, 66% preferred condom use, 45% having three children still expressed a desire to conceive, while 44% reported abortions, 65% had tried to avoid the current pregnancy, and 12% of women were ART naïve. Several predictors such as education, abortion rate, unplanned pregnancies, and partners’ decision were associated with the nonuse of effective contraceptive methods. Moreover, barriers including sex inequity, lack of partner support, ART shortages, and lack of HIV viral load monitoring were prevalent among the participants (P=0.001). However FPS use, ART compliance, and safe options to PMTCT

  4. Facilitators and Barriers of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation among HIV Discordant Couples in Kenya: Qualitative Insights from a Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Implementation Study

    PubMed Central

    Odoyo, Josephine; Anand, Keerthana; Stanford-Moore, Gaelen; Wakhungu, Imeldah; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Baeten, Jared M.; Brown, Joelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization now recommends antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation for all HIV-infected individuals regardless of CD4 cell count or disease status. Understanding the facilitators and barriers to initiation of and adherence to ART is essential to successful scale-up of “universal” ART. Methods To investigate facilitators and barriers to ART initiation, we conducted 44 in-depth individual or couple interviews with 63 participants (33 participants with HIV and 30 without HIV) already enrolled in a prospective implementation study of oral antiretroviral-based prevention in Kisumu, Kenya between August and September 2014. A semi-structured interview guided discussions on: 1) perceived advantages and disadvantages of ART; 2) reasons for accepting or declining ART initiation; and 3) influence of prevention of transmission to partner or infant influencing ART use. Transcripts from the interviews were iteratively analyzed using inductive content analysis. Results HIV-infected participants indicated that living a healthier life, preventing HIV transmission to others, and appearing “normal” or “healthy” again facilitated their initiation of ART. While appearing “normal” allowed these individuals to interact with their communities without stigmatization, they also perceived community opposition to their initiating ART, because appearing “normal” again prevented community members from easily identifying infected individuals in their community. Denial of diagnosis, disclosure stigma, perceived side-effects, and challenges in obtaining refills were additional barriers to ART initiation. Conclusions Community perceptions play an important role in both facilitating and inhibiting ART initiation. Perceived stigma, including perceived community opposition to widespread ART use, is an important barrier to ART initiation. Addressing such barriers, while capitalizing on facilitators, to ART initiation should be central to universal ART

  5. Factors predicting discordant virological and immunological responses to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 clade C infected Zulu/Xhosa in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Julg, Boris; Poole, Danielle; Ghebremichael, Musie; Castilla, Carmen; Altfeld, Marcus; Sunpath, Henry; Murphy, Richard A; Walker, Bruce D

    2012-01-01

    Factors predicting suboptimal CD4 cell recovery have been studied in HIV clade-B infected US and European populations. It is, however, uncertain to what extent these results are applicable to HIV clade-C infected African populations. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression and longitudinal analyses using mixed models were employed to assess the impact of age, gender, baseline CD4 cell count, hemoglobin, body mass index (BMI), tuberculosis and other opportunistic co-infections, and frequencies of regimen change on CD4 cell recovery at 12 and 30 months and on overtime change in CD4 cells among 442 virologically suppressed South Africans. Despite adequate virological response 37% (95% CI:32%-42%) and 83% (95% CI:79%-86%) of patients on antiretroviral therapy failed to restore CD4 cell counts ≥ 200 cells/mm(3) after 12 and ≥ 500 cells/mm(3) after 30 months, respectively, in this South African cohort. Critical risk factors for inadequate recovery were older age (p = 0.001) and nadir CD4 cell count at ART initiation (p<0.0001), while concurrent TB co-infection, BMI, baseline hemoglobin, gender and antiretroviral regimen were not significant risk factors. These data suggest that greater efforts are needed to identify and treat HAART-eligible patients prior to severe CD4 cell decline or achievement of advanced age.

  6. DISCORDANCE BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX AND ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS AMONG HIV-1-INFECTED PATIENTS ON ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY AND WITH LIPOATROPHY/LIPOHYPERTROPHY SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, Lismeia Raimundo; da SILVA, Daniela Cardeal; GONSALEZ, Claudio R.; BATISTA, Felipe G.; FONSECA, Luiz Augusto M.; DUARTE, Alberto J.S.; CASSEB, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has improved and extended the lives of thousands of people living with HIV/AIDS around the world. However, this treatment can lead to the development of adverse reactions such as lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome (LLS) and its associated risks. Objective: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of self-reported lipodystrophy and nutritional status by anthropometric measurements in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods: An observational study of 227 adult patients in the Secondary Immunodeficiencies Outpatient Department of Dermatology, Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo (3002 ADEE-HCFMUSP). The sample was divided into three groups; Group 1 = 92 patients on HAART and with self-reported lipodystrophy, Group 2 = 70 patients on HAART without self-reported lipodystrophy and Group 3 = 65 patients not taking HAART. The nutritional status of individuals in the study sample was determined by body mass index (BMI) and percentage of body fat (% BF). The cardiovascular risk and diseases associated with abdominal obesity were determined by waist/hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC). Results: The prevalence of self-reported lipoatrophy/lipohypertrophy syndrome was 33% among women and 59% among men. Anthropometry showed depletion of fat mass in the evaluation of the triceps (TSF) in the treatment groups with HAART and was statistically independent of gender; for men p = 0.001, and for women p = 0.007. Similar results were found in the measurement of skin folds of the upper and lower body (p = 0.001 and p = 0.003 respectively). In assessing the nutritional status of groups by BMI and % BF, excess weight and body fat were more prevalent among women compared to men (p = 0.726). The WHR and WC revealed risks for cardiovascular and other diseases associated with abdominal obesity for women on HAART and with self-reported LLS (p = 0.005) and (p = 0.011). Conclusions

  7. Analytic expressions of discord and geometric discord in Werner derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Haojie; Liu, Yimin; Chen, Jianlan; Ye, Biaoliang; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2014-06-01

    Werner derivatives are a special kind of mixing states transformed from Werner states by unitary operations (Hiroshima and Ishizaka in Phys Rev A 62:044302, 2000). In this paper, the inherent quantum correlations in Werner derivatives are quantified by two different quantifiers, i.e., quantum discord and geometric discord. Different analytic expressions of the two discords in Werner derivatives are derived out. Some distinct features of the discords and their underlying physics are exposed via discussions and analyses. Moreover, it is found that the amount of quantum correlations quantified by either quantifier in each derivative cannot exceed that in the original Werner state. In other words, no unitary operation can increase quantum correlation in a Werner state as far as the two quantifiers are concerned.

  8. Discordant Treatment Responses to Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Rwanda: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kayigamba, Felix R.; Franke, Molly F.; Bakker, Mirjam I.; Rodriguez, Carly A.; Bagiruwigize, Emmanuel; Wit, Ferdinand WNM; Rich, Michael L.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Some antiretroviral therapy naïve patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) experience a limited CD4 count rise despite virological suppression, or vice versa. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of discordant treatment responses in a Rwandan cohort. Methods A discordant immunological cART response was defined as an increase of <100 CD4 cells/mm3 at 12 months compared to baseline despite virological suppression (viral load [VL] <40 copies/mL). A discordant virological cART response was defined as detectable VL at 12 months with an increase in CD4 count ≥100 cells/mm3. The prevalence of, and independent predictors for these two types of discordant responses were analysed in two cohorts nested in a 12-month prospective study of cART-naïve HIV patients treated at nine rural health facilities in two regions in Rwanda. Results Among 382 patients with an undetectable VL at 12 months, 112 (29%) had a CD4 rise of <100 cells/mm3. Age ≥35 years and longer travel to the clinic were independent determinants of an immunological discordant response, but sex, baseline CD4 count, body mass index and WHO HIV clinical stage were not. Among 326 patients with a CD4 rise of ≥100 cells/mm3, 56 (17%) had a detectable viral load at 12 months. Male sex was associated with a virological discordant treatment response (P = 0.05), but age, baseline CD4 count, BMI, WHO HIV clinical stage, and travel time to the clinic were not. Conclusions Discordant treatment responses were common in cART-naïve HIV patients in Rwanda. Small CD4 increases could be misinterpreted as a (virological) treatment failure and lead to unnecessary treatment changes. PMID:27438000

  9. Quantum discord, local operations, and Maxwell's demons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodutch, Aharon; Terno, Daniel R.

    2010-06-01

    Quantum discord was proposed as a measure of the quantumness of correlations. There are at least three different discordlike quantities, two of which determine the difference between the efficiencies of a Szilard’s engine under different sets of restrictions. The three discord measures vanish simultaneously. We introduce an easy way to test for zero discord, relate it to the Cerf-Adami conditional entropy and show that there is no simple relation between the discord and the local distinguishability.

  10. Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum discord

    SciTech Connect

    Fanchini, F. F.; Caldeira, A. O.; Werlang, T.; Brasil, C. A.; Arruda, L. G. E.

    2010-05-15

    We evaluate the quantum discord dynamics of two qubits in independent and common non-Markovian environments. We compare the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord. For independent reservoirs the quantum discord vanishes only at discrete instants whereas the entanglement can disappear during a finite time interval. For a common reservoir, quantum discord and entanglement can behave very differently with sudden birth of the former but not of the latter. Furthermore, in this case the quantum discord dynamics presents sudden changes in the derivative of its time evolution which is evidenced by the presence of kinks in its behavior at discrete instants of time.

  11. Monozygotic twins discordant for sex.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, R; Sobel, E H; Nitowsky, H M; Dar, H; Allen, F H

    1976-01-01

    A pair of monozygotic, adolescent twins is discordant for sex. The phenotypic female twin has chromosome constitution of 46, XY/45, X. She displays many signs of Turner's syndrome, including typical facies, webbed neck, malformed left kidney, high plasma gonadotropins, and streak ovaries. However, her height is 154 cm which exceeds the height usually reported in Turner's syndrome. The male twin has a karyotype of 46, XY and normal sexual development. Only two other reports of pairs of monozygotic twins of opposite sex have been published. Images PMID:944787

  12. 'It's risky to walk in the city with syringes': understanding access to HIV/AIDS services for injecting drug users in the former Soviet Union countries of Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite massive scale up of funds from global health initiatives including the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) and other donors, the ambitious target agreed by G8 leaders in 2005 in Gleneagles to achieve universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment by 2010 has not been reached. Significant barriers to access remain in former Soviet Union (FSU) countries, a region now recognised as a priority area by policymakers. There have been few empirical studies of access to HIV/AIDS services in FSU countries, resulting in limited understanding and implementation of accessible HIV/AIDS interventions. This paper explores the multiple access barriers to HIV/AIDS services experienced by a key risk group-injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in two FSU countries-Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan-with clients receiving Global Fund-supported services (Ukraine n = 118, Kyrgyzstan n = 84), service providers (Ukraine n = 138, Kyrgyzstan n = 58) and a purposive sample of national and subnational stakeholders (Ukraine n = 135, Kyrgyzstan n = 86). Systematic thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by country teams, and a comparative synthesis of findings undertaken by the authors. Results Stigmatisation of HIV/AIDS and drug use was an important barrier to IDUs accessing HIV/AIDS services in both countries. Other connected barriers included: criminalisation of drug use; discriminatory practices among government service providers; limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS, services and entitlements; shortages of commodities and human resources; and organisational, economic and geographical barriers. Conclusions Approaches to thinking about universal access frequently assume increased availability of services means increased accessibility of services. Our study demonstrates that while there is greater availability of HIV/AIDS services in Ukraine and Kyrgyzstan, this does not equate with greater accessibility because

  13. Global quantum discord in multipartite systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rulli, C. C.; Sarandy, M. S.

    2011-10-15

    We propose a global measure for quantum correlations in multipartite systems, which is obtained by suitably recasting the quantum discord in terms of relative entropy and local von Neumann measurements. The measure is symmetric with respect to subsystem exchange and is shown to be nonnegative for an arbitrary state. As an illustration, we consider tripartite correlations in the Werner-GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) state and multipartite correlations at quantum criticality. In particular, in contrast with the pairwise quantum discord, we show that the global quantum discord is able to characterize the infinite-order quantum phase transition in the Ashkin-Teller spin chain.

  14. Union Agitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2006-01-01

    A decade has passed since a few union leaders formed the network known as Teacher Union Reform Network (TURN) to search for innovative ways to enhance education. Selling their message has not always been easy. Created in 1995, TURN was the brain child of Adam Urbanski, the president of the Rochester (N.Y.) Teachers Association for the past 25…

  15. Maximally discordant mixed states of two qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Galve, Fernando; Giorgi, Gian Luca; Zambrini, Roberta

    2011-01-15

    We study the relative strength of classical and quantum correlations, as measured by discord, for two-qubit states. Quantum correlations appear only in the presence of classical correlations, while the reverse is not always true. We identify the family of states that maximize the discord for a given value of the classical correlations and show that the largest attainable discord for mixed states is greater than for pure states. The difference between discord and entanglement is emphasized by the remarkable fact that these states do not maximize entanglement and are, in some cases, even separable. Finally, by random generation of density matrices uniformly distributed over the whole Hilbert space, we quantify the frequency of the appearance of quantum and classical correlations for different ranks.

  16. A model of union participation: the impact of perceived union support, union instrumentality, and union loyalty.

    PubMed

    Tetrick, Lois E; Shore, Lynn M; McClurg, Lucy Newton; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2007-05-01

    Perceived union support and union instrumentality have been shown to uniquely predict union loyalty. This study was the first to explicitly examine the relation between perceived union support and union instrumentality. Surveys were completed by 273 union members and 29 union stewards. A comparison of 2 models, 1 based on organizational support theory and 1 based on union participation theories, found that the model based on organizational support theory, in which union instrumentality was an antecedent to perceived union support and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, best fit the data. The model based on union participation theories, in which perceived union support was an antecedent of union instrumentality and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, was not supported. Union instrumentality was related to union commitment, but the relation was completely mediated by perceived union support.

  17. Parental Marital Discord and Treatment Response in Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaya, Meredith M.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parental marital discord contributes to the development of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. Few studies, however, have examined the association between parental marital discord and youth's response to treatment. The present study examined the impact of interparental discord on treatment…

  18. Entanglement as minimal discord over state extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shunlong

    2016-09-01

    The characterization and quantification of quantum correlations, which play an instrumental role in exploring and exploiting the quantum world, have been extensively and intensively studied in the past few decades. Of special prominence and significance are the concepts of entanglement and discord, which are usually regarded as very distinctive quantum correlations, with the latter going beyond the former. In this work we establish a direct and natural link between entanglement and discord via state extensions and reveal that entanglement is actually the intrinsic discord, by which we mean that entanglement is the irreducible residue of discord viewed from ambient spaces. Our approach, taking into account the contextuality of a quantum state and being of a global nature, stands in sharp contrast to the local operations and classical communication paradigm of entanglement, which focuses on the state itself via a local approach. Furthermore, we introduce a figure of merit which, on the one hand, captures the essence of entanglement, i.e., nonlocality and quantumness of correlations, and, on the other hand, leads to a quantitative decomposition of total correlations into classical correlations, dissonance, and entanglement. This demystifies the meaning of entanglement from the perspective of quantum measurements and provides a unified framework for the interplay of various correlations in terms of quantum measurements and mutual information.

  19. Cytohistological discordance on gastrointestinal brushings: Facts unfolded

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Ruchita; Kaur, Jagpal; Kaur, Gursheen; Selhi, Pavneet Kaur; Puri, Harpreet Kaur; Sood, Neena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Brush cytology is a rapid, cost-effective, and reliable tool to diagnose gastrointestinal tract (GIT) lesions in low-resource settings. Most of the studies on GIT brushings have focused on upper GI lesions. We have studied the diagnostic accuracy of brush cytology in the entire length of GIT and correlated the cytological diagnosis with histopathology. The aim of this study is to study diagnostic utility of brush cytology of GIT lesions in the context of correlation with biopsy and study the factors responsible for cytohistological discordance. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 101 cases of prebiopsy brush cytology samples of GIT lesions was done over a period of 1 year (June 2014 to May 2015). The cytological diagnosis was compared with histopathological diagnosis and percentage of correlation was calculated. The reasons for discordance were noted and studied. Results: The cytological diagnosis of 79 (78.2%) correlated with histopathological diagnosis. There was discordance in cytological and histological diagnosis in 22 cases (21.8%). Inadequacy of cytological sample and overlap of nuclear atypia caused by regenerative changes and malignancy were significant factors for cytohistological discordance. Conclusion: The diagnostic accuracy of brush cytology can be improved by taking appropriate measures to eliminate factors responsible for fallacies in cytological diagnosis. PMID:27833250

  20. The social production of substance abuse and HIV/HCV risk: an exploratory study of opioid-using immigrants from the former Soviet Union living in New York City

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several former Soviet countries have witnessed the rapid emergence of major epidemics of injection drug use (IDU) and associated HIV/HCV, suggesting that immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) may be at heightened risk for similar problems. This exploratory study examines substance use patterns among the understudied population of opioid-using FSU immigrants in the U.S., as well as social contextual factors that may increase these immigrants' susceptibility to opioid abuse and HIV/HCV infection. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 FSU immigrants living in New York City who initiated opioid use in adolescence or young adulthood, and with 6 drug treatment providers working with this population. Informed by a grounded theory approach, interview transcripts were inductively coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Results The "trauma" of the immigration/acculturation experience was emphasized by participants as playing a critical role in motivating opioid use. Interview data suggest that substance use patterns formed in the high-risk environment of the FSU may persist as behavioral norms within New York City FSU immigrant communities - including a predilection for heroin use among youth, a high prevalence of injection, and a tolerance for syringe sharing within substance-using peer networks. Multiple levels of social context may reproduce FSU immigrants' vulnerability to substance abuse and disease such as: peer-based interactional contexts in which participants typically used opioids; community workplace settings in which some participants were introduced to and obtained opioids; and cultural norms, with roots in Soviet-era social policies, stigmatizing substance abuse which may contribute to immigrants' reluctance to seek disease prevention and drug treatment services. Conclusion Several behavioral and contextual factors appear to increase FSU immigrants' risk for opioid abuse, IDU and infectious disease. Further research on opioid

  1. Relating quantum discord with the quantum dense coding capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin; Qiu, Liang Li, Song; Zhang, Chi; Ye, Bin

    2015-01-15

    We establish the relations between quantum discord and the quantum dense coding capacity in (n + 1)-particle quantum states. A necessary condition for the vanishing discord monogamy score is given. We also find that the loss of quantum dense coding capacity due to decoherence is bounded below by the sum of quantum discord. When these results are restricted to three-particle quantum states, some complementarity relations are obtained.

  2. Nonpaternity in linkage studies of extremely discordant sib pairs.

    PubMed

    Neale, Michael C; Neale, Benjamin M; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2002-02-01

    An approach commonly used to increase statistical power in linkage studies is the study of extremely discordant sibling pairs. This design is powerful under both additive and dominant-gene models and across a wide range of allele frequencies. A practical problem with the design is that extremely discordant pairs that are ostensibly full sibs may be half sibs. Although estimates vary, the population rates of such nonpaternity may be as high as 5%-10%. The proportion in discordant pairs may be much higher. The present article explores this potential inflation as a function of the resemblance of sib pairs and the criteria for discordance used for selection.

  3. Geometric measure of quantum discord with weak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Qing-Wen; Shen, Shu-Qian; Li, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Super quantum discord based on weak measurements was introduced by Singh and Pati (Ann Phys 343:141-152, 2014). We propose a geometric way of quantifying quantum discord with weak measurements. It is shown that this geometric measure of quantum discord with weak measurements (GQDW) is linearly dependent on geometric measure of quantum discord (Dakic et al. in Phys Rev Lett 105:190502, 2010) and only captures partial quantumness of the states. It is found that the quantum correlation can be extracted by a sequence of infinitesimal weak measurements. Finally, the level surfaces of GQDW for Bell-diagonal states are depicted and the results are demonstrated by explicit example.

  4. Antenatal Assessment of Discordant Umbilical Arteries in Singleton Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Predanic, Mladen; Perni, Sriram C.

    2006-01-01

    Aim To assess the relationship between discordant umbilical arterial size and resultant blood flow parameters and determine the impact of discordance on fetal outcome. Methods This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study of 200 patients with a singleton gestation, who underwent a fetal anatomy survey between 18 to 23 weeks of gestation, with documented umbilical cord morphological patterns and blood flow characteristics. Umbilical vessel diameters and Doppler parameters (umbilical vein blood flow volume, mean resistance index, and peak-systolic velocity) were analyzed for discordance. Discordances encountered were examined for their possible association with perinatal outcome. Results We had adequate ultrasound umbilical cord images, Doppler flow parameters, and all necessary demographic data for 154 patients. Umbilical artery discordance averaged 13.1% and was significantly correlated with both the expected and the true percent of difference in resistance index values (RI, P<0.001). In 12 patients (7.8%), a significant discordance of more than 29.5%, or 95th percentile, was observed between the two umbilical artery diameters. However, in these cases no associated adverse perinatal outcome or significant placental pathology was noted. There was no significant difference between patients with discordant and concordant umbilical artery in terms of maternal, labor, and neonatal data. Conclusion The magnitude of umbilical arteries’ luminal discordance directly influences the corresponding blood flow parameters. In our sample of patients, the presence of discordant-in-size umbilical arteries was not associated with umbilical cord or placental abnormalities. PMID:17042061

  5. State of the Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Julie

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the corrupt leadership of two big-city teachers' unions, the Washington Teachers Union (WTU) and its Miami cousin, United Teachers of Dade (UTD), that took both unions to the brink of despair and financial ruin. While the feds were rifling through union files to build extensive criminal investigations, congress called Sandra…

  6. Exploring Knowing/Being through Discordant Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dall'Alba, Gloria; Barnacle, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Despite an increasing array of "quality indicators" and substantial investments in educating professionals, there continues to be clear evidence of discordant, or even negligent, practice by accredited professionals. We refer to discordant professional practice as being "out of tune" with what is accepted as good practice. In a…

  7. Super quantum discord for general two qubit X states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Naihuan; Yu, Bing

    2017-04-01

    The exact solutions of the super quantum discord are derived for general two qubit X states in terms of a one-variable function. Several exact solutions of the super quantum discord are given for the general X state over nontrivial regions of a seven-dimensional manifold.

  8. Sources of gene tree discordance on oryza (poaceae) chromosome 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe new methods for characterizing gene tree discordance in phylogenomic datasets, which screen for deviations from neutral expectations, summarize variation in statistical support among gene trees, and allow comparison of the patterns of discordance induced by various analysis choices. Usin...

  9. Monozygotic twins with trisomy 18: a report of discordant phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Schlessel, J S; Brown, W T; Lysikiewicz, A; Schiff, R; Zaslav, A L

    1990-01-01

    The predicted incidence of liveborn monozygotic trisomy 18 twins is one per million births. The first case of liveborn monozygotic trisomy 18 twins was reported in 1989 and we report a second case in which striking phenotypic discordance existed. The probability of monozygotic trisomy 18 twinning and the mechanisms for phenotypic discordance in trisomic twins is discussed. Images PMID:2246775

  10. Witnessed entanglement and the geometric measure of quantum discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debarba, Tiago; Maciel, Thiago O.; Vianna, Reinaldo O.

    2012-08-01

    We establish relations between geometric quantum discord and entanglement quantifiers obtained by means of optimal witness operators. In particular, we prove a relation between negativity and geometric discord in the Hilbert-Schmidt norm, which has been conjectured before [D. Girolami and G. Adesso, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.84.052110 84, 052110 (2011)]. We also show that, redefining the geometric discord with the trace norm, better bounds can be obtained. We illustrate our results numerically for Werner states and for families of bound entangled states.

  11. Discord as a quantum resource for bi-partite communication

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, Helen M.; Assad, Syed M.; Symul, Thomas; Lam, Ping Koy; Gu, Mile; Modi, Kavan; Vedral, Vlatko; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2014-12-04

    Coherent interactions that generate negligible entanglement can still exhibit unique quantum behaviour. This observation has motivated a search beyond entanglement for a complete description of all quantum correlations. Quantum discord is a promising candidate. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that under certain measurement constraints, discord between bipartite systems can be consumed to encode information that can only be accessed by coherent quantum interactions. The inability to access this information by any other means allows us to use discord to directly quantify this ‘quantum advantage’.

  12. Witnessing quantum discord in 2xN systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bylicka, Bogna; Chruscinski, Dariusz

    2010-06-15

    Bipartite states with vanishing quantum discord are necessarily separable and hence positive partial transpose (PPT). We show that 2xN states satisfy additional property: the positivity of their partial transposition is recognized with respect to the canonical factorization of the original density operator. We call such states strong PPT (SPPT). Therefore, we provide a natural witness for a quantum discord: if a 2xN state is not SPPT it must contain nonclassical correlations measured by quantum discord. It is an analog of the celebrated Peres-Horodecki criterion: if a state is not PPT it must be entangled.

  13. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewberry, David R.

    2005-01-01

    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions…

  14. Creating an African HIV Clinical Research and Prevention Trials Network: HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Anatoli; Price, Matt A.; Lakhi, Shabir; Karita, Etienne; Inambao, Mubiana; Sanders, Eduard J.; Anzala, Omu; Latka, Mary H.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Asiki, Gershim; Ssetaala, Ali; Ruzagira, Eugene; Allen, Susan; Farmer, Paul; Hunter, Eric; Mutua, Gaudensia; Makkan, Heeran; Tichacek, Amanda; Brill, Ilene K.; Fast, Pat; Stevens, Gwynn; Chetty, Paramesh; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Gilmour, Jill

    2015-01-01

    HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner. PMID:25602351

  15. Creating an African HIV clinical research and prevention trials network: HIV prevalence, incidence and transmission.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Anatoli; Price, Matt A; Lakhi, Shabir; Karita, Etienne; Inambao, Mubiana; Sanders, Eduard J; Anzala, Omu; Latka, Mary H; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Asiki, Gershim; Ssetaala, Ali; Ruzagira, Eugene; Allen, Susan; Farmer, Paul; Hunter, Eric; Mutua, Gaudensia; Makkan, Heeran; Tichacek, Amanda; Brill, Ilene K; Fast, Pat; Stevens, Gwynn; Chetty, Paramesh; Amornkul, Pauli N; Gilmour, Jill

    2015-01-01

    HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner.

  16. Training Union Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Edward

    1974-01-01

    The Union Leadership Academy (ULA) combines Pennsylvania State, Rutgers, West Virginia, and Atlantic Community College, 3 departments of the ALL-CIO, and 12 unions into an innovative curriculum covering aspects of labor law, union administration, and labor history. (Author/PG)

  17. Super Quantum Discord for X-type States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Ma, Teng; Wang, Yaokun; Fei, Shaoming; Wang, Zhixi

    2015-02-01

    Weak measurement is a new way to manipulate and control quantum systems. Different from projection measurement, weak measurement only makes a small change in status. Applying weak measurement to quantum discord, Singh and Pati proposed a new kind of quantum correlations called "super quantum discord (SQD)" [Ann. Phys. 343,141(2014)].Unfortunately, the super quantum discord is also difficult to calculate. There are only few explicit formulae about SQD. We derive an analytical formula of SQD for general X-type two-qubit states, which surpass the conclusion for Werner states and Bell diagonal states. Furthermore, our results reveal more knowledge about the new insight of quantum correlation and give a new way to compare SQD with normal quantum discord. Finally, we analyze its dynamics under nondissipative channels.

  18. Quantum Entanglement and Quantum Discord in Gaussian Open Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Isar, Aurelian

    2011-10-03

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable quantum entanglement and quantum discord for a system consisting of two noninteracting modes embedded in a thermal environment. Entanglement and discord are used to quantify the quantum correlations of the system. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable Gaussian state remains separable for all times. In the case of an entangled initial Gaussian state, entanglement suppression (entanglement sudden death) takes place for non-zero temperatures of the environment. Only for a zero temperature of the thermal bath the initial entangled state remains entangled for finite times. We analyze the time evolution of the Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the bipartite state, including entanglement, and show that quantum discord decays asymptotically in time under the effect of the thermal bath.

  19. Discordance between genotypic resistance and pseudovirus phenotypic resistance in AIDS patients after long-term antiretroviral therapy and virological failure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Geng, Wenqing; Zhang, Min; Han, Xiaoxu; Shang, Hong

    2014-10-01

    Sixteen original recombinant pseudoviruses were generated by cloning the reverse transcriptase and protease genes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 from patients into a plasmid vector (pNL4-3-ΔE-EGFP). By site-directed mutagenesis two restriction endonuclease sites, ApaI and AgeI, were inserted into pNL4-3-ΔE-EGFP. Phenotypic susceptibility of recombinant pseudoviruses to five different classes of antiretroviral drugs was determined using a luciferase reporter assay system. The results were subjected to comparative analyses to detect genotype-phenotype associations. Among 16 strains tested, 12 strains had a discordant genotype-phenotype resistance pattern to at least one drug. In five strains resistance to two, in two strains to three, and in one strain resistance to four drugs was detected. HIV resistance genotyping could predict the phenotype for nevirapine and azidothymidine. For lamivudine, 2'-3'-didehydro-2'-3'dideoxythymidine and didanosine, phenotypic resistance testing was necessary. The study showed that in patients who experienced long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy and virological failure, there is some discordance between genotypic and phenotypic HIV drug resistance. To address the issue of limited resources in China, genotypic and phenotypic resistance testing should be done for different drugs in order to guide clinical therapy more effectively.

  20. Dichorionic twin pregnancy discordant for fetal anencephaly: a case report.

    PubMed

    Taşcı, Yasemin; Karasu, Yetkin; Erten, Ozlem; Karadağ, Burak; Göktolga, Umit

    2012-01-01

    Dichorionic twin pregnancy discordant for fetal anencephaly is a serious condition that threatens the normal co-twin's life by causing polyhydramniosis, preterm labor and sudden death of one or both of the fetuses. We report a case of dichorionic twin pregnancy discordant for fetal anencephaly delivered at the 32(nd) week of gestation because of preterm labor and nonreassuring fetal monitoring. The aim of this case report is to summarize management options in this situation.

  1. Total lymphoid irradiation and discordant cardiac xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, E.; Dresdale, A.R.; Diehl, J.T.; Katzen, N.A.; Aronovitz, M.J.; Konstam, M.A.; Payne, D.D.; Cleveland, R.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation can prolong concordant cardiac xenografts. The effects of total lymphoid irradiation in a discordant xenograft model (guinea pig to rat) were studied with and without adjuvant pharmacologic immunosuppression. Inbred Lewis rats were randomly allocated to one of four groups. Group 1 (n = 6) served as a control group and rats received no immunosuppression. Group 2 (n = 5) received triple-drug therapy that consisted of intraperitoneal azathioprine (2 mg/kg), cyclosporine (20 mg/kg), and methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg) for 1 week before transplantation. Group 3 animals (n = 5) received 15 Gy of total lymphoid irradiation in 12 divided doses over a 3-week period. Group 4 (n = 6) received both triple-drug therapy and total lymphoid irradiation as described for groups 2 and 3. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay was performed to determine if a correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and rejection-free interval existed. Rejection was defined as cessation of graft pulsation and was confirmed by histologic test results. Only groups 1 and 2 showed a difference in survival (group 1, 6.9 +/- 1.0 minutes; group 2, 14.2 +/- 2.7 minutes, p = 0.02). Although total lymphoid irradiation did decrease complement-dependent cytotoxicity, linear regression revealed no correlation between complement-dependent cytotoxicity and graft survival (coefficient of correlation, 0.30). Unlike concordant cardiac xenografts, total lymphoid irradiation with or without triple-drug therapy does not prolong graft survival.

  2. Quantum discord of bipartite entangled non-linear coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, E.; Zambrano, A.; Ladera, C. L.; Gómez, R.

    2013-11-01

    Quantum discord measures the fraction of the pair-wise mutual information that is locally inaccessible in a multipartite system. Nonzero quantum discord has interesting and significant applications because although non-zero entanglement guarantees the existence of quantum correlation in a bipartite quantum system, zero entanglement does not guarantee the absence of a quantum correlation. On the other hand, many quantum optics systems can be described as deformed quantum oscillators. In this work, we investigate the quantum discord of bipartite entangled nonlinear coherent states, in the context of the so-called f-deformed coherent states algebra. To calculate the quantum discord, we consider quasi- Werner mixed states bases on bipartite entangled f-deformed coherent states. Two explicit analytic expressions are derived for the quantum discord of two different nonlinear deformed coherent states. The first one considers deformed coherent states obtained as eigenstates of the annihilation deformed operator, and the second one is obtained by using a deformed displacement operator. We compare the quantum discord of those states, when the nonlinear deformation function is either associated with the SU(1,1) coherent states in the Gilmore-Perelomov or Barut-Girardello representations, respectively.

  3. Steady state quantum discord for circularly accelerated atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jiawei; Yu, Hongwei

    2015-12-15

    We study, in the framework of open quantum systems, the dynamics of quantum entanglement and quantum discord of two mutually independent circularly accelerated two-level atoms in interaction with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar fields in the Minkowski vacuum. We assume that the two atoms rotate synchronically with their separation perpendicular to the rotating plane. The time evolution of the quantum entanglement and quantum discord of the two-atom system is investigated. For a maximally entangled initial state, the entanglement measured by concurrence diminishes to zero within a finite time, while the quantum discord can either decrease monotonically to an asymptotic value or diminish to zero at first and then followed by a revival depending on whether the initial state is antisymmetric or symmetric. When both of the two atoms are initially excited, the generation of quantum entanglement shows a delayed feature, while quantum discord is created immediately. Remarkably, the quantum discord for such a circularly accelerated two-atom system takes a nonvanishing value in the steady state, and this is distinct from what happens in both the linear acceleration case and the case of static atoms immersed in a thermal bath.

  4. Sexual Orientation Discordance and Young Adult Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Lourie, Michael A; Needham, Belinda L

    2016-08-01

    During the course of sexual development, many people experience dissonance between dimensions of sexual orientation, including attraction, behavior, and identity. This study assesses the relationship between sexual orientation discordance and mental health. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 8,915; female = 54.62 %; non-Hispanic black = 18.83 %, Hispanic = 14.91 %, other race (non-white) = 10.79 %). Multivariable linear regression evaluated the correlation between sexual orientation discordance and perceived stress and depressive symptomatology. Models were stratified by sex and sexual identity. Among self-identified heterosexual females and mostly heterosexual males, sexual orientation discordance predicted significantly increased depressive symptomatology. No other subpopulation demonstrated a significant correlation between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology or perceived stress. The association between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology suggests a link between sexuality, self-concept, and mental health.

  5. Effective computation of quantum discord in a multiqubit spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyavskiy, A.

    2016-12-01

    Quantum discord is a non-classical correlation beyond quantum entanglement, which is a possible resource for quantum information technologies. The computation of quantum discord is a difficult problem due to the necessity of global optimization. We present the original semi-algebraic method for the effective computation of discord in the multi-qubit spin chain interacting with the impurity spin. We use the random mutations algorithm in a non-standard way: not for the minimization, but for the verification of inequalities. More specifically, we use it to check the constancy condition of the minimum of conditional entropy. After that, the discord can be calculated effectively by the algebraic procedures, and we construct the discord surface for different values of the structural parameter of the model. The considered approach for the verification of inequalities by global optimization algorithms can be used in a wide variety of applications, especially, in the theory of quantum correlations, which contains a lot of definitions based on minimums and maximums.

  6. Experimental estimation of discord in an antiferromagnetic Heisenberg compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H.; Chakraborty, T.; Panigrahi, P. K.; Mitra, C.

    2015-03-01

    Temperature-dependent static magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity data were employed to quantify quantum discord in copper nitrate which is a spin 1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg system. With the help of existing theoretical formulations, quantum discord, mutual information, and purely classical correlation were estimated as a function of temperature using the experimental data. The experimentally quantified correlations estimated from susceptibility and heat capacity data are consistent with each other, and they exhibit a good match with theoretical predictions. Violation of Bell's inequality was also checked using the static magnetic susceptibility as well as heat capacity data. Quantum discord estimated from magnetic susceptibility as well as heat capacity data is found to be present in the thermal states of the system even when the system is in a separable state.

  7. Post-Markovian dynamics of quantum correlations: entanglement versus discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, Hamidreza

    2017-02-01

    Dynamics of an open two-qubit system is investigated in the post-Markovian regime, where the environments have a short-term memory. Each qubit is coupled to separate environment which is held in its own temperature. The inter-qubit interaction is modeled by XY-Heisenberg model in the presence of spin-orbit interaction and inhomogeneous magnetic field. The dynamical behavior of entanglement and discord has been considered. The results show that quantum discord is more robust than quantum entanglement, during the evolution. Also the asymmetric feature of quantum discord can be monitored by introducing the asymmetries due to inhomogeneity of magnetic field and temperature difference between the reservoirs. By employing proper parameters of the model, it is possible to maintain nonvanishing quantum correlation at high degree of temperature. The results can provide a useful recipe for studying dynamical behavior of two-qubit systems such as trapped spin electrons in coupled quantum dots.

  8. Unification of different views of decoherence and discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Patrick J.

    2012-04-01

    Macroscopic behavior such as the lack of interference patterns has been attributed to “decoherence,” a word with several possible definitions such as (1) the loss of off-diagonal density matrix elements, (2) the flow of information to the environment, (3) the loss of complementary information, and (4) the loss of the ability to create entanglement in a measurement. In this article, we attempt to unify these distinct definitions by providing general quantitative connections between them, valid for all finite-dimensional quantum systems or quantum processes. The most important application of our results is to the understanding of quantum discord, a measure of the nonclassicality of the correlations between quantum systems. We show that some popular measures of discord measure the information missing from the purifying system and hence quantify security, which can be stated operationally in terms of distillable secure bits. The results also give some strategies for constructing discord measures.

  9. Sex therapy: an adjunct in the treatment of marital discord.

    PubMed

    Mobarak, A; Tamerin, J S; Tamerin, N G

    1986-01-01

    This is a pilot project where sex therapy format was used in a group setting for the treatment of six married couples who had severe marital discord. None of the patients had a diagnosable sexual dysfunction, but sexual dissatisfaction was one of the common universal complaints. The article describes the treatment format and the clinical progress of the couples. In spite of the fact that the couples' marital discord has been refractory to prior therapy, there has been an overall improvement in their marriage as their sexuality improved. Possible therapeutic factors which led to this improvement are addressed. Despite limitations in patients' sampling and size, the results have been promising enough to encourage others to explore this modality as an alternative or adjunctive treatment for couples with severe marital discord and sexual dissatisfaction who have been refractory to unstructured traditional therapy.

  10. Predicting discordance between self-reports of sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections with African American female adolescents: results from a 4-city study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Salazar, Laura F; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Brown, Larry K; Romer, Daniel; Valois, Robert F; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-08-01

    This study examined correlates of the discordance between sexual behavior self-reports and Incident Sexually Transmitted Infections. African American adolescent females (N = 964) from four U.S. cities were recruited for an HIV/STI prevention trial. Self-reported sexual behaviors, demographics, and hypothesized psychosocial antecedents of sexual risk behavior were collected at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up assessments. Urine specimens were collected and tested for three prevalent STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomonas) at each assessment. Seventeen percent of participants with a laboratory-confirmed STI reported either lifetime abstinence or recent abstinence from vaginal sex (discordant self-report). Lower STI knowledge, belief that fewer peers were engaging in sex, and belief that more peers will wait until marriage to have sex were associated with discordant reports. Discordance between self-reported abstinence and incident STIs was marked among African American female adolescents. Lack of STI knowledge and sexual behavior peer norms may result in underreporting of sexual behaviors.

  11. Soviet Union`s Nuclear Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    Glasnost has dramatically increased the availability of information about the Soviet Union`s nuclear industry. In the future, even more information is likely to become known as Soviet participation in international forums increases. Not only is much more general information now available, but up-to-date details are regularly provided, including information such as the Soviet nuclear industry`s strategic direction and goals, recent reactor design changes, safety inspection results, and reports of public opposition and protest. This article summarizes the current status of the Soviet nuclear power program, reconciling the often conflicting reports from various public sources.

  12. Sexual discordance and sexual partnering among heterosexual women.

    PubMed

    Nield, Jennifer; Magnusson, Brianna; Brooks, Christopher; Chapman, Derek; Lapane, Kate L

    2015-05-01

    This study examined characteristics of self-identified heterosexual women who were concordant or discordant in their sexual behavior and the association of discordance and sexual partnering among those aged 15-44 years from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (n = 7,353). Sexual concordance was defined as reporting a heterosexual identity and no female partners in the past year; discordance was reporting a heterosexual identity and having at least one female partner in the past year. Sexual partnering was defined as being concurrent, serially monogamous or monogamous with a male partner in the previous year. Polytomous logistic regression models evaluated the association between sexual discordance and sexual partnering. Among self-identified heterosexual, sexually active women, 11.2 % reported ever having had a same sex partner. Heterosexually discordant women who had both male and female partners in the previous year were 5.5 times as likely to report having a concurrent relationship (95 % CI 2.77-11.09) and 2.4 times as likely to report engaging in serially monogamous relationships (95 % CI 1.19-4.97) with male partners. Discordance between heterosexual identity and same sex behavior is a factor in risky behaviors. Women who have sex with women and men may act as bridges for the transmission of STDs, particularly to their female partners. Sexual education should include information inclusive of non-heteronormative behaviors and identities to provide sexual minorities with the tools and information they need. Clinical guidelines should ensure that all women are offered counseling and screening for reproductive and sexual health.

  13. 2012 HIV Diagnostics Conference: the molecular diagnostics perspective.

    PubMed

    Branson, Bernard M; Pandori, Mark

    2013-04-01

    2012 HIV Diagnostic Conference Atlanta, GA, USA, 12-14 December 2012. This report highlights the presentations and discussions from the 2012 National HIV Diagnostic Conference held in Atlanta (GA, USA), on 12-14 December 2012. Reflecting changes in the evolving field of HIV diagnostics, the conference provided a forum for evaluating developments in molecular diagnostics and their role in HIV diagnosis. In 2010, the HIV Diagnostics Conference concluded with the proposal of a new diagnostic algorithm which included nucleic acid testing to resolve discordant screening and supplemental antibody test results. The 2012 meeting, picking up where the 2010 meeting left off, focused on scientific presentations that assessed this new algorithm and the role played by RNA testing and new developments in molecular diagnostics, including detection of total and integrated HIV-1 DNA, detection and quantification of HIV-2 RNA, and rapid formats for detection of HIV-1 RNA.

  14. Predictors of First Follow-Up HIV Testing for Couples’ Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing in Ndola, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Czaicki, Nancy L; Davitte, Jonathan; Siangonya, Bella; Kastner, Randee; Ahmed, Nurilign; Khu, Naw Htee; Kuo, Wan Hsuan; Abdallah, Joseph; Wall, Kristin M; Tichacek, Amanda; Inambao, Mubiana; Simpungwe, Kakungu; Thior, Ibou; Allen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We describe predictors of first follow-up testing for concordant negative and discordant couples seeking joint voluntary HIV counseling and testing in Ndola, Zambia, where cohabiting couples account for an estimated two-thirds of incident HIV infections. Methods Demographic and serostatus data were collected from couples’ voluntary HIV testing and counseling (CVCT) and follow-up testing services implemented in government clinics. We calculated follow-up testing rates by serostatus and compared rates before and after the introduction of a Good Health Package (GHP). Results The follow-up testing rate from May 2011 to December 2012 was 12.2% for concordant negative (M−F−) couples and 24.5% for discordant (M+F− or M−F+) couples. Significant predictors of follow-up testing in multivariate analyses included increasing man’s (aOR=1.02 per year) and woman’s (aOR=1.02) age, the man being HIV+ (aOR=2.57), and the woman being HIV+ (aOR=1.89). The man (aOR=1.29) and the couple (aOR=1.22) having been previously tested for HIV were predictive of follow-up testing among concordant negative couples. Introduction of a GHP increased follow-up testing among discordant (aOR=2.93) and concordant negative (aOR=2.06) couples. Conclusion A low-cost GHP including prevention, screening, and treatment for common causes of morbidity and mortality resulted in increased follow-up testing rates among HIV discordant and concordant negative couples. Overall follow-up testing rates remain low and efforts to increase these rates are necessary in order to ensure linkage to combination prevention, reduce HIV transmission within couples and identify seroconversions promptly. Further investigation of low-cost sustainable incentives and other factors influencing follow-up HIV testing for couples is needed. PMID:24326600

  15. Teacher Unions 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppich, Julia E.

    2012-01-01

    Teacher unions are hard to miss in the news lately. Newspapers, blogs, social media posts, magazine articles, and political speeches abound with talk of them. Teacher unions are a hot topic and one that probably was not covered in college classes. The noisy back-and-forth among partisans can be both mind-numbing and confusing, often creating a…

  16. Power in a Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pam

    2009-01-01

    The work unions do in providing and supporting learning for their members rarely makes the news headlines, but it will be essential if people are to engage those workers who most need to acquire new and better skills to cope in the economic downturn. In this article, the author talks about the power in a union and describes UNISON, a comparatively…

  17. Unions, Contractors and CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosz, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    Across Illinois, in places where unions thrive, construction industry professionals and career and technical education (CTE) teachers are working together in promoting work-based learning program to students. Likewise, the outreach program provides union-supported contractors with qualified candidates for future employment. Programs such as the…

  18. Sustainability in the Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patrick; Taylor, John

    2012-01-01

    Operating as the center of student life, college unions have a central role to teach citizenship, social responsibility, and leadership. Unions can serve as locations for education and conversations about sustainability, as well as for organizations operationally and programmatically engaged in sustainable practices. In this chapter, the authors…

  19. Soviet Union, Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    agency of the Soviet Union. Permission for further reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. SOVIET UNION MILITARY AFFAIRS CONTENTS...internationalists, it has always embodied the inviolable friendship of the peoples of the USSR. But are some of us not hypnotized by this principle

  20. Quantification of quantum discord in a antiferromagnetic Heisenberg compound

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, H. Chakraborty, T. Mitra, C.

