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Sample records for hiv infection risk

  1. Sociometric risk networks and risk for HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, S R; Neaigus, A; Jose, B; Curtis, R; Goldstein, M; Ildefonso, G; Rothenberg, R B; Des Jarlais, D C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether networks of drug-injecting and sexual relationships among drug injectors are associated with individual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serostatus and with behavioral likelihood of future infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 767 drug injectors in New York City was performed with chain-referral and linking procedures to measure large-scale (sociometric) risk networks. Graph-theoretic algebraic techniques were used to detect 92 connected components (drug injectors linked to each other directly or through others) and a 105-member 2-core within a large connected component of 230 members. RESULTS: Drug injectors in the 2-core of the large component were more likely than others to be infected with HIV. Seronegative 2-core members engaged in a wide range of high-risk behaviors, including engaging in risk behaviors with infected drug injectors. CONCLUSIONS: Sociometric risk networks seem to be pathways along which HIV travels in drug-injecting peer groups. The cores of large components can be centers of high-risk behaviors and can become pockets of HIV infection. Preventing HIV from reaching the cores of large components may be crucial in preventing widespread HIV epidemics. PMID:9279263

  2. HIV risk behavior among HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sirivongrangson, Pachara; Lolekha, Rangsima; Charoenwatanachokchai, Angkana; Siangphoe, Umaporn; Fox, Kimberley K; Jirarojwattana, Naiyana; Bollen, Liesbeth; Yenyarsan, Naruemon; Lokpichat, Somchai; Suksripanich, Orapin; McConnell, Michelle

    2012-04-01

    We assessed prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STIs), sexual risk behaviors, and factors associated with risk behaviors among HIV-infected MSM attending a public STI clinic serving MSM in Bangkok, Thailand. Between October 2005-October 2007, 154 HIV-infected MSM attending the clinic were interviewed about sexual risk behaviors and evaluated for STIs. Patients were examined for genital ulcers and had serologic testing for syphilis and PCR testing for chlamydia and gonorrhea. Results showed that sexual intercourse in the last 3 months was reported by 131 men. Of these, 32% reported anal sex without a condom. STIs were diagnosed in 41%. Factors associated with having sex without a condom were having a steady male partner, having a female partner and awareness of HIV status <1 month. Sexual risk behaviors and STIs were common among HIV-infected MSM in this study. This highlights the need for increased HIV prevention strategies for HIV-infected MSM.

  3. Reproductive concerns of women at risk for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Williams, A B

    1990-01-01

    This qualitative, exploratory study investigated knowledge about perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and perceptions of the childbearing role among women at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) through injection drug use. Content analysis was used to analyze the results of 21 face-to-face, semistructured interviews with women who had a personal history of injection drug use or who were the sexual partners of men who injected drugs. Contextual variables influencing women at risk for HIV infection that were identified included fear of HIV antibody testing, a belief that perinatal HIV transmission is inevitable, support for pregnancy termination in the event of HIV-associated pregnancy, a strong desire for children, pride in mothering behavior, and guilt about the possibility of transmitting HIV to unborn children. AIDS education and counseling for these women will be most effective if these variables are considered.

  4. Risk factors associated with sexually transmitted infections among HIV infected men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ping; Wei, Ye; Xia, Hongli; Jiang, Wenjie; Yang, Changqing; Meng, Xiaojun; Peng, Peng; Yang, Yue; Jiang, Liying; Chu, Minjie; Zhuang, Xun

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the factors associated with sexually transmitted infection and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (STI-HIV) co-infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). A total of 357 HIV-infected participants (84 STI-HIV co-infection and 273 HIV infections only) were recruited from Jiangsu, China. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the related factors associated with STI-HIV co-infection. Marginal structural models were adopted to estimate the effect of transmission drug resistance (TDR) on STI-HIV co-infection. For all participants, logistic regression analyses revealed that those who diagnosed with HIV-1 for longer duration (≥1.8 years) were significantly associated with reduced STI-HIV co-infection risk (OR = 0.55, 95%CI: 0.32–0.96, P = 0.036). In further stratification analysis by antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with longer duration showed consistent significant associations with STI-HIV co-infection risk (OR = 0.46, 95%CI: 0.26–0.83, P = 0.010) among MSM with ART-naïve status. In addition, significant reduced risk for STI-HIV co-infection (OR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.96–0.99, P = 0.010) were observed in younger (under the average age of 31.03) MSM of the same group. Interestingly, we also found TDR was significantly associated with an increased risk of STI-HIV co-infection risk (OR = 3.84, 95%CI: 1.05–14.03, P = 0.042) in ART-naïve group. Our study highlights a pattern of STI-HIV co-infection among MSM in China and indicates that targeted interventions aimed at encouraging TDR monitoring in MSM with early HIV infection are warranted. PMID:28158317

  5. Adolescents, sex and injecting drug use: risks for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Barnard, M; McKeganey, N

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present data on the HIV-related risks for adolescents growing up in an area where injecting drug use is prevalent and HIV infection has been identified among local injecting drug users. We report on young peoples' knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of drug use and injectors; HIV and AIDS; sex, safer sex and condom use. These adolescents had an extensive and practically oriented knowledge of illicit drugs and drug injectors. The majority of adolescents contacted had an unsophisticated but approximate understanding of HIV transmission dynamics and how to guard against infection. Our data suggest that many adolescents find issues relating to sex awkward, embarrassing and difficult subjects for discussion. In a final section we consider some of the policy implications of our work focussing in particular on the prevention of injecting, the promotion of condom use, and the necessity of avoiding a focus upon risk groups.

  6. [Depression in HIV infection: prevalence, risk factors and management].

    PubMed

    Wolff L, Claudia; Alvarado M, Rubén; Wolff R, Marcelo

    2010-02-01

    Depression is one of the main psychiatric co-morbidities in HIV infection, presenting with a significantly higher prevalence than in the general population (around 35%). Its presence has been associated with poor quality of life, HIV disease progression and poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Although antidepressive treatment has demonstrated effectiveness on the management of depressive symptoms, improvement of clinical and laboratory parameters, and enhancement of antiretroviral adherence, depression is frequently under diagnosed and under treated in these patients. We analyzed the main international findings on depression prevalence, risk factors, con-sequences and management in people with HIV disease.

  7. Substance Use among Women at Risk for HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wambach, K. G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 620 nonpregnant, culturally diverse women at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection concerning alcohol, marijuana, powder cocaine, crack cocaine, and intravenous drug use. Found consumption levels which exceeded expectations based on general estimates of female substance use. Substance use was associated with specific…

  8. Microbial Translocation and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Manner, Ingjerd W.; Pedersen, Karin K.; Haissman, Judith M.; Kvale, Dag; Nielsen, Susanne D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The widespread access to antiretroviral treatment during the past decades has transformed HIV infection from a lethal disease to a chronic condition, in which the relative burden of non-AIDS-related chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal, liver, and bone disease has increased. The adjusted relative risk for myocardial infarction is reported to be around 2-fold compared to that of the general population, which over time is likely to translate into increased absolute risk in an aging population. Thus, delineating potentially HIV-specific pathogenetic mechanisms is crucial in order to tailor novel strategies for prophylaxis and treatment. This review will focus on advances in the field that possibly link HIV-induced alterations of the gut mucosa and consequent microbial translocation to cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection. Recent work suggests that markers of microbial translocation are closely associated with several cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, coagulation abnormalities, endothelial dysfunction, and carotid atherosclerosis. Future studies should investigate whether associations between microbial translocation and cardiovascular risk factors will translate into increased risk of acute events, and whether strategies to target gut microbiota and microbial translocation might reduce such a risk. PMID:24521167

  9. Educational software for simulating risk of HIV infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothberg, Madeleine A.; Sandberg, Sonja; Awerbuch, Tamara E.

    1994-03-01

    The AIDS epidemic is still growing rapidly and the disease is thought to be uniformly fatal. With no vaccine or cure in sight, education during high school years is a critical component in the prevention of AIDS. We propose the use of computer software with which high school students can explore via simulation their own risk of acquiring an HIV infection given certain sexual behaviors. This particular software is intended to help students understand the three factors that determine their risk of HIV infection (number of sexual acts, probability that their partners are infected, and riskiness of the specific sexual activities they choose). Users can explicitly calculate their own chances of becoming infected based on decisions they make. Use of the program is expected to personalize the risk of HIV infection and thus increase users' concern and awareness. Behavioral change may not result from increased knowledge alone. Therefore the effectiveness of this program in changing attitudes toward risky sexual behaviors would be enhanced when the simulation is embedded in an appropriate curriculum. A description of the program and an example of its use are presented.

  10. Risk for HIV Infection among Adolescents in the Border City of Tijuana, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Blumberg, Elaine J.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Sipan, Carol L.; Zellner, Jennifer A.; Hughes, Suzanne

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested high rates of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections in theU.S.-Mexico border region. However, no information is available on the risk for HIV infection among Mexican adolescents living in this geographic area. This study examines the prevalence of HIV risk practices and psychosocial correlates…

  11. Risk of Anal Cancer in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Individuals in North America

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Bryan; Justice, Amy C.; Engels, Eric; Gill, M. John; Goedert, James J.; Kirk, Gregory D.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Bosch, Ronald J.; Brooks, John T.; Napravnik, Sonia; Hessol, Nancy A.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Klein, Marina B.; Moore, Richard D.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Rourke, Sean B.; Saag, Michael S.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Gebo, Kelly A.; Press, Natasha; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Dubrow, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background. Anal cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), although few have evaluated rates separately for men who have sex with men (MSM), other men, and women. There are also conflicting data regarding calendar trends. Methods. In a study involving 13 cohorts from North America with follow-up between 1996 and 2007, we compared anal cancer incidence rates among 34 189 HIV-infected (55% MSM, 19% other men, 26% women) and 114 260 HIV-uninfected individuals (90% men). Results. Among men, the unadjusted anal cancer incidence rates per 100 000 person-years were 131 for HIV-infected MSM, 46 for other HIV-infected men, and 2 for HIV-uninfected men, corresponding to demographically adjusted rate ratios (RRs) of 80.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.7–151.1) for HIV-infected MSM and 26.7 (95% CI, 11.5–61.7) for other HIV-infected men compared with HIV-uninfected men. HIV-infected women had an anal cancer rate of 30/100 000 person-years, and no cases were observed for HIV-uninfected women. In a multivariable Poisson regression model, among HIV-infected individuals, the risk was higher for MSM compared with other men (RR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.8–6.0), but no difference was observed comparing women with other men (RR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.5–2.2). In comparison with the period 2000–2003, HIV-infected individuals had an adjusted RR of 0.5 (95% CI, .3–.9) in 1996–1999 and 0.9 (95% CI, .6–1.2) in 2004–2007. Conclusions. Anal cancer rates were substantially higher for HIV-infected MSM, other men, and women compared with HIV-uninfected individuals, suggesting a need for universal prevention efforts. Rates increased after the early antiretroviral therapy era and then plateaued. PMID:22291097

  12. Cardiovascular risk factor knowledge and risk perception among HIV-infected adults

    PubMed Central

    Cioe, Patricia A.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Stein, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected adults. Research in non-infected populations has suggested that knowledge of CVD risk factors significantly influences perceptions of risk. This cross-sectional study describes CVD risk factor knowledge and risk perception in HIV-infected adults. We recruited 130 HIV-infected adults (mean age = 48 years, 62% male, 56% current smokers, mean years since HIV diagnosis, 14.7). The mean CVD risk factor knowledge score was fairly high. However, controlling for age, CVD risk factor knowledge was not predictive of perceived risk (F[1,117] = 0.13, p > .05). Estimated risk and perceived risk were weakly, but significantly, correlated, r(126) = .24, p = .01. HIV-infected adults are at increased risk for CVD. Despite having adequate risk factor knowledge, CVD risk perception was inaccurate. Improving risk perception and developing CVD risk reduction interventions for this population are imperative. PMID:24070645

  13. Risk of HIV infection among male sex workers in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Belza, M; t for

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess HIV prevalence and predictive factors for HIV among male sex workers in Spain. Methods: In this study we analysed all male sex workers who visited HIV testing clinics in 19 Spanish cities between 2000 and 2002. The information was obtained during examination by means of a brief questionnaire. For repeating testers, only the last confirmed result was taken into account. Results: 418 male sex workers were included in the analysis; 58% visited these clinics for the first time and 42% were repeating testers. 67% were of foreign origin, mostly from Latin America (91%). 96% had had sex with men, 18% were transvestites or transsexuals, and 3.3% had used injected drugs. HIV prevalence was 12.2% (95% CI, 9.3 to 15.8%), and rose to 16.9% among first time testers. No differences in HIV prevalence were found between injecting drug users, transvestites/transsexuals, and men from foreign countries. Conclusion: Because of the high risk of HIV infection, male sex workers should be the target of specific preventive activities. Preventive and healthcare strategies that are culturally adapted to migrants are required. PMID:15681730

  14. Alcohol Use, Socioeconomic Status and Risk of HIV Infections.

    PubMed

    Probst, Charlotte; Simbayi, Leickness C; Parry, Charles D H; Shuper, Paul A; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-03-28

    The present study investigated the associations among alcohol use, socioeconomic status (SES), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in the South African context. It was hypothesized that SES (predictor; measured as median split asset score) and alcohol use in the past 12 months (predictor) would interact such that current drinkers of low SES would be at an increased risk of testing HIV-positive (outcome). Nationally representative, cross-sectional survey data from 2005 (N = 16,110), 2008 (N = 13,055), and 2012 (N = 25,979) were analyzed using multinomial regression models. Current drinkers of low SES had an elevated risk of HIV infection in all survey years, ranging from a relative risk ratio (RRR) of 1.94 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-3.00, t = 2.93, p = 0.002) in 2012 to RRR of 3.51 (95% CI 2.02-6.08, t = 4.47, p < 0.001) in 2008. Targeting preventive strategies to alcohol users of low SES could help reduce HIV burden and associated socioeconomic differences.

  15. Alternative HIV testing methods among populations at high risk for HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Greensides, Dawn R.; Berkelman, Ruth; Lansky, Amy; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of awareness and use of alternative HIV tests (home collection kit, oral mucosal transudate collection kit, and rapid tests) among people at high risk for HIV infection. METHODS: Data were collected as part of an anonymous, cross-sectional interview study--the HIV Testing Survey (HITS)--conducted in seven states from September 2000 to February 2001. Three high-risk populations were recruited: men who have sex with men, injection drug users, and high-risk heterosexuals. Respondents were asked about their awareness and use of alternative HIV tests. RESULTS: The overall awareness and use of the alternative tests was limited: 54% of respondents were aware of the home collection kit, 42% were aware of the oral mucosal transudate collection kit test, and 13% were aware of rapid tests. Among those aware of alternative tests, self-reported use of the tests was also low. The most common reasons given for not using alternative HIV tests were: preference for the standard test; concern that the results could be less accurate; and that alternative tests were not offered. CONCLUSIONS: The low levels of awareness and use of alternative HIV tests suggest that the potential for promoting testing among individuals at high risk for HIV by encouraging use of alternative HIV tests has not been fully realized. Alternative tests should be made more broadly available and should be accompanied by education about these tests for physicians and people at risk. Educational efforts should be evaluated to determine if promoting alternative HIV tests increases the numbers of people at risk for HIV who are tested. PMID:14563910

  16. Screening and risk assessment for coronary artery disease in HIV infection: an unmet need.

    PubMed

    Nadel, J; Holloway, C J

    2017-04-01

    HIV infection is now considered a chronic, treatable disease, although treatment is associated with increased rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). Increased risk of CAD in HIV-infected patients has been associated with the inflammatory sequelae of the infection as well as the greater prevalence of cardiac risk factors in HIV-positive populations and the side effects of life-prolonging antiretroviral therapies. Patients with HIV infection now have a 1.5 to 2-fold greater risk of developing CAD compared with noninfected individuals, raising the independent risk of CAD in HIV infection to levels similar to those in diabetes. Despite this increased risk, screening and other adjuvant assessment tools are lacking. In this paper we explore the current climate of CAD in the contemporary HIV-infected population and look at the tools used in the assessment and management of patients as well as the limitations of these approaches for this at-risk population group.

  17. Risk behaviors and vulnerability to HIV infection among Tanzanian youth.

    PubMed

    Kaaya, S F; Leshabari, M T; Mbwambo, J K

    1998-01-01

    Focusing on increased vulnerability to HIV infection, this article examines some of the contexts within which these risk-taking behaviors occur and illustrates that the risk of contracting the disease is just one of the many risks with which Tanzanian youths are confronted. The sexual and substance use behaviors, and the relationship between such behaviors and economic factors, are discussed. Where evidences exist, attempts are made to compare the prevalence of these behaviors among male and female youths, as well as urban and rural youths. The extent to which males and females engage in risk-taking behaviors is unknown; however, studies show that, depending on age and gender, between 17% and 61% of youths are sexually active. Rates in HIV transmission vary by gender and by whether the youths are rural or urban inhabitants. Factors like adverse socioeconomic conditions, unemployment, lack of parental guidance and supervision, and culture all influence sexual risk-taking behaviors among youths. Meanwhile, increasing use of drugs and alcohol among the young population has been closely linked to increased vulnerability to unprotected sexual intercourse. Again, survival needs play a major role in sustaining risk behaviors. The paper concludes by outlining policy implications of youth risk behaviors, taking into account a multisectoral approach in dealing with the problem.

  18. High-Risk Enteric Pathogens Associated with HIV-Infection and HIV-Exposure in Kenyan Children with Acute Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    PAVLINAC, PB; JOHN-STEWART, GC; NAULIKHA, JM; ONCHIRI, FM; DENNO, DM; ODUNDO, EA; SINGA, BO; RICHARDSON, BA; WALSON, JL

    2015-01-01

    Objective HIV-infection is an established risk for diarrheal severity, less is known about specific enteric pathogens associated with HIV status. We determined associations of selected enteric pathogens with HIV-infection and HIV-exposure among Kenyan children. Design Cross-sectional study among 6 months to 15 year olds presenting to two Western Kenya District hospitals with acute diarrhea between 2011–2013. Methods Stool was tested using standard bacterial culture and microscopy for ova and parasites. HIV testing was obtained on children and mothers. Enteric pathogen prevalence was compared between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and between HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for selected pathogens by HIV-status were estimated using relative risk (RR) regression and P-values. Age, site, income, household crowding, water source/treatment, anthropometrics, cotrimoxazole use, and breastfeeding history were accounted for in multivariable models. Results Among 1,076 children, median age was 22 months (interquartile range: 11–42), 56 (5.2%) were HIV-infected, and 10.3%(105/1020) of HIV-uninfected children were HIV-exposed. The following organisms were most frequently isolated from stool: enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (13.3%), Giardia spp. (11.1%) Campylobacter (6.3%), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) (6.1%) and Cryptosporidium spp. (3.7%). Accounting for age, HIV-infection was associated with EPEC infection (PR: 3.70, P=0.002) while HIV-exposure was associated with Cryptosporidium among HIV-uninfected children (PR: 2.81, P=0.005). Conclusion EPEC and Cryptosporidium infections were more common in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children, respectively. This could explain the increased mortality attributed to these pathogens in other studies. Interventions targeting EPEC and Cryptosporidium may reduce morbidity and mortality in high HIV-prevalence settings. PMID:25028987

  19. Reliability of laboratory markers of HIV-1 infection in Argentinian infants at risk of perinatal infection.

    PubMed

    Mangano, A; Pittis, G; Galindez, C; Bologna, R; Sen, L

    1998-09-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of HIV-1 infection in infants born to HIV-1-seropositive mothers is of great importance. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), HIV culture, and p24 antigen detection assays were evaluated for their ability to detect the presence of HIV in 195 infants at risk of perinatal infection. Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for assessing HIV infection status in children younger than 18 months, 70 infants (36%) were diagnosed as HIV-1 infected and 125 (64%) lacked virologic and clinical evidence of infection. PCR and HIV culture were the most sensitive laboratory markers, detecting 100% and 98% of positive samples, respectively, regardless of age at testing. HIV-1 p24 antigen assay was detected in 26 of 38 positive samples but not in negative samples. PCR was performed with three different sets of primers (SK38/SK39-SK19-gag, SK68/SK69-SK70-env, and SK150/SK431-SK102-gag). The sensitivity/specificity of the individual assays were for SK19, 96.1%/94.25%; SK70, 89.6%/100%; and SK102, 100%/100%. A sample was considered HIV-1 positive when two positive PCR results were obtained with two different pairs of primers, and negative if the sample was negative when three sets of primers were used. False-positive results were occasionally obtained with probe SK19 in six seroreverter infants before serologic status was known. This suggested that the infection was caused by nonreplicative strains or were false-positive results probably by nonspecific amplification due to cross-reaction with other microorganisms; contamination was discarded because there was no specific amplification with the other two primers. All the HIV-1-infected infants were correctly identified with PCR; all except one could be identified with coculture and only 68.4% were confirmed with p24 antigen assay. No seroreverter infant was misdiagnosed using the criteria selected.

  20. Women's land ownership and risk of HIV infection in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muchomba, Felix M; Wang, Julia Shu-Huah; Agosta, Laura Maria

    2014-08-01

    Theory predicts that land ownership empowers women to avoid HIV acquisition by reducing their reliance on risky survival sex and enhancing their ability to negotiate safer sex. However, this prediction has not been tested empirically. Using a sample of 5511 women working in the agricultural sector from the 1998, 2003 and 2008-09 Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys, we examined the relationship between women's land ownership and participation in transactional sex, multiple sexual partnerships and unprotected sex, and HIV infection status. We controlled for demographic characteristics and household wealth, using negative binomial and logistic regression models. Women's land ownership was associated with fewer sexual partners in the past year (incidence rate ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-1.00) and lower likelihood of engaging in transactional sex (odds ratio [OR], 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46-0.99), indicators of reduced survival sex, but was not associated with unprotected sex with casual partners (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.35-1.18) or with unprotected sex with any partner among women with high self-perceived HIV risk (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.57-1.84), indicating no difference in safer sex negotiation. Land ownership was also associated with reduced HIV infection among women most likely to engage in survival sex, i.e., women not under the household headship of a husband (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.18-0.89), but not among women living in husband-headed households, for whom increased negotiation for safer sex would be more relevant (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 0.92-3.29). These findings suggest that reinforcing women's land rights may reduce reliance on survival sex and serve as a viable structural approach to HIV prevention, particularly for women not in a husband's household, including unmarried women and female household heads.

  1. Association of COPD with risk for pulmonary infections requiring hospitalization in HIV-infected Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Engi F.; McGinnis, Kathleen A.; Feemster, Laura C.; Akgün, Kathleen M.; Butt, Adeel A.; Graber, Christopher J.; Fine, Michael J.; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Pisani, Margaret A.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Brown, Sheldon T.; Soo Hoo, Guy W.; Rimland, David; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Huang, Laurence; Freiberg, Matthew S.; Hough, Catherine L.; Crothers, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Background Pulmonary infections remain more common in HIV-infected (HIV+) compared to uninfected individuals. The increase in chronic lung diseases among aging HIV+ individuals may contribute to this persistent risk. We sought to determine whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an independent risk factor for different pulmonary infections requiring hospitalization among HIV+ patients. Methods We analyzed data from 41,993 HIV+ Veterans in the nationwide Veterans Aging Cohort Study Virtual Cohort (VACS-VC) from 1996–2009. Using ICD-9 codes, we identified baseline comorbid conditions, including COPD, and incident community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) requiring hospitalization within two years after baseline. We used multivariable Poisson regression to determine incidence rate ratios (IRR) associated with COPD for each type of pulmonary infection, adjusting for comorbidities, CD4+ cell count, HIV viral load, smoking status, substance use, vaccinations and calendar year at baseline. Results Unadjusted incidence rates of CAP, TB and PCP requiring hospitalization were significantly higher among persons with COPD compared to those without COPD (CAP: 53.9 vs. 19.4 per 1,000 person-years; TB: 8.7 vs. 2.8; PCP: 15.5 vs. 9.2; p ≤0.001). In multivariable Poisson regression models, COPD was independently associated with increased risk of CAP, TB and PCP (IRR 1.94, 95% CI 1.64–2.30; IRR 2.60, 95% CI 1.70–3.97; and IRR 1.48, 95% CI 1.10–2.01, respectively). Conclusions COPD is an independent risk factor for CAP, TB and PCP requiring hospitalization among HIV+ individuals. As the HIV+ population ages, the growing burden of COPD may confer substantial risk for pulmonary infections. PMID:26181820

  2. Residual Injection Risk Behavior, HIV Infection, and the Evaluation of Syringe Exchange Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; Braine, Naomi; Yi, Huso; Turner, Charles

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed relationships between residual risk behavior (risk behavior among persons participating in effective HIV prevention programs) and HIV infection. Structured interviews and HIV tests were obtained from participants in six large U.S. syringe exchange programs. Program characteristics were obtained through interviews with the…

  3. Risk Factors for HSV-2 Infection among Sexual Partners of HSV-2/HIV-1 Co-Infected Persons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most frequent cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide and has been associated with increased risk for HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of risk factors for HSV-2 infection among HIV-1 uninfected partners, whose partners were co-infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2. Methods Between November 2004 and April 2007, 3408 HIV-discordant couples, in which the HIV-1 infected partners were HSV-2 seropositive with CD4 250 cells/mm3 or greater, were enrolled in an HSV-2 suppression trial to prevent HIV-1 transmission at 14 sites in 7 African countries. Clinical & behavioral data, HSV-2 and HIV-1 testing were conducted at enrolment. Univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses were performed separately, by gender of the HIV-1 infected partner. Results Among 3354 HIV-1 uninfected participants, 32% were female and overall 71% were HSV-2 seropositive. Among couples with female HIV-1 infected partners, HIV-1 plasma RNA [aPR 1.03; 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.06; p = 0.11] and CD4 count [aPR 1.00; 95% CI: 0.98 to 1.01; p = 0.48] in the HSV-2/HIV-1 dually infected female and circumcision in the HIV-1 uninfected male partner [aPR 0.94; 95% CI: 0.88 to 1.00; p = 0.06] were not associated with reduced risk of HSV-2 seropositivity, after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions In this cross-sectional analysis of African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples with prevalent HSV-2 infection in the HIV-1 infected partner, HIV-1 plasma RNA and CD4 count in the dually-infected partner and male circumcision in the HIV-1 uninfected partner were not associated with HSV-2 concordance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519 PMID:21406077

  4. Changes in at-risk behavior for HIV infection among HIV-positive persons in Italy.

    PubMed

    Camoni, Laura; Regine, Vincenza; Colucci, Anna; Conte, Ivano Dal; Chiriotto, Monica; Vullo, Vincenzo; Sebastiani, Marina; Cordier, Laura; Beretta, Rosangela; Fiore, Josè Ramon; Tateo, Mariagrazia; Affronti, Mario; Cassarà, Giuseppina; Suligoi, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    Many HIV-positive persons reportedly continue to engage in at-risk behavior. We compared the sexual and drug-using practices of HIV-positive persons before and after the diagnosis of HIV infection to determine whether their behavior had changed. To this end, in 2006, we conducted a cross-sectional study involving clinical centers in five Italian cities. Each center was asked to enroll 100 persons aged 18 years or older who had a diagnosis of HIV infection that dated back at least 2 years. Data were collected with a specifically designed questionnaire, administered during a structured interview. The McNemar chi2 test was used to compare the data before and after the diagnosis. A total of 497 persons participated (65.5% males; median age of 40 years; age range, 34-45 years). The most common exposure categories were: heterosexual contact (43.4%), homosexual contact (27.2%), and injecting drug use (20.6%). Although the percentage of drug users significantly decreased after diagnosis, 32.4% of injectors continued to use drugs, and approximately half of them exchanged syringes. Regarding sexual behavior, after diagnosis there was a significant decrease in the number of sexual partners and in stable relationships and an increase in condom use, both for persons with stable partners and those with occasional partners, although the percentage varied according to the specific sexual practice. These results indicate that though at-risk behavior seems to decrease after the diagnosis of HIV infection, seropositive persons continue to engage in at-risk practices, indicating the need for interventions specifically geared toward HIV-positive persons.

  5. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Imlay, Hannah; Kaul, Daniel; Rao, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clostridium difficile infection is a healthcare-associated infection resulting in significant morbidity. Although immunosuppression is associated with Clostridium difficile infection acquisition and adverse outcomes, the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in HIV-infected patients has been little studied in the era of antiretroviral therapy. This study identifies the risk factors for acquisition of Clostridium difficile infection in HIV-infected patients. Methods: A retrospective, propensity score–matched case–control study design was employed, with patients selected from our institution’s outpatient HIV clinic. Clostridium difficile infection cases were defined as having positive stool testing plus an appropriate clinical presentation. The propensity score was generated via multiple logistic regression from year of HIV diagnosis, age at first contact, duration of follow-up, gender, and initial CD4 count. Results: The 46 cases included were matched to a total of 180 controls. Prior antibiotic treatment was a significant predictor of Clostridium difficile infection (odds ratio: 13, 95% confidence interval: 3.49–48.8, p < .001) as was number of hospital admissions in the preceding year (odds ratio: 4.02, confidence interval: 1.81–8.94, p < .001). Having both proton pump inhibitor use and CD4 count <200 cells/µL significantly increased odds of Clostridium difficile infection in the multivariable model (odds ratio: 15.17, confidence interval: 1.31–175.9, p = .021). Conclusion: As in the general population, frequent hospitalizations and exposure to antimicrobials are independent predictors of Clostridium difficile infection acquisition in patients with HIV. Additionally, low CD4 count and proton pump inhibitor use are new potentially modifiable variables that can be targeted for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection in future interventional studies. PMID:28348742

  6. Addressing intravaginal practices in women with HIV and at-risk for HIV infection, a mixed methods pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Alcaide, Maria L; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Fischl, Margaret A; Jones, Deborah L; Weiss, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    Intravaginal practices (IVPs), include intravaginal cleansing (cleansing the inside of the vagina) or intravaginal insertion of products for hygiene, health or sexuality reasons. IVPs are associated with adverse female health outcomes, development of bacterial vaginosis, HIV acquisition and transmission. A mixed methods approach was used in this study to examine the prevalence of IVP, assess reasons for engagement, and perceptions of IVP among a sample of minority (African-American and Hispanic) women infected, or at-risk, for HIV in Miami, USA, a city with increasing numbers of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV. Three focus groups (total n=20) and quantitative assessments (n=72) were conducted with women infected or uninfected with HIV. In the qualitative assessments, most women reported engaging in both intravaginal cleansing and intravaginal insertion, and stated the main motivation for IVP was hygiene. The quantitative assessments confirmed that cleansing with water alone, soap with water or using commercial douches was common, as well as intravaginal insertion using a cloth or a rag in both HIV-infected and uninfected women. Women with HIV infection reported less use of water and water and soap for IVPs, and reported learning about the potential harm of IVP from their HIV health care providers. Despite their health risks, IVP appeared common in both HIV-infected and at-risk minority women, and interventions to decrease IVP could have important health implications among populations with high rates of IVP, STIs and HIV. PMID:28280394

  7. Addressing intravaginal practices in women with HIV and at-risk for HIV infection, a mixed methods pilot study.

    PubMed

    Alcaide, Maria L; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Fischl, Margaret A; Jones, Deborah L; Weiss, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    Intravaginal practices (IVPs), include intravaginal cleansing (cleansing the inside of the vagina) or intravaginal insertion of products for hygiene, health or sexuality reasons. IVPs are associated with adverse female health outcomes, development of bacterial vaginosis, HIV acquisition and transmission. A mixed methods approach was used in this study to examine the prevalence of IVP, assess reasons for engagement, and perceptions of IVP among a sample of minority (African-American and Hispanic) women infected, or at-risk, for HIV in Miami, USA, a city with increasing numbers of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV. Three focus groups (total n=20) and quantitative assessments (n=72) were conducted with women infected or uninfected with HIV. In the qualitative assessments, most women reported engaging in both intravaginal cleansing and intravaginal insertion, and stated the main motivation for IVP was hygiene. The quantitative assessments confirmed that cleansing with water alone, soap with water or using commercial douches was common, as well as intravaginal insertion using a cloth or a rag in both HIV-infected and uninfected women. Women with HIV infection reported less use of water and water and soap for IVPs, and reported learning about the potential harm of IVP from their HIV health care providers. Despite their health risks, IVP appeared common in both HIV-infected and at-risk minority women, and interventions to decrease IVP could have important health implications among populations with high rates of IVP, STIs and HIV.

  8. Risk Factors for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Clark, JL; Konda, KA; Segura, ER; Salvatierra, HJ; Leon, SR; Hall, ER; Caceres, CF; Klausner, JD; Coates, TJ

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), frequency of sexual risk behaviors, and relationship between knowledge of HIV infection status and sexual risk behavior among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending an STI clinic in Peru. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of 559 MSM from a municipal STI clinic in Lima, Peru. Participants completed a survey and provided blood for HIV, Syphilis, and HSV-2 antibody testing, and urine for gonorrhea and chlamydia nucleic acid testing. Results Among 124 HIV-infected MSM, 72.6% were aware of their HIV-infected status. Active syphilis (RPR≥1:8) was diagnosed in 21.0% of HIV-infected participants, HSV-2 in 79.8%, urethral gonorrhea in 1.6%, and chlamydia in 1.6%. Among 41 participants reporting insertive anal intercourse with their last sex partner, 34.2% did not use a condom. Of 86 participants reporting receptive anal intercourse, 25.6% did not use a condom. At least one episode of insertive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with an HIV-uninfected partner during the previous six months was reported by 33.6% (35/104) of participants, and receptive UAI with an HIV-uninfected partner by 44.6% (45/101). No difference in frequency of UAI, with HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected partners, was observed between men who knew their serostatus compared with those who were previously undiagnosed (all p-values >0.05). Conclusions HIV-infected MSM in Peru engaged in high-risk behaviors for spreading HIV and STIs. Knowledge of HIV-infected status was not associated with a decreased frequency of unprotected anal intercourse. Additional efforts to reduce risk behavior after the diagnosis of HIV infection are necessary. PMID:19028945

  9. Occupational HIV risk for health care workers: risk factor and the risk of infection in the course of professional activities

    PubMed Central

    Wyżgowski, Przemysław; Rosiek, Anna; Grzela, Tomasz; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Virtually created panic among health care workers about pandemic acquired immune deficiency syndrome prompted us to review the scientific literature to investigate the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in the daily works of health care workers, especially surgeons and anesthesiologists. In this review, we report worldwide valuations of the number of HIV infections that may occur from unsafe daily work in health care. We also present how to minimize the risk of infection by taking precautions and how to utilize postexposure prophylaxis in accordance with the latest reports of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV-infected patients will be aging, and most of them will become the candidates for procedures such as major vascular reconstruction and artery bypass grafting, where the risks of blood contact and staff injury are high. For these reasons, all health care workers need to know how to prevent, and fight following the accidental exposure to HIV. PMID:27366077

  10. HIV Prevalence and Risks Associated with HIV Infection among Transgender Individuals in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Ngak, Song; Srean, Chhim; Sansothy, Neth; Mills, Stephen; Ferradini, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    = 3.25 [1.35,7.85]) were independently associated with HIV infection. Conclusions This study confirms transgender individuals as one of the highest-risk groups for HIV infection in Cambodia. It suggests the need for programmatic strategies that mitigate identified associated risks and facilitate access to HIV care for this population. PMID:27070152

  11. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

  12. Sentinel surveillance for HIV-2 infection in high-risk US populations.

    PubMed Central

    Onorato, I M; O'Brien, T R; Schable, C A; Spruill, C; Holmberg, S D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. We conducted sentinel surveillance in persons practicing behaviors known to transmit retroviruses to determine the US presence and extent of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2). METHODS. Sentinel surveillance for HIV-2 was conducted by testing 31,533 anonymous blood specimens from patients at sexually transmitted disease clinics, injecting drug users at treatment centers, and clients at HIV counseling and testing sites in 14 US cities where West African immigrants often settle. Specimens were tested by HIV-1 and HIV-2 whole virus and synthetic peptide enzyme immunoassay and confirmed by HIV-1 and HIV-2 Western blots. RESULTS. Nearly 10% of 31,533 sera were positive for HIV-1. Two heterosexual Black male sexually transmitted disease patients were infected with HIV-2. One of the HIV-2 positive specimens did not cross-react on HIV-1 enzyme immunoassay screening. One client had antibodies consistent with malarial infection in West Africa; the other, who had syphilis, did not have antibodies to malaria or to any of 20 arboviruses present in Africa. CONCLUSIONS. Clinics serving clients from HIV-2 endemic areas should test persons practicing risk behaviors for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. Sentinel surveillance for HIV-2 serves as an early warning system for the possible spread of this virus in the United States. PMID:8460726

  13. Microbiome in HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Salas, January T.; Chang, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    HIV primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes including bacteria, virus and fungi and their association with diseases. HIV/SIV infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. Similarly, altered microbiome and inflammation are associated with increased risks of HIV acquisition, suggesting the role of microbiome in HIV transmission. In this review, we will focus on microbiome in HIV infection at various mucosal compartments. Understanding the relationship between microbiome and HIV may offer insights into development of better strategies for HIV prevention and treatment. PMID:25439273

  14. Adolescents' perceived risk for STDs and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Ellen, J M; Boyer, C B; Tschann, J M; Shafer, M A

    1996-03-01

    In 1991, 881 urban US high school students participated in a survey designed to determine their perceptions of risk for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and to test whether results of a previously reported clinic-based study on perceptions of risk are generalizable. Of the students, 278 had engaged in sexual intercourse, and 231 of these returned questionnaires with usable answers to each question. The analysis was based on this latter cohort. The mean age of this group was 15.5 years. 53% were male, 34% Black, 27% Hispanic, 14% Asian, 9% White, and 16% other. The perceived relative risks for STDs and HIV (dependent measures) were submitted to separate analysis using the 5-point Likert scales. Independent measures included demographic variables, STD and HIV anxiety, condom use, number of partners, and STD and HIV beliefs. It was found that 24% never used a condom and 43% always used condoms. The subjects showed no optimistic bias in their perceptions of the relative risk of STDs or HIV (they believed their risks to be the same as those of other people their age). The only variance found was that the White subjects believed themselves at less relative risk than the other subjects. These findings contrast those of the clinic-based study and suggest that perceptions of risk may vary among different cohorts. Higher levels of anxiety were also found to be associated with higher levels of perceived risk whereas other factors were not. A possible limitation of this study was that the group to which the study population was asked to compare itself was not clearly defined. However, this study indicates that sexually active adolescents are well aware of their STD and HIV risks and that their decision to engage in risky behavior may be due to factors other than a heightened sense of invulnerability (such as perception of social norms or alcohol use).

  15. Human papillomavirus infection in oral fluids of HIV-1-positive men:prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Gaester, Karen; Fonseca, Luiz A. M.; Luiz, Olinda; Assone, Tatiane; Fontes, Adriele Souza; Costa, Fernando; Duarte, Alberto J. S.; Casseb, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. The natural history of oral HPV infection is unclear, and its risk factors have not been explored. Immunocompromised individuals, as exemplified by HIV patients, are at high risk for HPV-related diseases. The mean of this study is to determine the prevalence ofHPV in the oral tract of HIV-1-positive male subjects and its association with risk factors. A total of 283 oral wash samples from HIV-1-positive men were tested. The oral fluid samples were used for DNA extraction and conventional PCR amplification; HPV genotyping was performed by hybridization. HPV genotyping revealed that nine samples (3.5%) were positive for HPV DNA; the major high-risk HPV types identified were 51 and 66. Worldwide studies have shown a variable prevalence of oral HPV. The diversity of genotypes and the high prevalence of multiple infections in HIV-infected subjects can be better explained by the effects of HIV-induced immunosuppression. The most important risk factors are unprotected sexual intercourse, but other factors for this infection have been described elsewhere including smoking, age and HIV-positive serostatus. In this study, smoking was the most important risk factor for acquiring oral HPV in HIV-1-infected subjects in Brazil. PMID:25322857

  16. Coronary artery disease risk reduction in HIV-infected persons: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Okeke, Nwora Lance; Chin, Tammy; Clement, Meredith; Chow, Shein-Chung; Hicks, Charles B

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), few data are available on primary prevention of CAD in this population. In this retrospective cohort study, HIV-infected patients treated in an academic medical center HIV Specialty Clinic between 1996 and 2010 were matched by age, gender, and ethnicity to a cohort of presumed uninfected persons followed in an academic medical center Internal Medicine primary care clinic. We compared CAD primary prevention care practices between the two clinics, including use of aspirin, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors ("statins"), and anti-hypertensive drugs. CAD risk between the two groups was assessed with 10-year Framingham CAD risk scores. In the comparative analysis, 890 HIV-infected persons were compared to 807 controls. Ten-year Framingham CAD Risk Scores were similar in the two groups (median, 3; interquartile range [IQR], 0-5). After adjusting for relevant risk factors, HIV-infected persons were less likely to be prescribed aspirin (odds ratio [OR] 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40-0.71), statins (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.53-0.92), and anti-hypertensive drugs (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.50-0.79) than persons in the control group. In summary, when compared to demographically similar uninfected persons, HIV-infected persons treated in an HIV specialty clinic were less likely to be prescribed medications appropriate for CAD risk reduction. Improving primary preventative CAD care in HIV specialty clinic populations is an important step toward diminishing risk of heart disease in HIV-infected persons.

  17. Understanding of the risk of HIV infection among the elderly in Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lekalakala-Mokgele, Eucebious

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The literature pertaining to the elderly shows that HIV infection among this population is on the increase, suggesting that the elderly population engages in activities risky for HIV infection. Reports on such behaviour include frequent sexual relations with much younger people and having multiple partners. A study was carried out in Ga-Rankuwa, a black township in Gauteng Province, South Africa to explore and describe the understanding of these elderly people regarding their risks of HIV infection and AIDS. Using a qualitative, exploratory design, three focus-group interviews were conducted with 32 women aged over 50 years. Findings revealed that older persons have knowledge about transmission of HIV infection and AIDS. However, a few had misconceptions as to how HIV infection is transmitted, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities play a role. Knowledge of mechanisms of protecting themselves against infection, such as use of a condom during coitus and wearing gloves when caring for infected family members, was also evident. The elderly indicated that they would prefer an older person, who they could identify with, to educate them more about HIV infection and AIDS. Although majority of participants had knowledge of how HIV is transmitted, and issues that put them at risk of transmission, a few the older persons had misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted due to lack of knowledge, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities can transmit infection. The lack of knowledge underscores the importance of addressing sexual risk with older people. It was very clear that more needs to be done in terms of education campaigns to dispel the myths of HIV infection and to empower the elderly. PMID:24957136

  18. Understanding of the risk of HIV infection among the elderly in Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lekalakala-Mokgele, Eucebious

    2014-01-01

    The literature pertaining to the elderly shows that HIV infection among this population is on the increase, suggesting that the elderly population engages in activities risky for HIV infection. Reports on such behaviour include frequent sexual relations with much younger people and having multiple partners. A study was carried out in Ga-Rankuwa, a black township in Gauteng Province, South Africa to explore and describe the understanding of these elderly people regarding their risks of HIV infection and AIDS. Using a qualitative, exploratory design, three focus-group interviews were conducted with 32 women aged over 50 years. Findings revealed that older persons have knowledge about transmission of HIV infection and AIDS. However, a few had misconceptions as to how HIV infection is transmitted, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities play a role. Knowledge of mechanisms of protecting themselves against infection, such as use of a condom during coitus and wearing gloves when caring for infected family members, was also evident. The elderly indicated that they would prefer an older person, who they could identify with, to educate them more about HIV infection and AIDS. Although majority of participants had knowledge of how HIV is transmitted, and issues that put them at risk of transmission, a few the older persons had misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted due to lack of knowledge, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities can transmit infection. The lack of knowledge underscores the importance of addressing sexual risk with older people. It was very clear that more needs to be done in terms of education campaigns to dispel the myths of HIV infection and to empower the elderly.

  19. Social and behavioural risk factors for HIV infection among the wives of labour migrants in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Subash; Bista, Nirmala; Timilsina, Suraj; Buntinx, Frank; Mathei, Catharina

    2014-10-01

    Summary Labour migration has increased the risk of HIV infection among the wives of labour migrants in Nepal. We conducted a matched case-control study to identify the social and behavioural factors for HIV infection among the wives of labour migrants in Nepal. We interviewed 112 wives of labour migrants diagnosed with HIV (cases) and 112 wives of labour migrants testing negative for HIV (controls) and used logistic regression analysis to assess independent factors associated with HIV infection. Literacy status was the only one woman-related social factor associated with HIV infection. Meanwhile literacy status, age when going abroad for the first time and country of migration were the husband-related social factors and alcohol consumption, living alone abroad and having an unpaid partner abroad were the husband-related behavioural factors associated with HIV infection in the wives. Given the husband-related social and behavioural factors are mostly determining the risk of HIV infection in the wives in our study, prevention efforts must incorporate behaviour change approaches targeting specifically to labour migrants and also to their wives.

  20. Comprehensively Assessing Cognitive and Behavioral Risks for HIV Infection among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; O'Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of HIV/AIDS with middle-aged and older adults should include six domains (e.g., factual knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of HIV, traditionally-accepted behavioral risks for HIV infection). A sample of 23 women (54.8%) and 19 men (45.2%), ranging in age from 51 to 85 were surveyed across such domains.…

  1. Deferral of blood donors with risk factors for HIV infection saves lives and money in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    McFarland, W; Kahn, J G; Katzenstein, D A; Mvere, D; Shamu, R

    1995-06-01

    We compared the cost-effectiveness of three strategies to avert transfusion-associated HIV infection in Zimbabwe: HIV antibody testing, deferral of donors with HIV risk factors, and deferral of donors with risk factors followed by antibody testing ("Defer/Test"). The Defer/Test strategy averted the most HIV infections. Compared with antibody testing alone, the Defer/Test strategy, using history of genital ulcer or any sexually transmitted disease as a criterion for deferral, resulted in net savings. The cost per HIV-infected unit averted using history of paying for sex or having had multiple sex partners was $ 127 and $ 773, respectively. We discern four benefits of risk factor-based deferral before antibody testing. First, deferring donors at risk lessens collection of blood in the window period. Second, deferring donors likely to be HIV positive minimizes the number of units discarded. Third, ascertainment of donor risk provides an opportunity for AIDS education and prevention. Fourth, the number of false negatives is lower with a lower HIV prevalence among accepted donors. The Defer/Test strategy is cost-effective in Zimbabwe because additional recruitment costs are offset by discarding fewer HIV-positive units. We predict the Defer/Test strategy will be cost-effective in other sub-Saharan African donor populations.

  2. Bullous impetigo in homosexual men--a risk marker for HIV-1 infection?

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, B; Rohrsheim, R; Bassett, I; Mulhall, B P

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the incidence of bullous impetigo in a group of homosexual men at high risk of HIV-1 infection. DESIGN--A longitudinal descriptive study (1984-9). SETTING--A private primary care and STD clinic in Sydney, Australia. SUBJECTS--88 homosexual men documented to seroconvert to HIV-1, and 37 homosexual controls who had practised unprotected anal intercourse with another man known to be HIV-1 positive but who remained HIV-1 negative. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Incidence of bullous impetigo. RESULTS--The crude annual incidence of bullous impetigo was 0.015 in subjects while they remained HIV-1 negative (10 cases) and 0.045 in early HIV-1 positive subjects (2 cases). Overall, 9% of the HIV-1 seroconverters and 9% of the HIV-1 negative controls were documented as suffering bullous impetigo over a mean of 29.2 and 39.3 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS--Bullous impetigo in an adult could prove to be a clinical indication that a person is either infected with HIV-1 or is in close (possibly sexual) contact with a person with HIV-1 infection. If true, the recognition of bullous impetigo could provide an opportunity for behavioural intervention to limit the spread of HIV-1. Images PMID:1607190

  3. Toxoplasma gondii antibody profile in HIV-infected pregnant women and the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Lago, E G; Conrado, G S; Piccoli, C S; Carvalho, R L; Bender, A L

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women and to determine the association between serological profile and the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. The study, conducted in a public maternity ward from May 2002 to April 2005, included all HIV-infected women who delivered live infants during the 36 months, and, as a control group, all HIV-negative women that delivered live infants in the first 12 months of the study. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 1,624 of 2,421 HIV-negative women (67%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 65-69%) and in 121 of 168 HIV-infected patients (72%; 95% CI 65-79%). A total of 547 HIV-negative and 103 HIV-infected patients were tested at delivery and had positive T. gondii-specific IgG. In HIV-negative women, the median of the specific IgG concentration was 79 (interquartile range 38-160), and in HIV-infected patients, it was 283 (interquartile range 94-704) (P < 0.001). In the group of co-infected women, the only infant with congenital toxoplasmosis was born to a mother with acute toxoplasmosis infection acquired during pregnancy who did not have a high specific IgG concentration or a positive result for specific IgM. We concluded that high T. gondii-specific IgG values were much more frequent among HIV-infected pregnant women, but it did not translate into an increased risk of maternal-fetal transmission of toxoplasmosis.

  4. HIV infection and risk behaviors among male port workers in Santos, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Larcerda, R; Stall, R; Gravato, N; Tellini, R; Hudes, E S; Hearst, N

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This paper measured the extent to which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has spread among the male working-class population of Santos, Brazil. METHODS. Questionnaires on risk behaviors and blood tests were administered to a random sample (n = 395) of male port workers employed by the Santos Port Authority. RESULTS. Although the rate of HIV infection among these men- the working-class male population of Santos-remains low (1.1%), self-reported behavioral risks for HIV infection are common. CONCLUSIONS. There is still time to prevent a widespread outbreak of HIV infection among the hetero-sexual population of Santos and of the transportation corridors emanating from that city. PMID:8712280

  5. Prevalence of and risk factors for HIV infection in blood donors and various population subgroups in Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Sentjens, R. E. J. H.; Sisay, Y.; Vrielink, H.; Kebede, D.; Adèr, H. J.; Leckie, G.; Reesink, H. W.

    2002-01-01

    The aim was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection and risk factors for HIV infection in various population subgroups in Ethiopia. Serum panels from blood donors (n = 2610), from various population subgroups in Ethiopia were tested for anti-HIV-1/2 by ELISA. All ELISA repeatedly reactive samples were subjected for confirmation by immunoblot (IB) and anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2 specific ELISAs. 155/2610 (5.9%) blood donors were HIV-1 infected. Of pregnant women, 84/797 (10.5%) were HIV-1 infected, and 1/797 (0.1%) was HIV-2 infected. 1/240 (0.4%) individuals from the rural population were HIV-1 infected. 198/480 (41.3%) female attendees, and 106/419 (25.3%) male attendees at sexual transmitted disease (STD) clinics were HIV-1 infected. One (0.2%) male, and 2 (0.4%) female STD patients were infected with both HIV-1 and HIV-2. It was concluded that the prevalence of HIV-1 infection varied from 0.4% among urban residents to 25.3-41.3% among STD attendees. There is a low prevalence of HIV-2 present in Ethiopian subjects. Risky sexual behaviour is significantly associated with HIV-infection in Ethiopia. PMID:12002540

  6. HTLV-I infection is not associated with a higher risk of death in Peruvian HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Collins, Jaime A; Hernández, Adrián V; Hidalgo, José A; Salazar, Raúl

    2009-01-01

    Limited and contradictory information exists regarding the prognosis of HIV/HTLV-I co-infection. Our goal was to estimate the effect of HTLV-I infection on mortality in HIV-infected patients at a HIV reference center in Peru. We studied a retrospective cohort of HIV-infected patients, who were exposed or unexposed to HTLV-I. Exposed patients were Western Blot (WB) positive for both retroviruses. Unexposed patients were WB positive for HIV, and had least one negative EIA for HTLV-I. These were selected among patients who entered our Program immediately before and after each exposed patient, between January 1990 and June 2004. Survival time was considered between the diagnosis of exposure to HTLV-I and death or censoring. Confounding variables were age, gender, baseline HIV clinical stage, baseline CD4+ T cell count, and antiretroviral therapy. We studied 50 exposed, and 100 unexposed patients. Exposed patients had a shorter survival compared to unexposed patients [median survival: 47 months (95% CI: 17-77) vs. 85 months (95% CI: 70-100), unadjusted p = 0.06]. Exposed patients had a higher rate of mortality compared to unexposed patients (HIV/HTLV-I (24/50 [48%]) vs. HIV only (37/100 [37%]), univariable p = 0.2]. HTLV-I exposure was not associated to a higher risk of death in the adjusted analysis: HR: 1.2 (0.4-3.5). AIDS clinical stage and lack of antiretroviral therapy were associated to a higher risk of dying. In conclusions, HTLV-I infection was not associated with a higher risk of death in Peruvian HIV-infected patients. Advanced HIV infection and lack of antiretroviral therapy may explain the excess of mortality in this population.

  7. The disproportionate high risk of HIV infection among the urban poor in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Magadi, Monica A

    2013-06-01

    The link between HIV infection and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is rather complex and findings from previous studies remain inconsistent. While some argue that poverty increases vulnerability, existing empirical evidence largely support the view that wealthier men and women have higher prevalence of HIV. In this paper, we examine the association between HIV infection and urban poverty in SSA, paying particular attention to differences in risk factors of HIV infection between the urban poor and non-poor. The study is based on secondary analysis of data from the Demographic and Health Surveys from 20 countries in SSA, conducted during 2003-2008. We apply multilevel logistic regression models, allowing the urban poverty risk factor to vary across countries to establish the extent to which the observed patterns are generalizable across countries in the SSA region. The results reveal that the urban poor in SSA have significantly higher odds of HIV infection than their urban non-poor counterparts, despite poverty being associated with a significantly lower risk among rural residents. Furthermore, the gender disparity in HIV infection (i.e. the disproportionate higher risk among women) is amplified among the urban poor. The paper confirms that the public health consequence of urban poverty that has been well documented in previous studies with respect to maternal and child health outcomes does apply to the risk of HIV infection. The positive association between household wealth and HIV prevalence observed in previous studies largely reflects the situation in the rural areas where the majority of the SSA populations reside.

  8. Distribution of new HIV infections among key risk population groups in Togo

    PubMed Central

    Landoh, Dadja Essoya; Maboudou, Angèle Akouavi; Deku, Kodzo; Pitche, Palokinam Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Good data on the epidemiology of modes of transmission of HIV among population at risk are important for development of prevention strategies, and resource allocation for the implementation of the interventions. We sought to estimate new HIV infections among key risk groups in Togo. Methods We conducted a systematic review of epidemiological data on HIV and AIDS as part of the HIV control strategies in Togo from 2001 to 2012 following the PRISMA guidelines. We used the Mode of Transmission (MoT) modelling tool to estimate the incidence of new HIV infections in high risk groups. The MoT tool was developed and validated by UNAIDS and implemented by several countries using data on the HIV epidemic to estimate new HIV infections that will appear in the core groups. We used Epi-MoT tool to assess the availability and the quality of data. A score of availability of data over 50% and the quality over 1.5 were required to proceed to the MoT analysis. Uncertainty analysis to assess the reliability of the results was performed. Results Incidence of new HIV infections was estimated at 6,643 (95% CI = 5274, 9005) with an incidence rate of 203 per 1,000,000 inhabitants. The proportion of new HIV infections was 61.9% (95% CI = 46.2 to 71.7) in stable heterosexual couples compare to 14.01% (95% CI = 7.2 to 23.3) in people having casual sex. In high-risk groups new HIV infections accounted for 2.4% among sex workers (SWs) (95% CI = 1.2 - 4.1), 7.9% among clients of SWs (95% CI = 3.9-14.1) and 6.9% among men who have sex with men (MSM) (95% CI = 3.1 to 13.1). Conclusion We describe the prediction of the HIV epidemic with a large contribution of stable heterosexual couples in the occurrence of new infections. But HIV incidence remains high in key risk populations. Innovative strategies for risk reduction should be strengthened to reduce the transmission especially in stable heterosexual couples. PMID:25922630

  9. Profiles of Risk Among HIV-infected Youth in Clinic Settings

    PubMed Central

    Huszti, Heather C.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Kahana, Shoshana; Nichols, Sharon; Gonin, René; Xu, Jiahong; Kapogiannis, Bill G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rising number of new HIV infections among youth, few tailored interventions for youth living with HIV (YLH) have been developed and rigorously tested. Developing tailored interventions necessitates identifying different profiles of YLH and understanding how risk and protective factors cluster together. Obtaining this critical information requires accessing a sufficiently large sample of YLH from diverse geographic settings such as those available through the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV Interventions (ATN). We recruited a cross-sectional sample of 1,712 YLH from ATN clinics; participants completed a survey on psychosocial and health factors. Using latent class analysis on nine composite variables representing risk factors, we identified five classes distinguished by substance use, sexual behavior, and pregnancy history and differing on health outcomes. Findings suggest a need for tailored interventions addressing multiple risky behaviors of HIV-infected youth and research to clarify how intervention effectiveness may differ by risk profile. PMID:25117556

  10. Conversation about Serostatus decreases risk of acquiring HIV: results from a case control study comparing MSM with recent HIV infection and HIV negative controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and practices (KABP) of persons with recent HIV infection compared to controls with negative HIV test result provide information on current risk patterns and can help to re-focus HIV prevention strategies. Methods From March 2008 through May 2010, persons newly diagnosed with HIV (cases) and HIV-negative controls were recruited by physicians in Germany. To distinguish recent (< 5 months) from longstanding (> 5 months) infection, dried blood spots from people newly diagnosed with HIV were tested with the BED IgG-capture ELISA. Cases and controls completed a KABP-questionnaire. We compared cases with recent infection and controls among men having sex with men (MSM) regarding reported risk behaviour in the previous 6 months. To detect differences, unadjusted Odds Ratios (OR) were calculated and multivariate analysis was performed. Results Cases and controls did not differ in terms of knowledge on transmission risks, HIV testing frequency, partnership status, or regarding the frequency of any unprotected sex with partners known to be HIV-positive or assumed to be HIV-negative. Cases more often reported a shorter duration of partnership (< 6 months) with a primary partner than controls (OR = 3.9; p = 0.003) and indicated lower rates of condom use outside of primary relationships, with acquaintances (OR = 2.5; p = 0.01), and with persons met online (OR = 4.5; p = 0.04). Unprotected sex with persons of unknown HIV-serostatus was more often indicated by cases than controls (OR = 3.0; p = 0.003). Having a conversation about HIV serostatus before having sex was associated with a lower risk of infection (OR = 0.2; p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis “being always safe” (always using a condom when having sex in different situations outside of a relationship) and talking about serostatus before sex (OR = 0.23; p = 0.004; OR = 0.14; p = 0.014) were negatively

  11. Individual and contextual factors of sexual risk behavior in youth perinatally infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Elkington, Katherine S; Bauermeister, José A; Robbins, Reuben N; Gromadzka, Olga; Abrams, Elaine J; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mellins, Claude A

    2012-07-01

    This study prospectively examines the effects of maternal and child HIV infection on youth penetrative and unprotected penetrative sex, as well as the role of internal contextual, external contextual, social and self-regulatory factors in influencing the sexual behaviors of HIV-infected (PHIV+), HIV-affected (uninfected with an HIV+ caregiver), and HIV unaffected (uninfected with an HIV- caregiver) youth over time. Data (N=420) were drawn from two longitudinal studies focused on the effects of pediatric or maternal HIV on youth (51% female; 39% PHIV+) and their caregivers (92% female; 46% HIV+). PHIV+ youth were significantly less likely to engage in penetrative sex than HIV- youth at follow-up, after adjusting for contextual, social, and self-regulatory factors. Other individual- and contextual-level factors such as youth alcohol and marijuana use, residing with a biological parent, caregiver employment, caregiver marijuana use, and youth self-concept were also associated with penetrative sex. Youth who used alcohol were significantly more likely to engage in unprotected penetrative sex. Data suggest that, despite contextual, social, and self-regulatory risk factors, PHIV+ youth are less likely to engage in sexual behavior compared to HIV- youth from similar environments. Further research is required to understand delays in sexual activity in PHIV+ youth and also to understand potential factors that promote resiliency, particularly as they age into older adolescence and young adulthood.

  12. HIV infection Heightens Concurrent Risk of Functional Dependence in Persons With Chronic Methamphetamine Use

    PubMed Central

    Blackstone, K.; Iudicello, J. E.; Morgan, E. E.; Weber, E.; Moore, D. J.; Franklin, D. R.; Ellis, R. J.; Grant, I.; Woods, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The causes of disability among chronic methamphetamine (MA) users are multifactorial. The current study examined the additive adverse impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, a common comorbidity in MA users, on functional dependence. Methods A large cohort of participants (N=798) stratified by lifetime MA dependence diagnoses (i.e., MA+ or MA−) and HIV serostatus (i.e., HIV+ or HIV−) underwent comprehensive baseline neuromedical, neuropsychiatric, and functional research evaluations, including assessment of neurocognitive symptoms in daily life, instrumental and basic activities of daily living, and employment status. Results Independent, additive effects of MA and HIV were observed across all measures of functional dependence, independent of other demographic, psychiatric, and substance use factors. The prevalence of global functional dependence increased in the expected stepwise fashion across the cohort, with the lowest rates in the MA−/HIV− group (29%) and the highest rates in the MA+/HIV+ sample (69%). The impact of HIV on MA-associated functional dependence was moderated by nadir CD4 count, such that MA use was associated with greater disability among those HIV-infected persons with higher, but not lower nadir CD4. Within the MA+/HIV+ cohort, functional dependence was reliably associated with neurocognitive impairment, lower cognitive reserve, polysubstance use, and major depressive disorder. Conclusions HIV infection confers an increased concurrent risk of MA-associated disability, particularly among HIV-infected persons without histories of immune compromise. Directed referrals, earlier HIV treatment, and compensatory strategies aimed at counteracting the effects of low cognitive reserve, neurocognitive impairment, and psychiatric comorbidities on functional dependence in MA+/HIV+ individuals may be warranted. PMID:23648641

  13. How Does Sex Trafficking Increase the Risk of HIV Infection? An Observational Study From Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Kathleen E.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Silverman, Jay G.; Murray, Megan B.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have documented the substantial risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection endured by sex-trafficked women, but it remains unclear how exposure to trafficking puts its victims at risk. We assessed whether the association between sex trafficking and HIV could be explained by self-reported forced prostitution or young age at entry into prostitution using cross-sectional data collected from 1,814 adult female sex workers in Karnataka, India, between August 2005 and August 2006. Marginal structural logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for HIV infection. Overall, 372 (21%) women met 1 or both criteria used to define sex trafficking: 278 (16%) began sex work before age 18 years, and 107 (5%) reported being forcibly prostituted. Thirteen (0.7%) met both criteria. Forcibly prostituted women were more likely to be HIV-infected than were women who joined the industry voluntarily, independent of age at entering prostitution (odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.90). Conversely, after adjustment for forced prostitution and other confounders, no association between age at entry into prostitution and HIV was observed. The association between forced prostitution and HIV infection became stronger in the presence of sexual violence (odds ratio = 11.13, 95% confidence interval: 2.41, 51.40). These findings indicate that forced prostitution coupled with sexual violence probably explains the association between sex trafficking and HIV. PMID:23324332

  14. How does sex trafficking increase the risk of HIV Infection? An observational study from Southern India.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Silverman, Jay G; Murray, Megan B

    2013-02-01

    Studies have documented the substantial risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection endured by sex-trafficked women, but it remains unclear how exposure to trafficking puts its victims at risk. We assessed whether the association between sex trafficking and HIV could be explained by self-reported forced prostitution or young age at entry into prostitution using cross-sectional data collected from 1,814 adult female sex workers in Karnataka, India, between August 2005 and August 2006. Marginal structural logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for HIV infection. Overall, 372 (21%) women met 1 or both criteria used to define sex trafficking: 278 (16%) began sex work before age 18 years, and 107 (5%) reported being forcibly prostituted. Thirteen (0.7%) met both criteria. Forcibly prostituted women were more likely to be HIV-infected than were women who joined the industry voluntarily, independent of age at entering prostitution (odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.90). Conversely, after adjustment for forced prostitution and other confounders, no association between age at entry into prostitution and HIV was observed. The association between forced prostitution and HIV infection became stronger in the presence of sexual violence (odds ratio = 11.13, 95% confidence interval: 2.41, 51.40). These findings indicate that forced prostitution coupled with sexual violence probably explains the association between sex trafficking and HIV.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies in European HIV infected women

    PubMed Central

    van Benthem, B H B; Spaargaren, J; van den Hoek, J A R; Merks, J; Coutinho, R; Prins, M

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies in HIV infected women and the association between recurrent genital ulcerations and HIV disease progression in HSV-2 positive women. Methods: The presence of HSV antibodies was tested in 276 of the 487 women participating in a European cohort study of HIV infected women. Prevalence rate ratios described the association between HSV infection and its risk factors, using log binomial regression. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) analysis was performed to determine the impact of markers of HIV disease progression on recurrent genital ulcerations. Results: The prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies was 76% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 71–81) and 42% (95% CI: 36–50); 30% (95% CI: 24–35) of the women had antibodies against both HSV-1 and HSV-2. The prevalence of HSV-1 was 86% (95% CI: 80–92) in southern Europe compared with 69% (95% CI: 57–79) and 67% (95% CI: 55–77) in central and northern Europe (p=0.002). This geographical variation remained after adjustment for other risk factors. An increasing number of years of sexual activity (p=0.0002) and a history of prostitution (p=0.0001) were independently associated with HSV-2 prevalence. In HSV-2 positive women, symptomatic cases of HSV infection were minimal, but increased with decreasing CD4 count. Conclusion: In HIV infected women, the prevalence of HSV antibodies is high and symptomatic cases of HSV infection are minimal, but increase with decreasing CD4 count. HSV-2 but not HSV-1 was related to sexual behaviour (that is, a history of prostitution and the number of sexually active years) in this group of HIV infected women. Key Words: herpes simplex viruses; genital ulcerations; HIV infection; women; Europe PMID:11287691

  16. Marriage as a risk factor for HIV: learning from the experiences of HIV-infected women in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Wendland, Claire; Stevens, Patricia E; Kako, Peninnah M; Dressel, Anne; Kibicho, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The gender inequalities that characterise intimate partner relationships in Malawi, a country with one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world, arguably place marriage as an important risk factor for HIV infection among women, yet few studies detail the complex interactions of marriage and risk. In order to develop HIV-prevention interventions that have lasting impacts in such communities, we need a deeper understanding of the intricacies of women's lives, how and why they are involved in marital relationships, and the implications of these relationships for HIV transmission or prevention. This article describes how women understand marriage's effects on their lives and their HIV risks. Drawing from focus group discussions with 72 women attending antiretroviral clinics in Malawi, we explore why women enter marriage, what women's experiences are within marriage and how they leave spouses for other relationships. Based on their narratives, we describe women's lives after separation, abandonment or widowhood, and report their reflections on marriage after being married two or three times. We then review women's narratives in light of published work on HIV, and provide recommendations that would minimise the risks of HIV attendant on marriage.

  17. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Businge, Charles Bitamazire; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Mathews, Verona

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol. PMID:26800877

  18. Associations of sex trafficking history with recent sexual risk among HIV-infected FSWs in India.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jay G; Saggurti, Niranjan; Cheng, Debbie M; Decker, Michele R; Coleman, Sharon M; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Dasgupta, Anindita; Samet, Jeffrey H; Raj, Anita

    2014-03-01

    History of forced or coerced sex work entry and/or sex work entry prior to age 18 (i.e., sex trafficking) relate to early HIV risk; whether such risk persists is unclear. The current study assessed associations of reported sex trafficking histories and recent sexual risk among adult HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs; n = 211) in Mumbai, India. Approximately one-half reported entering sex work prior to age 18 (50.2 %) or being forced or coerced into sex work (41.7 %). Past 90-day unprotected transactional sex was more prevalent among FSWs entering as minors than those entering as adults (AOR 2.06); in contrast, being forced or coerced into sex work related to reduction in such risk for HIV transmission (AOR 0.45). Histories of each form of sex trafficking may relate differently to later HIV risk. Intervention with HIV-infected FSWs entering sex work as minors should be prioritized based on potential elevated risk of HIV transmission.

  19. The timing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization relative to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis and the risk of HBV infection following HIV diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Michael L; Hullsiek, Katherine Huppler; Chun, Helen M; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Ganesan, Anuradha; Weintrob, Amy C; Barthel, R Vincent; O'Connell, Robert J; Agan, Brian K

    2011-01-01

    To assess associations between the timing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization relative to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis and vaccine effectiveness, US Military HIV Natural History Study cohort participants without HBV infection at the time of HIV diagnosis were grouped by vaccination status, retrospectively followed from HIV diagnosis for incident HBV infection, and compared using Cox proportional hazards models. A positive vaccine response was defined as hepatitis B surface antibody level ≥ 10 IU/L. Of 1,877 participants enrolled between 1989 and 2008, 441 (23%) were vaccinated prior to HIV diagnosis. Eighty percent of those who received vaccine doses only before HIV diagnosis had a positive vaccine response, compared with 66% of those who received doses both before and after HIV and 41% of those who received doses only after HIV (P < 0.01 for both compared with persons vaccinated before HIV only). Compared with the unvaccinated, persons vaccinated only before HIV had reduced risk of HBV infection after HIV diagnosis (hazard ratio = 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.20, 0.75). No reduction in HBV infection risk was observed for other vaccination groups. These data suggest that completion of the vaccine series prior to HIV infection may be the optimal strategy for preventing this significant comorbid infection in HIV-infected persons.

  20. Risk of Hip Fracture Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Hepatitis C/HIV Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Re, Vincent Lo; Volk, Jessica; Newcomb, Craig W.; Yang, Yu-Xiao; Freeman, Cristin P.; Hennessy, Sean; Kostman, Jay R.; Tebas, Pablo; Leonard, Mary B.; Localio, A. Russell

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has been associated with reduced bone mineral density, but its association with fracture rates is unknown, particularly in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. Our objectives were to determine whether persons with HCV infection alone are at increased risk for hip fracture compared to uninfected individuals and to examine if the risk of hip fracture is higher among HCV/HIV-coinfected persons compared to those with HCV alone, those with HIV alone, and those uninfected with either virus. We conducted a cohort study in 36,950 HCV/HIV-coinfected, 276,901HCV-monoinfected, 95,827 HIV-monoinfected, and 3,110,904 HCV/HIV-uninfected persons within the U.S. Medicaid populations of California, Florida, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania (1999–2005). Incidence rates of hip fracture were lowest among uninfected persons (1.29 events/1000 person-years), increased with the presence of either HIV infection (1.95 events/1000 person-years) or HCV infection (2.69 events/1000 person-years), and were highest among HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals (3.06 events/1000 person-years). HCV/HIV coinfection was associated with an increased relative hazard (adjusted hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]) of hip fracture compared to HCV-monoinfected (1.38 [1.25–1.53]), HIV-monoinfected (females: 1.76 [1.44–2.16]; males: 1.36 [1.20–1.55]), and uninfected persons (females: 2.65 [2.21–3.17]; males: 2.20 [1.97–2.47]). HCV monoinfection was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture compared to uninfected individuals, and the relative increase was highest in the youngest age groups (females, 18–39 years: 3.56 [2.93–4.32]; males, 18–39 years: 2.40 [2.02–2.84]). Conclusion Among Medicaid enrollees, HCV/HIV coinfection was associated with increased rates of hip fracture compared to HCV-monoinfected, HIV-monoinfected, and HCV/HIV-uninfected persons. HCV-monoinfected patients had an increased risk of hip fracture compared to

  1. Physicians' perception of personal risk of HIV infection and AIDS through occupational exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, K M; Eakin, J M; Skinner, H A; Kelner, M; Shapiro, M

    1990-01-01

    Physicians' response to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is poorly understood and often attributed to fear of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection through occupational exposure. We surveyed 268 physicians from three geographic regions in North American with different specialties and responsibilities for HIV-positive patients. An important difference was found between the published risk and the physicians' perceived risk of infection after a single occupational exposure. Almost half of the respondents stated that they feared contracting AIDS more than other diseases. The physicians who perceived themselves to be at high physical risk were more likely than the others to report that AIDS had changed the way they interact with their patients (r = 0.26, p less than 0.001). No relation was found between the perception of physical risk and the number of HIV-infected patients (r = -0.07, p = 0.15). However, the perception of social risk showed a small inverse correlation (r = -0.15, p less than 0.02), in which the physicians with more HIV-infected patients reported less concern about negative social consequences. The physicians who perceived themselves to be at high personal risk were more likely than the others to report that surgeons have the right to refuse patients who do not wish to undergo HIV antibody testing (r = -0.16, p less than 0.01 for physical risk; r = -0.29, p less than 0.001 for social risk). Multiple regression analyses indicated that physicians' perception of physical risk was not related to age or sex but was modestly related to income source. The perception of social risk was related to sex and income source. Physicians' perception of personal risk is a crucial, yet often unacknowledged, component of the fight against AIDS. Our findings suggest that lack of attention to this issue is seriously compromising initiatives designed to facilitate physician participation in AIDS care. PMID:2207904

  2. Approach to Dyslipidemia, Lipodystrophy, and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There is a significant prevalence (20%–80% depending on the population and the study) of lipid disorders and other cardiovascular risk factors in people living with HIV infection. This review focuses on HIV and HIV treatment–associated metabolic and cardiovascular concerns, including dyslipidemias, lipodystrophy syndromes, endothelial dysfunctions, and associated metabolic events such as insulin resistance. Emerging hypotheses of the underlying pathophysiology of these issues, with impact on selection of specific antiretroviral treatment (ART) strategies, therapy, and preventive approaches to decreasing cardiovascular risk and other problems associated with these syndromes are discussed. Screening for cardiovascular risk as part of the decision of starting antiretroviral therapy, and during care of patients with HIV regardless of ART therapy status, is suggested with particular areas of focus. Statins, other hyperlipidemic therapies, treatment for specific problems arising due to lipodystrophy, and implications on ART selection to avoid drug interactions and adverse effects are also discussed. PMID:21181310

  3. Approach to dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and cardiovascular risk in patients with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Troll, J Gregory

    2011-02-01

    There is a significant prevalence (20%-80% depending on the population and the study) of lipid disorders and other cardiovascular risk factors in people living with HIV infection. This review focuses on HIV and HIV treatment-associated metabolic and cardiovascular concerns, including dyslipidemias, lipodystrophy syndromes, endothelial dysfunctions, and associated metabolic events such as insulin resistance. Emerging hypotheses of the underlying pathophysiology of these issues, with impact on selection of specific antiretroviral treatment (ART) strategies, therapy, and preventive approaches to decreasing cardiovascular risk and other problems associated with these syndromes are discussed. Screening for cardiovascular risk as part of the decision of starting antiretroviral therapy, and during care of patients with HIV regardless of ART therapy status, is suggested with particular areas of focus. Statins, other hyperlipidemic therapies, treatment for specific problems arising due to lipodystrophy, and implications on ART selection to avoid drug interactions and adverse effects are also discussed.

  4. Risk Factors for Proteinuria in HIV-infected and -uninfected Hispanic Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Martin S.; Schmid, Christopher H.; Stevens, Lesley A.; Forrester, Janet E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Proteinuria may be an early marker of chronic kidney disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with coexisting chronic hepatitis and/or drug use. Minorities are at greater risk of chronic kidney disease. Data are limited on the risk factors for proteinuria in Hispanic drug users with and without HIV infection. Study Design A cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants A community-recruited Hispanic cohort to study the role of drug use in HIV-associated malnutrition, comprised of four groups (106 HIV-infected drug users; 96 HIV-uninfected drug users; 38 HIV-infected non-drug users; 47 healthy controls). Patients on renal replacement therapy were excluded. Predictors HIV infection, chronic hepatitis, history of hypertension or diabetes, and intravenous drug use (never, prior, or current). Outcomes & Measurements The presence of proteinuria was defined as urine dipstick >= 1+. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for proteinuria. Results Of 287 patients with available data, 24 (8.4%) had proteinuria. In univariate analyses, those with HIV infection, prior, but not current, intravenous drug use, and a history of hypertension or diabetes were more likely to have proteinuria. In multivariate analyses significant risk factors for proteinuria (OR, 95% CI) were HIV (9.2, 1.9 – 45.8, P=0.007), prior, but not current, intravenous drug use (4.7, 1.4 – 15.3, P=0.01), and a history of hypertension or diabetes (8.2, 3.1 – 21.7, P<0.001). Limitations The cross-sectional study design makes it difficult to establish the temporal relationship. The number of outcomes in relation to the number of predictors is small. Conclusions HIV and prior intravenous drug use, but not chronic hepatitis or current intravenous drug use, were independently associated with proteinuria in this Hispanic population. Longitudinal studies to assess the development of proteinuria and chronic kidney disease in this high-risk

  5. Latent tuberculosis among persons at risk for infection with HIV, Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Garfein, Richard S; Laniado-Laborin, Rafael; Rodwell, Timothy C; Lozada, Remedios; Deiss, Robert; Burgos, Jose Luis; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Cerecer, Paris; Moser, Kathleen; Volker, Maria Luisa; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2010-05-01

    Because there is little routine tuberculosis (TB) screening in Mexico, the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) is unknown. In the context of an increasing HIV epidemic in Tijuana, Mexico, understanding prevalence of LTBI to anticipate emergence of increased LTBI reactivation is critical. Therefore, we recruited injection drug users, noninjection drug users, female sex workers, and homeless persons for a study involving risk assessment, rapid HIV testing, and TB screening. Of 503 participants, the overall prevalences of TB infection, HIV infection, and TB/HIV co-infection were 57%, 4.2%, and 2.2%, respectively; no significant differences by risk group (p>0.05) were observed. Two participants had TB (prevalence 398/100,000). Incarceration in Mexico (odds ratio [OR] 2.28), age (OR 1.03 per year), and years lived in Tijuana (OR 1.02 per year) were independently associated with TB infection (p<0.05). Frequent LTBI in marginalized persons may lead to increases in TB as HIV spreads.

  6. Perceived risk of HIV infection among deported male injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, José Luis; Robertson, Angela M; Vera, Alicia; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2014-01-01

    Deported injection drug users (IDUs) in Mexico may be vulnerable to HIV infection following expulsion from the USA. We examined factors associated with HIV risk perception among a sample of deportees in Tijuana. From January to April 2010, 313 male IDUs who reported ever being deported from the USA completed a questionnaire. Overall, 35% (N=110) of deportees perceived HIV risk. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, factors independently associated with HIV risk perception included ever having a steady female partner in Tijuana post-deportation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-5.07) and years spent in a US prison (AOR: 1.29 per year; 95% CI: 1.13-1.48). Conversely, years of drug injection use (AOR: 0.95 per year; 95% CI: 0.91-0.99), ever witnessing family members use drugs prior to first migration trip (AOR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09-0.65), years of residence in the USA (AOR: 0.91 per year; 95% CI: 0.84-0.98) and being a Tijuana native (AOR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.16-0.99) were negatively associated with HIV risk perception. US-Mexico border cities that receive deported migrants should target HIV prevention interventions to specific subgroups, including drug-using male deportees. Interventions should consider migrant's time in the USA, the role of their social networks, and reducing missed opportunities for HIV testing/education.

  7. Risk Factors of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections in China: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William Chi Wai

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are a global challenge. China, once said to have eradicated STIs, is now facing a rapid rise in the prevalence of HIV/STIs. This review of reviews aims to map HIV/STI risk factors among the Chinese population, with the objective of identifying risk factors to inform the formulation of effective prevention strategies. Methods A systematic search using key terms related to HIV/STIs, risk factors and the Chinese population in both English and Chinese databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library; Wanfang data, CNKI, VIP and SINOMED) was conducted, and peer-reviewed systematic reviews on the topic from 1991 to 2014 were selected. Identified risk factors were grouped into different level determinants based on the HIV Social Epidemiology Model, and then evaluated and reported based on the PRISMA checklist. Findings Of the twenty-eight reviews included, the majority were focused on well-established, individual level risk factors within key populations, with some highlighting the complexity of interacting factors (e.g., alcohol use and higher income in male migrants). While twenty-two reviews covered individual factors, only ten mentioned social factors and five had contents on structural factors. There are gaps in the evidence on social and structural level impacts of HIV/STIs, such as on stigma, discrimination, health policy, access to care, and illicit drug control policies. Migration and social expectation appear to pose a significant threat in aggravating the HIV/STI situation in China; for example, incarceration patterns indicated a significant risk of HIV/STIs for female sex workers. Conclusions Since international guidelines recommend an integrated and multi-level approach to HIV/STI prevention, a comprehensive approach targeting interventions at all levels along the continuum of care is needed to effectively curtail HIV/STI transmission in China. More research is needed to better understand the impact of socio

  8. Risk behaviours for HIV infection among injecting drug users attending a drug dependency clinic.

    PubMed

    Hart, G J; Sonnex, C; Petherick, A; Johnson, A M; Feinmann, C; Adler, M W

    1989-04-22

    To study a range of possible risk factors for HIV among injecting drug user patients attending a clinic in London were interviewed from November 1986 to November 1987. Serum samples were tested for viral markers. Of 116 patients, 101 had shared injecting equipment, 75 on the first occasion of injecting and 76 during the past year. Seventy said that sharing was because equipment was not available. In the past year 102 had been sexually active, a third having two to 20 partners; a quarter of the women had exchanged sexual intercourse for money. The four patients who were positive for antibody to HIV antigen had shared equipment or had intercourse with drug users from areas with a high prevalence of HIV. Eleven patients had injected drugs while in prison. Despite a low prevalence of HIV infection this infection remains a threat to drug users in London; strenuous efforts are still needed to prevent its further transmission.