    2014-04-24

    An experimental quantification of concurrence and quantum discord from heat capacity (C{sub p}) measurement performed over a solid state system has been reported. In this work, thermodynamic measurements were performed on copper nitrate (CN, Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}⋅2.5H{sub 2}O) single crystals which is an alternating antiferromagnet Heisenberg spin 1/2 system. CN being a weak dimerized antiferromagnet is an ideal system to investigate correlations between spins. The theoretical expressions were used to obtain concurrence and quantum discord curves as a function of temperature from heat capacity data of a real macroscopic system, CN.

  1. Discordant sex in one of three monozygotic triplets.

    PubMed Central

    Dallapiccola, B; Stomeo, C; Ferranti, G; Di Lecce, A; Purpura, M

    1985-01-01

    A case is reported of monozygotic triplets, discordant for phenotypic sex, in which the female presented at birth with the features of Turner's syndrome. Chromosomal analyses showed homogeneous 46,XY karyotypes in the lymphocytes of the three sibs, while a 45,X non-mosaic chromosome constitution was detected in skin fibroblasts of the female triplet. It is suggested that mitotic non-disjunction or anaphase lag occurring early during embryonic development accounted for the occurrence of monosomy X in one cell line of the affected triplet. Previous observations of monozygotic twin pairs discordant for chromosome constitutions are reviewed. Images PMID:3856681

  2. Marital Discord and Subsequent Marital Dissolution: Perceptions of Nepalese Wives and Husbands

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Elyse

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of marital discord on separation and divorce in a rural South Asian setting. We know little about how marital discord influences marital outcomes in settings with low personal freedom and limited access to independence. Using a sample of 674 couples from the Chitwan Valley Family Study in Nepal, this paper investigates the impact of marital discord on the rate of marital dissolution, and the extent to which wives’ and husbands’ perceptions of discord influence dissolution. Results reveal that (a) spouses’ perceptions of marital discord increase the rate of marital dissolution, (b) both husbands’ and wives’ perceptions of discord have an important influence, and (c) the influence of wives’ perceptions of discord is independent of their husbands’ perceptions. Overall, these findings suggest that both spouses’ perceptions of discord are important for marital outcomes, even in settings where the costs of marital dissolution are relatively high. PMID:25484450

  3. HIV testing and risk behaviors among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men - United States.

    PubMed

    2013-11-29

    The burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). High HIV prevalence, lack of awareness of HIV-positive status, unprotected anal sex, and increased viral load among HIV-positive MSM not on antiretroviral treatment contribute substantially to new infections among this population. CDC analyzed data from the National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS) to estimate the percentage of HIV diagnoses among MSM by area of residence and data from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) to estimate unprotected anal sex in the past 12 months among MSM in 2005, 2008, and 2011; unprotected discordant anal sex at last sex (i.e., with a partner of opposite or unknown HIV status) in 2008 and 2011; and HIV testing history and the percentage HIV-positive but unaware of their HIV status by the time since their last HIV test in 2011. This report describes the results of these analyses. In all but two states, the majority of new HIV diagnoses were among MSM in 2011. Unprotected anal sex at least once in the past 12 months increased from 48% in 2005 to 57% in 2011 (p<0.001). The percentage engaging in unprotected discordant anal sex was 13% in 2008 and 2011. In 2011, 33% of HIV-positive but unaware MSM reported unprotected discordant anal sex. Among MSM with negative or unknown HIV status, 67% had an HIV test in the past 12 months. Among those tested recently, the percentage HIV-positive but unaware of their infection was 4%, 5%, and 7% among those tested in the past ≤3, 4-6, and 7-12 months, respectively. Expanded efforts are needed to reduce HIV risk behaviors and to promote at least annual HIV testing among MSM.

  4. Spatial Patterns in Discordant Diagnostic Test Results for Chagas Disease: Links to Transmission Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael Z.; Bowman, Natalie M.; Kawai, Vivian; Plotkin, Joshua B.; Waller, Lance A.; Cabrera, Lilia; Steurer, Frank; Seitz, Amy E.; Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana V.; Carpio, Juan Geny Cornejo del; Benzaquen, Eleazar Cordova; McKenzie, F. Ellis; Maguire, James H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2009-01-01

    Diagnosis of Chagas disease is hindered by discordance between screening and confirmatory test results for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In periurban Arequipa, Peru, spatial analysis revealed that individuals with discordant test results are spatially clustered in hotspots of T. cruzi transmission, suggesting that discordant results likely represent true infections in this setting. PMID:19278335

  5. Spatial patterns in discordant diagnostic test results for Chagas disease: links to transmission hotspots.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael Z; Bowman, Natalie M; Kawai, Vivian; Plotkin, Joshua B; Waller, Lance A; Cabrera, Lilia; Steurer, Frank; Seitz, Amy E; Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana V; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan Geny; Cordova Benzaquen, Eleazar; McKenzie, F Ellis; Maguire, James H; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2009-04-15

    Diagnosis of Chagas disease is hindered by discordance between screening and confirmatory test results for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In periurban Arequipa, Peru, spatial analysis revealed that individuals with discordant test results are spatially clustered in hotspots of T. cruzi transmission, suggesting that discordant results likely represent true infections in this setting.

  6. Interparental Conflict and the Children of Discord and Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    Data on the relation between marital turmoil (i.e., discord and divorce) and behavior problems in children are reviewed. Several parameters of this relation are outlined, including type of marital turmoil, form of the child's behavioral response, sex differences, age effects, parental buffering, and effects of parental psychopathology. (Author/MP)

  7. Marital Discord and Marital Separation: A County Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitson, Gay C.

    1985-01-01

    Explored the frequency of marital separations of 48 hours or more due to marital discord in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, residents (N=1,101). Results indicated one in six couples is likely to separate at some point in their relationship. Income and children account for much of the variation between race, sex, and separations. (Author/BL)

  8. A NOVEL SAFER CONCEPTION COUNSELING TOOLKIT FOR THE PREVENTION OF HIV: A MIXED-METHODS EVALUATION IN KISUMU, KENYA

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Joelle; Njoroge, Betty; Akama, Eliud; Breitnauer, Brooke; Leddy, Anna; Darbes, Lynae; Omondi, Richard; Mmeje, Okeoma

    2017-01-01

    Safer conception strategies can prevent HIV transmission between HIV-discordant partners while allowing them to conceive. However, HIV care providers in sub-Saharan Africa report they are not trained in safer conception, and patients are not routinely offered safer conception services. This mixed-methods pilot study evaluated the impact, acceptability, and feasibility of a novel Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit among providers and patients in Kenya. We enrolled 20 HIV-positive women, 10 HIV-discordant couples, and 10 providers from HIV care and treatment clinics. Providers completed questionnaires before/after training, and then counseled HIV-affected patients. Change in patient knowledge was assessed before/after counseling. Qualitative interviews were conducted among providers and patients. The Toolkit was associated with large, significant increases in patient knowledge, and provider confidence, knowledge, and favorable attitudes toward safer conception counseling; 20% felt confident before versus 100% after training (p < 0.01). PMID:27925487

  9. West Union Green Downtown

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    West Union, Iowa, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  10. Comparison of the attempts of quantum discord and quantum entanglement to capture quantum correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Qasimi, Asma Al-; James, Daniel F. V.

    2011-03-15

    Measurements of quantum systems disturb their states. To quantify this nonclassical characteristic, Zurek and Ollivier [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 017901 (2001)] introduced the quantum discord, a quantum correlation that can be nonzero even when entanglement in the system is zero. Discord has aroused great interest as a resource that is more robust against the effects of decoherence and offers the exponential speed-up of certain computational algorithms. Here, we study general two-level bipartite systems and give general results on the relationship between discord, entanglement, and linear entropy. We also identify the states for which discord takes a maximal value for a given entropy or entanglement, thus placing strong bounds on entanglement-discord and entropy-discord relations. We find out that although discord and entanglement are identical for pure states, they differ when generalized to mixed states as a result of the difference in the method of generalization.

  11. HIV Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English Transmisión del VIH Recommend on ...

  12. Gaussian geometric discord in terms of Hellinger distance

    SciTech Connect

    Suciu, Serban Isar, Aurelian

    2015-12-07

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we address the quantification of general non-classical correlations in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems from a geometric perspective. We give a description of the Gaussian geometric discord by using the Hellinger distance as a measure for quantum correlations between two non-interacting non-resonant bosonic modes embedded in a thermal environment. We evaluate the Gaussian geometric discord by taking two-mode squeezed thermal states as initial states of the system and show that it has finite values between 0 and 1 and that it decays asymptotically to zero in time under the effect of the thermal bath.

  13. Entanglement and discord assisted entropic uncertainty relations under decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, ChunMei; Chen, ZhiHua; Ma, ZhiHao; Severini, Simone; Serafini, Alessio

    2014-09-01

    The uncertainty principle is a crucial aspect of quantum mechanics. It has been shown that quantum entanglement as well as more general notions of correlations, such as quantum discord, can relax or tighten the entropic uncertainty relation in the presence of an ancillary system. We explored the behaviour of entropic uncertainty relations for system of two qubits-one of which subjects to several forms of independent quantum noise, in both Markovian and non-Markovian regimes. The uncertainties and their lower bounds, identified by the entropic uncertainty relations, increase under independent local unital Markovian noisy channels, but they may decrease under non-unital channels. The behaviour of the uncertainties (and lower bounds) exhibit periodical oscillations due to correlation dynamics under independent non-Markovian reservoirs. In addition, we compare different entropic uncertainty relations in several special cases and find that discord-tightened entropic uncertainty relations offer in general a better estimate of the uncertainties in play.

  14. Complementarity of quantum discord and classically accessible information

    SciTech Connect

    Zwolak, Michael P.; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2013-05-20

    The sum of the Holevo quantity (that bounds the capacity of quantum channels to transmit classical information about an observable) and the quantum discord (a measure of the quantumness of correlations of that observable) yields an observable-independent total given by the quantum mutual information. This split naturally delineates information about quantum systems accessible to observers – information that is redundantly transmitted by the environment – while showing that it is maximized for the quasi-classical pointer observable. Other observables are accessible only via correlations with the pointer observable. In addition, we prove an anti-symmetry property relating accessible information and discord. It shows that information becomes objective – accessible to many observers – only as quantum information is relegated to correlations with the global environment, and, therefore, locally inaccessible. Lastly, the resulting complementarity explains why, in a quantum Universe, we perceive objective classical reality while flagrantly quantum superpositions are out of reach.

  15. Complementarity of quantum discord and classically accessible information

    DOE PAGES

    Zwolak, Michael P.; Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2013-05-20

    The sum of the Holevo quantity (that bounds the capacity of quantum channels to transmit classical information about an observable) and the quantum discord (a measure of the quantumness of correlations of that observable) yields an observable-independent total given by the quantum mutual information. This split naturally delineates information about quantum systems accessible to observers – information that is redundantly transmitted by the environment – while showing that it is maximized for the quasi-classical pointer observable. Other observables are accessible only via correlations with the pointer observable. In addition, we prove an anti-symmetry property relating accessible information and discord. Itmore » shows that information becomes objective – accessible to many observers – only as quantum information is relegated to correlations with the global environment, and, therefore, locally inaccessible. Lastly, the resulting complementarity explains why, in a quantum Universe, we perceive objective classical reality while flagrantly quantum superpositions are out of reach.« less

  16. People living with HIV in Estonia: engagement in HIV care in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Lutsar, Irja; Uusküla, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Estonia had the highest rate of newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases in the European Union (24.6/100,000) and an estimated adult HIV prevalence of 1.3% in 2013. HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is free of charge for people living with HIV (PLHIV). To maximise the health benefits of HIV treatment, universal access should be achieved. Using data from surveillance and administrative databases and the treatment cascade model, we assessed the number of people infected with HIV, diagnosed with HIV, linked to HIV care, retained in HIV care, on ART, and with suppressed viral load (HIV-RNA: < 200 copies/mL). We identified that about one quarter of the 8,628 HIV-positive people estimated to live in Estonia in 2013 had not been diagnosed with HIV, and another quarter, although aware of their HIV-positive serostatus, had not accessed HIV medical care. Although altogether only 12–15% of all PLHIV in Estonia had achieved viral suppression, the main gap in HIV care in Estonia were the 58% of PLHIV who had accessed HIV medical care at least once after diagnosis but were not retained in care in 2013. PMID:27813471

  17. People living with HIV in Estonia: engagement in HIV care in 2013.

    PubMed

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Lutsar, Irja; Uusküla, Anneli

    2016-10-27

    Estonia had the highest rate of newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases in the European Union (24.6/100,000) and an estimated adult HIV prevalence of 1.3% in 2013. HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is free of charge for people living with HIV (PLHIV). To maximise the health benefits of HIV treatment, universal access should be achieved. Using data from surveillance and administrative databases and the treatment cascade model, we assessed the number of people infected with HIV, diagnosed with HIV, linked to HIV care, retained in HIV care, on ART, and with suppressed viral load (HIV-RNA: < 200 copies/mL). We identified that about one quarter of the 8,628 HIV-positive people estimated to live in Estonia in 2013 had not been diagnosed with HIV, and another quarter, although aware of their HIV-positive serostatus, had not accessed HIV medical care. Although altogether only 12-15% of all PLHIV in Estonia had achieved viral suppression, the main gap in HIV care in Estonia were the 58% of PLHIV who had accessed HIV medical care at least once after diagnosis but were not retained in care in 2013.

  18. Methylomic analysis of monozygotic twins discordant for childhood psychotic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Helen L; Murphy, Therese M; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Viana, Joana; Hannon, Eilis; Pidsley, Ruth; Burrage, Joe; Dempster, Emma L; Wong, Chloe C Y; Pariante, Carmine M; Mill, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood psychotic symptoms are associated with increased rates of schizophrenia, other psychiatric disorders, and suicide attempts in adulthood; thus, elucidating early risk indicators is crucial to target prevention efforts. There is considerable discordance for psychotic symptoms between monozygotic twins, indicating that child-specific non-genetic factors must be involved. Epigenetic processes may constitute one of these factors and have not yet been investigated in relation to childhood psychotic symptoms. Therefore, this study explored whether differences in DNA methylation at age 10 were associated with monozygotic twin discordance for psychotic symptoms at age 12. The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study cohort of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) was assessed for age-12 psychotic symptoms and 24 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for symptoms were identified for methylomic comparison. Children provided buccal samples at ages 5 and 10. DNA was bisulfite modified and DNA methylation was quantified using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 array. Differentially methylated positions (DMPs) associated with psychotic symptoms were subsequently tested in post-mortem prefrontal cortex tissue from adult schizophrenia patients and age-matched controls. Site-specific DNA methylation differences were observed at age 10 between monozygotic twins discordant for age-12 psychotic symptoms. Similar DMPs were not found at age 5. The top-ranked psychosis-associated DMP (cg23933044), located in the promoter of the C5ORF42 gene, was also hypomethylated in post-mortem prefrontal cortex brain tissue from schizophrenia patients compared to unaffected controls. These data tentatively suggest that epigenetic variation in peripheral tissue is associated with childhood psychotic symptoms and may indicate susceptibility to schizophrenia and other mental health problems.

  19. Discordant Dry Eye Disease (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Shtein, Roni M.; Harper, Daniel E.; Pallazola, Vincent; Harte, Steven E.; Hussain, Munira; Sugar, Alan; Williams, David A.; Clauw, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To improve understanding of dry eye disease and highlight a subgroup of patients who have a component of central sensitization and neuropathic pain contributing to their condition. Methods Prospective, cross-sectional, IRB-approved study comparing isolated dry eye disease (n=48) to fibromyalgia (positive control; n=23) and healthy (negative control; n=26) individuals with ocular surface examination, corneal confocal microscopy, quantitative sensory testing, and self-reported ocular symptoms and systemic associations. A subset of patients also underwent skin biopsy and/or brain neuroimaging. Dry eye patients were split into concordant (ie, those with dry eyes on examination) and discordant (ie, those with dry eye symptoms but normal examination) subgroups for further analysis. We hypothesized that on the systemic measures included, concordant patients would resemble healthy controls, whereas discordant patients would show evidence of centralized mechanisms similar to fibromyalgia. Results Schirmer test and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores indicated significant decreases in tear production (Schirmer: healthy, 18.5±8.2 mm; dry, 11.2±5.4 mm; fibromyalgia, 14.4±7.5; P<.001) and increases in self-reported dry eye symptoms (OSDI: healthy, 1.9±3.0; dry, 20.3±17.7; fibromyalgia, 20.3±17.1; P<.001) in the dry eye and fibromyalgia patients, compared to controls. The discordant subgroup had decreased corneal nerve density and decreased visual quality-of-life scores, similar to patients with fibromyalgia. Concordant patients were more similar to healthy controls on these measures. Conclusions Individuals with discordant dry eye may have a central pathophysiologic mechanism leading to their eye pain symptoms, which could be an important factor to consider in treatment of chronic idiopathic dry eye. PMID:28050051

  20. Relationship satisfaction of HIV-positive Ugandan individuals with HIV-negative partners.

    PubMed

    Pasipanodya, Elizabeth C; Heatherington, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    Challenges of relational coping are well documented in the literature on couples and chronic illnesses, but there is significantly less research on the psychological aspects of couple relationships and HIV, particularly in international contexts. Coping with the uncertainty of illness progression, family planning, disclosure to friends and family, social isolation and stigma, fear of transmission, sexual intimacy, changes to social and physical functioning, and receiving and providing care pose special challenges for couples with discordant HIV statuses. This study examined the correlates of relationship satisfaction in Ugandan HIV-positive individuals seeking treatment at a community clinic. Relationship satisfaction of HIV-positive individuals was uniquely predicted by their couple identity and depression, underscoring the importance of mental and relational health in HIV/AIDS.

  1. Gut microbiomes of Malawian twin pairs discordant for kwashiorkor

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michelle I.; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Manary, Mark J.; Trehan, Indi; Mkakosya, Rajhab; Cheng, Jiye; Kau, Andrew L.; Rich, Stephen S.; Concannon, Patrick; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Liu, Jie; Houpt, Eric; Li, Jia V.; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy; Knights, Dan; Ursell, Luke K.; Knight, Rob; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2013-01-01

    Kwashiorkor, an enigmatic form of severe acute malnutrition, is the consequence of inadequate nutrient intake plus additional environmental insults. To investigate the role of the gut microbiome, we studied 317 Malawian twin pairs during the first 3 years of life. During this time, half of the twin pairs remained well-nourished, while 43% became discordant and 7% manifested concordance for acute malnutrition. Both children in twin pairs discordant for kwashiorkor were treated with a peanut-based, ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF). Time-series metagenomic studies revealed that RUTF produced a transient maturation of metabolic functions in kwashiorkor microbiomes that regressed when RUTF was stopped. Previously frozen fecal communities from several discordant pairs were each transplanted into gnotobiotic mice. The combination of Malawian diet and kwashiorkor microbiome produced marked weight loss in recipient mice, accompanied by perturbations in amino acid, carbohydrate and intermediary metabolism that were only transiently ameliorated with RUTF. These findings implicate the gut microbiome as a causal factor in kwashiorkor. PMID:23363771

  2. Gut microbiomes of Malawian twin pairs discordant for kwashiorkor.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle I; Yatsunenko, Tanya; Manary, Mark J; Trehan, Indi; Mkakosya, Rajhab; Cheng, Jiye; Kau, Andrew L; Rich, Stephen S; Concannon, Patrick; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Liu, Jie; Houpt, Eric; Li, Jia V; Holmes, Elaine; Nicholson, Jeremy; Knights, Dan; Ursell, Luke K; Knight, Rob; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2013-02-01

    Kwashiorkor, an enigmatic form of severe acute malnutrition, is the consequence of inadequate nutrient intake plus additional environmental insults. To investigate the role of the gut microbiome, we studied 317 Malawian twin pairs during the first 3 years of life. During this time, half of the twin pairs remained well nourished, whereas 43% became discordant, and 7% manifested concordance for acute malnutrition. Both children in twin pairs discordant for kwashiorkor were treated with a peanut-based, ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF). Time-series metagenomic studies revealed that RUTF produced a transient maturation of metabolic functions in kwashiorkor gut microbiomes that regressed when administration of RUTF was stopped. Previously frozen fecal communities from several discordant pairs were each transplanted into gnotobiotic mice. The combination of Malawian diet and kwashiorkor microbiome produced marked weight loss in recipient mice, accompanied by perturbations in amino acid, carbohydrate, and intermediary metabolism that were only transiently ameliorated with RUTF. These findings implicate the gut microbiome as a causal factor in kwashiorkor.

  3. Visual Bias Predicts Gait Adaptability in Novel Sensory Discordant Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Batson, Crystal D.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    We designed a gait training study that presented combinations of visual flow and support-surface manipulations to investigate the response of healthy adults to novel discordant sensorimotor conditions. We aimed to determine whether a relationship existed between subjects visual dependence and their postural stability and cognitive performance in a new discordant environment presented at the conclusion of training (Transfer Test). Our training system comprised a treadmill placed on a motion base facing a virtual visual scene that provided a variety of sensory challenges. Ten healthy adults completed 3 training sessions during which they walked on a treadmill at 1.1 m/s while receiving discordant support-surface and visual manipulations. At the first visit, in an analysis of normalized torso translation measured in a scene-movement-only condition, 3 of 10 subjects were classified as visually dependent. During the Transfer Test, all participants received a 2-minute novel exposure. In a combined measure of stride frequency and reaction time, the non-visually dependent subjects showed improved adaptation on the Transfer Test compared to their visually dependent counterparts. This finding suggests that individual differences in the ability to adapt to new sensorimotor conditions may be explained by individuals innate sensory biases. An accurate preflight assessment of crewmembers biases for visual dependence could be used to predict their propensities to adapt to novel sensory conditions. It may also facilitate the development of customized training regimens that could expedite adaptation to alternate gravitational environments.

  4. Union Township Wastewater Treatment Plant - Union Charter Township

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA proposes to reissue a NPDES permit,treated wastewater discharges from the Union Township Wastewater Treatment Plant near Isabella Indian Reservation located in Union Charter Township, Michigan (Isabella County)

  5. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin HIV/AIDS HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is the virus ... HIV/AIDS. Why Is the Study of HIV/AIDS a Priority for NIAID? Nearly 37 million people ...

  6. New Roles for Teachers Unions? Reform Unionism in School Decentralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Mayer, Anysia P.; Cobb, Casey D.; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Welton, Anjale

    2013-01-01

    Of late, teachers unions have worked together with district management in new and notable ways. This paper examines the role of teachers unions in shaping the Together Initiative (TI), which seeks to increase autonomy and broaden decision making in urban schools in one northeastern state. In general, state-level union leaders have taken more…

  7. Unions and Workplace Reorganization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissen, Bruce, Ed.

    The 11 chapters in this book focus on "The New American Workplace" and assess its adequacy or inadequacy as a guide for the U.S. labor movement in relation to new work systems. "Unions and Workplace Reorganization" (Bruce Nissen) introduces the subject. "The New American Workplace: A Labor Perspective" (AFL-CIO Committee on the Evolution of Work,…

  8. Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-05

    Manyukov, S. And the Cherries Are in Blossom Again 21 Merganov, S. Parpishakh—Fighter of the Red Army 21 Novikov, V. The Spectator Does Not...the 20th Komsomol Congress with important labor successes; to take an active part in the 2nd All-Union Festival of Artistic Folk Activities

  9. Marketing the College Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoef, Ted; Howe, Nanci

    Theory underlying marketing in the public sector is presented in combination with specific examples of marketing strategies and techniques used in college unions and student activities programs across the country. The subject of marketing is discussed under six major subject headings: (1) why marketing? (2) analyzing marketing opportunities; (3)…

  10. Trade Union Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  11. Union Proposals for Washington Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, William H.

    1970-01-01

    President of the Washington, D.C. Teachers' Union presents the Union's recommendations for short range solutions to their extensive educational problems in testimony before the Senate Public Health, Education, Welfare, and Safety Committee on the District of Columbia. (DM)

  12. ‘Testing Together Challenges the Relationship’: Consequences of HIV Testing as a Couple in a High HIV Prevalence Setting in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tabana, Hanani; Doherty, Tanya; Rubenson, Birgitta; Jackson, Debra; Ekström, Anna Mia; Thorson, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective We conducted qualitative individual and combined interviews with couples to explore their experiences since the time of taking an HIV test and receiving the test result together, as part of a home-based HIV counselling and testing intervention. Methods This study was conducted in October 2011 in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, about 2 years after couples tested and received results together. Fourteen couples were purposively sampled: discordant, concordant negative and concordant positive couples. Findings Learning about each other’s status together challenged relationships of the couples in different ways depending on HIV status and gender. The mutual information confirmed suspected infidelity that had not been discussed before. Negative women in discordant partnerships remained with their positive partner due to social pressure and struggled to maintain their HIV negative status. Most of the couple relationships were characterized by silence and mistrust. Knowledge of sero-status also led to loss of sexual intimacy in some couples especially the discordant. For most men in concordant negative couples, knowledge of status was an awakening of the importance of fidelity and an opportunity for behaviour change, while for concordant positive and discordant couples, it was seen as proof of infidelity. Although positive HIV status was perceived as confirmation of infidelity, couples continued their relationship and offered some support for each other, living and managing life together. Sexual life in these couples was characterized by conflict and sometimes violence. In the concordant negative couples, trust was enhanced and behaviour change was promised. Conclusions Findings suggest that testing together as couples challenged relationships in both negative and positive ways. Further, knowledge of HIV status indicated potential to influence behaviour change especially among concordant negatives. In the discordant and concordant positive couples

  13. Heterosexual transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A M; Laga, M

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments concerning heterosexual transmission of HIV (review of 1988 literature only) suggest improved understanding of the pattern of spread and role of risk behaviors and biological cofactors in its transmission. 3 distinct patterns if HIV infection are known: heterosexual spread in sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean, spread primarily among homosexuals and injecting drug users in Europe, North American and much of Latin America and Australia, and both homosexual and heterosexual transmission in Asia, the Pacific, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, where prevalence is low. In Africa an estimated 80% of cases are acquired heterosexually. Important risk factors are number of sex partners, sex with prostitutes, being a prostitute, being a sex partner of an infected person, and having a history of other sexually transmitted diseases. Prevalence rates have risen rapidly in Zaire and Kenya. In Africa, acquisition of HIV is related to sexual activity only. In contrast, in the U.S., heterosexual cases make up only 4% of all cases, and in Europe only 6%. Data on types of sexual transmission of HIV are mounting, in aggregate suggestive of a marked heterogeneity in infectivity and possibly susceptibility between individuals. Among couples where the man is positive, in some places individuals appear to be highly infective, notably those from Kinshasa, Zaire and Haiti, while other series of discordant couples the receptive partner remained seronegative for several years. Transmission from women to men appears to be less efficient than from men to women, as has been observed with other STDs such as gonorrhea. Biological cofactors implicated in enhanced HIV transmission appear to be advanced CDC Stage IV AIDS disease, with low T-helper lymphocyte counts and high antigenemia; concomitant STDS, especially those with genital ulceration; lack of circumcision; oral contraceptive use; practice of anal intercourse; inconsistent or no use of condoms. Theoretical models for

  14. Women and Trade Union Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Caroline; Jackson, Judith

    2000-01-01

    Many British unions are failing to attract women members. The General Federal of Trade Unions has begun a women's studies program, offering communication and confidence building, women's history, and other courses that are helping women become involved in union l leadership and decision making. (SK)

  15. Union Members Are Community Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David

    2013-01-01

    Unions serve their members' interests. But union members are also community members, and their interests go well beyond increasing pay and benefits. A local union president has found that his members are best served by participating in a community-wide coalition. Providing eyeglasses to needy students, promoting healthy eating, and increasing…

  16. Gut Microbiota Linked to Sexual Preference and HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Noguera-Julian, Marc; Rocafort, Muntsa; Guillén, Yolanda; Rivera, Javier; Casadellà, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Hildebrand, Falk; Zeller, Georg; Parera, Mariona; Bellido, Rocío; Rodríguez, Cristina; Carrillo, Jorge; Mothe, Beatriz; Coll, Josep; Bravo, Isabel; Estany, Carla; Herrero, Cristina; Saz, Jorge; Sirera, Guillem; Torrela, Ariadna; Navarro, Jordi; Crespo, Manel; Brander, Christian; Negredo, Eugènia; Blanco, Julià; Guarner, Francisco; Calle, Maria Luz; Bork, Peer; Sönnerborg, Anders; Clotet, Bonaventura; Paredes, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The precise effects of HIV-1 on the gut microbiome are unclear. Initial cross-sectional studies provided contradictory associations between microbial richness and HIV serostatus and suggested shifts from Bacteroides to Prevotella predominance following HIV-1 infection, which have not been found in animal models or in studies matched for HIV-1 transmission groups. In two independent cohorts of HIV-1-infected subjects and HIV-1-negative controls in Barcelona (n = 156) and Stockholm (n = 84), men who have sex with men (MSM) predominantly belonged to the Prevotella-rich enterotype whereas most non-MSM subjects were enriched in Bacteroides, independently of HIV-1 status, and with only a limited contribution of diet effects. Moreover, MSM had a significantly richer and more diverse fecal microbiota than non-MSM individuals. After stratifying for sexual orientation, there was no solid evidence of an HIV-specific dysbiosis. However, HIV-1 infection remained consistently associated with reduced bacterial richness, the lowest bacterial richness being observed in subjects with a virological-immune discordant response to antiretroviral therapy. Our findings indicate that HIV gut microbiome studies must control for HIV risk factors and suggest interventions on gut bacterial richness as possible novel avenues to improve HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction. PMID:27077120

  17. Exploring Tripartite Quantum Correlations: Entanglement Witness and Quantum Discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Karimi, N.; Heshmati, A.; Amidi, D.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we explore the tripartite quantum correlations by employing the quantum relative entropy as a distance measure. First, we evaluate the explicit expression for nonlinear entanglement witness (EW) of tripartite systems in the four dimensional space that lends itself to a straightforward algorithm for finding closest separable state (CSS) to the generic state. Then using nonlinear EW with specific feasible regions (FRs), quantum discord is derived analytically for the three-qubit and tripartite systems in the four dimensional space. Furthermore, we explicitly figure out the additivity relation of quantum correlations in tripartite systems.

  18. Global quantum discord and quantum phase transition in XY model

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng

    2015-11-15

    We study the relationship between the behavior of global quantum correlations and quantum phase transitions in XY model. We find that the two kinds of phase transitions in the studied model can be characterized by the features of global quantum discord (GQD) and the corresponding quantum correlations. We demonstrate that the maximum of the sum of all the nearest neighbor bipartite GQDs is effective and accurate for signaling the Ising quantum phase transition, in contrast, the sudden change of GQD is very suitable for characterizing another phase transition in the XY model. This may shed lights on the study of properties of quantum correlations in different quantum phases.

  19. Quantum Discord of 2 n -Dimensional Bell-Diagonal States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Karimi, N.; Amidi, D.; Zahir Olyaei, H.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, using the concept of relative entropy as a distance measure of correlations we investigate the important issue of evaluating quantum correlations such as entanglement, dissonance and classical correlations for 2 n -dimensional Bell-diagonal states. We provide an analytical technique, which describes how we find the closest classical states(CCS) and the closest separable states(CSS) for these states. Then analytical results are obtained for quantum discord of 2 n -dimensional Bell-diagonal states. As illustration, some special cases are examined. Finally, we investigate the additivity relation between the different correlations for the separable generalized Bloch sphere states.

  20. Exploring Tripartite Quantum Correlations: Entanglement Witness and Quantum Discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarizadeh, M. A.; Karimi, N.; Heshmati, A.; Amidi, D.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we explore the tripartite quantum correlations by employing the quantum relative entropy as a distance measure. First, we evaluate the explicit expression for nonlinear entanglement witness (EW) of tripartite systems in the four dimensional space that lends itself to a straightforward algorithm for finding closest separable state (CSS) to the generic state. Then using nonlinear EW with specific feasible regions (FRs), quantum discord is derived analytically for the three-qubit and tripartite systems in the four dimensional space. Furthermore, we explicitly figure out the additivity relation of quantum correlations in tripartite systems.

  1. Quantum discord as a resource for quantum cryptography

    PubMed Central

    Pirandola, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Quantum discord is the minimal bipartite resource which is needed for a secure quantum key distribution, being a cryptographic primitive equivalent to non-orthogonality. Its role becomes crucial in device-dependent quantum cryptography, where the presence of preparation and detection noise (inaccessible to all parties) may be so strong to prevent the distribution and distillation of entanglement. The necessity of entanglement is re-affirmed in the stronger scenario of device-independent quantum cryptography, where all sources of noise are ascribed to the eavesdropper. PMID:25378231

  2. Cretaceous vertical motion of australia and the australian- antarctic discordance

    PubMed

    Gurnis; Muller; Moresi

    1998-03-06

    A three-dimensional model of mantle convection in which the known history of plate tectonics is imposed predicts the anomalous Cretaceous vertical motion of Australia and the present-day distinctive geochemistry and geophysics of the Australian-Antarctic Discordance. The dynamic models infer that a subducted slab associated with the long-lived Gondwanaland-Pacific converging margin passed beneath Australia during the Cretaceous, partially stagnated in the mantle transition zone, and is presently being drawn up by the Southeast Indian Ridge.

  3. Gender and HIV infection in the context of alcoholism in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa account for more than half (58%) of people living with the HIV and it is the only continent where HIV prevalence is higher for women than for men. Studies have attributed alcoholism with the high rates of HIV infection due to its impact on sexual behaviour and arousal. African countries with high rates of alcoholism also reportedly have higher rates of HIV infection. This study explores rural communities' perspectives on the risk factors for HIV infection among women who are in alcohol discordant relationships where the man drinks alcohol excessively. Data were gathered through focus group discussions in rural central Kenya where alcoholism has reached epidemic levels. Key findings indicate the perceived severity of alcoholism, the perceived impact of alcoholism on men's reproductive health and the unmet sexual and reproductive needs of women in alcohol discordant relationships. Women engage in risky sexual behaviours in an attempt to meet these needs. Such risky behaviour in addition to alcohol-related sexual violence and low response-efficacy for safer sexual practices make them vulnerable to HIV infection and enhances the spread of HIV within communities. The study concludes that in preventing HIV infection among women in alcohol communities affected by alcohol, it is important to focus on their response efficacy. Intervention programmes that focus on HIV prevention among older married women and that integrate alcohol and HIV prevention are long overdue.

  4. Age Trends in the Experience of Family Discord in Single-Mother Families across Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Jodi B.; Larson, Reed

    2001-01-01

    Utilized the Family Environment Scale and the Experience Sampling Method to evaluate how family discord was related to adolescents' age, in 101 single-mother families. Mothers' reports of overall discord decreased across adolescence. In immediate interactions, boys reported feeling more anger towards their mothers with age, while girls reported…

  5. Disentangling methodological and biological sources of gene tree discordance on oryza (poaceae) chromosome 3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe new methods for characterizing gene tree discordance in phylogenomic datasets, which screen for deviations from neutral expectations, summarize variation in statistical support among gene trees, and allow comparison of the patterns of discordance induced by various analysis choices. Usin...

  6. Family Discord, Parental Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring: 20-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya; Nomura, Yoko; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the independent effects of parental depression and family discord on offspring psychopathology among children at high and low risk of depression. Method: Family discord factors were assessed when subjects were approximately 17 years old, and offspring diagnoses were assessed about 20 years later. Parental and offspring…

  7. Application of two tests of multivariate discordancy to fisheries data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, M.A.; Kocovsky, P.M.; Garner, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    The generalized (Mahalanobis) distance and multivariate kurtosis are two powerful tests of multivariate discordancies (outliers). Unlike the generalized distance test, the multivariate kurtosis test has not been applied as a test of discordancy to fisheries data heretofore. We applied both tests, along with published algorithms for identifying suspected causal variable(s) of discordant observations, to two fisheries data sets from Lake Erie: total length, mass, and age from 1,234 burbot, Lota lota; and 22 combinations of unique subsets of 10 morphometrics taken from 119 yellow perch, Perca flavescens. For the burbot data set, the generalized distance test identified six discordant observations and the multivariate kurtosis test identified 24 discordant observations. In contrast with the multivariate tests, the univariate generalized distance test identified no discordancies when applied separately to each variable. Removing discordancies had a substantial effect on length-versus-mass regression equations. For 500-mm burbot, the percent difference in estimated mass after removing discordancies in our study was greater than the percent difference in masses estimated for burbot of the same length in lakes that differed substantially in productivity. The number of discordant yellow perch detected ranged from 0 to 2 with the multivariate generalized distance test and from 6 to 11 with the multivariate kurtosis test. With the kurtosis test, 108 yellow perch (90.7%) were identified as discordant in zero to two combinations, and five (4.2%) were identified as discordant in either all or 21 of the 22 combinations. The relationship among the variables included in each combination determined which variables were identified as causal. The generalized distance test identified between zero and six discordancies when applied separately to each variable. Removing the discordancies found in at least one-half of the combinations (k=5) had a marked effect on a principal components

  8. Interparental discord and adolescent adjustment trajectories: the potentiating and protective role of intrapersonal attributes.

    PubMed

    Davies, P T; Windle, M

    2001-01-01

    This prospective study of 360 adolescent-mother dyads examined whether associations between marital discord and trajectories of adolescent depressive symptoms and delinquency varied as a function of three intrapersonal attributes: temperament, childhood behavior problems, and perceived family support. Difficult temperament (i.e., dysrhythmicity, poor task orientation) potentiated the effects of marital discord on adolescent trajectories of adjustment, whereas heightened perceptions of family support protected adolescents from the adverse effects of marital discord. Adolescents with behavior problem histories were initially less vulnerable to marital discord; however, the high levels of depressive symptoms exhibited by adolescents with childhood behavior problems persisted over time only when they were exposed to elevated marital discord. The effects of the moderators differed in terms of duration and course.

  9. Latent class analysis of discordance between results of drug use assessments in the CATIE data

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kiersten L.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Van Dorn, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The primary aim is to examine concordant/discordant results of drug use assessments in adults with schizophrenia. Methods Latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression were used to examine concordance/discordance between drug use measures and identify characteristics differentiating participants across classes. Results Four classes – non-users, users, probable users, and RIA discordant –fit best. Age, sex, race/ethnicity, and psychiatric symptoms differed significantly across classes. Conclusions Findings showed that discordance between results occurs at non-trivial rates and is, in part, attributable to individual characteristics. Results suggest the need for strategies to limit discordance and improve detection of drug use in adults with schizophrenia. PMID:25476120

  10. AIDS in rural Africa: a paradigm for HIV-1 prevention.

    PubMed

    Hudson, C P

    1996-07-01

    Networks of concurrent sexual partnerships may be the primary cause of epidemic spread of HIV-1 in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. This pattern of sexual behaviour increases the likelihood that individuals experiencing primary HIV-1 infection transmit the virus to other persons. Networks of concurrent partnerships are likely to be important in both the early ('epidemic') and late ('endemic') phases of HIV-1 transmission. Interventions should aim to break the sexual networks, whatever the stage of the epidemic. However, prevention of transmission in the endemic phase also requires a greater awareness of early clinical manifestations of HIV-1 infection in the general population. Such awareness, coupled with the availability of condoms and access to HIV-1 testing facilities, may reduce transmission in discordant couples.

  11. Union Density and Hospital Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Koys, Daniel J; Martin, Wm Marty; LaVan, Helen; Katz, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the hospital outcomes of patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income per bed. They define union density as the percentage of a hospital's employees who are in unions, healthcare quality as its 30-day acute myocardial infraction (AMI; heart attack) mortality rate, and patient satisfaction as its overall Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems score. Using a random sample of 84 union and 84 nonunion hospitals from across the United States, multiple regression analyses show that union density is negatively related to patient satisfaction. Union density is not related to healthcare quality as measured by the AMI mortality rate or to net income per bed. This implies that unions per se are not good or bad for hospitals. The authors suggest that it is better for hospital administrators to take a Balanced Scorecard approach and be concerned about employee satisfaction, patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins

    PubMed Central

    Wrede, Joanna E.; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Bamshad, Michael; Noonan, Carolyn; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Watson, Nathaniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins. Setting: Academic clinical research center. Participants: 15 sleep duration discordant monozygotic twin pairs (30 twins, 80% female; mean age 42.1 years [SD 15.0]). Design: Sleep duration was phenotyped with wrist actigraphy. Each twin pair included a “normal” (7–9 h/24) and “short” (< 7 h/24) sleeping twin. Fasting peripheral blood leukocyte DNA was assessed for mtDNA copy number via the n-fold difference between qPCR measured mtDNA and nuclear DNA creating an mtDNA measure without absolute units. We used generalized estimating equation linear regression models accounting for the correlated data structure to assess within-pair effects of sleep duration on mtDNA copy number. Measurements and Results: Mean within-pair sleep duration difference per 24 hours was 94.3 minutes (SD 62.6 min). We found reduced sleep duration (β = 0.06; 95% CI 0.004, 0.12; P < 0.05) and sleep efficiency (β = 0.51; 95% CI 0.06, 0.95; P < 0.05) were significantly associated with reduced mtDNA copy number within twin pairs. Thus every 1-minute decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep duration was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.06. Likewise, a 1% decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep efficiency was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.51. Conclusions: Reduced sleep duration and sleep efficiency were associated with reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number in sleep duration discordant monozygotic twins offering a potential mechanism whereby short sleep impairs health and longevity through mitochondrial stress. Citation: Wrede JE, Mengel-From J, Buchwald D, Vitiello MV, Bamshad M, Noonan C, Christiansen L, Christensen K, Watson NF. Mitochondrial DNA copy number

  13. Sexual life and fertility desire in long-term HIV serodiscordant couples in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Even though remarkable progress has been achieved, HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health priority. HIV discordant relationship is one of the emerging issues in HIV prevention endeavour. In Ethiopia, very little is known about HIV-serodiscordant couples particularly how they manage their sexual relationship and fertility desire. Therefore, we conduct this study with the aim of exploring the experiences of HIV discordant couples about their sexual life, and fertility desire in the context of long-term relationships in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A grounded theory approach was employed using in-depth interviews among 36 informants in ART/PMTCT centers of three public hospitals, a health center and one PLHIV association in Addis Ababa. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit 28 clients who lived in a discordant relationship and eight health care providers as key informants. Data collection and analysis were undertaken simultaneously using a constant comparison. The analysis was facilitated using OpenCode software. Results A grounded theory pertaining to sexual life and desire to have a child among HIV discordant couples emerged as “maintaining the relationship” as a core category. Couples pass through a social process of struggle to maintain their relationship. The causal conditions for couples to enter into the process of struggle to maintain their relationship were collectively categorized as “Entering in-to a transition” (knowing HIV serostatus) and this includes mismatch of desire to have a child, controversy on safe sex versus desire to have a child, and undeniable change in sexual desire and practice through time were the features in entering into-transition. Then after the transition, couples engaged in certain actions/strategies that are categorized as “dealing with discordancy” such as entertaining partner’s interest by scarifying once self interest to maintain their relationship. Conclusions HIV discordant couples

  14. Association Between Enacted Stigma and HIV-Related Risk Behavior Among MSM, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, 2011.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Alexandra B; Bowles, Kristina E; Hess, Kristen L; Smith, Justin C; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    MSM bear a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. Enacted stigma (overt negative actions) against sexual minorities may play an important role in increasing HIV risk among this population. Using data from the 2011 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system, MSM cycle, we examined the independent associations between three measures of enacted stigma (verbal harassment, discrimination, physical assault) and engagement in each of four HIV-related risk behaviors as outcomes: condomless anal intercourse (CAI) at last sex with a male partner of HIV discordant or unknown status and, in the past 12 months, CAI with a male partner, ≥4 male sex partners, and exchange sex. Of 9819 MSM, 32% experienced verbal harassment in the past 12 months, 23% experienced discrimination, and 8% experienced physical assault. Discordant CAI at last sex with a male partner was associated with previous discrimination and physical assault. Past 12 month CAI with a male partner, ≥4 male sex partners, and exchange sex were each associated with verbal harassment, discrimination, and physical assault. These findings indicate that a sizable proportion of MSM report occurrences of past 12 month enacted stigma and suggest that these experiences may be associated with HIV-related risk behavior. Addressing stigma towards sexual minorities must involve an integrated, multi-faceted approach, including interventions at the individual, community, and societal level.