  9. Behavioral, Biological, and Demographic Risk and Protective Factors for New HIV Infections among Youth, Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Santelli, John S.; Edelstein, Zoe R.; Mathur, Sanyukta; Wei, Ying; Zhang, Wenfei; Orr, Mark G.; Higgins, Jenny A.; Nalugoda, Fred; Gray, Ron H.; Wawer, Maria J.; Serwadda, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence of HIV infection is considerable among youth, although data on risk factors for new (incident) infections is limited. We examined incidence of HIV infection and risk and protective factors among youth in rural Uganda, including the role of gender and social transitions. Methods Participants were sexually experienced youth (15–24 years-old) enrolled in the Rakai Community Cohort Study,1999–2008 (n=6741). Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to estimate incident rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of incident HIV infection. Results HIV incidence was greater among young women than young men (14.1 vs. 8.3 per 1000 person-years, respectively); this gender disparity was greater among teens (14.9 vs. 3.6). Beyond behavioral (multiple partners and concurrency) and biological factors (sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms), social transitions such as marriage and staying in school influenced HIV risk. In multivariate analyses among women, HIV incidence was associated with living in a trading village [adjusted IRR (aIRR) = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.11], being a student (aIRR = 0.22; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.72), current marriage (aIRR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.81), former marriage (aIRR = 1.73; 95% CI: 1.01 to 2.96), having multiple partners, and sexually transmitted infection symptoms. Among men, new infections were associated with former marriage (aIRR = 5.57; 95% CI: 2.51 to 12.36), genital ulceration (aIRR = 3.56; 95% CI: 1.97 to 6.41), and alcohol use (aIRR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.15 to 3.77). Conclusions During the third decade of the HIV epidemic in Uganda, HIV incidence remains considerable among youth, with young women particularly at risk. The risk for new infections was strongly shaped by social transitions such as leaving school, entrance into marriage, and marital dissolution; the impact of marriage was different for young men than women. PMID:23535293

  10. HERMITAGE – A Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV-risk Behaviors among HIV-infected Russian Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Samet, Jeffrey H.; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Blokhina, Elena; Bridden, Carly; Chaisson, Christine E.; Walley, Alexander Y.; Palfai, Tibor P.; Quinn, Emily K.; Zvartau, Edwin; Lioznov, Dmitry; Krupitsky, Evgeny

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study assessed the effectiveness of HERMITAGE (HIV’s Evolution in Russia - Mitigating Infection Transmission and Alcoholism in a Growing Epidemic), an adapted secondary HIV prevention intervention, compared with an attention control condition in decreasing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and sex and drug risk behaviors among Russian HIV-infected heavy drinkers. Design We conducted a single-blinded, two-armed, randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. Setting The study was conducted in St. Petersburg, Russia. Participants were recruited from four HIV and addiction clinical sites. The intervention was conducted at Botkin Infectious Disease Hospital. Participants HIV-infected persons with past 6-month risky sex and heavy alcohol consumption (n=700) were randomized to the HERMITAGE intervention (n=350) or an attention control condition (n=350). Intervention A Healthy Relationships Intervention stressing disclosure of HIV serostatus and condom use, adapted for a Russian clinical setting with two individual sessions and three small group sessions. Measurements The primary outcome was incident STI by laboratory test at 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included change in unprotected sex and several alcohol and injection drug use (IDU) variables. Findings Participants had the following baseline characteristics: 59% male, mean age 30, 60% past year IDU, 15.4% prevalent STI and mean CD4 cell count 413/μl. Assessment occurred among 75% and 71% of participants at 6 and 12-months, respectively. STIs occurred in 20 subjects (8%) in the intervention group and 28 subjects (12%) in the control group at 12-month follow-up; logistic regression analyses found no significant difference between groups (adjusted odds ratio 0.69; 95% CI: 0.36-1.30; P=0.25). Both groups decreased unsafe behaviors, although no significant differences between groups were found. Conclusions The HERMITAGE HIV risk reduction intervention does not appear to reduce sexually

  11. Length of secondary schooling and risk of HIV infection in Botswana: evidence from a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    De Neve, Jan-Walter; Fink, Günther; Subramanian, SV; Moyo, Sikhulile; Bor, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Background An estimated 2·3 Million individuals are newly infected with HIV each year. Existing cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have found conflicting evidence on the association between education and HIV risk, and no randomized experiment to date has identified a causal effect of education on HIV incidence. Methods A 1996 policy reform changed the grade structure of secondary school in Botswana and increased educational attainment. We use this reform as a ‘natural experiment’ to identify the causal effect of schooling on HIV infection. Data on HIV biomarkers and demographics were obtained from the 2004 and 2008 Botswana AIDS Impact Surveys, nationally-representative household surveys (N = 7018). The association between years of schooling and HIV status was described using multivariate OLS regression models. Using exposure to the policy reform as an instrumental variable, we estimated the causal effect of years of schooling on the cumulative probability that an individual contracted HIV up to his or her age at the time of the survey. The cost-effectiveness of secondary schooling as an HIV prevention intervention was assessed in comparison to other established interventions. Findings Each additional year of secondary schooling induced by the policy change led to an absolute reduction in the cumulative risk of HIV infection of 8·1% points (p = 0·008), relative to a baseline prevalence of 25·6%. Effects were particularly large among women (11·6% points, p = 0·046). Results were robust to a wide array of sensitivity analyses. Secondary school was cost-effective as an HIV prevention intervention by standard metrics. Interpretation Additional years of secondary schooling had a large protective effect against HIV risk, particularly for women, in Botswana. Increasing progression through secondary school may be a cost-effective HIV prevention measure in HIV-endemic settings, in addition to yielding other societal benefits. Funding Takemi Program in

  12. Recruitment of Caribbean female commercial sex workers at high risk of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Zorrilla, Carmen D.; Morgan, Cecilia A.; Donastorg, Yeycy; Metch, Barbara; Madenwald, Tamra; Joseph, Patrice; Severe, Karine; Garced, Sheyla; Perez, Marta; Escamilia, Gina; Swann, Edith; Pape, Jean William

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate novel eligibility criteria and outreach methods to identify and recruit women at high risk of HIV-1 infection in the Caribbean. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted in 2009–2012 among 799 female commercial sex workers in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Puerto Rico. Minimum eligibility criteria included exchange of sex for goods, services, or money in the previous 6 months and unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a man in the previous 6 months. Sites used local epidemiology to develop more stringent eligibility criteria and recruitment strategies. Participants were asked questions about HIV/AIDS and their level of concern about participating in an HIV vaccine trial. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess predictors of prevalent HIV infection and willingness to participate in a future HIV vaccine study. Results HIV prevalence at screening was 4.6%. Crack cocaine use [odds ratio (OR) = 4.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.8–9.0)] was associated with and having sex with clients in a hotel or motel [OR = 0.5, CI (0.3–1.0)] was inversely associated with HIV infection. A total of 88.9% of enrolled women were definitely or probably willing to participate in a future HIV vaccine trial. Conclusions This study indicated that local eligibility criteria and recruitment methods can be developed to identify and recruit commercial sex workers with higher HIV prevalence than the general population who express willingness to join an HIV vaccine trial. PMID:24096973

  13. Risk Factors for Preterm Birth among HIV-Infected Tanzanian Women: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Zack, Rachel M.; Golan, Jenna; Aboud, Said; Msamanga, Gernard; Spiegelman, Donna; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2014-01-01

    Premature delivery, a significant cause of child mortality and morbidity worldwide, is particularly prevalent in the developing world. As HIV is highly prevalent in much of sub-Saharan Africa, it is important to determine risk factors for prematurity among HIV-positive pregnancies. The aims of this study were to identify risk factors of preterm (<37 weeks) and very preterm (<34 weeks) birth among a cohort of 927 HIV positive women living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who enrolled in the Tanzania Vitamin and HIV Infection Trial between 1995 and 1997. Multivariable relative risk regression models were used to determine the association of potential maternal risk factors with premature and very premature delivery. High rates of preterm (24%) and very preterm birth (9%) were found. Risk factors (adjusted RR (95% CI)) for preterm birth were mother <20 years (1.46 (1.10, 1.95)), maternal illiteracy (1.54 (1.10, 2.16)), malaria (1.42 (1.11, 1.81)), Entamoeba coli (1.49 (1.04, 2.15)), no or low pregnancy weight gain, and HIV disease stage ≥2 (1.41 (1.12, 1.50)). Interventions to reduce pregnancies in women under 20, prevent and treat malaria, reduce Entamoeba coli infection, and promote weight gain in pregnant women may have a protective effect on prematurity. PMID:25328529

  14. Risk Factors for Vitamin D Deficiency among Veterans with and without HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hidron, Alicia I.; Hill, Brittany; Guest, Jodie L.; Rimland, David

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to describe and compare the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency between HIV-negative and HIV-infected veterans in the southern United States, and to determine risk factors for vitamin D deficiency for HIV infected patients. Methods Cross-sectional, retrospective study including all patients followed at the Atlanta VA Medical Center with the first 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level determined between January 2007 and August 2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors associated with vitamin D deficiency (< 20 ng/ml). Results There was higher prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative patients (53.2 vs. 38.5%, p <0.001). Independent risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in HIV + patients included black race (OR 3.24, 95% CI 2.28–4.60), winter season (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05–1.84) and higher GFR (OR 1.01, CI 1.00–1.01); increasing age (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95–0.98), and tenofovir use (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.54–0.96) were associated with less vitamin D deficiency. Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is a prevalent problem that varies inversely with age and affects HIV-infected patients more than other veterans in care. In addition to age, tenofovir and kidney disease seem to confer a protective effect from vitamin D deficiency in HIV-positive patients. PMID:25898185

  15. Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors and School-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection/HIV Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.; Meyers, Adena B.; Landau, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents are susceptible to negative outcomes associated with sexual behavior. This is particularly true for those who initiate sexual intercourse at an early age, have many sex partners, or engage in unprotected sex because these behaviors put one at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. This article reviews the…

  16. HIV infection, sexual risk behaviour and condom use in the Belize defense force.

    PubMed

    Anastario, M; Manzanero, R; Blanco, R; Reyes, E; Jaramillo, R; Black, L; Dann, G E; Leonard, E; Boryc, K; Chun, H

    2011-02-01

    This study is the first Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Survey to be conducted among personnel in the Belize Defense Force. The purpose of the study was to understand the prevalence of HIV infection and risk behaviours, and to identify key correlates of sexual risk behaviours. A representative sample of personnel underwent serological testing and an Audio Computer-Assisted Self Interview. Of those sampled, 351 completed a blood test and 334 completed a behavioural interview. The prevalence of HIV was 1.14%. Twelve percent had ever reported being diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) or screened positive for HIV infection. The odds of ever having an STI/HIV were higher among those who had less education, those who had sex with a commercial sex worker (CSW), those who ever engaged in receptive anal sex and those with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Alcohol abuse and PTSD were prevalent and associated with HIV risk behaviours. These results are being used to inform current prevention efforts.

  17. Vitamin Supplementation Increases Risk of Subclinical Mastitis in HIV-Infected Women123

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Joanne E.; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Villamor, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + β-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + β-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, antiretroviral naïve Tanzanian women who were recruited during pregnancy and followed-up after delivery. Breast milk samples were obtained approximately every 3 mo. Any subclinical mastitis was defined as a ratio of the sodium to potassium (Na:K) breast milk concentrations > 0.6 and further classified as either moderate (Na:K ≥ 0.6 and ≤ 1) or severe (Na:K > 1.0). Fifty-eight percent of women had at least 1 episode of any subclinical mastitis. Women assigned to multivitamins (B complex, C, and E) had a 33% greater risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.005) and a 75% greater risk of severe subclinical mastitis (P = 0.0006) than women who received the placebo. Vitamin A + β-carotene also increased the risk of severe subclinical mastitis by 45% (P = 0.03). Among women with CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 350 cells/μL, multivitamin intake resulted in a 49% increased risk of any subclinical mastitis (P = 0.006); by contrast, there were no treatment effects among women with CD4+ T-cell counts < 350 cells/μL (P- interaction for treatment × CD4+ T-cell count = 0.10). Supplementation of HIV-infected women with vitamins increased the risk of subclinical mastitis. PMID:20739447

  18. HIV infection and risk factors among Bangkok prisoners, Thailand: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Thaisri, Hansa; Lerwitworapong, John; Vongsheree, Suthon; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Chadbanchachai, Chanchai; Rojanawiwat, Archawin; Kongpromsook, Wichuda; Paungtubtim, Wiroj; Sri-ngam, Pongnuwat; Jaisue, Rachaneekorn

    2003-01-01

    Background Incarceration has been associated with HIV infection among injection drug users. However, data on HIV risk factors of the inmates during incarceration are rarely reported from Thailand. Methods A prospective cohort of 689 male inmates in a Bangkok central prison was studied during 2001–2002. Follow up visits were conducted for 5 months, with testing for HIV and other infections and interviewing of demographics and risk behaviors. Results Among 689 male inmates, half (50.9 %) were drug injectors. About 49% of the injectors had injection during incarceration. Most (94.9%) of the injectors had shared injection paraphernalia with others. Successful follow up rate was 98.7% after 2,581 person-months observation. HIV incidence was 4.18 per 100 person – years among all inmates, and 11.10 per 100 person – years among the injection inmates. Multivariate analysis identified variables associated with HIV prevalence: history of injection [OR = 2.30, 95%CI: 1.91–2.77], positive urine opiate test [OR = 5.04, 95%CI: 2.63–9.67], history of attendance to drug withdrawal clinics [OR = 2.00, 95%CI: 1.19–3.35] and presence of tattoos on the body [OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.01–1.52]. Conclusions The main HIV risk factors of Bangkok inmates were those related to drug injection. Harm reduction measures and HIV intervention strategies should be implemented to prevent more spread of HIV among the inmates and into the community. PMID:14580265

  19. Epidemiological profile and risk factors of HIV and HBV/HCV co-infection in Fujian Province, southeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shouli; Yan, Pingping; Yang, Tianfei; Wang, Zhenghua; Yan, Yansheng

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological features of HIV-infected subjects co-infected with HBV/HCV in Fujian Province, southeastern China, and identify the risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 2,028 HIV antibody-positive subjects in Fujian Province. Serum HBsAg and anti-HCV antibody were detected, and CD4(+) T cell count was measured. Of the 2,028 subjects, the prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-HBV-HCV co-infections was 16.22%, 3.7%, and 0.79%, respectively. Man (OR = 1.912, 95% CI: 1.371-2.667), key population (OR = 0.756, 95% CI: 0.57-0.976) and detainee (OR = 0.486, 95% CI: 0.259-0.909) were risk factors of HIV-HBV co-infection, and man (OR = 2.227, 95% CI: 1.096-4.525), minority (OR = 5.04, 95% CI: 1.696-14.98), junior high school or lower education (OR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.071-5.025), intravenous drug use (OR = 38.46, 95% CI: 11.46-129.11) and detainee (OR = 5.687, 95% CI: 2.44-13.25) were risk factors of HIV-HCV co-infection. In addition, a lower mean CD4(+) T cell count was measured in HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV co-infected subjects than in HIV-infected subjects among the untreated individuals, while in the treated populations, a higher mean CD4(+) T cell count was detected in HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV co-infected subjects than in HIV-infected subjects. HIV co-infection with HBV or HCV, notably HIV-HBV co-infection, is widespread in southeastern China. Hepatitis virus screening should be included in monitoring of HIV infection, and HIV and hepatitis virus co-infection should be considered during the development of HIV antiretroviral therapy scheme. J. Med. Virol. 89:443-449, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Pain and Mortality Risk in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Persons with Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Debbie M.; Quinn, Emily; Bridden, Carly; Merlin, Jessica S.; Saitz, Richard; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Pain has been associated with increased risk for mortality in some studies. We analyzed data from a cohort study [HIV-longitudinal interrelationships of viruses and ethanol (HIV-LIVE)] of HIV-infected persons with alcohol use disorders enrolled 2001–2003 to explore whether reporting moderate or greater pain interference was associated with mortality. The main independent variable was pain that at least moderately interfered with work based on a single question from the SF-12. Primary analyses dichotomized at “moderately” or above. Cox proportional hazards models assessed the association between pain interference and death adjusting for demographics, substance use, CD4 count, HIV viral load and co-morbidities. Although significant in unadjusted models (HR = 1.58 (95 % CI 1.03–2.41; p value = 0.04)), after adjusting for confounders, ≥moderate pain interference was not associated with an increased risk of death [aHR = 1.30 (95 % CI 0.81–2.11, p value = 0.28)]. Among HIV-infected persons with alcohol use disorders, we did not detect a statistically significant independent association between pain interference and risk of death after adjustment for potential confounders. PMID:26438486

  1. At risk for HIV infection: incarcerated women in a county jail in Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Bond, L; Semaan, S

    1996-01-01

    This study presents the results of a needs assessment survey conducted with 66 incarcerated women in a large Philadelphia county jail during the winter of 1993. Results indicated that prior to incarceration, these women engaged in very high risk sexual and drug use behaviors, and had experienced a myriad of other problems that may contribute to their risk for HIV infection. Of the 66 women who participated in the study, over three-fourths had used crack cocaine, nearly one-half had traded sex for drugs and money in the six months prior to incarceration, one-third reported a prior history of injection drug use, and one-half report sexual contact with a male partner who injected drugs. In addition, one-fourth of the study sample had been homeless during the year prior to incarceration, one-half reported a prior history of sexual abuse, three-fourths had been physically beaten by a boyfriend or spouse, and nearly one-half had a prior history of syphilis. Although limited in scope, the results of the study have important implications for developing relevant jail-based HIV risk reduction programs for women. The results provide strong evidence for the need for interventions that address not only the HIV-related risk behaviors of incarcerated women, but also the underlying social problems that contribute to their risk of HIV infection.

  2. Exploring risk of experiencing intimate partner violence after HIV infection: a qualitative study among women with HIV attending postnatal services in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Mulrenan, Claire; Colombini, Manuela; Kikuvi, Joshua; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore risks of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) after HIV infection among women with HIV in a postnatal care setting in Swaziland. Design A qualitative semistructured in-depth interview study, using thematic analysis with deductive and inductive coding, of IPV experiences after HIV infection extracted from service-integration interview transcripts. Setting Swaziland. Participants 19 women with HIV, aged 18–44, were purposively sampled for an in-depth interview about their experiences of services, HIV and IPV from a quantitative postnatal cohort participating in an evaluation of HIV and reproductive health services integration in Swaziland. Results Results indicated that women were at risk of experiencing IPV after HIV infection, with 9 of 19 disclosing experiences of physical violence and/or coercive control post-HIV. IPV was initiated through two key pathways: (1) acute interpersonal triggers (eg, status disclosure, mother-to-child transmission of HIV) and (2) chronic normative tensions (eg, fertility intentions, initiating contraceptives). Conclusions The results highlight a need to mitigate the risk of IPV for women with HIV in shorter and longer terms in Swaziland. While broader changes are needed to resolve gender disparities, practical steps can be institutionalised within health facilities to reduce, or avoid increasing, IPV pathways for women with HIV. These might include mutual disclosure between partners, greater engagement of Swazi males with HIV services, and promoting positive masculinities that support and protect women. Trial registration number NCT01694862. PMID:25976760

  3. Risk factors for neonatal conjunctivitis in babies of HIV-1 infected mothers

    PubMed Central

    Gichuhi, Stephen; Bosire, Rose; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Gichuhi, Christine; Wamalwa, Dalton; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth; Farquhar, Carey; Wariua, Grace; Otieno, Phelgona; John-Stewart, Grace C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence and correlates of neonatal conjunctivitis in infants born to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected mothers. Methods This was a nested case-control study within a perinatal HIV-1 cohort. HIV-1 seropositive mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and mother-infant pairs followed after delivery with assessment for neonatal conjunctivitis at 48 hours and up to 4 weeks after birth. Genital infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomonas, bacterial vaginosis, and candida) were screened for at 32 weeks gestation. Mothers received treatment for genital infections diagnosed during pregnancy and short-course zidovudine. Newborns did not receive ocular prophylaxis at hospital deliveries. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine cofactors for neonatal conjunctivitis overall and stratified for infant HIV-1 status. Results Four hundred and fifty-two infants were assessed and 101 (22.3%) had neonatal conjunctivitis during the first month postpartum. In multivariate analyses using odds ratios (OR) and confidence intervals (CI), neonatal conjunctivitis was associated with neonatal sepsis (adjusted OR 21.95, 95% CI 1.76, 274.61), birth before arrival to hospital (adjusted OR 13.91, 95% CI 1.39, 138.78) and birth weight (median 3.4 versus 3.3 kilograms, p=0.016, OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.01, 3.15). Infant HIV-1 infection was not associated with conjunctivitis. Conclusions Despite detection and treatment of genital infections during pregnancy, neonatal conjunctivitis was frequently diagnosed in infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers suggesting a need for increased vigilance and prophylaxis for conjunctivitis in these infants. Neonatal sepsis, birth before arrival to hospital, and higher birthweight are factors that may predict higher risk of neonatal conjunctivitis in this population. PMID:19995198

  4. [Risk behavior among Brazilian Military conscripts, 1998: an study of HIV infections following socioeconomic differences].

    PubMed

    Szwarcwald, C L; Castilho, E A; Barbosa, A; Gomes, M R; Costa, E A; Maletta, B V; de Carvalho, R F; de Oliveira, S R; Chequer, P

    2000-01-01

    A study of HIV-related risk behavior was carried out in 1998 among Brazilian military conscripts aged 17-20 years. A sample of 30,318 subjects was selected in three strata, pertaining to counties from: 1) the North and Central-West (N/CW); 2) South (S); and the states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. HIV prevalence rates were estimated in all strata. The objective of this paper was to analyze the results according to differences in socioeconomic status (SES). The statistical analysis used an index of sexual risk behavior and logistic regression models. The N/CW stratum showed the worst indicators for SES, sexual risk behavior, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as the highest HIV seroprevalence rate. The best indicators for all variables were found in the RJ/SP stratum. The South showed intermediate results. Level of schooling also played a relevant role. In all three strata the conscripts with an incomplete high school education displayed the worst sexual risk behavior index, shown to be a relevant predictor of STI-related problems, including HIV infection.

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Infections and Risk Behaviors among Malaysian Fishermen

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Martin K. K.; El-Bassel, Nabila; Adam, Philippe C. G.; Gilbert, Louisa; Wu, Elwin; West, Brooke S.; Bazazi, Alexander R.; De Wit, John B. F.; Ismail, Rusli; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2015-01-01

    Fishermen in Southeast Asia have been found to be highly vulnerable to HIV, with research evidence highlighting the role of sexual risk behaviors. This study aims to estimate the rate of HIV as well as hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Malaysian fishermen, and the risky sexual and injection drug use behaviors that may contribute to these infections. The study also includes an assessment of socio-demographic, occupational and behavioral correlates of testing positive for HIV or HCV, and socio-demographic and occupational correlates of risk behaviors. The study had a cross-sectional design and recruited 406 fishermen through respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Participants self-completed a questionnaire and provided biological specimens for HIV and HCV testing. We conducted and compared results of analyses of both unweighted data and data weighted with the Respondent-Driven Sampling Analysis Tool (RDSAT). Of the participating fishermen, 12.4% were HIV positive and 48.6% had HCV infection. Contrary to expectations and findings from previous research, most fishermen (77.1%) were not sexually active. More than a third had a history of injection drug use, which often occurred during fishing trips on commercial vessels and during longer stays at sea. Of the fishermen who injected drugs, 42.5% reported unsafe injection practices in the past month. Reporting a history of injection drug use increased the odds of testing HIV positive by more than 6 times (AOR = 6.22, 95% CIs [2.74, 14.13]). Most fishermen who injected drugs tested positive for HCV. HCV infection was significantly associated with injection drug use, being older than 25 years, working on a commercial vessel and spending four or more days at sea per fishing trip. There is an urgent need to strengthen current harm reduction and drug treatment programs for Malaysian fishermen who inject drugs, especially among fishermen who work on commercial vessels and engage in deep-sea fishing. PMID:26244844

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Infections and Risk Behaviors among Malaysian Fishermen.

    PubMed

    Choo, Martin K K; El-Bassel, Nabila; Adam, Philippe C G; Gilbert, Louisa; Wu, Elwin; West, Brooke S; Bazazi, Alexander R; De Wit, John B F; Ismail, Rusli; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2015-01-01

    Fishermen in Southeast Asia have been found to be highly vulnerable to HIV, with research evidence highlighting the role of sexual risk behaviors. This study aims to estimate the rate of HIV as well as hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Malaysian fishermen, and the risky sexual and injection drug use behaviors that may contribute to these infections. The study also includes an assessment of socio-demographic, occupational and behavioral correlates of testing positive for HIV or HCV, and socio-demographic and occupational correlates of risk behaviors. The study had a cross-sectional design and recruited 406 fishermen through respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Participants self-completed a questionnaire and provided biological specimens for HIV and HCV testing. We conducted and compared results of analyses of both unweighted data and data weighted with the Respondent-Driven Sampling Analysis Tool (RDSAT). Of the participating fishermen, 12.4% were HIV positive and 48.6% had HCV infection. Contrary to expectations and findings from previous research, most fishermen (77.1%) were not sexually active. More than a third had a history of injection drug use, which often occurred during fishing trips on commercial vessels and during longer stays at sea. Of the fishermen who injected drugs, 42.5% reported unsafe injection practices in the past month. Reporting a history of injection drug use increased the odds of testing HIV positive by more than 6 times (AOR = 6.22, 95% CIs [2.74, 14.13]). Most fishermen who injected drugs tested positive for HCV. HCV infection was significantly associated with injection drug use, being older than 25 years, working on a commercial vessel and spending four or more days at sea per fishing trip. There is an urgent need to strengthen current harm reduction and drug treatment programs for Malaysian fishermen who inject drugs, especially among fishermen who work on commercial vessels and engage in deep-sea fishing.

  7. High incidence and prevalence of HIV-1 infection in high risk population in Calcutta, India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Phalguni; Kingsley, Lawrence; Sheppard, Haynes W; Harrison, Lee H; Chatterjee, Ramdas; Ghosh, Adhir; Roy, Pratima; Neogi, Dhruba K

    2003-07-01

    HIV-1 infection in India has been increasing steadily over the last decade. In the absence of potent antiviral therapy, estimates of HIV infection are needed to monitor the epidemic, institute prevention strategies in target populations and determine the suitable populations for vaccine studies. In this report we present the HIV-1 seroprevalence and annual estimates of seroincidence in a high risk population from Calcutta, the most populous city in the eastern part of India. In 1206 high risk subjects tested over two years between February of 1999 and December 2000, we have determined an overall seroprevalence of 40.1% using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay followed by a confirmatory Western blot testing. Furthermore, using a newly described Standardized Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV-1 Seroconversion (STARHS), we have estimated an annual seroincidence rate of about 7% in this population during this two-year study. Such a high annual seroincidence rate makes this population well suited for studies of HIV-1 prevention, including vaccine trials.

  8. Executive summary of the consensus document on metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in patients with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Polo Rodríguez, Rosa; Galindo Puerto, María José; Dueñas, Carlos; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Estrada, Vicente; Villar, Noemí G P; Locutura, Jaime; Mariño, Ana; Pascua, Javier; Palacios, Rosario; Von Wichmman, Miguel Ángel; Álvarez, Julia; Asensi, Victor; Lopez Aldeguer, José; Lozano, Fernando; Negredo, Eugenia; Ortega, Enrique; Pedrol, Enric; Gutiérrez, Félix; Sanz Sanz, Jesús; Martínez Chamorro, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the metabolic disorders and their impact on patients with HIV infection requires an individualized study and continuous updating. HIV patients have the same cardiovascular risk factors as the general population. The HIV infection per se increases the cardiovascular risk, and metabolic disorders caused by some antiretroviral drugs are added risk factors. For this reason, the choice of drugs with a good metabolic profile is essential. The most common metabolic disorders of HIV infected-patients (insulin resistance, diabetes, hyperlipidemia or osteopenia), as well as other factors of cardiovascular risk, such as hypertension, should also be dealt with according to guidelines similar to the general population, as well as insisting on steps to healthier lifestyles. The aim of this document is to provide a query tool for all professionals who treat HIV-patients and who may present or display any metabolic disorders listed in this document.

  9. Circulation of HIV antigen in blood according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin.

    PubMed

    Goudsmit, J; Paul, D A

    1987-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus antigen (HIV-ag) was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in HIV-antibody (anti-HIV) positive as well as pre-anti-HIV seroconversion sera and the results analysed according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin. Eleven (19%) of 58 homosexual men tested showed HIV-ag in a serum taken 3-4 months before or one at the time of anti-HIV seroconversion. In another eight (14%) HIV-ag persisted after seroconversion and half of them developed AIDS or AIDS-related complex (ARC) in contrast to none of the other 50 anti-HIV seroconversions. Two (13%) of 16 haemophiliacs tested had HIV-ag only in the first anti-HIV seropositive sample. HIV-ag was present in 86% (30/35) of Dutch homosexual men with AIDS, in 32% (7/22) of men with ARC and in 17% (24/145) of men with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy (PGL) or without symptoms. Three percent (2/60) of sera of asymptomatic i.v. drug users from Amsterdam were HIV-ag positive. Ten percent (1 of 10) of sera from Central Africans with 'Slim Disease' were HIV-ag positive. Among infected children from the USA or Europe 89-100% (8/9 and 2/2) of AIDS cases, 67-100% (6/9 and 3/3) of children with ARC and 75% (3/4) of asymptomatic children were HIV-ag positive. The HIV-ag EIA appears to be able to identify HIV infection earlier than the available anti-HIV assays in a significant number of cases. Since persistence of HIV-ag, except possibly in African cases, is strongly associated with clinical deterioration, HIV-ag appears to be a suitable marker for, independent of their clinical status, selecting individuals for antiviral therapy and also for monitoring the efficiency of such therapy.

  10. Perceived risk of HIV infection among deported male injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pinedo, Miguel; Burgos, José Luis; Robertson, Angela M.; Vera, Alicia; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2014-01-01

    Deported injection drug users (IDUs) in Mexico may be vulnerable to HIV infection following expulsion from the U.S. We examined factors associated with HIV risk perception among a sample of deportees in Tijuana. From January to April 2010, 313 male IDUs who reported ever being deported from the U.S. completed a questionnaire. Overall, 35% (N=110) of deportees perceived HIV risk. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, factors independently associated with HIV risk perception included: ever having a steady female partner in Tijuana post-deportation (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.26; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.01-5.07) and years spent in a U.S. prison (AOR: 1.29 per year; 95% CI: 1.13-1.48). Conversely, years of drug injection use (AOR: 0.95 per year; 95% CI: 0.91-0.99), ever witnessing family members use drugs prior to first migration trip (AOR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09-0.65), years of residence in the United States (AOR: 0.91 per year; 95% CI: 0.84-0.98) and being a Tijuana-native (AOR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.16-0.99) were negatively associated HIV risk perception. U.S.-Mexico border cities that receive deported migrants should target HIV prevention interventions to specific subgroups, including drug-using male deportees. Interventions should consider migrant's time in the U.S., the role of their social networks, and reducing missed opportunities for HIV testing/education. PMID:24650124

  11. Exploring Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High Risk for HIV Infection Recruited with Venue-based Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Gwadz, Marya; Cleland, Charles M.; Jenness, Samuel M.; Silverman, Elizabeth; Hagan, Holly; Ritchie, Amanda S.; Leonard, Noelle R.; McCright-Gill, Talaya; Martinez, Belkis; Swain, Quentin; Kutnick, Alexandra; Sherpa, Dawa

    2016-01-01

    Annual HIV testing is recommended for high-risk populations in the United States, to identify HIV infections early and provide timely linkage to treatment. However, heterosexuals at high risk for HIV, due to their residence in urban areas of high poverty and elevated HIV prevalence, test for HIV less frequently than other risk groups, and late diagnosis of HIV is common. Yet the factors impeding HIV testing in this group, which is predominantly African American/Black and Latino/Hispanic, are poorly understood. The present study addresses this gap. Using a systematic community-based sampling method, venue-based sampling (VBS), we estimate rates of lifetime and recent (past year) HIV testing among high-risk heterosexuals (HRH), and explore a set of putative multi-level barriers to and facilitators of recent testing, by gender. Participants were 338 HRH African American/Black and Latino/Hispanic adults recruited using VBS, who completed a computerized structured assessment battery guided by the Theory of Triadic Influence, comprised of reliable/valid measures on socio-demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, and multi-level barriers to HIV testing. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with HIV testing within the past year. Most HRH had tested at least once (94%), and more than half had tested within the past year (58%), but only 37% tested annually. In both men and women, the odds of recent testing were similar and associated with structural factors (better access to testing) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and diagnosis. Thus VBS identified serious gaps in rates of annual HIV testing among HRH. Improvements in access to high-quality HIV testing and leveraging of STI testing are needed to increase the proportion of HRH testing annually for HIV. Such improvements could increase early detection of HIV, improve the long-term health of individuals, and reduce HIV transmission by increasing rates of viral

  12. HIV infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A

    1996-09-01

    Many of the clinical features of HIV/AIDS can be ascribed to the profound immune deficiency which develops in infected patients. The destruction of the immune system by the virus results in opportunistic infection, as well as an increased risk of autoimmune disease and malignancy. In addition, disease manifestations related to the virus itself may occur. For example, during the primary illness which occurs within weeks after first exposure to HIV, clinical symptoms occur in at least 50% of cases, typically as a mononucleosis syndrome. HIV-related complications are rarely encountered in patients with preserved immunity (i.e. CD4 T-cell counts greater than 500 cells/mm3). Recurrent mucocutaneous herpes simplex (HSV), herpes zoster (VZV), oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia occur with increasing frequency as the CD4 count drops below this level. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) occurs in association with HIV and often presents early in the clinical course. The risk of developing opportunistic infections and malignancies typical of AIDS increases progressively as CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/mm3. The clinical manifestations of infections associated with AIDS tend to fall into well-recognized patterns of presentation, including pneumonia, dysphagia/odynophagia, diarrhoea, neurological symptoms, fever, wasting, anaemia and visual loss. The commonest pathogens include Candida albicans, Pneumocystis carinii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium avium intracellulare and cytomegalovirus. Malignant disease in patients with HIV infection also occurs in a characteristic pattern. Only two tumours are prevalent: Kaposi's sarcoma, a multifocal tumour of vascular endothelium which typically involves skin and mucosal surfaces; and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which is typically high grade in phenotype, often arising within the central nervous system. The principles of therapy include reduction of HIV replication by antiretroviral

  13. Asymptomatic HIV infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000682.htm Asymptomatic HIV infection To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Asymptomatic HIV infection is a phase of HIV/AIDS during which there are no symptoms of HIV ...

  14. Cerebrovascular risk factors and brain microstructural abnormalities on diffusion tensor images in HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Beau K; Jahanshad, Neda; McMurtray, Aaron; Kallianpur, Kalpana J; Chow, Dominic C; Valcour, Victor G; Paul, Robert H; Marotz, Liron; Thompson, Paul M; Shikuma, Cecilia M

    2012-08-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder remains prevalent in HIV-infected individuals despite effective antiretroviral therapy. As these individuals age, comorbid cerebrovascular disease will likely impact cognitive function. Effective tools to study this impact are needed. This study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize brain microstructural changes in HIV-infected individuals with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Diffusion-weighted MRIs were obtained in 22 HIV-infected subjects aged 50 years or older (mean age = 58 years, standard deviation = 6 years; 19 males, three females). Tensors were calculated to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps. Statistical comparisons accounting for multiple comparisons were made between groups with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Abnormal glucose metabolism (i.e., impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or diabetes mellitus) was associated with significantly higher MD (false discovery rate (FDR) critical p value = 0.008) and lower FA (FDR critical p value = 0.002) in the caudate and lower FA in the hippocampus (FDR critical p value = 0.004). Pearson correlations were performed between DTI measures in the caudate and hippocampus and age- and education-adjusted composite scores of global cognitive function, memory, and psychomotor speed. There were no detectable correlations between the neuroimaging measures and measures of cognition. In summary, we demonstrate that brain microstructural abnormalities are associated with abnormal glucose metabolism in the caudate and hippocampus of HIV-infected individuals. Deep gray matter structures and the hippocampus may be vulnerable in subjects with comorbid abnormal glucose metabolism, but our results should be confirmed in further studies.

  15. Evaluation by women consulting in a family planning centre of their risk of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Thonneau, P; Quesnot, S; Lhomme, J P; Testas, P; Spira, A

    1991-05-01

    In order to assess women's self-perception of their risk of infection by HIV, research was performed among 654 women who had consulted in a family planning centre in the Paris region. Of the 452 (69%) women who took part in this research, 77% considered themselves as 'not at risk of carrying the AIDS virus', 11% as 'at risk' and 12% did not give a specific answer. The most important risk factors noted by the patient and the doctor were found to be the number of partners, the use of syringes and the non- or faulty use of condoms. Estimates of the risk of infection by physicians had a high correlation with those of the women, although there were wide differences between the opinions of the six doctors involved. In one case out of three the doctors were unable to decide whether or not their patient was at risk. The evident difficulties experienced by these physicians show an urgent need for the development of specific medical training programmes. The seroprevalence of 2.4% of HIV infection among the women studied, and 1.1% of those who consulted during the study period, confirm the importance of carrying out specific studies on women consulting in family planning centres.

  16. Development of an HIV risk reduction counselling intervention for use in South African sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Mathiti, V; Simbayi, L C; Jooste, S; Kekana, Q; Nibe, X P; Shasha, L; Bidla, P; Magubane, P; Cain, D; Cherry, C; Kalichman, S C

    2005-07-01

    South Africa urgently needs HIV prevention interventions that can be disseminated for use in clinical and community settings. A brief theory-based HIV risk reduction counselling intervention originally developed in the USA has recently been adapted for use in a South African sexually transmitted infection clinic. The 60-minute risk reduction counselling intervention was grounded in the Information-Motivation-Behavioural Skills (IMB) model of HIV preventive behaviour change, adapted through a series of interdisciplinary collaborative workshops. This paper reports the process of developing and culturally adapting the brief risk reduction counselling intervention. The processes used for adapting the HIV risk reduction counselling for South Africa provides a potential model for conducting technology transfer activities with other HIV prevention interventions. Several lessons learned from this process may help guide future efforts to transfer HIV prevention technologies.

  17. Sero surveillance of HIV infection in high risk groups and in suspected AIDS cases in a New Delhi hospital.

    PubMed

    Ray, K; Mahajan, M; Misra, R S

    1997-09-01

    A total of 17,824 sera were screened for the presence of HIV 1 + 2 antibodies by Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA) to determine (i) seroprevalence of HIV infection in hospital high risk groups (ii) time trend of HIV seroprevalence in STD clinic attendees (both STD patients and non STD patients), over a period of six years, (iii) relationship of the STD's with HIV seropositivity (iv) clinical profile and epidemiological characteristics of the AIDS cases. A progressive increase in the HIV seropositive STD patients showing a five fold rise over six years was seen. Most gave history of multipartner sex especially with female CSW's. The most common STD associated with HIV seropositivity was Syphilis followed by Chancroid and Gonorrhoea. All had HIV-1 infection. The AIDS cases (20) presented mainly with tuberculosis, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary. The mode of infection, both in the HIV seropositive and AIDS cases, was mainly heterosexual relationship followed by blood transfusion. In a few cases, infection was perinatally transmitted. In the limited number of HIV positive contacts studied, seven were confirmed as Western Blot positive. HIV infection, although a later introduction in Delhi compared to the coastal cities, has shown a clear increasing trend in the STD patients.

  18. Representations of primary care professionals about the occupational risk of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Marina Celly Martins Ribeiro; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima

    2010-01-01

    This was a qualitative study, based on the Social Representations Theory, with professionals that work in primary care, about the risk of HIV infection to which they are exposed in their quotidian work routine. Twelve physicians and nurses who work in two Health Centers in the city of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, were interviewed. The final analysis, carried out using the saturation of information criterion, was based on the method proposed by Structural Analysis of Narrative. The results show that the health professionals interviewed knew the infection risk in their work routine, representing it as very low in primary care, because they relate it to technological complexity which they consider does not exist in the level of assistance in which they work. They believed that the use of personal protection equipment may minimize the risks and that, nowadays, no primary care professional refuses to attend a patient due to fear of infection, even if not using all the recommended precautions.