  15. HIV-1 Transmission during Early Antiretroviral Therapy: Evaluation of Two HIV-1 Transmission Events in the HPTN 052 Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Allen G.; Hudelson, Sarah E.; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Wang, Lei; Eshleman, Susan H.; Cohen, Myron S.; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    In the HPTN 052 study, transmission between HIV-discordant couples was reduced by 96% when the HIV-infected partner received suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined two transmission events where the newly infected partner was diagnosed after the HIV-infected partner (index) initiated therapy. We evaluated the sequence complexity of the viral populations and antibody reactivity in the newly infected partner to estimate the dates of transmission to the newly infected partners. In both cases, transmission most likely occurred significantly before HIV-1 diagnosis of the newly infected partner, and either just before the initiation of therapy or before viral replication was adequately suppressed by therapy of the index. This study further strengthens the conclusion about the efficacy of blocking transmission by treating the infected partner of discordant couples. However, this study does not rule out the potential for HIV-1 transmission to occur shortly after initiation of ART, and this should be recognized when antiretroviral therapy is used for HIV-1 prevention. PMID:24086252

  16. Women and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... How do you get HIV? How do you get tested for HIV? Is there are cure for HIV? What should pregnant women know about HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. A person with HIV is called HIV positive (HIV+). HIV ...

  17. Discordant U waves in the setting of hyperkalaemia.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Lovely; Spodick, David H

    2013-07-04

    Physiological U wave genesis occurs likely secondary to either late repolarisation of Purkinje fibres, or late repolarisation of some myocardial cells and/or delayed after depolarisation of the ventricular wall occurring during ventricular filling. Hypokalaemia has a well-known association with pathological 'U wave' which actually combines with the T wave (TU complex) and results from slowing of phase 3 of the action potential with resultant electrical interaction between the three myocardial layers. U waves usually tend to disappear in the setting of hyperkalaemia. We report an unusual case where hyperkalaemia and discordant U waves coexisted. We believe that this may have occurred as a result of partial clinical adaptation of cardiac myocytes to the long-standing effects of hyperkalaemia as the patient had underlying history of chronic kidney disease. We also discuss the possible mechanisms of the U wave genesis and the importance of different U wave morphologies encountered in the real clinical practice.

  18. Cardiac contraction induces discordant alternans and localized block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radszuweit, M.; Alvarez-Lacalle, E.; Bär, M.; Echebarria, B.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we use a simplified model of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling to study the effect of tissue deformation on the dynamics of alternans, i.e., alternations in the duration of the cardiac action potential, that occur at fast pacing rates and are known to be proarrhythmic. We show that small stretch-activated currents can produce large effects and cause a transition from in-phase to off-phase alternations (i.e., from concordant to discordant alternans) and to conduction blocks. We demonstrate numerically and analytically that this effect is the result of a generic change in the slope of the conduction velocity restitution curve due to electromechanical coupling. Thus, excitation-contraction coupling can potentially play a relevant role in the transition to reentry and fibrillation.

  19. Medical history of discordant twins and environmental etiologies of autism

    PubMed Central

    Willfors, C; Carlsson, T; Anderlid, B-M; Nordgren, A; Kostrzewa, E; Berggren, S; Ronald, A; Kuja-Halkola, R; Tammimies, K; Bölte, S

    2017-01-01

    The environmental contributions to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their informative content for diagnosing the condition are still largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between early medical events and ASD, as well as autistic traits, in twins, to test the hypothesis of a cumulative environmental effect on ASD risk. A total of 80 monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs (including a rare sample of 13 twin pairs discordant for clinical ASD) and 46 dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs with varying autistic traits, were examined for intra-pair differences in early medical events (for example, obstetric and neonatal factors, first year infections). First, differences in early medical events were investigated using multisource medical records in pairs qualitatively discordant for ASD. The significant intra-pair differences identified were then tested in relation to autistic traits in the remaining sample of 100 pairs, applying generalized estimating equations analyses. Significant association of the intra-pair differences in the MZ pairs were found for the cumulative load of early medical events and clinical ASD (Z=−2.85, P=0.004) and autistic traits (β=78.18, P=0.002), as well as infant dysregulation (feeding, sleeping abnormalities, excessive crying and worriedness), when controlling for intelligence quotient and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidity. The cumulative load of early medical events in general, and infant dysregulation in particular, may index children at risk of ASD owing to non-shared environmental contributions. In clinical practice, these findings may facilitate screening and early detection of ASD. PMID:28140403

  20. Sexual behaviors among women living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Samantha; Gardner, Sandra; Loutfy, Mona; Light, Lucia; Tharao, Wangari; Rourke, Sean B; Burchell, Ann N

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the sexual activities and partnerships of women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains important to promote healthy sexuality and to reduce the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. We described sexual behaviors of women living with HIV enrolled in an ongoing study in Ontario, Canada. Data were available from 582 women who self-completed a sexual behavior questionnaire between 2010 and 2012. Nearly half (46.1%) of women reported a sexual partner in the preceding three months; women less likely to be sexually active were older, Black/African, separated, divorced, widowed, single, and unemployed. Most sexually active women had one partner (76.4%), a regular partner (75.9%), male (96.2%) partner(s), and partners who were HIV-negative or unknown HIV status (75.2%). Women were more likely to use a condom with HIV-negative/status unknown partners (81.3%) than with HIV-positive partners (58.6%; p   =   .008). Only 8.0% of sexually active women reported condomless sex with a discordant HIV-negative/status unknown partner when their viral load was detectable. Overall, most women living with HIV were sexually inactive or engaged in sexual activities that were low risk for HIV transmission.

  1. Determinants of HIV testing among Nigerian couples: a multilevel modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Lépine, Aurélia; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Vickerman, Peter

    2015-06-01

    In this article we analyse the determinants of HIV testing among Nigerian couples using Demographic and Health Survey data set (2008). This study is motivated by the fact that although there is a strong willingness from the Nigerian Government to examine new HIV preventions approaches such as Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV (PrEP) and Treatment as Prevention (TasP) for HIV serodiscordant couples, the implementation of such policies would require the HIV status of each partner in the couple to be known. This is far to be achieved in the Nigerian context since in Nigeria only 6% of couples know their HIV status. In order to identify potential policies that are needed to increase HIV testing uptake, we use a three-level random intercept logistic model to separately explore the determinants of knowing HIV status among female and male partners. The use of the multilevel modelling allows including the unobserved heterogeneity at the village and state level that may affect HIV testing behaviours. Our results indicate that education, wealth, stigma, HIV knowledge and perceived risk are predictors of HIV testing among both partners while routine provider initiated testing appears to be very effective to increase HIV testing among women. The introduction of financial incentives as well as an increase in routine testing and home-based testing may be needed for large scale increase in HIV testing prior to the implementation of new HIV prevention technologies among discordant couples.

  2. PLANNING AND OPERATING COLLEGE UNION BUILDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BUTTS, PORTER

    THIS MONOGRAPH IS A DISCUSSION OF FOUR ASPECTS OF STUDENT UNIONS. PART ONE DISCUSSES THE NATURE AND PURPOSE OF A UNION AND THE UNION AS A CAMPUS CENTER. PART TWO DEALS WITH THE PLANNING OF UNION BUILDINGS AND GIVES PROCEDURES, PRINCIPLES AND CAUTIONS. UNION FACILITIES AND SERVICES ARE LISTED. PART THREE DISCUSSES THE ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES OF…

  3. SEARCH FOR GENOMIC ALTERATIONS IN MONOZYGOTIC TWINS DISCORDANT FOR CLEFT LIP AND/OR PALATE

    PubMed Central

    Kimani, Jane W.; Yoshiura, Koh-ichiro; Shi, Min; Jugessur, Astanand; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Christensen, Kaare; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2010-01-01

    Phenotypically discordant monozygotic twins offer the possibility of gene discovery through delineation of molecular abnormalities in one member of the twin pair. One proposed mechanism of discordance is postzygotically occurring genomic alterations resulting from mitotic recombination and other somatic changes. Detection of altered genomic fragments can reveal candidate gene loci that can be verified through additional analyses. We investigated this hypothesis using array comparative genomic hybridization; the 50K and 250K Affymetrix GeneChip® SNP arrays and an Illumina custom array consisting of 1,536 SNPs, to scan for genomic alterations in a sample of monozygotic twin pairs with discordant cleft lip and/or palate phenotypes. Paired analysis for deletions, amplifications and loss of heterozygosity, along with sequence verification of SNPs with discordant genotype calls did not reveal any genomic discordance between twin pairs in lymphocyte DNA samples. Our results demonstrate that postzygotic genomic alterations are not a common cause of monozygotic twin discordance for isolated cleft lip and/or palate. However, rare or balanced genomic alterations, tissue-specific events and small aberrations beyond the detection level of our experimental approach cannot be ruled out. The stability of genomes we observed in our study samples also suggests that detection of discordant events in other monozygotic twin pairs would be remarkable and of potential disease significance. PMID:19803774

  4. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  5. College/Labor Union Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, William

    1977-01-01

    A survey of 1,054 institutions by the AACJC Service Center for Community College-Labor Union Cooperation concluded that while substantial joint undertakings exist between unions and community colleges, in many cases labor and community colleges are waiting for the other party to make the first move. (JG)

  6. Teacher Unionization in School Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Dan

    2011-01-01

    The role of unions in school governance is reviewed to note that labor operates in a larger context of principal-agent relationships. As agents for teachers, unions articulate the concerns that must be addressed if teachers are to be successfully enlisted in the struggle to reduce achievement gaps among at-risk students. Transcending industrial…

  7. Planning a College Union Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Chester Arthur

    This volume examines the background and characteristics of the college union and its buildings, discusses its purposes and the means by which they may be achieved, and considers the impact of these means on the building requirements. General planning principles are developed and applied to the union building and its various areas. The translation…

  8. Recent Developments in Compulsory Unionism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchnick, Morton G.

    1993-01-01

    Looks at legal cases concerning the uses to which mandatory union dues are put. Considers the variety of approaches adopted in Switzerland, Spain, Belgium, and Germany and reviews how compulsory unionism has been treated in the courts in the United Kingdom, Denmark, the United States, and Canada. (JOW)

  9. Thinking about the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkovich, George

    In the United States, educators have had difficulty teaching about the Soviet Union. Students are often ignorant of the historical circumstances that have affected the U.S./Soviet relationship, and they are often miseducated by stereotypes they encounter in popular culture. This curriculum explores the government and economy of the Soviet Union,…

  10. Unionization: The Viewpoint of Librarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Theodore Lewis

    A study was made to isolate factors which have systematic and repetitive effects on the unionization of librarians, particularly the professional librarian in the public library. The historical patterns of library unionism are summarized, and an analysis is made of the personal characteristics of librarians, their economic position, and employment…

  11. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  12. Hierarchy of Efficiently Computable and Faithful Lower Bounds to Quantum Discord.

    PubMed

    Piani, Marco

    2016-08-19

    Quantum discord expresses a fundamental nonclassicality of correlations that is more general than entanglement, but that, in its standard definition, is not easily evaluated. We derive a hierarchy of computationally efficient lower bounds to the standard quantum discord. Every nontrivial element of the hierarchy constitutes by itself a valid discordlike measure, based on a fundamental feature of quantum correlations: their lack of shareability. Our approach emphasizes how the difference between entanglement and discord depends on whether shareability is intended as a static property or as a dynamical process.

  13. Geometric measure of pairwise quantum discord for superpositions of multipartite generalized coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, M.; Ahl Laamara, R.

    2012-07-01

    We give the explicit expressions of the pairwise quantum correlations present in superpositions of multipartite coherent states. A special attention is devoted to the evaluation of the geometric quantum discord. The dynamics of quantum correlations under a dephasing channel is analyzed. A comparison of geometric measure of quantum discord with that of concurrence shows that quantum discord in multipartite coherent states is more resilient to dissipative environments than is quantum entanglement. To illustrate our results, we consider some special superpositions of Weyl-Heisenberg, SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states which interpolate between Werner and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states.

  14. Geometric Measure of Quantum Discord for Entanglement of Total Dirac Fields in Noninertial Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wen-Chao; Zhang, Lei

    2017-04-01

    We study the geometric measure of quantum discord of total Dirac fields in noninertial frames. As a comparison, we also calculate the corresponding geometric measure of entanglement of the same system. We discuss the properties of geometric measure of quantum discord and geometric measure of entanglement for this system with acceleration parameter and the parameter describing the entangle degree of the system in detail. Our results show that from an overall perspective, two geometric measures have similar behavior with the variation of the entangle parameter and the acceleration parameter. We find that this tripartite system is monogamous for the geometric measure of quantum discord.

  15. Detecting the quantum discord of an unknown state by a single observable

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Chengjie; Oh, C. H.; Yu Sixia; Chen Qing

    2011-09-15

    We propose a single observable to witness the nonzero quantum discord of an unknown quantum state provided that we have four copies of the state. The expectation value of this observable provides a necessary and sufficient condition for the nonzero quantum discord in 2xN systems and a necessary condition in higher finite-dimensional bipartite systems. Furthermore, a nontrivial lower bound of the quantum discord can be obtained from this expectation value. The proposed observable can be experimentally measured in exactly the same way as the entanglement witness. Moreover, a quantum circuit is designed to determine the expectation value of our observable with four simultaneous local qubit measurements.

  16. Development of AACAP practice parameters for gender nonconformity and gender discordance in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Adelson, Stewart L

    2011-10-01

    The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) is preparing a publication, Practice Parameter on Gay, Lesbian or Bisexual Sexual Orientation, Gender-Nonconformity, and Gender Discordance in Children and Adolescents. This article discusses the development of the part of the parameter related to gender nonconformity and gender discordance and describes the practice parameter preparation process,rationale, key scientific evidence, and methodology. Also discussed are terminology considerations, related clinical issues and practice skills, and overall organization of information including influences on gender development, gender role behavior, gender nonconformity and gender discordance, and their relationship to the development of sexual orientation.

  17. Quantum Entanglement and Discord Dynamics of two Noninteracting Spin Qubits in Two Independent Spin Baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lan; Wu, Guiping; Yan, Lin

    2017-03-01

    We study the dynamics of quantum entanglement and quantum discord between two non-interacting qubits, which couple with two independent spin baths, obeying the XXZ Hamiltonian. After the Holstein-Primakoff transformation, one could reduce the spin bath to a single-mode bosonic bath field. Then we use this model to study the entanglement and discord dynamics of two qubits in their corresponding spin bath. For the initial Werner state, it is indicated that both entanglement and quantum discord exhibit death and revival behavior, while the quantum correlations change more smaller.

  18. Trade Unions and the Economics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veale, Sarah

    1987-01-01

    Contends that a realistic approach to teaching economics requires learning about trade unions. Presents a role play of a trade union meeting that helps students think about how trade unions tackle problems. (BSR)

  19. Relationship dynamics as predictors of broken agreements about outside sexual partners: implications for HIV prevention among gay couples.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Anu Manchikanti; Beougher, Sean C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Neilands, Torsten B; Mandic, Carmen Gomez; Darbes, Lynae A; Hoff, Colleen C

    2012-08-01

    Agreements about sex with outside partners are common among gay couples, and breaks in these agreements can be indicative of HIV risk. Using longitudinal survey data from both partners in 263 HIV-negative and -discordant gay couples, we investigate whether relationship dynamics are associated with broken agreements. Twenty-three percent of respondents reported broken agreements. Partners with higher levels of trust, communication, commitment, and social support were significantly less likely to report breaking their agreement. Promoting positive relationship dynamics as part of HIV prevention interventions for gay couples provides the opportunity to minimize the occurrence of broken agreements and, ultimately, reduce HIV risk.

  20. EPICE-HIV: An Epidemiologic Cost-Effectiveness Model for HIV Treatment.

    PubMed

    Vandewalle, Björn; Llibre, Josep M; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Ustianowski, Andrew; Camacho, Ricardo; Smith, Colette; Miners, Alec; Ferreira, Diana; Félix, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research was to establish a new and innovative framework for cost-effectiveness modeling of HIV-1 treatment, simultaneously considering both clinical and epidemiological outcomes. EPICE-HIV is a multi-paradigm model based on a within-host micro-simulation model for the disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals and an agent-based sexual contact network (SCN) model for the transmission of HIV-1 infection. It includes HIV-1 viral dynamics, CD4+ T cell infection rates, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling. Disease progression of HIV-1 infected individuals is driven by the interdependent changes in CD4+ T cell count, changes in plasma HIV-1 RNA, accumulation of resistance mutations and adherence to treatment. The two parts of the model are joined through a per-sexual-act and viral load dependent probability of disease transmission in HIV-discordant couples. Internal validity of the disease progression part of the model is assessed and external validity is demonstrated in comparison to the outcomes observed in the STaR randomized controlled clinical trial. We found that overall adherence to treatment and the resulting pattern of treatment interruptions are key drivers of HIV-1 treatment outcomes. Our model, though largely independent of efficacy data from RCT, was accurate in producing 96-week outcomes, qualitatively and quantitatively comparable to the ones observed in the STaR trial. We demonstrate that multi-paradigm micro-simulation modeling is a promising tool to generate evidence about optimal policy strategies in HIV-1 treatment, including treatment efficacy, HIV-1 transmission, and cost-effectiveness analysis.

  1. [HIV infection in immigrants].

    PubMed

    López-Vélez, Rogelio; Navarro Beltrá, Miriam; Hernando Jerez, Asunción; del Amo Valero, Julia

    2008-05-01

    Immigration to Spain has greatly increased since 1995. Currently, more than 4 million foreigners are resident in the country. The immigration process increases vulnerability. The most common route of HIV infection in the immigrant population and ethnic minorities is heterosexual transmission. The number of people living with HIV worldwide (39.5 million people in 2006) and the number of those dying from AIDS continues to increase. In 2006, there were an estimated 30,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Spain. The number of cases of AIDS in immigrants has risen in the last few years. AIDS in immigrants from any country, and especially in those from sub-Saharan Africa, is associated with a greater frequency of tuberculosis disease. Knowledge of opportunistic pathogens with tropical distribution is required for a correct differential diagnosis. Throughout the European Union, the number of AIDS cases has progressively decreased since the introduction of highly effective anti- HIV treatment, but this decrease has been significantly lower in immigrants. The difference may be due to lower access to health systems caused by administrative, legal, cultural and linguistic barriers.

  2. Couple-level Motivations to Test for HIV for Gay Men in Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Beougher, Sean C.; Bircher, Anja E.; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Darbes, Lynae A.; Gómez Mandic, Carmen; Neilands, Torsten B.; Garcia, Carla C.; Hoff, Colleen C.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies of HIV testing among gay men describe the motivations, facilitators and barriers, behaviors, and demographic characteristics of individuals who test. What little research focuses on HIV testing among gay men in relationships shows that they do not test regularly or, in some cases, at all – their motivations to test have not been investigated. With so little data on HIV testing for this population, and the continued privileging of individually-focused approaches, gay men in relationships fall into a blind spot of research and prevention efforts. This study examined motivations to test for HIV using qualitative data from both partners in 20 gay male couples. Analysis revealed that the partners’ motivations were either event-related (e.g., participants testing the beginning of their relationship or HIV-negative participants in an HIV-discordant relationship testing after risky episode with their discordant primary partner) or partner-related (e.g., participants testing in response to a request or suggestion to test from their primary partner or participants testing out of concern for their primary partner’s health and wellbeing). These data provide insight into relationship-oriented motivations to test for HIV for gay men in relationships and, in doing so, demonstrates their commitment to their primary partner and relationship. These motivations can be leveraged to increase HIV testing among gay men in relationships, a population that tests less often than single gay men, yet, until recently, has been underserved by prevention efforts. PMID:25550145

  3. Viral loads in dual infection with HIV-1 and cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Boriskin, Y.; Sharland, M.; Dalton, R.; duMont, G.; Booth, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—A one year study of the relation between cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral loads in a cohort of children with vertically acquired HIV-1 infection.
DESIGN—Comparative analysis of viral load measurements for CMV and HIV-1 in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) of individual children in relation to age and clinical staging.
METHODS—Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to measure HIV-1 proviral DNA and CMV genomic DNA in PBLs of 56children.
RESULTS—The CMV load was highest in 0-2 year old HIV positive children with stage C disease (range, 1-7143 copies/100 ng DNA; median, 125) and was significantly lower in older children. Although higher in young children, HIV-1 viral load did not show the same marked reduction with age that is seen with CMV. Over a one year period, testing of serial samples for both viruses in a subgroup of children revealed a discordant relation between viral loads for CMV and HIV-1.
CONCLUSIONS—CMV viral load falls much faster than HIV viral load in dually infected children. Screening for clinical CMV disease is most likely to be of benefit in children under 2 years of age with stage C disease. In the few children studied, levels of CMV and HIV replication appear to be independent.

 PMID:10325727

  4. Antiviral agents and HIV prevention: controversies, conflicts, and consensus

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Myron S.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Smith, M. Kumi; Powers, Kimberly A.; Kashuba, Angela D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Antiviral agents can be used to prevent HIV transmission before exposure as preexpo-sure prophylaxis (PrEP), after exposure as postexposure prophylaxis, and as treatment of infected people for secondary prevention. Considerable research has shed new light on antiviral agents for PrEP and for prevention of secondary HIV transmission. While promising results have emerged from several PrEP trials, the challenges of poor adherence among HIV-negative clients and possible increase in sexual risk behaviors remain a concern. In addition, a broader pipeline of antiviral agents for PrEP that focuses on genital tract pharmacology and safety and resistance issues must be developed. Antiretroviral drugs have also been used to prevent HIV transmission from HIV-infected patients to their HIV-discordant sexual partners. The HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 trial demonstrated nearly complete prevention of HIV transmission by early treatment of infection, but the generalizability of the results to other risk groups – including intravenous drug users and MSM – has not been determined. Most importantly, the best strategy for use of antiretroviral agents to reduce the spread of HIV at either the individual level or the population level has not been developed, and remains the ultimate goal of this area of investigation. PMID:22507927

  5. Quantum discord and entanglement of two atoms in a micromaser-type system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xue-Qun; Wang, Fu-Zhong

    2016-06-01

    The correlations dynamics of two atoms in the case of a micromaser-type system is investigated. We show that the entangled state can be created by initially maximally mixed state and there exist collapse and revival phenomena for the time evolutions of both entanglement and quantum discord under the system considered as the field is initially in the Fock state. Our results confirm that entanglement and quantum discord have similar behaviors in certain time ranges, such as their oscillations during the time evolution being almost in phase, but they also present significant differences, such as quantum discord being maintained even after the complete loss of entanglement. Furthermore, we exhibit clearly that the dynamics of quantum discord under the action of environment are intimately related to the generation and evolution of entanglement.

  6. When faith divides family: religious discord and adolescent reports of parent-child relations.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Charles E; Regnerus, Mark D

    2009-03-01

    What happens to family relations when an adolescent and her parent do not share the same religious convictions or practices? Whereas previous work on religion and intergenerational relations looks at relationships between parents and their adult children, we shift the focus to younger families, assessing how parent-child religious discord affects adolescents' evaluation of their relationship with their parents. Exploring data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we find several interesting patterns of association between religious discord and parent-child relations. Overall, religious discord predicts lower quality intergenerational relations. When parents value religion more than their teens do, adolescents tend to report poorer relations with parents. Relationship quality is not lower, however, when it is the adolescent who values religion more highly. We also find that religious discord is more aggravating in families where parent and child share religious affiliation and in families where the parent is an evangelical Protestant.

  7. Comparison of quantum discord and fully entangled fraction of two classes of d⊗ d^2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behdani, Javad; Akhtarshenas, Seyed Javad; Sarbishaei, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    The quantumness of a generic state is the resource of many applications in quantum information theory, and it is interesting to survey the measures which are able to detect its trace in the properties of the state. In this work, we study the quantum discord and fully entangled fraction of two classes of bipartite states and compare their behaviors. These classes are complements to the d⊗ d Werner and isotropic states, in the sense that each class possesses the same purification as the corresponding complemental class of states. Our results show that maximally entangled mixed states are also maximally discordant states, leading to a generalization of the well-known fact that all maximally entangled pure states have also maximum quantum discord. Moreover, it is shown that the separability-entanglement boundary of a Werner or isotropic state is manifested as an inflection point in the diagram of quantum discord of the corresponding complemental state.

  8. Gaussian geometric discord of two-mode systems in a thermal environment

    SciTech Connect

    Suciu, Serban Isar, Aurelian

    2014-11-24

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the Gaussian geometric discord for a system consisting of two non-interacting non-resonant bosonic modes embedded in a thermal environment. We take as initial state of the system a two-mode squeezed thermal state and describe the time evolution of the Gaussian geometric discord under the influence of the thermal bath. By tracing the distance between the state of the considered subsystem and the closest classical-quantum Gaussian state we evaluate the Gaussian geometric discord for all times and temperatures. The geometric discord has finite values between 0 and 1 and decreases asymptotically to zero at large times and temperatures with oscillations on the time axis.

  9. Scaling of geometric quantum discord close to a topological phase transition.

    PubMed

    Shan, Chuan-Jia; Cheng, Wei-Wen; Liu, Ji-Bing; Cheng, Yong-Shan; Liu, Tang-Kun

    2014-03-26

    Quantum phase transition is one of the most interesting aspects in quantum many-body systems. Recently, geometric quantum discord has been introduced to signature the critical behavior of various quantum systems. However, it is well-known that topological quantum phase transition can not be described by the conventional Landau's symmetry breaking theory, and thus it is unknown that whether previous study can be applicable in this case. Here, we study the topological quantum phase transition in Kitaev's 1D p-wave spinless quantum wire model in terms of its ground state geometric quantum discord. The derivative of geometric quantum discord is nonanalytic at the critical point, in both zero temperature and finite temperature cases. The scaling behavior and the universality are verified numerically. Therefore, our results clearly show that all the key ingredients of the topological phase transition can be captured by the nearest neighbor and long-range geometric quantum discord.

  10. Sudden transition between classical and quantum decoherence in dissipative cavity QED and stationary quantum discord

    SciTech Connect

    He Qiliang; Xu Jingbo; Zhang Yeqi; Yao Daoxin

    2011-08-15

    We investigate the phenomenon of sudden transition between classical and quantum decoherence in the study of quantum discord for a dissipative cavity QED system, which consists of two noninteracting two-level atoms, each trapped in a dissipative cavity. It is found that the quantum discord between the two atoms, which are prepared initially in the X-type quantum states, is not destroyed by the dissipation of the cavities for a finite time interval, and the stationary quantum discord can arise in the interaction of atoms with cavities as the time approaches infinity. The transition time is sensitive to the initial state parameter of the two atoms and the mean photon number of the coherent field. Interestingly, the quantum discord between the two atoms is completely unaffected by the dissipation of the cavities if we choose the suitable value of the ratio, which depends on the decay rate of the two cavities and the atom-field coupling constant.

  11. Peer review of grant applications: a simple method to identify proposals with discordant reviews.

    PubMed

    Giraudeau, Bruno; Leyrat, Clémence; Le Gouge, Amélie; Léger, Julie; Caille, Agnès

    2011-01-01

    Grant proposals submitted for funding are usually selected by a peer-review rating process. Some proposals may result in discordant peer-review ratings and therefore require discussion by the selection committee members. The issue is which peer-review ratings are considered as discordant. We propose a simple method to identify such proposals. Our approach is based on the intraclass correlation coefficient, which is usually used in assessing agreement in studies with continuous ratings.

  12. Consumers Union rates condoms.

    PubMed

    1980-05-01

    In an effort to provide some insights as to why and how condoms fail, the Consumers Union of the United States tested brandname condoms for leakage, bursting, tensile strength and heat deterioration and surveyed 1900 women and men who used the method for birth control. The highest-ranked latex condoms were Nuform, Trojan Plus, Conceptrol Shield and Horizon Nuda. Least preferred were Sheik No. 22 unlubricated condoms and Trojan unlubricated. Preferences among skin condoms were Fourex Capsuled and Klingtite Naturalamb. Obvious advantages of the condom method of contraception, in addition to its potentially high success rate, include the following: 1) protection against venereal disease; 2) lack of side effects; 3) simplicity of method; and 4) reasonable price. 1/2 of the 1900 respondentes cited interruption of lovemaking, reduced sensitivity and mere awareness of condom presence as reasons why the method impaired sexual pleasure. Almost 1/4 of the respondents disliked the need for prompt withdrawal in order to avoid spillage, and some feared vigorous intercourse would result in the condom slipping off.

  13. Exact solutions for species tree inference from discordant gene trees.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Chieh; Górecki, Paweł; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2013-10-01

    Phylogenetic analysis has to overcome the grant challenge of inferring accurate species trees from evolutionary histories of gene families (gene trees) that are discordant with the species tree along whose branches they have evolved. Two well studied approaches to cope with this challenge are to solve either biologically informed gene tree parsimony (GTP) problems under gene duplication, gene loss, and deep coalescence, or the classic RF supertree problem that does not rely on any biological model. Despite the potential of these problems to infer credible species trees, they are NP-hard. Therefore, these problems are addressed by heuristics that typically lack any provable accuracy and precision. We describe fast dynamic programming algorithms that solve the GTP problems and the RF supertree problem exactly, and demonstrate that our algorithms can solve instances with data sets consisting of as many as 22 taxa. Extensions of our algorithms can also report the number of all optimal species trees, as well as the trees themselves. To better asses the quality of the resulting species trees that best fit the given gene trees, we also compute the worst case species trees, their numbers, and optimization score for each of the computational problems. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of our exact algorithms using empirical and simulated data sets, and analyze the quality of heuristic solutions for the studied problems by contrasting them with our exact solutions.

  14. Discordant introgression in a rapidly expanding hybrid swarm

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jessica L; Blum, Mike J; Walters, David M; Porter, Brady A; Burkhead, Noel; Freeman, Byron

    2012-01-01

    The erosion of species boundaries can involve rapid evolutionary change. Consequently, many aspects of the process remain poorly understood, including the formation, expansion, and evolution of hybrid swarms. Biological invasions involving hybridization present exceptional opportunities to study the erosion of species boundaries because timelines of interactions and outcomes are frequently well known. Here, we examined clinal variation across codominant and maternally inherited genetic markers as well as phenotypic traits to characterize the expansion and evolution of a hybrid swarm between native Cyprinella venusta and invasive Cyprinella lutrensis minnows. Discordant introgression of phenotype, microsatellite multilocus genotype, and mtDNA haplotype indicates that the observable expansion of the C. venusta × C. lutrensis hybrid swarm is a false invasion front. Both parental and hybrid individuals closely resembling C. lutrensis are numerically dominant in the expansion wake, indicating that the non-native parental phenotype may be selectively favored. These findings show that cryptic introgression can extend beyond the phenotypic boundaries of hybrid swarms and that hybrid swarms likely expand more rapidly than can be documented from phenotypic variation alone. Similarly, dominance of a single parental phenotype following an introduction event may lead to instances of species erosion being mistaken for species displacement without hybridization. PMID:25568058

  15. Geometric quantum discord and non-Markovianity of structured reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ming-Liang Lian, Han-Li

    2015-11-15

    The reservoir memory effects can lead to information backflow and recurrence of the previously lost quantum correlations. We establish connections between the direction of information flow and variation of the geometric quantum discords (GQDs) measured respectively by the trace distance, the Hellinger distance, and the Bures distance for two qubits subjecting to the bosonic structured reservoirs, and unveil their dependence on a factor whose derivative signifies the (non-)Markovianity of the dynamics. By considering the reservoirs with Lorentzian and Ohmic-like spectra, we further demonstrated that the non-Markovianity induced by the backflow of information from the reservoirs to the system enhances the GQDs in most of the parameter regions. This highlights the potential of non-Markovianity as a resource for protecting the GQDs. -- Highlights: •Dependence of GQDs on a factor determined by spectrum of the structured reservoir. •Connection between the direction of information flow and variation of the GQDs. •Non-Markovianity with the backflow of information enhances GQDs in a wide region. •The GQDs are enhanced with the information loss in a very narrow region.

  16. Discordant introgression in a rapidly expanding hybrid swarm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, Jessica L.; Blum, Mike J.; Walters, David M.; Porter, Brady A.; Burkhead, Noel; Freeman, Byron

    2012-01-01

    The erosion of species boundaries can involve rapid evolutionary change. Consequently, many aspects of the process remain poorly understood, including the formation, expansion, and evolution of hybrid swarms. Biological invasions involving hybridization present exceptional opportunities to study the erosion of species boundaries because timelines of interactions and outcomes are frequently well known. Here, we examined clinal variation across codominant and maternally inherited genetic markers as well as phenotypic traits to characterize the expansion and evolution of a hybrid swarm between native Cyprinella venusta and invasive Cyprinella lutrensis minnows. Discordant introgression of phenotype, microsatellite multilocus genotype, and mtDNA haplotype indicates that the observable expansion of the C. venusta x C. lutrensis hybrid swarm is a false invasion front. Both parental and hybrid individuals closely resembling C. lutrensis are numerically dominant in the expansion wake, indicating that the non-native parental phenotype may be selectively favored. These findings show that cryptic introgression can extend beyond the phenotypic boundaries of hybrid swarms and that hybrid swarms likely expand more rapidly than can be documented from phenotypic variation alone. Similarly, dominance of a single parental phenotype following an introduction event may lead to instances of species erosion being mistaken for species displacement without hybridization.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Traits in Siblings Discordant for Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cuenco, Karen T.; Green, Robert C.; Zhang, J.; Lunetta, Kathryn; Erlich, Porat M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Farrer, Lindsay A.; DeCarli, Charles; Baldwin, C. T.; Auerbach, S.; Akomolafe, A.; Freedman, Lorin; Ofili, E.; Chui, H.; DeCarli, C.; Duara, R.; Foroud, T.; Farlow, M.; Friedland, R.; Go, R.; Kurz, A.; Obisesan, T.; Petrovitch, H.; White, L.; Relkin, N.; Sabbagh, M.; Sadovnick, D.; Tsolaki, M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can aid clinical assessment of brain changes potentially correlated with Alzheimer disease (AD). MRI traits may improve our ability to identify genes associated with AD-outcomes. We evaluated semi-quantitative MRI measures as endophenotypes for genetic studies by assessing their association with AD in families from the Multi-Institutional Research in Alzheimer Genetic Epidemiology (MIRAGE) Study. METHODS Discordant siblings from multiple ethnicities were ascertained through a single affected proband. Semi-quantitative MRI measures were obtained for each individual. The association between continuous/ordinal MRI traits and AD were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Medical history and Apolipoprotein E (APOE)ε4 status were evaluated as potential confounders. RESULTS Comparisons of 214 affected and 234 unaffected subjects from 229 sibships revealed that general cerebral atrophy, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and mediotemporal atrophy differed significantly between groups (each at P < .0001) and varied by ethnicity. Age at MRI and duration of AD confounded all associations between AD and MRI traits. Among unaffected sibs, the presence of at least one APOEε4 allele and MRI infarction was associated with more WMH after adjusting for age at MRI. CONCLUSION The strong association between MRI traits and AD suggests that MRI traits may be informative endophenotypes for basic and clinical studies of AD. In particular, WMH may be a marker of vascular disease that contributes to AD pathogenesis. PMID:18808654

  18. Time Series Discord Detection in Medical Data using a Parallel Relational Database

    SciTech Connect

    Woodbridge, Diane; Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Wilson, Andrew T.; Goldstein, Richard

    2015-10-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology have made continuous real-time health monitoring available in both hospital and non-hospital settings. Since data collected from high frequency medical sensors includes a huge amount of data, storing and processing continuous medical data is an emerging big data area. Especially detecting anomaly in real time is important for patients’ emergency detection and prevention. A time series discord indicates a subsequence that has the maximum difference to the rest of the time series subsequences, meaning that it has abnormal or unusual data trends. In this study, we implemented two versions of time series discord detection algorithms on a high performance parallel database management system (DBMS) and applied them to 240 Hz waveform data collected from 9,723 patients. The initial brute force version of the discord detection algorithm takes each possible subsequence and calculates a distance to the nearest non-self match to find the biggest discords in time series. For the heuristic version of the algorithm, a combination of an array and a trie structure was applied to order time series data for enhancing time efficiency. The study results showed efficient data loading, decoding and discord searches in a large amount of data, benefiting from the time series discord detection algorithm and the architectural characteristics of the parallel DBMS including data compression, data pipe-lining, and task scheduling.

  19. Non-local correlation and quantum discord in two atoms in the non-degenerate model

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, A.-B.A.

    2012-12-15

    By using geometric quantum discord (GQD) and measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN), quantum correlation is investigated for two atoms in the non-degenerate two-photon Tavis-Cummings model. It is shown that there is no asymptotic decay for MIN while asymptotic decay exists for GQD. Quantum correlations can be strengthened by introducing the dipole-dipole interaction. The evolvement period of quantum correlation gets shorter with the increase in the dipole-dipole parameter. It is found that there exists not only quantum nonlocality without entanglement but also quantum nonlocality without quantum discord. Also, the MIN and GQD are raised rather than entanglement, and also with weak initial entanglement, there are MIN and entanglement in a interval of death quantum discord. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Geometric quantum discord (GQD) and measurement induced nonlocality (MIN) are used to investigate the correlations of two two-level atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is no asymptotic decay for MIN while asymptotic decay exists for GQD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantum correlations can be strengthened by introducing the dipole-dipole interaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There exists not only quantum nonlocality without entanglement but also without discord. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weak initial entanglement leads to MIN and entanglement in intervals of death discord.

  20. DNA Methylation Changes in the IGF1R Gene in Birth Weight Discordant Adult Monozygotic Twins.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Chien; Van Dongen, Jenny; Tan, Qihua; Willemsen, Gonneke; Christiansen, Lene; Boomsma, Dorret I; Spector, Tim D; Valdes, Ana M; Bell, Jordana T

    2015-12-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) can have an impact on health outcomes in later life, especially in relation to pre-disposition to metabolic disease. Several studies suggest that LBW resulting from restricted intrauterine growth leaves a footprint on DNA methylation in utero, and this influence likely persists into adulthood. To investigate this further, we performed epigenome-wide association analyses of blood DNA methylation using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip profiles in 71 adult monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs who were extremely discordant for birth weight. A signal mapping to the IGF1R gene (cg12562232, p = 2.62 × 10(-8)), was significantly associated with birth weight discordance at a genome-wide false-discovery rate (FDR) of 0.05. We pursued replication in three additional independent datasets of birth weight discordant MZ pairs and observed the same direction of association, but the results were not significant. However, a meta-analysis across the four independent samples, in total 216 birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs, showed a significant positive association between birth weight and DNA methylation differences at IGF1R (random-effects meta-analysis p = .04), and the effect was particularly pronounced in older twins (random-effects meta-analysis p = .008, 98 older birth-weight discordant MZ twin pairs). The results suggest that severe intra-uterine growth differences (birth weight discordance >20%) are associated with methylation changes in the IGF1R gene in adulthood, independent of genetic effects.

  1. Time Series Discord Detection in Medical Data using a Parallel Relational Database [PowerPoint

    SciTech Connect

    Woodbridge, Diane; Wilson, Andrew T.; Rintoul, Mark Daniel; Goldstein, Richard H.

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in sensor technology have made continuous real-time health monitoring available in both hospital and non-hospital settings. Since data collected from high frequency medical sensors includes a huge amount of data, storing and processing continuous medical data is an emerging big data area. Especially detecting anomaly in real time is important for patients’ emergency detection and prevention. A time series discord indicates a subsequence that has the maximum difference to the rest of the time series subsequences, meaning that it has abnormal or unusual data trends. In this study, we implemented two versions of time series discord detection algorithms on a high performance parallel database management system (DBMS) and applied them to 240 Hz waveform data collected from 9,723 patients. The initial brute force version of the discord detection algorithm takes each possible subsequence and calculates a distance to the nearest non-self match to find the biggest discords in time series. For the heuristic version of the algorithm, a combination of an array and a trie structure was applied to order time series data for enhancing time efficiency. The study results showed efficient data loading, decoding and discord searches in a large amount of data, benefiting from the time series discord detection algorithm and the architectural characteristics of the parallel DBMS including data compression, data pipe-lining, and task scheduling.

  2. Prognostic impact of discordance between triple-receptor measurements in primary and recurrent breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liedtke, C.; Broglio, K.; Moulder, S.; Hsu, L.; Kau, S.-W.; Symmans, W. F.; Albarracin, C.; Meric-Bernstam, F.; Woodward, W.; Theriault, R. L.; Kiesel, L.; Hortobagyi, G. N.; Pusztai, L.; Gonzalez-Angulo, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: We evaluated discordance in expression measurements for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 between primary and recurrent tumors in patients with recurrent breast cancer and its effect on prognosis. Methods: A total of 789 patients with recurrent breast cancer were studied. ER, PR, and HER2 status were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or FISH. Repeat markers for ER, PR, and HER2 were available in 28.9%, 27.6%, and 70.0%, respectively. Primary and recurrent tumors were classified as triple receptor-negative breast cancer (TNBC) or receptor-positive breast cancer (RPBC, i.e. expressing at least one receptor). Discordance was correlated with clinical/pathological parameters. Results: Discordance for ER, PR, and HER2 was 18.4%, 40.3%, and 13.6%, respectively. Patients with concordant RPBC had significantly better post-recurrence survival (PRS) than discordant cases; patients with discordant receptor status had similarly unfavorable survival as patients with concordant TNBC. IHC scores for ER and PR showed weak concordance between primary and recurrent tumors. Concordance of HER2–FISH scores was higher. Conclusions: Concordance of quantitative hormone receptor measurements between primary and recurrent tumors is modest consistent with suboptimal reproducibility of measurement methods, particularly for IHC. Discordant cases have poor survival probably due to inappropriate use of targeted therapies. However, biological change in clinical phenotype cannot be completely excluded. PMID:19596702

  3. Treatment for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Public Home » Treatment » Treatment Decisions and HIV HIV/AIDS Menu Menu HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Home ... here Enter ZIP code here Treatment Decisions and HIV for Veterans and the Public Treatment for HIV: ...

  4. Proposed EU-India free trade agreement could impede manufacture of generic HIV drugs.

    PubMed

    Chu, Sandra Ka Hon

    2011-04-01

    Medical experts are warning that an international trade agreement being brokered between the European Union (EU) and India could greatly restrict the access of people living with HIV in the developing world to life-saving antiretroviral medication.

  5. A high-throughput single-cell analysis of human CD8+ T cell functions reveals discordance for cytokine secretion and cytolysis

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, Navin; Julg, Boris; Yamanaka, Yvonne J.; Chen, Huabiao; Ogunniyi, Adebola O.; McAndrew, Elizabeth; Porter, Lindsay C.; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Hill, Brenna J.; Douek, Daniel C.; Pereyra, Florencia; Walker, Bruce D.; Love, J. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    CD8+ T cells are a key component of the adaptive immune response to viral infection. An inadequate CD8+ T cell response is thought to be partly responsible for the persistent chronic infection that arises following infection with HIV. It is therefore critical to identify ways to define what constitutes an adequate or inadequate response. IFN-γ production has been used as a measure of T cell function, but the relationship between cytokine production and the ability of a cell to lyse virus-infected cells is not clear. Moreover, the ability to assess multiple CD8+ T cell functions with single-cell resolution using freshly isolated blood samples, and subsequently to recover these cells for further functional analyses, has not been achieved. As described here, to address this need, we have developed a high-throughput, automated assay in 125-pl microwells to simultaneously evaluate the ability of thousands of individual CD8+ T cells from HIV-infected patients to mediate lysis and to produce cytokines. This concurrent, direct analysis enabled us to investigate the correlation between immediate cytotoxic activity and short-term cytokine secretion. The majority of in vivo primed, circulating HIV-specific CD8+ T cells were discordant for cytolysis and cytokine secretion, notably IFN-γ, when encountering cognate antigen presented on defined numbers of cells. Our approach should facilitate determination of signatures of functional variance among individual effector CD8+ T cells, including those from mucosal samples and those induced by vaccines. PMID:21965332

  6. The Evolving Role of Union Learning Representatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sian; Ross, Cilla

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests that the union learning representative (ULR) is increasingly situated at the heart of trade union activity. The paper draws upon recent research based on interviews with national trade union officers and case studies of union learning activity to explore the competing demands being made upon ULRs and the implications for…

  7. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  8. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  9. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  10. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  11. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to...

  12. 75 FR 75648 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701, 704, and 741 RIN 3133-AD74 Corporate Credit Unions AGENCY: National Credit Union... Board issued a proposed rule amending its corporate credit union rule. 75 FR 73000 (November 29,...