  19. Prevalence of risk factors associated with human papillomavirus infection in women living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Hankins, C; Coutlée, F; Lapointe, N; Simard, P; Tran, T; Samson, J; Hum, L

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Concurrent infection with HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) in women is associated with increased rates of cervical dysplasia and shorter survival following the development of cervical cancer. The authors examined risk factors for HPV infection at study entry in HIV-positive women enrolled in the Canadian Women's HIV Study, a prospective open cohort study. METHODS: Subjects eligible for this analysis included the 375 HIV-positive women in the Canadian Women's HIV Study for whom HPV test results were available. Questionnaires on behavioural and clinical information, Pap smears, cervicovaginal lavage specimens and vaginal tampon specimens for HPV detection and typing by polymerase chain reaction were obtained at study entry. RESULTS: Overall, 67.2% (252/375) of the women were HPV-positive; the global prevalence of intermediate- and high-risk oncogenic HPV types was 49.1% (184/375). Women with squamous cell dysplasia (32/294) were more likely to have HPV infection than those without dysplasia (90.6% v. 62.6%; p = 0.002). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, with adjustment for number of lifetime partners and history of STD, revealed that the following risk factors were independently associated with HPV infection: CD4 count of less than 0.20 x 10(9)/L (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.99 [95% confidence interval (Cl) 1.17-3.37 (p = 0.011)]), non-white race (adjusted OR 2.00 [95% Cl 1.17-3.42 (p = 0.011)]), inconsistent condom use in the 6 months before study entry (adjusted OR 2.02 [95% Cl 1.16-3.50 (p = 0.013)]), and lower age, with women age 30-39 years (adjusted OR 0.51 [95% Cl 0.30-0.87 (p = 0.013)]) and age 40 years or older (adjusted OR 0.52 [95% Cl 0.26-1.01 (p = 0.052)]) compared with women less than 30 years of age. INTERPRETATION: Close monitoring for HPV-related effects is warranted in all HIV-positive women, particularly younger, non-white women who do not always use condoms. Counselling for women living with HIV, particularly younger women

  20. Biomarkers and Bacterial Pneumonia Risk in Patients with Treated HIV Infection: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bjerk, Sonja M.; Baker, Jason V.; Emery, Sean; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Angus, Brian; Gordin, Fred M.; Pett, Sarah L.; Stephan, Christoph; Kunisaki, Ken M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advances in HIV treatment, bacterial pneumonia continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. Studies of biomarker associations with bacterial pneumonia risk in treated HIV-infected patients do not currently exist. Methods We performed a nested, matched, case-control study among participants randomized to continuous combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy trial. Patients who developed bacterial pneumonia (cases) and patients without bacterial pneumonia (controls) were matched 1∶1 on clinical center, smoking status, age, and baseline cART use. Baseline levels of Club Cell Secretory Protein 16 (CC16), Surfactant Protein D (SP-D), C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and d-dimer were compared between cases and controls. Results Cases (n = 72) and controls (n = 72) were 25.7% female, 51.4% black, 65.3% current smokers, 9.7% diabetic, 36.1% co-infected with Hepatitis B/C, and 75.0% were on cART at baseline. Median (IQR) age was 45 (41, 51) years with CD4+ count of 553 (436, 690) cells/mm3. Baseline CC16 and SP-D were similar between cases and controls, but hsCRP was significantly higher in cases than controls (2.94 µg/mL in cases vs. 1.93 µg/mL in controls; p = 0.02). IL-6 and d-dimer levels were also higher in cases compared to controls, though differences were not statistically significant (p-value 0.06 and 0.10, respectively). Conclusions In patients with cART-treated HIV infection, higher levels of systemic inflammatory markers were associated with increased bacterial pneumonia risk, while two pulmonary-specific inflammatory biomarkers, CC16 and SP-D, were not associated with bacterial pneumonia risk. PMID:23457535

  1. Factors Contributing to the Risk of HIV Infection in Rural School-Going Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Awotidebe, Adedapo; Phillips, Julie; Lens, Willy

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors that increase the risk of HIV infection in rural school-going adolescents and young adults. This was a cross-sectional study of 430 secondary school students (47.4% boys and 52.6% girls) from two rural schools in South Africa. Data were collected with a self-administered questionnaire on demographic information, sources of HIV/AIDS information, HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, communication and negotiation skills, self-efficacy to refuse sex, peer influence and time perspective. Out of 113 (27.2%) participants who reported being sexually active, about 48% reported having had sex before the age of 15 and 42.2% reported penetrative sex with more than one partner in their lifetime. Only 44.8% of them reported consistent and regular use of condoms for every sexual encounter. Peer influence (OR = 3.01 (95% CI = 1.97–4.60)), gender difference (OR = 6.60 (95% CI = 1.62–26.84)) and lack of HIV information (OR = 1.22 (95% CI = 1.03–1.44)) influenced the sexual risk behaviors of the adolescents. Greater numbers of school-going adolescents in rural areas are sexually active. Peer influence, especially in boys, is a factor that increases the preponderance of risky sexual behaviors in adolescents. Positively, adolescents with high knowledge of HIV infection are more likely to use condoms for every sexual encounter. There is a need to strengthen comprehensive sexual health education and youth-friendly HIV prevention strategies to promote abstinence and safe sexual behaviors, especially among boys. PMID:25405598

  2. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Colonization of the Groin and Risk for Clinical Infection among HIV-infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, John T.; McAllister, Sigrid K.; Limbago, Brandi; Lowery, H. Ken; Fosheim, Gregory; Guest, Jodie L.; Gorwitz, Rachel J.; Bethea, Monique; Hageman, Jeffrey; Mindley, Rondeen; McDougal, Linda K.; Rimland, David

    2013-01-01

    Data on the interaction between methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization and clinical infection are limited. During 2007–2008, we enrolled HIV-infected adults in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, in a prospective cohort study. Nares and groin swab specimens were cultured for S. aureus at enrollment and after 6 and 12 months. MRSA colonization was detected in 13%–15% of HIV-infected participants (n = 600, 98% male) at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. MRSA colonization was detected in the nares only (41%), groin only (21%), and at both sites (38%). Over a median of 2.1 years of follow-up, 29 MRSA clinical infections occurred in 25 participants. In multivariate analysis, MRSA clinical infection was significantly associated with MRSA colonization of the groin (adjusted risk ratio 4.8) and a history of MRSA infection (adjusted risk ratio 3.1). MRSA prevention strategies that can effectively prevent or eliminate groin colonization are likely necessary to reduce clinical infections in this population. PMID:23631854

  3. Occupational Risk of HIV, HBV and HSV-2 Infections in Health Care Personnel Caring for AIDS Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhls, Thomas L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Female health care workers with exposure to AIDS patients were studied. Two of the 246 workers showed evidence of opportunistic infections. This analysis confirms the low risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection when hospital infection control practices are employed around AIDS patients. (Author/VM)

  4. Assessing Maladaptive Responses to the Stress of Being At-Risk of HIV Infection among HIV-Negative Gay Men in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Huso; Shidlo, Ariel; Sandfort, Theo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and preliminary validity of a newly developed 16-item measure to assess maladaptive responses to the stress of being at risk for HIV infection among HIV-negative gay men. The measure consisted of three factors: (1) fatalistic beliefs about maintaining an HIV-negative serostatus; (2) reduced perceived severity of HIV infection due to advances in medical treatment of HIV/AIDS; and (3) negative affective states associated with the risk of HIV infection. A total of 285 HIV-negative gay men at a counseling program in New York City participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the three-factor model as an acceptable model fit: NNFI = .91, CFI = .92, GFI = .90, RMSEA = .07. The measure and its subscales obtained in this sample achieved adequate internal consistency coefficients. Construct validity was supported by significant positive associations with internalized homophobia, depression, self-justifications for the last unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), and actual UAI with casual sex partners. Understanding the dynamics of maladaptive responses to the epidemic and intense anxieties elicited by HIV risk among HIV-negative gay men living in a place of high seroprevalence provides useful information to guide psychosocial interventions in the population. PMID:20043254

  5. HIV infection and risk factors among the armed forces personnel stationed in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Rimoin, A W; Hoff, N A; Djoko, C F; Kisalu, N K; Kashamuka, M; Tamoufe, U; LeBreton, M; Kayembe, P K; Muyembe, J J; Kitchen, C R; Saylors, K; Fair, J; Doshi, R; Papworth, E; Mpoudi-Ngole, E; Grillo, M P; Tshala, F; Peeters, M; Wolfe, N D

    2015-03-01

    Despite recent declines in HIV incidence, sub-Saharan Africa remains the most heavily affected region in the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. Estimates of HIV prevalence in African military personnel are scarce and inconsistent. We conducted a serosurvey between June and September 2007 among 4043 Armed Forces personnel of the Democratic Republic of Congo (FARDC) stationed in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to determine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections and describe associated risk behaviours. Participants provided blood for HIV and syphilis testing and responded to a demographic and risk factor questionnaire. The prevalence of HIV was 3.8% and the prevalence of syphilis was 11.9%. Women were more likely than men to be HIV positive, (7.5% vs. 3.6% respectively, aOR: 1.66, 95% C.I: 1.21-2.28, p < 0.05). Factors significantly associated with HIV infection included gender and self-reported genital ulcers in the 12 months before date of enrollment. The prevalence of HIV in the military appears to be higher than the general population in DRC (3.8% vs. 1.3%, respectively), with women at increased risk of infection.

  6. Incidence and Risk Factors of Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in HIV-Infected Individuals in Comparison to HIV-Uninfected Individuals: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Kotpal, Ruchi; S, Krishna Prakash; Bhalla, Preena; Dewan, Richa; Kaur, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of nasal colonization of Staphylococcus aureus in individuals with HIV infection attending the Integrated Counselling and Testing Centre in a teaching hospital and compare the prevalence with HIV-uninfected individuals. A case-control study was conducted among newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals and an equal number of age-group and sex-matched HIV-uninfected individuals, and nasal swabs were collected from both the samples. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected through individual interviews. Ethical aspects were respected. A total of 100 individuals participated in the study, and 22 (44%) of the 50 HIV-infected cases were colonized by S aureus, including 19 (86.4%) methicillin-sensitive S aureus (MSSA) and 3 (13.6%) methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA). Only 12 (24%) strains were isolated from 50 HIV-uninfected individuals, with 11 being MSSA and 1 being MRSA. This difference in the isolation rate was statistically significant (P = .035). The 2 most commonly encountered risk factors in both the groups appeared to be history of tuberculosis and history of surgical procedures but none being statistically significant (P = .093 and P = .996). All the strains of S aureus were sensitive to mupirocin. The study concluded that HIV-infected individuals are at a higher risk of carriage as compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. By eliminating carriage in immunocompromised individuals, infections due to S aureus can also be minimized.

  7. Partners at risk: motivations, strategies, and challenges to HIV transmission risk reduction among HIV-infected men and women in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Lifshay, Julie; Nakayiwa, Sylvia; King, Rachel; Reznick, Olga Grinstead; Katuntu, David; Batamwita, Richard; Ezati, Enoch; Coutinho, Alex; Kazibwe, Cissy; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2009-06-01

    Prevention with positives (PWP) is a fundamental component of HIV prevention in industrialized countries. Despite the estimated 22.4 million HIV-infected adults in Africa (UNAIDS, 2006), culturally appropriate PWP guidelines have not been developed for this region. In order to inform these guidelines, we conducted 37 interviews (17 women, 20 men, no couples) from October 2003 to May 2004 with purposefully selected HIV-infected individuals in care in Uganda. Participants reported increased condom use and reduced intercourse frequency and numbers of partners after testing HIV-positive. Motivations for behavior change included concerns for personal health and the health of others, and decreased libido. Gender-power inequities (sometimes manifesting in forced sex), pain experienced by women while using condoms, decreased pleasure for men while using condoms, lack of social support, and desire for children appear to have resulted in increased risk for uninfected partners. Interventions addressing domestic violence, partner negotiation, use of lubricants and alternative sexual activities could increase condom use and/or decrease sexual activity and/or numbers of partners, thereby reducing HIV transmission risk.

  8. Transactional sex among women in Soweto, South Africa: prevalence, risk factors and association with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Dunkle, Kristin L; Jewkes, Rachel K; Brown, Heather C; Gray, Glenda E; McIntryre, James A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2004-10-01

    Sex workers have long been considered a high-risk group for HIV infection, but to date little quantitative research has explored the association between HIV risk and exchange of sex for material gain by women in the general population. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of such transactional sex among women attending antenatal clinics in Soweto, South Africa, to identify demographic and social variables associated with reporting transactional sex, and to determine the association between transactional sex and HIV serostatus. We conducted a cross-sectional study of women seeking antenatal care in four Soweto health centres who accepted routine antenatal HIV testing. Private face-to-face interviews covered socio-demographics, sexual history and experience of gender-based violence. 21.1% of participants reported having ever had sex with a non-primary male partner in exchange for material goods or money. Women who reported past experience of violence by male intimate partners, problematic substance use, urban residence, ever earning money, or living in substandard housing were more likely to report transactional sex, while women who reported delayed first coitus, were married, or had a post-secondary education were less likely to report transactional sex. Transactional sex was associated with HIV seropositivity after controlling for lifetime number of male sex partners and length of time a woman had been sexually active (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.21). Women who reported non-primary partners without transactional sex did not have increased odds of being HIV seropositive (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.43). We conclude that transactional sex may place women at increased risk for HIV, and is associated with gender-based violence, substance use and socio-economic disadvantage. Research, policy and programmatic initiatives should consider the role of transactional sex in women's HIV risk, with attention to the intersecting roles of violence, poverty

  9. Sexual behaviour among youths at high risk for HIV-1 infection in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwakagile, D; Mmari, E; Makwaya, C; Mbwana, J; Biberfeld, G; Mhalu, F; Sandstrom, E

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate sex specific sexual behaviour in youths visiting a youth clinic for sexual and reproductive health in Dar es Saalam. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to a random sample of youths between 10 and 24 years of age attending the youth health clinic in Dar es Saalam. The clinical investigation included testing for syphilis and HIV-1 antibodies Results: 1423 youths attended the clinic between September 1997 and August 1998. The study population comprised 213 (53.5%) males and 185 (46.5%) females. 97 (24.4%) were below 20 years. The mean age at coitarche was 16.5 and 17.0 years of age for males and females, respectively. The coitarche was involuntary in 15 females (8.6%). 49.5% males reported more than five lifetime partners compared with 14.1% for females (p<0.0001). Males reported recent partners to be 2.5 years younger, while females reported them to be 5.0 years older. No contraceptive use was reported by 29.7% of the males and 40.3% of females. 52.7% females had been pregnant and 26 (14.1%) reported induced abortions. Genital discharge was found in 69.5% and 73.9% and GUD in 36.6% and 27.1% of males and females respectively. 12 males (5.9%) and 43 females (24.6%) were found to be HIV-1 infected. 13.8% of the females with only one lifetime partner were HIV-1 infected compared with 40.9% with more than five partners (p = 0.028). Conclusions: Many youths in Dar es Salaam engage in sexual behaviours that put them at risk of unwanted pregnancies and STIs including HIV infection. Female youths were more likely to contract HIV infection than males. In African urban areas youth oriented clinics can have a pivotal role in HIV/STI prevention and control Key Words: youth; sexual behaviour; HIV PMID:11463924

  10. Risk factors for anaemia among HIV infected children attending HIV care and treatment clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Makubi, Abel N; Mugus, Ferdinand; Magesa, Pius M; Roberts, David; Quaresh, Amrana

    2012-01-01

    There is paucity of data describing the risk factors for anaemia among HIV infected children in Tanzania. This cross sectional study aimed at determining the contributing factors for anaemia among HIV-infected children attending Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify possible factors associated with anaemia in HIV-infected children. In this study a total of 75 (44%) patients among 167 recruited HIV children aged 6 months to 59 months were found to be anaemic (Hg<11 g/dl). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that not being on HAART (OR 3.40, 95%CI (1.20-9.60), having CD4% <25% (OR 2.30, 95%CI (1.20-34.60), having a history of tuberculosis (TB) (OR 3.23, 95%CI (1.10-9.70) and having hookworm infestation (OR 5.97, 95%CI (1.92-18.4) were independent risk factors for anaemia among HIV infected children. The analyses also showed that being HIV positive for ≥ 2.5 years resulted into a low risk of severe anaemia compared to being HIV positive for < 2.5 years. Taking multivitamins (OR 0.07, 95%, CI (0.020-0.30) and antihelminthics (OR 0.27, 95%CI (0.10-0.74) were also protective against anaemia in children. Similar factors (with exception of using antihelmintics) were associated with severe anaemia. In conclusion the factors associated with anaemia in HIV infected children were multifactorial in nature. Efforts to correct anaemia in HIV infected children should include use of HAART and treatment of infections such as TB and hookworms.

  11. [Risk reduction and intravenous drug use abstinence in patients with HIV infection. The SEROCO group].

    PubMed

    Meyer, L; Wade, A; Persoz, A; Boué, F; Dellamonica, P; Caroli-Bosc, C; Carré, N

    1998-02-01

    Few prospective studies have described the stepwise process of giving up intravenous drug (IV) use. In an effort to deepen the understanding of the relationship between risk reduction related to IV drug use and giving up such drug use, the authors studied factors associated with IV drug abstinence among HIV-infected patients using IV drugs at their enrollment in the multicenter French cohort SEROCO between 1988 and 1994. 63 HIV-infected patients injecting IV drugs at enrollment were followed clinically every 6 months and with a questionnaire on their sexual practices and drug use since their most recent consultations. The termination of drug use was defined as not using drugs for a period of at least 6 months. The 30 subjects who gave up IV drug use over the 3-year follow-up were compared to the 33 subjects who continued using IV drugs. Those who gave up IV drugs were more likely to be professionally active at enrollment than those who kept injecting, they more often used during the follow-up period new injection materials for each injection, and more often used condoms with HIV-negative partners and those of unknown serostatus. The abandonment of IV drug use in this study followed a stepwise process in which the reduction of risks preceded the eventual cessation of drug use.

  12. Incidence of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection among HIV-uninfected individuals at high risk for sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Massimo; Cordiali-Fei, Paola; Castilletti, Concetta; Di Carlo, Aldo; Palamara, Guido; Boros, Stefano; Rezza, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Background The occurrence of, and risk factors for, HHV-8 infection have yet to be definitively determined, particularly among heterosexual individuals with at-risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections (STI). The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence and determinants of HHV-8 infection among HIV-uninfected individuals repeatedly attending an urban STI clinic. Methods Sera from consecutive HIV-uninfected individuals repeatedly tested for HIV-1 antibodies were additionally tested for HHV-8 antibodies using an immunofluorescence assay. To identify determinants of HHV-8 infection, a nested case-control study and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Sera from 456 HIV-uninfected individuals (224 multiple-partner heterosexuals and 232 men who have sex with men (MSM]) were identified for inclusion in the study. The HHV-8 seroprevalence at enrollment was 9.4% (21/224; 95% C.I.: 6.0–14.2%) among heterosexuals with multiple partners and 22.0% (51/232; 95% C.I.: 16.9–28.0%) among MSM. Among the 203 multiple-partner heterosexuals and 181 MSM who were initially HHV-8-negative, 17 (IR = 3.0/100 p-y, 95% C.I.: 1.9 – 4.8) and 21 (IR = 3.3/100 p-y, 95% C.I:.2.1 – 5.1) seroconversions occurred, respectively. HHV-8 seroconversion tended to be associated with a high number of sexual partners during the follow-up among MSM (> 10 partners: AOR = 3.32 95% CI:0.89–12.46) and among the multiple-partner heterosexuals (> 10 partner; AOR = 3.46, 95% CI:0.42–28.2). Moreover, among MSM, HHV-8 seroconversion tended to be associated with STI (AOR = 1.80 95%CI: 0.52–7.96). During the study period the HIV-1 incidence was lower than that of HHV-8 among both groups (0.89/100 p-y among MSM and 0.95/100 p-y among multiple-partner heterosexuals). Conclusion The large difference between the incidence of HHV-8 and the incidence of HIV-1 and other STIs may suggest that the circulation of HHV-8 is sustained by practices other than classical

  13. International travel and HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    von Reyn, C. F.; Mann, J. M.; Chin, J.

    1990-01-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide problem, its prevalence and pattern vary from country to country. Accordingly, the risk to international travellers of acquiring HIV infection also varies widely in different parts of the world, and depends principally on their behaviour. The risk of sexual acquisition of HIV infection can be virtually eliminated by avoiding penetrative sexual intercourse with intravenous drug users and persons who have had multiple sexual partners (such as prostitutes) or reduced by the use of condoms. The risk of parenteral exposure to HIV can be reduced by avoiding parenteral drug use and behaviour that is likely to lead to injury (with its attendant risk of requiring blood transfusion) and by seeking medical facilities with adequate capabilities to screen blood donors for HIV and to sterilize instruments. HIV screening of international travellers is an ineffective, costly, and impractical public health strategy for limiting the worldwide spread of HIV infection. Travellers infected with HIV require specialized advice regarding health precautions, prophylactic medications, and immunization. PMID:2194689

  14. Tuberculosis incidence rate and risk factors among HIV-infected adults with access to antiretroviral therapy in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Enju; MAKUBI, Abel; DRAIN, Paul; SPIEGELMAN, Donna; SANDO, David; LI, Nan; CHALAMILLA, Guerino; SUDFELD, Christopher R.; HERTZMARK, Ellen; FAWZI, Wafaie W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence rate and risk factors of tuberculosis (TB) among HIV-infected adults accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Tanzania. Design A prospective observational study among HIV-infected adults attending 47 HIV clinics in Dar es Salaam. Methods We estimated TB incidence rates among HIV-infected patients prior to and after ART initiation. We used Cox proportional hazard regressions to determine the predictors of incident TB among HIV-infected adults enrolled in the HIV care and treatment program. Results We assessed 67,686 patients for a median follow-up period of 24 (interquartile range: 8–49) months; 7,602 patients were diagnosed with active TB. The TB incidence rate was 7.9 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 7.6–8.2)/100 person-years prior to ART initiation, and 4.4(95%CI, 4.2–4.4)/100 person-years for patients receiving ART. In multivariate analyses, patients on ART in the first 3 months had a 57% higher risk of TB (Hazard Ratio:1.57, 95%CI:1.47–1.68) compared to those not on ART, but the risk significantly decreased with increasing duration of ART. Risk factors for incident TB included being male, having low body mass index or middle upper arm circumference, lower CD4 cell count, and advanced WHO disease stage. There was seasonal variation for incident TB, with higher risk observed following the rainy seasons (May, June, and November). Conclusion In TB endemic regions, HIV-infected patients initiating ART, particularly males and those with poor nutritional status, should be closely monitored for active TB in the months following ART initiation. In addition to increasing the access to ART, interventions should be considered to improve nutritional status among HIV-infected patients. PMID:26091295

  15. Incident major depressive episodes increase the severity and risk of apathy in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Rujvi; Cattie, Jordan E; Marcotte, Thomas D; Woods, Steven Paul; Franklin, Donald R; Corkran, Stephanie H; Ellis, Ronald J; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    Apathy and depression are inter-related yet separable and prevalent neuropsychiatric disturbances in persons infected with HIV. In the present study of 225 HIV+ persons, we investigated the role of an incident depressive episode in changes in apathy. Participants completed the apathy subscale of the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale during a detailed neuropsychiatric and neuromedical evaluation at visit 1 and again at approximately a 14 month follow-up. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to obtain diagnoses of a new major depressive disorder. At their follow-up visit, participants were classified into four groups depending on their visit 1 elevation in apathy and new major depressive episode (MDE) status. Apathetic participants at baseline with a new MDE (n=23) were at risk for continued, clinically elevated apathy at follow-up, although severity of symptoms did not increase. Of the 144 participants without clinically elevated apathy at visit 1, those who developed a new MDE (n=16) had greater apathy symptomatology at follow-up than those without MDE. These findings suggest that HIV+ individuals, who do not as yet present with elevated apathy, may be at greater risk of elevated psychiatric distress should they experience a new/recurrent depressive episode. Thus, in the context of previous findings, it appears that although apathy and depression are separable constructs, they interact such that a new depressive episode is a risk factor for incident apathy.

  16. Incident Major Depressive Episodes increase the severity and risk of apathy in HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Rujvi; Cattie, Jordan E.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Woods, Steven Paul; Franklin, Donald R.; Corkran, Stephanie H.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Apathy and depression are inter-related yet separable and prevalent neuropsychiatric disturbances in persons infected with HIV. In the present study of 225 HIV+ persons, we investigated the role of an incident depressive episode in changes in apathy. Participants completed the apathy subscale of the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale during a detailed neuropsychiatric and neuromedical evaluation at visit 1 and again at approximately a 14 month follow-up. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to obtain diagnoses of a new major depressive disorder. At their follow-up visit, participants were classified into four groups depending on their visit 1 elevation in apathy and new major depressive episode (MDE) status. Apathetic participants at baseline with a new MDE (n=23) were at risk for continued, clinically elevated apathy at follow-up, although severity of symptoms did not increase. Of the 144 participants without clinically elevated apathy at visit 1, those who developed a new MDE (n=16) had greater apathy symptomatology at follow-up than those without MDE. These findings suggest that HIV+ individuals, who do not as yet present with elevated apathy, may be at greater risk of elevated psychiatric distress should they experience a new/recurrent depressive episode. Thus, in the context of previous findings, it appears that although apathy and depression are separable constructs, they interact such that a new depressive episode is a risk factor for incident apathy. PMID:25679203

  17. Is use of antiretroviral therapy among homosexual men associated with increased risk of transmission of HIV infection?

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, J; Imrie, J; Davis, M; Mercer, C; Black, S; Copas, A; Hart, G; Davidson, O; Williams, I

    2003-01-01

    Background/objective: There is concern that use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may be linked to increased sexual risk behaviour among homosexual men. We investigated sexual risk behaviour in HIV positive homosexual men and the relation between use of HAART and risk of HIV transmission. Methods: A cross sectional study of 420 HIV positive homosexual men attending a London outpatient clinic. Individual data were collected from computer assisted self interview, STI screening, and clinical and laboratory databases. Results: Among all men, sexual behaviour associated with a high risk of HIV transmission was commonly reported. The most frequently reported type of partnership was casual partners only, and 22% reported unprotected anal intercourse with one or more new partners in the past month. Analysis of crude data showed that men on HAART had fewer sexual partners (median 9 versus 20, p=0.28), less unprotected anal intercourse (for example, 36% versus 27% had insertive unprotected anal intercourse with a new partner in the past year, p=0.03) and fewer acute sexually transmitted infections (33% versus 19%, p=0.004 in the past 12 months) than men not on HAART. Self assessed health status was similar between the two groups: 72% on HAART and 75% not on HAART rated their health as very or fairly good, (p=0.55). In multivariate analysis, differences in sexual risk behaviour between men on HAART and men not on HAART were attenuated by adjustment for age, time since HIV infection. CD4 count and self assessed health status. Conclusion: HIV positive homosexual men attending a London outpatient clinic commonly reported sexual behaviour with a high risk of HIV transmission. However, behavioural and clinical risk factors for HIV transmission were consistently lower in men on HAART than men not on HAART. Although use of HAART by homosexual men with generally good health is not associated with higher risk behaviours, effective risk reduction interventions targeting

  18. Marriage, intimacy and risk of HIV infection in south west Uganda.

    PubMed

    Agol, Dorice; Bukenya, Dominic; Seeley, Janet; Kabunga, Elazabeth; Katahoire, Anne

    2014-12-01

    Long-term, monogamous, relationships are often portrayed as protective in HIV prevention campaigns. Focusing on marriage in a community in south west Uganda, we examine why and how people enter long term relationships, what their expectations are and what factors sustain those relationships. Qualitative data were collected using in-depth interviews with 50 men and women randomly selected from a General Population Cohort. The results showed that managing expectations to sustain marriage is challenging; however the socio-economic and cultural benefits of marriage: having children, property acquisition as well as securing societal status tend to overshadow the costs associated with risks from infidelity such as sexually transmitted infections (including HIV). Recognising the compromises that couples may make to sustain their marriage is an important step towards acknowledging that 'being faithful' may be about staying together and showing commitment, not sexual exclusivity.

  19. Cancer risk in HIV-infected individuals on HAART is largely attributed to oncogenic infections and state of immunocompetence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cancer risk of HIV-infected patients in the HAART era with respect to a general reference population and to determine risk factors for malignancy. Methods Long term (1996-2009) cancer incidence of the Bonn single centre HIV cohort was compared to the incidence of the reference population of Saarland using standardized incidence ratios (SIR). Poisson regression analysis was used to identify predictors of cancer risk. Results 1,476 patients entered the cohort, enabling 8,772 person years of observation. 121 tumours in 114 patients, 7 in-situ and 114 invasive cancers, were identified. Malignancies associated with infectious agents such as Kaposi sarcoma (SIRs: male: 5,683; female: 277), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIRs male: 35; female: 18), anal cancer (SIRs male: 88; female: 115) as well a cervical carcinoma (SIR female: 4) and Hodgkin's disease (SIR male: 39) and liver cancer (SIR male: 18) were substantially more frequent in HIV-infected patients than in the general population (p < 0.001, each), whereas all other types of cancer were not increased. Poisson regression identified HAART (incidence rate ratio IRR (95% CI): 0.28 (0.19-0.41), p < 0.001), CD4 count (IRR per 100 cells/μl increase: 0.66 (0.57-0.76), p < 0.001), hepatitis B (IRR: 2.15 (1.10-4.20), p = 0.046) and age (IRR per 10 year increase: 1.23 (1.03 - 1.46), p = 0.023) as independent predictors for the occurrence of any type of cancer. Conclusions HAART and preserved CD4 cells preferentially reduce the risk of malignancies associated with oncogenic infections. PMID:21486722

  20. [Risk factors for infection among the patrons of an HIV Control Program, Antioquia, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Gómez, R D; Arango, M V; Velázquez, G; Orozco, B

    1990-03-01

    A review is presented of the characteristics of 432 users of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Control Program sponsored by the Public Health Departmental Laboratory of Antioquia, Colombia, who were seen between July 1988 and June 1989. The prevalence of seropositivity to HIV was 29.4%, while that of AIDS was 6.7%. Eight of the seropositive subjects were women. The average age on entrance into the Program was 28.7 +/- 7.9, and it was significantly higher among the seropositive subjects. The study sample was divided into four subgroups: women, bisexual men, homosexual men, and heterosexual men. In all the subgroups the prevalence of high-risk sexual practices was high and the percentage of condom utilization was low. Frequency of exposure to different risk factors, such as injections, transfusions of blood or other fluids, surgical interventions, tattoos, consumption of alcohol and other psychoactive substances, acupuncture, and sexual preference and practices, was determined. HIV seropositivity for the group as a whole was associated with sexual relations with infected persons (OR = 3.96), active anal coitus (OR = 3.81), sexual relations with men (OR = 3.69), passive anal coitus (OR = 3.35), and sexual relations abroad (OR = 2.24). In men, HIV seropositivity was associated with anal coitus (OR = 4.0), homosexual relations (OR = 3.96), sexual relations with infected persons (OR = 3.75), and sexual relations abroad (OR = 1.88); in women there was an association with intravenous drug use (chi 2 = 10.72) and with sexual relations abroad (OR = 12.67).

  1. Prospective cohort study of female sex workers and the risk of HIV infection in Alicante, Spain (1986-96)

    PubMed Central

    Vioque, J.; Hernandez-Aguado, I.; Fernandez, G; d Garcia; Alvarez-Dardet, C.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the incidence of HIV infection over a 10 year follow up in a cohort of female commercial sex workers in Alicante (Spain), and to determine factors associated with high risk of infection. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried in an AIDS information and prevention centre in Alicante, Spain. Of the 1388 female sex workers who initially sought the services of the centre since September 1986, 657 completed at least one additional follow up visit before December 1996. Main outcome measures were infection with HIV-1 and reported risk behaviours. RESULTS: During 1815 person years of observation among 657 female sex workers who were free of HIV infection (negative test), 16 women developed of HIV infection (incidence rate of HIV infection = 8.8 cases/1000 woman years, 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.4-14.4). Reported current use of injecting drugs at the first visit was associated with an increased risk of HIV infection (relative risk, RR = 12.87, 95% CI: 4.81-34.15) as well as having an usual partner with injecting drug addiction (RR = 20.89, 95% CI: 7.44-58.70). Infection also was associated with younger age (RR for 1 year = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-0.96). After multivariate adjustment using Poisson regression analysis, the factors that remained significantly associated with the risk of HIV infection were current use of injecting drugs (RR = 4.61, 95% CI: 1.37-15.46), and having a usual partner with injecting drug addiction (RR = 10.08, 95% CI: 2.94-34.57). There was also some evidence that a younger age could be related to infection. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the risk of HIV infection among this cohort of female sex workers in Alicante is predominately associated with the use of injecting drugs, and having a regular partner with injecting drug addiction. An increasing number of clients did not play a role in the risk of infection. 


 PMID:9924471

  2. Vitamin D in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    JE, Lake; JS, Adams

    2013-01-01

    Observational studies have noted very high rates of low 25(OH)D (vitamin D) levels in both the general and HIV-infected populations. In HIV-infected patients, low 25(OH)D levels are likely a combination of both traditional risk factors and HIV- and antiretroviral therapy-specific contributors. Because of this unique risk profile, HIV-infected persons may be at greater risk for low 25(OH)D levels and frank deficiency and/or may respond to standard repletion regimens differently than HIV-uninfected patients. Currently, the optimal repletion and maintenance dosing regimens for HIV-infected patients remain unknown, as do potential benefits of supplementation that may be unique to the HIV-infected population. This paper reviews data published on HIV infection and vitamin D health in adults over the last year. PMID:21647555

  3. Substance use is a risk factor for neurocognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric distress in acute and early HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Weber, Erica; Morgan, Erin E; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Grant, Igor; Ellis, Ronald J; Letendre, Scott L; Little, Susan; Morris, Sheldon; Smith, Davey M; Moore, David J; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-02-01

    The acute and early stages of HIV infection (AEH) are characterized by substantial viral replication, immune activation, and alterations in brain metabolism. However, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of neurocognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric disturbances during this period. The present study examined the impact of demographic, HIV disease, and substance use factors on HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and self-reported neuropsychiatric distress among 46 antiretroviral-naive adults with median duration of infection of 75 days relative to a sample of 21 HIV seronegative (HIV-) adults with comparable demographics and risk factors. Participants were administered a brief neurocognitive battery that was adjusted for demographics and assessed executive functions, memory, psychomotor speed, and verbal fluency, as well as the Profile of Mood States, a self-report measure of neuropsychiatric distress. Odds ratios revealed that AEH participants were nearly four times more likely than their seronegative counterparts to experience neurocognitive impairment, particularly in the areas of learning and information processing speed. Similarly, AEH was associated with a nearly fivefold increase in the odds of neuropsychiatric distress, most notably in anxiety and depression. Within the AEH sample, HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment was associated with problematic methamphetamine use and higher plasma HIV RNA levels, whereas neuropsychiatric distress was solely associated with high-risk alcohol use. Extending prior neuroimaging findings, the results from this study indicate that HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric distress are highly prevalent during AEH and are associated with high-risk substance use.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2015-01-01

    More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand.

  5. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya

    2015-01-01

    More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand. PMID:25506754

  6. Adolescent Inpatient Behavioral Health Clients: Risk Factors and Methods of Preventing an Increase in HIV Infection among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackerman, Ann E.

    2002-01-01

    There has been a surge in the rates of adolescents who are becoming infected with HIV. This study of 214 at risk clients being treated on an inpatient psychiatric hospitalization basis examines why such clients continue to engage in high-risk behaviors. Results and suggestions for a psychoeducational curriculum for professionals are included.…

  7. Disability and HIV: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the risk of HIV infection among adults with disabilities in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    De Beaudrap, Pierre; Mac-Seing, Muriel; Pasquier, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    More than one billion people worldwide are estimated to be living with a disability. A significant proportion of them lives in Sub-Saharan Africa where they are reported to be at increased risk of HIV. However, quantitative evidence on this remains scarce. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of the risk of HIV infection among people with disabilities living in Sub-Saharan Africa were undertaken. We searched all published or unpublished studies and national surveys reporting HIV prevalence among adults with disabilities living in Sub-Saharan Africa between 2000 and 2013. The risk ratio (RR) of HIV infection in people with disabilities versus people without disabilities was estimated through a random-effects meta-analysis. Of the 12,252 references screened, 13 studies were selected. HIV prevalence varied widely across studies from 1.1% to 29%. Pooled RRs of HIV infection in people with disabilities compared to the general population were 1.31 (1.02-1.69) overall; 1.16 (0.71-1.87) among people with mental illness or intellectual disabilities and 1.07 (0.58-1.95) among people with hearing disabilities. This meta-analysis provides evidence that people with disabilities do not have a lower risk of HIV when compared to the general population, and that women with disabilities are especially affected. A clear increasing gradient in the risk of HIV according to gender and disability status was also observed. The important heterogeneity across studies and their varying quality warrant a closer look at the intersection between disability and HIV. Additional studies with more systematic approaches and with higher-quality methodologies are required to further address this knowledge gap.

  8. Risk Behavior and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Transgender Women and Men Undergoing Community-Based Screening for Acute and Early HIV Infection in San Diego.

    PubMed

    Green, Nella; Hoenigl, Martin; Morris, Sheldon; Little, Susan J

    2015-10-01

    The transgender community represents an understudied population in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare risk behavior, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates between transgender women and transgender men undergoing community-based HIV testing.With this retrospective analysis of a cohort study, we characterize HIV infection rates as well as reported risk behaviors and reported STI in 151 individual transgender women and 30 individual transgender men undergoing community based, voluntary screening for acute and early HIV infection (AEH) in San Diego, California between April 2008 and July 2014.HIV positivity rate was low for both, transgender women and transgender men undergoing AEH screening (2% and 3%, respectively), and the self-reported STI rate for the prior 12 months was 13% for both. Although transgender women appeared to engage in higher rates of risk behavior overall, with 69% engaged in condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) and 11% engaged in sex work, it is important to note that 91% of transgender women reported recent sexual intercourse, 73% had more than 1 sexual partner, 63% reported intercourse with males, 37% intercourse with males and females, and 30% had CRAI.Our results indicate that in some settings rates of HIV infection, as well as rates of reported STIs and sexual risk behavior in transgender men may resemble those found in transgender women. Our findings support the need for comprehensive HIV prevention in both, transgender women and men.

  9. Prevalence and mitigation strategies of HIV/AIDS infection risks in Namibian tertiary education institutional hostels.

    PubMed

    Zimba, Roderick F; Likando, Gilbert N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors that could promote HIV infection amongst adolescents and young adults living in tertiary educational institutional hostels in Namibia. Employing structured questionnaires and focus group discussions, we sought to answer questions pertaining to factors, beliefs systems, values, traditions and sexual relations that could promote HIV infection in the student hostels. The data on these issues were gathered from 306 male and 314 female students aged 18-35 years living in eight hostels. Amongst other results, the data revealed that sexual promiscuity in the hostels was treated as the norm in the majority of cases, unauthorized access to hostel rooms by non-hostel dwellers was rampant, sexual harassment of female students by men who were under the influence of alcohol was reported to be common and there was general lack of support for victims of sexual abuse in the hostels. In addition, there was a general sense of insecurity in the hostels where more than 50% of the participants were afraid of being sexually attacked, some female hostel residents engaged in sexual activities for monetary and material gain and there was a general practice of older men from the community having sexual relations with young female hostel dwellers. To mitigate these and other risks it is recommended that there be provision of more HIV/AIDS prevention services, enhanced security, non-toxic entertainment (e.g. participation in sport and social clubs) and the banning of the sale of alcohol in student residences and on tertiary institution campuses. These and other results are discussed in the article and ways of mitigating the risks are proposed.

  10. Women in community corrections in New York City: HIV infection and risks.

    PubMed

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Marotta, Phillip L; Shaw, Stacey A; Chang, Mingway; Ma, Xin; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Hunt, Tim; Johnson, Karen; Goodwin, Sharun; Almonte, Maria; Gilbert, Louisa

    2017-02-01

    Although the incidence of HIV among women on probation, parole and alternatives to incarceration programs is significant to public health, drivers of this concentrated epidemic among women under community corrections remain understudied. This study examined prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections and the associations between substance use, socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of biologically-confirmed HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among a sample of 337 substance-using women recruited from community correction sites in New York City. Prevalence of HIV was 13% and sexually transmitted infections was 26% ( Chlamydia, trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea). After adjusting for covariates, HIV-positive women were 1.42 times more likely to use crack/cocaine than HIV-negative women (95% CI = 1.05-1.92). HIV-positive women were 25% less likely than HIV-negative women to report any unprotected vaginal and anal sex with their main partner (95% CI = 0.57-0.99). They were 70% less likely than HIV-negative women to report unprotected vaginal sex with a non-paying casual partner (95% CI = 0.1-0.9) and 22% less likely to report unprotected vaginal sex across all partners (95% CI = 0.61-0.99). Community corrections settings may be optimal venues to launch HIV/sexually transmitted infections prevention that have potential to reach and engage an ever-growing number of substance-using women.

  11. Women in community corrections in New York City: HIV infection and risks

    PubMed Central

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Marotta, Phillip L; Shaw, Stacey A; Chang, Mingway; Ma, Xin; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Hunt, Tim; Johnson, Karen; Goodwin, Sharun; Almonte, Maria; Gilbert, Louisa

    2017-01-01

    Although the incidence of HIV among women on probation, parole and alternatives to incarceration programs is significant to public health, drivers of this concentrated epidemic among women under community corrections remain understudied. This study examined prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections and the associations between substance use, socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of biologically-confirmed HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among a sample of 337 substance-using women recruited from community correction sites in New York City. Prevalence of HIV was 13% and sexually transmitted infections was 26% (Chlamydia, trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhea). After adjusting for covariates, HIV-positive women were 1.42 times more likely to use crack/ cocaine than HIV-negative women (95% CI = 1.05–1.92). HIV-positive women were 25% less likely than HIV-negative women to report any unprotected vaginal and anal sex with their main partner (95% CI = 0.57–0.99). They were 70% less likely than HIV-negative women to report unprotected vaginal sex with a non-paying casual partner (95% CI = 0.1–0.9) and 22% less likely to report unprotected vaginal sex across all partners (95% CI = 0.61–0.99). Community corrections settings may be optimal venues to launch HIV/sexually transmitted infections prevention that have potential to reach and engage an ever-growing number of substance-using women. PMID:26887890

  12. HIV-Infected Young Men Demonstrate Appropriate Risk Perceptions and Beliefs about Safer Sexual Behaviors after Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Jessica A; Lee, Jeannette; Belzer, Marvin; Palefsky, Joel M

    2017-02-20

    The aim of this study was to identify risk perceptions after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among HIV-infected young men who have sex with men. On average, participants appropriately perceived themselves to be at lower than neutral risk for HPV (mean subscale score 4.2/10), at higher than neutral risk for other sexually transmitted infections (7.0/10), and that safer sexual behaviors were still important (8.5/10). Higher perceived risk of HPV was associated with African-American race (p = .03); higher perceived risk of other sexually transmitted infections with White race (p = .01) and higher knowledge about HPV (p = .001); and higher perceived need for safer sexual behaviors with consistent condom use (p = .02). The study provides reassuring data that HIV-infected young men who have sex with men generally have appropriate risk perceptions and believe that safer sexual behaviors after vaccination are still important. These findings mirror the results of studies in HIV-infected young women and HIV-uninfected adolescents.

  13. Context of risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among incarcerated women in the south: individual, interpersonal, and societal factors.

    PubMed

    Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah J; Carry, Monique; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Parker, Sharon; Scheyette, Anna; Neevel, A

    2014-01-01

    Incarcerated women are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to risk factors before, during, and after imprisonment. This study assessed the behavioral, social, and contextual conditions that contribute to continuing sexual risk behaviors among incarcerated women to inform the adaptation of an evidenced-based behavioral intervention for this population. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 current and 28 former women prisoners to assess HIV/STI knowledge, perceptions of risk, intimate relationships, and life circumstances. Interviews were independently coded using an iterative process and analyzed using established qualitative analytic methods. Major themes identified in the interviews involved three focal points: individual risk (substance abuse, emotional need, self-worth, perceptions of risk, and safer sex practices); interpersonal risk (partner pressure, betrayal, and violence); and risk environment (economic self-sufficiency and preparation for reentry). These findings highlight the critical components of HIV/STI prevention interventions for incarcerated women.

  14. Low bone mineral density and associated risk factors in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Chiţu-Tișu, Cristina-Emilia; Barbu, Ecaterina-Constanţa; Lazăr, Mihai; Ion, Daniela Adriana; Bădărău, Ioana Anca

    2016-01-01

    Background Aging of persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) resulted in high rates of osteopenia and osteoporosis. Multiple cohort studies have reported an increased prevalence of bone demineralization among HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and risk factors for osteopenia/osteoporosis among HIV-positive patients attending the National Institute for Infectious Diseases “Prof.Dr. Matei Balș”, Bucharest, Romania. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study that enrolled 60 patients with HIV. The association between BMD and lifestyle habits (smoking), body mass index (BMI), nadir cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count, current CD4 cell count, HIV viral load and history of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) were investigated. The BMD was measured at the lumbar spine, hips and total body using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Results In the present study, DEXA evaluation showed an overall prevalence of osteoporosis of 16.66% (ten patients) and a prevalence of osteopenia of 48.33% (29 patients). In men, low BMI and cigarette smoking showed significant association with the diagnosis of lumbar spine demineralization (p=0.034 and p=0.041, respectively). Duration of exposure to cART classes in relation to BMD was also evaluated. The use of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) was associated with low lumbar spine BMD in all patients (p=0.015). Reduced BMD was significantly associated with protease inhibitors (PIs)-containing treatment (p=0.043) in women. Conclusion At lumbar spine DEXA, male gender was statistically associated with reduced BMD. At the left hip Ward’s area, decreased BMD T scores were significantly associated with aging. The reduced BMD was higher in patients receiving PI- or NNRTI-containing regimens. PMID:27482514

  15. Prevalence of anal high-risk human papillomavirus infections among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Rebecca G.; Gravitt, Patti E.; He, Xin; Ketende, Sosthenes; Anom, Wuese; Omuh, Helen; Blattner, William A.; Charurat, Manhattan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Prevalence estimates of anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) are needed in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV is endemic. This study evaluated anal HR-HPV in Nigeria among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) for future immunization recommendations. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the prevalence of anal HR-HPV infections between 64 HIV-negative and 90 HIV-positive MSM. Multivariate Poisson regression analyses were used to examine demographic and behavioral risk factors associated with any HR-HPV infections. Results The median age of the 154 participants was 25 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 22-28, range: 16-38) and the median age at initiation of anal sex with another man was 16 years (IQR: 13-18, range: 7-29). The prevalence of anal HR-HPV was higher among HIV-positive than HIV-negative MSM (91.1% vs. 40.6%, p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, HIV infection (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.49-2.72), ten years or more since anal sexual debut (aPR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.07-1.49), and concurrent relationships with men (aPR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.04-1.67) were associated with increased anal HR-HPV prevalence. Conclusions Anal HR-HPV infection is high for young Nigerian MSM and rates are amplified in those co-infected with HIV. Providing universal coverage as well as catchup immunization for young MSM may be an effective anal cancer prevention strategy in Nigeria. PMID:26967301

  16. Saving our children: strategies to empower African-American adolescents to reduce their risk for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Jemmott, L S

    2000-01-01

    Adolescence is normally a healthy period of life. For some young people it is a period of experimentation with risky behavior. For others, it marks the development of habitual risk behaviors that persist into adulthood. Of special concern is adolescent involvement with sexual behaviors that increase the risk of infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Nurses who work with adolescents are seeing an increase in STDs, including HIV infection occurring disproportionately among African-American adolescents. Although the use of condoms can reduce the risk of these sexually transmitted diseases, most sexually active adolescents do not consistently use condoms. This paper will discuss the scope of the problem of STDs, especially HIV infection among African-American adolescents. It will describe the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework for designing interventions to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV and other STDs. Finally, it will provide strategies for nurses to intervene by empowering African-American adolescents to reduce their risk for sexually transmitted HIV infection.

  17. Risk behaviours for HIV infection among travelling Mexican migrants: The Mexico-US border as a contextual risk factor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Simon, Norma-Jean E; Hovell, Melbourne F; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Sipan, Carol L

    2017-01-01

    The Mexico-US border region is a transit point in the trajectory of Mexican migrants travelling to and from the USA and a final destination for domestic migrants from other regions in Mexico. This region also represents a high-risk environment that may increase risk for HIV among migrants and the communities they connect. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey, in Tijuana, Mexico, and compared Mexican migrants with a recent stay on the Mexico-US border region (Border, n = 553) with migrants arriving at the border from Mexican sending communities (Northbound, n = 1077). After controlling for demographics and migration history, border migrants were more likely to perceive their risk for HIV infection as high in this region and regard this area as a liberal place for sexual behaviours compared to Northbound migrants reporting on their perceptions of the sending communities (p < .05). Male border migrants were more likely to engage in sex, and have unprotected sex, with female sex workers during their recent stay on the border compared to other contexts (rate ratio = 3.0 and 6.6, respectively, p < .05). Binational and intensified interventions targeting Mexican migrants should be deployed in the Mexican border region to address migration related HIV transmission in Mexico and the USA.

  18. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and risk of cancer in HIV-infected subjects

    PubMed Central

    Squillace, Nicola; Galli, Laura; Bandera, Alessandra; Castagna, Antonella; Madeddu, Giordano; Caramello, Pietro; Antinori, Andrea; Cattelan, Annamaria; Maggiolo, Franco; Cingolani, Antonella; Gori, Andrea; Monforte, Antonella d’Arminio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Investigation of the relationship between high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) and the risk of developing cancer in a prospective cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. The Italian Cohort of Antiretroviral-naïve Patients Foundation Cohort is an Italian multicenter observational study recruiting HIV-positive patients while still antiretroviral treatment-naïve, regardless of the reason since 1997. Patients with at least 1 HDL-c value per year since enrollment and one such value before antiretroviral treatment initiation were included. HDL-c values were categorized as either low (<39 mg/dL in males or <49 mg/dL in females) or normal. Cancer diagnoses were classified as AIDS-defining malignancies (ADMs) or non-AIDS-defining malignancies (NADMs). Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used. Among 4897 patients (13,440 person-years of follow-up [PYFU]), 104 diagnoses of cancer were observed (56 ADMs, 48 NADMs) for an overall incidence rate of 7.7 (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.3–9.2) per 1000 PYFU. Low HDL-c values at enrollment were associated with higher risk both of cancer (crude hazard ratio [HR] 1.72, 95% CI 1.16–2.56, P = 0.007) and of NADM (crude HR 2.50, 95% CI 1.35–4.76, P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of cancer diagnosis was higher in patients with low HDL-c values (adjusted HR [AHR] 1.87, 95% CI 1.18–2.95, P = 0.007) in older patients, those patients more recently enrolled, and in those with low current cluster of differentiation 4+ levels, and/or high current HIV-ribonucleic acid. The multivariate model confirmed an association between HDL-c (AHR 2.61, 95% CI 1.40–4.89, P = 0.003) and risk of NADM. Low HDL-c is an independent predictor of cancer in HIV-1-infected subjects. PMID:27603338

  19. Occupational risk of HIV infection among western health care professionals posted in AIDS endemic areas.

    PubMed

    de Graaf, R; Houweling, H; van Zessen, G

    1998-08-01

    In this study on occupational risks of HIV infection among 99 Dutch medics working in AIDS endemic areas, 61% reported percutaneous exposures during an average stay of 21 months. The mean number of injuries was lower among physicians (2.0 versus 3.9 per year) and higher among nurses (1.9 versus 1.2) than in previous research conducted in 1987-1990 among Dutch medics returning from Africa. But the reduction of exposures among physicians might be explained by the fact that the number of procedures they carried out was less in the later study. Also among nurses a shift of tasks was seen. On the basis of an estimated HIV prevalence in the patient population of 19%, a chance of transmission per accident of 0.3%, and 1.9 percutaneous exposures per year, the mean occupational risk of HIV infection per year can be estimated at 0.11% per person. Besides length of stay and number of activities, characteristics of the work setting were associated with the frequency of different kinds of injuries. From the analysis of 109 extensive descriptions of recent accidents, it appeared that the majority of the injuries occurred during routine activities and were self-inflicted. Injuries with hollow needles usually occurred after the actual medical act (e.g. during recapping). Carelessness (e.g. due to fatigue) or being in a hurry (e.g. because of an emergency) were also often the cause of percutaneous injuries, as were the poor quality of the equipment, lack of professional skills, or a combination of these factors. Prevention activities are still important to reduce the frequency of occupational exposures. But they will not eliminate them totally; from the descriptions of recent exposures it was clear that some of the injuries occurred in spite of precautions.

  20. Pediatric HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Espanol, Teresa; Caragol, Isabel; Soler, Pere; Hernandez, Manuel

    2004-12-01

    HIV infection by maternal transmission is increasing in the world due to the increase in infected women who are not receiving appropriate antiretroviral therapy. Prognosis of HIV infection in children is poor because the newborn has an immature immune system. Early diagnosis and therapy are needed to avoid the development of AIDS. New therapies are becoming available but prevention of infection, through maternal therapy during pregnancy, is the most effective measure in avoiding this infection through this transmission route.

  1. A Novel Approach for Preventing HIV Infection and Reducing Risk to U.S. Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Kelly JW, Mothes W, Grivel JC, Margolis L, Keppler OT, Forssmann WG, Kirchhoff F. (2007) Semen-derived amyloid fibrils drastically enhance HIV...gallate counteracts semen- mediated enhancement of HIV infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:9033- 9038. 4. Roan NR, Munch J, Arhel N, Mothes W

  2. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup A Decreases the Risk of Drug Addiction but Conversely Increases the Risk of HIV-1 Infection in Chinese Addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, A-Mei; Hu, Qiu-Xiang; Liu, Feng-Liang; Bi, Rui; Yang, Bi-Qing; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Hao; Logan, Ian; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-08-01

    Drug addiction is one of the most serious social problems in the world today and addicts are always at a high risk of acquiring HIV infection. Mitochondrial impairment has been reported in both drug addicts and in HIV patients undergoing treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup could affect the risk of drug addiction and HIV-1 infection in Chinese. We analyzed mtDNA sequence variations of 577 Chinese intravenous drug addicts (289 with HIV-1 infection and 288 without) and compared with 2 control populations (n = 362 and n = 850). We quantified the viral load in HIV-1-infected patients with and without haplogroup A status and investigated the potential effect of haplogroup A defining variants m.4824A > G and m.8794C > T on the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by using an allotopic expression assay. mtDNA haplogroup A had a protective effect against drug addiction but appeared to confer an increased risk of HIV infection in addicts. HIV-1-infected addicts with haplogroup A had a trend for a higher viral load, although the mean viral load was similar between carriers of haplogroup A and those with other haplogroup. Hela cells overexpressing allele m.8794 T showed significantly decreased ROS levels as compared to cells with the allele m.8794C (P = 0.03). Our results suggested that mtDNA haplogroup A might protect against drug addiction but increase the risk of HIV-1 infection. The contradictory role of haplogroup A might be caused by an alteration in mitochondrial function due to a particular mtDNA ancestral variant.

  3. Socioeconomic status as a risk factor for HIV infection in women in East, Central and Southern Africa: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet Maia

    2005-01-01

    This is a critical, systematic review of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and HIV infection in women in Southern, Central and Eastern Africa. In light of the interest in micro-credit programmes and other HIV prevention interventions structured to empower women through increasing women's access to funds and education, this review examines the epidemiological and public health literature, which ascertains the association between low SES using different measurements of SES and risk of HIV infection in women. Also, given the focus on structural violence and poverty as factors driving the HIV epidemic at a structural/ecological level, as advocated by Paul Farmer and others, this study examines the extent to which differences in SES between individuals in areas with generalized poverty affect risk for SES. Out of 71 studies retrieved, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria including 30 cross-sectional, one case-control and five prospective cohort or nested case-control studies. Thirty-five studies used at least one measurement of female's SES and fourteen also included a measurement of partner's SES. Studies used variables measuring educational level, household income and occupation or employment status at the individual and neighbourhood level to ascertain SES. Of the 36 studies, fifteen found no association between SES and HIV infection, twelve found an association between high SES and HIV infection, eight found an association between low SES and HIV infection and one was mixed. In interpreting these results, this review examines the role of potential confounders and effect modifiers such as history of STDs, number of partners, living in urban or rural areas and time and location of study in sub-Saharan Africa. It is argued that STDs and number of partners are on the causal pathway under investigation between HIV and SES and should not be adjusted as confounders in any analysis. In conclusion, it is argued that in low-income sub-Saharan Africans

  4. A brief screening tool to assess the risk of contracting HIV infection among active injection drug users

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dawn K.; Pan, Yi; Rose, Charles E.; Pals, Sherri L.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Herbst, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To incorporate preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and other biomedical or intensive behavioral interventions into the care of injection drug users, healthcare providers need validated, rapid, risk screening tools for identifying persons at highest risk of incident HIV infection. Methods To develop and validate a brief screening tool for assessing the risk of contracting HIV (ARCH), we included behavioral and HIV test data from 1904 initially HIV-uninfected men and women enrolled and followed in the ALIVE prospective cohort study between 1988 and 2008. Using logistic regression analyses with generalized estimating equations (GEE), we identified significant predictors of incident HIV infection, then rescaled and summed their regression coefficients to create a risk score. Results The final logistic regression model included age, engagement in a methadone maintenance program, and a composite injection risk score obtained by counting the number of the following five behaviors reported during the past six months: injection of heroin, injection of cocaine, sharing a cooker, sharing needles, or visiting a shooting gallery. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.720, possible scores on index ranged from 0 to 100 and a score ≥46 had a sensitivity of 86.2% and a specificity of 42.5%, appropriate for a screening tool. Discussion We developed an easy to administer 7-question screening tool with a cutoff that is predictive of incident HIV infection in a large prospective cohort of injection drug users in Baltimore. The ARCH-IDU screening tool can be used to prioritize persons who are injecting illicit drugs for consideration of PrEP and other intensive HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25961495

  5. Determinants of HIV infection and recent risk behaviour among injecting drug users in Berlin by site of recruitment.

    PubMed

    Stark, K; Müller, R; Wirth, D; Bienzle, U; Pauli, G; Guggenmoos-Holzmann, I

    1995-10-01

    This study investigated differences in prevalence and determinants of HIV infection, and in recent risk behaviour (previous 6 months) among injecting drug users (IDUs) who are in contact with different types of services for IDUs in Berlin. Participants (n = 557) were recruited from drug-free long-term treatment centres, a storefront agency and a syringe exchange bus. HIV seroprevalence was lowest (3.9%) at the treatment centres, and highest among IDUs at the storefront agency (20.7%). In logistic regression, independent risk factors for HIV infection were duration of injecting drug use, borrowing syringes in prison, sex with HIV-positive partners, and prostitution. Syringe sharing in prison was the most important independent determinant of HIV infection among all three subpopulations of IDUs. Participants entering long-term treatment were most likely, and IDUs at the syringe exchange bus were least likely to have borrowed and passed on syringes in the previous 6 months. In logistic regression, site of recruitment was independently associated with recent borrowing of syringes, but not with condom use. Injection of drugs other than heroin only, and injecting in prisons, were also independent predictors of recent borrowing. The results indicate that IDUs entering treatment form an important target group for health education. There is a need for AIDS prevention measures in prisons. The comparatively low levels of recent injection risk behaviour among IDUs at the syringe exchange bus suggest that this type of intervention may be effective in harm reduction.

  6. Thinking about HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, Evelyn P; Siberry, George K; Hutton, Nancy

    2009-09-01

    Mother-to-child transmission of HIV can occur during pregnancy, labor, delivery, and breastfeeding. Evidence-based interventions (routine screening of pregnant women, initiation of antiretroviral drugs for mother's treatment or prevention of MTCT, and avoiding breastfeeding) have reduced transmission rates in the United States from 25% to 30% to less than 2%. Triple-drug combination antiretroviral therapy effectively controls HIV infection and improves survival and quality of life for HIV-infected children and adolescents. Initial regimens use combinations of two NRTIs together with an NNRTI or a ritonavir-boosted PI. These regimens have been shown to increase CD4 counts and achieve virologic suppression. Prevention of serious and opportunistic infections reduces morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents who have HIV infection. Recommendations for immunizations and chemoprophylaxis vary with the patient's CD4 count. Condoms made from latex, polyurethane, or other synthetic materials have been shown to decrease the transmission of STIs, including HIV infection.

  7. Immune Activation in the Female Genital Tract: Expression Profiles of Soluble Proteins in Women at High Risk for HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Suzanna C.; Hou, Yanwen; Baisley, Kathy; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Ao, Trong T.; Herrera, Carolina; Maganja, Kaballa; Andreasen, Aura; Kapiga, Saidi; Coulton, Gary R.; Hayes, Richard J.; Shattock, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Soluble cervicovaginal biomarkers of inflammation, immune activation and risk of HIV acquisition are needed to reliably assess the safety of new biomedical prevention strategies including vaccines and microbicides. However, a fuller understanding of expression profiles in women at high risk for HIV infection is crucial to the effective use of these potential biomarkers in Phase 3 trial settings. We have measured 45 soluble proteins and peptides in cervicovaginal lavage samples from 100 HIV negative women at high risk for HIV infection. Women were followed over one menstrual cycle to investigate modulation by hormonal contraception, menstrual cycle phase, recent sexual exposure and intravaginal practices. Women using injectable DMPA had increased concentration of several soluble proteins of the innate and adaptive immune system, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, MIP-1β, IP-10, IL-8, TGF-β, HBD4, IgA, IgG1, and IgG2. Women using combined oral contraceptives had a similar signature. There were differences in concentrations among samples from post-ovulation compared to pre-ovulation, notably increased immunoglobulins. Increased prostate-specific antigen, indicative of recent sexual exposure, was correlated with increased IL-6, MCP-1, and SLPI, and decreased GM-CSF and HBD3. The identified signature profiles may prove critical in evaluating the potential safety and impact on risk of HIV acquisition of different biomedical intervention strategies. PMID:26814891

  8. Vaccination in HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Vaccines are critical components for protecting HIV-infected adults from an increasing number of preventable diseases. However, missed opportunities for vaccination among HIV-infected persons persist, likely due to concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of vaccines, as well as the changing nature of vaccine guidelines. In addition, the optimal timing of vaccination among HIV-infected adults in regards to HIV stage and receipt of antiretroviral therapy remain important questions. This article provides a review of the current recommendations regarding vaccines among HIV-infected adults and a comprehensive summary of the evidence-based literature of the benefits and risks of vaccines among this vulnerable population. PMID:25029589

  9. HIV Therapy, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Pao, Vivian; Lee, Grace A.; Grunfeld, Carl

    2011-01-01

    People with HIV infection have metabolic abnormalities that resemble metabolic syndrome (hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin resistance), which is known to predict increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there is not one underlying cause for these abnormalities and they are not linked to each other. Rather, individual abnormalities can be affected by the host response to HIV itself, specific HIV drugs, classes of HIV drugs, HIV-associated lipoatrophy, or restoration to health. Furthermore, one component of metabolic syndrome, increased waist circumference, occurs less frequently in HIV infection. Thus, HIV infection supports the concept that metabolic syndrome does not represent a syndrome based on a common underlying pathophysiology. As might be predicted from these findings, the prevalence of CVD is higher in people with HIV infection. It remains to be determined whether CVD rates in HIV infection are higher than might be predicted from traditional risk factors, including smoking. PMID:18366987

  10. HIV infections in otolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Rzewnicki, Ireneusz; Olszewska, Ewa; Rogowska-Szadkowska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Summary HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection may produce no clinical symptoms for 10 years on average. However, after many years of infection most people develop symptoms that indicate progression of the disease. There are no regular characteristic symptoms or early stage, and no logical sequence of AIDS indicator disorders has been observed. People who are not aware of the infection are referred to physicians of various specializations, including otolaryngologists. It is on their knowledge about HIV infections, among other factors, that early diagnosis of the disease depends. Appropriate and quick introduction of anti-retroviral drugs may let a person with HIV live decades longer. PMID:22367140

  11. Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Management in HIV-1-Infected Subjects Treated with HAART in the Spanish VACH Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Domingo, Pere; Suarez-Lozano, Ignacio; Teira, Ramón; Lozano, Fernando; Terrón, Alberto; Viciana, Pompeyo; González, Juan; Galindo, Mª José; Geijo, Paloma; Vergara, Antonio; Cosín, Jaime; Ribera, Esteban; Roca, Bernardino; Garcia-Alcalde, Mª Luisa; Sánchez, Trinitario; Torres, Ferran; Lacalle, Juan Ramón; Garrido, Myriam

    2008-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that metabolic adverse effects associated with antiretroviral therapy may translate into an increased cardiovascular risk in HIV-1-infected patients. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-1-infected persons, and to investigate any association between them, stage of HIV-1 disease, and use of antiretroviral therapies. Methods: Multicentric, cross-sectional analysis of CVD risk factors of treated patients in the VACH cohort. The data collected includes: demographic variables, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, body mass index, stage of HIV-1 infection, and antiretroviral therapy. Results: The analysis included 2358 patients. More than 18% of the study population was at an age of appreciable risk of CVD. 1.7% had previous CVD and 59.2% were smokers. Increased prevalence of elevated total cholesterol was observed among subjects receiving an NNRTI but no PI [odds ratio (OR), 3.34; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.77–6.31], PI but no NNRTI (OR, 4.04; 95% CI, 2.12–7.71), or NNRTI + PI (OR, 17.77; 95% CI, 7.24–43.59) compared to patients treated only with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). Higher CD4 cell count, lower plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, clinical signs of lipodystrophy, longer exposure times to NNRTI and PI, and older age were all also associated with elevated cholesterol levels. The use of lipid lowering agents was very low among our patients. Conclusion: Patients in the VACH cohort present multiple known risk factors for CVD, and a very low rate of lipid lowering therapy use. NNRTI and/or PI-based antiretroviral therapies are associated with the worst lipid profile. This is more frequent in older subjects with greater CD4 counts and controlled HIV-1 replication. PMID:18923695

  12. Gender-related risk factors improve mortality predictive ability of VACS Index among HIV-infected women

    PubMed Central

    COHEN, Mardge H; HOTTON, Anna L; HERSHOW, Ronald C; LEVINE, Alexandra; BACCHETTI, Peter; GOLUB, Elizabeth T.; ANASTOS, Kathryn; YOUNG, Mary; GUSTAFSON, Deborah; WEBER, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Background Adding gender-related modifiable characteristics or behaviors to the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index might improve the accuracy of predicting mortality among HIV-infected women on treatment. We evaluated the VACS Index in women with HIV, determined whether additional variables would improve mortality prediction, and quantified the potential for improved survival associated with reduction in these additional risk factors. Methods The VACS Index (based on age, CD4 count, HIV-1 RNA, hemoglobin, AST, ALT, platelets, creatinine and Hepatitis C status) was validated in HIV-infected women in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) between January 1996 and December 2007. Models were constructed adding race, depression, abuse, smoking, substance use, transactional sex, and comorbidities to determine whether predictability improved. Population attributable fractions were calculated. Results The VACS Index accurately predicted 5-year mortality in 1057 WIHS women with 1 year on HAART with c-index 0.83 (95% CI 0.79–0.87). In multivariate analysis, the VACS Index score (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] for 5-point increment 1.30; 95% CI 1.25–1.35), depressive symptoms (aHR 1.73; 95% CI 1.17–2.56) and history of transactional sex (aHR 1.93; 95% CI 1.33–1.82) were independent statistically significant predictors of mortality. Conclusions Including depression and transactional sex significantly improved the performance of the VACS Index in predicting mortality among HIV-infected women. Providing treatment for depression and addressing economic and psychosocial instability in HIV infected women would improve health and perhaps point to a broader public health approach to reducing HIV mortality. PMID:26284531

  13. Substance Use is a Risk Factor for Neurocognitive Deficits and Neuropsychiatric Distress in Acute and Early HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Erica; Morgan, Erin E.; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Grant, Igor; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott L.; Little, Susan; Morris, Sheldon; Smith, Davey M.; Moore, David J.; Woods, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    The acute and early stages of HIV infection (AEH) are characterized by substantial viral replication, immune activation, and alterations in brain metabolism. However, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of neurocognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric disturbances during this period. The present study examined the impact of demographic, HIV disease, and substance use factors on HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and self-reported neuropsychiatric distress among 46 antiretroviral-naïve adults with median duration of infection of 75 days, relative to sample a of 21 HIV seronegative (HIV-) adults with comparable demographics and risk factors. Participants were administered a brief neurocognitive battery that was adjusted for demographics and assessed executive functions, memory, psychomotor speed, and verbal fluency, as well as the Profile of Mood States (POMS), a self-report measure of neuropsychiatric distress. Odds ratios revealed that AEH participants were nearly four times more likely than their seronegative counterparts to experience neurocognitive impairment, particularly in the areas of learning and information processing speed. Similarly, AEH was associated with a nearly five-fold increase in the odds of neuropsychiatric distress, most notably in anxiety and depression. Within the AEH sample, HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment was associated with problematic methamphetamine use and higher plasma HIV RNA levels, whereas neuropsychiatric distress was solely associated with high-risk alcohol use. Extending prior neuroimaging findings, results from this study indicate that HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric distress are highly prevalent during AEH and are associated with high-risk substance use. PMID:23250704

  14. HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex With Men Who Engage in Very High Levels of Transmission Risk Behaviours: Establishing a Context for Novel Prevention Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S. Wade; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) comprise the largest risk group of individuals living with HIV in the United States and have the highest rates of new infections. A minority of HIV-infected MSM engage in unprotected anal intercourse after learning about their infection, potentially transmitting the virus to others. The current study sought to generate self-generated descriptive themes, from a group of HIV-infected MSM who reported high rates of sexual transmission risk behavior that may be relevant for understanding sexual risk in this group. Five descriptive themes emerged during content analysis: a) serostatus attribution, b) assumption of sexual partner’s responsibility for safer-sex, c) sexual sensation seeking, d) ongoing substance use, and e) dissatisfaction with current relationships. Traditional HIV transmission risk-reduction interventions that have been known to have only modest effects should be augmented by developing HIV prevention strategies for this subgroup of MSM to address these salient themes. PMID:23323526

  15. Gender Expression and Risk of HIV Infection among Black South African Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Sandfort, Theodorus G. M.; Lane, Tim; Dolezal, Curtis; Reddy, Vasu

    2015-01-01

    To explore demographic, behavioral and psychosocial risk factors for HIV infection in South African MSM we recruited 480 MSM (aged 18 and 44 years) using respondent-driven sampling. Data were collected through individual computer-assisted face-to-face interviews. Participants were tested for HIV. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence is 30.1% (unadjusted 35.6%). Few participants had ever engaged in both receptive and insertive anal sex; sex with women was frequently reported. Independent demographic and behavioral correlates of HIV infection include age, education, number of male sexual partners, ever having been forced to have sex, and ever having engaged in transactional sex; engagement in sex with women was a protective factor. Psychosocial risk factors independently associated with HIV infection were feminine identification, internalized homophobia, and hazardous drinking. Our findings confirm what has been found in other studies, but also suggest that the dynamics and context of sexual transmission among MSM in South Africa differ from those among MSM in Western countries. PMID:25869555

  16. Occupational exposure to the risk of HIV infection among health care workers in Mwanza Region, United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Gumodoka, B.; Favot, I.; Berege, Z. A.; Dolmans, W. M.

    1997-01-01

    During 1993, we collected data on knowledge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, availability of equipment, protective practices and the occurrence of prick and splash incidents in nine hospitals in the Mwanza Region in the north-west of the United Republic of Tanzania. Such incidents were common, with the average health worker being pricked five times and being splashed nine times per year. The annual occupational risk of HIV transmission was estimated at 0.27% for health workers. Among surgeons, the risk was 0.7% (i.e. more than twice as high) if no special protective measures were taken. Health workers' knowledge and personal protective practices must therefore be improved and the supply of protective equipment supported. Reduction of occupational risk of HIV infection among health workers should be an integral part of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) control strategies. PMID:9185365

  17. Testing an optimized community-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction and antiretroviral adherence intervention for HIV-infected injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Copenhaver, Michael M; Lee, I-Ching; Margolin, Arthur; Bruce, Robert D; Altice, Frederick L

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a preliminary study of the 4-session Holistic Health for HIV (3H+), which was adapted from a 12-session evidence-based risk reduction and antiretroviral adherence intervention. Improvements were found in the behavioral skills required to properly adhere to HIV medication regimens. Enhancements were found in all measured aspects of sex-risk reduction outcomes, including HIV knowledge, motivation to reduce sex-risk behavior, behavioral skills related to engaging in reduced sexual risk, and reduced risk behavior. Improvements in drug use outcomes included enhancements in risk reduction skills as well as reduced heroin and cocaine use. Intervention effects also showed durability from post-intervention to the follow-up assessment point. Females responded particularly well in terms of improvements in risk reduction skills and risk behavior. This study suggests that an evidence-based behavioral intervention may be successfully adapted for use in community-based clinical settings where HIV-infected drug users can be more efficiently reached.

  18. Feasibility of Identifying a Female Sex Worker Cohort at High Risk of HIV Infection in the Caribbean for HIV Vaccine Efficacy Trials: Longitudinal Results of HVTN 907

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, Marie Marcelle; Metch, Barbara; Morgan, Cecilia A; Zorrilla, Carmen D; Donastorg, Yeycy; Swann, Edith; Taina, Dadaille; Patrice, Joseph; JW, Pape

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying cohorts of Caribbean women with HIV infection rates sufficient for inclusion in HIV vaccine efficacy trials has been challenging. HVTN 907 determined the feasibility of identifying and retaining a cohort of women at high risk for HIV acquisition by focusing recruitment on female sex workers (FSW). Methods HIV uninfected FSWs, residing in Haiti, Dominican Republic (DR) and Puerto Rico (PR), who reported unprotected sex and met previously described more stringent site-specific eligibility criteria14, were eligible. Behavioral risk assessment, HIV counseling and testing and pregnancy testing were done at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Results Among 799 FSWs (264 from DR, 334 from Haiti, 201 from PR), the median age was 26 years, with 54% having less than a high school education and 45% having a monthly household income of less than $US100. Median number of male partners six months prior to screening was 200. Retention at 18 months was 93%. Twelve women became HIV infected, nine from Haiti. The annualized HIV incidence was 1.07 % (95% CI 0.55%, 1.87%). Pregnancy incidence was 22.5% (95% CI 21.9, 29.5%). Statistically significant declines in risk behaviors occurred between screening and the 18 month visit assessment. Discussion The HVTN 907 study identified a high risk cohort of women with excellent retention for all 3 sites, despite major challenges especially in Haiti. These results show that a bridging study of a vaccine shown to be efficacious in other clade settings would be possible among FSW in the region, particularly in Haiti. PMID:26761272

  19. Transient Peripheral Immune Activation follows Elective Sigmoidoscopy or Circumcision in a Cohort Study of MSM at Risk of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lama, Javier R.; Karuna, Shelly T.; Grant, Shannon P.; Swann, Edith M.; Ganoza, Carmela; Segura, Patricia; Montano, Silvia M.; Lacherre, Martin; De Rosa, Stephen C.; Buchbinder, Susan; Sanchez, Jorge; McElrath, M. Juliana; Lemos, Maria P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rectal and genital sampling in HIV prevention trials permits assessments at the site of HIV entry. Yet the safety and acceptability of circumcision and sigmoidoscopy (and associated abstinence recommendations) are unknown in uncircumcised men who have sex with men (MSM) at high risk of HIV infection. Methods Twenty-nine HIV-seronegative high-risk Peruvian MSM agreed to elective sigmoidoscopy biopsy collections (weeks 2 and 27) and circumcision (week 4) in a 28-week cohort study designed to mimic an HIV vaccine study mucosal collection protocol. We monitored adherence to abstinence recommendations, procedure-related complications, HIV infections, peripheral immune activation, and retention. Results Twenty-three (79.3%) underwent a first sigmoidoscopy, 21 (72.4%) were circumcised, and 16 (55.2%) completed a second sigmoidoscopy during the study period. All who underwent procedures completed the associated follow-up safety visits. Those completing the procedures reported they were well tolerated, and complication rates were similar to those reported in the literature. Immune activation was detected during the healing period (1 week post-sigmoidoscopy, 6 weeks post-circumcision), including increases in CCR5+CD4+T cells and α4β7+CD4+T cells. Most participants adhered to post-circumcision abstinence recommendations whereas reduced adherence occurred post-sigmoidoscopy. Conclusion Rectosigmoid mucosal and genital tissue collections were safe in high-risk MSM. Although the clinical implications of the post-procedure increase in peripheral immune activation markers are unknown, they reinforce the need to provide ongoing risk reduction counseling and support for post-procedure abstinence recommendations. Future HIV vaccine studies should also consider the effects of mucosal and tissue collections on peripheral blood endpoints in trial design and analysis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02630082 PMID:27536938

  20. Risk factors for HIV-2 seropositivity among older people in Guinea-Bissau. A search for the early history of HIV-2 infection.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, A G; Aaby, P; Jensen, H; Dias, F

    2000-01-01

    Because the seroprevalence of HIV-2 has been shown to be high in older age groups, we conducted a survey of all persons aged 50 years or over in two districts in Bissau, investigating the presence of HIV antibodies and possible risk factors for HIV infection with a particular emphasis on age, the impact of the war of independence (1963-74), traditional marital and extramarital sex patterns, blood contact and contact with monkeys. In 670 participants, the HIV-2 prevalence was 14.3%; 16.1% in women and 12.3% in men. The HIV-1 prevalence was only 0.5% (3/670). The HIV-2 prevalence peaked for men in the 60-69 years age group, and for women in the 50-59 years age group, declining markedly in the following age group for both men and women (OR = 0.09 (0.01-0.51), OR = 0.37 (0.15-0.82), respectively). This pattern could be due to differential mortality for HIV-2 infected individuals or to a cohort effect for a generation who were sexually active at the time of the war of independence in the 1960s and early 1970s in Bissau. Supporting the link with the colonial army, women who had had sex with a white man had a higher seroprevalence (OR = 3.63 (1.12-11.24)). The ethnic group indigenous to Bissau city had a much lower prevalence, but demographic and cultural risk factors such as marital status, religion, education and having lived outside Bissau were not associated with HIV-2. In the multivariate analyses for women, variables related to extramarital sex or prostitution (having sex with a white man, having lived in Senegal, not living with husband, and not marrying first sexual partner) were associated with higher risk. For men, previous spouses who had died or had divorced were associated with higher prevalence. Having married the first sexual partner was protective against HIV-2 infection for both men (OR = 0.29 (0.09-0.76)) and women (OR = 0.19 (0.04-1.00)). Hospitalizations, possibly due to transfusions, tended to be associated with higher risk, but only for women (OR = 1

  1. HIV and General Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Capili, Bernadette; Anastasi, Joyce K.; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing in HIV-infected people. Risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance have become common. CVD in HIV may also be related to non-traditional risk factors including accumulation of visceral fat, inflammation secondary to HIV, and effects of some antiretroviral drugs. This cross-sectional study described the CVD risk factors of 123 adults living with HIV and calculated the 10-year estimate for general cardiovascular risk score. Results showed that approximately 25% of the participants were considered to be at high risk for developing CVD in the next 10 years. Increased waist circumference and longer duration of smoking habit were associated with elevated general cardiovascular risk scores. Similar to the general population, most of the identified risks could be modified through lifestyle management. PMID:21277230

  2. Association of levels of HIV-1-infected breast milk cells and risk of mother-to-child transmission.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Christine M; Nduati, Ruth W; Richardson, Barbra A; John-Stewart, Grace C; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy A; Kreiss, Joan K; Overbaugh, Julie

    2004-11-15

    Understanding how the level of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected breast milk cells (BMCs) affects HIV transmission via breast-feeding can shed light on the mechanism of infection and aid in establishing effective interventions. The proportion of infected cells to total cells was measured in serial breast milk samples collected from 291 HIV-1-infected women in Nairobi, Kenya, by use of real-time DNA polymerase chain reaction amplification of BMCs. The number of infected BMCs per million cells was associated with levels of cell-free viral RNA in breast milk (R=.144; P=.032), levels of cell-free virus in blood plasma (R=.365; P<.001), and the detection of proviral DNA in cervical and vaginal secretions (P<.001 and P = .030, respectively). The number of infected BMCs per million cells was lower in colostrum or early milk than in mature milk (P<.001). Previous studies demonstrated that the concentration of BMCs varies throughout lactation, and we used these data to transform infected BMCs per million cells to infected BMCs per milliliter. The estimated concentration of infected BMCs per milliliter was higher in colostrum or early milk than in mature milk (P<.001). Each log10 increase in infected BMCs per milliliter was associated with a 3.19-fold-increased risk of transmission (P=.002), after adjustment for cell-free virus in plasma (hazard ratio [HR], 2.09; P=.03) and breast milk (HR, 1.01; P=1.00). This suggests that infected BMCs may play a more important role in transmission of HIV via breast-feeding than does cell-free virus.