  13. Fasting plasma total ghrelin concentrations in monozygotic twins discordant for obesity.

    PubMed

    Leskelä, Piia; Ukkola, Olavi; Vartiainen, Johanna; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bouchard, Claude; Kesäniemi, Y Antero

    2009-02-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone that is involved in the regulation of food intake. Neuronal, endocrine, and genetic factors have been shown to regulate plasma ghrelin levels; but the determinants of fasting ghrelin concentrations are not yet fully understood. The main aim was to explore the roles of adiposity and genetic differences in determining fasting plasma total ghrelin levels. We measured total ghrelin levels in a population of 23 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for obesity. In addition, 2 variants of ghrelin gene, namely, Arg51Gln and Leu72Met, were genotyped in 3 populations of monozygotic twin pairs: 23 obesity-discordant, 43 lean-concordant, and 46 obesity-concordant twin pairs. In discordant twins, lean co-twins had higher fasting plasma total ghrelin levels (950 pg/mL, SD = 328 pg/mL) than obese twins (720 pg/mL, SD = 143 pg/mL; P = .003). Arg51Gln-polymorphism of the ghrelin gene was equally distributed between the twin groups. However, there were significant differences in genotype frequencies at the Leu72Met polymorphism between the discordant and obese-concordant groups (P = .003) and between the discordant and lean-concordant groups (P = .011), but not between the 2 concordant groups. In the discordant group, there were fewer Met carriers (4%) than among the obese (17%) or the lean-concordant groups (15%). Plasma total ghrelin levels are affected by acquired obesity independent of genetic background. The Leu72 allele is particularly common among monozygotic twins discordant for obesity, suggesting that this ghrelin allele is more permissive in the regulation of energy balance. The ghrelin gene may thus play a role in the regulation of variability of body weight, such that Leu72 allele carriers are more prone to weight variability in response to environmental factors.

  14. Is growth-discordance in twins a substantial risk factor in adverse neonatal outcomes?

    PubMed

    Frezza, Simonetta; Gallini, Francesca; Puopolo, Maria; De Carolis, Maria P; D'Andrea, Vito; Guidone, Paola I; Luciano, Rita; Zuppa, Antonio A; Romagnoli, Costantino

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate whether growth discordance is an independent risk factor in the neonatal outcome of the smaller twin, all medical records of twin pregnancies delivered between 26 and 41 weeks during a 5-year period (January 2004-December 2008) were reviewed. Among the 49 selected twins, weight discordance was 15-20% in 7 infants, 21-30% in 16 infants, 31-40% in 16 infants and > 40% in 10 infants. No significant differences between the four groups were found with regards to obstetric complications and neonatal disease. Occurrence of birthweight below the 10th percentile and rate of admission to the neonatal intensive care unit significantly increased as intra-pair birthweight difference increased (p = .03). The > 40% discordant group had a significantly lower gestational age (p = .03), lower birthweight (p = .007) and a significantly higher mortality rate (4/10 versus 3/39 p = .04) in comparison with the other discordant groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that birthweight was the single independent and consistent factor associated with elevated risks of mortality. For every 250 g increase in birthweight, the risk for mortality decreased by about 84% [RR 0.16(CI 0.00-0.70)]. Gestational age was the most reliable predictor for major neonatal complications. For every 1-week increase in gestational age a significant decreased risk for all outcomes was found. Discordance alone should not be considered as a predictor for adverse neonatal outcome. Neonatal outcome in discordant twins appears to be related to gestational age and birthweight rather than to the degree of discordance.

  15. HIV Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicines to treat HIV (called antiretroviral therapy, or ART) the right way, every day. They can keep ... to treat HIV infection (called antiretroviral therapy, or ART) the right way, every day and his or ...

  16. Inaccuracy of haemoglobin A1c among HIV-infected men: effects of CD4 cell count, antiretroviral therapies and haematological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Laurence; Palella, Frank J.; Abraham, Alison G.; Li, Xiuhong; Vigouroux, Corinne; Pialoux, Gilles; Kingsley, Lawrence; Lake, Jordan E.; Brown, Todd T.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Crain, Barbara; Dobs, Adrian; Farzadegan, Homayoon; Gallant, Joel; Johnson-Hill, Lisette; Plankey, Michael; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola; Shepard, James; Thio, Chloe; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Phair, John P.; Badri, Sheila; O'Gorman, Maurice; Ostrow, David; Palella, Frank; Ragin, Ann; Detels, Roger; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Aronow, Aaron; Bolan, Robert; Breen, Elizabeth; Butch, Anthony; Jamieson, Beth; Miller, Eric N.; Oishi, John; Vinters, Harry; Wiley, Dorothy; Witt, Mallory; Yang, Otto; Young, Stephen; Zhang, Zuo Feng; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Becker, James T.; Cranston, Ross D.; Martinson, Jeremy J.; Mellors, John W.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Stall, Ronald D.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Munoz, Alvaro; Abraham, Alison; Althoff, Keri; Cox, Christopher; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Golub, Elizabeth; Schollenberger, Janet; Seaberg, Eric C.; Su, Sol; Huebner, Robin E.; Dominguez, Geraldina

    2014-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence that among HIV-infected patients haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values may not accurately reflect glycaemia. We assessed HbA1c discordance (observed HbA1c − expected HbA1c) and associated factors among HIV-infected participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). Methods Fasting glucose (FG) and HbA1c were measured at each semi-annual MACS visit since 1999. All HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men for whom at least one FG and HbA1c pair measurement was available were evaluated. Univariate median regression determined the association between HbA1c and FG by HIV serostatus. The relationship between HbA1c and FG in HIV-uninfected men was used to determine the expected HbA1c. Generalized estimating equations determined factors associated with the Hb1Ac discordance among HIV-infected men. Clinically significant discordance was defined as observed HbA1c − expected HbA1c ≤−0.5%. Results Over 13 years, 1500 HIV-uninfected and 1357 HIV-infected men were included, with a median of 11 visits for each participant. At an FG of 125 mg/dL, the median HbA1c among HIV-infected men was 0.21% lower than among HIV-uninfected men and the magnitude of this effect increased with FG >126 mg/dL. Sixty-three percent of HIV-infected men had at least one visit with clinically significant HbA1c discordance, which was independently associated with: low CD4 cell count (<500 cells/mm3); a regimen containing a protease inhibitor, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or zidovudine; high mean corpuscular volume; and abnormal corpuscular haemoglobin. Conclusion HbA1c underestimates glycaemia in HIV-infected patients and its use in patients with risk factors for HbA1c discordance may lead to under-diagnosis and to under-treatment of established diabetes mellitus. PMID:25096078

  17. Federal prison guards call for power to test prisoners for HIV.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2006-12-01

    The union representing federal prison guards is lobbying the government to amend the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA) to permit prison staff to apply for orders to test prisoners for HIV and the hepatitis B and C viruses. This article summarizes the union's proposal and the Legal Network's response.

  18. Differentially Methylated Genomic Regions in Birth-Weight Discordant Twin Pairs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mubo; Baumbach, Jan; Vandin, Fabio; Röttger, Richard; Barbosa, Eudes; Dong, Mingchui; Frost, Morten; Christiansen, Lene; Tan, Qihua

    2016-03-01

    Poor nutrition during critical growth phases may alter the structural and physiologic development of vital organs thus "programming" the susceptibility to adult-onset diseases and disease-related health conditions. Epigenome-wide association studies have been performed in birth-weight discordant twin pairs to find evidence for such "programming" effects, but no significant results emerged. We further investigated this issue using a new computational approach: Instead of probing single genomic sites for significant alterations in epigenetic marks, we scan for differentially methylated genomic regions. Whole genome DNA methylation levels were measured in whole blood from 150 pairs of adult identical twins discordant for birth-weight. Intrapair differential DNA methylation was associated with qualitative (large or small) and quantitative (percentage) birth-weight discordance at each genomic site using regression models adjusting for age and sex. Based on the regression results, genomic regions with consistent alteration patterns of DNA methylation were located and tested for significant robustness using computational permutation tests. This yielded an interesting genomic region on chromosome 1, which is significantly differentially methylated for quantitative birth-weight discordance. The region covers two genes (TYW3 and CRYZ) both reportedly associated with metabolism. We conclude that prenatal conditions for birth-weight discordance may result in persistent epigenetic modifications potentially affecting even adult health.

  19. Characterization of Sera with Discordant Results from Reverse Sequence Screening for Syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyunghoon; Park, Hyewon; Roh, Eun Youn; Shin, Sue; Park, Kyoung Un; Park, Myoung Hee; Song, Eun Young

    2013-01-01

    Reverse sequence screening for syphilis (RSSS) (screening with treponemal tests, followed by confirmation with nontreponemal tests) has been increasingly adopted. CDC recommends confirmation of discordant results (reactive EIA/CIA and nonreactive nontreponemal test) with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA). We characterized sera with discordant results from RSSS with Architect Syphilis TP CIA. Among 15,713 screening tests using Architect Syphilis TP at Seoul National University Gangnam Center between October 2010 and May 2011, 260 (1.7%) showed reactive results. Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and TP-PA were performed on 153 available sera among them. On sera with discordant results between Architect Syphilis TP and TP-PA, INNO-LIA Syphilis Score and FTA-ABS were performed. Among 153 sera, RPR was nonreactive in 126 (82.4%). Among them, TP-PA was positive in 103 (81.7%), indeterminate (±) in 7 (5.6%), and negative in 16 (12.7%). Out of 16 CIA(+)/RPR(−)/TP-PA(−) sera, INNO-LIA Syphilis Score and/or FTA-ABS were negative on 14 sera. Out of 7 CIA(+)/RPR(−)/TP-PA(±) sera, INNO-LIA Syphilis Score and FTA-ABS were positive/reactive in 6 sera. RSSS with confirmation by TP-PA on sera with discordant results between Architect Syphilis TP and RPR effectively delineated those discordant results and could be successfully adopted for routine checkup for syphilis. PMID:23509699

  20. Food reinforcement and delay discounting in zBMI-discordant siblings ☆

    PubMed Central

    Feda, Denise M.; Roemmich, James N.; Roberts, April; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The interaction of food reinforcement and the inability to delay gratification are related to adult energy intake and obesity. This study was designed to test the association of sibling pair differences in relative reinforcing efficacy of food and delay discounting on sibling pair differences in zBMI scores of same-gender zBMI-discordant siblings. Design and methods We tested main and interactive relationships between delay discounting and relative reinforcing efficacy of food on zBMI discordance in 14 zBMI-discordant biological sibling pairs (6 female pairs) using a discordant sibling study design. Results Sibling pair differences in relative reinforcing efficacy of food were associated with sibling pair differences in zBMI (p = 0.046); this effect was moderated by delay discounting (p < 0.002). Sibling pairs with greater differences in relative reinforcing efficacy and delay discounting had greater differences in zBMI. Conclusions The combination of greater sibling pair differences in delay discounting and relative reinforcing efficacy is associated with greater discordance in zBMI in adolescent sibling pairs. PMID:25464024

  1. How discordant morphological and molecular evolution among microorganisms can revise our notions of biodiversity on earth

    PubMed Central

    Lahr, Daniel J. G.; Laughinghouse, H. Dail; Oliverio, Angela; Gao, Feng; Katz, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Microscopy has revealed a tremendous diversity of bacterial and eukaryotic forms. More recent molecular analyses show discordance in estimates of biodiversity based on morphological analyses. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of the diversity of microbial forms have revealed evidence of convergence at scales as large as interdomain – i.e. convergent forms shared between bacteria and eukaryotes. Here, we highlight examples of such discordance, focusing on exemplary lineages such as testate amoebae, ciliates and cyanobacteria, which have long histories of morphological study. We discuss examples in two categories: 1) morphologically identical (or highly similar) individuals that are genetically distinct and 2) morphologically distinct individuals that are genetically distinct. We argue that hypotheses about discordance can be tested using the concept of neutral morphologies, or more broadly neutral phenotypes, as a null hypothesis. PMID:25156897

  2. How discordant morphological and molecular evolution among microorganisms can revise our notions of biodiversity on Earth.

    PubMed

    Lahr, Daniel J G; Laughinghouse, Haywood Dail; Oliverio, Angela M; Gao, Feng; Katz, Laura A

    2014-10-01

    Microscopy has revealed tremendous diversity of bacterial and eukaryotic forms. Recent molecular analyses show discordance in estimates of biodiversity between morphological and molecular analyses. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of the diversity of microbial forms reveal evidence of convergence at scales as deep as interdomain: morphologies shared between bacteria and eukaryotes. Here, we highlight examples of such discordance, focusing on exemplary lineages such as testate amoebae, ciliates, and cyanobacteria. These have long histories of morphological study, enabling deeper analyses on both the molecular and morphological sides. We discuss examples in two main categories: (i) morphologically identical (or highly similar) individuals that are genetically distinct and (ii) morphologically distinct individuals that are genetically the same. We argue that hypotheses about discordance can be tested using the concept of neutral morphologies, or more broadly neutral phenotypes, as a null hypothesis.

  3. Reconceptulizing Language Discordance: Meanings and Experiences of Language Barriers in the U.S. and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Elaine

    2017-02-24

    Individuals with language barriers may face challenges unique to a host society. By examining and comparing the sociocultural conditions that can result in providers and patients not sharing the same language in the United States and in Taiwan, I argue that (a) language discordance is a social phenomenon that may entail diverging meanings and experiences in different countries; (b) language-discordant patients may not share similar experiences even if they are in the same country; and (c) disparities in language concordance may be confounded with other disparities and cultural particulars that are unique to a host society. In addition, because English is a dominant language in medicine, language-discordant patients' quality of care in Taiwan can be moderated by their fluency in English.

  4. A pair of monozygotic twins discordant for homosexuality: sex-dimorphic behavior and penile volume responses.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N; Blaszczynski, A

    1980-04-01

    In reports of identical twins discordant for homosexuality, the homosexual twins showed the effeminacy syndrome in childhood. This has been considered evidence that the homosexuality comes from the twin himself. The possibility that the heterosexual twin was denying homosexuality has never been excluded. A pair of identical male twins discordant for homosexuality are reported. They showed significant differences in their penile volume responses to moving pictures of male and female nudes indicative of sexual orientations consistent with their statements. The homosexual twin showed the effeminacy syndrome. Aspects of the syndrome can be induced in mammals by altering their hormonal environment during some critical period in their intrauterine development. Discordance for homosexuality in identical twins could be due to one's being exposed to a different hormonal level during such a critical period.

  5. Identical twin discordance for the Brachmann-de Lange syndrome revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Carakushansky, G.; Goncalves, M.R.; Kahn, E.

    1996-06-14

    The only known twin pair evidently discordantly affected for the BDLS (Brachmann-de Lange syndrome) and who had been considered monozygotic (MZ) based on blood analysis remained a problem because biological zygosity determination needed further typing. In this report we review the clinical findings of this pair of twins at the age of 20. The use of DNA fingerprinting with three multilocus probes, F10, DNT24, and 33.6, allowed us to present evidence of monozygosity with a high degree of certainty. The significance of this confirmation of discordance in determining the cause of BDLS is discussed. Intensive comparative genomic studies of the discordant twin sisters may be useful to unravel the molecular genetics of this enigmatic pattern of malformation. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  6. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  7. Bridging populations-sexual risk behaviors and HIV prevalence in clients and partners of female sex workers, Bangkok, Thailand 2007.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neha S; Shiraishi, Ray W; Subhachaturas, Wonchart; Anand, Abhijeet; Whitehead, Sara J; Tanpradech, Suvimon; Manopaiboon, Chomnad; Sabin, Keith M; Fox, Kimberley K; Kim, Andrea Y

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate HIV prevalence and assess sexual behaviors in a high-risk and difficult-to-reach population of clients of female sex workers (FSWs). A modified variation of respondent-driven sampling was conducted among FSWs in Bangkok, where FSWs recruited 3 FSW peers, 1 client, and 1 nonpaying partner. After informed consent was obtained, participants completed a questionnaire, were HIV-tested, and were asked to return for results. Analyses were weighted to control for the design of the survey. Among 540 FSWs, 188 (35%) recruited 1 client, and 88 (16%) recruited 1 nonpaying partner. Clients' median age was 38 years. HIV prevalence was 20% and was associated with younger age at first sexual experience [relative risk (RR) = 3.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-8.24] and condom use during last sexual encounter with regular partner (RR = 3.97, 95% CI 1.09-14.61). Median age of nonpaying partners was 34 years, and HIV prevalence was 15.1%. There were 56 discordant FSW-client pairs and 14 discordant FSW-nonpaying partner pairs. Condom use was relatively high among discordant FSW-client pairs (90.1%) compared to discordant FSW-nonpaying partner pairs (18.7%). Results suggest that sexual partners of FSWs have a high HIV prevalence and can be a bridge for HIV transmission to other populations. Findings also highlight the importance of initiating surveillance and targeted programs for FSW partners, and demonstrate a recruitment method for hard-to-reach populations.

  8. Court redefines standard for HIV transmission risk.

    PubMed

    1999-04-30

    The 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals upheld Alabama's policy of segregating inmates by HIV status. The Alabama prison system tests all entering inmates; those who are HIV-positive are sent to one of two facilities. A range of prison services, including vocational training and sports competitions is often denied to them. The Department of Corrections argued that this policy has led to one of the lowest seroconversion rates of any State correctional system. The Court's ruling is a shift in its attitude on "significant" risk of HIV transmission in disallowing people from participation in employment, public services, or public accommodations. Rulings in dissenting cases are reviewed. The American Civil Liberties Union, representing the HIV-positive inmates, called the policy of segregating inmates blatant discrimination.

  9. Quantum correlations in Gaussian states via Gaussian channels: steering, entanglement, and discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong-Xiao; Wang, Shuhao; Li, Qiting; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan

    2016-06-01

    Here we study the quantum steering, quantum entanglement, and quantum discord for Gaussian Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states via Gaussian channels. And the sudden death phenomena for Gaussian steering and Gaussian entanglement are theoretically observed. We find that some Gaussian states have only one-way steering, which confirms the asymmetry of quantum steering. Also we investigate that the entangled Gaussian states without Gaussian steering and correlated Gaussian states own no Gaussian entanglement. Meanwhile, our results support the assumption that quantum entanglement is intermediate between quantum discord and quantum steering. Furthermore, we give experimental recipes for preparing quantum states with desired types of quantum correlations.

  10. "Parent Unions" Join Policy Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Whether they're organizing events, buttonholing legislators, or simply trading ideas and information, a growing number of "parent unions" are attempting to stake out a place in policy debates over education in states and districts, amid a crowded field of actors and advocates. As the term implies, some of these organizations see…

  11. Union Education: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, R. Brooke

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the author's observations and experiences while designing and delivering a training program at the Professional Institute of the Public Service of Canada. A two-day course acquaints union stewards and prospective stewards with their functions; a three-day advanced course examines legislation and collective bargaining and deals with other…

  12. Proliferation and the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The report examines the whole range of consequences for proliferation of weapons of mass destruction of the Soviet Union's breakup and describes how U.S. assistance may reduce specific proliferation risks in the former Soviet Union.

  13. Partnership Creates Centre for Union Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Carol; Roman, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    A unique cooperative venture between the city of Coventry and local trade unions is establishing a library collection of books, periodicals, historical documents, tapes, and films dealing with unions, labor studies, and industrial problems. (JAB)

  14. Graduate Student Unionization: Catalysts and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julius, Daniel J.; Gumport, Patricia J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined unionization trends and outcomes among graduate students: where and why they have organized and whether unionization has affected student-mentor relationships. Uncovered several implications for institutional and departmental autonomy, student-mentor relationships, and labor relations outcomes. (EV)

  15. Gender Differences in HIV Risk Behaviors Among Persons Involved in the U.S. Criminal Justice System and Living with HIV or at Risk for HIV: A "Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain" Harmonization Consortium.

    PubMed

    Loeliger, Kelsey B; Biggs, Mary L; Young, Rebekah; Seal, David W; Beckwith, Curt G; Kuo, Irene; Gordon, Michael S; Altice, Frederick L; Ouellet, Lawrence J; Cunningham, William E; Young, Jeremy D; Springer, Sandra A

    2017-02-10

    The U.S. female criminal justice (CJ) population is rapidly growing, yet large-scale studies exploring gender-specific HIV risk behaviors in the CJ population are lacking. This analysis uses baseline data on adults with a CJ history from eight U.S. studies in an NIH-funded "Seek, Test, Treat, Retain" harmonization consortium. Data were collected using a standardized HIV risk behavior assessment tool and pooled across studies to describe participants' characteristics and risk behaviors. Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to test for gender-based behavior differences. Among 784 HIV-positive (21.4% female) and 5521 HIV-negative (8.5% female) participants, HIV-positive women had higher odds than HIV-positive men of engaging in condomless sexual intercourse (AOR 1.84 [1.16-2.95]) with potentially sero-discordant partners (AOR 2.40 [1.41-4.09]) and of sharing injection equipment (AOR 3.36 [1.31-8.63]). HIV risk reduction interventions targeting CJ-involved women with HIV are urgently needed as this population may represent an under-recognized potential source of HIV transmission.

  16. Unionizing: A Guide for Child Care Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; And Others

    Including excerpts from contracts protecting unionized child care workers, this booklet explains basic terminology and facts about unionizing and addresses child care workers' concerns. Section 1 answers commonly asked questions about unions and offers advice about how to answer parents' questions about workers' attempts to organize. Section 2…

  17. A Different Role for Teachers Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Marc

    2012-01-01

    American teachers unions are increasingly the target of measures, authored by friends and foes alike, intended to limit their power, or even eviscerate them. Looking at this scene, one would never guess that the countries that are among the top 10 in student performance have some of the strongest teachers unions in the world. Are those unions in…

  18. ETUDE - European Trade Union Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creanor, Linda; Walker, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Describes transnational distance learning activities among European trade union educators carried out as part of the European Trade Union Distance Education (ETUDE) project, supported by the European Commission. Highlights include the context of international trade union distance education; tutor training course; tutors' experiences; and…

  19. 76 FR 44866 - Credit Union Service Organizations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...-AD93 Credit Union Service Organizations AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: NCUA proposes to amend its credit union service organization (CUSO) regulation to... Organizations Subpart B of part 741 addresses NCUA regulations that FISCUs must follow to obtain and...

  20. 75 FR 60651 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... union system. As part of this restructuring, NCUA believes that some groups of natural person credit... committee member, and senior management employee; and NCUA Form 4008, the credit union's organization... requirement. Any group of persons creating a new federally chartered corporate credit union must apply...

  1. Are Charter School Unions Worth the Bargain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    About 12 percent of all charter schools have bargaining agreements. Why do charter schools unionize? What is in these charter school contracts? Can they be considered innovative or models for union reform? And how do they compare to traditional district/union teacher contracts? Center on Reinventing Public Education legal analyst Mitch Price…

  2. 75 FR 64785 - Corporate Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...NCUA is issuing final amendments to its rule governing corporate credit unions. The major revisions involve corporate credit union capital, investments, asset-liability management, governance, and credit union service organization (CUSO) activities. The amendments establish a new capital scheme, including risk-based capital requirements; impose new prompt corrective action requirements; place......

  3. Union-Management Ideological Frames of Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolters, Roger S.

    1982-01-01

    Looks at union-management (U-M) ideology as a potential explanatory variable in labor relations and demonstrates a method of measuring the ideology of union (N=34) and management (N=38) representatives. Semantic differential and antecedent-consequent techniques indicated significant union-management differences on all 10 U-M beliefs measured. (WAS)

  4. Iranian National Union Catalog Description and Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    This outline of how to establish and maintain an Asian national union catalog contains basic instruction for the staff and for the participating libraries of one of West Asia's largest union catalogs. It has been prepared to: (1) define and clarify the purposes of the Iranian National Union Catalog; (2) explain the policies and procedures under…

  5. Unions and Job Satisfaction: An Alternative View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Davis-Blake, Alison

    1990-01-01

    The dominant theoretical perspective suggests that unions reduce job satisfaction by making workers more critical of the workplace and more willing to complain. However, unions reduce wage inequality and increase worker control and commitment. A survey of 978 workers shows that unionization has a positive effect on job satisfaction. (JOW)

  6. 75 FR 17083 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Parts 701, 708a, and 708b Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions; Correction AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration. ACTION:...

  7. 40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. August, 1970 VIEW OF UNION STREET WITH ELISHA GREEN HOUSE (9 UNION STREET) AT LEFT - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  8. 75 FR 57820 - National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Credit Union Administration Restoration Plan AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). ACTION: Approval of National Credit Union Administration restoration plan. On September 16, 2010, the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) implemented a Restoration Plan for the National...

  9. Anxiety Disorders and Latinos: The Role of Family Cohesion and Family Discord

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Jacob B.; Denton, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Family cohesion has shown to be associated with lower psychological distress and other risk behaviors for Latinos, but little is known about the relationship of family cohesion, family discord, and anxiety disorders. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (n = 2,554), this study examines the relationship between family…

  10. Dynamics of Gaussian discord between two oscillators interacting with a common environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, José Nahuel; Paz, Juan Pablo

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the evolution of the Gaussian discord between two resonant harmonic oscillators coupled to a common environment. For this, we use the same tools we applied before to fully characterize the evolution of the entanglement in this system [Paz and Roncaglia, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.220401 100, 220401 (2008)]. The asymptotic value of Gaussian discord is obtained as a function of parameters characterizing the environment (temperature, couplings, etc.) and the initial state of the system (initial squeezing, initial purity, etc.) The type of Gaussian measurement optimizing the extraction of information between the oscillators is fully characterized by means of a phase diagram. Such a diagram (with phases corresponding to homodyne or heterodyne measurements) has similar topology to the one describing dynamical phases for the entanglement. We present evidence pointing to the fact that Gaussian discord is not always a good approximation of true discord as the asymptotic value of the former is shown to be a nondecreasing function of temperature (in the high-temperature regime), reaching an asymptotic value of ln(2) for a pure initial state (and lower values for mixed initial states).

  11. Alexithymia predicts arousal-based processing deficits and discordance between emotion response systems during emotional imagery.

    PubMed

    Peasley-Miklus, Catherine E; Panayiotou, Georgia; Vrana, Scott R

    2016-03-01

    Alexithymia is believed to involve deficits in emotion processing and imagery ability. Previous findings suggest that it is especially related to deficits in processing the arousal dimension of emotion, and that discordance may exist between self-report and physiological responses to emotional stimuli in alexithymia. The current study used a well-established emotional imagery paradigm to examine emotion processing deficits and discordance in participants (N = 86) selected based on their extreme scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Physiological (skin conductance, heart rate, and corrugator and zygomaticus electromyographic responses) and self-report (valence, arousal ratings) responses were monitored during imagery of anger, fear, joy, and neutral scenes and emotionally neutral high arousal (action) scenes. Results from regression analyses indicated that alexithymia was largely unrelated to responses on valence-based measures (facial electromyography, valence ratings), but that it was related to arousal-based measures. Specifically, alexithymia was related to higher heart rate during neutral and lower heart rate during fear imagery. Alexithymia did not predict differential responses to action versus neutral imagery, suggesting specificity of deficits to emotional contexts. Evidence for discordance between physiological responses and self-report in alexithymia was obtained from within-person analyses using multilevel modeling. Results are consistent with the idea that alexithymic deficits are specific to processing emotional arousal, and suggest difficulties with parasympathetic control and emotion regulation. Alexithymia is also associated with discordance between self-reported emotional experience and physiological response to emotion, consistent with prior evidence.

  12. Finite-temperature scaling of trace distance discord near criticality in spin diamond structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, W. W.; Wang, X. Y.; Sheng, Y. B.; Gong, L. Y.; Zhao, S. M.; Liu, J. M.

    2017-02-01

    In this work we explore the quantum correlation quantified by trace distance discord as a measure to analyze the quantum critical behaviors in the Ising-XXZ diamond structure at finite temperatures. It is found that the first-order derivative of the trace distance discord exhibits a maximum around the critical point at finite temperatures. By analyzing the finite-temperature scaling behavior, we show that such a quantum correlation can detect exactly the quantum phase transitions from the entan-gled state in ferrimagnetic phase to an unentangled state in ferrimagnetic phase or to an unentangled state in ferromagnetic phase. The results also indicate that the above two kinds of transitions can be distinguished by the different finite-temperature scaling behaviors. Moreover, we find that the trace distance discord, in contrast to other typical quantum correlations (e.g., concurrence, quantum discord and Hellinger distance), may be more reliable to exactly spotlight the critical points of this model at finite temperatures under certain situations.

  13. Is there a genetic basis for Fuchs' heterochromic uveitis? Discordance in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, N P; Read, A P

    1992-01-01

    One pair, and probably two pairs, of monozygotic twins are reported with discordance for Fuchs' heterochromic uveitis (FHU). Regular Mendelian inheritance of this disease is now proved to be impossible. The heritability of FHU is low and may be zero. The possibility of any genetic predisposition to the disease and its association with 'simple' heterochromia are discussed. Images PMID:1739686

  14. Divergent Perspectives on Language-Discordant Mobile Medical Professionals' Communication with Colleagues: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasiorek, Jessica; van de Poel, Kris

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how language-discordant mobile medical professionals (MMPs), defined as doctors who work in foreign countries, cultures, and languages, interact with their colleagues. The number of MMPs around the world is growing, and their interactions with colleagues have direct consequences for both patients' health and their own…

  15. Changes in the pattern of DNA methylation associate with twin discordance in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Javierre, Biola M.; Fernandez, Agustin F.; Richter, Julia; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Martin-Subero, J. Ignacio; Rodriguez-Ubreva, Javier; Berdasco, Maria; Fraga, Mario F.; O'Hanlon, Terrance P.; Rider, Lisa G.; Jacinto, Filipe V.; Lopez-Longo, F. Javier; Dopazo, Joaquin; Forn, Marta; Peinado, Miguel A.; Carreño, Luis; Sawalha, Amr H.; Harley, John B.; Siebert, Reiner; Esteller, Manel; Miller, Frederick W.; Ballestar, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Monozygotic (MZ) twins are partially concordant for most complex diseases, including autoimmune disorders. Whereas phenotypic concordance can be used to study heritability, discordance suggests the role of non-genetic factors. In autoimmune diseases, environmentally driven epigenetic changes are thought to contribute to their etiology. Here we report the first high-throughput and candidate sequence analyses of DNA methylation to investigate discordance for autoimmune disease in twins. We used a cohort of MZ twins discordant for three diseases whose clinical signs often overlap: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and dermatomyositis. Only MZ twins discordant for SLE featured widespread changes in the DNA methylation status of a significant number of genes. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment in categories associated with immune function. Individual analysis confirmed the existence of DNA methylation and expression changes in genes relevant to SLE pathogenesis. These changes occurred in parallel with a global decrease in the 5-methylcytosine content that was concomitantly accompanied with changes in DNA methylation and expression levels of ribosomal RNA genes, although no changes in repetitive sequences were found. Our findings not only identify potentially relevant DNA methylation markers for the clinical characterization of SLE patients but also support the notion that epigenetic changes may be critical in the clinical manifestations of autoimmune disease. PMID:20028698

  16. Finite-temperature scaling of trace distance discord near criticality in spin diamond structure

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, W. W.; Wang, X. Y.; Sheng, Y. B.; Gong, L. Y.; Zhao, S. M.; Liu, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we explore the quantum correlation quantified by trace distance discord as a measure to analyze the quantum critical behaviors in the Ising-XXZ diamond structure at finite temperatures. It is found that the first-order derivative of the trace distance discord exhibits a maximum around the critical point at finite temperatures. By analyzing the finite-temperature scaling behavior, we show that such a quantum correlation can detect exactly the quantum phase transitions from the entan-gled state in ferrimagnetic phase to an unentangled state in ferrimagnetic phase or to an unentangled state in ferromagnetic phase. The results also indicate that the above two kinds of transitions can be distinguished by the different finite-temperature scaling behaviors. Moreover, we find that the trace distance discord, in contrast to other typical quantum correlations (e.g., concurrence, quantum discord and Hellinger distance), may be more reliable to exactly spotlight the critical points of this model at finite temperatures under certain situations. PMID:28198404

  17. Probing quantum entanglement, quantum discord, classical correlation, and the quantum state without disturbing them

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhenni; Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui

    2011-01-15

    We present schemes for a type of one-parameter bipartite quantum state to probe quantum entanglement, quantum discord, the classical correlation, and the quantum state based on cavity QED. It is shown that our detection does not influence all these measured quantities. We also discuss how the spontaneous emission introduced by our probe atom influences our detection.

  18. Exploring Discordance between Self-Efficacy and Writing Performance among Low-Literate Adult Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasiou, Dimitris; Michail, Domna

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores accordance or discordance between efficacy beliefs of adult students and their writing performance, using a mixed methods design. The participants are 33 students with learning disabilities (LD) and 35 low-achieving (LA) students, who were attending two Second-Chance Schools (SCSs), a specific type of adult education.…

  19. Neuroanatomic, epigenetic and genetic differences in monozygotic twins discordant for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-C; Sudre, G; Sharp, W; Donovan, F; Chandrasekharappa, S C; Hansen, N; Elnitski, L; Shaw, P

    2017-03-21

    The study of monozygotic twins discordant for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can elucidate mechanisms that contribute to the disorder, which affects ~7% of children. First, using in vivo neuroanatomic imaging on 14 pairs of monozygotic twins (mean age 9.7, s.d. 1.9 years), we found that discordance for the disorder is mirrored by differing dimensions of deep brain structures (the striatum and cerebellum), but not the cerebral cortex. Next, using whole-blood DNA from the same twins, we found a significant enrichment of epigenetic differences in genes expressed in these 'discordant' brain structures. Specifically, there is differential methylation of probes lying in the shore and shelf and enhancer regions of striatal and cerebellar genes. Notably, gene sets pertaining to the cerebral cortex (which did not differ in volume between affected and unaffected twins) were not enriched by differentially methylated probes. Genotypic differences between the twin pairs-such as copy number and rare, single-nucleotide variants-did not contribute to phenotypic discordance. Pathway analyses of the genes implicated by the most differentially methylated probes implicated γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitter systems. The study illustrates how neuroimaging can help guide the search for epigenomic mechanisms in neurodevelopmental disorders.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 21 March 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2017.45.

  20. Effect of Couples Counselling on Reported HIV Risk Behaviour among HIV Serodiscordant Couples by ART Use, HIV Status and Gender in Rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    King, Rachel; Min, Jeong; Birungi, Josephine; Nyonyintono, Maureen; Muldoon, Katherine A.; Khanakwa, Sarah; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Moore, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We examined several measures of self-reported HIV risk behaviour in mutually disclosed sero-discordant couples over time to see if a couples counselling intervention was associated with changes in these behaviors. Methods We analysed data from a prospective cohort study of HIV sero-discordant couples in Jinja, Uganda collected between June 2009 and December 2011. Participants received couples counselling, at 3-monthly intervals. We examined trends in reported condom-use, number of concurrent sexual partners, knowledge of HIV serostatus of concurrent partners and condom use of concurrent partners using Generalized Estimating Equation models, comparing responses at study enrollment with responses at six, 12 18 and 24 months of follow-up. Results A total of 586 couples were enrolled and the female member was HIV positive in 255 (44%) of them. The median age for female participants was 35 years and 42 years for men. Reported condom use at last sex with spouse increased over time (p<0.001) with the largest increases found among couples where the positive participant never received ART during the study(an increase from 68.8% at enrollment to 97.1% at 24 months). Male participants reported reductions in the number of concurrent sexual partners (p<0.001), increase in the knowledge of the HIV serostatus of these partners (p = 0.001) and a trend towards improved condom-use among non-primary partners (p = 0.070). Reported reduced risky behaviors did not wane over the study period. Conclusion Couples counselling resulted in increased condom use among all participants and among men the intervention resulted in reductions in risk behaviour with concurrent sexual partners. Routine counselling for serodiscordant couples should be integrated in routine ART care programs. PMID:26384103

  1. Hormonal Contraceptive Use Among HIV-Positive Women and HIV Transmission Risk to Male Partners, Zambia, 1994–2012

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Kristin M.; Kilembe, William; Vwalika, Bellington; Ravindhran, Preeti; Khu, Naw Htee; Brill, Ilene; Chomba, Elwyn; Johnson, Brent A.; Haddad, Lisa B.; Tichacek, Amanda; Allen, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Evidence on the association between female-to-male human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission risk and hormonal contraception is sparse and conflicting. Methods. Heterosexual HIV-discordant couples from Lusaka, Zambia, were followed longitudinally at 3 month-intervals from 1994 to 2012. The impact of hormonal contraception on time to HIV transmission from HIV-positive women to their HIV-negative male partners (M−F+) was evaluated. Results. Among 1601 M−F+ couples, 171 genetically linked HIV transmissions occurred in men over 3216 couple-years (5.3 transmissions/100 couple-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.5–6.2). In multivariable Cox models, neither injectable (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.6; 95% CI, .4–1.2), oral contraceptive pill (aHR, 0.8; 95% CI, .3–2.1), nor implant (aHR, 0.8; 95% CI, .5–1.4) use was associated with HIV transmission, relative to nonhormonal methods, after controlling for the man's age at baseline and time-varying measures of pregnancy, self-reported unprotected sex with the study partner, sperm present on a vaginal swab wet mount, genital inflammation of either partner, genital ulceration of the man, and first follow-up interval. Sensitivity analyses, including marginal structural modeling and controlling for viral load and fertility intentions available in a subset of couples, led to similar conclusions. Conclusions. Our findings suggest null associations between hormonal contraception and risk of female-to-male HIV transmission. We support efforts to increase the contraceptive method mix for all women, regardless of HIV serostatus, along with reinforced condom counseling for HIV-serodiscordant couples. PMID:27462093

  2. Risk Factors for HSV-2 Infection among Sexual Partners of HSV-2/HIV-1 Co-Infected Persons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most frequent cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide and has been associated with increased risk for HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of risk factors for HSV-2 infection among HIV-1 uninfected partners, whose partners were co-infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2. Methods Between November 2004 and April 2007, 3408 HIV-discordant couples, in which the HIV-1 infected partners were HSV-2 seropositive with CD4 250 cells/mm3 or greater, were enrolled in an HSV-2 suppression trial to prevent HIV-1 transmission at 14 sites in 7 African countries. Clinical & behavioral data, HSV-2 and HIV-1 testing were conducted at enrolment. Univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses were performed separately, by gender of the HIV-1 infected partner. Results Among 3354 HIV-1 uninfected participants, 32% were female and overall 71% were HSV-2 seropositive. Among couples with female HIV-1 infected partners, HIV-1 plasma RNA [aPR 1.03; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.06; p = 0.11] and CD4 count [aPR 1.00; 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.01; p = 0.48] in the HSV-2/HIV-1 dually infected female and circumcision in the HIV-1 uninfected male partner [aPR 0.94; 95% CI: 0.88 to 1.00; p = 0.06] were not associated with reduced risk of HSV-2 seropositivity, after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions In this cross-sectional analysis of African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples with prevalent HSV-2 infection in the HIV-1 infected partner, HIV-1 plasma RNA and CD4 count in the dually-infected partner and male circumcision in the HIV-1 uninfected partner were not associated with HSV-2 concordance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519 PMID:21406077

  3. 12 CFR 741.222 - Credit union service organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit union service organizations. 741.222 Section 741.222 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.222 Credit union...

  4. 12 CFR 741.222 - Credit union service organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit union service organizations. 741.222 Section 741.222 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS... Unions That Also Apply to Federally Insured State-Chartered Credit Unions § 741.222 Credit union...

  5. Gene tree discordance of wild and cultivated Asian rice deciphered by genome-wide sequence comparison.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ching-chia; Sakai, Hiroaki; Numa, Hisataka; Itoh, Takeshi

    2011-05-15

    Although a large number of genes are expected to correctly solve a phylogenetic relationship, inconsistent gene tree topologies have been observed. This conflicting evidence in gene tree topologies, known as gene tree discordance, becomes increasingly important as advanced sequencing technologies produce an enormous amount of sequence information for phylogenomic studies among closely related species. Here, we aim to characterize the gene tree discordance of the Asian cultivated rice Oryza sativa and its progenitor, O. rufipogon, which will be an ideal case study of gene tree discordance. Using genome and cDNA sequences of O. sativa and O. rufipogon, we have conducted the first in-depth analyses of gene tree discordance in Asian rice. Our comparison of full-length cDNA sequences of O. rufipogon with the genome sequences of the japonica and indica cultivars of O. sativa revealed that 60% of the gene trees showed a topology consistent with the expected one, whereas the remaining genes supported significantly different topologies. Moreover, the proportions of the topologies deviated significantly from expectation, suggesting at least one hybridization event between the two subgroups of O. sativa, japonica and indica. In fact, a genome-wide alignment between japonica and indica indicated that significant portions of the indica genome are derived from japonica. In addition, literature concerning the pedigree of the indica cultivar strongly supported the hybridization hypothesis. Our molecular evolutionary analyses deciphered complicated evolutionary processes in closely related species. They also demonstrated the importance of gene tree discordance in the era of high-speed DNA sequencing.

  6. Nanogeochronology of discordant zircon measured by atom probe microscopy of Pb-enriched dislocation loops.

    PubMed

    Peterman, Emily M; Reddy, Steven M; Saxey, David W; Snoeyenbos, David R; Rickard, William D A; Fougerouse, Denis; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R C

    2016-09-01

    Isotopic discordance is a common feature in zircon that can lead to an erroneous age determination, and it is attributed to the mobilization and escape of radiogenic Pb during its post-crystallization geological evolution. The degree of isotopic discordance measured at analytical scales of ~10 μm often differs among adjacent analysis locations, indicating heterogeneous distributions of Pb at shorter length scales. We use atom probe microscopy to establish the nature of these sites and the mechanisms by which they form. We show that the nanoscale distribution of Pb in a ~2.1 billion year old discordant zircon that was metamorphosed c. 150 million years ago is defined by two distinct Pb reservoirs. Despite overall Pb loss during peak metamorphic conditions, the atom probe data indicate that a component of radiogenic Pb was trapped in 10-nm dislocation loops that formed during the annealing of radiation damage associated with the metamorphic event. A second Pb component, found outside the dislocation loops, represents homogeneous accumulation of radiogenic Pb in the zircon matrix after metamorphism. The (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratios measured from eight dislocation loops are equivalent within uncertainty and yield an age consistent with the original crystallization age of the zircon, as determined by laser ablation spot analysis. Our results provide a specific mechanism for the trapping and retention of radiogenic Pb during metamorphism and confirm that isotopic discordance in this zircon is characterized by discrete nanoscale reservoirs of Pb that record different isotopic compositions and yield age data consistent with distinct geological events. These data may provide a framework for interpreting discordance in zircon as the heterogeneous distribution of discrete radiogenic Pb populations, each yielding geologically meaningful ages.

  7. Nanogeochronology of discordant zircon measured by atom probe microscopy of Pb-enriched dislocation loops

    PubMed Central

    Peterman, Emily M.; Reddy, Steven M.; Saxey, David W.; Snoeyenbos, David R.; Rickard, William D. A.; Fougerouse, Denis; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic discordance is a common feature in zircon that can lead to an erroneous age determination, and it is attributed to the mobilization and escape of radiogenic Pb during its post-crystallization geological evolution. The degree of isotopic discordance measured at analytical scales of ~10 μm often differs among adjacent analysis locations, indicating heterogeneous distributions of Pb at shorter length scales. We use atom probe microscopy to establish the nature of these sites and the mechanisms by which they form. We show that the nanoscale distribution of Pb in a ~2.1 billion year old discordant zircon that was metamorphosed c. 150 million years ago is defined by two distinct Pb reservoirs. Despite overall Pb loss during peak metamorphic conditions, the atom probe data indicate that a component of radiogenic Pb was trapped in 10-nm dislocation loops that formed during the annealing of radiation damage associated with the metamorphic event. A second Pb component, found outside the dislocation loops, represents homogeneous accumulation of radiogenic Pb in the zircon matrix after metamorphism. The 207Pb/206Pb ratios measured from eight dislocation loops are equivalent within uncertainty and yield an age consistent with the original crystallization age of the zircon, as determined by laser ablation spot analysis. Our results provide a specific mechanism for the trapping and retention of radiogenic Pb during metamorphism and confirm that isotopic discordance in this zircon is characterized by discrete nanoscale reservoirs of Pb that record different isotopic compositions and yield age data consistent with distinct geological events. These data may provide a framework for interpreting discordance in zircon as the heterogeneous distribution of discrete radiogenic Pb populations, each yielding geologically meaningful ages. PMID:27617295

  8. Gut DNA viromes of Malawian twins discordant for severe acute malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Alejandro; Blanton, Laura V; Cao, Song; Zhao, Guoyan; Manary, Mark; Trehan, Indi; Smith, Michelle I; Wang, David; Virgin, Herbert W; Rohwer, Forest; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2015-09-22

    The bacterial component of the human gut microbiota undergoes a definable program of postnatal development. Evidence is accumulating that this program is disrupted in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and that their persistent gut microbiota immaturity, which is not durably repaired with current ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) interventions, is causally related to disease pathogenesis. To further characterize gut microbial community development in healthy versus malnourished infants/children, we performed a time-series metagenomic study of DNA isolated from virus-like particles (VLPs) recovered from fecal samples collected during the first 30 mo of postnatal life from eight pairs of mono- and dizygotic Malawian twins concordant for healthy growth and 12 twin pairs discordant for SAM. Both members of discordant pairs were sampled just before, during, and after treatment with a peanut-based RUTF. Using Random Forests and a dataset of 17,676 viral contigs assembled from shotgun sequencing reads of VLP DNAs, we identified viruses that distinguish different stages in the assembly of the gut microbiota in the concordant healthy twin pairs. This developmental program is impaired in both members of SAM discordant pairs and not repaired with RUTF. Phage plus members of the Anelloviridae and Circoviridae families of eukaryotic viruses discriminate discordant from concordant healthy pairs. These results disclose that apparently healthy cotwins in discordant pairs have viromes associated with, although not necessarily mediators, of SAM; as such, they provide a human model for delineating normal versus perturbed postnatal acquisition and retention of the gut microbiota's viral component in populations at risk for malnutrition.