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection patterns and risk behaviours in different population groups and provinces in Viet Nam

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Fylkesnes, Knut; Thang, Bui Duc; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Long, Nguyen Thanh; Van Kinh, Nguyen; Thang, Pham Hong; Manh, Pham Duc

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Objective To study patterns and determinants of HIV prevalence and risk-behaviour characteristics in different population groups in four border provinces of Viet Nam. Methods We surveyed four population groups during April–June 2002. We used stratified random-cluster sampling and collected data concomitantly on HIV status and risk behaviours. The groups included were female sex workers (n = 2023), injecting drug users (n = 1391), unmarried males aged 15–24 years (n = 1885) and different categories of mobile groups (n = 1923). Findings We found marked geographical contrasts in HIV prevalence, particularly among female sex workers (range 0–24%). The HIV prevalence among injecting drug users varied at high levels in all provinces (range 4–36%), whereas lower prevalences were found among both unmarried young men (range 0–1.3%) and mobile groups (range 0–2.5%). All groups reported sex with female sex workers. Less than 40% of the female sex workers had used condoms consistently. The strongest determinants of HIV infection among female sex workers were inconsistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4–11.8), history of injecting drug use and mobility, and, among injecting drug users, sharing of injection equipment (adjusted OR, 7.3; 95% CI, 2.3–24.0) and sex with non-regular partners (adjusted OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.4–8.5). Conclusion The finding of marked geographical variation in HIV prevalence underscores the value of understanding local contexts in the prevention of HIV infection. Although lacking support from data from all provinces, there would appear to be a potential for sex work to drive a self-sustaining heterosexual epidemic. That the close links to serious injecting drug use epidemics can have an accelerating effect in increasing the spread of HIV merits further study. PMID:17242756

  4. Atherosclerosis is evident in treated HIV-infected subjects with low cardiovascular risk by carotid cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    ROSE, Kathleen A.M.; VERA, Jaime H.; DRIVAS, Peter; BANYA, Winston; KEENAN, Niall; PENNELL, Dudley J.; WINSTON, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Premature atherosclerosis has been observed among HIV-infected individuals with high cardiovascular risk using one-dimensional ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness (C-IMT). We evaluated the assessment of HIV-infected individuals with low traditional cardiovascular disease risk using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), which allows three-dimensional assessment of the carotid artery wall. Methods Carotid CMR was performed in 33 HIV-infected individuals (cases) (19 male, 14 female), and 35 HIV-negative controls (20 male, 15 female). Exclusion criteria included smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia (total cholesterol/HDL ratio>5) or family history of premature atherosclerosis. Cases were stable on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL. Using computer modelling, the arterial wall, lumen, and total vessel volumes were calculated for a 4cm length of each carotid artery centered on the bifurcation. The wall/outer-wall ratio (W/OW), an index of vascular thickening, was compared between the groups. Results Cases had a median CD4 cell count of 690 cells/uL. Mean (±SD) age and 10-year Framingham coronary risk scores were similar for cases and controls (45.2±9.7years versus 46.9±11.6years and 3.97±3.9% versus 3.72±3.5%, respectively). W/OW was significantly increased in cases compared with controls (36.7% versus 32.5%, p<0.0001); this was more marked in HIV-infected females. HIV-status was significantly associated with increased W/OW after adjusting for age (p<0.0001). No significant association between antiretroviral type and W/OW was found – W/OW lowered comparing abacavir to zidovudine (p=0.038), but statistical model fits poorly. Conclusions In a cohort of treated HIV-infected individuals with low measurable cardiovascular risk, we have observed evidence of premature subclinical atherosclerosis. PMID:26579986

  5. Selectively willing and conditionally able: HIV vaccine trial participation among women at "high risk" of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Voytek, Chelsea D; Jones, Kevin T; Metzger, David S

    2011-08-18

    Efficacy studies of investigational HIV vaccines require enrollment of individuals at 'high risk' for HIV. This paper examines participation in HIV vaccine trials among women at 'high risk' for HIV acquisition. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 African-American women who use crack cocaine and/or exchange sex for money/drugs to elicit attitudes toward medical research and motivators and deterrents to HIV vaccine trial participation. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed; data were coded and compiled into themes. Most women expressed favorable attitudes toward medical research in general. Motivators for trial participation included compensation; personal benefits including information, social services, and the possibility that the trial vaccine could prevent HIV; and altruism. Deterrents included: dislike of needles; distrust; concern about future consequences of participating. In addition, contingencies, care-giving responsibilities, and convenience issues constituted barriers which could impede participation. Respondents described varied, complex perspectives, and individual cases illustrate how these themes played out as women contemplated trial participation. Understanding factors which influence vaccine research participation among women at 'high risk' can aid sites to tailor recruitment procedures to local contexts. Concerns about future reactions can be addressed through sustained community education. Convenience barriers can be ameliorated by providing rides to study visits when necessary, and/or conducting study visits in accessible neighborhood locations. Women in this sample thought carefully about enrolling in HIV vaccine trials given the structural constraints within which they lived. Further research is needed regarding structural factors which influence personal agency and individuals' thinking about research participation.

  6. Sex trafficking and initiation-related violence, alcohol use, and HIV risk among HIV-infected female sex workers in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Decker, Michele R; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2011-12-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5 participants (41.7%) reported being forced or coerced into sex work. During the first month in sex work, such FSWs had higher odds of sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.1), ≥ 7 clients per day (AOR, 3.3; 1.8-6.1), no use of condoms (AOR, 3.8, 2.1-7.1), and frequent alcohol use (AOR, 1.9; 1.0-3.4) than HIV-infected FSWs not entering involuntarily. Those trafficked into sex work were also at higher odds for alcohol use at first sex work episode (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). These results suggest that having been trafficked into sex work is prevalent among this population and that such FSWs may face high levels of sexual violence, alcohol use, and exposure to HIV infection in the first month of sex work. Findings call into question harm reduction approaches to HIV prevention that rely primarily on FSW autonomy.

  7. [Stroke in HIV-infected patients].

    PubMed

    Lino, Ireneia; Sousa, António; Correia, José

    2007-01-01

    The spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is changing. New drug treatments have reduced morbidity and mortality of this disease, therefore it is necessary to start treating the HIV infection as a chronical disease. The association of the stroke with the HIV infection was inicially thought to be a result of other opportunistic infeccions and tumors. However, the vascular disease associated with HIV infection has been a subject of research and debate. New evidence shows that the vascular diseases could be a threat for the pacients doing highly active antirretroviral therapy (HAART). In this paper, we review the association between the HIV infection and stroke. Furthermore, we have done an analysis of the risk for the stroke on pacients with HIV infection considering the changes of the infection spectrum by the introduction of HAART.

  8. Prospective study of bone mineral density changes in aging men with or at risk for HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anjali; Flom, Peter L.; Weedon, Jeremy; Klein, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate rates and predictors of change in bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of aging men with or at risk for HIV infection. Design Prospective cohort study among 230 HIV-infected and 159 HIV-uninfected men aged ≥49 years. Methods Longitudinal analyses of annual change in BMD at the femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine. Results At baseline 46% of men had normal BMD, 42% had osteopenia, and 12% had osteoporosis. Of those men with normal BMD, 14% progressed to osteopenia and 86% continued to have normal BMD. Of the men initially with osteopenia, 12% progressed to osteoporosis, and 83% continued to have osteopenia. Osteopenia incidence per 100 person-years at risk (PYAR) was 2.6 for HIV-uninfected men and 7.2 for HIV-infected men; osteoporosis incidence was 2.2/100 PYAR among men with osteopenia, regardless of HIV status. In multivariable analysis of annual change in BMD at the femoral neck, we found a significant interaction between heroin use and AIDS diagnosis, such that the greatest bone loss occurred with both AIDS and heroin use (adjusted predicted mean annual bone loss 0.0196 gm/cm2). Hepatitis C virus seropositivity was also associated with femoral neck bone loss (p=.04). The interaction between AIDS and heroin use also was associated with bone loss at the total hip, as was current methadone use (p<.01). Conclusions We found an association of heroin use and AIDS with BMD change, suggesting that heroin users with AIDS may be at particular risk for bone loss. PMID:20683316

  9. Hepatitis C co-infection and severity of liver disease as risk factors for osteoporotic fractures among HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Naim M; Zhang, Song; Drechsler, Henning; Brown, Geri R; Tebas, Pablo; Bedimo, Roger

    2013-12-01

    Osteoporosis is increasingly reported in the aging HIV-positive population, and co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) may further increase the risk of osteoporosis. However, it remains unclear whether HCV-related increased fracture risk is a function of the severity of liver disease. We calculated the time-updated alanine aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) score (an indirect marker of hepatic fibrosis) in all HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Veterans Affairs' Clinical Case Registry between 1984 and 2009. The association between HCV co-infection and incident osteoporotic fracture (defined as closed wrist, vertebral, or hip fracture) was assessed in univariate and multivariate Cox survival models adjusting for traditional risk factors for osteoporosis and APRI score or the presence of cirrhosis. A total of 772 osteoporotic fractures were identified among 56,660 HIV-infected patients (98.1% male; 31.3% HCV co-infected; median age 44.0 years) contributing 305,237 patient-years of follow-up. Fracture rates were significantly higher among HIV/HCV patients than HIV-only patients (2.57 versus 2.07/1000 patient-years, relative risk = 1.24, p < 0.0001). In a Cox multivariable model including age, race, smoking, drug use, body mass index, and antiretroviral therapy, HCV co-infection remained an independent predictor of osteoporotic fractures after controlling for presence of cirrhosis (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.32; p <0.001) or APRI score (HR = 1.30; p = 0.003). Among HIV/HCV co-infected patients, cirrhosis strongly predicted osteoporotic fractures (HR = 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-2.44; p = 0.012), but APRI score was a weaker predictor (HR = 1.008; 95% CI 1.002-1.014; p = 0.015). In conclusion, among HIV-infected patients, severity of liver disease partly explains the HCV-associated increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Other determinants of this increased risk remain to be defined.

  10. Improving Ascertainment of Risk Factors for HIV Infection: Results of a Group-Randomized Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Kathleen McDavid; Pals, Sherri L.; Sajak, Tammy; Chase, Jennifer; Kajese, Tebitha

    2010-01-01

    To allow appropriate allocation of prevention and care funding, HIV/AIDS surveillance data must include risk factor information, currently available for less than 70% of cases reported in the United States. The authors evaluated an intervention consisting of provider training and materials to improve risk factor reporting. Facilities were matched…

  11. Opportunistic infections in women with HIV AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lazenby, Gweneth B

    2012-12-01

    Women account for half of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infections. Heterosexual contact is the leading risk factor in women. Over 50% of patients are significantly immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. Women with advanced HIV infection are at a risk for opportunistic infections (OIs). OIs lead to significant morbidity and cost. Some of OIs may impact women more significantly than men, that is, human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer. OIs during pregnancy can increase the risk of maternal-to-child transmission of HIV and some OIs, such as Hepatitis C. This chapter will review of OIs that are most important in women's health.

  12. A prospective study of the onset of sexual behavior and sexual risk in youth perinatally infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Bauermeister, José A; Elkington, Katherine S; Robbins, Reuben N; Kang, Ezer; Mellins, Claude A

    2012-01-01

    Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth are surviving into adolescence and young adulthood. Understanding the sexual development of PHIV+ youth is vital to providing them with developmentally appropriate HIV-prevention programs. Using pooled data (N = 417) from two longitudinal studies focused on HIV among youth (51% female; 39% HIV+) and their caregivers (92% female; 46% HIV+), the rate of sexual onset during adolescence across four youth-caregiver combinations was compared: PHIV+ youth with HIV+caregivers (12%), PHIV+ youth with HIV- caregivers (27%), HIV- youth with HIV+caregivers (34%), and HIV- youth with HIV- caregivers (27%). Youth with HIV- caregivers were more likely than other youth-caregiver groups to have had their sexual onset. Youth with HIV+ caregivers reported a slower rate of onset of penetrative sex across the adolescent years. Findings are discussed by highlighting the role that both youth and caregiver HIV status play in the onset of sexual behavior across adolescence.

  13. Adherence and Risk Behaviour in Patients with HIV Infection Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Amanda; Kerr, Stephen; Honeybrook, Adam; Cooper, David A; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Duncombe, Chris; Phanuphak, Praphan; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Kaldor, John

    2012-01-01

    It could be postulated that due to lifestyle factors, patients with poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence may also have risky sexual behaviour potentially leading to HIV transmission. There are limited data regarding unprotected sex risk and ART adherence in resource limited settings and our study set out to investigate these in an HIV clinic in Bangkok. Patients completed an anonymous questionnaire regarding their relationship details, ART adherence, sexual behaviour, alcohol and drug use and HIV transmission beliefs. Laboratory findings and medical history were also collected. Unprotected sex risk (USR) was defined as inconsistent condom use with a partner of negative or unknown HIV status. Five hundred and twelve patients completed the questionnaire. Fifty seven per cent of patients reported having taken ARV >95% of the time in the last month and 58% had been sexually active in the previous 30 days. Only 27 patients (5%) were classified as having USR in our cohort. Multivariate analysis showed USR was associated with female gender (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.2-7.0, p0.02) but not with adherence, age, type or number of partners, recreational drug or alcohol use nor beliefs about HIV transmission whilst taking ART. Levels of USR in this resource limited setting were reassuringly low and not associated with poor ART adherence; as all USR patients had undetectable viral loads onward HIV transmission risk is likely to be low but not negligible. Nonetheless condom negotiation techniques, particularly in women, may be useful in this group.

  14. A TWO-WAY ROAD: RATES OF HIV INFECTION AND BEHAVIORAL RISK FACTORS AMONG DEPORTED MEXICAN LABOR MIGRANTS

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, M. Gudelia; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Hovell, Melbourne; Sipan, Carol L.; Zellner, Jennifer A.; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, Eduardo; Kelley, Norma J.; Asadi-Gonzalez, Ahmed; Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    A large number of Mexican migrants are deported to Mexico and released in the North Mexican border region every year. Despite their volume and high vulnerability, little is known about the level of HIV infection and related risk behaviors among this hard-to-reach population. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey with deported Mexican migrants in Tijuana, Mexico (N=693) and estimated levels of HIV infection and behavioral risk factors among this migrant flow. The sample and population estimated rates of HIV for deported males were 1.23% and 0.80%, respectively. No positive cases were found among the female sample. We found high lifetime rates of reported sexually transmitted infections (22.3%) and last 12-months rates of unprotected sex (63.0%), sex with multiple sexual partners (18.1%), casual partners (25.7%), and sex workers (8.6%), compared to U.S. and Mexico adults. HIV prevention, testing, and treatment programs for this large, vulnerable, and transnational population need to be implemented in both the U.S. and Mexico. PMID:22562390

  15. A two-way road: rates of HIV infection and behavioral risk factors among deported Mexican labor migrants.

    PubMed

    Rangel, M Gudelia; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Sipan, Carol L; Zellner, Jennifer A; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, Eduardo; Kelley, Norma J; Asadi-Gonzalez, Ahmed; Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    A large number of Mexican migrants are deported to Mexico and released in the North Mexican border region every year. Despite their volume and high vulnerability, little is known about the level of HIV infection and related risk behaviors among this hard-to-reach population. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey with deported Mexican migrants in Tijuana, Mexico (N = 693) and estimated levels of HIV infection and behavioral risk factors among this migrant flow. The sample and population estimated rates of HIV for deported males were 1.23 and 0.80 %, respectively. No positive cases were found among the female sample. We found high lifetime rates of reported sexually transmitted infections (22.3 %) and last 12-months rates of unprotected sex (63.0 %), sex with multiple sexual partners (18.1 %), casual partners (25.7 %), and sex workers (8.6 %), compared to U.S. and Mexico adults. HIV prevention, testing, and treatment programs for this large, vulnerable, and transnational population need to be implemented in both the U.S. and Mexico.

  16. Sexually Transmitted Diseases as a Risk for Acquiring HIV Infection among the Population of Men Who Have Sex with Men--A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Lakoseljac, Danijela; Gjenero-Margan, Ira; Kolarić, Branko; Rukavina, Tomislav; Blazić, Tatjana Nemeth

    2015-09-01

    At the beginning of the 1980-ies, HIV infection and AIDS were described for the first time, this among the population of men who have sex with other men. Nearly thirty years later, the MSM population is still a population under heightened risk for acquiring HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases. This study investigates sexually transmitted diseases as a risk for HIV infection. A total of 296 men who have sex with men (MSM) were included in this case control study. Differences among the frequencies of sexually transmitted diseases among the MSM of HIV positive and HIV negative status were tested. The history of HIV positive more often states falling ill with sexually transmitted diseases than this was the case before they became HIV positive, unlike those MSM who are not HIV infected (45.9%:11.1% that is OR 6.79, 95% CI 3.49-13.19). Hepatitis B infection is more frequent in HIV positive MSM (11.5%:1.9%; OR 6.58, 95% CI 1.86-23.3). The frequency of gonorrhea in case history of HIV positive MSM is significantly higher than in the HIV negative group (11.5%:3.8%, OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.13-9.34). In the group of HIV positive MSM, unlike the HIV negative group, syphilis (14.8:1.0%, OR 1774, 95% CI 3.43-122.87) and genital herpes (8.2%:0.5%, OR 18.39, 95% CI 2.03-424.7) are more frequent. The results of this study will be used in future preventive activities focused on the population of MSM, as a population under particular risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections.

  17. Effect of Risk-Reduction Counseling With Rapid HIV Testing on Risk of Acquiring Sexually Transmitted Infections: The AWARE Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Metsch, Lisa R.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Gooden, Lauren; Schackman, Bruce R.; Matheson, Tim; Das, Moupali; Golden, Matthew R.; Huffaker, Shannon; Haynes, Louise F.; Tross, Susan; Malotte, C. Kevin; Douaihy, Antoine; Korthuis, P. Todd; Duffus, Wayne A.; Henn, Sarah; Bolan, Robert; Philip, Susan S.; Castro, Jose G.; Castellon, Pedro C.; McLaughlin, Gayle; Mandler, Raul N.; Branson, Bernard; Colfax, Grant N.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE To increase HIV testing rates, many institutions and jurisdictions have revised policies to make the testing process rapid, simple, and routine. A major issue for testing scale-up efforts is the effectiveness of HIV risk-reduction counseling, which has historically been an integral part of the HIV testing process. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of brief patient-centered risk-reduction counseling at the time of a rapid HIV test on the subsequent acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS From April to December 2010, Project AWARE randomized 5012 patients of 9 sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in the US to either receive brief patient-centered HIV risk-reduction counseling with a rapid HIV test or the rapid HIV test with information only. Participants were assessed for multiple sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at both baseline and at 6-month follow-up. INTERVENTION Participants randomized to counseling received individual patient-centered risk-reduction counseling based on an evidence-based model. The core elements included a focus on the patient’s specific HIV/STI risk behavior and negotiation of realistic and achievable risk-reduction steps. All participants received a rapid HIV test. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The prespecified outcome was a composite endpoint of cumulative incidence of any of the measured STIs over 6 months. All participants were tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum (syphilis), Herpes Simplex Virus 2, and HIV. Women were also tested for Trichomonas vaginalis. RESULTS There was no significant difference in 6-month composite STI incidence by study group (aRR = 1.12, 95% CI (0.94–1.33). There were 250/2039 (12.3%) incident cases in the counseling group and 226/2032 (11.1%) in the information-only group. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE Risk-reduction counseling in conjunction with a rapid HIV test did not significantly affect STI acquisition

  18. Characterizing the HIV risks and potential pathways to HIV infection among transgender women in Côte d'Ivoire, Togo and Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Stahlman, Shauna; Liestman, Benjamin; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kouanda, Seni; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Lougue, Marcel; Diouf, Daouda; Anato, Simplice; Tchalla, Jules; Bamba, Amara; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Kouamé, Abo; Baral, Stefan D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Transgender women are at high risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. However, there are limited empiric data characterizing HIV-related risks among transgender women in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of these analyses is to determine what factors, including sexual behaviour stigma, condom use and engagement in sex work, contribute to risk for HIV infection among transgender women across three West African nations. Methods Data were collected via respondent-driven sampling from men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women during three- to five-month intervals from December 2012 to October 2015 across a total of six study sites in Togo, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire. During the study visit, participants completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV. Chi-square tests were used to compare the prevalence of variables of interest between transgender women and MSM. A multilevel generalized structural equation model (GSEM) was used to account for clustering of observations within study sites in the multivariable analysis, as well as to estimate mediated associations between sexual behaviour stigma and HIV infection among transgender women. Results In total, 2456 participants meeting eligibility criteria were recruited, of which 453 individuals identified as being female/transgender. Transgender women were more likely than MSM to report selling sex to a male partner within the past 12 months (p<0.01), to be living with HIV (p<0.01) and to report greater levels of sexual behaviour stigma as compared with MSM (p<0.05). In the GSEM, sexual behaviour stigma from broader social groups was positively associated with condomless anal sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.09, 1.62) and with selling sex (AOR=1.23, 95% CI=1.02, 1.50). Stigma from family/friends was also associated with selling sex (AOR=1.42, 95% CI=1.13, 1.79), although no significant associations were identified with prevalent HIV infection

  19. Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2010-05-07

    Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication

  20. A Novel Approach for Preventing HIV Infection and Reducing Risk to U.S. Military Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Seminal fluid could similarly induce the production of IL6 in CD4+ PBLs (Fig. 3B). Seminal fluid also induced IL6 in endometrial epithelial cells...fluorescence at ~482 nm, to eliminate false positive quenchers. Non -quenching compound hits are shown in Fig. 6. We are currently conducting secondary...that HIV-1 establishes infection in MISTRG mice, and that SEVI enhances this process. Future experiments to determine whether productive infection

  1. Enhancing Motivation to Reduce the Risk of HIV Infection for Economically Disadvantaged Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Forsyth, Andrew D.; Wright, Ednita M.; Johnson, Blair T.

    2008-01-01

    This research evaluated a motivation-based HIV-risk-reduction intervention for economically disadvantaged urban women. Participants completed a survey that assessed HIV-related knowledge, risk perceptions, behavioral intentions, sexual communication, substance use, and risk behavior. A total of 102 at-risk women (76% African-American) were randomly assigned to either the risk-reduction intervention or to a waiting list. Women were reassessed at three and twelve weeks. Results indicated that treated women increased their knowledge and risk awareness, strengthened their intentions to adopt safer sexual practices, communicated their intentions with partners, reduced substance use proximal to sexual activities, and engaged in fewer acts of unprotected vaginal intercourse. These effects were observed immediately and most were maintained at follow-up. PMID:9256553

  2. High-Risk groups for late diagnosis of HIV infection: a need for rethinking testing policy in the general population.

    PubMed

    Delpierre, Cyrille; Cuzin, Lise; Lauwers-Cances, Valérie; Marchou, Bruno; Lang, Thierry

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the study was to identify high-risk groups and the determinants of late HIV diagnosis in France in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), from January 1996 to June 2005. Informations were collected from an electronic medical record of all HIV- 1-infected patients who sought care in six HIV reference centers in France, constituting a prospective multicentric cohort. Patients were defined as "late testers" if they had presented with either symptoms of clinical AIDS or a CD4 cell count less than 200/mm(3) during the year of diagnosis, as "nonlate" if their CD4 count was above 200, and as "unknown" if CD4 cell count in the year at the time of diagnosis was not documented. Among the 4516 patients available for analysis, the percentage of late testing was 38% (n = 1718) and decreased after 2003 (31.5% in 2004-2005). This percentage was higher in heterosexual men (48.2%) than in homosexual men (31.7%) or heterosexual women (32.6%) and was higher for patients older than 30. Heterosexual men living in a couple with children had a higher risk of late testing (odds ratio [OR] = 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 2.66), while heterosexual women in a couple without children had a lower risk (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.83). Among homosexual men, unemployment was associated with late testing (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.14 to 4.36). The proportion of late testing was still high. Groups classically identified as low risk for HIV infection, particularly heterosexual men in a couple with children, were found to be at high risk for late testing. It seems necessary to improve HIV testing policy in the heterosexual population.

  3. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Fracture among a Male HIV-Infected Population in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Short, Charlotte-Eve S; Shaw, Simon G; Fisher, Martin J; Walker-Bone, Karen; Gilleece, Yvonne C

    2017-01-01

    Summary Rates of osteoporosis and fracture may be increased in HIV but there are few UK data Our aim was to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures among a homogeneous cohort of well-characterized HIV-infected men. In total,168 men were recruited median age 45 years, 37 cART naïve, 46 with < 3 years cART exposure and 85 cART exposed longer-term (median >10 years). All participants provided information on bone health and underwent DEXA scanning. Osteopenia was found in 58% of subjects and osteoporosis in 12%. 14% reported fractures since HIV diagnosis. Numbers of fractures since HIV diagnosis were significantly increased amongst those with osteoporosis (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.2-10.4, p=0.018). Duration of infection greater than 13 years was significantly associated with osteoporosis. Duration of cART was associated in univariate and not multivariate analyses. Strategies to prevent osteoporosis and fractures in HIV will require attention to viral and lifestyle factors and not just cART. PMID:23970632

  4. Risk factors for early and late transmission of HIV via breast-feeding among infants born to HIV-infected women in a randomized clinical trial in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Roger L; Smeaton, Laura; Lockman, Shahin; Thior, Ibou; Rossenkhan, Raabya; Wester, Carolyn; Stevens, Lisa; Moffat, Claire; Arimi, Peter; Ndase, Patrick; Asmelash, Aida; Leidner, Jean; Novitsky, Vladimir; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max

    2009-02-01

    Risk factors for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) via breast-feeding were evaluated in a randomized trial. HIV-infected women and their infants received zidovudine as well as single-dose nevirapine or placebo. Infants were randomized to formula-feed (FF) or breast-feed (BF) in combination with zidovudine prophylaxis. Of 1116 at-risk infants, 6 (1.1%) in the FF group and 7 (1.3%) in the BF group were infected between birth and 1 month (P=.99). Maternal receipt of nevirapine did not predict early MTCT in the BF group (P=.45). Of 547 infants in the BF group at risk for late MTCT, 24 (4.4%) were infected. Maternal HIV-1 RNA levels in plasma (P<.001) and breast milk (P<.001) predicted late MTCT. These findings support the safety of 1 month of breast-feeding in combination with maternal and infant antiretroviral prophylaxis. Trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00197691 and NCT00197652.

  5. The association between HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perception of risk for infection: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ndugwa Kabwama, Steven; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review tries to elucidate the association between what people know about HIV/AIDS and how they perceive their risk of infection. The initial search for articles yielded 1,595 abstracts, 16 of which met the inclusion criteria. Five studies found a positive correlation, four reported a negative correlation and seven found no association between knowledge and risk perception. It was found that the existing psychometrically sound measure of HIV/AIDS risk perception had not been used in any of the studies. The context in which the risk is assessed is pivotal to whether an association between knowledge and the perceived risk is found. Biases in judgement such as optimistic bias, psychological distancing, anchoring bias and overconfidence also explain how knowledge may fail to predict risk perception. It was concluded that the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and risk perception might follow a continuum from positive to no association and finally to negative. The hypothesis, however, still needs to be studied further.

  6. Incidence and Risk Factors for Incident Syphilis among HIV-1-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in a Large Urban HIV Clinic in Tokyo, 2008−2015

    PubMed Central

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Teruya, Katsuji; Shibata, Satoshi; Yanagawa, Yasuaki; Kobayashi, Taiichiro; Mizushima, Daisuke; Aoki, Takahiro; Kinai, Ei; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Genka, Ikumi; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of incident syphilis infection among HIV-1-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) largely remains unknown. Methods The incidence and risk factors for incident syphilis (positive TPHA and RPR> = 1:8) among HIV-1-infected MSM who visited a large HIV clinic in Tokyo for the first time between 2008 and 2013 were determined, using clinical data and stored blood samples taken every three months for screening and determination of the date of incident syphilis. Poisson regression compared the incidence of syphilis at different observation periods. Results Of 885 HIV-1-infected MSM with baseline data, 34% either presented with active syphilis at baseline (21%) or became infected with syphilis during follow-up (13%). After excluding 214 patients (MSM with syphilis at baseline (n = 190) and no follow-up syphilis test (n = 24)), of 671 men, 112 (17%) developed incident syphilis with an incidence of 43.7/1,000 person-years [95% CI, 36.5–52.3]. The incidence decreased slightly during observation period although the trend was not significant (2008–2009: 48.2/1,000 person-years, 2010–2011: 51.1/1,000 person-years, 2012–2013: 42.6/1,000 person-years, 2014 to 2015: 37.9/1,000 person-years, p = 0.315). Multivariable analysis identified young age (<33 years versus >40, HR 4.0, 95%CI 2.22–7.18, p<0.001), history of syphilis at baseline (HR 3.0, 95%CI 2.03–4.47, p<0.001), positive anti-amoeba antibody (HR 1.8, 95%CI 1.17–2.68, p = 0.006), and high baseline CD4 count (CD4 ≥350 /μL versus CD4 <200, HR 1.6, 95%CI 1.00–2.53, p = 0.050) as risk factors for incident syphilis. Incidence of syphilis was particularly high among young patients (age <33 years: 60.1/1,000 person-years). Interestingly, 37% of patients with incident syphilis were asymptomatic. Conclusions Although incidence of syphilis did not increase during the observation period, it was high among HIV-1-infected MSM, especially among young HIV-1-infected MSM and those with history

  7. [HIV infection and immigration].

    PubMed

    Monge, Susana; Pérez-Molina, José A

    2016-01-01

    Migrants represent around one third of patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Spain and they constitute a population with higher vulnerability to its negative consequences due to the socio-cultural, economical, working, administrative and legal contexts. Migrants are diagnosed later, which worsens their individual prognosis and facilitates the maintenance of the HIV epidemic. In spite of the different barriers they experience to access healthcare in general, and HIV-related services in particular, access to antiretroviral treatment has been similar to that of the autochthonous population. However, benefits of treatment have been not, with women in general and men from Sub-Saharan Africa exhibiting the worse response to treatment. We need to proactively promote earlier diagnosis of HIV infection, the adoption of preventive measures to avoid new infections, and to deliver accessible, adapted and high-quality health-care.

  8. Cancer Prevention in HIV-Infected Populations

    PubMed Central

    Goncalves, Priscila H.; Montezuma-Rusca, Jairo M.; Yarchoan, Robert; Uldrick, Thomas S.

    2016-01-01

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer since the advent of effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). While cART substantially decreases the risk of developing some cancers, HIV-infected individuals remain at high risk for Kaposi sarcoma, lymphoma and several solid tumors. Currently HIV-infected patients represent an aging group, and malignancies have become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Tailored cancer-prevention strategies are needed for this population. In this review we describe the etiologic agents and pathogenesis of common malignancies in the setting of HIV, as well as current evidence for cancer prevention strategies and screening programs. PMID:26970136

  9. Socioeconomic Disconnection as a Risk Factor for Increased HIV Infection in Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Gayles, Travis A.; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Kwon, Soyang; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-01-01

    among YMSM, suggesting that the two factors are related. Socioeconomic factors present an important area for future research focusing on HIV infection in this high-risk group. PMID:27002852

  10. Risk of Cancer among Commercially Insured HIV-Infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Ishwori; Casper, Corey; Noy, Ariela; Palefsky, Joel M.; Haigentz, Missak; Krown, Susan E.; Ambinder, Richard F.; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the cancer incidence rates among HIV-infected persons with commercial insurance who were on antiretroviral therapy and compare them with those rates in the general population. Paid health insurance claims for 63,221 individuals 18 years or older, with at least one claim with a diagnostic code for HIV and at least one filled prescription for an antiretroviral medication between January 1, 2006, and September 30, 2012, were obtained from the LifeLink® Health Plan Claims Database. The expected number of cancer cases in the general population for each gender-age group (<30, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, and >60 years) was estimated using incidence rates from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were estimated using their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to the general population, incidence rates for HIV-infected adults were elevated (SIR, 95% CI) for Kaposi sarcoma (46.08; 38.74–48.94), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (4.22; 3.63–4.45), Hodgkin lymphoma (9.83; 7.45–10.84), and anal cancer (30.54; 25.62–32.46) and lower for colorectal cancer (0.69; 0.52–0.76), lung cancer (0.70; 0.54, 0.77), and prostate cancer (0.54; 0.45–0.58). Commercially insured, treated HIV-infected adults had elevated rates for infection-related cancers, but not for common non-AIDS defining cancers. PMID:27882054

  11. Being Unaware of Being HIV-Infected is Associated with Alcohol Use Disorders and High Risk Sexual Behaviors Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Vagenas, Panagiotis; Ludford, Kaysia T.; Gonzales, Pedro; Peinado, Jesus; Cabezas, Cesar; Gonzales, Fernando; Lama, Javier R.; Sanchez, Jorge; Altice, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the correlates of HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM) with newly diagnosed versus previously known HIV infection among 5,148 MSM recruited using modified snowball sampling in 5 Peruvian cities. Participants, if age≥18 years and sex with a male in the previous 12 months, underwent standardized computer-assisted risk assessments and HIV and syphilis testing. Overall, 420 (8.2%) participants tested HIV seropositive, most of whom (89.8%) were unaware of their HIV status. Compared to those who knew themselves to be HIV-infected, multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that unprotected anal intercourse at last encounter [AOR=2.84 (95% CI 1.09–7.40)] and having an alcohol use disorder (AUD) [AOR=2.14 (95% CI 1.01–5.54)] were independently associated with a newly diagnosed HIV infection. Being unaware of being HIV-infected was associated with high-risk sexual behaviors and AUDs, both of which are amenable to behavioral and medication-assisted therapy interventions. PMID:23670711

  12. High-dose amoxicillin should be included in the empirical treatment of suspected meningitis in patients at risk of HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Ben Edward Michael; Webster, Daniel; Fisher, Martin; Alexander, Eliza

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on a case of Listeria rhomboencepahlitis in a previously undiagnosed HIV positive man. This case is of interest as the incidence of Listeria has increased dramatically in recent years and so may increase in the HIV-infected population. The organism is inherently resistant to cephalosporin antibiotics, empirically employed in the treatment of central nervous system infections and thus highlights the need to include amoxicillin in meningitis treatment regimes in patients at risk of HIV infection as well as the older and those known to be immuno-compromised. PMID:22696737

  13. HIV, Hepatitis C, and Hepatitis B Infections and Associated Risk Behavior in Injection Drug Users, Kabul, Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Catherine S.; Abed, Abdullah M.S.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Botros, Boulos A.; Safi, Naqibullah; Earhart, Kenneth C.

    2007-01-01

    Limited prevalence data for HIV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) exist for Afghanistan. We studied a cross-sectional sample of adult injection drug users (IDUs) in Kabul, Afghanistan, from June 2005 through June 2006. Study participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires and underwent testing for HIV, antibody to HCV, and HBsAg. Overall prevalences of HIV, HCV, and HBsAg were 3.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7%–5.1%), 36.6% (95% CI 32.2%–41.0%), and 6.5% (95% CI 4.2%–8.7%), respectively (N = 464). Among male IDUs (n = 463), risky behavior, including sharing syringes (50.4%), paying women for sex (76.2%), and having sex with men or boys (28.3%), were common. Needle sharing, injecting for >3 years, and receiving injections from nonmedical providers were independently associated with increased risk for HCV infection. The high prevalence of risky behavior indicate that Kabul is at risk for an HIV epidemic. Scale-up of harm-reducing interventions is urgently needed. PMID:18252103

  14. [Travel medicine for HIV-infected patients].

    PubMed

    Rossi, M; Furrer, H

    2001-06-01

    Many HIV-infected persons travel from temperate zones to (sub)tropical destinations. HIV-specific immigration issues, medical resources abroad and problems regarding travelling with multiple medications have to be anticipated. When prescribing immunizations and specific chemoprophylaxis, the stage of immunodeficiency as well as drug interactions with antiretrovirals and medicaments against opportunistic infections have to be taken into account. Live vaccines may be contraindicated. Immunocompromised HIV-infected travellers have a higher risk for serious courses of diseases by enteropathogens. Therefore a good information about food hygiene is important and a prescription of an antibiotic to take in case of severe diarrhea may be indicated. A new antiretroviral combination therapy should not be started immediately before travelling to the tropics. The possibility to continue an established HIV treatment during travel has to be evaluated cautiously. With good pre-travel advice the risk of severe health problems is low for most HIV-infected travellers.

  15. HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Identify Themselves as Belonging to Subcultures Are at Increased Risk for Hepatitis C Infection

    PubMed Central

    Matser, Amy; Vanhommerig, Joost; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Geskus, Ronald B.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Prins, Jan M.; Prins, Maria; Bruisten, Sylvia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) emerged as sexually transmitted infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). We studied whether HCV circulated in identifiable high-risk MSM subcultures and performed phylogenetic analysis. Methods HIV-infected MSM were recruited at the sexually transmitted infections (STI) outpatient clinic and a university HIV clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2008–2009. Participants completed a detailed questionnaire and were tested for HCV antibodies and RNA, with NS5B regions sequenced for analysis of clusters. Results Among 786 participants, the median age was 43 (IQR 37–48) years, and 93 (11.8%) were HCV-positive. Seropositivity was associated with belonging to subcultures identified as leather (aOR 2.60; 95% CI 1.56–4.33), rubber/lycra (aOR 2.15; 95% CI 1.10–4.21), or jeans (aOR 2.23; 95% CI 1.41–3.54). The two largest HCV-RNA monophyletic clusters were compared; MSM in cluster I (genotype 1a, n = 13) reported more partners (P = 0.037) than MSM in cluster II (genotype 4d, n = 14), but demographics, subculture characteristics and other risk behaviors did not differ significantly between the two clusters. Discussion HCV infection is associated with identifiable groups of leather/rubber/lycra/jeans subcultures among HIV-infected MSM. Separate epidemiological HCV transmission networks were not revealed. Active HCV screening and treatment within specific subcultures may reduce HCV spread among all MSM. PMID:23469226

  16. The association between social networks and self-rated risk of HIV infection among secondary school students in Moshi Municipality, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lyimo, Elizabeth J; Todd, Jim; Richey, Lisa Ann; Njau, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the social networks of secondary school students in Moshi Municipality, and their association with self-rated risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among 300 students aged 15-24 years in 5 secondary schools in Moshi, Tanzania. Bonding networks were defined as social groupings of students participating in activities within the school, while bridging networks were groups that included students participating in social groupings from outside of the school environs. A structured questionnaire was used to ask about participation in bonding and bridging social networks and self-rated HIV risk behavior. More participants participated in bonding networks (72%) than in bridging networks (29%). Participation in bridging networks was greater among females (25%) than males (12%, p<.005). Of 300 participants, 88 (29%) were sexually experienced, and of these 62 (70%) considered themselves to be at low risk of HIV infection. Factors associated with self-rated risk of HIV included: type of school (p<.003), family structure (p<.008), being sexually experienced (p<.004), having had sex in the past three months (p<.009), having an extra sexual partner (p<.054) and non-condom use in last sexual intercourse (p<.001), but not the presence or type of social capital. The study found no association between bonding and bridging social networks on self-rated risk of HIV among study participants. However, sexually experienced participants rated themselves at low risk of HIV infection despite practicing unsafe sex. Efforts to raise adolescents' self-awareness of risk of HIV infection through life skills education and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome risk reduction strategies may be beneficial to students in this at-risk group.

  17. Kunyenga, "real sex," and survival: assessing the risk of HIV infection among urban street boys in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Chris

    2002-09-01

    This article examines possible avenues of HIV infection among urban street boys in Tanzania. In doing so, it questions the ways that AIDS researchers have defined and approached the phenomenon of "survival sex" in East and Central Africa. The article specifically examines the boys' sexual networks, sexual practices, and attitudes regarding their own sexual behavior, including their perceived risk of HIV/AIDS infection. Seventy-five street boys aged eight to 20 from the city of Mwanza were interviewed. Results suggest that almost all street boys are involved in a sexual network in which homosexual and heterosexual behavior occurs. Homosexual practices are rooted in a complex set of behaviors and ideologies known as kunyenga, which is a situated aspect of life on the streets and helps maintain the boys' strong dependence on one another. A key aspect of the boys' sexual careers involves a decrease in kunyenga activity as they approach the age of 18 and an increase in heterosexual encounters after the age of 11. There appears to be a critical period between these ages in which heterosexual and kunyenga activities overlap. It is suggested that boys between these ages represent a potential bridge for HIV/AIDS infection between the general population and the relatively enclosed sexual network of street boys.