  9. Feasibility of unilateral parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and negative or discordant localization studies.

    PubMed

    Calò, Pietro Giorgio; Medas, Fabio; Loi, Giulia; Erdas, Enrico; Pisano, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Angelo

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of unilateral parathyroidectomy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and negative or discordant localization studies. We included in our study 72 patients with preoperative diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism who had negative or discordant preoperative studies. In 66 patients, studies were discordant while in six were both negative. In 40 (55.6 %) patients initial approach was a bilateral exploration. In 32 cases (44.4 %) initial surgery was a unilateral exploration: in 26 conservative approach was successful, in six mini-invasive surgery failed and a bilateral exploration was necessary due to IOPTH negative test (five cases) or to the impossibility to find a pathological gland during exploration (one case). Intra-operative PTH test showed a sensitivity of 93.2 %, a specificity of 92.3 %, and an accuracy of 93.1 %. Multiple gland disease was found in 8 (11.1 %) patients (two double adenoma and six multiple gland hyperplasia). Mean operative time was lower in unilateral exploration group (87.9 ± 43.8 min). Comparing unilateral surgery in negative or discordant studies with 77 consecutive patients who underwent focused surgery with positive and concordant studies, conversion to bilateral exploration rate was statistically significantly higher in the first group (15.6 %). We believe that unilateral parathyroidectomy can be safely performed also in patients with discordant localization studies with a high cure rate; in these cases, however, the use of intra-operative PTH is absolutely necessary. We suggest the need for referral of these patients to high-volume medical centers for thyroid and parathyroid surgery.

  10. Gut DNA viromes of Malawian twins discordant for severe acute malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Alejandro; Blanton, Laura V.; Cao, Song; Zhao, Guoyan; Manary, Mark; Trehan, Indi; Smith, Michelle I.; Wang, David; Virgin, Herbert W.; Rohwer, Forest; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial component of the human gut microbiota undergoes a definable program of postnatal development. Evidence is accumulating that this program is disrupted in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and that their persistent gut microbiota immaturity, which is not durably repaired with current ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) interventions, is causally related to disease pathogenesis. To further characterize gut microbial community development in healthy versus malnourished infants/children, we performed a time-series metagenomic study of DNA isolated from virus-like particles (VLPs) recovered from fecal samples collected during the first 30 mo of postnatal life from eight pairs of mono- and dizygotic Malawian twins concordant for healthy growth and 12 twin pairs discordant for SAM. Both members of discordant pairs were sampled just before, during, and after treatment with a peanut-based RUTF. Using Random Forests and a dataset of 17,676 viral contigs assembled from shotgun sequencing reads of VLP DNAs, we identified viruses that distinguish different stages in the assembly of the gut microbiota in the concordant healthy twin pairs. This developmental program is impaired in both members of SAM discordant pairs and not repaired with RUTF. Phage plus members of the Anelloviridae and Circoviridae families of eukaryotic viruses discriminate discordant from concordant healthy pairs. These results disclose that apparently healthy cotwins in discordant pairs have viromes associated with, although not necessarily mediators, of SAM; as such, they provide a human model for delineating normal versus perturbed postnatal acquisition and retention of the gut microbiota’s viral component in populations at risk for malnutrition. PMID:26351661

  11. Asthma discordance in twins is linked to epigenetic modifications of T cells.

    PubMed

    Runyon, R Scott; Cachola, Leslie M; Rajeshuni, Nitya; Hunter, Tessa; Garcia, Marco; Ahn, Regina; Lurmann, Fred; Krasnow, Ruth; Jack, Lisa M; Miller, Rachel L; Swan, Gary E; Kohli, Arunima; Jacobson, Amanda C; Nadeau, Kari C

    2012-01-01

    T cells mediate the inflammatory responses observed in asthma among genetically susceptible individuals and have been suspected to be prone to epigenetic regulation. However, these relationships are not well established from past clinical studies that have had limited capacity to control for the effects of variable genetic predisposition and early environmental exposures. Relying on a cohort of monozygotic twins discordant for asthma we sought to determine if epigenetic modifications in T cells were associated with current asthma and explored whether such modifications were associated with second hand smoke exposures. Our study was conducted in a monozygotic twin cohort of adult twin pairs (n = 21) all discordant for asthma. Regulatory T cell (Treg) and effector T cell (Teff) subsets were assessed for levels of cellular function, protein expression, gene expression and CpG methylation within Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and interferon gamma-γ (IFNγ) loci. Comparisons by asthma and current report of exposure to second hand smoke were made. Treg from asthmatic discordant twins demonstrated decreased FOXP3 protein expression and impaired Treg function that was associated with increased levels of CpG methylation within the FOXP3 locus when compared to their non-asthmatic twin partner. In parallel, Teff from discordant asthmatic twins demonstrated increased methylation of the IFNγ locus, decreased IFNγ expression and reduced Teff function when compared to Teff from the non-asthmatic twin. Finally, report of current exposure to second hand smoke was associated with modifications in both Treg and Teff at the transcriptional level among asthmatics. The results of the current study provide evidence for differential function of T cell subsets in monozygotic twins discordant for asthma that are regulated by changes in DNA methylation. Our preliminary data suggest exposure to second hand smoke may augment the modified T cell responses associated with asthma.

  12. Advertising HIV.

    PubMed

    Mougenez, Stephane; Chad, N'Djamena; Howe, John

    1995-04-05

    Think of advertising and what comes to mind, soap powders, motor cars, baked beans? All of these, of course, are heavily advertised, but what about HIV? Among the most durable of the government's advertisement campaigns have been the ones concerning HIV. Tens of millions of pounds have been spent telling the public of the presence and dangers of the virus.

  13. Type of partnership and heterosexual spread of HIV infection in rural Uganda: results from simulation modelling.

    PubMed

    Robinson, N J; Mulder, D; Auvert, B; Whitworth, J; Hayes, R

    1999-11-01

    The objective was to estimate the likely percentage of HIV infections that may be attributable to one-off partnerships (such as those between female sex workers and their clients) and longer-term partnerships in rural Uganda. This was addressed by the application of a microsimulation model (SimulAIDS) of the transmission dynamics of HIV infection, drawing on data from a population cohort of 10,000 in rural Uganda. For a scenario reproducing documented characteristics of the study population in 1990, when adult HIV prevalence was 9%, and during subsequent follow up (1990-1994), when adult HIV incidence was 8 per 1000 person-years, the percentage of HIV infections in men (women) attributed to one-off partnerships decreased from 96% (26%) during 1980 to 67% (8%) in 1989 and 22% (5%) in 1994. Reducing HIV transmission between one-off partners early in an HIV epidemic may substantially limit the potential for the spread of HIV infection. At a later phase, prevention must also focus on control of transmission between longer-term HIV-discordant partners.

  14. ART influences HIV persistence in the female reproductive tract and cervicovaginal secretions.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Rikke; Swanson, Michael D; Kovarova, Martina; Nochi, Tomonori; Chateau, Morgan; Honeycutt, Jenna B; Long, Julie M; Denton, Paul W; Hudgens, Michael G; Richardson, Amy; Tolstrup, Martin; Østergaard, Lars; Wahl, Angela; Garcia, J Victor

    2016-03-01

    The recently completed HIV prevention trials network study 052 is a landmark collaboration demonstrating that HIV transmission in discordant couples can be dramatically reduced by treating the infected individual with antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the cellular and virological events that occur in the female reproductive tract (FRT) during ART that result in such a drastic decrease in transmission were not studied and remain unknown. Here, we implemented an in vivo model of ART in BM/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice in order to better understand the ability of ART to prevent secondary HIV transmission. We demonstrated that the entire FRT of BLT mice is reconstituted with human CD4+ cells that are shed into cervicovaginal secretions (CVS). A high percentage of the CD4+ T cells in the FRT and CVS expressed CCR5 and therefore are potential HIV target cells. Infection with HIV increased the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in CVS of BLT mice. Furthermore, HIV was present in CVS during infection. Finally, we evaluated the effect of ART on HIV levels in the FRT and CVS and demonstrated that ART can efficiently suppress cell-free HIV-RNA in CVS, despite residual levels of HIV-RNA+ cells in both the FRT and CVS.

  15. ART influences HIV persistence in the female reproductive tract and cervicovaginal secretions

    PubMed Central

    Olesen, Rikke; Swanson, Michael D.; Kovarova, Martina; Nochi, Tomonori; Chateau, Morgan; Honeycutt, Jenna B.; Long, Julie M.; Denton, Paul W.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Richardson, Amy; Tolstrup, Martin; Østergaard, Lars; Wahl, Angela; Garcia, J. Victor

    2016-01-01

    The recently completed HIV prevention trials network study 052 is a landmark collaboration demonstrating that HIV transmission in discordant couples can be dramatically reduced by treating the infected individual with antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the cellular and virological events that occur in the female reproductive tract (FRT) during ART that result in such a drastic decrease in transmission were not studied and remain unknown. Here, we implemented an in vivo model of ART in BM/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice in order to better understand the ability of ART to prevent secondary HIV transmission. We demonstrated that the entire FRT of BLT mice is reconstituted with human CD4+ cells that are shed into cervicovaginal secretions (CVS). A high percentage of the CD4+ T cells in the FRT and CVS expressed CCR5 and therefore are potential HIV target cells. Infection with HIV increased the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in CVS of BLT mice. Furthermore, HIV was present in CVS during infection. Finally, we evaluated the effect of ART on HIV levels in the FRT and CVS and demonstrated that ART can efficiently suppress cell-free HIV-RNA in CVS, despite residual levels of HIV-RNA+ cells in both the FRT and CVS. PMID:26854925

  16. Evaluation of LIAISON® XL system for HBsAg, and anti-HCV and anti-HIV/Ag p24.

    PubMed

    De Paschale, Massimo; Manco, Maria Teresa; Belvisi, Luisa; Cagnin, Debora; Cerulli, Teresa; Paganini, Alessia; Arpino, Olivia; Cianflone, Annalisa; Agrappi, Carlo; Mirri, Paola; Clerici, Pierangelo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the data obtained using the new LIAISON® XL chemiluminescence system to search for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV1-2/p24 Ag with those obtained using the VITROS system currently adopted by the Microbiology Unit of the Hospital of Legnano. Routine samples of patients who were referred by practitioners for the determination of HBsAg (1,000 samples) and/or anti-HCV (1,002 samples) and/or anti-HIV1-2 (995 samples) were simultaneously analyzed using both systems. The concordant positive and discordant samples were re-examined for confirmation by means of an HBsAg neutralization assay, anti-HCV immunoblot, or anti-HIV1-2 Western blot; HBV-DNA, or HCV-RNA or HIV-RNA was also sought in the discordant samples. Samples of patients known to be positive were tested (100 HBsAg positive, 100 anti-HCV positive, and 100 HIV 1-2 positive) as well throughout treatment, with viremia levels becoming undetectable after treatment. The HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV1-2 concordance between the two systems in routine series was respectively 99.8%, 98.5% and 99.7%, and 100% for all markers in samples known positive. The various molecular biology and confirmatory tests of the discordant samples were all negative (except for one anti-HCV positive sample). Measure of Cohen's kappa coefficient for HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV gave K values of respectively 0.992, 0.946, and 0.980. In conclusion, the performance of the LIAISON® XL system in the routine laboratory determination for all three markers was comparable with that of the VITROS system. J. Med. Virol. 89:489-496, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. MOBILIZING COMMUNITIES AROUND HIV PREVENTION FOR YOUTH: HOW THREE COALITIONS APPLIED KEY STRATEGIES TO BRING ABOUT STRUCTURAL CHANGES

    PubMed Central

    Chutuape, Kate S.; Willard, Nancy; Sanchez, Kenia; Straub, Diane M.; Ochoa, Tara N.; Howell, Kourtney; Rivera, Carmen; Ramos, Ibrahim; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, HIV prevention efforts must focus on altering features of the social and physical environment to reduce risks associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. Community coalitions provide a vehicle for bringing about sustainable structural changes. This article shares lessons and key strategies regarding how three community coalitions located in Miami and Tampa, Florida, and San Juan, Puerto Rico engaged their respective communities in bringing about structural changes affecting policies, practices and programs related to HIV prevention for 12–24-year-olds. Outcomes of this work include increased access to HIV testing and counseling in the juvenile correctional system (Miami), increased monitoring of sexual abuse between young women and older men within public housing, and support services to deter age discordant relationships (Tampa) and increased access to community-based HIV testing (San Juan). PMID:20166784

  18. Mobilizing communities around HIV prevention for youth: how three coalitions applied key strategies to bring about structural changes.

    PubMed

    Chutuape, Kate S; Willard, Nancy; Sanchez, Kenia; Straub, Diane M; Ochoa, Tara N; Howell, Kourtney; Rivera, Carmen; Ramos, Ibrahim; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly, HIV prevention efforts must focus on altering features of the social and physical environment to reduce risks associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. Community coalitions provide a vehicle for bringing about sustainable structural changes. This article shares lessons and key strategies regarding how three community coalitions located in Miami and Tampa, Florida, and San Juan, Puerto Rico engaged their respective communities in bringing about structural changes affecting policies, practices and programs related to HIV prevention for 12-24-year-olds. Outcomes of this work include increased access to HIV testing and counseling in the juvenile correctional system (Miami), increased monitoring of sexual abuse between young women and older men within public housing, and support services to deter age discordant relationships (Tampa) and increased access to community-based HIV testing (San Juan).

  19. The Abuja +12 declaration: implications for HIV response in Africa.

    PubMed

    Mburu, Rosemary W; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Akanni, Olayide

    2014-09-01

    Heads of State and Governments of the Organization of African Unity now the African Union (AU) met in April 2001 at a Special Summit held in Abuja to address the challenges of HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, Malaria and other related infectious diseases in Africa. In May 2006, at the Special Summit under the theme: "Universal Access to HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria Services by 2010", the African Union Heads of States and Governments adopted the "Abuja Call for Accelerated Action towards Universal Access to HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria Services in Africa" and related commitments thus reaffirming earlier commitments. In July 2013, African leaders once again gathered in Abuja for the Abuja +12 summit, which focused on the theme 'Ownership, Accountability and Sustainability of HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria in Africa: Past, Present and the Future'. At the meeting, African leaders noted the tremendous progress that has been made in addressing HIV and AIDS, and made further commitments to effectively tackle the HIV epidemic on the continent. This article presents a critical look at each of these commitments and makes recommendations that would assist African countries in developing policies to end the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region.

  20. Children and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latinx AIDS ... who have lived with HIV since they were born are living productive and healthy lives. Can HIV ...

  1. European Union a New Babylon?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesch, F.

    2010-07-01

    The growing European Union faces growing problems in personal communication. These problems cannot be overcome only by more language courses in school. As important is a better mutual knowledge of the culture of other countries, a knowledge that can be gained only by a personal, professional stay in foreign countries. On university level, such stays are best organized by networks connecting European universities. In the broad field of measurement, this IMEKO symposium might offer a unique forum to thoroughly discuss structure and realization of such a network with all interested colleagues.

  2. The relationship between labor unions and safety in US airlines: Is there a "union effect?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapf, Renee Catherine

    Every airline union claims to work for safety and presents anecdotes where greater airline safety has been achieved through union efforts. The effect unionization has on safety outcomes in U.S. commercial airlines, however, wasn't found to be previously tested. Studies have shown that in industries such as coal mining, retail, and construction, unionization does lead to an increase in safety. This study evaluated the safety rates of 15 major US commercial airlines to compare the difference between unionized and non-unionized airlines. These safety rates were compared based on if and how long each airline's pilots and flight attendants have been unionized, to determine if unionization had an effect on safety outcomes. The 15 airlines included in the study identified as operating most of the years between 1990 and 2013, with annual departures averaging over 130,000, available through the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Accident and Incident information was acquired through the National Transportation Safety Board database. The number of accident and incidents divided by the total departures at each airline was used as the safety rate. Union websites provided information on unionization at the airlines. Due to the complex nature of the aviation industry, a number of confounding factors could have affected the tests, including mergers, route structures, and legislation. To help control for these confounding factors, this study was limited to airlines with a stable presence in the industry over time, which limited the number of airlines included. No significant difference was found between unionized and non-unionized airlines in this study, though the mean safety rate of unionized airlines was found be better than non-unionized airlines. This study did not take into account safety improvements that were union-backed and eventually required at all airlines, regardless of unionization. Due to the large sample size of the small population the difference in safety rate

  3. Living with HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Living With HIV Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  4. HIV Among Asians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Asians Format: Select One File [143K] Recommend ...

  5. Arab Maghreb Union: Achievement and Prospects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    be enough to save this union from collapse. Geographic and "’Hoffman, S, contemporary Theory in International relations , (Englewood Cliffs, NJ,1960...NAVAL POSTGRADU1ATE SCHOOL Monterey, California AD-A283 604 THESIS w ’ : ’ ARAB MAGHREB UNION : ACHIEVEMENT AND PROSPECTS by Abderrahmen Messaoudi...AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED 1994 June Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Arab Maghreb Union

  6. Discordant Growth of Monozygotic Twins Starts at the Blastocyst Stage: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Noli, Laila; Capalbo, Antonio; Ogilvie, Caroline; Khalaf, Yacoub; Ilic, Dusko

    2015-01-01

    Summary Discordant growth is a common complication of monochorionic/diamniotic pregnancies; in approximately 50% of cases, the cause is unknown. The case presented here suggests that discordant growth of monozygotic twins could start during preimplantation development. Two inner cell masses (ICMs) within the same blastocyst may originate in uneven splitting of a single “parental” ICM, or the two ICMs may be formed independently de novo. We studied the transcriptomes of two morphologically distinct ICMs within a single blastocyst using high-resolution RNA sequencing. The data indicated that the two ICM were at different stages of development; one was in the earliest stages of lineage commitment, while the other had already differentiated into epiblast and primitive endoderm. IGF1-mediated signaling is likely to play a key role in ICM growth and to be the major driver behind these differences. PMID:26584541

  7. Unidirectional Pinning and Hysteresis of Spatially Discordant Alternans in Cardiac Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Karma, Alain; Restrepo, Juan G.

    2012-03-01

    Spatially discordant alternans is a widely observed pattern of voltage and calcium signals in cardiac tissue that can precipitate lethal cardiac arrhythmia. Using spatially coupled iterative maps of the beat-to-beat dynamics, we explore this pattern’s dynamics in the regime of a calcium-dominated period-doubling instability at the single-cell level. We find a novel nonlinear bifurcation associated with the formation of a discontinuous jump in the amplitude of calcium alternans at nodes separating discordant regions. We show that this jump unidirectionally pins nodes by preventing their motion away from the pacing site following a pacing rate decrease but permitting motion towards this site following a rate increase. This unidirectional pinning leads to strongly history-dependent node motion that is strongly arrhythmogenic.

  8. Geometric Quantum Discord in the Heisenberg XX Model with Three-Spin Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yu-Xia; Liu, Jing; Sun, Yu-Hang

    2017-02-01

    Quantum discord is a resource for quantum information processing tasks, and seeking flexible ways to control it is of practical significance. We investigate the trace distance, Bures distance, and Hellinger distance geometric quantum discords (GQDs) for thermal states of the Heisenberg XX chain with three-spin interactions. The results show that both the XZX + YZY and XZY - YZX types of three-spin interactions can be used to enhance evidently the GQDs for the boundary spins of the chain. The optimal strengths of three-spin interactions for which the maximum enhancement of the GQDs are achieved are strongly dependent on the GQD measures we adopted and the number of spins in the chain.

  9. Quantum Discord and Entanglement of Quasi-Werner States Based on Bipartite Entangled Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Maurya, Ajay K.; Prakash, Hari

    2016-06-01

    Present work is an attempt to compare quantum discord and quantum entanglement of quasi-Werner states formed with the four bipartite entangled coherent states (ECS) used recently for quantum teleportation of a qubit encoded in superposed coherent state. Out of these, the quasi-Werner states based on maximally ECS due to its invariant nature under local operation is independent of measurement basis and mean photon numbers, while for quasi-Werner states based on non-maximally ECS, it depends upon measurement basis as well as on mean photon number. However, for large mean photon numbers since non-maximally ECS becomes almost maximally entangled therefore dependence of quantum discord for non-maximally ECS based quasi-Werner states on the measurement basis disappears.

  10. Relationship between Discordance in Parental Monitoring and Behavioral Problems among Chilean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Ma, Julie; Castillo, Marcela; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of discrepancies between parent and youth reports of perceived parental monitoring in adolescent problem behaviors with a Chilean sample (N= 850). Higher levels of discordance concerning parental monitoring predicted greater levels of maladaptive youth behaviors. A positive association between parent-youth discordance and externalizing problems indicated that large adult-youth disagreement in parental monitoring may impose a great risk, despite protective efforts of parental monitoring. Although the direct relationship between parental monitoring and youth internalizing behaviors was not significant, parent-youth incongruence in monitoring was associated with greater levels of internalizing behaviors. Therefore, differing assessments of parental behaviors, as an indicator of less optimal family functioning, may provide important information about youth maladjustment and may potentially provide a beginning point for family-focused intervention. PMID:23097593

  11. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation*

    PubMed Central

    C. Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F.; Wilczak, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about “precocious exits” from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization (“street” violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation—differentiating between marriage and cohabitation—in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance. PMID:24431471

  12. Adolescent Violent Victimization and Precocious Union Formation.

    PubMed

    C Kuhl, Danielle; Warner, David F; Wilczak, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    This article bridges scholarship in criminology and family sociology by extending arguments about "precocious exits" from adolescence to consider early union formation as a salient outcome of violent victimization for youths. Research indicates that early union formation is associated with several negative outcomes; yet the absence of attention to union formation as a consequence of violent victimization is noteworthy. We address this gap by drawing on life course theory and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) to examine the effect of violent victimization ("street" violence) on the timing of first co-residential union formation-differentiating between marriage and cohabitation-in young adulthood. Estimates from Cox proportional hazard models show that adolescent victims of street violence experience higher rates of first union formation, especially marriage, early in the transition to adulthood; however, this effect declines with age, as such unions become more normative. Importantly, the effect of violent victimization on first union timing is robust to controls for nonviolent delinquency, substance abuse, and violent perpetration. We conclude by discussing directions for future research on the association between violent victimization and coresidential unions with an eye toward the implications of such early union formation for desistance.

  13. HIV Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... the right way, every day. If you have health insurance, your insurer is required to cover some medicines ... to treat HIV. If you don’t have health insurance, or you’re unable to afford your co- ...

  14. The Soviet Union in transition

    SciTech Connect

    Niiseki, K.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the recent transition in the Soviet Union's leadership, scholars worldwide have found it necessary to reevaluate Soviet domestic and foreign policy. In this book, prominent Japanese, U.S., and European experts examine changes within the USSR as well as Soviet reactions to changes in the rest of the world. They assess the immediate implications of change for such areas as technology, energy policy, and economic reform and deliver commentaries on current policy directions and historical backgrounds of Soviet policies. The Japan Institute of International Affairs held the symposium on which this volume is based to commemorate its silver jubilee and to add the valuable perspective of Japanese Soviet studies scholars to Western analyses. Contents: Introduction; The Soviet Union in a Changing World; East-West Relations: A European Perspective; ''Gorbachevism''-Simply Old Wine in a New Bottle. Implications of Leadership and Social Change for Soviet Policies; Soviet Economic Trends, with Special Emphasis on Investment and Energy Policies; Economic Reforms in China in Light of Soviet and Eastern European Experiences.

  15. Using NS5B Sequencing for Hepatitis C Virus Genotyping Reveals Discordances with Commercial Platforms.

    PubMed

    Chueca, Natalia; Rivadulla, Isidro; Lovatti, Rubén; Reina, Gabriel; Blanco, Ana; Fernandez-Caballero, Jose Angel; Cardeñoso, Laura; Rodriguez-Granjer, Javier; Fernandez-Alonso, Miriam; Aguilera, Antonio; Alvarez, Marta; Galán, Juan Carlos; García, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the correct assignment of HCV genotypes by three commercial methods-Trugene HCV genotyping kit (Siemens), VERSANT HCV Genotype 2.0 assay (Siemens), and Real-Time HCV genotype II (Abbott)-compared to NS5B sequencing. We studied 327 clinical samples that carried representative HCV genotypes of the most frequent geno/subtypes in Spain. After commercial genotyping, the sequencing of a 367 bp fragment in the NS5B gene was used to assign genotypes. Major discrepancies were defined, e.g. differences in the assigned genotype by one of the three methods and NS5B sequencing, including misclassification of subtypes 1a and 1b. Minor discrepancies were considered when differences at subtype levels, other than 1a and 1b, were observed. The overall discordance with the reference method was 34% for Trugene and 15% for VERSANT HCV2.0. The Abbott assay correctly identified all 1a and 1b subtypes, but did not subtype all the 2, 3, 4 and 5 (34%) genotypes. Major discordances were found in 16% of cases for Trugene HCV, and the majority were 1b- to 1a-related discordances; major discordances were found for VERSANT HCV 2.0 in 6% of cases, which were all but one 1b to 1a cases. These results indicated that the Trugene assay especially, and to a lesser extent, Versant HCV 2.0, can fail to differentiate HCV subtypes 1a and 1b, and lead to critical errors in clinical practice for correctly using directly acting antiviral agents.

  16. A Retrospective Study of Marital Discord in Pilots: The USAFSAM experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    mild anxiety when feeling too close to women. They tend to take on a traditional role in mairriages. They are self-sufficient and well controllad...of TDYs and separations on their relationships. Further evidence of stress in the relationship was indicated by cases of unfaithfulness , alcohol...Chest pain - Alcohol abuse DQ - Marital discord 10 R/O personality disorder - Atypical anxiety disorder FWW R/O anxiety disorder - Marital problem 11

  17. Using NS5B Sequencing for Hepatitis C Virus Genotyping Reveals Discordances with Commercial Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Chueca, Natalia; Rivadulla, Isidro; Lovatti, Rubén; Reina, Gabriel; Blanco, Ana; Fernandez-Caballero, Jose Angel; Cardeñoso, Laura; Rodriguez-Granjer, Javier; Fernandez-Alonso, Miriam; Aguilera, Antonio; Alvarez, Marta

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the correct assignment of HCV genotypes by three commercial methods—Trugene HCV genotyping kit (Siemens), VERSANT HCV Genotype 2.0 assay (Siemens), and Real-Time HCV genotype II (Abbott)—compared to NS5B sequencing. We studied 327 clinical samples that carried representative HCV genotypes of the most frequent geno/subtypes in Spain. After commercial genotyping, the sequencing of a 367 bp fragment in the NS5B gene was used to assign genotypes. Major discrepancies were defined, e.g. differences in the assigned genotype by one of the three methods and NS5B sequencing, including misclassification of subtypes 1a and 1b. Minor discrepancies were considered when differences at subtype levels, other than 1a and 1b, were observed. The overall discordance with the reference method was 34% for Trugene and 15% for VERSANT HCV2.0. The Abbott assay correctly identified all 1a and 1b subtypes, but did not subtype all the 2, 3, 4 and 5 (34%) genotypes. Major discordances were found in 16% of cases for Trugene HCV, and the majority were 1b- to 1a-related discordances; major discordances were found for VERSANT HCV 2.0 in 6% of cases, which were all but one 1b to 1a cases. These results indicated that the Trugene assay especially, and to a lesser extent, Versant HCV 2.0, can fail to differentiate HCV subtypes 1a and 1b, and lead to critical errors in clinical practice for correctly using directly acting antiviral agents. PMID:27097040

  18. Implementing and expanding HIV testing in immigrant populations in Europe: Comparing guideline's recommendations and expert's opinions.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Del Arco, Débora; Monge, Susana; Rivero-Montesdeoca, Yaiza; Burns, Fiona; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Immigrant populations, especially those from endemic countries, living in the European Union (EU) suffer a disproportionate burden of HIV, delayed diagnosis and poorer access to antiretroviral treatment. While International Organisations are developing recommendations aimed at increasing the uptake of HIV testing, the feasibility and real outcomes of these measures remain unexplored. The aim of this review was, firstly to identify the recommendations of the main International Organisations (IO) on HIV testing in immigrants. Secondly, to describe the challenges for implementing and expanding HIV testing and counselling interventions targeting immigrants by interviewing key informants. The importance of HIV testing in immigrants is discussed, along with the appropriateness of universal HIV testing approaches vs most at risk targeted approaches. Also addressed is, pre- and post-HIV test counselling characteristics and community initiatives suitable to reach this population and, finally the legal issues regarding access to treatment for illegal immigrants.

  19. Metabolome and fecal microbiota in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for weight: a Big Mac challenge.

    PubMed

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Maukonen, Johanna; Mattila, Ismo; Rissanen, Aila; Saarela, Maria; Kaprio, Jaakko; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Orešič, Matej

    2014-09-01

    Postprandial responses to food are complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. We studied postprandial responses to a Big Mac meal challenge in monozygotic co-twins highly discordant for body weight. This unique design allows assessment of the contribution of obesity, independent of genetic liability. Comprehensive metabolic profiling using 3 analytical platforms was applied to fasting and postprandial serum samples from 16 healthy monozygotic twin pairs discordant for weight (body mass index difference >3 kg/m(2)). Nine concordant monozygotic pairs were examined as control pairs. Fecal samples were analyzed to assess diversity of the major bacterial groups by using 5 different validated bacterial group specific denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis methods. No differences in fecal bacterial diversity were detected when comparing co-twins discordant for weight (ANOVA, P<0.05). We found that within-pair similarity is a dominant factor in the metabolic postprandial response, independent of acquired obesity. Branched chain amino acids were increased in heavier as compared with leaner co-twins in the fasting state, but their levels converged postprandially (paired t tests, FDR q<0.05). We also found that specific bacterial groups were associated with postprandial changes of specific metabolites. Our findings underline important roles of genetic and early life factors in the regulation of postprandial metabolite levels.

  20. Dynamics of tripartite quantum entanglement and discord under a classical dephasing random telegraph noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenfack, Lionel Tenemeza; Tchoffo, Martin; Fai, Lukong Cornelius

    2017-02-01

    We address the dynamics of quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord of a three-qubit system interacting with a classical pure dephasing random telegraph noise (RTN) in three different physical environmental situations (independent, mixed and common environments). Two initial entangled states of the system are examined, namely the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)- and Werner (W)-type states. The classical noise is introduced as a stochastic process affecting the energy splitting of the qubits. With the help of suitable measures of tripartite entanglement (entanglement witnesses and lower bound of concurrence) and quantum discord (global quantum discord and quantum dissension), we show that the evolution of quantum correlations is not only affected by the type of the system-environment interaction but also by the input configuration of the qubits and the memory properties of the environmental noise. Indeed, depending on the memory properties of the environmental noise and the initial state considered, we find that independent, common and mixed environments can play opposite roles in preserving quantum correlations, and that the sudden death and revival phenomena or the survival of quantum correlations may occur. On the other hand, we also show that the W-type state has strong dynamics under this noise than the GHZ-type ones.

  1. Integrative Taxonomy Recognizes Evolutionary Units Despite Widespread Mitonuclear Discordance: Evidence from a Rotifer Cryptic Species Complex.

    PubMed

    Papakostas, Spiros; Michaloudi, Evangelia; Proios, Konstantinos; Brehm, Michaela; Verhage, Laurens; Rota, Jadranka; Peña, Carlos; Stamou, Georgia; Pritchard, Victoria L; Fontaneto, Diego; Declerck, Steven A J

    2016-05-01

    Mitonuclear discordance across taxa is increasingly recognized as posing a major challenge to species delimitation based on DNA sequence data. Integrative taxonomy has been proposed as a promising framework to help address this problem. However, we still lack compelling empirical evidence scrutinizing the efficacy of integrative taxonomy in relation to, for instance, complex introgression scenarios involving many species. Here, we report remarkably widespread mitonuclear discordance between about 15 mitochondrial and 4 nuclear Brachionus calyciflorus groups identified using different species delimitation approaches. Using coalescent-, Bayesian admixture-, and allele sharing-based methods with DNA sequence or microsatellite data, we provide strong evidence in support of hybridization as a driver of the observed discordance. We then describe our combined molecular, morphological, and ecological approaches to resolving phylogenetic conflict and inferring species boundaries. Species delimitations based on the ITS1 and 28S nuclear DNA markers proved a more reliable predictor of morphological variation than delimitations using the mitochondrial COI gene. A short-term competition experiment further revealed systematic differences in the competitive ability between two of the nuclear-delimited species under six different growth conditions, independent of COI delimitations; hybrids were also observed. In light of these findings, we discuss the failure of the COI marker to estimate morphological stasis and morphological plasticity in the B. calyciflorus complex. By using B. calyciflorus as a representative case, we demonstrate the potential of integrative taxonomy to guide species delimitation in the presence of mitonuclear phylogenetic conflicts.

  2. The Dynamics of Geometric Discord and its Transfer in Atom-Cavity System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao; Song, Xue-Ke; Ye, Liu

    2013-09-01

    The dynamics of geometric discord (GD) and its transfer in a dissipative system consisting of two independent atom-cavity-reservoir subsystems under the strong coupling and the weak coupling regimes is studied. It is shown that the GD of the atoms and the cavities oscillatorily decays to zero while the reservoirs begin to present nonzero geometric quantum discord already immediately after t = 0 in the strong coupling regime. However, in the weak coupling regime, the GD between the atoms progressively decays becoming zero and the discord between the reservoirs arises from zero to a steady value, while the cavities remain almost uncorrelated during the evolution. We also show that the amount of GD contained in atoms and reservoirs depends on the purity p and it is proportional to p, the smaller the value of p the smaller the amount of GD. It is worth noting that, in both strong coupling and the weak coupling regimes, the results show that GD initially stored in the atoms will eventually be completely transferred to the reservoirs, independent of the parameters, but the transfer is mediated via the cavities in the strong coupling regime, while it is almost directly in the weak coupling regime.

  3. Language discordance and testing for latent tuberculosis infection among recent Asian and Latino immigrants.

    PubMed

    Leng, Jennifer C F; Changrani, Jyotsna; Gany, Francesca M

    2011-04-01

    The foreign-born population is disproportionately affected by tuberculosis (TB). Testing to identify persons with latent TB infection is critical. The aim of this study was to assess clinic-based testing for latent tuberculosis infection among recent Asian and Latino immigrants. A randomized controlled trial of interpreting methods and their impact on medical outcomes was conducted at the primary care clinic of a New York City municipal hospital. This study is a nested cohort of recruited patients with an indication to receive tuberculin testing, based on recent migration to the US from endemic areas. Medical record data were abstracted to determine referral for, and completion of, tuberculin testing. Bivariate analyses were used to test for differences in tuberculin testing between language concordant and discordant groups. Seven hundred and eighty-two patients were enrolled. One hundred and ninety-one had migrated within 5 years of enrollment from endemic areas. None spoke English as a primary language. Seventy percentage of patient-provider encounters were language discordant. Seventeen of 191 were referred for testing. Fifteen (88%) completed testing. Six (40%) had positive results. There were no significant differences between language concordant and discordant patients. In this at-risk population, every patient in clinical care should be considered for testing if indicated by country of origin.

  4. Epigenetics of personality traits: an illustrative study of identical twins discordant for risk-taking behavior.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Zachary; Petronis, Arturas; Wang, Sun-Chong; Levine, Brian; Ghaffar, Omar; Floden, Darlene; Feinstein, Anthony

    2008-02-01

    DNA methylation differences between identical twins could account for phenotypic twin discordance of behavioral traits and diseases. High throughput epigenomic microarray profiling can be a strategy of choice for identification of epigenetic differences in phenotypically different monozygotic (MZ) twins. Epigenomic profiling of a pair of MZ twins with quantified measures of psychometric discordance identified several DNA methylation differences, some of which may have developmental and behavioral implications and are consistent with the contrasting psychometric profiles of the twins. In particular, differential methylation of CpG islands proximal to the homeobox DLX1 gene could modulate stress responses and risk taking behavior, and deserve further attention as a potential marker of aversion to danger. The epigenetic difference detected at DLX1 of approximately 1.2 fold change was used to evaluate experimental design issues such as the required numbers of technical replicates. It also enabled us to estimate the power this technique would have to detect a functionally relevant epigenetic difference given a range of 1 to 50 twin pairs. We found that use of epigenomic microarray profiling in a relatively small number (15-25) of phenotypically discordant twin pairs has sufficient power to detect 1.2 fold epigenetic changes.

  5. "How can I tell?" Consequences of HIV status disclosure among couples in eastern African communities in the context of an ongoing HIV "test-and-treat" trial.

    PubMed

    Maeri, Irene; El Ayadi, Alison; Getahun, Monica; Charlebois, Edwin; Akatukwasa, Cecilia; Tumwebaze, Dennis; Itiakorit, Harriet; Owino, Lawrence; Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Ssemmondo, Emmanuel; Sang, Norton; Kabami, Jane; Clark, Tamara D; Petersen, Maya; Cohen, Craig R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane; Camlin, Carol S

    2016-01-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS anticipate HIV-related stigma and fear disclosure to intimate partners. Yet, disclosure is critical to reducing HIV transmission and improving care engagement. This qualitative study characterized HIV disclosure experiences and normative beliefs among couples in communities participating in an HIV test-and-treat trial in Kenya and Uganda (Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health, NCT#01864603). In-depth interviews were conducted with care providers (n = 50), leaders (n = 32) and members (n = 112) of eight communities. Data were analyzed using grounded theoretical approaches and Atlas.ti software. Findings confirmed gender differences in barriers to disclosure: while both men and women feared blame and accusation, women also feared violence and abandonment ("I did not tell my husband because [what if] I tell him and he abandons me at the last moment when I am in labor?"). Positive consequences included partner support for increased care-seeking and adherence ("My husband keeps on reminding me 'have you taken those drugs?'") Yet negative consequences included partnership dissolution, blame, and reports of violence ("some men beat their wives just because of that [bringing HIV medications home]"). Among HIV-infected individuals in discordant relationships, men more often reported supportive spouses ("we normally share [HIV-risk-reduction strategies] since I have been infected and she is HIV negative"), than did women ("my husband refused to use condoms and even threatened to marry another wife"). Care providers lent support for HIV-positive women who wanted to engage partners in testing but feared negative consequences: "They engaged the two of us in a session and asked him if we could all test." Findings demonstrate differing experiences and support needs of women and men living with HIV in eastern Africa, with HIV-positive women in discordant couples particularly vulnerable to negative consequences of disclosure

  6. Union leadership and member attitudes: a multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Tove Helland; Bayazit, Mahmut; Wazeter, David L

    2009-03-01

    Analyses of union leadership roles show that union presidents should have both a within-union focus and an external focus. The authors combined multi-level survey data from 3,871 union members in 248 local teachers' unions with archival and field staff data to examine relationships between leadership and members' perceptions of union instrumentality and justice, union commitment, and participation. The results showed significant union-level effects on members' beliefs about, and attitudes toward, their unions, attributable to the presidents' internal and external leadership, wage outcomes, and union characteristics. Relationships between internally focused leadership and members' loyalty and willingness to work for the union were partially mediated by perceptions of union instrumentality and justice. These perceptions fully mediated the relationship between externally focused leadership and union loyalty.

  7. Teacher Unionism in Changing Times: Is This the Real "New Unionism"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Howard

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a case study of union change in an environment in which radical school restructuring is taking place, and active strategies to weaken and marginalize organized teachers are being pursued by the state. The case study union is the National Union of Teachers in England. The article explores a number of different strategies open…

  8. 75 FR 15573 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Part III National Credit Union Administration 12 CFR Parts 701, 708a, and 708b Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions; Proposed Rules #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No....

  9. Teacher Union Legitimacy: Shifting the Moral Center for Member Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popiel, Kara

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method case study explored teacher union members' beliefs about the teacher union and their reasons for being active or inactive in the union. Findings suggest that teacher unions have gained pragmatic and cognitive legitimacy (Chaison and Bigelow in Unions and legitimacy. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 2002), but that…

  10. Industrial Feudalism Reconsidered. The Effects of Unionization on Labor Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Ronald

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes union effects on patterns of job mobility. It finds that the union effects vary by type of union and by type of job change, with industrial unions promoting the incidence of intrafirm occupation changes and craft unions decreasing the incidence of interoccupation moves. (CT)

  11. 12 CFR 701.2 - Federal credit union bylaws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal credit union bylaws. 701.2 Section 701.2 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.2 Federal credit union bylaws. (a) Federal...

  12. 12 CFR 701.26 - Credit union service contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit union service contracts. 701.26 Section 701.26 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF FEDERAL CREDIT UNIONS § 701.26 Credit union service contracts. A Federal...

  13. Trade Union Libraries in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the trade union library system in China that has fallen on hard times amid economic and social changes of the past 20 years. Focuses on a history of the trade union library movement; services provided by trade union libraries; problems faced by union libraries; and reform of trade union libraries. (AEF)

  14. Age and sex or gender (sex/gender) and HIV vaccine preparedness.

    PubMed

    Dhalla, Shayesta

    2015-10-29

    An examination of age and sex or gender (sex/gender) in HIV vaccine preparedness studies can contribute to an understanding of these demographic variables in preparation for actual HIV vaccine trials. In this descriptive review, age and sex or gender (sex/gender) were examined in relation to willingness to participate (WTP) and retention in an HIV vaccine trial. Twenty-five articles were retrieved from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries and 28 articles were retrieved from the non-OECD countries. In US studies that involved mainly white MSM, older men were more likely to be WTP in a hypothetical HIV vaccine trial and more likely to be retained than younger men. In most OECD studies, sex/gender was not associated with WTP in a hypothetical HIV vaccine trial, while females were more likely to be retained in most studies. Largely, age was not associated with WTP in the non-OECD countries, but the results on sex/gender were more variable. The relationship between adolescent or adult WTP in hypothetical HIV vaccine trials in South Africa did not appear to be modified by high school student status. In addition, more studies in discordant couples in the context of HIV vaccine preparedness could be conducted to examine gender roles and inequalities in preparation for HIV vaccine trials.

  15. union publique HR

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-30

    Chers Collègues,Je me permets de vous rappeler qu'une réunion publique organisée par le Département HR se tiendra aujourd'hui:Vendredi 30 avril 2010 à 9h30 dans l'Amphithéâtre principal (café offert dès 9h00).Durant cette réunion, des informations générales seront données sur:le CERN Admin e-guide, qui est un nouveau guide des procédures administratives du CERN ayant pour but de faciliter la recherche d'informations pratiques et d'offrir un format de lecture convivial;le régime d'Assurance Maladie de l'Organisation (présentation effectuée par Philippe Charpentier, Président du CHIS Board) et;la Caisse de Pensions (présentation effectuée par Théodore Economou, Administrateur de la Caisse de Pensions du CERN).Une transmission simultanée de cette réunion sera assurée dans l'Amphithéâtre BE de Prévessin et également disponible à l'adresse suivante: http://webcast.cern.chJe me réjouis de votre participation!Meilleures salutations,Anne-Sylvie CatherinChef du Département des Ressources humaines__________________________________________________________________________________Dear Colleagues,I should like to remind you that a plublic meeting organised by HR Department will be held today:Friday 30 April 2010 at 9:30 am in the Main Auditorium (coffee from 9:00 am).During this meeting, general information will be given about:the CERN Admin e-guide which is a new guide to the Organization's administrative procedures, drawn up to facilitate the retrieval of practical information and to offer a user-friendly format;the CERN Health Insurance System (presentation by Philippe Charpentier, President of the CHIS Board) and;the Pension Fund (presentation by Theodore Economou, Administrator of the CERN Pension Fund).A simultaneous transmission of this meeting will be broadcast in the BE Auditorium at Prévessin and will also be available at the following address. http://webcast.cern.chI look forward to your participation!Best regards,Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  16. Hypomethylation within Gene Promoter Regions and Type 1 Diabetes in Discordant Monozygotic Twins

    PubMed Central

    Elboudwarej, Emon; Cole, Michael; Briggs, Farren B.S.; Fouts, Alexandra; Fain, Pamela R.; Quach, Hong; Quach, Diana; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Lane, Julie A.; Steck, Andrea K.; Barcellos, Lisa F.; Noble, Janelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D) is well supported by epidemiologic evidence; however, disease risk cannot be entirely explained by established genetic variants identified so far. This study addresses the question of whether epigenetic modification of the inherited DNA sequence may contribute to T1D susceptibility. Using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array (450k), a total of seven long-term disease-discordant monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs and five pairs of HLA-identical, disease-discordant non-twin siblings (NTS) were examined for associations between DNA methylation (DNAm) and T1D. Strong evidence for global hypomethylation of CpG sites within promoter regions in MZ twins with TID compared to twins without T1D was observed. DNA methylation data were then grouped into three categories of CpG sites for further analysis, including those within: 1) the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, 2) non-MHC genes with reported T1D association through genome wide association studies (GWAS), and 3) the epigenome, or remainder of sites that did not include MHC and T1D associated genes. Initial results showed modest methylation differences between discordant MZ twins for the MHC region and T1D-associated CpG sites, BACH2, INS-IGF2, and CLEC16A (DNAm difference range: 2.2% – 5.0%). In the epigenome CpG set, the greatest methylation differences were observed in MAGI2, FANCC, and PCDHB16, (DNAm difference range: 6.9% – 16.1%). These findings were not observed in the HLA-identical NTS pairs. Targeted pyrosequencing of five candidate CpG loci identified using the 450k array in the original discordant MZ twins produced similar results using control DNA samples, indicating strong agreement between the two DNA methylation profiling platforms. However, findings for the top five candidate CpG loci were not replicated in six additional T1D-discordant MZ twin pairs. Our results indicate global DNA hypomethylation within gene promoter regions may

  17. Early onset alcohol use and self-harm: A discordant twin analysis

    PubMed Central

    Few, Lauren R.; Werner, Kimberly B.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Trull, Timothy; Nock, Matthew K.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Deitz, Sarah K.; Glowinski, Anne L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Statham, Dixie J.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew; Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana

    2015-01-01

    Background Self-harm has considerable societal and economic costs and has been extensively studied in relation to alcohol involvement. Whereas early onset alcohol use (EAU) has been causally linked to maladaptive clinical outcomes, its association with self-harm is less well characterized. The current study aimed to further examine the link between EAU and both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempt (SA), and elucidate shared familial and causal/individual-specific pathways that explain this co-occurrence. Methods Using data from 6,082 Australian same-sex twin pairs (1,732 MZ and 1,309 DZ), ages 23-40, we examined prevalence rates of NSSI and SA among twin pairs concordant and discordant for EAU. Conditional logistic regression, controlling for early clinical covariates and the influence of zygosity on EAU, was used to examine the odds ratio (OR) of self-harm within twin pairs discordant for EAU. Results Prevalence rates of both NSSI and SA were highest among twin pairs concordant for EAU and for twins who reported EAU within discordant twin pairs. Results from discordant twin analyses revealed nearly four-fold increased odds of SA for the twin who endorsed EAU, and this OR was equal across monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. EAU also was associated with elevated odds of NSSI (OR=7.62), although this was only the case for DZ twins in discordant pairs. Conclusions The equivalent increase in odds of SA for both MZ and DZ twins suggests that causal or individual-specific influences explain the link between EAU and SA. For NSSI, elevated odds for DZ twins and nonsignificant findings for MZ twins implicate correlated genetic factors in the association between EAU and NSSI. Future studies should test mechanisms through which EAU may causally influence SA, as well as examine whether genetic risk for third variables (e.g., negative urgency, stress reactivity) may explain the genetic overlap between EAU and NSSI. PMID:26463647

  18. Parallel rapid HIV testing in pregnant women at Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Viani, Rolando M; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Spector, Stephen A

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of parallel rapid HIV testing and the presence of HIV-associated risk factors in pregnant women with unknown HIV status in Baja California, Mexico. Pregnant women attending the delivery unit or the prenatal clinic at Tijuana General Hospital had blood drawn for parallel rapid HIV testing with Determine™ HIV-1/2 and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen(®) HIV. The parallel rapid HIV test performance was compared to the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and western blot. From September 2007 to July 2008, 1,383 (94%) of 1,464 women in labor and 1,992 (96%) of 2,075 women in prenatal care were enrolled. The HIV seroprevalence among women screened during labor (19/1,383, 1.37%, 95% CI: 0.85-2.18%) was significantly higher compared to those seeking prenatal care (5/1,992, 0.25%, 95% CI: 0.09-0.62%; p<0.001). Of 25 pregnant women testing positive by parallel rapid HIV testing 24 had a positive confirmatory western blot and one (0.03%) was confirmed as false positive. Additionally, two (0.06%) women had parallel rapid HIV discordant testing results; both tested negative by western blot. All women who tested negative by rapid testing had negative results on pooled EIA antibody testing. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parallel rapid HIV testing were 100%, 99.9%, 96%, and 100%, respectively. These findings document a very high acceptance rate and an excellent performance of the parallel rapid HIV testing strategy during pregnancy.

  19. Opioid Use Trajectories, Injection Drug Use, and Hepatitis C Virus Risk Among Young Adult Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union Living in New York City.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Honoria; Marsch, Lisa A; Deren, Sherry; Straussner, Shulamith L A; Teper, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that young former Soviet Union immigrants in New York City have high rates of non-medical prescription opioid and heroin use, drug injection and injection-related risk behavior, making them vulnerable to hepatitis C virus (HCV)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, overdose and associated harms. This group has been the focus of little research, however. This paper presents quantitative and qualitative data from 80 former Soviet immigrants (ages 18-29) to characterize their opioid use trajectories, injection risk behavior, HCV/HIV testing histories and self-reported HCV/HIV serostatus, and provides clinically meaningful data to inform tailored education, prevention and harm reduction interventions.

  20. University Union Student Preference Survey Spring 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David F.

    The University of North Carolina at Wilmington administered a 1986 University Union Spring Survey to 404 residential and nonresidential students to monitor student preferences and to evaluate their satisfaction with selected aspects of services and programs within the student union. The results revealed that students considered notices in their…

  1. Women in Trade Unions: Organizing the Unorganized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Margaret Hosmer, Ed.; Mitter, Swasti, Ed.

    This book contains a comparative survey of efforts to organize female workers in trade unions in both developing and industrialized nations and 19 case studies of efforts to organize female workers in selected occupations. The following papers are included: "A Comparative Survey" (Swasti Mitter); "The Union of Women Domestic…

  2. Trade Unions and the Humanisation of Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tchobanian, R.

    1975-01-01

    After pointing out possible prejudicial consequences of job restructuring both for occupational and economic interests of workers and for the structure and activities of the trade union movement, various trade union reactions and attitudes to work humanization are analyzed. Available from: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211,…

  3. Why Union Activists Write Good Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthen, Helena H.

    2013-01-01

    The representative structure of a union is a maze which, when travelled as a narrative, has drama at every turn. It sets up expectations, pits good against evil, involves many characters with different interests, keeps the clock ticking, and offers opportunities for happy endings (and disappointments) at every level. Union members who are not…

  4. Women and Unions: Forging a Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobble, Dorothy Sue, Ed.

    This book contains the views of 40 contributors on women and unions, organized into 15 chapters on six topics: Closing the Wage Gap; Meeting Family Needs; Temporary and Part-Time Work: Opportunity or Danger?; Homework; Developing a Realistic Approach; New Directions in Organizing and Representing Women; and Female Leadership and Union Cultures:…

  5. Analysis of the Unionization of Academic Advisors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bee, Richard H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of unionization of academic advisors at Youngstown State University in achieving economic, career, and professional goals. It was found that unionization has adequately addressed job security needs and defined workload requirements but fell short concerning annual salary increases, merit pay, and opportunities…

  6. Unions' Deals with Brokers Raise Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2006-01-01

    The New York state attorney general's office is close to announcing a settlement with the 525,000-member New York State United Teachers over a relationship between the union and ING Group, a large financial-services company based in the Netherlands. In that arrangement, the union's Member Benefits division--a separate trust that provides…

  7. Trends in Serosorting and the Association With HIV/STI Risk Over Time Among Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowski, Julia C.; Swanson, Fred; Kerani, Roxanne P.; Katz, David A.; Barbee, Lindley A.; Hughes, James P.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Golden, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Serosorting among men who have sex with men (MSM) is common, but recent data to describe trends in serosorting are limited. How serosorting affects population-level trends in HIV and other sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk is largely unknown. Methods: We collected data as part of routine care from MSM attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic (2002–2013) and a community-based HIV/sexually transmitted disease testing center (2004–2013) in Seattle, WA. MSM were asked about condom use with HIV-positive, HIV-negative, and unknown-status partners in the prior 12 months. We classified behaviors into 4 mutually exclusive categories: no anal intercourse (AI); consistent condom use (always used condoms for AI); serosorting [condom-less anal intercourse (CAI) only with HIV-concordant partners]; and nonconcordant CAI (CAI with HIV-discordant/unknown-status partners; NCCAI). Results: Behavioral data were complete for 49,912 clinic visits. Serosorting increased significantly among both HIV-positive and HIV-negative men over the study period. This increase in serosorting was concurrent with a decrease in NCCAI among HIV-negative MSM, but a decrease in consistent condom use among HIV-positive MSM. Adjusting for time since last negative HIV test, the risk of testing HIV positive during the study period decreased among MSM who reported NCCAI (7.1%–2.8%; P= 0.02), serosorting (2.4%–1.3%; P = 0.17), and no CAI (1.5%–0.7%; P = 0.01). Serosorting was associated with a 47% lower risk of testing HIV positive compared with NCCAI (adjusted prevalence ratio = 0.53; 95% confidence interval: 0.45 to 0.62). Conclusions: Between 2002 and 2013, serosorting increased and NCCAI decreased among Seattle MSM. These changes paralleled a decline in HIV test positivity among MSM. PMID:26885806

  8. Fertility Decision-Making Among Kenyan HIV-Serodiscordant Couples Who Recently Conceived: Implications for Safer Conception Planning.

    PubMed

    Pintye, Jillian; Ngure, Kenneth; Curran, Kathryn; Vusha, Sophie; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M; Heffron, Renee

    2015-09-01

    HIV-serodiscordant couples often choose to attempt pregnancy despite their HIV transmission risk. Optimizing delivery of HIV risk reduction strategies during peri-conception periods (i.e., safer conception) requires understanding how HIV-serodiscordant couples approach fertility decisions. We conducted 36 in-depth individual interviews with male and female partners of Kenyan heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples who recently conceived. Transcripts were analyzed by gender and HIV serostatus using open coding. Matrices were used to identify patterns and emerging themes. Most participants expressed acceptance of being in an HIV-serodiscordant couple and affirmed their resilience to live with serodiscordance and achieve their fertility goals. Overall, while the goal for childbearing was unchanged, conception became an urgent desire so that both partners could experience childrearing together while the HIV-infected partner was still healthy. Children also add value to the relationship, and multiple children were a commonly expressed desire. Couples' desires dominated those of individual partners in fertility decision-making, but male preferences were more influential when the individual desires differed. Values and preferences of the couple as a unit may mediate fertility decision-making in HIV-discordant couples. Thus, it is important that safer conception programs include both partners when appropriate and consider the relationship context during risk reduction counseling and when recommending risk reduction interventions.

  9. Fertility Decision-Making Among Kenyan HIV-Serodiscordant Couples Who Recently Conceived: Implications for Safer Conception Planning

    PubMed Central

    Pintye, Jillian; Ngure, Kenneth; Curran, Kathryn; Vusha, Sophie; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract HIV-serodiscordant couples often choose to attempt pregnancy despite their HIV transmission risk. Optimizing delivery of HIV risk reduction strategies during peri-conception periods (i.e., safer conception) requires understanding how HIV-serodiscordant couples approach fertility decisions. We conducted 36 in-depth individual interviews with male and female partners of Kenyan heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples who recently conceived. Transcripts were analyzed by gender and HIV serostatus using open coding. Matrices were used to identify patterns and emerging themes. Most participants expressed acceptance of being in an HIV-serodiscordant couple and affirmed their resilience to live with serodiscordance and achieve their fertility goals. Overall, while the goal for childbearing was unchanged, conception became an urgent desire so that both partners could experience childrearing together while the HIV-infected partner was still healthy. Children also add value to the relationship, and multiple children were a commonly expressed desire. Couples' desires dominated those of individual partners in fertility decision-making, but male preferences were more influential when the individual desires differed. Values and preferences of the couple as a unit may mediate fertility decision-making in HIV-discordant couples. Thus, it is important that safer conception programs include both partners when appropriate and consider the relationship context during risk reduction counseling and when recommending risk reduction interventions. PMID:26301703

  10. HIV Life Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  11. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. Sometimes HIV medicines can also cause side effects. Most side effects from HIV medicines are manageable, ...

  12. The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Billo, Nils; Castro, José Luis; Jones, Sinéad; Rusen, I D; Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Fussell, Mark; Fujiwara, Paula I; Harries, Anthony D; Enarson, Donald A

    2009-12-01

    The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) is the oldest international non-governmental organization involved in the fight against tuberculosis. This review documents the history and structure of The Union up to 2009, and describes the achievements that have taken place in the field of tuberculosis and lung health. The progress made in tackling the major killer (pneumonia) of children less than 5 years of age, the barrier to affordable essential asthma medicines, the complex issue of tobacco control, the move into the realm of HIV and AIDS, and new ideas and activities around the increasingly important domain of operational research are described and discussed. Finally, as with many institutions that have seen a rapid phase of growth, expansion and decentralisation to regional offices around the world, the review highlights the internal strategic initiative that aims to fine-tune the organisational structure, clarify lines of authority, create more efficient business, human resource and financial systems and revise, where necessary, The Union's guiding mission, vision and values for the future.

  13. Do unions matter? An examination of the historical and contemporary role of labor unions in the social work profession.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Jessica; Rosenberg, Samuel

    2006-10-01

    The attitudes among social workers toward labor unions are a topic of significance. Historically, social workers have had an ambivalent relationship with unions. This article analyzes the extent to which unions matter to social workers and whether unions represent the interests of professional social workers. The relationship between social work and unions is conceptualized as reciprocal in nature. Insights about social workers' current attitudes toward unions are informed through critical analysis of a recent research study that examined attitudes toward unions among social work union members. The authors discuss the potential for a collaborative progressive agenda between the social work profession and labor.

  14. Mito-nuclear discord in six congeneric lineages of Holarctic ducks (genus Anas).

    PubMed

    Peters, Jeffrey L; Winker, Kevin; Millam, Kendra C; Lavretsky, Philip; Kulikova, Irina; Wilson, Robert E; Zhuravlev, Yuri N; McCracken, Kevin G

    2014-06-01

    Many species have Holarctic distributions that extend across Europe, Asia and North America. Most genetics research on these species has examined only mitochondrial (mt) DNA, which has revealed wide variance in divergence between Old World (OW) and New World (NW) populations, ranging from shallow, unstructured genealogies to deeply divergent lineages. In this study, we sequenced 20 nuclear introns to test for concordant patterns of OW-NW differentiation between mtDNA and nuclear (nu) DNA for six lineages of Holarctic ducks (genus Anas). Genetic differentiation for both marker types varied widely among these lineages (idiosyncratic population histories), but mtDNA and nuDNA divergence within lineages was not significantly correlated. Moreover, compared with the association between mtDNA and nuDNA divergence observed among different species, OW-NW nuDNA differentiation was generally lower than mtDNA divergence, at least for lineages with deeply divergent mtDNA. Furthermore, coalescent estimates indicated significantly higher rates of gene flow for nuDNA than mtDNA for four of the six lineages. Thus, Holarctic ducks show prominent mito-nuclear discord between OW and NW populations, and we reject differences in sorting rates as the sole cause of the within-species discord. Male-mediated intercontinental gene flow is likely a leading contributor to this discord, although selection could also cause increased mtDNA divergence relative to weak nuDNA differentiation. The population genetics of these ducks contribute to growing evidence that mtDNA can be an unreliable indicator of stage of speciation and that more holistic approaches are needed for species delimitation.

  15. Determinants of Discordance in Patients’ and Physicians’ Rating of Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    KHAN, NASIM A.; SPENCER, HORACE J.; ABDA, ESAM; AGGARWAL, AMITA; ALTEN, RIEKE; ANCUTA, CODRINA; ANDERSONE, DAINA; BERGMAN, MARTIN; CRAIG-MULLER, JURGEN; DETERT, JACQUELINE; GEORGESCU, LIA; GOSSEC, LAURE; HAMOUD, HISHAM; JACOBS, JOHANNES W. G.; LAURINDO, IEDA MARIA MAGALHAES; MAJDAN, MARIA; NARANJO, ANTONIO; PANDYA, SAPAN; POHL, CHRISTOF; SCHETT, GEORG; SELIM, ZAHRAA I.; TOLOZA, SERGIO; YAMANAKA, HISAHI; SOKKA, TUULIKKI

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the determinants of patients’ (PTGL) and physicians’ (MDGL) global assessment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity and factors associated with discordance among them. Methods A total of 7,028 patients in the Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA study had PTGL and MDGL assessed at the same clinic visit on a 0–10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Three patient groups were defined: concordant rating group (PTGL and MDGL within ±2 cm), higher patient rating group (PTGL exceeding MDGL by >2 cm), and lower patient rating group (PTGL less than MDGL by >2 cm). Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify determinants of PTGL and MDGL and their discordance. Results The mean ± SD VAS scores for PTGL and MDGL were 4.01 ± 2.70 and 2.91 ± 2.37, respectively. Pain was overwhelmingly the single most important determinant of PTGL, followed by fatigue. In contrast, MDGL was most influenced by swollen joint count (SJC), followed by erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and tender joint count (TJC). A total of 4,454 (63.4%), 2,106 (30%), and 468 (6.6%) patients were in the concordant, higher, and lower patient rating groups, respectively. Odds of higher patient rating increased with higher pain, fatigue, psychological distress, age, and morning stiffness, and decreased with higher SJC, TJC, and ESR. Lower patient rating odds increased with higher SJC, TJC, and ESR, and decreased with lower fatigue levels. Conclusion Nearly 36% of patients had discordance in RA activity assessment from their physicians. Sensitivity to the “disease experience” of patients, particularly pain and fatigue, is warranted for effective care of RA. PMID:22052672

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of female monozygotic twins discordant for Turner syndrome: implications for prenatal genetic counselling.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, B; Yardin, C; Briault, S; Belin, V; Lienhardt, A; Aubard, Y; Battin, J; Servaud, M; Philippe, H J; Lacombe, D

    2002-08-01

    We describe a set of monozygotic (MZ) female twins, one of whom presented with a typical Turner syndrome (TS) phenotype and the other a normal female phenotype. Prenatal fetal ultrasonographic examination showed a monochorial diamniotic pregnancy with a hygroma colli and growth delay in Twin A and no anomalies in Twin B. Karyotypic analysis performed on fetal blood samples demonstrated a 46,XX/45,X (23/2) mosaicism in Twin A and a normal 46,XX chromosome constitution in Twin B. At birth, Twin A presented with a typical TS and Twin B had a normal female phenotype. Postnatal cytogenetic investigation of blood lymphocytes showed the same 46,XX/45,X mosaicism in both twins: 46,XX/45,X (40/7) in Twin A and 46,XX/45,X (40/5) in Twin B. Further investigations at the age of 10 months showed in Twin A a 46,XX/45,X (98/2) mosaicism in lymphocytes and 100% of 45,X (50 analysed cells) in fibroblasts, and in Twin B a normal 46,XX (100 analysed cells) chromosome constitution in lymphocytes but a mild 46,XX/45,X (78/2) mosaicism in fibroblasts. Monozygosity was confirmed by molecular analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of prenatal diagnosis of MZ female twins discordant for TS. Review of reported sets of MZ female twins (eight cases) or triplets (one case) discordant for TS shows, as in the present case, that the phenotype correlates better with the chromosomal distribution of mosaicism in fibroblasts than in lymphocytes. In the blood of MZ twins chimerism may modify the initial allocation of the mosaicism. These results suggest that, in cases of prenatal diagnosis of MZ female twins discordant for TS, the phenotype of each twin would be better predicted from karyotype analysis of cells from amniotic fluid than from fetal blood.

  17. Positive and purifying selection in mitochondrial genomes of a bird with mitonuclear discordance.

    PubMed

    Morales, Hernán E; Pavlova, Alexandra; Joseph, Leo; Sunnucks, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Diversifying selection on metabolic pathways can reduce intraspecific gene flow and promote population divergence. An opportunity to explore this arises from mitonuclear discordance observed in an Australian bird Eopsaltria australis. Across >1500 km, nuclear differentiation is low and latitudinally structured by isolation by distance, whereas two highly divergent, parapatric mitochondrial lineages (>6.6% in ND2) show a discordant longitudinal geographic pattern and experience different climates. Vicariance, incomplete lineage sorting and sex-biased dispersal were shown earlier to be unlikely drivers of the mitonuclear discordance; instead, natural selection on a female-linked trait was the preferred hypothesis. Accordingly, here we tested for signals of positive, divergent selection on mitochondrial genes in E. australis. We used codon models and physicochemical profiles of amino acid replacements to analyse complete mitochondrial genomes of the two mitochondrial lineages in E. australis, its sister species Eopsaltria griseogularis, and outgroups. We found evidence of positive selection on at least five amino acids, encoded by genes of two oxidative phosphorylation pathway complexes NADH dehydrogenase (ND4 and ND4L) and cytochrome bc1 (cyt-b) against a background of widespread purifying selection on all mitochondrial genes. Three of these amino acid replacements were fixed in ND4 of the geographically most widespread E. australis lineage. The other two replacements were fixed in ND4L and cyt-b of the geographically more restricted E. australis lineage. We discuss whether this selection may reflect local environmental adaptation, a by-product of other selective processes, or genetic incompatibilities, and propose how these hypotheses can be tested in future.

  18. Discordant sex in monozygotic XXY/XX twins: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tachon, G; Lefort, G; Puechberty, J; Schneider, A; Jeandel, C; Boulot, P; Prodhomme, O; Meyer, P; Taviaux, S; Touitou, I; Pellestor, F; Geneviève, D; Gatinois, V

    2014-12-01

    We report a case of discordant phenotypic sex in monozygotic twins mosaic 47,XXY/46,XX: monozygotic heterokaryotypic twins. The twins presented with cognitive and comprehension delay, behavioural and language disorders, all symptoms frequently reported in Klinefelter syndrome. Molecular zygosity analysis with several markers confirmed that the twins are in effect monozygotic (MZ). Array comparative genomic hybridization found no evidence for the implication of copy number variation in the phenotypes. Ultrasound scans of the reproductive organs revealed no abnormalities. Endocrine tests showed a low testosterone level in Twin 1 (male phenotype) and a low gonadotrophin level in Twin 2 (female phenotype) which, combined with the results from ultrasound examination, provided useful information for potentially predicting the future fertility potential of the twins. Blood karyotypes revealed the presence of a normal 46,XX cell line and an aneuploïd 47,XXY cell line in both patients. Examination of the chromosome constitutions of various tissues such as blood, buccal smear and urinary sediment not surprisingly showed different proportions for the 46,XX and 47,XXY cell lines, which most likely explains the discordant phenotypic sex and mild Klinefelter features. The most plausible underlying biological mechanism is a post-zygotic loss of the Y chromosome in an initially 47,XXY zygote. This would result in an embryo with both 46,XX and 47,XXY cells lines which could subsequently divide into two monozygotic embryos through a twinning process. The two cell lines would then be distributed differently between tissues which could result in phenotypic discordances in the twins. These observations emphasize the importance of regular paediatric evaluations to determine the optimal timing for fertility preservation measures and to detect new Klinefelter features which could appear throughout childhood in the two subjects.

  19. Evolutionary basis of mitonuclear discordance between sister species of mole salamanders (Ambystoma sp.).

    PubMed

    Denton, Robert D; Kenyon, Laura J; Greenwald, Katherine R; Gibbs, H Lisle

    2014-06-01

    Distinct genetic markers should show similar patterns of differentiation between species reflecting their common evolutionary histories, yet there are increasing examples of differences in the biogeographic distribution of species-specific nuclear (nuDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants within and between species. Identifying the evolutionary processes that underlie these anomalous patterns of genetic differentiation is an important goal. Here, we analyse the putative mitonuclear discordance observed between sister species of mole salamanders (Ambystoma barbouri and A. texanum) in which A. barbouri-specific mtDNA is found in animals located within the range of A. texanum. We test three hypotheses for this discordance (undetected range expansion, mtDNA introgression, and hybridization) using nuDNA and mtDNA data analysed with methods that varied in the parameters estimated and the timescales measured. Results from a Bayesian clustering technique (structure), bidirectional estimates of gene flow (migrate-n and IMa2) and phylogeny-based methods (*beast, bucky) all support the conclusion that the discordance is due to geographically restricted mtDNA introgression from A. barbouri into A. texanum. Limited data on species-specific tooth morphology match this conclusion. Significant differences in environmental conditions exist between sites where A. texanum with and without A. barbouri-like mtDNA occur, suggesting a possible role for selection in the process of introgression. Overall, our study provides a general example of the value of using complimentary analyses to make inferences of the directionality, timescale, and source of mtDNA introgression in animals.

  20. Skepticism, truth as coherence, and constructivist epistemology: grounds for resolving the discord between science and religion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staver, John R.

    2010-03-01

    Science and religion exhibit multiple relationships as ways of knowing. These connections have been characterized as cousinly, mutually respectful, non-overlapping, competitive, proximate-ultimate, dominant-subordinate, and opposing-conflicting. Some of these ties create stress, and tension between science and religion represents a significant chapter in humans' cultural heritage before and since the Enlightenment. Truth, knowledge, and their relation are central to science and religion as ways of knowing, as social institutions, and to their interaction. In religion, truth is revealed through God's word. In science, truth is sought after via empirical methods. Discord can be viewed as a competition for social legitimization between two social institutions whose goals are explaining the world and how it works. Under this view, the root of the discord is truth as correspondence. In this concept of truth, knowledge corresponds to the facts of reality, and conflict is inevitable for many because humans want to ask which one—science or religion—gets the facts correct. But, the root paradox, also known as the problem of the criterion, suggests that seeking to know nature as it is represents a fruitless endeavor. The discord can be set on new ground and resolved by taking a moderately skeptical line of thought, one which employs truth as coherence and a moderate form of constructivist epistemology. Quantum mechanics and evolution as scientific theories and scientific research on human consciousness and vision provide support for this line of argument. Within a constructivist perspective, scientists would relinquish only the pursuit of knowing reality as it is. Scientists would retain everything else. Believers who hold that religion explains reality would come to understand that God never revealed His truth of nature; rather, He revealed His truth in how we are to conduct our lives.

  1. Psychiatric outcomes of bullying victimization: A study of discordant monozygotic twins

    PubMed Central

    Silberg, Judy L.; Copeland, William; Linker, Julie; Moore, Ashlee A.; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; York, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bullying victimization in childhood is associated with a broad array of serious mental health disturbances, including anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation and behavior. The key goal of this study was to evaluate whether bullying victimization is a true environmental risk factor for psychiatric disturbance using data from 145 bully-discordant monozygotic (MZ) juvenile twin pairs from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development (VTSABD) and their follow-up into young adulthood. Method Since MZ twins share an identical genotype and familial environment, a higher rate of psychiatric disturbance in a bullied MZ twin compared to their non-bullied MZ co-twin would be evidence of an environmental impact of bullying victimization. Environmental correlations between being bullied and the different psychiatric traits were estimated by fitting structural equation models to the full sample of MZ and DZ twins (N = 2824). Environmental associations were further explored using the longitudinal data on the bullying-discordant MZ twins. Results Being bullied was associated with a wide range of psychiatric disorders in both children and young adults. The analysis of data on the MZ-discordant twins supports a genuine environmental impact of bullying victimization on childhood social anxiety [odds ratio (OR) 1.7], separation anxiety (OR 1.9), and young adult suicidal ideation (OR 1.3). There was a shared genetic influence on social anxiety and bullying victimization, consistent with social anxiety being both an antecedent and consequence of being bullied. Conclusion Bullying victimization in childhood is a significant environmental trauma and should be included in any mental health assessment of children and young adults. PMID:26979565

  2. What can we learn from the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord in the Tavis-Cummings model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juliana; Rodriguez, Boris A.

    We revisit the problem of the dynamics of quantum correlations in the exact Tavis-Cummings model. We show that many of the dynamical features of quantum discord attributed to dissipation are already present in the exact framework and are due to the well known non-linearities in the model and to the choice of initial conditions. Through a comprehensive analysis, supported by explicit analytical calculations, we find that the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord are far from being trivial or intuitive. In this context, we find states that are indistinguishable from the point of view of entanglement and distinguishable from the point of view of quantum discord, states where the two quantifiers give opposite information and states where they give roughly the same information about correlations at a certain time. Depending on the initial conditions, this model exhibits a fascinating range of phenomena that can be used for experimental purposes such as: Robust states against change of manifold or dissipation, tunable entanglement states and states with a counterintuitive sudden birth as the number of photons increase. We furthermore propose an experiment called quantum discord gates where discord is zero or non-zero depending on the number of photons. This work was supported by the Vicerrectoria de Investigacion of the Universidad Antonio Narino, Colombia under Project Number 20141031 and by the Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnologia e Innovacion (COLCIENCIAS) of Colombia under Grant Number.

  3. The Influence of Language Discordance Between Patient and Physician on Time-to-Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Stillman, Joshua; Williams, Olajide; Marshall, Randolph S.; Yaghi, Shadi; Willey, Joshua Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reducing door-to-imaging (DIT) time is a major focus of acute stroke quality improvement initiatives to promote rapid thrombolysis. However, recent data suggest that the imaging-to-needle (ITN) time is a greater source of treatment delay. We hypothesized that language discordance between physician and patient would contribute to prolonged ITN time, as rapidly taking a history and confirming last known well require facile communication between physician and patient. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of all patients who received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in our emergency department between July 2011 and December 2014. Baseline characteristics and relevant time intervals were compared between encounters where the treating neurologist and patient spoke the same language (concordant cases) and where they did not (discordant cases). Results: A total of 279 patients received tPA during the study period. English was the primary language for 51%, Spanish for 46%, and other languages for 3%; 59% of cases were classified as language concordant and 41% as discordant. We found no differences in median DIT (24 vs 25, P = .5), ITN time (33 vs 30, P = .3), or door-to-needle time (DTN; 58 vs 55, P = .1) between concordant and discordant groups. Similarly, among patients with the fastest and slowest ITN times, there were no differences. Conclusion: In a high-volume stroke center with a large proportion of Spanish speakers, language discordance was not associated with changes in DIT, ITN time, or DTN time. PMID:27366293

  4. Individual performance in relation to cytonuclear discordance in a northern contact zone between long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) lineages.

    PubMed

    Lee-Yaw, Julie A; Jacobs, Chris G C; Irwin, Darren E

    2014-09-01

    Cytonuclear discordance in contact zones between related lineages is common, with mitochondrial clines often being displaced from clines in nuclear allele frequency. Proposed explanations for such a pattern include adaptive introgression of mtDNA or a neutral wake of mtDNA being left behind following hybrid zone movement. However, studies investigating these hypotheses are rare. Our previous survey of genetic variation in the long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum) highlighted a potential case of cytonuclear discordance between two lineages in western Canada. Here, we use additional markers and samples to clarify the extent of this discordance. We simultaneously assess the feeding performance of individuals in a common environment to test for an association between mitotype and individual performance. The genetic results confirm a general pattern of cytonuclear discordance in the focal region. However, we also observed more limited introgression of a diagnostic nuclear marker. Intriguingly, although there were differences in individual performance associated with the transition between mitotypes, these differences were not fully explained by mitotype. Instead, the lowest performance was observed in individuals demonstrating the greatest mismatch between mtDNA and all nuclear markers, suggesting the potential for cytonuclear incompatibilities to be acting. These results highlight the complexity of understanding the causes and consequences of mtDNA introgression and cytonuclear discordance in contact zones.

  5. Evaluations of an in-house drug resistance method for HIV-1 drug resistance using ViroSeq™ 2.0 genotyping system as a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Chaturbhuj, Devidas N; Deshmukh, Pravin S; Hingankar, Nitin K; Siddhaarth, K; Deshpande, Sohan N; Sen, Sourav; Kabra, Sandhya; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Tripathy, Srikanth P

    2013-04-01

    An in-house method was evaluated for its efficiency to detect the HIV-1 drug resistance mutations. This method was compared with the ViroSeq™ Genotyping System 2.0 (Celera Diagnostics, US) a gold standard. Sixty-five stored plasma samples, previously tested for HIV-1 drug resistance using the ViroSeq™ method were used to evaluate the in-house method. Out of the sixty five plasma samples, sixty were HIV-1 positive clinical samples; four samples from the Virology Quality Assessment (VQA) program and one positive control from the ViroSeq™ kit were used in this study. The sequences generated by the ViroSeq™ and an in-house method showed 99.5±0.5% and 99.7±0.4% (mean±SD) nucleotide and amino acid identity, respectively. Out of 214 Stanford HIVdb listed HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in the protease and reverse transcriptase regions, concordance was observed in 203 (94.9%), partial discordance in 11 (5.1%) and complete discordance was absent. The in-house primers are broadly sensitive in genotyping multiple HIV-1 group M subtypes. The amplification sensitivity of the in-house method was 1000 copies/ml. The evaluation of the in-house method provides results comparable with that of ViroSeq™ method thus, making the in-house method suitable for HIV-1 drug resistance testing in the developing countries.

  6. DNA methylation profiling in breast cancer discordant identical twins identifies DOK7 as novel epigenetic biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Esteller, Manel

    2013-01-01

    Using whole blood from 15 twin pairs discordant for breast cancer and high-resolution (450K) DNA methylation analysis, we identified 403 differentially methylated CpG sites including known and novel potential breast cancer genes. Confirming the results in an independent validation cohort of 21 twin pairs determined the docking protein DOK7 as a candidate for blood-based cancer diagnosis. DNA hypermethylation of the promoter region was also seen in primary breast cancer tissues and cancer cell lines. Hypermethylation of DOK7 occurs years before tumor diagnosis, suggesting a role as a powerful epigenetic blood-based biomarker as well as providing insights into breast cancer pathogenesis. PMID:23054610

  7. Efficacy of Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation to Improve Locomotor Performance in a Discordant Sensory Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temple, D. R.; De Dios, Y. E.; Layne, C. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to microgravity face sensorimotor challenges incurred when readapting to a gravitational environment. Sensorimotor Adaptability (SA) training has been proposed as a countermeasure to improve locomotor performance during re-adaptation, and it is suggested that the benefits of SA training may be further enhanced by improving detection of weak sensory signals via mechanisms such as stochastic resonance when a non-zero level of stochastic white noise based electrical stimulation is applied to the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS). The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of using SVS to improve short-term adaptation in a sensory discordant environment during performance of a locomotor task.

  8. A case study of brain morphometry in triplets discordant for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Elizabeth I; Giedd, Jay N; Lee, Nancy Raitano

    2015-05-01

    Down syndrome, the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability, offers the opportunity to explore the associations between genetics and both neuroanatomic and neuropsychological phenotypes. This case report summarizes the findings of a neuroimaging and neuropsychology study of two adolescent females with Down syndrome and their same-sex discordant triplet siblings (one from each family; n = 4). Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and surface based morphometric approaches, we offer the first in vivo report of cortical surface area reductions and increases in the thickness of the cortical sheet in youth with Down syndrome relative to their typically developing same-sex triplet siblings.

  9. Successful management of discordant alobar holoprosencephaly in monochorionic diamniotic twins with normal karyotype: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Yang, T; Wang, X; Yu, H

    2015-01-01

    Holoprosencephaly (HPE), a complex brain malformation resulting from incomplete cleavage of the prosencephalon into distinct cerebral hemispheres, is rare in newborns. Two preterm male neonates were born at 34 weeks' and five days' gestation in the monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancy complicated with pre-eclampsia and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and one of them was prenatally diagnosed with alobar HPE by ultrasonography with frontal bossing, hydrocephaly, hypotelorism of eyes, flat nasal bridge, macroglossia, and cheilo/palatoschisis at birth. Karyotyping by G-banding of amniocentesis specimens in normal twin and fetal umbilical blood in both fetuses showed 46, XY. This report expands discordant alobar holoprosencephaly in monochorionic diamniotic twins.

  10. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... AGENT HIV, a single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA virus in the genus Lentivirus. TRANSMISSION HIV can ... be diagnosed is approximately 9 days, when HIV RNA becomes detectable in blood; however, tests needed to ...

  11. HIV Antibody Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test is performed that detects the genetic material ( RNA ) of the virus. An HIV RNA test will detect HIV in most people by ... next test to perform is an HIV-1 RNA test (nucleic acid amplification test, NAAT). If the ...

  12. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  13. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  14. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... yeast infection (thrush) Shingles (herpes zoster) Progression to AIDS If you receive no treatment for your HIV ... childbirth or breast-feeding. How does HIV become AIDS? HIV destroys CD4 cells — a specific type of ...

  15. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS Print A ... serious infection. continue How Many People Have HIV/AIDS? Since the discovery of the virus in 1983, ...

  16. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  17. Analysis of the T-cell receptor beta-chain variable-region (V beta) repertoire in monozygotic twins discordant for human immunodeficiency virus: evidence for perturbations of specific V beta segments in CD4+ T cells of the virus-positive twins.

    PubMed Central

    Rebai, N; Pantaleo, G; Demarest, J F; Ciurli, C; Soudeyns, H; Adelsberger, J W; Vaccarezza, M; Walker, R E; Sekaly, R P; Fauci, A S

    1994-01-01

    We analyzed the T-cell receptor (TCR) V beta repertoire in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals at different stages of disease. To circumvent the effect of HLA and other loci on the expressed TCR repertoire, we compared the TCR repertoire in nine pairs of monozygotic twins who were discordant for HIV infection. A semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and flow cytometry enabled us to show distinct differences in the V beta repertoire in the HIV-positive twin compared with the HIV-negative twin. By combining PCR and cytofluorometry, these differences were restricted to a specific set of TCR V beta segments, with members of the V beta 13 family perturbed in six out of seven cases and those of the V beta 21 family perturbed in four out of seven cases studied. Most of the other V beta families remained unchanged. Our results provide direct evidence for a skewed TCR repertoire in HIV infection. Images PMID:7906416

  18. Labor unions: a public health institution.

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Beth; Minkler, Meredith; Stock, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Using a social-ecological framework, we drew on a targeted literature review and historical and contemporary cases from the US labor movement to illustrate how unions address physical and psychosocial conditions of work and the underlying inequalities and social determinants of health. We reviewed labor involvement in tobacco cessation, hypertension control, and asthma, limiting articles to those in English published in peer-reviewed public health or medical journals from 1970 to 2013. More rigorous research is needed on potential pathways from union membership to health outcomes and the facilitators of and barriers to union-public health collaboration. Despite occasional challenges, public health professionals should increase their efforts to engage with unions as critical partners.

  19. Tips for Carpeting Your Student Union Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbacci, Diann

    2001-01-01

    Presents guidelines for enhancing the investment value of carpeting in student union buildings, foyers and hallways, administrative offices, cafeterias and food courts, and recreation areas. Color coordination is briefly discussed. (GR)

  20. Faculty Unions Growing Force on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkowski, Wil

    1982-01-01

    Reviews factors influencing rise of faculty unions on college campuses, including low pay, faculty frustration toward increasingly centralized management in state systems, trustees insensitive to educational ideals, women's and minority rights, and the rising egalitarianism in society at large. (SK)

  1. US student assistants win union rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The US National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) has ruled that graduate students in private universities and colleges who work as teaching or research assistants are statutory employees of their institutions who have the right to join unions.

  2. U.S. International HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Spending: FY2004-FY2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-06

    Order Code RL33485 U.S. International HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis , and Malaria Spending: FY2004-FY2008 Updated March 6, 2007 Tiaji Salaam-Blyther...International HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis , and Malaria Spending: FY2004-FY2008 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6... Tuberculosis , and Malaria Spending: FY2004-FY2008 Summary On January 28, 2003, during his State of the Union Address, President George Bush proposed that the

  3. Scholarly Discord

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrinelli, Lara

    2009-01-01

    Even with President Barack Obama's promises to close the Guantanamo Bay detention camp and withdraw troops from Iraq, the subject of torture keeps making the news. With all that detainees have had to endure during their incarcerations--the recent memos detail stress positions, cramped confinement, and waterboarding, among other tactics--perhaps…

  4. The Economy of the Arab Maghrib Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-09

    necessary and identify by block number) On 17 February 1989, the Arab Maghrib Union (A.M.U.) was founded in Marrakech , Morocco. This organization brought...Unclassified On 17 February 1989, the Arab Maghrib Union (A.M.U.) was founded in Marrakech , Morocco. This organization brought together the five...continue to ignore the political, economic and social evolution of their environment. The Maghrib summit held in February 1989, in Marrakech , (Morocco

  5. AGU Union Fellows Elected for 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Carle; Williams, Danica

    2014-07-01

    The Union Fellows Selection Committee is proud to present the 2014 class of AGU Fellows. Established in 1962, the Fellows program recognizes AGU members who have attained acknowledged eminence in the Earth and space sciences as valued by their peers and vetted by a Union-wide committee of Fellows. Primary criteria for evaluation in scientific eminence are a major breakthrough or discovery, paradigm shift, or sustained impact.

  6. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of party political work. Opinions are discussed and correct decisions are worked out together. Col A. PAVLOV , deputy chief of the social sciences...Marshal of the Soviet Union [MSU] Ivan Khristo- forovich Bagramyan.... They call him their son in Russia, in the Caucasus, in the Ukraine and in...Forces A. Babadzhanyan. The military biography of the twice Hero of the Soviet Union Ivan Khristoforovich Bagramyan, who would have been 90 years

  7. Labor unions and safety climate: perceived union safety values and retail employee safety outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Robert R; Martin, James E; Sears, Lindsay E

    2010-09-01

    Although trade unions have long been recognized as a critical advocate for employee safety and health, safety climate research has not paid much attention to the role unions play in workplace safety. We proposed a multiple constituency model of workplace safety which focused on three central safety stakeholders: top management, ones' immediate supervisor, and the labor union. Safety climate research focuses on management and supervisors as key stakeholders, but has not considered whether employee perceptions about the priority their union places on safety contributes contribute to safety outcomes. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating unionized retail employee (N=535) perceptions about the extent to which their top management, immediate supervisors, and union valued safety. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that perceived union safety values could be distinguished from measures of safety training, workplace hazards, top management safety values, and supervisor values. Structural equation analyses indicated that union safety values influenced safety outcomes through its association with higher safety motivation, showing a similar effect as that of supervisor safety values. These findings highlight the need for further attention to union-focused measures related to workplace safety as well as further study of retail employees in general. We discuss the practical implications of our findings and identify several directions for future safety research.

  8. Using the OCLC union listing component for a statewide health sciences union list of serials.

    PubMed

    Sutton, L S; Wolfgram, P A

    1986-04-01

    Union lists of serials are critical to the effective operation of interlibrary loan networks. The Michigan Health Sciences Libraries Association used the OCLC union list component to produce the Michigan Statewide Health Sciences Union List of Serials (MISHULS). MISHULS, which includes the serials holdings of ninety-three hospital health sciences libraries, is a subset of a statewide multi-type union list maintained on OCLC. The rationale for a statewide list and the criteria for choosing vendors are discussed. Typical costs are provided. Funding sources are identified and a unique approach to decentralized input is described. The benefits of resource sharing in a larger, multi-type library network are also explored.

  9. Education at the Centre? Australia's National Union Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony; Yasukawa, Keiko

    2009-01-01

    Australian trade unions are at a pivotal moment. In 2007-2008, a review of the training and education programs of the Education and Campaign Centre (ECC), the education arm of the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU), was conducted through a series of interviews with leaders of twenty-five unions. The review found that Australian unions do…

  10. Trade Union Mergers: A Survey of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, Grant

    2000-01-01

    Examines trade union mergers highlighting merger forms, merger motivation, role played by union officers, and merger waves. Discusses the consequences of mergers on members and union performance and concludes that union merger activity has had little impact. (Contains 74 references.) (JOW)

  11. Exploring Novice Teachers' Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Teacher Unionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Jones, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    The distinct needs and interests of novice teachers are not always reflected in the priorities of teacher unions, which may impact novice teachers' attachment to teacher unionism. Using survey data from teachers, we examined novice teachers' involvement in their unions and their desire for union involvement in their work lives compared to their…

  12. A Reinvented Union: A Concern for Teaching, Not Just Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demitchell, Todd A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the development of teachers' unions as adversaries of school boards in the 1960s. Today there are signs that unions are moving from an industrial model of labor relations to a more professional union model, one in which union leaders and school leaders can become allies in the effort to improve schools. (SLD)

  13. 12 CFR 715.5 - Audit of Federal Credit Unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit of Federal Credit Unions. 715.5 Section 715.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS SUPERVISORY COMMITTEE AUDITS AND VERIFICATIONS § 715.5 Audit of Federal Credit Unions. (a) Total assets...