  18. Cognitive Deficits in HIV Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, O. S.; Rani, Mrudula P.; Priya, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Children infected with HIV are at risk for significant neurological and neuropsychological problems. This study is aimed at identifying cognitive deficits in HIV-infected children and to compare them with equal number of normal controls. Materials and Methods: Twenty children with HIV infection who are currently on antiretroviral therapy were recruited. They were assessed for their intelligence using Malin's Intelligence Scale for Indian Children and also evaluated for their cognitive abilities with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. They were matched with equal number of normal controls. Results: HIV-infected children have shown substantial impairments in the domains of attention, language, verbal learning and memory, visuomotor functions, fine motor performance, and executive functions. Conclusion: HIV-infected children have average intelligence, but they performed poorly on several neuropsychological measures. PMID:25035547

  19. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers living in Barcelona: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Mayans, Martí Vall; Lasagabaster, Maider Arando; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV are a serious global public health issue. These diseases are largely preventable, as they are directly and indirectly associated with potentially modifiable factors, including socioeconomic conditions. Sexual transmission is responsible for over 75% of new HIV infections worldwide. Moreover, commercial sex workers and their clients are two of the groups at the highest risk of acquiring and transmitting these infectious diseases, due to an extensive number of sexual encounters and the various factors related to commercial sex situations. This qualitative study aims to deepen the understanding of the risk perception of STIs and HIV and their associated factors in Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Methods and analysis This is a qualitative, descriptive, interpretive study based on a social constructivist and phenomenological perspective conducted on a saturated sample of Nigerian commercial sex workers in the city of Barcelona. Data will be collected through semistructured individual and triangular group interviews. Information will be examined using a sociological discourse analysis, allowing us to understand the social and individual factors related to the risk perception of STIs and HIV in commercial sex workers. Discussion Qualitative studies are an important element in identifying individual, social and contextual factors directly or indirectly related to the health/disease process. This qualitative study will provide essential knowledge to improve health promotion, prevention strategies and effective management of STIs both for commercial sex workers and their clients. Ethics This study has been approved by the clinical research ethics committee (CEIC) of IDIAP Jordi Gol in Barcelona, 2012. PMID:23901029

  20. Suicide risk and prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) among individuals infected with HIV-1 subtype C versus B in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Sergio Monteiro; Barbosa, Francisco Jaime; Kamat, Rujvi; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Rotta, Indianara; Ribeiro, Clea Elisa; Cherner, Mariana; Ellis, Ronald J; Atkinson, Joseph Hampton

    2016-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is among the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders associated with HIV infection; however, its risks and neurobiologic correlates in diverse cultures are poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the frequency of MDD among HIV+ participants in southern Brazil. We hypothesized that the frequency and severity of MDD would be higher among individuals with HIV+ compared with HIV- and higher in HIV subtype B compared with C. Individuals with HIV (n = 39) as well as seronegative controls (n = 22) were enrolled in a cross-sectional, prospective, observational study. Current and lifetime history of MDD was diagnosed by MINI-Plus; symptom severity was assessed by Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Current and past episodes of MDD were significantly more frequent in the HIV+ versus HIV- group: current MDD, 15 (38.5 %) vs. 0 (0 %), p = 0.0004; past MDD, 24 (61.5 %) vs. 3 (13.6 %), p = 0.0004. The median BDI-II score in the HIV+ group was significantly higher than that in the HIV- (13 (8-27.5) vs. 2.5 (1-5.5); p < 0.0001). Current suicide risk, defined as during the last month, was found in 18 % of participants in the HIV-positive and none in the HIV-negative group. Neither current MDD frequency (8 (57.1 %) vs. 6 (40 %), p = 0.47) nor BDI-II score differed across subtypes B and C. HIV+ group may be more likely to experience current MDD than HIV-. This was the first study to compare the frequency and severity of MDD in HIV subtypes B and C; we found no difference between HIV subtypes B and C.

  1. Prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and risk behaviours among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya: results of a respondent driven sampling study.

    PubMed

    Musyoki, Helgar; Kellogg, Timothy A; Geibel, Scott; Muraguri, Nicholas; Okal, Jerry; Tun, Waimar; Fisher Raymond, H; Dadabhai, Sufia; Sheehy, Meredith; Kim, Andrea A

    2015-02-01

    We conducted a respondent driven sampling survey to estimate HIV prevalence and risk behavior among female sex workers (FSWs) in Nairobi, Kenya. Women aged 18 years and older who reported selling sex to a man at least once in the past 3 months were eligible to participate. Consenting FSWs completed a behavioral questionnaire and were tested for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Adjusted population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS analysis tool. Factors significantly associated with HIV infection were assessed using log-binomial regression analysis. A total of 596 eligible participants were included in the analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was 29.5 % (95 % CI 24.7-34.9). Median age was 30 years (IQR 25-38 years); median duration of sex work was 12 years (IQR 8-17 years). The most frequent client-seeking venues were bars (76.6 %) and roadsides (29.3 %). The median number of clients per week was seven (IQR 4-18 clients). HIV testing was high with 86.6 % reported ever been tested for HIV and, of these, 63.1 % testing within the past 12 months. Of all women, 59.7 % perceived themselves at 'great risk' for HIV infection. Of HIV-positive women, 51.0 % were aware of their infection. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, inconsistent condom use with paying clients, and use of a male condom as a method of contraception were independently associated with unrecognized HIV infection. Prevalence among STIs was low, ranging from 0.9 % for syphilis, 1.1 % for gonorrhea, and 3.1 % for Chlamydia. The data suggest high prevalence of HIV among FSWs in Nairobi. Targeted and routine HIV and STI combination prevention strategies need to be scaled up or established to meet the needs of this population.

  2. Risk factors for disseminated histoplasmosis in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Nacher, Mathieu; Adenis, Antoine; Blanchet, Denis; Vantilcke, Vincent; Demar, Magalie; Basurko, Célia; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Dufour, Julie; Aznar, Christine; Carme, Bernard; Couppié, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is the first AIDS-defining infection in French Guiana. A retrospective cohort study studied predictive factors of disseminated histoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients between 1996 and 2008. Cox proportional hazards models were used. The variables studied were age, sex, last CD4/CD8 count, CD4 nadir, herpes or pneumocystosis, cotrimoxazole and fluconazole use, antiretroviral treatment and the notion of recent initiation of HAART. A total of 1404 patients were followed for 6833 person-years. The variables independently associated with increased incidence of disseminated histoplasmosis were CD4 count<50 per mm3, CD4 count between 50 and 200 per mm3, a CD4 nadir <50 per mm3, CD8 count in the lowest quartile, herpes infection, and recent antiretroviral treatment initiation (less than 6 months). The variables associated with decreased incidence of histoplasmosis were antiretroviral treatment for more than 6 months, fluconazole treatment, and pneumocystosis. There were 13.5% of deaths at 1 month, 17.5% at 3 months, and 22.5% at 6 months after the date of diagnosis of histoplasmosis. The most important predictive factors for death within 6 months of diagnosis were CD4 counts and antiretroviral treatment. The present study did not study environmental/occupational factors but provides predictive factors for disseminated histoplasmosis and its outcome in HIV patients in an Amazonian environment during the HAART era.

  3. Immigration and HIV infection: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Loue, S; Oppenheim, S

    1994-02-01

    This pilot study was conducted to determine areas in which additional education regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is needed by the undocumented and recently immigrated HIV-infected population, and to obtain preliminary information on the ability of this community to access medical treatment for HIV. Information regarding health status, immigration status, and the use of medical services was obtained from all HIV-infected undocumented and recently immigrated individuals who sought services from a Southern California nonprofit agency between July 1, 1990 and December 31, 1990. A total of 54 such individuals presented for services. Thirteen individuals reported participating in shared needle usage for the administration of medication or vitamins, in addition to other known risk factors for HIV. Only one of these 13 individuals had access to nonemergency medical care. Additional research is necessary to determine the reasons for these needle sharing behaviors. Educational outreach is needed to address these behaviors as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission.

  4. Poor retention in early care increases risk of mortality in a Brazilian HIV-infected clinical cohort.

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Daniel S; Luz, Paula M; Lake, Jordan E; Cardoso, Sandra W; Ribeiro, Sayonara; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Clark, Jesse L; Veloso, Valdilea G; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; De Boni, Raquel B

    2017-02-01

    Retention in early HIV care has been associated with decreased mortality and improved viral suppression, however the consequences of poor retention in early care in Brazil remain unknown. We assessed the effect of poor retention on mortality in a Brazilian HIV-infected clinical cohort. The analysis included ART-naïve, HIV-infected adults linked to care at the Instituto Nacional de Infectologia Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz between 2000 and 2010, who did not become pregnant nor participate in a clinical trial during the first two years in care (early care). Poor retention in early care was defined as less than 3 out of 4 six-month intervals with a CD4 or HIV-1 RNA laboratory result during early care. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors associated with mortality, and Kaplan-Meier plots were used to describe the survival probability for participants with poor retention versus good retention. Among 1054 participants with a median (interquartile range) follow-up time of 4.2 years (2.6, 6.3), 20% had poor retention in early care and 8% died. Poor retention in early care [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 3.09; 95% CI 1.65-5.79], AIDS defining illness (aHR 1.95; 95% CI 1.20-3.18) and lower education (aHR 2.33; 95% CI 1.45-3.75) were associated with increased mortality risk. Our findings highlight the importance of adopting strategies to improve retention in early HIV care.

  5. Transactional sex and risk for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wamoyi, Joyce; Stobeanau, Kirsten; Bobrova, Natalia; Abramsky, Tanya; Watts, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Young women aged 15 to 24 years in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV. A growing number of studies have suggested that the practice of transactional sex may in part explain women's heightened risk, but evidence on the association between transactional sex and HIV has not yet been synthesized. We set out to systematically review studies that assess the relationship between transactional sex and HIV among men and women in sub-Saharan Africa and to summarize the findings through a meta-analysis. Methods The search strategy included 8 databases, hand searches in 10 journals, and searches across 17 websites and portals for organizations as informed by expert colleagues. A systematic review of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies was carried out for studies on women and men who engage in transactional sex published up through 2014. Random effects meta-analysis was used to further examine the relationship between transactional sex and prevalent HIV infection across a subset of studies with the same exposure period. Analyses were conducted separately for men and women. Results Nineteen papers from 16 studies met our inclusion criteria. Of these 16 studies, 14 provided data on women and 10 on men. We find a significant, positive, unadjusted or adjusted association between transactional sex and HIV in 10 of 14 studies for women, one of which used a longitudinal design (relative risk (RR)=2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22 –3.48). Out of 10 studies involving men, only 2 indicate a positive association between HIV and transactional sex in unadjusted or adjusted models. The meta-analysis confirmed general findings from the systematic review (unadjusted meta-analysis findings are significant for women (n=4; pooled odds ratio (OR)=1.54, 95% CI: 1.04–2.28; I2=42.5%, p=0.156), but not for men (n=4; pooled OR=1.47, 95% CI: 0.85–2.56; I2=50.8%, p=0.107). Conclusions Transactional sex is associated with HIV among women

  6. Risk perception of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in Nigerian commercial sex workers in Barcelona: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Coma Auli, Núria; Mejía-Lancheros, Cília; Berenguera, Anna; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine in detail the risk perception of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV, and the contextual circumstances, in Nigerian commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Barcelona. Design A qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. Setting Raval area in Barcelona. Participants 8 CSWs working in Barcelona. Methods A phenomenological study was carried out with Nigerian CSWs in Barcelona. Sampling was theoretical, taking into account: different age ranges; women with and without a partner; women with and without children; and women participating or not in STI/HIV-prevention workshops. Information was obtained by means of eight semistructured individual interviews. An interpretative content analysis was conducted by four analysts. Results Illegal immigrant status, educational level, financial situation and work, and cultural context had mixed effects on CSW knowledge of, exposure to, and prevention and treatment of STI and HIV. CSWs were aware of the higher risk of STI associated with their occupation. They identified condoms as the best preventive method and used them during intercourse with clients. They also implemented other preventive behaviours such as personal hygiene after intercourse. Control of sexual services provided, health education and healthcare services had a positive effect on decreasing exposure and better management of STI/HIV. Conclusions Nigerian CSWs are a vulnerable group because of their poor socioeconomic status. The perception of risk in this group and their preventive behaviours are based on personal determinants, beliefs and experiences from their home country and influences from the host country. Interventions aimed at CSWs must address knowledge gaps, risk behaviours and structural elements. PMID:26078307

  7. Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Reduce African American Adolescents' Risk for HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Lawrence, Janet S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Randomly assigned 246 African American adolescents either to an educational program or to an 8-week intervention that combined education with behavior skills training. Results indicate that, compared with the education program, youth in behavioral skills training lowered their infection risk to a greater degree, maintained risk reduction changes…

  8. Into the wardrobe of Narnia: beyond HIV infection a world of cardiovascular risk

    PubMed Central

    Colotto, Marco; Renzi, Alessandra; Durante, Cosimo

    2012-01-01

    A 38-years-old HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected woman presented to us for dyslipidemia. Clinical, familial and laboratory data were consistent with the diagnosis of familial heterozygous hypercholesterolaemia. History, clinical examination and laboratory findings also supported suspected acromegaly. A pituitary MRI showed a sellar macroadenoma that was removed by transphenoidal surgery without complications. MRI carried out 6 months after surgery showed almost complete removal of the adenoma. This case report describes an uncommon association of diseases, very different for aetiology—genetic for FH, infectious for HIV and HCV, caused by excessive hormone secretion for acromegaly-clinical features and therapy, but all sharing a significant impact on cardiovascular risk as a common feature. PMID:22805737

  9. Into the wardrobe of Narnia: beyond HIV infection a world of cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Colotto, Marco; Renzi, Alessandra; Durante, Cosimo

    2012-07-17

    A 38-years-old HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfected woman presented to us for dyslipidemia. Clinical, familial and laboratory data were consistent with the diagnosis of familial heterozygous hypercholesterolaemia. History, clinical examination and laboratory findings also supported suspected acromegaly. A pituitary MRI showed a sellar macroadenoma that was removed by transphenoidal surgery without complications. MRI carried out 6 months after surgery showed almost complete removal of the adenoma. This case report describes an uncommon association of diseases, very different for aetiology--genetic for FH, infectious for HIV and HCV, caused by excessive hormone secretion for acromegaly--clinical features and therapy, but all sharing a significant impact on cardiovascular risk as a common feature.

  10. Gender and risk behaviors for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among recently released inmates: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Binswanger, Ingrid A; Mueller, Shane R; Beaty, Brenda L; Min, Sung-joon; Corsi, Karen F

    2014-01-01

    Women in prison have a higher prevalence of HIV than men. After release from prison, former inmates have the opportunity to engage in risk behaviors for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We sought to assess change in risk behaviors over time and the association of gender with risk behavior in the postrelease period. In this prospective cohort study, we interviewed 200 former inmates (51 women) approximately two weeks (baseline) and three months (follow-up) after release and tested them for HIV infection at follow-up. We examined the association of gender with unprotected vaginal or anal sex in the last seven days using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and multivariable logistic regression. At baseline, 22% of men and 41% of women reported unprotected vaginal sex (p < 0.01) and 5% of men and 8% of women reported unprotected anal sex (p = 0.51). Being younger (OR for each decade increase 0.48, 95% CI = 0.29-0.80), being gay/lesbian or being bisexual (compared with being heterosexual, OR = 4.74, 95% CI = 1.01-22.17 and OR = 3.98, 95% CI = 1.41-11.26, respectively), or reporting a drug of choice of heroin/speedballs or cocaine/crack (compared with marijuana/no drug of choice, OR = 24.00, 95% CI = 5.15-111.81 and OR = 3.49, 95% CI = 1.20-10.18, respectively) was associated with unprotected vaginal or anal sex after adjusting for race, homelessness, and hazardous drinking. At follow-up, 21% of men and 44% of women reported unprotected sex (p = 0.005), and female gender (OR = 4.42, 95% CI = 1.79-10.94) and hazardous drinking (compared with not meeting criteria for hazardous drinking, OR = 3.64, 95% CI = 1.34-9.86) were associated with unprotected sex, adjusting for race and homelessness. In this population with a high prevalence of HIV, we demonstrated persistent engagement in sexual risk behavior during the postrelease period. Enhanced efforts to promote sexual health and reduced risk behavior among both male and female current and former prison

  11. Sustained Reduction in Sexual Behavior that May Pose a Risk of HIV Transmission Following Diagnosis During Early HIV Infection Among Gay Men in Vancouver, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Mark; Taylor, Darlene; Michelow, Warren; Grace, Daniel; Balshaw, Robert; Kwag, Michael; Lim, Elgin; Fischer, Benedikt; Patrick, David; Ogilvie, Gina; Coombs, Daniel; Steinberg, Malcolm; Rekart, Michael

    2017-02-06

    Increased viral load during early HIV infection (EHI) disproportionately contributes to HIV transmission among gay men. We examined changes in sexual behavior that may pose a risk of HIV transmission (condomless anal sex (AS) with a serodiscordant or unknown status partner, CAS-SDU) in a cohort of 25 gay men newly diagnosed during EHI who provided information on 241 sexual partners at six time points following diagnosis. Twenty-two (88%) participants reported ≥1 AS partner (median time to first AS 80 days) and 12 (55%) reported ≥1 partnership involving CAS-SDU (median 116 days). In hierarchical generalized linear mixed effects models, AS was significantly less likely in all time periods following diagnosis and more likely with serodiscordant partners. The likelihood of CAS-SDU decreased three months after diagnosis and was higher in recently versus acutely infected participants. Most men in our study abstained from sex immediately after diagnosis with sustained longer-term reduction in CAS-SDU, confirming the importance of timely diagnosis during EHI.

  12. Children Who Acquire HIV Infection Perinatally Are at Higher Risk of Early Death than Those Acquiring Infection through Breastmilk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Becquet, Renaud; Marston, Milly; Dabis, François; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Gray, Glenda; Coovadia, Hoosen M.; Essex, Max; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Jackson, Debra; Coutsoudis, Anna; Kilewo, Charles; Leroy, Valériane; Wiktor, Stefan Z.; Nduati, Ruth; Msellati, Philippe; Zaba, Basia; Ghys, Peter D.; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background Assumptions about survival of HIV-infected children in Africa without antiretroviral therapy need to be updated to inform ongoing UNAIDS modelling of paediatric HIV epidemics among children. Improved estimates of infant survival by timing of HIV-infection (perinatally or postnatally) are thus needed. Methodology/Principal Findings A pooled analysis was conducted of individual data of all available intervention cohorts and randomized trials on prevention of HIV mother-to-child transmission in Africa. Studies were right-censored at the time of infant antiretroviral initiation. Overall mortality rate per 1000 child-years of follow-up was calculated by selected maternal and infant characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival curves by child's HIV infection status and timing of HIV infection. Individual data from 12 studies were pooled, with 12,112 children of HIV-infected women. Mortality rates per 1,000 child-years follow-up were 39.3 and 381.6 for HIV-uninfected and infected children respectively. One year after acquisition of HIV infection, an estimated 26% postnatally and 52% perinatally infected children would have died; and 4% uninfected children by age 1 year. Mortality was independently associated with maternal death (adjusted hazard ratio 2.2, 95%CI 1.6–3.0), maternal CD4<350 cells/ml (1.4, 1.1–1.7), postnatal (3.1, 2.1–4.1) or peri-partum HIV-infection (12.4, 10.1–15.3). Conclusions/Results These results update previous work and inform future UNAIDS modelling by providing survival estimates for HIV-infected untreated African children by timing of infection. We highlight the urgent need for the prevention of peri-partum and postnatal transmission and timely assessment of HIV infection in infants to initiate antiretroviral care and support for HIV-infected children. PMID:22383946

  13. What Do People Actually Learn from Public Health Campaigns? Incorrect Inferences About Male Circumcision and Female HIV Infection Risk Among Men and Women in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Godlonton, Susan; Thornton, Rebecca; Venkataramani, Atheendar S

    2015-07-01

    Qualitative studies and polling data from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that many individuals may mistakenly believe that male circumcision directly protects women from contracting HIV. This study examines whether individuals who learn that male circumcision reduces female-to-male HIV transmission also erroneously infer a reduction in direct male-to-female transmission risk (i.e. from an HIV-positive man to an uninfected woman). We used data on Malawian men (n = 917) randomized to receive information about voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) and HIV risk in 2008 and a random sample of their wives (n = 418). We found that 72 % of men and 82 % of women who believed that male circumcision reduces HIV risk for men also believed that it reduces HIV risk for women. Regression analyses indicated that men randomly assigned to receive information about the protective benefits of circumcision were more likely to adopt the erroneous beliefs, and that the underlying mechanism was the formation of the belief that male circumcision reduces HIV risk for men. The results suggest the need for VMMC campaigns to make explicit that male circumcision does not directly protect women from HIV-infection.

  14. Prevalence of HCV Infections and Co-Infection With HBV and HIV and Associated Risk Factors Among Addicts in Drug Treatment Centers, Lorestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Norouzian, Hossein; Gholami, Mohammadreza; Shakib, Pegah; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Ghobadian Diali, Hamze; Rezvani, Azam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by blood-borne pathogen, hepatitis C virus (HCV). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HCV infection and associated risk factors among addicts in drug treatment centers in Lorestan Province, Iran. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional sero-behavioral survey was given to drug addicts in the drug treatment centers of Khorramabad, Lorestan Province, Iran during June 2012 - March 2013. Drug addicts were interviewed using a standard questionnaire including demographic, imprisonment history, and HCV-related risk behavior items. Thereafter, the sera drawn from the participants were tested for anti-HCV antibody (Ab), anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Ab, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Results: The mean age of the cohorts was 31.7. Up to 60.2% of drug users had educational levels less than high school, 67.5% were self-employed, and 32.5% were office workers. The mean duration of drug injection was 6.8 years. Statistical analyses indicated that the prevalence of HCV among drug addicts was positively associated with age, past incarceration, drug injection history, the duration of drug use, and tattooing. In addition, 16.23% of volunteers were HCV-positive. Of those infected with HCV, 1.10% was co-infected with HBV, 2.95% were positive for HIV, and 0.36% of HCV-positive cases were infected with all three viruses. Conclusions: The high prevalence of HCV infection among this group implies a high rate of transmission and exposure to the risk of serious diseases. It is important that the high prevalence of HCV infection be taken into consideration to control further transmission of this infection. PMID:27162762

  15. Reduce HIV Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... incidence could be reduced if people changed their sexual behaviors. Our research has demonstrated remarkable success in reducing HIV risk-associated sexual behaviors among African American adolescents and adults." Spring 2008 ...

  16. [HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, J

    1997-05-01

    On June 4, 1981, MMWR published a report about Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in homosexual men in Los Angeles. This was the first published report. A years later, this disease was named acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the following year, Montangier et al in France discovered the causative agent, which they called lymphadenopathy virus (LAV), now known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 1985, solid-phase enzymeimmunoassay for the detection of the antibody to HIV was developed. Since then, other new techniques for the identification of HIV infection have been become available. These include more sensitive methods (for example; polymerase chain reaction techniques). Although these techniques facilitate early and definite diagnosis of infection, these tests may fail to detect the antibody in sera during window period of infection or overdiagnose infection in sera contaminated with genes not related to HIV. Although preventing blood exposure is the primary means of preventing occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, appropriate post-exposure management is an important element of workplace safety. Information suggesting that zidovudine (ZDV) postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) may reduce the risk for HIV transmission after occupational exposure to HIV infected blood prompted a Public Health Service (PHS) interagency working group, with expert consultation, and recommendations on PEP and management of occupational exposure to HIV in relation to these findings were discussed.

  17. [The medical interview motivated by the discovery of markers of viral hepatitis permits the identification, in blood donors, of behavior at risk for HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Guillard, A; Tirtaine, C; Ouzan, D; Follana, R

    1990-07-01

    From December 1988 to September 1989, 973 blood donors, deferred for anti-HBc reactivity, Ag-HBs positivity, elevated ALT, isolated or associated, but negative for anti-HIV, were interviewed in our blood center in the weeks after donation. Among these 973 donors, 53 (5.4%, 46 males, 7 females) were found at risk for HIV infection: intravenous drug abuse: 24 cases; heterosexuality with multiple partners: 17 cases; homosexuality: 8 cases; sexual relations with persons at risk: 4 cases. These 53 donors did not recognize their risk behaviour during the medical talk before donation. 25 out of these 53 donors were seen afterwards and one of them, homosexual man, seroconverted for anti-HIV seven months after the anti HIV negative but anti-HBc positive blood donation. We conclude that, in our experience, director surrogate viral hepatitis markers help to identify donors at risk for HIV infection, and, in one case, earlier in the course of demonstrated HIV infection than the enzyme immunoassays currently licensed.

  18. Childhood Exposure to Religions With High Prevalence of Members Who Discourage Homosexuality Is Associated With Adult HIV Risk Behaviors and HIV Infection in Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Zhang, Nanhua; Regan, Rotrease; Thach, Chia T; Dyer, Typhanye V; Kushwaha, Sameer; Sanders, Rev Edwin C; Ndoye, Omar; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-01-12

    Exposure to childhood religious affiliations where the majority of members discourage homosexuality may have negative psychological impacts for Black men who have sex with men. This study tested the hypothesis that exposures to these environments during childhood were associated with adulthood human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) behavioral risk and HIV infection, because these exposures influenced HIV/STI risk by undermining race/sexual identity congruence and increasing internalized homophobia and interpersonal anxiety. Structural equation modeling as well as logistic and Poisson regressions were performed using baseline data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 (N = 1,553). Childhood religion affiliations that were more discouraging of homosexuality were associated with increased likelihood of HIV infection; however, the association was no longer significant after adjusting for age, income, and education. Having a childhood religion affiliation with high prevalence of beliefs discouraging homosexuality was associated with increased numbers of sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio = 4.31; 95% confidence interval [3.76, 4.94], p < .01). The hypothesized path model was largely supported and accounted for 37% of the variance in HIV infection; however, interpersonal anxiety was not associated with HIV/STI risk behaviors. Structural interventions are needed that focus on developing affirming theologies in religious institutions with Black men who have sex with men congregants.

  19. Communication About HIV and Risk Behaviors Among Mothers Living With HIV and Their Early Adolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Dolezal, Curtis; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Traeger, Lara; Mellins, Claude A.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about how mothers living with HIV communicate to their children about HIV risk. The current study explored communication between mothers and children about prevention and risk behaviors, the impact of maternal HIV infection and child knowledge of HIV, and concordance in reports from mothers and their children. The sample comprised…

  20. Acute Kidney Injury, Risk Factors, and Prognosis in Hospitalized HIV-Infected Adults in South Africa, Compared by Tenofovir Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Neil; Motlhaoleng, Katlego; Abraham, Pattamukkil; Mancama, Dalu; Naicker, Saraladevi; Variava, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There are limited data describing acute kidney injury (AKI) in HIV-infected adult patients in resource-limited settings where tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), which is potentially nephrotoxic, is increasingly prescribed. We describe risk factors for and prognosis of AKI in HIV-infected individuals, stratified by those receiving and those naive to TDF. A prospective case cohort study of hospitalized HIV-infected adults with AKI stratified by TDF exposure. Adults (≥18 years) were recruited: clinical and biochemical data were collected at admission; their renal recovery, discharge, or mortality was ascertained as an in-patient and, subsequently, to a scheduled 3-month follow-up. Among this predominantly female (61%), almost exclusively black African cohort of 175 patients with AKI, 93 (53%) were TDF exposed; median age was 41 years (interquartile range 35–50). Median CD4 count and viral load and creatinine at baseline were 116 cells/mm3 and 110,159 copies/ml, respectively. A greater proportion of the TDF group had severe AKI on admission (61% vs. 43%, p = .014); however, both groups had similar rates of newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB; 52%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID; 32%) use. Intravenous fluid was the therapeutic mainstay; only seven were dialyzed. Discharge median serum creatinine (SCr) was higher in the TDF group (p = .032) and fewer in the TDF group recovered renal function after 3 months (p = .043). Three-month mortality was 27% in both groups, but 55% of deaths occurred in hospital. Those that died had a higher SCr and more severe AKI than survivors; TB was diagnosed in 33 (70%) of those who died. AKI was more severe and renal recovery slower in the TDF group; comorbidities, risk factors, and prognosis were similar regardless of TDF exposure. Because TB is linked to higher mortality, TB coinfection in HIV-infected patients with AKI warrants more intensive monitoring. In all those with poor renal recovery, our

  1. Immunology of Pediatric HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Nicole H.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive, exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a critical window of immune development. HIV’s perturbation of this dynamic process may account for the striking age-dependent differences in HIV disease progression. HIV infection also profoundly disrupts the maternal immune system upon which infants rely for protection and immune instruction. Therefore, it is not surprising that infants who escape HIV infection still suffer adverse effects. In this review, we highlight the unique aspects of pediatric HIV transmission and pathogenesis with a focus on mechanisms by which HIV infection during immune ontogeny may allow discovery of key elements for protection and control from HIV. PMID:23772619

  2. Molecular Epidemiology of Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpes Virus, and Risk Factors in HIV-infected Patients in Tehran, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Hesamizadeh, Khashayar; Keyvani, Hossein; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza; Esghaei, Maryam; Jahanbakhsh Sefidi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) remains the most common malignancy among HIV-infected patients. Human herpesvirus type-8 (HHV-8) is regarded as the infectious etiological agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KSHV). Diagnostic procedures associated with KSHV are not routinely performed in HIV-infected subjects. Objectives The main objective of this study is to obtain information on KSHV epidemiology in Iranian HIV-infected individuals. Patients and Methods In the present cross-sectional study, 109 patients with established HIV infection, who visited a governmental and referral center for HIV screening in Tehran (Tehran west health center (TWHC)) between May 2014 and July 2015 were enrolled according to the convenience sample strategy. After peripheral blood collection, isolation of plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) compartments, DNA extraction was performed. KSHV DNA was analyzed by nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) using primers from ORF-26 (virus minor capsid). Results Among all 109 HIV-infected patients, 67 (61.5%) were male, with an age range of 2 - 64 years (mean ± standard deviation 35.8 ± 13.3). KSHV DNA was found in PBMC and plasma samples of six (5.5%) and four (3.6%) patients, respectively. Conclusions This study revealed a considerable prevalence of KSHV DNA, during latent and lytic phases, among HIV-infected patients. Risk factors for KSHV infection acquisition and concurrent. 0+infection with HIV were also evaluated. Diagnosis of KSHV in the group could be helpful for prognosis of Kaposi’s sarcoma and clinical management. PMID:28191343

  3. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment: A Comparison of the Framingham, PROCAM, and DAD Equations in HIV-Infected Persons

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Max Weyler; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Aparecida Silveira, Erika; de Sousa, Clarissa Alencar; Falco, Marianne de Oliveira; de Castro, Aline de Cássia Oliveira; Esper, Jorge Tannus; Souza, Luis Carlos Silva e; Turchi, Marília Dalva

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to assess the agreement between the Framingham, Framingham with aggravating factors, PROCAM, and DAD equations in HIV-infected patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient centre in Brazil. 294 patients older than 19 years were enrolled. Estimates of 10-year cardiovascular risk were calculated. The agreement between the CVD risk equations was assessed using Cohen's kappa coefficient. The participants' mean age was 36.8 years (SD = 10.3), 76.9% were men, and 66.3% were on antiretroviral therapy. 47.8% of the participants had abdominal obesity, 23.1% were current smokers, 20.0% had hypertension, and 2.0% had diabetes. At least one lipid abnormality was detected in 72.8%, and a low HDL-C level was the most common. The majority were classified as having low risk for CV events. The percentage of patients at high risk ranged from 0.4 to 5.7. The PROCAM score placed the lowest proportion of the patients into a high-risk group, and the Framingham equation with aggravating factors placed the highest proportion of patients into the high-risk group. Data concerning the comparability of different tools are informative for estimating the risk of CVD, but accuracy of the outcome predictions should also be considered. PMID:24228022

  4. Interactive Effects of Morphine on HIV Infection: Role in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh; Saxena, Shailendra K; Saiyed, Zainulabedin; Nair, Madhavan P N

    2012-01-01

    HIV epidemic continues to be a severe public health problem and concern within USA and across the globe with about 33 million people infected with HIV. The frequency of drug abuse among HIV infected patients is rapidly increasing and is another major issue since injection drug users are at a greater risk of developing HIV associated neurocognitive dysfunctions compared to non-drug users infected with HIV. Brain is a major target for many of the recreational drugs and HIV. Evidences suggest that opiate drug abuse is a risk factor in HIV infection, neural dysfunction and progression to AIDS. The information available on the role of morphine as a cofactor in the neuropathogenesis of HIV is scanty. This review summarizes the results that help in understanding the role of morphine use in HIV infection and neural dysfunction. Studies show that morphine enhances HIV-1 infection by suppressing IL-8, downregulating chemokines with reciprocal upregulation of HIV coreceptors. Morphine also activates MAPK signaling and downregulates cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Better understanding on the role of morphine in HIV infection and mechanisms through which morphine mediates its effects may help in devising novel therapeutic strategies against HIV-1 infection in opiate using HIV-infected population.

  5. DEFB1 5'UTR polymorphisms modulate the risk of HIV-1 infection in Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Aguirre, J A; Osuna-Ramírez, I; Prado Montes de Oca, E; Ochoa-Ramirez, L A; Ramirez, M; Magallon-Zazueta, L G; Gonzalez-Beltran, M S; Cazarez-Salazar, S G; Rangel-Villalobos, H; Velarde-Felix, J S

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic and genetic factors are involved in HIV-1/AIDS pathogenesis. Defensins are key molecules in innate immunity that participate in the control and/or development of infection and disease. Using PCR-RFLPs, we determined the association between HIV-1/AIDS and human β-defensin 1 (DEFB1) 5'UTR -52 G/A (rs1799946), -44 C/G (rs1800972), and -20 G/A (rs11362) polymorphisms in three groups of women from the state of Sinaloa, located in the Northwest region of Mexico: i) healthy blood donors; ii) sex-workers; and iii) HIV-1 patients. The -52GG genotype was more frequent in blood donors than in patients (p= 0.023; Odds Ratio, OR= 0.49; 95% CI= 0.25-0.95), whereas the - 52GA genotype was significantly higher in patients (p= 0.013; OR= 2.03; 95% CI= 1.11-3.79, statistical power SP= 98.8%), as well as the frequencies of -20A allele (p= 0.017; OR= 1.60; 95% CI= 1.06-2.40), -20AA genotype (p= 0.047; OR = 2.02; 95% CI= 0.93-4.33) and the ACA haplotype with respect to healthy blood donors (p= 0.000012; OR= 5.82; 95% CI= 2.33-16.43, SP= 99.89%) and sex-workers (p= 0.019; OR= 2.18; 95% CI= 1.07-4.46). Conversely, the ACG haplotype was higher in healthy blood donors than in patients (p= 0.009; OR= 0.55; 95% CI= 0.34-0.89). In addition, the -44CC genotype was associated with a low plasma viral load (p= 0.015), whereas AGA, AGG and GGA haplotypes were more prevalent in individuals with high CD4 counts (p= 0.004, 0.046, and 0.029, respectively). These findings associate DEFB1 5'UTR polymorphisms with HIV-1/AIDS in Mexican women for the first time.

  6. Incident Infection and Resistance Mutation Analysis of Dried Blood Spots Collected in a Field Study of HIV Risk Groups, 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xierong; Smith, Amanda J.; Forrest, David W.; Cardenas, Gabriel A.; Beck, Dano W.; LaLota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa R.; Sionean, Catlainn; Owen, S. Michele; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the utility of cost-effective dried blood spot (DBS) field sampling for incidence and drug resistance surveillance of persons at high risk for HIV infection. Methods We evaluated DBS collected in 2007–2010 in non-clinical settings by finger-stick from HIV-positive heterosexuals at increased risk of HIV infection (n = 124), men who have sex with men (MSM, n = 110), and persons who inject drugs (PWID, n = 58). Relative proportions of recent-infection findings among risk groups were assessed at avidity index (AI) cutoffs of ≤25%, ≤30%, and ≤35%, corresponding to an infection mean duration of recency (MDR) of 220.6, 250.4, and 278.3 days, respectively. Drug resistance mutation prevalence was compared among the risk groups and avidity indices. Results HIV antibody avidity testing of all self-reported ARV-naïve persons (n = 186) resulted in 9.7%, 11.3% and 14.0% with findings within the 221, 250, and 278-day MDRs, respectively. The proportion of ARV-naïve MSM, heterosexuals, and PWID reporting only one risk category who had findings below the suggested 30% AI was 23.1%, 6.9% and 3.6% (p<0.001), respectively. MSM had the highest prevalence of drug resistance and the only cases of transmitted multi-class resistance. Among the ARV-experienced, MSM had disproportionately more recent-infection results than did heterosexuals and PWID. Conclusions The disproportionately higher recent-infection findings for MSM as compared to PWID and heterosexuals increased as the MDR window increased. Unreported ARV use might explain greater recent-infection findings and drug resistance in this MSM population. DBS demonstrated utility in expanded HIV testing; however, optimal field handling is key to accurate recent-infection estimates. PMID:27415433

  7. [HIV infection in immigrants].

    PubMed

    López-Vélez, Rogelio; Navarro Beltrá, Miriam; Hernando Jerez, Asunción; del Amo Valero, Julia

    2008-05-01

    Immigration to Spain has greatly increased since 1995. Currently, more than 4 million foreigners are resident in the country. The immigration process increases vulnerability. The most common route of HIV infection in the immigrant population and ethnic minorities is heterosexual transmission. The number of people living with HIV worldwide (39.5 million people in 2006) and the number of those dying from AIDS continues to increase. In 2006, there were an estimated 30,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in Spain. The number of cases of AIDS in immigrants has risen in the last few years. AIDS in immigrants from any country, and especially in those from sub-Saharan Africa, is associated with a greater frequency of tuberculosis disease. Knowledge of opportunistic pathogens with tropical distribution is required for a correct differential diagnosis. Throughout the European Union, the number of AIDS cases has progressively decreased since the introduction of highly effective anti- HIV treatment, but this decrease has been significantly lower in immigrants. The difference may be due to lower access to health systems caused by administrative, legal, cultural and linguistic barriers.