  14. Impact of the Prevalence of Concordant and Discordant Conditions on the Quality of Diabetes Care in Family Practices in England

    PubMed Central

    Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Stevens, Sarah; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Dalton, Andrew R. H.; Griffiths, Robert I.; Campbell, John L.; Doran, Tim; Valderas, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the prevalence of both diabetes-concordant and diabetes-discordant conditions and the quality of diabetes care at the family practice level in England. We hypothesized that the prevalence of concordant (or discordant) conditions would be associated with better (or worse) quality of diabetes care. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study using practice-level data (7,884 practices). We estimated the practice-level prevalence of diabetes and 15 other chronic conditions, which were classified as diabetes concordant (ie, with the same pathophysiologic risk profile and therefore more likely to be part of the same management plan) or diabetes discordant (ie, not directly related in either their pathogenesis or management). We measured quality of diabetes care with diabetes-specific indicators (8 processes and 3 intermediate outcomes of care). We used linear regression models to quantify the effect of the prevalence of the conditions on aggregate achievement rate for quality of diabetes care. RESULTS Consistent with the proposed model, the prevalence rates of 4 of 7 concordant conditions (obesity, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure) were positively associated with quality of diabetes care. Similarly, negative associations were observed as predicted for 2 of the 8 discordant conditions (epilepsy, mental health). Observations for other concordant and discordant conditions did not match predictions in the hypothesized model. CONCLUSIONS The quality of diabetes care provided in English family practices is associated with the prevalence of other major chronic conditions at the practice level. The nature and direction of the observed associations cannot be fully explained by the concordant-discordant model. PMID:26553890

  15. Two pairs of proven monozygotic twins discordant for familial amyloid neuropathy (FAP) TTR Met 30

    PubMed Central

    Munar-Ques, M.; Pedrosa, J.; Coelho, T.; Gusmao, L.; Seruca, R.; Amorim, A.; Sequeiros, J.

    1999-01-01

    Twin studies are an important tool in medical genetics for the evaluation of the relative roles of genetic and non-genetic factors in several diseases. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy type I (FAP-I), TTR Met 30, was present in two sets of proven monozygotic (MZ) twins, one from Majorca and the other from Portugal. Monozygosity was established by analysis of DNA polymorphisms. Both pairs were discordant for age at onset and some clinical manifestations of FAP-I. We reviewed the differences in age at onset and clinical features in both sets and in two other pairs of presumed MZ twins with FAP-I and compared them with those in MZ twin pairs with other Mendelian disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type 1, Huntington's disease, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy, and myotonic dystrophy. We conclude that, in addition to the postulated modifying genes, there must be a significant contribution from non-genetic factors to the phenotypic variability of FAP-I (age at onset and clinical expression), either because of enviromental differences or stochastic events during (or after) the twinning process.


Keywords: hereditary amyloidosis; discordant MZ twins; non-genetic factors; stochastic process PMID:10465115

  16. Thermal Quantum Discord in Pure Dzyaloshinskii—Moriya Model with Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da-Chuang; Li, Xiao-Man; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the effects of the directions of Dzyaloshinskii—Moriya (DM) interaction vector and magnetic field on the quantum discord in the pure DM model. For different directions of DM vector, we find that there are different optimal parameter components of magnetic field. Moreover, we find that the optimal parameter components rules are the same for the Hamiltonian H1 and H2. According to the rules, for a certain axial DM vector, we can get the maximal quantum discord by adjusting the direction of the external magnetic field, which is feasible under the current experimental technology. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11204061, 11374085, 11104057, and 11204002, the Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation under Grant No. 1408085MA16, the Anhui Provincial Candidates for Academic and Technical Leaders Foundation under Grant No. 2015H052, the discipline top-notch talents Foundation and the Excellent Young Talents Support Plan of Anhui Provincial Universities. Ming Yang is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11274010, the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education under Grant No. 20113401110002, the 211 Project of Anhui University, and the Personnel Department of Anhui Province

  17. Nanoscale evidence for uranium mobility in zircon and the discordance of U-Pb chronometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; Bingen, Bernard; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Bosse, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) images coupled with U-Pb isotopic analysis give new insight into mobility of U and Pb in zircon. Zircon crystals included in xenotime and in plagioclase of a pegmatitic assemblage comprising euxenite correspond to irradiation related alteration of zircon with amorphization, microporosity, swelling, radial cracking, and uptake of non-formula cations like Ca, leading to increased discordance of the U-Pb system. Fractures and pores represent the vectors for fluid mediated open system behavior. STEM images demonstrate the presence of U-rich clusters (<70 nm) with uraninite structure within the porosity. At high magnification, pores are surrounded by a low density halo (<100 nm) and are coated by a high density wall (<50 nm) enriched in U or Ca or both. We interpret the spatial link between U, Ca and porosity as evidence for U uptake. Alteration of euxenite crystals into pyrochlore in the rock led to liberation of U and Ca. These elements were transported by fluids through cracks and incorporated within zircon thanks to porosity by a diffusion-reaction process. The data on this uncommon sample demonstrate that discordance of the U-Pb system in zircon affected by radiation damage includes a component of U-mobility (U-gain-U-loss) superimposed on Pb-mobility (Pb loss-Pb gain).

  18. Adolescents' religious discordance with mothers: is there a connection to sexual risk behavior during emerging adulthood?

    PubMed

    Grossman, Jennifer M; Tracy, Allison J; Noonan, Anne E

    2013-10-01

    This study longitudinally investigates the relationship between adolescent/mother religious discordance and emerging adult sexual risk-taking 6-7 years later. We used Social Control Theory to examine the level and direction of concordance using data from Wave I and Wave III of the Add Health Study, focusing on constructs of religious importance, frequency of prayer, and attendance at religious services. We found that higher levels of adolescent/mother discordance in religious importance were related to increased emerging adult sexual risk-taking compared to those with similar levels adolescent/mother religiosity, but this occurred only when mothers reported higher levels of religious importance than their children. In contrast, adolescents reporting higher frequency of prayer than their mothers reported lower levels of sexual risk-taking than those with similar frequency of adolescent/mother prayer. These findings suggest that the protective effects of family religious socialization can be interrupted. However, this influence of religious difference on sexual risk-behavior operates differently depending on the direction and level of religious difference. Even in emerging adulthood, a period marked by distance from childhood values and institutions, religious difference with a parent remains a meaningful influence.

  19. Glycolysis-induced discordance between glucose metabolic rates measured with radiolabeled fluorodeoxyglucose and glucose

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, R.F.; Lear, J.L. )

    1989-12-01

    We have developed an autoradiographic method for estimating the oxidative and glycolytic components of local CMRglc (LCMRglc), using sequentially administered ({sup 18}F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and ({sup 14}C)-6-glucose (GLC). FDG-6-phosphate accumulation is proportional to the rate of glucose phosphorylation, which occurs before the divergence of glycolytic (GMg) and oxidative (GMo) glucose metabolism and is therefore related to total cerebral glucose metabolism GMt: GMg + GMo = GMt. With oxidative metabolism, the {sup 14}C label of GLC is temporarily retained in Krebs cycle-related substrate pools. We hypothesize that with glycolytic metabolism, however, a significant fraction of the {sup 14}C label is lost from the brain via lactate production and efflux from the brain. Thus, cerebral GLC metabolite concentration may be more closely related to GMo than to GMt. If true, the glycolytic metabolic rate will be related to the difference between FDG- and GLC-derived LCMRglc. Thus far, we have studied normal awake rats, rats with limbic activation induced by kainic acid (KA), and rats visually stimulated with 16-Hz flashes. In KA-treated rats, significant discordance between FDG and GLC accumulation, which we attribute to glycolysis, occurred only in activated limbic structures. In visually stimulated rats, significant discordance occurred only in the optic tectum.

  20. Neonatal morbidity in growth-discordant monochorionic twins: comparison between the larger and the smaller twin.

    PubMed

    Lopriore, Enrico; Sluimers, Carolien; Pasman, Suzanne A; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J

    2012-08-01

    Fetal growth restriction in singletons has been shown to enhance fetal lung maturation and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome due to increased endogenous steroid production. However, data on lung maturation in growth-discordant monochorionic (thus, identical) twins are lacking. Our objective was to compare the risk of severe neonatal morbidity between the larger and the smaller twin in monochorionic twins with birth weight discordance (BWD). We included in the study all consecutive monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies with severe BWD (≥25%) and two live-born twins delivered at our center (n=47 twin pairs). We compared the incidence of neonatal morbidity, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and cerebral lesions between the larger and the smaller co-twin. The incidence of severe neonatal morbidity in the larger and smaller twin was 38% (18/47) and 19% (9/47), respectively (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-7.44) and was due primarily to the higher incidence of RDS, 32% (15/47) and 6% (3/47), respectively (OR 6.88, 95% CI 1.66-32.83). In conclusion, this study shows that the larger twin in monochorionic twin pairs with BWD is at increased risk of severe neonatal morbidity, particularly RDS, compared to the smaller twin.

  1. Phospholipids and insulin resistance in psychosis: a lipidomics study of twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several theories have been proposed to conceptualize the pathological processes inherent to schizophrenia. The 'prostaglandin deficiency' hypothesis postulates that defective enzyme systems converting essential fatty acids to prostaglandins lead to diminished levels of prostaglandins, which in turn affect synaptic transmission. Methods Here we sought to determine the lipidomic profiles associated with schizophrenia in twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia as well as unaffected twin pairs. The study included serum samples from 19 twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia (mean age 51 ± 10 years; 7 monozygotic pairs; 13 female pairs) and 34 age and gender matched healthy twins as controls. Neurocognitive assessment data and gray matter density measurements taken from high-resolution magnetic resonance images were also obtained. A lipidomics platform using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied for the analysis of serum samples. Results In comparison to their healthy co-twins, the patients had elevated triglycerides and were more insulin resistant. They had diminished lysophosphatidylcholine levels, which associated with decreased cognitive speed. Conclusions Our findings may be of pathophysiological relevance since lysophosphatidylcholines, byproducts of phospholipase A2-catalyzed phospholipid hydrolysis, are preferred carriers of polyunsaturated fatty acids across the blood-brain barrier. Furthermore, diminishment of lysophosphatidylcholines suggests that subjects at risk of schizophrenia may be more susceptible to infections. Their association with cognitive speed supports the view that altered neurotransmission in schizophrenia may be in part mediated by reactive lipids such as prostaglandins. PMID:22257447

  2. Proteomic analysis of lymphoblastoid cells derived from monozygotic twins discordant for bipolar disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kazuno, An-a; Ohtawa, Kenji; Otsuki, Kaori; Usui, Masaya; Sugawara, Hiroko; Okazaki, Yuji; Kato, Tadafumi

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe mental illness characterized by recurrent manic and depressive episodes. In bipolar disorder, family and twin studies suggest contributions from genetic and environmental factors; however, the detailed molecular pathogenesis is yet unknown. Thus, identification of biomarkers may contribute to the clinical diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Monozygotic twins discordant for bipolar disorder are relatively rare but have been reported. Here we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of whole cell lysate derived from lymphoblastoid cells of monozygotic twins discordant for bipolar disorder by using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). We found approximately 200 protein spots to be significantly differentially expressed between the patient and the co-twin (t test, p<0.05). Some of the proteins were subsequently identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and included proteins involved in cell death and glycolysis. To examine whether these proteins could serve as biomarkers of bipolar disorder, we performed Western blot analysis using case-control samples. Expression of phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1), which is involved in glycolysis, was significantly up-regulated in patients with bipolar disorder (t test, p<0.05). Although PGAM1 cannot be regarded as a qualified biomarker of bipolar disorder from this preliminary finding, it could be one of the candidates for further study to identify biomarkers of bipolar disorder.

  3. Comparative performance of four single extreme outlier discordancy tests from Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Verma, Surendra P; Díaz-González, Lorena; Rosales-Rivera, Mauricio; Quiroz-Ruiz, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Using highly precise and accurate Monte Carlo simulations of 20,000,000 replications and 102 independent simulation experiments with extremely low simulation errors and total uncertainties, we evaluated the performance of four single outlier discordancy tests (Grubbs test N2, Dixon test N8, skewness test N14, and kurtosis test N15) for normal samples of sizes 5 to 20. Statistical contaminations of a single observation resulting from parameters called δ from ±0.1 up to ±20 for modeling the slippage of central tendency or ε from ±1.1 up to ±200 for slippage of dispersion, as well as no contamination (δ = 0 and ε = ±1), were simulated. Because of the use of precise and accurate random and normally distributed simulated data, very large replications, and a large number of independent experiments, this paper presents a novel approach for precise and accurate estimations of power functions of four popular discordancy tests and, therefore, should not be considered as a simple simulation exercise unrelated to probability and statistics. From both criteria of the Power of Test proposed by Hayes and Kinsella and the Test Performance Criterion of Barnett and Lewis, Dixon test N8 performs less well than the other three tests. The overall performance of these four tests could be summarized as N2≅N15 > N14 > N8.

  4. Comparative Performance of Four Single Extreme Outlier Discordancy Tests from Monte Carlo Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-González, Lorena; Quiroz-Ruiz, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Using highly precise and accurate Monte Carlo simulations of 20,000,000 replications and 102 independent simulation experiments with extremely low simulation errors and total uncertainties, we evaluated the performance of four single outlier discordancy tests (Grubbs test N2, Dixon test N8, skewness test N14, and kurtosis test N15) for normal samples of sizes 5 to 20. Statistical contaminations of a single observation resulting from parameters called δ from ±0.1 up to ±20 for modeling the slippage of central tendency or ε from ±1.1 up to ±200 for slippage of dispersion, as well as no contamination (δ = 0 and ε = ±1), were simulated. Because of the use of precise and accurate random and normally distributed simulated data, very large replications, and a large number of independent experiments, this paper presents a novel approach for precise and accurate estimations of power functions of four popular discordancy tests and, therefore, should not be considered as a simple simulation exercise unrelated to probability and statistics. From both criteria of the Power of Test proposed by Hayes and Kinsella and the Test Performance Criterion of Barnett and Lewis, Dixon test N8 performs less well than the other three tests. The overall performance of these four tests could be summarized as N2≅N15 > N14 > N8. PMID:24737992

  5. The corpus callosum in monozygotic twins concordant and discordant for handedness and language dominance.

    PubMed

    Häberling, Isabelle S; Badzakova-Trajkov, Gjurgjica; Corballis, Michael C

    2012-10-01

    We used diffusion tensor imaging to assess callosal morphology in 35 pairs of monozygotic twins, of which 17 pairs were concordant for handedness and 18 pairs were discordant for handedness. Functional hemispheric language dominance was established for each twin member using fMRI, resulting in 26 twin pairs concordant and 9 twin pairs discordant for language dominance. On the basis of genetic models of handedness and language dominance, which assume one "right shift" (RS) gene with two alleles, an RS+ allele biasing toward right-handedness and left cerebral language dominance and an RS- allele leaving both asymmetries to chance, all twins were classified according to their putative genotypes, and the possible effects of the gene on callosal morphology was assessed. Whereas callosal size was under a high genetic control that was independent of handedness and language dominance, twin pairs with a high probability of carrying the putative RS+ allele showed a connectivity pattern characterized by a genetically controlled, low anisotropic diffusion over the whole corpus callosum. In contrast, the high connectivity pattern exhibited by twin pairs more likely to lack the RS+ allele was under significantly less genetic influence. The data suggest that handedness and hemispheric dominance for speech production might be at least partly dependent on genetically controlled processes of axonal pruning in the corpus callosum.

  6. Monozygotic twins with discordant karyotypes following preimplantation genetic screening and single embryo transfer: case report

    PubMed Central

    Gaillyova, Renata; Travnik, Pavel; Oracova, Eva; Vesela, Katerina; Hromadova, Lenka; Vesely, Jan; Musilova, Petra; Rubes, Jiri; Kadlecova, Jitka; Slamova, Iva; Makaturova, Eva; Vranova, Vladimira

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of monozygotic monochorial diamniotic twins with discordant karyotypes. Methods and results The pregnancy was achieved following a treatment cycle with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) for chromosomes X, Y, 13, 16, 18, 21, 22. One embryo euploid for studied chromosomes was transferred. Prenatal ultrasonography revealed monozygotic twins. One fetus had growth retardation, multiple organ abnormalities and polyhydramnion. The other twin had normal ultrasound appearance. Delivery on week 29 of gestation resulted in the birth of two females, a stillborn twin with karyotype 45,XX,-13[12]/46,XX,r(13)[3] and a healthy twin with normal karyotype. Conclusions The discordance in the twins’ karyotypes originated from a mosaic embryo. Structural chromosomal abnormality of the affected twin could not be revealed using standard PGS investigation. Embryo splitting occurred probably due to apoptotic process in an early stage of embryo development. Apoptosis represents one of the possible mechanisms which can explain the embryo twinning process globally. PMID:20700760

  7. Genomic and epigenomic analyses of monozygotic twins discordant for congenital renal agenesis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meiling; Zhu, Shida; Hu, Panpan; Liu, Dongbing; Li, Qinggang; Li, Zuoxiang; Zhang, Xueguang; Xie, Yuansheng; Chen, Xiangmei

    2014-07-01

    Monozygotic twins have been widely studied to distinguish genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of human diseases. For renal agenesis, the one-sided absence of renal tissue, the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to its pathogenesis are still unclear. In this study of a pair of monozygotic twins discordant for congenital renal agenesis, the genomic profile was analyzed from a set of blood samples using high-throughput exome-capture sequencing to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), copy number variations (CNVs), and insertions and deletions (indels). Also, an epigenomic analysis used reduced-representation bisulfite sequencing to detect differentially methylated regions (DMRs). No discordant SNPs, CNVs, or indels were confirmed, but 514 DMRs were detected. KEGG analysis indicated the DMRs localized to 10 signaling pathways and 25 genes, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and 6 genes (FGF18, FGF12, PDGFRA, MAPK11, AMH, CTBP1) involved in organ development. Although methylation results from our adult patient and her sister may not represent the pattern that was present during kidney development, we could at least confirm a lack of obvious differences at the genome level, which suggests that nongenetic factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of renal agenesis.

  8. X chromosome gene methylation in peripheral lymphocytes from monozygotic twins discordant for scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Selmi, C; Feghali-Bostwick, C A; Lleo, A; Lombardi, S A; De Santis, M; Cavaciocchi, F; Zammataro, L; Mitchell, M M; LaSalle, J M; Medsger Jr, T; Gershwin, M E

    2012-01-01

    Scleroderma (SSc) is a rare connective tissue disease characterized by fibrosis, microvasculopathy and autoimmune features. The role of genetics is limited in SSc, as suggested by similar concordance rates in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs, while environmental factors may act through epigenetic changes, as demonstrated for specific genes. Further, sex chromosome changes have been reported in SSc and may explain the female preponderance. In the present study we compared the methylation profile of all X chromosome genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from monozygotic twins discordant (n = 7) and concordant (n = 1) for SSc. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitations from each discordant twin pair were hybridized to a custom-designed array included 998 sites encompassing promoters of all X chromosome genes and randomly chosen autosomal genes. Biostatistical tools identified sites with an elevated probability to be consistently hypermethylated (n = 18) or hypomethylated (n = 25) in affected twins. Identified genes include transcription factors (ARX, HSFX1, ZBED1, ZNF41) and surface antigens (IL1RAPL2, PGRMC1), and pathway analysis suggests their involvement in cell proliferation (PGK1, SMS, UTP14A, SSR4), apoptosis (MTM1), inflammation (ARAF) and oxidative stress (ENOX2). In conclusion, we propose that X chromosome genes with different methylation profiles in monozygotic twin pairs may constitute candidates for SSc susceptibility. PMID:22861365

  9. Discordance between living and death assemblages as evidence for anthropogenic ecological change.

    PubMed

    Kidwell, Susan M

    2007-11-06

    Mismatches between the composition of a time-averaged death assemblage (dead remains sieved from the upper mixed-zone of the sedimentary column) and the local living community are typically attributed to natural postmortem processes. However, statistical analysis of 73 molluscan data sets from estuaries and lagoons reveals significantly poorer average "live-dead agreement" in settings of documented anthropogenic eutrophication (AE) than in areas where AE and other human impacts are negligible. Taxonomic similarity of paired live and dead species lists declines steadily among areas as a function of AE severity, and, for data sets comprising only adults, rank-order agreement in species abundance drops where AE is suspected. The observed live-dead differences in composition are consistent with eutrophication (anomalous abundance of seagrass-dwellers and/or scarcity of organic-loving species in the death assemblage), suggesting compositional inertia of death assemblages to recent environmental change. Molluscan data sets from open shelf settings (n = 34) also show higher average live-dead discordance in areas of AE. These results indicate that (i) live-dead discordance in surficial grab samples provides valuable evidence for strong anthropogenic modification of benthic communities, (ii) actualistic estimates of the ecological fidelity of molluscan death assemblages tend to be erroneously pessimistic when conducted in nonpristine settings, and (iii) based on their high fidelity in pristine study areas, death assemblages are a promising means of reconstructing otherwise elusive preimpact ecological baselines from sedimentary records.

  10. Monozygotic twins with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism discordant for phenotypic sex.

    PubMed

    Costa, T; Lambert, M; Teshima, I; Ray, P N; Richer, C L; Dallaire, L

    1998-01-06

    We report on two sets of monozygotic twins (MZTs) discordant for phenotypic sex ascertained at birth when the female twin was noted to have signs of the Ullrich-Turner syndrome. Cytogenetic investigations on the female of the first pair showed 45,X/46,XY mosaicism in lymphocytes but fibroblasts grown from two skin biopsies at separate sites and from gonadal tissue showed only 45,X cells. The male showed mosaicism in both blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts. In the second family, both twins also showed mosaicism in lymphocytes. The female had a 45,X karyotype in fibroblasts from skin and gonadal tissue, but in contrast to the first family, the male twin had a normal male karyotype in fibroblasts from skin biopsy and from connective tissue adjacent to the vas deferens. Discordant phenotypic sex in monozygotic twins is rare. As in our cases, the nine previously reported sets of MZTs all had mosaicism for sex chromosome abnormalities. A mitotic error leading to the loss of a Y chromosome prior to, accompanying, or following the twinning process would account for the reported combinations of karyotypes.

  11. Discordance between morphological and mechanical diversity in the feeding mechanism of centrarchid fishes.

    PubMed

    Collar, David C; Wainwright, Peter C

    2006-12-01

    Morphological diversity is routinely used to infer ecological variation among species because differences in form underlie variation in functional performance of ecological tasks like capturing prey, avoiding predators, or defending territories. However, many functions have complex morphological bases that can weaken associations between morphological and functional diversification. We investigate the link between these levels of diversity in a mechanically explicit model of fish suction-feeding performance, where the map of head morphology to feeding mechanics is many-to-one: multiple, alternative forms can produce the same mechanical property. We show that many-to-one mapping leads to discordance between morphological and mechanical diversity in the freshwater fish family, the Centrarchidae, despite close associations between morphological changes and their mechanical effects. We find that each of the model's five morphological variables underlies evolution of suction capacity. Yet, the major centrarchid clades exhibit an order of magnitude range in diversity of suction mechanics in the absence of any clear difference in diversity of the morphological variables. This cryptic pattern of mechanical diversity suggests an evolutionary history for suction performance that is unlike the one inferred from comparisons of morphological diversity. Because many-to-one mapping is likely to be common in functional systems, this property of design may lead to widespread discordance between functional and morphological diversity. Although we focus on the interaction between morphology and mechanics, many-to-one mapping can decouple diversity between levels of organization in any hierarchical system.

  12. Monozygotic female twins discordant for Silver-Russell syndrome and hypomethylation of the H19-DMR.

    PubMed

    Yamazawa, Kazuki; Kagami, Masayo; Fukami, Maki; Matsubara, Keiko; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2008-01-01

    Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) is characterized by growth failure and dysmorphic features, and is frequently caused by hypomethylation of the paternally derived H19-DMR (epimutation). We observed 5 8/12-year-old female twins discordant for SRS. One twin exhibited SRS-compatible features, such as pre- and postnatal growth failure, relative macrocephaly, triangular face, left hemihypotrophy, and bilateral fifth finger clinodactyly, whereas the other twin showed apparently normal phenotype. Microsatellite analysis for 26 loci on multiple chromosomes showed monozygosity. Methylation analysis for the H19-DMR indicated epimutation in roughly half of cells in the affected twin and normal patterns in the unaffected twin and the parents. X-inactivation analysis revealed random X-inactivation with a nearly identical pattern between the twins. The discordant methylation pattern of the H19-DMR may primarily be due to a failure to maintain the DNA methyltransferase-1-dependent methylation imprint around the pre-implantation S phase, because such failure would result in the production of two different cell clones, one with normally methylated DMR and the other with demethylated DMR, leading to the separation of cells with different characters and resultant twinning.

  13. Monochorionic and dichorionic twin pregnancies discordant for fetal anencephaly: a systematic review of prenatal management options.

    PubMed

    Lust, Annelies; De Catte, Luc; Lewi, Liesbeth; Deprest, Jan; Loquet, Philippe; Devlieger, Roland

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of selective feticide (SF) compared to expectant management (EM) on perinatal outcome in dichorionic and monochorionic twins discordant for anencephaly. For this purpose, we conducted a systematic review of literature and added ten unpublished cases. As a result, we found that in dichorionic twins, mean gestational age (GA) at birth in the SF group was 38.0 weeks versus 34.9 weeks (P = 0.0002). Mean birth weight was 2922 g in the SF group versus 2474 g (P = 0.03). In monochorionic twins, mean GA at birth was 35.2 weeks versus 32.7 weeks (P = 0.1). Mean birth weight was 2711 g versus 1667 g (P = 0.0001). We conclude that while SF does not reduce perinatal mortality, it does result in significantly longer gestations and higher birth weight, and appears to be the management of choice in dichorionic twins discordant for anencephaly. In monochorionic twins, SF also increases birth weight, but in view of the complexity of this group, no clear recommendations can be made.

  14. Discordance in investigator-reported and adjudicated sudden death in TIOSPIR

    PubMed Central

    Kowey, Peter R.; Austen, George; Mueller, Achim; Metzdorf, Norbert; Fowler, Andy; McGarvey, Lorcan P.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and consistent determination of cause of death is challenging in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. TIOSPIR (N=17 135) compared the safety and efficacy of tiotropium Respimat 5/2.5 µg with HandiHaler 18 µg in COPD patients. All-cause mortality was a primary end-point. A mortality adjudication committee (MAC) assessed all deaths. We aimed to investigate causes of discordance in investigator-reported and MAC-adjudicated causes of death and their impact on results, especially cardiac and sudden death. The MAC provided independent, blinded assessment of investigator-reported deaths (n=1302) and assigned underlying cause of death. Discordance between causes of death was assessed descriptively (shift tables). There was agreement between investigator-reported and MAC-adjudicated deaths in 69.4% of cases at the system organ class level. Differences were mainly observed for cardiac deaths (16.4% investigator, 5.1% MAC) and deaths assigned to general disorders including sudden death (17.4% investigator, 24.6% MAC). Reasons for discrepancies included investigator attribution to the immediate (e.g. myocardial infarction (MI)) over the underlying cause of death (e.g. COPD) and insufficient information for a definitive cause. Cause-specific mortality varies in COPD, depending on the method of assignment. Sudden death, witnessed and unwitnessed, is common in COPD and often attributed to MI without supporting evidence. PMID:28344980

  15. Focusing the HIV response through estimating the major modes of HIV transmission: a multi-country analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gouws, Eleanor; Cuchi, Paloma

    2012-01-01

    Objective An increasing number of countries have been estimating the distribution of new adult HIV infections by modes of transmission (MOT) to help prioritise prevention efforts. We compare results from studies conducted between 2008 and 2012 and discuss their use for planning and responding to the HIV epidemic. Methods The UNAIDS recommended MOT model helps countries to estimate the proportion of new HIV infections that occur through key transmission modes including sex work, injecting drug use (IDU), men having sex with men (MSM), multiple sexual partnerships, stable relationships and medical interventions. The model typically forms part of a country-led process that includes a comprehensive review of epidemiological data. Recent revisions to the model are described. Results Modelling results from 25 countries show large variation between and within regions. In sub-Saharan Africa, new infections occur largely in the general heterosexual population because of multiple partnerships or in stable discordant relationships, while sex work contributes significantly to new infections in West Africa. IDU and sex work are the main contributors to new infections in the Middle East and North Africa, with MSM the main contributor in Latin America. Patterns vary substantially between countries in Eastern Europe and Asia in terms of the relative contribution of sex work, MSM, IDU and spousal transmission. Conclusions The MOT modelling results, comprehensive review and critical assessment of data in a country can contribute to a more strategically focused HIV response. To strengthen this type of research, improved epidemiological and behavioural data by risk population are needed. PMID:23172348

  16. Accessory pathway reciprocating tachycardia involving twin AV nodes in a patient with atrioventricular discordance and mitral atresia.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Aya; Sakaguchi, Heima; Uchiyama, Takamichi; Kurita, Takashi; Ohuchi, Hideo; Yamada, Osamu

    2010-05-01

    The atrioventricular (AV) conduction system in AV discordance remains unclear, especially in cases with complex cardiac anomaly. We report a case of accessory pathway reciprocating tachycardia in atrioventricular discordance (AVD) and mitral atresia with twin AV nodes. In this case, the anterior AV node was located along the atretic mitral valve. The anterior AV node was involved in tachycardia and the posterior AV node acted as a bystander during tachycardia. The anterior AV node in AVD can be located along the atretic mitral valve, and one of twin AV nodes might act as a bystander during AV reciprocating tachycardia.

  17. Practice parameter on gay, lesbian, or bisexual sexual orientation, gender nonconformity, and gender discordance in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Adelson, Stewart L

    2012-09-01

    Children and adolescents who are growing up gay, lesbian, bisexual, gender nonconforming, or gender discordant experience unique developmental challenges. They are at risk for certain mental health problems, many of which are significantly correlated with stigma and prejudice. Mental health professionals have an important role to play in fostering healthy development in this population. Influences on sexual orientation, gender nonconformity, and gender discordance, and their developmental relationships to each other, are reviewed. Practice principles and related issues of cultural competence, research needs, and ethics are discussed.

  18. A feasibility analysis of implementing interventions for discordant couples in 14 African countries: implications for epidemic control.

    PubMed

    Coburn, Brian J; Blower, Sally

    2012-09-24

    We find interventions targeting serodiscordant couples (SDC) may not be feasible in countries where HIV prevalence is less than 5%, because only 3-19/1000 individuals are HIV-positive/negative and in SDC. Interventions may be feasible in countries where prevalence is greater than 10%, because 34-48/1000 individuals are HIV-positive/negative and in SDC. We calculated that 20-27% of all HIV-positive individuals, but less than 6% of all HIV-negative individuals, are in SDC. Consequently, targeting HIV-positive partners could significantly reduce transmission, whereas targeting HIV-negative partners may have little impact.

  19. Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis to Reduce HIV-1 and HSV-2 Incidence in HIV-Serodiscordant Couples in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Britta L.; Cremin, Ide; Pickles, Michael; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M.; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Hallett, Timothy B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost-effectiveness of daily oral tenofovir-based PrEP, with a protective effect against HSV-2 as well as HIV-1, among HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in South Africa. Methods We incorporated HSV-2 acquisition, transmission, and interaction with HIV-1 into a microsimulation model of heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in South Africa, with use of PrEP for the HIV-1 uninfected partner prior to ART initiation for the HIV-1 1infected partner, and for one year thereafter. Results We estimate the cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) averted for two scenarios, one in which PrEP has no effect on reducing HSV-2 acquisition, and one in which there is a 33% reduction. After a twenty-year intervention, the cost per DALY averted is estimated to be $10,383 and $9,757, respectively – a 6% reduction, given the additional benefit of reduced HSV-2 acquisition. If all couples are discordant for both HIV-1 and HSV-2, the cost per DALY averted falls to $1,445, which shows that the impact is limited by HSV-2 concordance in couples. Conclusion After a 20-year PrEP intervention, the cost per DALY averted with a reduction in HSV-2 is estimated to be modestly lower than without any effect, providing an increase of health benefits in addition to HIV-1 prevention at no extra cost. The small degree of the effect is in part due to a high prevalence of HSV-2 infection in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples in South Africa. PMID:25616135

  20. Item-level discordance in parent and adolescent reports of parenting behavior and its implications for adolescents' mental health and relationships with their parents.

    PubMed

    Maurizi, Laura K; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Aber, J Lawrence

    2012-08-01

    The phenomenon of discordance between parents' and children's ratings of the child's mental health symptoms or of parenting behavior until recently has been treated as a problem of reliability. More recent work has sought to identify factors that may influence discordance, yet much remains to be learned about why informants' ratings of developmental phenomena are discordant and the meaning of such discordance. This study examined the extent to which discordance can be treated as a measure of the difference between two equally valid perceptions, and as such an indicator of the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship. One category of concordance and three patterns of discordance were derived from item-level differences in ratings of affection, control, and punitiveness provided by a diverse sample (53% female; 46% Hispanic-American, 35% African-American, 15% European-American, 4% another race/ethnicity) of 484 adolescents aged 12-20 years (M = 15.67, SD = 1.72) and their parents. Over and above adolescents' and parents' independent ratings of parenting, the discordance between these ratings was found to predict adolescent reports of anxiety and conduct disorder symptoms, as well as the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship. This was particularly true when adolescents and parents were discordant in their ratings of affection and when adolescents rated their parents higher on affection than did parents themselves. Implications of these findings and future research directions are discussed.

  1. Do Unions Matter? An Examination of the Historical and Contemporary Role of Labor Unions in the Social Work Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Jessica; Rosenberg, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    The attitudes among social workers toward labor unions are a topic of significance. Historically, social workers have had an ambivalent relationship with unions. This article analyzes the extent to which unions matter to social workers and whether unions represent the interests of professional social workers. The relationship between social work…

  2. History and Status of the CIS Customs Union

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, T.M.; Erickson, S.A.

    1999-08-31

    This report explores the history of the CIS Customs Union and the major obstacles the Union faces in its implementation. Investigation of the Customs Union is necessary as its implementation could effect the Second Line of Defense (SLD) Program. Russian Customs contends that radiation detectors should not be installed along the Customs Union members borders of as the borders will be dissolved when the Union is implemented.

  3. 75 FR 81378 - Fiduciary Duties at Federal Credit Unions; Mergers and Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... measurements for when and how a director will be considered sufficiently trained in the use of financial... analysis to include intangible items such as the value of the relationship between the members and the... credit unions (those under ten million dollars in assets). Only a few credit unions convert in a...

  4. 78 FR 2449 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... financial support, in the form of technical assistance grants, for credit unions serving predominantly low... communities. Through the OSCUI Grant Program, NCUA provides financial support in the form of technical... unions to submit applications for participation in the OSCUI Grant Program (a.k.a. Community...

  5. 78 FR 33445 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access For Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... financial support, in the form of technical assistance grants, for credit unions serving predominantly low... provides financial support in the form of technical assistance grants to LICUs. These funds help improve... unions to submit applications for participation in the OSCUI Grant Program (a.k.a. Community...

  6. 78 FR 77721 - Office of Small Credit Unions (OSCUI) Grant Program Access for Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... financial support, in the form of technical assistance grants, for credit unions serving predominantly low... communities. Through the OSCUI Grant Program, NCUA provides financial support in the form of technical... unions to submit applications for participation in the OSCUI Grant Program (a.k.a. Community...

  7. This Union Cause: An Illustrated History of Labor Unions in America. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, Detroit, MI.

    This pamphlet on labor history highlights some of labor's economic and political actions during the past 200 years. The purpose is to provide inspiration and motivation for greater participation in union work. The introduction explains the purpose of unions--to pursue economic independence and social stature for all individuals--for defenseless…

  8. HIV and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... drugs decrease the amount of HIV in the body. Are there any side effects of HIV drugs? Drugs used to treat HIV infection may cause ... diarrhea, headaches, and muscle aches. Less common side effects include anemia ... HIV that you have in your body. Why is it important for my viral load ...

  9. HIV Structural Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  10. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000682.htm Asymptomatic HIV infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which there are no symptoms of HIV ...

  11. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A What's in this article? ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  12. Sustainable development: a trade union perspective.

    PubMed

    Gereluk, Winston; Royer, Lucien

    2003-01-01

    Sustainable development has become an important issue for trade unions around the world, but progress on sustainable development has been slow. Agenda 21, which came out of the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, called on workers and trade unions to assume an active role. The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and the Trade Union Advisory Committee (TUAC) to the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) became influential players who represent more than 155 million members in 148 countries and territories. The implementation of Agenda 21 has been hampered by bureaucratic gridlock--a situation that trade unions propose to overcome through innovative strategies on workplaces and workers. They realize that sustainable development cannot take place without radical changes in production and consumption. Globalization is creating opulence on the one hand and grinding poverty on the other. ICFTU and TUAC propose a new "world order" that includes democratic decision-making, popular accountability, transparency, and local control. They have proposed priorities, outlined in this article, for an international approach to sustainable development.

  13. Geoscience international: the role of scientific unions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, Alik

    2016-11-01

    International geoscientific unions (geounions) have been coordinating and promoting international efforts in Earth and space sciences since the beginning of the 20th century. Thousands of scientists from many nations and specific scientific disciplines have developed ways of cooperation through international unions and learned how to work together to promote basic geosciences. The unions have been initiating, developing, and implementing international cooperative programmes, setting scientific standards, developing research tools, educating and building capacity, and contributing to science for policy. This paper analyses the role of geounions in and their added value to the promotion of geoscience internationally in the arena of the existing and emerging professional societies of geoscientists. The history of the geounions and the development of international cooperation in geosciences are reviewed in the paper in the context of scientific and political changes over the last century. History is considered here to be a key element in understanding and shaping the future of geounions. Scientific and organisational aspects of their activities, including cooperation with international and intergovernmental institutions, are analysed using the example of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG). The geounions' activities are compared to those of professional societies. Future development of scientific unions and their role in the changing global landscape of geosciences are discussed.

  14. Changing Clinician Practices and Attitudes Regarding the Use of Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Treatment and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Buchacz, Kate; Farrior, Jennifer; Beauchamp, Geetha; McKinstry, Laura; Kurth, Ann E; Zingman, Barry S; Gordin, Fred M; Donnell, Deborah; Mayer, Kenneth H; El-Sadr, Wafaa M; Branson, Bernard

    As part of the HPTN 065 study in the Bronx, New York and Washington, the authors, we surveyed clinicians to assess for shifts in their practices and attitudes around HIV treatment and prevention. Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-prescribing clinicians at 39 HIV care sites were offered an anonymous Web-based survey at baseline (2010-2011) and at follow-up (2013). The 165 respondents at baseline and 141 respondents at follow-up had similar characteristics-almost 60% were female, median age was 47 years, two-thirds were physicians, and nearly 80% were HIV specialists. The percentage who reported recommending ART irrespective of CD4 count was higher at follow-up (15% versus 68%), as was the percentage who would initiate ART earlier for patients having unprotected sex with partners of unknown HIV status (64% versus 82%), and for those in HIV-discordant partnerships (75% versus 87%). In line with changing HIV treatment guidelines during 2010 to 2013, clinicians increasingly supported early ART for treatment and prevention.

  15. Differences in sexual behaviour between HIV-infected pregnant women and their husbands in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bennetts, A; Shaffer, N; Phophong, P; Chaiyakul, P; Mock, P A; Neeyapun, K; Bhadrakom, C; Mastro, T D

    1999-12-01

    In a Bangkok antenatal clinic, we interviewed 102 HIV-infected pregnant women and their husbands, 30% of whom were HIV-negative. We evaluated these data by matched and unmatched analysis, compared men and women in stable couple relationships on a number of sociodemographic and risk factor indicators and investigated further whether there were any differences in sociodemographic or risk factor profiles between HIV-serodiscordant couples and seroconcordant couples. When compared to wives, more of the husbands were working (p = 0.001), earning more money (p = 0.001), had had more than two sex partners (p = 0.001) and had had syphilis (p = 0.001). Serodiscordant couples did not differ greatly from seroconcordant couples except that women married to HIV-negative men were more likely to have been divorced or separated than their husbands which was not the case for women married to HIV-positive men (p = 0.02). There was poor agreement between husband and wife reports of husband risk behaviour and this did not differ between concordant and discordant couples. These findings suggest that assessment of risk and counselling of Thai women is incomplete without information on the HIV status and risk behaviour of her partner. Prevention strategies to decrease heterosexual transmission among couples need to target both the man and the woman.

  16. Monochorionic-diamniotic discordant growth in a twin pregnancy with one fetus affected by Ebstein's anomaly of tricuspid leaflets.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Tatsuya; Goto, Maki; Matsuoka, Sakiko; Sorano, Sumire; Tohyama, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Nakamura, Sumie; Matsuoka, Ryoei; Tsujioka, Hiroshi; Eguchi, Fuyuki

    2016-07-01

    Our patient was diagnosed as having discordant twin growth with Ebstein's anomaly in the larger fetus. Cardiac function was deteriorated in accordance with progression of gestational age. Our observation indicated cardiac failure of the larger fetus. The most important issue in this situation is management of the timing of delivery.

  17. The tripartite model of fear in children with specific phobias: assessing concordance and discordance using the behavioral approach test.

    PubMed

    Ollendick, Thomas; Allen, Ben; Benoit, Kristy; Cowart, Maria

    2011-08-01

    Lang's tripartite model posits that three main components characterize a fear response: physiological arousal, cognitive (subjective) distress, and behavioral avoidance. These components may occur in tandem with one another (concordance) or they may vary independently (discordance). The behavioral approach test (BAT) has been used to simultaneously examine the three components of the fear response. In the present study, 73 clinic-referred children and adolescents with a specific phobia participated in a phobia-specific BAT. Results revealed an overall pattern of concordance: correlation analyses revealed the three indices were significantly related to one another in the predicted directions. However, considerable variation was noted such that some children were concordant across the response components while others were not. More specifically, based on levels of physiological arousal and subjective distress, two concordant groups (high arousal-high distress, low arousal-low distress) and one discordant (high arousal-low distress or low arousal-high distress) group of youth were identified. These concordant and discordant groups were then compared on the percentage of behavioral steps completed on the BAT. Analyses revealed that the low arousal-low distress group completed a significantly greater percentage of steps than the high arousal-high distress group, and a marginally greater percentage of steps than the discordant group. Potential group differences associated with age, gender, phobia severity, and phobia type were also explored and no significant differences were detected. Implications for theory and treatment are discussed.

  18. Self-Reported Peer Victimization: Concordance and Discordance between Measures of Bullying and Peer Aggression among Swedish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellström, Lisa; Beckman, Linda; Hagquist, Curt

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined concordance and discordance between a measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression with respect to the number of students identified as victims. Swedish adolescents (N = 1,760) completed a web-based questionnaire. A measure of bullying and measures of peer aggression were compared in order to elucidate the unique…

  19. Practice Parameter on Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual Sexual Orientation, Gender Nonconformity, and Gender Discordance in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medicus, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents who are growing up gay, lesbian, bisexual, gender nonconforming, or gender discordant experience unique developmental challenges. They are at risk for certain mental health problems, many of which are significantly correlated with stigma and prejudice. Mental health professionals have an important role to play in fostering…

  20. Attention Problems and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Discordant and Concordant Monozygotic Twins: Evidence of Environmental Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehn, Hanne; Derks, Eske M.; Hudziak, James J.; Heutink, Peter; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study familial and nonfamilial environmental influences on attention problems and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in monozygotic twins discordant and concordant-high and low for these traits. Method: Ninety-five twin pairs from The Netherlands Twin Register were selected. Longitudinal survey data were collected at 1,…

  1. Union Type and Depressive Symptoms Among Mexican Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schmeer, Kammi K.; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2012-01-01

    Diversity in union type is increasing around the world as cohabitation and higher order unions become more prevalent in developing and developed countries. This necessitates a more nuanced understanding of how different union types relate to individual well-being across social settings. In this study, the authors analyze nationally-representative data from Mexico in cross-sectional and change models to evaluate differences in depressive symptoms across union type (marital vs. cohabiting and first vs. higher order unions) among Mexican men and women. The findings suggest that cohabiting unions do not provide the same mental health benefits as marital unions (especially for men). Repartnering is also associated with higher depressive symptoms (especially for women), which indicates possible lasting mental health disadvantages of divorce/separation or entrance into lower quality second unions. These results suggest that the changing family context in Mexico, which includes increasing cohabitation and union instability, may have important consequences for individuals’ psychological well-being. PMID:22822284

  2. Nonmarital Fertility, Union History, and Women's Wealth.

    PubMed

    Painter, Matthew; Frech, Adrianne; Williams, Kristi

    2015-02-01

    We use more than 20 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 to examine wealth trajectories among mothers following a nonmarital first birth. We compare wealth according to union type and union stability, and we distinguish partners by biological parentage of the firstborn child. Net of controls for education, race/ethnicity, and family background, single mothers who enter into stable marriages with either a biological father or stepfather experience significant wealth advantages over time (more than $2,500 per year) relative to those who marry and divorce, cohabit, or remain unpartnered. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for unequal selection into marriage support these findings and demonstrate that race (but not ethnicity) and age at first birth structure mothers' access to later marriage. We conclude that not all single mothers have equal access to marriage; however, marriage, union stability, and paternity have distinct roles for wealth accumulation following a nonmarital birth.

  3. Labor Unions: A Public Health Institution

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, Beth; Stock, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Using a social–ecological framework, we drew on a targeted literature review and historical and contemporary cases from the US labor movement to illustrate how unions address physical and psychosocial conditions of work and the underlying inequalities and social determinants of health. We reviewed labor involvement in tobacco cessation, hypertension control, and asthma, limiting articles to those in English published in peer-reviewed public health or medical journals from 1970 to 2013. More rigorous research is needed on potential pathways from union membership to health outcomes and the facilitators of and barriers to union–public health collaboration. Despite occasional challenges, public health professionals should increase their efforts to engage with unions as critical partners. PMID:25521905

  4. Discordance in Pena-Shokeir phenotype/fetal akinesia deformation sequence in a monoamniotic twin.

    PubMed

    Mayumi, Miyuki; Obata-Yasuoka, Mana; Ogura, Tsuyoshi; Hamada, Hiromi; Miyazono, Yayoi; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    We here report the first case of discordant Pena-Shokeir phenotype observed in monoamniotic twins. A 34-year-old woman, pregnant with twins, was referred at 10 weeks' gestation because one of the twins had increased nuchal translucency. Serial ultrasonographic examinations suggested that twin A may have had several other abnormalities, including pleural effusion at 21 weeks' gestation, decreased movement and contracted limbs at 24 weeks, and fetal growth restriction at 26 weeks. No abnormalities were observed in twin B. At 34 weeks of gestation, the twins were delivered by cesarean section. There were cord entanglements, and although the resuscitation of twin A was attempted, it proved difficult due to lockjaw. Twin A died during the second hour of life, and autopsy findings were consistent with the diagnosis of Pena-Shokeir phenotype. We suggest that cord entanglement during early gestation is a possible cause for the occurrence of Pena-Shokeir phenotype through an anoxic-ischemic mechanism.

  5. A revisit to non-maximally entangled mixed states: teleportation witness, noisy channel and discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sovik; Ghosh, Biplab

    2017-04-01

    We constructed a class of non-maximally entangled mixed states (Adhikari et al. in Quantum Inf Comput 10:0398, 2010) and extensively studied their entanglement properties and also their usefulness as teleportation channels. In this article, we have revisited our constructed state and have studied it from three different perspectives. Since every entangled state is associated with a witness operator, we have found a suitable entanglement as well as teleportation witness operator for our non-maximally entangled mixed states. We considered the noisy channel's effects on our constructed states to see how much it affects the states' capacities as teleportation channels. For this purpose, we have mainly focussed on amplitude damping channel. A comparative study on concurrence and quantum discord of our constructed state of Adhikari et al. (2010) has also been carried out here.

  6. Discordance of exercise thallium testing with coronary arteriography in patients with atypical presentations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bungo, M. W.; Leland, O. S., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Eighty-one patients with diagnostically difficult clinical presentations suggesting coronary artery disease underwent symptom-limited maximal-exercise treadmill testing (ETT) and exercise radionuclide scanning with thallium-201 followed by coronary angiography. Results showed that in nearly half of the patients (47%) these tests were in agreement, while either exercise thallium or ETT was positive in 94% of patients with coronary artery disease. It was found that agreement between exercise thallium and ETT tests predicted disease in 92% of the instances or excluded disease in 82% of the instances. It is concluded that despite frequent discord between these two tests in 53% of the cases, a significant gain in exclusive diagnostic capability is realized when applied to a patient population anticipated to have a disease prevalence equal to the 67% encountered in this study.

  7. Discordant Type I Preaxial Polydactyly in Monozygotic Twins on the Same Hand: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ng, Zhi Yang; Sau, Po Yi; Lim, Gale Jue-Shuang

    2015-10-01

    There are 4 types of preaxial polydactyly (PPD), and type I (PPD-I), also known as thumb duplication, is the most common. This frequently encountered condition has since been further described and classified by Wassel based on the level of duplication of skeletal anatomy. Genetic studies have localized possible candidate gene(s) for PPD types II to IV to the chromosomal region 7q36 but the current literature attributes PPD-I to isolated, spontaneous mutations typically with unilateral involvement only. Recent epidemiological studies have also suggested nongenetic causes for PPD-I including social and environmental factors. Herein, we would like to present a case of discordant PPD-I expression affecting the same hand in a pair of monozygotic twins and suggest possible reasons for this presentation because previous similar reports only had involvement of 1 child.

  8. Gut microbiota from twins discordant for obesity modulate metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Ridaura, Vanessa K; Faith, Jeremiah J; Rey, Federico E; Cheng, Jiye; Duncan, Alexis E; Kau, Andrew L; Griffin, Nicholas W; Lombard, Vincent; Henrissat, Bernard; Bain, James R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Ilkayeva, Olga; Semenkovich, Clay F; Funai, Katsuhiko; Hayashi, David K; Lyle, Barbara J; Martini, Margaret C; Ursell, Luke K; Clemente, Jose C; Van Treuren, William; Walters, William A; Knight, Rob; Newgard, Christopher B; Heath, Andrew C; Gordon, Jeffrey I

    2013-09-06

    The role of specific gut microbes in shaping body composition remains unclear. We transplanted fecal microbiota from adult female twin pairs discordant for obesity into germ-free mice fed low-fat mouse chow, as well as diets representing different levels of saturated fat and fruit and vegetable consumption typical of the U.S. diet. Increased total body and fat mass, as well as obesity-associated metabolic phenotypes, were transmissible with uncultured fecal communities and with their corresponding fecal bacterial culture collections. Cohousing mice harboring an obese twin's microbiota (Ob) with mice containing the lean co-twin's microbiota (Ln) prevented the development of increased body mass and obesity-associated metabolic phenotypes in Ob cage mates. Rescue correlated with invasion of specific members of Bacteroidetes from the Ln microbiota into Ob microbiota and was diet-dependent. These findings reveal transmissible, rapid, and modifiable effects of diet-by-microbiota interactions.

  9. Diagnostic Dilemma in Discordant Thyroid Function Tests Due to Thyroid Hormone Autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Srichomkwun, Panudda; Scherberg, Neal H.; Jakšić, Jasminka; Refetoff, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Assay interference could be the cause of abnormal thyroid function tests. Early recognition prevents inappropriate patient management. The objective of this report is to present a case with discordant thyroid function tests in different thyroid assay platforms due to thyroid autoantibodies. Methods We present a case her family, laboratory data and methods that investigate immunoassay interference. Results A 21-year-old woman with autoimmune thyroid disease was treated for hypothyroidism with levothyroxine and noted to have elevated total and free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine but normal thyroid-stimulating hormone. Repeat thyroid function tests using different platforms revealed discrepant results. Further investigation showed that the patient had positive thyroid hormone autoantibodies (THAAbs). Conclusion We demonstrates abnormal thyroid function tests caused by THAAbs. The latter were the cause of interference with assays resulting in discrepant test results inconsistent with the clinical presentation. Early recognition would prevent inappropriate patient management. PMID:28078322

  10. Benign neck masses showing restricted diffusion: Is there a histological basis for discordant behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Das, Abanti; Bhalla, Ashu S; Sharma, Raju; Kumar, Atin; Sharma, Meher; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Thakar, Alok; Sharma, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) evolved as a complementary tool to morphologic imaging by offering additional functional information about lesions. Although the technique utilizes movement of water molecules to characterize biological tissues in terms of their cellularity, there are other factors related to the histological constitution of lesions which can have a significant bearing on DWI. Benign lesions with atypical histology including presence of lymphoid stroma, inherently increased cellularity or abundant extracellular collagen can impede movement of water molecules similar to malignant tissues and thereby, show restricted diffusion. Knowledge of these atypical entities while interpreting DWI in clinical practice can avoid potential misdiagnosis. This review aims to present an imaging spectrum of such benign neck masses which, owing to their distinct histology, can show discordant behavior on DWI. PMID:26981226

  11. U-Th-Pb age of the Barwell chondrite - Anatomy of a 'discordant' meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, D. M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Hutchison, R.

    1979-01-01

    A Pb-Pb internal isochron for the Barwell L5-6 chondrite yields an age of 4.530 plus or minus 0.005 billion years, using the measured U-238/U-235 ratio of 135.24 plus or minus .17. If the terrestrial U isotope composition is used, an age of 4.559 billion years is obtained. The Pb isotopic composition is distinctly different from that of a terrestrial contaminant found in the fusion crust of the Barwell stone. When the U-Th-Pb data are plotted on the concordia diagram, the data define a line that intersects the concordia curve at approximately 4.53 and 0 billion years, and nearly all of the data plot above the concordia curve, regardless of the initial Pb correction. This discordancy and the Pb isotopic composition of the triolite are attributed to a recent reequilibration of Pb and not to terrestrial contamination.

  12. Discordant patient pain level reporting between questionnaires and physician encounters of the same day

    PubMed Central

    Juckett, David A.; Davis, Fred N.; Gostine, Mark; Kasten, Eric P.; Reed, Philip L.; Gardiner, Joseph; Risko, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    We examined the consistency of pain reporting by patients in a community pain management practice in Michigan. We compared pain levels (range 0-10) entered by patients in questionnaires versus those provided during their face-to-face physician encounter on the same day. Both of these values were available for approximately 10,000 encounters during the study period (2010–2014). Two subpopulations of patients were identifiable. One was consistent in reporting worst or least pain levels on the questionnaire and during the provider encounter. The other was discordant. Factor analysis had previously identified severity scales for patient biopsychosocial characteristics derived from the full questionnaire. The two subpopulations differed in their factor profiles even though they had similar demographics. In general, pain reported directly to physicians was more correlated to biopsychosocial indicators. Pain self-reporting using questionnaires has often been assumed to be ground truth, but those obtained during the physician encounter may be more reliable. PMID:28269863

  13. NMR dynamics of quantum discord for spin-carrying gas molecules in a closed nanopore

    SciTech Connect

    Yurishchev, M. A.

    2014-11-15

    A local orthogonal transformation that transforms any centrosymmetric density matrix of a two-qubit system to the X form has been found. A piecewise-analytic-numerical formula Q = min(Q{sub π/2}, Q{sub θ}, Q{sub 0}), where Q{sub π/2} and Q{sub 0} are analytical expressions and the branch Q{sub 0θ} can be obtained only by numerically searching for the optimal measurement angle θ ∈ (0, π/2), is proposed to calculate the quantum discord Q of a general X state. The developed approaches have been applied for a quantitative description of the recently predicted flickering (periodic disappearance and reappearance) of the quantum-information pair correlation between nuclear 1/2 spins of atoms or molecules of a gas (for example, {sup 129}Xe) in a bounded volume in the presence of a strong magnetic field.

  14. Brain activation during cognitive planning in twins discordant or concordant for obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    PubMed

    den Braber, Anouk; van 't Ent, Dennis; Cath, Danielle C; Wagner, Judith; Boomsma, Dorret I; de Geus, Eco J C

    2010-10-01

    Neuroimaging studies have indicated abnormalities in cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with controls. However, there are inconsistencies between studies regarding the exact set of brain structures involved and the direction of anatomical and functional changes. These inconsistencies may reflect the differential impact of environmental and genetic risk factors for obsessive-compulsive disorder on different parts of the brain. To distinguish between functional brain changes underlying environmentally and genetically mediated obsessive-compulsive disorder, we compared task performance and brain activation during a Tower of London planning paradigm in monozygotic twins discordant (n=38) or concordant (n=100) for obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Twins who score high on obsessive-compulsive symptoms can be considered at high risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder. We found that subjects at high risk for obsessive-compulsive disorder did not differ from the low-risk subjects behaviourally, but we obtained evidence that the high-risk subjects differed from the low-risk subjects in the patterns of brain activation accompanying task execution. These regions can be separated into those that were affected by mainly environmental risk (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lingual cortex), genetic risk (frontopolar cortex, inferior frontal cortex, globus pallidus and caudate nucleus) and regions affected by both environmental and genetic risk factors (cingulate cortex, premotor cortex and parts of the parietal cortex). Our results suggest that neurobiological changes related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms induced by environmental factors involve primarily the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas neurobiological changes induced by genetic factors involve orbitofrontal-basal ganglia structures. Regions showing similar changes in high-risk twins from discordant and concordant pairs may be part of compensatory

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of the Australian rosella parrots (Platycercus) reveals discordance among molecules and plumage.

    PubMed

    Shipham, Ashlee; Schmidt, Daniel J; Joseph, Leo; Hughes, Jane M

    2015-10-01

    Relationships and species limits among the colourful Australian parrots known as rosellas (Platycercus) are contentious because of poorly understood patterns of parapatry, sympatry and hybridization as well as complex patterns of geographical replacement of phenotypic forms. Two subgenera are, however, conventionally recognised: Platycercus comprises the blue-cheeked crimson rosella complex (Crimson Rosella P. elegans and Green Rosella P. caledonicus), and Violania contains the remaining four currently recognised species (Pale-headed Rosella P. adscitus, Eastern Rosella P. eximius, Northern Rosella P. venustus, and Western Rosella P. icterotis). We used phylogenetic analysis of ten loci (one mitochondrial, eight autosomal and one z-linked) and several individuals per nominal species primarily to examine relationships within the subgenera, especially the relationships and species limits within Violania. Of these, P. adscitus and P. eximius have long been considered sister species or conspecific due to a morphology-based hybrid zone and an early phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The multilocus phylogenetic analysis presented here supports an alternative hypothesis aligning P. adscitus and P. venustus as sister species. Using divergence rates published in other avian studies, we estimated the divergence between P. venustus and P. adscitus at 0.0148-0.6124MYA and that between the P. adscitus/P. venustus ancestor and P. eximius earlier at 0.1617-1.0816MYA, both within the Pleistocene. Discordant topologies among gene and species trees are discussed and proposed to be the result of historical gene flow and/or incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). In particular, we suggest that discordance between mitochondrial and nuclear data may be the result of asymmetrical mitochondrial introgression from P. adscitus into P. eximius. The biogeographical implications of our findings are discussed relative to similarly distributed groups

  16. [European Union fight against smoking related activitiy].

    PubMed

    Calvete Oliva, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This study is aimed at providing information concerning the provisions adopted by the European Union on both a compulsory and non-compulsory basis for its member States related in one way or another to the fight against smoking. To this end, a review is made of all of the provisions published in the Official Journal of the European Union as of the first published in 1986 up to March 2005, commenting upon the aspects of each provision having to do with the subject stated above.

  17. Evaluating summary statistics used to test for incomplete lineage sorting: mito-nuclear discordance in the reef sponge Callyspongia vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Debiasse, Melissa B; Nelson, Bradley J; Hellberg, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Conflicting patterns of population differentiation between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes (mito-nuclear discordance) have become increasingly evident as multilocus data sets have become easier to generate. Incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) of nucDNA is often implicated as the cause of such discordance, stemming from the large effective population size of nucDNA relative to mtDNA. However, selection, sex-biased dispersal and historical demography can also lead to mito-nuclear discordance. Here, we compare patterns of genetic diversity and subdivision for six nuclear protein-coding gene regions to those for mtDNA in a common Caribbean coral reef sponge, Callyspongia vaginalis, along the Florida reef tract. We also evaluated a suite of summary statistics to determine which are effective metrics for comparing empirical and simulated data when testing drivers of mito-nuclear discordance in a statistical framework. While earlier work revealed three divergent and geographically subdivided mtDNACOI haplotypes separated by 2.4% sequence divergence, nuclear alleles were admixed with respect to mitochondrial clade and geography. Bayesian analysis showed that substitution rates for the nuclear loci were up to 7 times faster than for mitochondrial COI. Coalescent simulations and neutrality tests suggested that mito-nuclear discordance in C. vaginalis is not the result of ILS in the nucDNA or selection on the mtDNA but is more likely caused by changes in population size. Sperm-mediated gene flow may also influence patterns of population subdivision in the nucDNA.

  18. Cyto-nuclear discordance in the phylogeny of Ficus section Galoglychia and host shifts in plant-pollinator associations

    PubMed Central

    Renoult, Julien P; Kjellberg, Finn; Grout, Cinderella; Santoni, Sylvain; Khadari, Bouchaïb

    2009-01-01

    Background Hybridization events are relatively common in vascular plants. However, the frequency of these events is unevenly distributed across the plant phylogeny. Plant families in which individual species are pollinated by specific pollinator species are predicted to be less prone to hybridization than other families. However, exceptions may occur within these families, when pollinators shift host-plant species. Indeed, host shifts are expected to increase the rate of hybridization events. Pollinators of Ficus section Galoglychia are suspected to have changed host repeatedly, based on several cases of incongruence between plant phylogeny and taxonomy, and insect phylogeny and taxonomy. We tracked cyto-nuclear discordance across section Galoglychia as evidence for hybridization. To achieve a proper global view, we first clarified the monophyly of section Galoglychia as it had been questioned by recent phylogenetic studies. Moreover, we investigated if fig size could be a factor facilitating host shifts. Results Phylogenetic chloroplast and nuclear results demonstrated the monophyly of section Galoglychia. Within section Galoglychia, we detected several cases of statistically significant cyto-nuclear discordance. Discordances concern both terminal nodes of the phylogenetic trees and one deep node defining relationships between subsections. Because nuclear phylogeny is congruent with morphological taxonomy, discordances were caused by the chloroplast phylogeny. Introgressive hybridization was the most likely explanation for these discordances. We also detected that subsections pollinated by several wasp genera had smaller figs and were pollinated by smaller wasps than subsections pollinated by a single wasp genus. Conclusion As hypothesized, we discovered evidences of past hybridization in Ficus section Galoglychia. Further, introgression was only detected in subsections presenting incongruence between plant and pollinator phylogenies and taxonomy. This supports

  19. Graphic and algebraic solutions of the discordant lead-uranium age problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stieff, L.R.; Stern, T.W.

    1961-01-01

    Uranium-bearing minerals that give lead-uranium and lead-lead ages that are essentially in agreement, i.e. concordant, generally are considered to have had a relatively simple geologic history and to have been unaltered since their deposition. The concordant ages obtained on such materials are, therefore, assumed to approach closely the actual age of the minerals. Many uranium-bearing samples, particularly uranium ores, give the following discordant age sequences; Pb206 U238 < Pb207 U235 ??? Pb207 Pb206 or, less frequently, Pb207 Pb206 ??? Pb207 U235 < Pb206 U238. These discordant age sequences have been attributed most often to uncertainties in the common lead correction, selective loss of radio-active daughter products, loss or gain of lead or uranium, or contamination by an older generation of radiogenic lead. The evaluation of discordant lead isotope age data may be separated into two operations. The first operation, with which this paper is concerned, is mechanical in nature and involves the calculation of the different possible concordant ages corresponding to the various processes assumed to have produced the discordant ages. The second operation is more difficult to define and requires, in part, some personal judgement. It includes a synthesis of the possible concordant age solutions with other independent geologic and isotopic evidence. The concordant age ultimately chosen as most acceptable should be consistent not only with the known events in the geologic history of the area, the age relations of the enclosing rocks, and the mineralogic and paragenetic evidence, but also with other independent age measurements and the isotopic data obtained on the lead in related or associated non-radioactive minerals. The calculation of the possible concordant ages from discordant age data has been greatly simplified by Wetherill's graphical method of plotting the mole ratios of radiogenic Pb206 U238 ( N206 N238) vs. radiogenic Pb207 U235 ( N207 N235) after correcting

  20. FDA-Approved HIV Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment FDA-Approved HIV Medicines (Last updated 2/27/2017; last reviewed 2/27/2017) Treatment with ... 2007 Pharmacokinetic Enhancers Pharmacokinetic enhancers are used in HIV treatment to increase the effectiveness of an HIV medicine ...

  1. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Subscribe Translate Text Size Print What Is HIV/AIDS? Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV stands for human ... use the HIV Testing & Care Services Locator. GO Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. AIDS ...

  2. Sequence determinants of breakpoint location during HIV-1 intersubtype recombination.

    PubMed

    Baird, Heather A; Galetto, Román; Gao, Yong; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Abreha, Measho; Archer, John; Fan, Jun; Robertson, David L; Arts, Eric J; Negroni, Matteo

    2006-01-01

    Retroviral recombination results from strand switching, during reverse transcription, between the two copies of genomic RNA present in the virus. We analysed recombination in part of the envelope gene, between HIV-1 subtype A and D strains. After a single infection cycle, breakpoints clustered in regions corresponding to the constant portions of Env. With some exceptions, a similar distribution was observed after multiple infection cycles, and among recombinant sequences in the HIV Sequence Database. We compared the experimental data with computer simulations made using a program that only allows recombination to occur whenever an identical base is present in the aligned parental RNAs. Experimental recombination was more frequent than expected on the basis of simulated recombination when, in a region spanning 40 nt from the 5' border of a breakpoint, no more than two discordant bases between the parental RNAs were present. When these requirements were not fulfilled, breakpoints were distributed randomly along the RNA, closer to the distribution predicted by computer simulation. A significant preference for recombination was also observed for regions containing homopolymeric stretches. These results define, for the first time, local sequence determinants for recombination between divergent HIV-1 isolates.

  3. Sequence determinants of breakpoint location during HIV-1 intersubtype recombination

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Heather A.; Galetto, Román; Gao, Yong; Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Abreha, Measho; Archer, John; Fan, Jun; Robertson, David L.; Arts, Eric J.; Negroni, Matteo

    2006-01-01

    Retroviral recombination results from strand switching, during reverse transcription, between the two copies of genomic RNA present in the virus. We analysed recombination in part of the envelope gene, between HIV-1 subtype A and D strains. After a single infection cycle, breakpoints clustered in regions corresponding to the constant portions of Env. With some exceptions, a similar distribution was observed after multiple infection cycles, and among recombinant sequences in the HIV Sequence Database. We compared the experimental data with computer simulations made using a program that only allows recombination to occur whenever an identical base is present in the aligned parental RNAs. Experimental recombination was more frequent than expected on the basis of simulated recombination when, in a region spanning 40 nt from the 5′ border of a breakpoint, no more than two discordant bases between the parental RNAs were present. When these requirements were not fulfilled, breakpoints were distributed randomly along the RNA, closer to the distribution predicted by computer simulation. A significant preference for recombination was also observed for regions containing homopolymeric stretches. These results define, for the first time, local sequence determinants for recombination between divergent HIV-1 isolates. PMID:17003055

  4. Student v. Union: Colleges at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byman, Abigail

    1990-01-01

    College union administrators should be careful about the use of facilities, particularly in public schools, because of the potential for legal liability. Institutions of higher education today are vulnerable to being sued in regard to issues of free speech, trespass, and religion. Areas of potential liability include (1) serving alcoholic…

  5. Universal Services in the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Johannes M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses universal service policies in the European Union. Topics include information access; the demise of the public service model; the effects of competition on universal service; financing; national implementation of member states; programs for schools and libraries; and pertinent Web sites on European universal service policy. (LRW)

  6. Unions Battle for Democrats in Swing States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2008-01-01

    Teachers' unions around the country have shifted into high gear in the countdown to the presidential election next week, and nowhere is the fervor more evident than in the battleground states. In Florida, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wisconsin, affiliates of the National Education Association and the…

  7. The Organizational Impact of University Labor Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickens, Christine M.

    2008-01-01

    The current review presents both postulated and empirically tested consequences of university unionization and labor strikes on the North American institution's administration, faculty, and students. The review explores the impact of collective bargaining on employee working conditions including job security, academic freedom, university…

  8. Letters of a Slave Turned Union Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humanities, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the influx of Black soldiers into the Union army following the Emancipation Proclamation. Concentrates on the case of Private Spotswood Rice. Provides a short history of Rice, including copies of Rice's letters to his enslaved daughters, the daughter's slaveholders, and an angry retort from the slaveowner to the federal commander in…

  9. Singing All the Way to the Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Joe Grim

    2010-01-01

    In early 1909, just over a hundred years ago, the Spokane, Washington, branch of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) got a reputation as a "singing union." Later that year, the same Spokane branch of the IWW embarked on a massive free speech fight. IWW agitators would arrive on street corners, call on the crowds not to pay for…

  10. The End of the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergesheimer, John

    1992-01-01

    Presents, as a supplement to social studies textbooks, a summary of recent Soviet Union developments. Begins with the rise of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and traces events through the dissolution of the USSR. Provides a Soviet history timeline, a vocabulary list, and a reproducible map of eastern Europe and central Asia. (SG)

  11. Interlibrary Lending with Computerized Union Catalogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Klaus-Dieter

    Interlibrary loans in the Federal Republic of Germany are facilitated by applying techniques of data processing and computer output microfilm (COM) to the union catalogs of the national library system. The German library system consists of two national libraries, four central specialized libraries of technology, medicine, agriculture, and…

  12. Teachers' Unions Take Own Path on Election

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on two national teachers' unions' different approaches to the 2008 U.S. election campaign. The National Education Association is ready to spend $40 million this election year, but it is not ready to endorse a candidate for president. The American Federation Teachers, by contrast, is working aggressively for U.S. Sen. Hillary…

  13. Multi-Union Efforts in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfield, Marcia

    2008-01-01

    The Professional Staff Congress (PSC), the union for twenty-two thousand faculty and staff members at the City University of New York (CUNY), has been successful at gaining New York State aid for tuition remission for doctoral students and health insurance for graduate student employees, increasing budget allotments to CUNY, and obtaining transit…

  14. Leading Student Groups to the Soviet Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winokur, Marshall

    1981-01-01

    Describes student tours to the Soviet Union, discussing the benefits to be derived from such experiences by both students and leaders. In particular, discusses the organization of the tours, their types and costs, advertising strategies, suggested itineraries and guidebooks, student orientation and group composition, and problems encountered…

  15. Teacher of the Year to Union President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Richard Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Richard Lee Colvin, provides an uplifting history of the current vice president and next President of the National Education Association (NEA), Lily Eskelsen García, the first Hispanic head of the nation's largest union. Colvin describes Garcia as a powerful labor and political leader. Colvin describes NEA's beginning in 1857 by…

  16. Regulatory pathways in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Manuela

    2011-01-01

    In principle, there are three defined procedures to obtain approval for a medicinal product in the European Union. As discussed in this overview of the procedures, the decision on which regulatory pathway to use will depend on the nature of the active substance, the target indication(s), the history of product and/or the marketing strategy.

  17. The Belgian Union Catalogue of Periodicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goedeme, G.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes the edition, on computer output microfiche, of the supplement to the 1965 Union catalogue of foreign periodicals in Belgian and Luxemburgian libraries and documentation centers. The microfiches contain location information of 28,000 periodicals in 300 libraries and are edited in a rich typography. (Author)

  18. Unions Assail Teacher Ideas in NCLB Draft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson; Hoff, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on two national teachers' unions that have mounted a vigorous lobbying campaign to rewrite language linking teacher bonuses to student test scores and other incentive-pay provisions contained in a draft bill for reauthorizing the No Child Left Behind Act. Members of the National Education Association circulated in the halls of…

  19. Keeping a Dream Alive: Cooper Union Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwan, Irene

    1984-01-01

    Profiles the Cooper Union Library, a private academic library specializing in architecture, art, and engineering that celebrated its 125th anniversary in fall 1984. Highlights include a biographical sketch of the college's founder, Peter Cooper; construction of the building; curriculum changes; library services and materials; and cooperative and…

  20. Teacher Union Bargaining: Practice and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisert, Gene; Lieberman, Myron

    This book provides school board members with hands-on guidelines for collaborative bargaining with teacher unions. The book combines the practical with the conceptual and policy dimensions of teacher bargaining. Part 1 provides a view of immediate problems in their context--broad policy issues that affect across-the-table bargaining. Eight…

  1. What Do Unions Do for Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalter-Roth, Roberta; And Others

    A study used data for the 1987 calendar year from the 1986 and 1987 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to examine the impact of union membership on women's wages and job tenure. The data set included 17,200 sample members, representing about 79 million workers, aged 16-64. The study mapped the distribution of union…

  2. Dancing with the Teachers' Union President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Don

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author has equated the principal's relationship with the president of the teachers' union as a dance where each wants to lead and yet there is, as in most relationships, a mutual dependency that makes each person realize that there is a time when one leads and a time when one follows. The author presents the details of when…

  3. Districts, Unions Seek to Improve Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Wrapping up a two-day conference in Denver designed to improve labor-management relations in school districts, sponsors and participants vowed to work at reforms that will be beneficial to teachers, students, and officials. Teams made up of a local superintendent, a school board representative, and the teachers' union leader descended on the Mile…

  4. The geography of civil unions in Vermont.

    PubMed

    Coulmont, Baptiste

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, Vermont established "civil unions" meant for same-sex couples. This form of marriage relies on the existence of a local gay and lesbian community, while contributing to the development of "gay and lesbian tourism" and pushing certain churches to revisit their treatment of same-sex couples. Gay and lesbian rights and rural communities are not mutually exclusive.

  5. Librarians and Unions: Defining and Protecting Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Deanna D.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the relationship between the professional values of librarians and the benefits of unionization. Discusses process-based benefits that include the protection of tenure, fair workload, job security, and due process in grievance procedures; and value-based benefits, including open communication, academic and intellectual freedom, and…

  6. Faculty Union Contracts: The New Organizational Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Harold I., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    The recent expansion of collective bargaining among faculty unions has led to the establishment of new organizational rules. These new rules eliminate discretion, but unlike traditional rules imposed by superiors to control subordinates, collective bargaining initiates a different format for rule-making--formal joint determination. Collective…

  7. Unions Feeling Chill on State Capital Front

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    Teachers' unions find themselves on the defensive in states across the country, as governors and lawmakers press forward with proposals to target job protections and benefits that elected officials contend the public can no longer afford academically or financially. Many of those efforts are being driven by newly elected Republicans, who have…

  8. Current Options for Determining Fracture Union

    PubMed Central

    Morshed, Saam

    2014-01-01

    Determining whether a bone fracture is healed is one of the most important and fundamental clinical determinations made in orthopaedics. However, there are currently no standardized methods of assessing fracture union, which in turn has created significant disagreement among orthopaedic surgeons in both clinical and research settings. An extensive amount of research has been dedicated to finding novel and reliable ways of determining healing with some promising results. Recent advancements in imaging techniques and introduction of new radiographic scores have helped decrease the amount of disagreement on this topic among physicians. The knowledge gained from biomechanical studies of bone healing has helped us refine our tools and create more efficient and practical research instruments. Additionally, a deeper understanding of the molecular pathways involved in the bone healing process has led to emergence of serologic markers as possible candidates in assessment of fracture union. In addition to our current physician centered methods, patient-centered approaches assessing quality of life and function are gaining popularity in assessment of fracture union. Despite these advances, assessment of union remains an imperfect practice in the clinical setting. Therefore, clinicians need to draw on multiple modalities that directly and indirectly measure or correlate with bone healing when counseling patients. PMID:26556422

  9. Neural networks in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Wunsch, D.C. II.

    1993-01-01

    A brief overview is given of neural networks activities in the former Soviet Union that have potential aerospace applications. Activities at institutes in Moscow, the former Leningrad, Kiev, Taganrog, Rostov-on-Don, and Krasnoyarsk are addressed, including the most important scientists involved. 21 refs.

  10. Multimedia Transforms Union Pacific's Training Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantwell, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Describes a multimedia training program developed for Union Pacific to help improve management-worker relations and to improve service reliability by improving morale and motivating employees for training. Courses are described; multimedia interactivity is explained, including decision making and problem solving; and future plans are reviewed.…

  11. Election Behavior and Union Representation Elections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David

    1980-01-01

    Examines the National Labor Relations Board's policy on intervention in union representation elections prior to the "Shopping Kart" decision and as a result of the "General Knit" decision. The effect of a research study on the board's decision on when to intervene in elections is also discussed. (IRT)

  12. HUELGA, A MILESTONE IN FARM UNIONISM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COHEN, IRVING J.

    EARLY ATTEMPTS DURING THE 20TH CENTURY TO ORGANIZE FARM WORKERS, TO GAIN WAGE INCREASES, AND TO SECURE EMPLOYER RECOGNITION OF A UNION AS THE WORKERS' AGENT FOR COLLECTIVE BARGAINING FAILED. AN ESTIMATED 380 AGRICULTURAL STRIKES INVOLVED OVER 200,000 WORKERS IN 33 STATES BETWEEN 1930 AND 1948. THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT, ENACTED AS A RESULT…

  13. Clinton opposes high court review of HIV inmate policy.

    PubMed

    2000-01-21

    The Clinton Administration is urging the Supreme Court to allow Alabama to continue to exclude HIV-positive inmates from some prison activities because of the possibility that they might spread HIV to others. If the court accepts the administration's advice, the Alabama Department of Corrections will be able to restrict equal access to work-release programs, drug and alcohol rehabilitation, vocational training, organized recreational programs, and worship services. Mississippi and South Carolina have similar policies. The case in question, [name removed] v. [Name removed], hinges on how to determine whether HIV presents a significant risk to others even when reasonable accommodations are considered. Positions of the Justice Department, American Civil Liberties Union, and Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund are presented.

  14. Tool separates sleeve-type unions without heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millett, A. U.

    1966-01-01

    Tool that uses conventional milling and cutting techniques separates sleeve type tubing unions and tubes without using heat. A selection of holders, associated bits, and cutting wheels permits preparation of varied diameter unions.

  15. Detail view of lancetarched, concrete pedestrian railing Union Avenue ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of lancet-arched, concrete pedestrian railing - Union Avenue Viaduct, Spanning between Southeast Harrison & Southeast Ivon Streets on Union Avenue (Old Highway 99 East), Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  16. 76 FR 13504 - Conversions of Insured Credit Unions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ..., including credit union conversions to mutual savings banks or mutual savings associations (MSBs) in 12 CFR...-insured credit unions to MSBs and former Sec. 708a.1 is now numbered Sec. 708a.101. That final rule...

  17. Rules for diagnosis of arterioventricular discordances and spatial identification of ventricles. Crossed great arteries and transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, M V; Berrazueta, J R; Arteaga, M; Attie, F; Soni, J

    1976-04-01

    Rules are presented for the diagnosis of arterioventricular discordances and the spatial position of the ventricles in these cardiopathies by means of angiocardiography and the position of cardiac catheters. Because these rules are based on previous anatomo-embryological findings, the normal development of the conus and the truncus is briefly analysed. The probable morphogenesis of this group of truncoconal cardiopathies is discussed. The fundamental process required to establish the diagnosis of these cardiopathies is as follows: 1) The truncoconal morphology is identified in the lateral projection. a) The anterior position of the pulmonary artery and its infundibulum with respect to the aorta and its infundibulum is characteristic of crossed great arteries with arterioventricular concordance or discordance. b) The anterior position of the aorta and its infundibulum with respect to the pulmonary artery and its infundibulum is characteristic of transposition of the great arteries with arterioventricular concordance or discordance. 2) Once the truncoconal morphology is identified, the use of the anteroposterior projection allows the establishment of the differential diagnosis between arterioventricular concordances and discordances, and of the spatial location of the ventricles in these entities. a) An anterior pulmonary artery directed from right to left, emerging from an infundibulum placed on the left side (anatomically right ventricle on the left) or an anterior pulmonary artery directed from left to right, arising from an infundibulum located to the right (anatomically right ventricular placed on the right), is the specific image of discordant crossed great arteries. b) An anterior pulmonary artery directed from right to left emerging from an infundibulum placed on the right side (anatomically right ventricle on the right side) or the anterior pulmonary artery directed from left to right arising from a left-sided infundibulum (anatomically right ventricle

  18. Rules for diagnosis of arterioventricular discordances and spatial identification of ventricles. Crossed great arteries and transposition of the great arteries.

    PubMed Central

    de la Cruz, M V; Berrazueta, J R; Arteaga, M; Attie, F; Soni, J

    1976-01-01

    Rules are presented for the diagnosis of arterioventricular discordances and the spatial position of the ventricles in these cardiopathies by means of angiocardiography and the position of cardiac catheters. Because these rules are based on previous anatomo-embryological findings, the normal development of the conus and the truncus is briefly analysed. The probable morphogenesis of this group of truncoconal cardiopathies is discussed. The fundamental process required to establish the diagnosis of these cardiopathies is as follows: 1) The truncoconal morphology is identified in the lateral projection. a) The anterior position of the pulmonary artery and its infundibulum with respect to the aorta and its infundibulum is characteristic of crossed great arteries with arterioventricular concordance or discordance. b) The anterior position of the aorta and its infundibulum with respect to the pulmonary artery and its infundibulum is characteristic of transposition of the great arteries with arterioventricular concordance or discordance. 2) Once the truncoconal morphology is identified, the use of the anteroposterior projection allows the establishment of the differential diagnosis between arterioventricular concordances and discordances, and of the spatial location of the ventricles in these entities. a) An anterior pulmonary artery directed from right to left, emerging from an infundibulum placed on the left side (anatomically right ventricle on the left) or an anterior pulmonary artery directed from left to right, arising from an infundibulum located to the right (anatomically right ventricular placed on the right), is the specific image of discordant crossed great arteries. b) An anterior pulmonary artery directed from right to left emerging from an infundibulum placed on the right side (anatomically right ventricle on the right side) or the anterior pulmonary artery directed from left to right arising from a left-sided infundibulum (anatomically right ventricle

  19. KwaZulu-Natal commercial farmers' perceptions of and management responses to HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Gray, Lyndon; Ferrer, Stuart; Ortmann, Gerald

    2009-06-01

    This study examines commercial farmers' perceptions of and management responses to the HIV epidemic, among a sample in KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa. The analysis is based on responses to a postal survey of commercial farmers belonging to KwaZulu-Natal Agricultural Union (Kwanalu), in April-May 2007. The findings show that, on average, the Kwanalu members were highly concerned about the impacts of HIV and AIDS on their businesses. The majority of respondents perceived HIV and AIDS as negatively affecting the current and future profitability of their farming enterprise, increasing the rates of workers' absenteeism and staff turnover, and reducing workers' productivity. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the data shows that the farm managers' HIV/ AIDS-management responses varied by farm size and enterprise type, but included paying higher-than-average wages to attract and retain healthy and productive workers, multi-skilling staff to provide back-up, and investing in mechanisation to defer the costs of HIV and AIDS. The respondents tended to believe that effective HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programmes require an integrated approach that is shared by employees, employers and government. Many commercial farm employers already play an important but economical role in HIV and AIDS prevention and treatment through encouraging voluntary HIV testing and providing workers with information and transportation to clinics. Policymakers should take this into consideration when formulating policies in response to the HIV epidemic.

  20. New "Right to Work" Laws Could Hobble Faculty Unions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Faculty unions outside Michigan have reason to be concerned with its passage of legislation barring unions from collecting fees from workers who do not join them. But the experiences of faculty unions in states that adopted such laws years ago suggest that while the measures can be a major hindrance to their work, they are not a death blow.…

  1. Considering Trade Union Education as a Community of Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Malcolm J.

    2003-01-01

    Using the framework of communities of practice, data were collected from a labor union education program (152 survey responses, 3 life histories). Despite negative early schooling experiences, respondents saw union involvement as a rationale to participate in formal education. Union education was depicted as situated learning through participation…

  2. Evaluation of the Union County Alternative to Suspension Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Joyce Ann

    2010-01-01

    The schools in Union County have undergone a tremendous amount of growth in the past decade. The growth in the county has led to an increase in discipline problems. In order to provide suspended students a second chance, Union County Public Schools implemented an alternative to suspension program, the Union County Alternative to Suspension Program…

  3. Unions Striking Back at Bills to Curb Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Besieged by state proposals to eviscerate collective bargaining, eliminate teacher tenure, and make it harder to collect dues, teachers' unions are fighting back. Lawsuits supported by local union affiliates have for now blocked anti-union legislation in Alabama and Wisconsin. E-mail "blasts," phone banks, and rallies are also among the…

  4. Learning, Labour and Union Learning Representatives: Promoting Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    The initiative by the Trades Union Congress (TUC) and affiliated trade unions in the UK to appoint trade union learning representatives (ULRs), to promote learning among their members, is a significant development in adult learning. Understandably, the initiative has attracted the attention of academic researchers, but primarily from the…

  5. Teachers' Perceptions Regarding the Value of a Local Teacher Union

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Sidney L.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 3 years, teacher union membership has significantly decreased in the state of Georgia. This decrease in union membership is troubling, as previous research has shown that union membership is positively connected to teacher satisfaction and, in turn, to student success. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to determine why…

  6. The Impact of Teacher Unions on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenster, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    The overall impact of unions and collective bargaining agreements on student achievement has produced a literature with decidedly mixed results. Unions are seen to have both positive and negative influences on a teachers' ability to perform the teaching act. This study researches the impact of unions on state level student achievement, controlling…

  7. A Union of Professionals: Labor Relations and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerchner, Charles Taylor; Koppich, Julia E.

    This book examines the changing role of teacher unions in the educational reform movement. It contains nine case studies of unions across the United States that are forging new, collaborative relationships with management in a reconceptualization of "professional unionism." Chapters include: (1) "Building the Airplane While It's Rolling Down the…

  8. Union Membership and Political Participation in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerrissey, Jasmine; Schofer, Evan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the effect of union membership on civic and political participation in the late 20th century in the United States. We discuss why and how unions seek to mobilize their members and where mobilization is channeled. We argue that union membership affects electoral and collective action outcomes and will be larger for low…

  9. What Can Trade Unions Do To Combat Child Labour?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrstad, Geir

    1999-01-01

    Examines mainly practical activities of trade unions to fight child labor. Argues that trade unions can give the most significant contribution to the struggle against child labor by focusing on methods that are typical for, or even exclusive to, the trade union movement, in particular negotiations and collective bargaining. (Author)

  10. 32 CFR 231.7 - Procedures-domestic credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Procedures-domestic credit unions. 231.7 Section...) MISCELLANEOUS PROCEDURES GOVERNING BANKS, CREDIT UNIONS AND OTHER FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS ON DOD INSTALLATIONS Guidelines § 231.7 Procedures—domestic credit unions. (a) General policy. Given their role in...

  11. 12 CFR 741.222 - Credit union service organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit union service organizations. 741.222 Section 741.222 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR INSURANCE Regulations Codified Elsewhere in NCUA's Regulations as Applying to Federal...

  12. 12 CFR 741.206 - Corporate credit unions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Corporate credit unions. 741.206 Section 741.206 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR INSURANCE Regulations Codified Elsewhere in NCUA's Regulations as Applying to Federal...

  13. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Russian and East European Inst.

    Basic material on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe is presented in this teachers' guide in such a way that teachers can incorporate it into the daily curriculum or utilize it through special units or projects. The guide is divided into two sections, one covering the Soviet Union, the other Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union section discusses…

  14. Worker Participation and American Unions. Threat or Opportunity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochan, Thomas A.; And Others

    This book reports results of a study of the efects of quality of worklife programs and related forms of worker participation on unions and the collective bargaining process. Chapter 1 describes the evolution of worker participation in unionized settings and summarizes basic propositions in models of joint union-management change. In chapter 2 five…

  15. Performance of Determine Combo and other Point-of-Care HIV Tests Among Seattle MSM

    PubMed Central

    Stekler, Joanne D.; Ure, George; O’Neal, Joshua D.; Lane, Aric; Swanson, Fred; Maenza, Janine; Stevens, Claire; Coombs, Robert W.; Dragavon, Joan; Swenson, Paul D.; Golden, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective The Rapid Test Study was a real-time comparison of point-of-care (POC) HIV tests to determine their abilities to detect early HIV infection. Study Design Men and transgender persons reporting sex with men in the prior year were recruited at the Public Health – Seattle & King County STD Clinic, Gay City Health Project, and University of Washington Primary Infection Clinic. Study tests included the OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test performed on oral fluids and tests performed on fingerstick whole blood specimens including OraQuick, Uni-Gold Recombigen HIV Test, Determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo, and INSTI HIV-1 Rapid Antibody Test. Specimens from subjects with negative results were sent for EIA and nucleic acid amplification testing. McNemar's exact tests compared the numbers of HIV-infected subjects detected. Results Between February 2010 and August 2014, there were 3438 study visits. Twenty-four subjects had discordant POC results with at least one reactive and one non-reactive test, including one subject with a reactive Determine p24 antigen. OraQuick performed on oral fluids identified fewer persons compared to all fingerstick tests. OraQuick performed on fingerstick whole blood detected fewer persons compared to the Determine Combo antibody component (p=.008) and Combo overall (p=.004), and there was a trend when compared to INSTI (p=.06). The Determine Combo specificity was 98.99%. Conclusions As reported by others, Determine Combo underperforms compared to laboratory-based testing, but it did detect one acute infection. If these results are validated, the specificity of Determine Combo may limit its usefulness in populations with lower HIV incidence. PMID:26774543

  16. Microbiome in HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Salas, January T.; Chang, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    HIV primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes including bacteria, virus and fungi and their association with diseases. HIV/SIV infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. Similarly, altered microbiome and inflammation are associated with increased risks of HIV acquisition, suggesting the role of microbiome in HIV transmission. In this review, we will focus on microbiome in HIV infection at various mucosal compartments. Understanding the relationship between microbiome and HIV may offer insights into development of better strategies for HIV prevention and treatment. PMID:25439273

  17. HIV among Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counseling and Services (CRCS) Condom Distribution as a Structural Level Intervention HIV Cost-effectiveness Program Planning Comprehensive ... 2017. Moreno CL. The relationship between culture, gender, structural factors, abuse, trauma, and HIV/AIDS for Latinas. ...

  18. Testing for HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability (Biologics) HIV Home Test Kits Testing for HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  19. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type of defense cell in the body called a CD4 helper ... are part of the body's immune system , the defense system that fights infections. When HIV destroys these ...

  20. Stages of HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latinx AIDS ...