  8. Infection status and risk factors of HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis among drug users in Guangdong, China - a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background China has witnessed a remarkable increase in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV. The study is to assess the prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis and related risk factors among drug users in mandatory detoxification center Qingyuan, Guangdong, China. Method A cross-sectional study on drug use behaviors, sex behaviors, and presence of antibodies to HIV, HCV, Treponema pallidum, and surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg) was conducted among drug users recruited from 3 detoxification centers in Qingyuan, Guangdong, China. Risk factors for each of four infections were analyzed with logistic regression model. Results A total of 740 subjects were recruited, the median age was 31 years old (range 24-38). The seroprevalence rates of HIV, HBsAg, HCV and syphilis were 4.6%, 19.3%, 71.6% and 12.6%, respectively. Risk factors for HIV were intravenous drug use and co-infection with syphilis. Having a regular sexual partner who was a drug user was considered to be a risk factor for HBV. Intravenous drug use was a risk factor for HCV. However, the consistent use of condoms with commercial sex partners was protective for HCV infection. Compared to drug users living in urban area, those living in rural areas were more likely to be infected with syphilis, and there was an association between commercial sex and syphilis. Conclusion The prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis were high among drug users in detoxification centers in Qingyuan, thus, risk reduction programs for the drug user population is urgently required. PMID:21040549

  9. The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis Delta Virus in HIV/HBV Co-Infected Patients in Shiraz, Iran, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Motamedifar, Mohammad; Taheri, Mohammad; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri; Gholami, Mina; Lari, Mahmood Amini; Faramarzi, Hossein; Sarvari, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has shown that liver disease caused by hepatitis viruses can be more aggressive and severe in HIV infected subjects. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HDV infection among HIV/HBV co-infected clients in Shiraz, southwest Iran. In this study, 178 patients co-infected with HBV and HIV individuals were enrolled. The diagnosis of HIV infection was documented based on serological assays. The demographic and complementary data were collected by a questionnaire. HBsAg and HDV Ab were detected by commercial quantitative enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were also measured. The mean age of the participants was 37.4±7.4 years (range 22-63). 175 (98.4 %) patients were male and 3 (1.6 %) were female. Among 178 patients co-infected with HIV/HBV, 35 cases (19.7%, 95% CI: 14%-25%) were anti-HDV‏ positive and 143 (80.3%) were negative for anti-HDV. HDV exposure in HIV/HBV co-infected patients was associated with blood transfusion (P=0.002, OR: 14.3) and prison history (P=0.01, OR: 2.31) but not with age, marital status, unsafe sex contact, and injection drug abuse. Our data showed a relatively high prevalence of HDV infection in HIV infected population in Shiraz, Iran. The high frequency of HDV Ab in patients with blood transfusion and prison history reveals that HDV transmission occurs more frequently in the parental route than sexual contacts; therefore, blood screening for HDV diagnosis in the high-risk group is recommended. PMID:26379352

  10. Increased Risk of Group B Streptococcus Invasive Infection in HIV-Exposed but Uninfected Infants: A Review of the Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dauby, Nicolas; Chamekh, Mustapha; Melin, Pierrette; Slogrove, Amy L.; Goetghebuer, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection. Maternal GBS colonization during pregnancy is a major risk factor for early-onset GBS invasive disease, but colonization rates are not higher in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected pregnant women, while selective colonization with more virulent strains in HIV-infected women is suggested in some studies. Lower serotype-specific GBS maternal antibody transfer and quantitative and qualitative defects of innate immune responses in HEU infants may play a role in the increased risk of GBS invasive disease. The impact of maternal antiretroviral treatment and its consequences on immune activation in HEU newborns are important to study. Maternal immunization presents a promising intervention to reduce GBS burden in the growing HEU population. PMID:27899925

  11. DUAL-ENERGY X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY AND CALCULATED FRAX RISK SCORES MAY UNDERESTIMATE OSTEOPOROTIC FRACTURE RISK IN VITAMIN D–DEFICIENT VETERANS WITH HIV INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Kelly I.; Rubinsztain, Leon; Payan, John; Rentsch, Chris; Rimland, David; Tangpricha, Vin

    2017-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the utility of the World Health Organization Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) in assessing fracture risk in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and vitamin D deficiency. Methods This was a retrospective study of HIV-infected patients with co-existing vitamin D deficiency at the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and the 10-year fracture risk was calculated by the WHO FRAX algorithm. Two independent radiologists reviewed lateral chest radiographs for the presence of subclinical vertebral fractures. Results We identified 232 patients with HIV and vitamin D deficiency. Overall, 15.5% of patients met diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis on DEXA, and 58% had low BMD (T-score between −1 and −2.5). The median risk of any major osteoporotic and hip fracture by FRAX score was 1.45 and 0.10%, respectively. Subclinical vertebral fractures were detected in 46.6% of patients. Compared to those without fractures, those with fractures had similar prevalence of osteoporosis (15.3% versus 15.7%; P>.999), low BMD (53.2% versus 59.3%; P = .419), and similar FRAX hip scores (0.10% versus 0.10%; P = .412). While the FRAX major score was lower in the nonfracture group versus fracture group (1.30% versus 1.60%; P = .025), this was not clinically significant. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of subclinical vertebral fractures among vitamin D–deficient HIV patients; however, DEXA and FRAX failed to predict those with fractures. Our results suggest that traditional screening tools for fragility fractures may not be applicable to this high-risk patient population. PMID:26684149

  12. HIV infection in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nancy; Holodniy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    In the US, an estimated 1 million people are infected with HIV, although one-third of this population are unaware of their diagnosis. While HIV infection is commonly thought to affect younger adults, there are an increasing number of patients over 50 years of age living with the condition. UNAIDS and WHO estimate that of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world, approximately 2.8 million are 50 years and older. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid-1990s, survival following HIV diagnosis has risen dramatically and HIV infection has evolved from an acute disease process to being managed as a chronic medical condition. As treated HIV-infected patients live longer and the number of new HIV diagnoses in older patients rise, clinicians need to be aware of these trends and become familiar with the management of HIV infection in the older patient. This article is intended for the general clinician, including geriatricians, and will review epidemiologic data and HIV treatment as well as provide a discussion on medical management issues affecting the older HIV-infected patient. PMID:18982916

  13. Lung Cancer in HIV-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Mena, Álvaro; Meijide, Héctor; Marcos, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of HAART for persons living with HIV since 1996 has resulted in a dramatic decline in AIDS-related mortality. However, other comorbidities are increasing, such as metabolic disturbances or cancers, including solid organ malignancies. Among the latest, lung cancer, especially the adenocarcinoma subtype, is on the rise. HIV infection, even controlling for smoking, is an independent risk factor for developing lung cancer. HIV could promote lung cancers through immunosuppression, chronic inflammation, and a direct oncogenic effect. Smoking, lung infections, and chronic pulmonary diseases are risk factors for lung cancer. All may contribute to the cumulative incidence of lung cancer in persons living with HIV. It is double that in the general population. The role of HAART in lung cancer development in persons living with HIV is not well established. Although data supporting it could be too preliminary, persons living with HIV should be considered within high-risk groups that could benefit from screening strategies with low-dose computed tomography, especially those with airway obstruction and emphysema. Current evidence suggests that quitting smoking strategies in persons living with HIV achieve abstinence rates comparable to those in healthy HIV-negative smokers.

  14. Mapping divided households and residency changes: the effect of couple separation on sexual behavior and risk of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Palk, Laurence; Blower, Sally

    2015-12-02

    Using census data we identify geographic patterns in residency changes in Lesotho over a decade. Using kriging to spatially interpolate data from 8,510 households we identify regions where households have members temporarily living away from home (divided households). Further, using a multivariate analysis and data from 2,026 couples we determine whether a partners' absence increases the likelihood of having extramarital partners and/or risk of HIV infection. Approximately 40% of individuals moved between 2001 and 2011; mainly to, and within, urbanized regions. Many households are divided: ~40% have members elsewhere in Lesotho, ~30% in South Africa (SA). Geographic patterns are apparent; they differ based on where the household member is living. Many couples were temporarily separated: ~50% of wives, ~20% of husbands. Separation was not a risk factor for HIV. Only men were more likely to have extramarital partners if their spouse was away: ~1.5 times if in Lesotho, ~3 times if in SA. The high degree of geographic mixing necessitates synchronizing interventions within Lesotho, and with SA, to successfully reduce transmission. It will be challenging to reduce concurrency in men with wives away from home. Our results are generalizable to other sub-Saharan countries where residency changes are common.

  15. Homophobia is associated with sexual behavior that increases risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV infection among black men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, William L; Marks, Gary; Lauby, Jennifer; Murrill, Christopher S; Millett, Gregorio A

    2013-05-01

    We investigated whether the experience of homophobic events increases the odds of engaging in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among black men who have sex with men (MSM) and whether social integration level buffered the association. Participants (N = 1,154) reported homophobic events experienced in the past 12 months. Social integration measures included social support, closeness with family members and friends, attachment to the black gay community, openness about sexuality within religious communities, and MSM social network size. Logistic regression analyses indicated that experiencing homophobia was associated with (1) UAI among men not previously diagnosed with HIV and (2) sexual HIV transmission risk behavior among men who knew they were HIV-infected. None of the social integration measures buffered these associations. Homophobia may promote acquisition and transmission of HIV infection among black MSM. Interventions are needed to reduce homophobia experienced by black MSM.

  16. A genetic marker of risk in HIV-infected individuals with a history of hazardous drinking.

    PubMed

    Barker, David H; Nugent, Nicole R; Delgado, Jeanne R; Knopik, Valerie S; Brown, Larry K; Lally, Michelle A; McGeary, John E

    2017-02-21

    Impulsivity and sensation seeking have been linked to hazardous drinking, increased sexual risk behaviors, and lower treatment adherence among persons living with HIV (PLH). The dopamine active transporter1 (DAT1or SLC6A3) gene has been linked to impulsivity and sensation seeking in several populations but has not been investigated among populations of PLH. This study used data from 201 PLH who report a recent history of heavy episodic drinking. Results indicate that DAT1*10R vs DAT1*9R genotype was related to higher propensity for risk taking (standardized difference score (d) = 0.30 [95% CI: 0.02;0.59]), more hazardous drinking (d = 0.35 [0.05;0.64]), and more condomless sex (rate ratio (RR)= 2.35[1.94; 2.85]), but were counter-intuitively associated with fewer sexual partners (RR = 0.65[0.43;0.91]) and possibly better treatment adherence (d = 0.32 [-0.01;0.65]). Results are consistent with the suggested associations between DAT1 and risk-taking behavior. The counter-intuitive finding for partner selection and treatment adherence may be evidence of additional factors that place PLH at risk for engaging in hazardous drinking as well as relationship difficulties and problems with treatment adherence (e.g., depressive symptoms, avoidant coping, trauma history). Caution is required when using a single gene variant as a marker of complex behaviors and these findings need to be replicated using larger samples and additional variants.

  17. Delayed diagnosis of HIV infection in a multicenter cohort: prevalence, risk factors, response to HAART and impact on mortality.

    PubMed

    Sobrino-Vegas, Paz; García-San Miguel, Lucía; Caro-Murillo, Ana M; Miró, José M; Viciana, Pompeyo; Tural, Cristina; Saumoy, Maria; Santos, Ignacio; Sola, Julio; del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago

    2009-03-01

    To study the prevalence of Delayed HIV Diagnosis (DHD) and its associated risk factors, to evaluate the effect of DHD on virological and immunological responses to HAART and to estimate the impact of DHD on all-causes mortality. Prospective cohort of 2, 564 HIV-positive HAART-naïve subjects attending 19 hospitals in Spain, 2004-2006. Estimations were made by logistic regression and survival analyses by Cox regression models. Prevalence of DHD was 37.3% (35.0-39.6). DHD was related to low educational level (OR:1.31, 95% CI:1.0-1.7). Compared to men who have sex with men (MSM), DHD was more frequent in heterosexuals (OR:1.9 95% CI:1.5-2.5) and injection drug users (IDUs) (OR:2.0 95% CI:1.5-2.8). An interaction between age and sex was found. Although risk of having DHD did not increase after age 30 in women, it increased linearly with age in men. No differences in virological (OR 1.2 95% CI: 0.8-1.8) and CD4 T cell (OR 1.1 95% CI: 0.7-1.8) responses to HAART were seen. The adjusted hazard ratio for death in patients with DHD was 5.2, (95% CI: 1.9-14.5). DHD is very common, especially in older men, heterosexuals and IDUs. Although we did not find differences in virological and immunological responses to HAART, we did observe higher mortality in people with DHD. Increased efforts to early diagnose HIV infection are urgently needed.

  18. Steroids are a risk factor for Kaposi's sarcoma-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and mortality in HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sánchez, Mónica; Iglesias, María C.; Ablanedo-Terrazas, Yuria; Ormsby, Christopher E.; Alvarado-de la Barrera, Claudia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association between Kaposi's sarcoma-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (KS-IRIS) and mortality, with the use of glucocorticoids in HIV-infected individuals. Design: Case–control study. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 145 individuals with HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma receiving antiretroviral therapy. The association of different variables with KS-IRIS and Kaposi's sarcoma-related mortality was explored by univariate and multivariate analyses. The main exposure of interest was the use of glucocorticoids. We also compared the time to KS-IRIS and the time to death of individuals treated with glucocorticoids vs. those nontreated with glucocorticoids, and the time to death of individuals with KS-IRIS vs. those without KS-IRIS by hazards regression. Results: Sixty of 145 individuals received glucocorticoids (41.4%) for the management or suspicion of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Fifty individuals had KS-IRIS (37%). The use of glucocorticoids was more frequent in individuals with KS-IRIS than in those without KS-IRIS (54.9 vs. 36.47%, P = 0.047). Kaposi's sarcoma-related mortality occurred in 17 cases (11.7%), and glucocorticoid use was more frequent in this group (76.47 vs. 36.7%, P = 0.003). Glucocorticoid use was a risk factor for mortality (adjusted odds ratio = 4.719, 95% confidence interval = 1.383–16.103, P = 0.0132), and was associated with shorter periods to KS-IRIS (P = 0.03) and death (P = 0.0073). KS-IRIS was a risk factor for mortality (P = 0.049). Conclusion: In HIV-infected individuals, the use of glucocorticoids is a risk factor for KS-IRIS and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated mortality. In addition, KS-IRIS is a risk factor for mortality. Therefore, glucocorticoid administration in this population requires careful consideration based on individualized risk–benefit analysis. PMID:26636923

  19. Risk Factor or Social Vaccine? The Historical Progression of the Role of Education in HIV and AIDS Infection in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, David P.; Collins, John M.; Leon, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies from the early years of the tragic HIV and AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa identified formal education as a risk factor increasing the chance of infection. Instead of playing its usual role as a preventative factor, as has been noted in many other public health cases, until the mid-1990s educated African men…

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression in HIV-Infected and At-Risk Rwandan Women

    PubMed Central

    Fabri, Mary; Cai, Xiaotao; Shi, Qiuhu; Hoover, Donald R.; Binagwaho, Agnes; Culhane, Melissa A.; Mukanyonga, Henriette; Karegeya, Davis Ksahaka; Anastos, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective During the 1994 Rwandan genocide, rape was used as a weapon of war to transmit HIV. This study measures trauma experiences of Rwandan women and identifies predictors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms. Methods The Rwandan Women's Interassociation Study and Assessment (RWISA) is a prospective observational cohort study designed to assess effectiveness and toxicity of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected Rwandan women. In 2005, a Rwandan-adapted Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were used to assess genocide trauma events and prevalence of PTSD (HTQ mean >2) and depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) for 850 women (658 HIV-positive and 192 HIV-negative). Results PTSD was common in HIV-positive (58%) and HIV-negative women (66%) (p = 0.05). Women with HIV had a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than HIV-negative women (81% vs. 65%, p < 0.0001). Independent predictors for increased PTSD were experiencing more genocide-related trauma events and having more depressive symptoms. Independent predictors for increased depressive symptoms were making <$18 a month, HIV infection (and, among HIV-positive women, having lower CD4 cell counts), a history of genocidal rape, and having more PTSD symptoms. Conclusions The prevalence of PTSD and depressive symptoms is high in women in the RWISA cohort. Four of five HIV-infected women had depressive symptoms, with highest rates among women with CD4 cell counts <200. In addition to treatment with antiretroviral therapy, economic empowerment and identification and treatment of depression and PTSD may reduce morbidity and mortality among women in postconflict countries. PMID:19951212

  1. Tuberculosis Incidence and Risk Factors Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Infected Adults Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in a Large HIV Program in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chang, Charlotte A; Meloni, Seema Thakore; Eisen, Geoffrey; Chaplin, Beth; Akande, Patrick; Okonkwo, Prosper; Rawizza, Holly E; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Kanki, Phyllis J

    2015-12-01

    Background.  Despite the benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART), tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in Africa. Nigeria bears the highest TB burden in Africa and second highest HIV burden globally. This long-term multicenter study aimed to determine the incidence rate and predictors of TB in adults in the Harvard/AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) and President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Nigeria ART program. Methods.  This retrospective evaluation used data collected from 2004 to 2012 through the Harvard/APIN PEPFAR program. Risk factors for incident TB were determined using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression with time-dependent covariates. Results.  Of 50 320 adults enrolled from 2005 to 2010, 11 092 (22%) had laboratory-confirmed active TB disease at ART initiation, and 2021 (4%) developed active TB after commencing ART. During 78 228 total person-years (PY) of follow-up, the TB incidence rate was 25.8 cases per 1000 PY (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.7-27.0) overall, and it decreased significantly both with duration on ART and calendar year. Risk factors at ART initiation for incident TB included the following: earlier ART enrollment year, tenofovir-containing initial ART regimen, and World Health Organization clinical stage above 1. Time-updated risk factors included the following: low body mass index, low CD4(+) cell count, unsuppressed viral load, anemia, and ART adherence below 80%. Conclusions.  The rate of incident TB decreased with longer duration on ART and over the program years. The strongest TB risk factors were time-updated clinical markers, reinforcing the importance of consistent clinical and laboratory monitoring of ART patients in prompt diagnosis and treatment of TB and other coinfections.

  2. Metabolic and Immune Activation Effects of Treatment Interruption in Chronic HIV-1 Infection: Implications for Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Tebas, Pablo; Henry, William Keith; Matining, Roy; Weng-Cherng, Deborah; Schmitz, John; Valdez, Hernan; Jahed, Nasreen; Myers, Laurie; Powderly, William G.; Katzenstein, David

    2008-01-01

    Background Concern about costs and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-associated toxicities led to the consideration of CD4 driven strategies for the management of HIV. That approach was evaluated in the SMART trial that reported an unexpected increase of cardiovascular events after treatment interruption (TI). Our goal was to evaluate fasting metabolic changes associated with interruption of antiretroviral therapy and relate them to changes of immune activation markers and cardiovascular risk. Methodology ACTG 5102 enrolled 47 HIV-1-infected subjects on stable ART, with <200 HIV RNA copies/mL and CD4 cell count ≥500 cells/µL. Subjects were randomly assigned to continue ART for 18 weeks with or without 3 cycles of interleukin-2 (IL-2) (cycle = 4.5 million IU sc BID x 5 days every 8 weeks). After 18 weeks ART was discontinued in all subjects until the CD4 cell count dropped below 350 cells/µL. Glucose and lipid parameters were evaluated every 8 weeks initially and at weeks 2, 4, 8 and every 8 weeks after TI. Immune activation was evaluated by flow-cytometry and soluble TNFR2 levels. Principal Findings By week 8 of TI, levels of total cholesterol (TC) (median (Q1, Q3) (−0.73 (−1.19, −0.18) mmol/L, p<0.0001), LDL, HDL cholesterol (−0.36(−0.73,−0.03)mmol/L, p = 0.0007 and −0.05(−0.26,0.03), p = 0.0033, respectively) and triglycerides decreased (−0.40 (−0.84, 0.07) mmol/L, p = 0.005). However the TC/HDL ratio remained unchanged (−0.09 (−1.2, 0.5), p = 0.2). Glucose and insulin levels did not change (p = 0.6 and 0.8, respectively). After TI there was marked increase in immune activation (CD8+/HLA-DR+/CD38+ cells, 34% (13, 43), p<0.0001) and soluble TNFR2 (1089 ng/L (−189, 1655), p = 0.0008) coinciding with the rebound of HIV viremia. Conclusions Our data suggests that interrupting antiretroviral therapy does not reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, as the improvements in lipid parameters are modest and overshadowed

  3. HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in the United States: Impact on Lifetime Infection Risk, Clinical Outcomes, and Cost-effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Paltiel, A. David; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Scott, Callie A.; Schackman, Bruce R.; Losina, Elena; Wang, Bingxia; Seage, George R.; Sloan, Caroline E.; Sax, Paul E.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2010-01-01

    Background The combination of tenofovir and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) shows promise as HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We sought to forecast clinical, epidemiologic, and economic outcomes of PrEP, taking into account uncertainties regarding efficacy, risk of resistance and toxicity, behavioral disinhibition, and drug costs. Methods We adapted a computer simulation of HIV acquisition, detection, and care to model PrEP in high-risk (1.6% average annual HIV incidence) men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. Base case assumptions included: 50% PrEP efficacy and $753 monthly TDF/FTC costs. We used sensitivity analyses to examine the stability of results and to identify critical input parameters. Results In a cohort with mean age 34 years, PrEP reduced lifetime HIV infection risk from 44% to 25% and increased average life expectancy from 39.9 to 40.7 years (21.7 to 22.2 discounted, quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs). Discounted mean lifetime treatment costs increased from $81,100 to $232,700 per person, indicating an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $298,000 per QALY gained. Markedly larger reductions in lifetime infection risk (from 43.5% to 5.8%) were observed assuming greater (90%) PrEP efficacy. More favorable ICERs were obtained by targeting younger, higher-incidence populations and with improvements in the efficacy and cost of PrEP. Conclusions PrEP could substantially reduce HIV transmission in high-risk populations in the United States. Although it is unlikely to confer sufficient benefits to justify current TDF/FTC costs, price reductions and/or increases in efficacy could make PrEP a cost-effective option in younger or higher-risk populations. Given recent disappointments in HIV prevention and vaccine development, further study of PrEP-based HIV prevention is warranted. PMID:19193111

  4. Travelers' Health: HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... AGENT HIV, a single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA virus in the genus Lentivirus. TRANSMISSION HIV can ... be diagnosed is approximately 9 days, when HIV RNA becomes detectable in blood; however, tests needed to ...

  5. Metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in treatment-naive HIV-infected patients of sub-saharan origin starting antiretrovirals: impact of westernized lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Eholié, Serge Paul; Lacombe, Karine; Krain, Alysa; Diallo, Zelica; Ouiminga, Mariama; Campa, Pauline; Bouchaud, Olivier; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2015-04-01

    In a cohort of HIV-infected patients of sub-Saharan origin we describe the incidence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and lipodystrophy after 3 years of combined antiretroviral therapy, and model the 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases, while taking into account environmental factors. This is a multinational, prospective cohort study conducted in HIV outpatient clinics from four tertiary care centers set in France and Côte d'Ivoire. The participants were HIV-infected, treatment-naive patients eligible to start antiretroviral treatment and were of sub-Saharan African origin. The main outcome measures were the incidence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and lipodystrophy, and the assessment of the 10-year risk of cardiovascular diseases using Framingham risk prediction, D.A.D. Cardiovascular Disease Risk, and WHO/ISH prediction charts. Of 245 patients followed for up to 3 years, the incidence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and lipodystrophy was 5.5, 8.5, and 6.8 per 100 person-years of follow-up (cumulative incidence: 14.4%, 19.2%, and 18.1%, respectively). Living in France as well as female gender and being overweight were risk factors for metabolic disorders as whole and only first generation protease inhibitors were marginally associated with metabolic syndrome. Cardiovascular risk as modeled through the three equations was high in all patients with the synergistic and deleterious effect of living in France compared to Côte d'Ivoire. This cohort study shows how the synergy between HIV, antiretroviral (ARV) exposure, and westernization of life style in a cohort of HIV-infected patients of sub-Saharan origin leads to a progressive increase in the risk of lipodystrophy, as well as metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, all associated with increased cardiovascular risk.

  6. High-risk oncogenic HPV genotype infection associates with increased immune activation and T cell exhaustion in ART-suppressed HIV-1-infected women

    PubMed Central

    Papasavvas, Emmanouil; Surrey, Lea F.; Glencross, Deborah K.; Azzoni, Livio; Joseph, Jocelin; Omar, Tanvier; Feldman, Michael D.; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Siminya, Maureen; Swarts, Avril; Yin, Xiangfan; Liu, Qin; Firnhaber, Cynthia; Montaner, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical disease in the context of HIV co-infection can be influenced by introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and sustained immune activation despite ART. We conducted a cross-sectional study in order to evaluate immune activation/exhaustion in ART-suppressed HIV+ women with or without high-risk (HR) HPV-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). 55 South African women were recruited in three groups: HR (-) (n = 16) and HR (+) (n = 15) HPV with negative cervical histopathology, and HR (+) HPV with CIN grade 1/2/3 (n = 24). Sampling included endocervical brushing (HPV DNA genotyping), Pap smear (cytology), colposcopic punch biopsy (histopathology, histochemical evaluation of immune cells), and peripheral blood (clinical assessment, flow cytometry-based immune subset characterization). Statistics were done using R2.5.1. Irrespective of the presence of CIN, HR (+) HPV women had higher circulating levels of T cells expressing markers of activation/exhaustion (CD38, PD1, CTLA-4, BTLA, CD160), Tregs, and myeloid subsets expressing corresponding ligands (PDL1, PDL2, CD86, CD40, HVEM) than HR (-) HPV women. A decrease in circulating NK cells was associated with CIN grade. CD4+ T cell count associated negatively with T cell exhaustion and expression of negative regulators on myeloid cells. Women with CIN when compared to HR (-) HPV women, had higher cervical cell density in stroma and epithelium for CD4+, CD68+, and CD11c+ cells, and only in stroma for CD8+ cells. We conclude that in ART-suppressed HIV-infected women with HPV co-infection the levels of T and myeloid cell activation/exhaustion are associated with the presence of HR HPV genotypes. PMID:27467943

  7. Community-Based Management of Child Malnutrition in Zambia: HIV/AIDS Infection and Other Risk Factors on Child Survival

    PubMed Central

    Moramarco, Stefania; Amerio, Giulia; Ciarlantini, Clarice; Chipoma, Jean Kasengele; Simpungwe, Matilda Kakungu; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Palombi, Leonardo; Buonomo, Ersilia

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Supplementary feeding programs (SFPs) are effective in the community-based treatment of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and prevention of severe acute malnutrition (SAM); (2) Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on a sample of 1266 Zambian malnourished children assisted from 2012 to 2014 in the Rainbow Project SFPs. Nutritional status was evaluated according to WHO/Unicef methodology. We performed univariate and multivariate Cox proportional risk regression to identify the main predictors of mortality. In addition, a time-to event analysis was performed to identify predictors of failure and time to cure events; (3) Results: The analysis included 858 malnourished children (19 months ± 9.4; 49.9% males). Program outcomes met international standards with a better performance for MAM compared to SAM. Cox regression identified SAM (3.8; 2.1–6.8), HIV infection (3.1; 1.7–5.5), and WAZ <−3 (3.1; 1.6–5.7) as predictors of death. Time to event showed 80% of children recovered by SAM/MAM at 24 weeks. (4) Conclusions: Preventing deterioration of malnutrition, coupled to early detection of HIV/AIDS with adequate antiretroviral treatment, and extending the duration of feeding supplementation, could be crucial elements for ensuring full recovery and improve child survival in malnourished Zambian children. PMID:27376317

  8. The Mental Health Risk of Mothers and Children: The Role of Maternal HIV Infection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Mellins, Claude Ann; Dolezal, Curtis; Spiegel, Dina

    2007-01-01

    Rates of mental health problems in mothers and children in families affected by maternal HIV as compared to those not affected by maternal HIV but living in similar inner-city, low-SES, primarily ethnic-minority neighborhoods were examined. In addition, correspondence between mother and child mental health was explored. Interviews were conducted…

  9. [Toxocariasis in children and adolescents with allergic and bronchopulmonary diseases, HIV infection, hepatitis B and C risk groups: results of serological screening].

    PubMed

    Pautova, E A; Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Iu

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassay was used to determine the presence of immunoglobulins class G to Toxocara canis antigens in the sera of children and adolescents (hereinafter referred to as children) with allergic and bronchopulmonary diseases from HIV infection and hepatitis B and C risk groups. A total of 422 dwellers of the Republic of Altai, including 144 subjects aged 1 to 17 years, were examined. Toxocara antibodies were found in 18.8 +/- 3.3% of the children and in 21.9 +/- 2.5% of the adults. The infection rate in children with bronchopulmonary and allergic diseases was 27.1 +/- 5.8 and 14.3 +/- 5.0%, respectively; that in the hepatitis B and C risk groups was 13.1 +/- 6.2%. The children (n = 6) from the HIV infection risk group were seronegative. The infection rate in the adults from the HIV infection and hepatitis risk group was 19.2 +/- 3.5 and 24.3 +/- 3.5%, respectively. Diagnostic antibody titers in the children and adults were determined in 9.0 +/- 2.3 and 8.3 +/- 1.6%, respectively. Immunological assays should be used to rule out toxocariasis in the examinees. If there are seropositive results, specific antiparasitic threatment should be performed.

  10. Gastrointestinal Symptoms in HIV-Infected Patients: Female Sex and Smoking as Risk Factors in an Outpatient Cohort in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Annelisa Silva e Alves de Carvalho; Silveira, Erika Aparecida; Falco, Marianne de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and associated factors in an outpatient cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) followed between October 2009 and July 2011. We evaluated nausea and/or vomiting, dyspepsia, heartburn, diarrhea, constipation, and flatulence. The outcome variable was the presence of three or more GIS. Sociodemographic (sex, skin color, age, income, years of schooling), lifestyle (smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity level), clinical (antiretroviral therapy, time of HIV infection, CD4 lymphocyte count, viral load), and anthropometric (nutritional status and waist circumference) variables were investigated. Data on sociodemographic and lifestyle variables were collected through a pre-tested and standardized questionnaire. CD4 count was determined by flow cytometry and viral load by branched DNA (bDNA) assays for HIV-1. All variables were analyzed at a p<0.05 significance level. Among 290 patients, the incidence of three or more GIS was 28.8% (95% CI 23.17 to 33.84) and 74.48% presented at least one symptom. Female gender (IR 2.29, 95% CI 1.63 to 3.22) and smoking status (IR 1.93, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.88) were risk factors for the presence of three or more GIS after multivariate Poisson regression. A high incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms was found among PLWHA, and it was significantly associated with female sex and tobacco use. Those results reinforce the relevance of investigating the presence of GIS in PLWHA as it may affect treatment adherence. PMID:27749931

  11. Maternal Substance Use and HIV Status: Adolescent Risk and Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Cleland, Charles M.; Vekaria, Pooja C.; Ferns, Bill

    2008-01-01

    We examined the risk and protective factors and mental health problems of 105 low SES, urban adolescents whose mothers were coping with alcohol abuse and other drug problems. Approximately half of the mothers were also HIV-infected. As hypothesized, there were few differences between adolescents of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers in…

  12. Autoimmune diseases and HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Virot, Emilie; Duclos, Antoine; Adelaide, Leopold; Miailhes, Patrick; Hot, Arnaud; Ferry, Tristan; Seve, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To describe the clinical manifestations, treatments, prognosis, and prevalence of autoimmune diseases (ADs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. All HIV-infected patients managed in the Infectious Diseases Department of the Lyon University Hospitals, France, between January 2003 and December 2013 and presenting an AD were retrospectively included. Thirty-six ADs were found among 5186 HIV-infected patients which represents a prevalence of 0.69% including immune thrombocytopenic purpura (n = 15), inflammatory myositis (IM) (n = 4), sarcoidosis (n = 4), Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) (n = 4), myasthenia gravis (n = 2), Graves’ disease (n = 2), and 1 case of each following conditions: systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune hepatitis, Hashimoto thyroiditis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. One patient presented 2 ADs. Thirty patients were known to be HIV-infected when they developed an AD. The AD preceded HIV infection in 2 patients. GBS and HIV infection were diagnosed simultaneously in 3 cases. At AD diagnosis, CD4 T lymphocytes count were higher than 350/mm3 in 63% of patients, between 200 and 350/mm3 in 19% and less than 200/mm3 in 19%. Twenty patients benefited from immunosuppressant treatments, with a good tolerance. ADs during HIV infection are uncommon in this large French cohort. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura, sarcoidosis, IM, and GBS appear to be more frequent than in the general population. Immunosuppressant treatments seem to be effective and well tolerated. PMID:28121924

  13. The state of science: violence and HIV infection in women.

    PubMed

    Manfrin-Ledet, Linda; Porche, Demetrius J

    2003-01-01

    Violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are two critical public health problems affecting the lives of millions of women today. The purpose of this article is to review the state of science that exists in linking the phenomena of violence and HIV infection in women. The history and scope of violence and HIV infection is presented. Theoretical models for the phenomena of violence and abuse against women and HIV risk behavior reduction are explored. The literature review consists of 44 research articles that examine risk factors for violence and HIV, violence associated with HIV/AIDS disclosure, history of violence and HIV/AIDS, forced or coercive sex and HIV/AIDS, and violence associated with HIV self-protection conduct. Implications for nursing practice and nursing research are presented.

  14. Sexual Risk Behaviors and HIV Infection among Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Use the Internet in Beijing and Urumqi, China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Huachun; Wu, Zunyou; Yu, Jianping; Li, Min; Ablimit, Muhtar; Li, Fan; Pang, Lin; Juniper, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess HIV and syphilis infections among men who have sex with men who use the Internet (MSMUI) and their risk behaviors. Methods In 2007, 429 MSMUI were recruited via the Internet in Beijing and Urumqi, China. A questionnaire was administered, and a blood specimen collected and tested for HIV and syphilis. Results Median age of participants was 25 years. Median number of lifetime sexual partners was 10. Ninety point seven percent ever had sex with a cyber-friend. Rates of condom use in the last oral, insertive and receptive anal sex were 9.1%, 66.3% and 60.4% respectively. Infection rates of HIV, syphilis and HIV/syphilis co-infection were 4.8%, 11.4%, and 1.7% respectively. Factors associated with HIV infection were being ≤24 years (OR=2.85, 95% CI: 1.05–7.75), syphilis positive (OR=4.78, 95% CI: 1.68–13.58), used non-water-based liquid as lubricant (OR=8.03, 95% CI: 1.03–62.52) and having bleeding gums or oral ulcers during condom-free oral sex (OR=3.17, 95% CI: 1.13–8.88). Conclusions MSMUI engage in high-risk sexual behaviors and have a high prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections. The internet is the predominant venue for the majority of MSMUI to find sexual partners. It is urgent to implement effective intervention programs targeting this group. PMID:20104115

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal protozoan and helminth infections among pulmonary tuberculosis patients without HIV infection in a rural county in P. R. China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xu; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wang, Li-Xia; Tian, Li-Guang; Zhang, Yu-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Pin; Hu, Xue-Guang; Liu, Jian; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Yue; Yin, Xiao-Mei; He, Li-Jun; Yan, Qiu-Ye; Zhang, Hong-Wei; Xu, Bian-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-09-01

    Although co-infection of tuberculosis (TB) and intestinal parasites, including protozoa and helminths, in humans has been widely studied globally, very little of this phenomenon is known in China. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural county of China to investigate such co-infections. Patients with pulmonary TB (PTB) undergoing anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis (anti-MTB) treatment were surveyed by questionnaires, and their feces and blood specimens were collected for detection of intestinal protozoa and helminths, routine blood examination and HIV detection. The χ(2) test and multivariate logistic regression model were used to identify risk factors. A total of 369 patients with PTB were included and all of them were HIV negative. Overall, only 7.3% of participants were infected with intestinal protozoa, among which prevalence of Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba spp. and Trichomonas hominis were 6.0%, 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively; 7.0% were infected with intestinal helminths, among which prevalence of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and Clonorchis sinensis were 4.3%, 1.9%, 0.5% and 0.3%, respectively; and 0.5% were simultaneously infected with intestinal protozoa and helminths. Among patients with PTB, body mass index (BMI)≤18 (OR=3.30, 95% CI=1.44-7.54) and raised poultry or livestock (e.g., chicken, duck, pig) (OR=3.96, 95% CI=1.32-11.89) were significantly associated with harboring intestinal protozoan infection, while BMI≤18 (OR=3.32, 95% CI=1.39-7.91), anemia (OR=3.40, 95% CI=1.44-8.02) and laboring barefoot in farmlands (OR=4.54, 95% CI=1.88-10.92) were significantly associated with having intestinal helminth infection. Additionally, there was no significant relationship between duration of anti-MTB treatment and infection rates of intestinal parasites including protozoa and helminths. Therefore, preventing malnutrition, avoiding unprotected contact with reservoirs of protozoa, and improving health education for good

  16. Anal cytological abnormalities and epidemiological correlates among men who have sex with men at risk for HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of anal cancer, a Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related neoplasia, has been increasing in recent decades, mainly in men who have sex with men (MSM). Cytological changes of the anal epithelium induced by HPV can be detected through an anal pap smear. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiological correlates of anal cytological abnormalities among relatively young MSM at risk for HIV-1 infection, to help clarify whether or not this population deserves further investigation to assess the presence of anal cancer precursor lesions. Methods MSM were recruited among attendees of a large STI clinic for a HIV-1 screening program. Anal samples, collected with a Dracon swab in PreservCyt, were used both for liquid-based cytology and HPV testing by the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behavior were collected in face-to-face interviews. Results A total of 346 MSM were recruited (median age 32 years). Overall, 72.5% of the individuals had an anal HPV infection, with 56.1% of them being infected by oncogenic HPV genotypes. Anal cytological abnormalities were found in 29.8% of the cases (16.7% ASC-US and 13.1% L-SIL). Presence of ASC-US+ was strongly associated with infection by any HPV type (OR=4.21, 95% CI: 1.97-9.23), and particularly by HPV 16 and/or 18 (OR=5.62, 95% CI: 2.33-13.81). A higher proportion of ASC-US+ was found in older MSM, in those with a higher number of lifetime partners and in those with a history of ano-genital warts. However, none of these variables or the others analyzed showed any significant association with abnormal cytological findings. Conclusions The presence of anal cytological abnormalities in about one third of the recruited MSM and their strong association with HPV infection, in particular that caused by HPV 16 and/or 18, might provide a further complement to the data that now support the introduction of HPV vaccination among MSM to protect them

  17. Spatiotemporal dynamics of HIV infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strain, Matthew Carl

    Mathematical models of the dynamics of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have contributed to tremendous advances over the past 20 years. This thesis extends this previous work by exploring the importance of spatial heterogeneity in HIV infection both in vitro and in vivo in patients treated with highly-active antiretroviral therapy. Viral infections propagate locally in space, yet HIV infection has been widely regarded as equilibrated over the entire body of an infected patient. This dissertation constructs and explores a cellular automata model of viral spread at the cellular level. Coupling the automata to a blood compartment represented by a differential equation leads to a whole-body model of HIV infection that explicitly includes spatial effects at both the cellular and tissue levels. These models are tested by comparison with experimental data. A central prediction of the spatial model is that, due to competition between Brownian motion and viral lability, HIV infectivity increases with target cell density. This production is verified in a series of in vitro experiments in cell culture. The predicted independence of inhibitory concentrations of antiretoviral agents is verified for nevirapine, but azidothymidine inhibits HIV replication less efficiently in more dense cultures. These in vitro results suggest that systems allowing cell concentrations closer to tissue densities would better reflect virus replication kinetics, although standard measures of relative drug susceptibility may accurately reflect in vivo conditions. The coupled spatial model of in vivo dynamics is compared with novel mathematical analysis of experiments in HIV-infected patients. These analyses indicate that HIV DNA provides a useful marker of the size of long-lived cellular reservoirs of HIV. Levels of HIV DNA in peripheral blood are predictive of the average rate of residual virus production after years of treatment, regardless of whether patients initiate therapy

  18. Risk Factors for HIV Transmission and Barriers to HIV Disclosure: Metropolitan Atlanta Youth Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wallins, Amy; Toledo, Lauren; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Gillespie, Scott; Leong, Traci; Graves, Chanda; Chakraborty, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Youth carry the highest incidence of HIV infection in the United States. Understanding adolescent and young adult (AYA) perspectives on HIV transmission risk is important for targeted HIV prevention. We conducted a mixed methods study with HIV-infected and uninfected youth, ages 18–24 years, from Atlanta, GA. We provided self-administered surveys to HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected AYAs to identify risk factors for HIV acquisition. By means of computer-assisted thematic analyses, we examined transcribed focus group responses on HIV education, contributors to HIV transmission, and pre-sex HIV status disclosure. The 68 participants had the following characteristics: mean age 21.5 years (standard deviation: 1.8 years), 85% male, 90% black, 68% HIV-infected. HIV risk behaviors included the perception of condomless sex (Likert scale mean: 8.0) and transactional sex (88% of participants); no differences were noted by HIV status. Qualitative analyses revealed two main themes: (1) HIV risk factors among AYAs, and (2) barriers to discussing HIV status before sex. Participants felt the use of social media, need for immediate gratification, and lack of concern about HIV disease were risk factors for AYAs. Discussing HIV status with sex partners was uncommon. Key reasons included: fear of rejection, lack of confidentiality, discussion was unnecessary in temporary relationships, and disclosure negatively affecting the mood. HIV prevention strategies for AYAs should include improving condom use frequency and HIV disclosure skills, responsible utilization of social media, and education addressing HIV prevention including the risks of transactional sex. PMID:26588663

  19. Role of HIV Infection Duration and CD4 Cell Level at Initiation of Combination Anti-Retroviral Therapy on Risk of Failure

    PubMed Central

    Lodi, Sara; Phillips, Andrew; Fidler, Sarah; Hawkins, David; Gilson, Richard; McLean, Ken; Fisher, Martin; Post, Frank; Johnson, Anne M.; Walker-Nthenda, Louise; Dunn, David; Porter, Kholoud

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of HIV drug resistance and subsequent virological failure are often cited as potential disadvantages of early cART initiation. However, their long-term probability is not known, and neither is the role of duration of infection at the time of initiation. Methods Patients enrolled in the UK Register of HIV seroconverters were followed-up from cART initiation to last HIV-RNA measurement. Through survival analysis we examined predictors of virologic failure (2HIV-RNA ≥400 c/l while on cART) including CD4 count and HIV duration at initiation. We also estimated the cumulative probabilities of failure and drug resistance (from the available HIV nucleotide sequences) for early initiators (cART within 12 months of seroconversion). Results Of 1075 starting cART at a median (IQR) CD4 count 272 (190,370) cells/mm3 and HIV duration 3 (1,6) years, virological failure occurred in 163 (15%). Higher CD4 count at initiation, but not HIV infection duration at cART initiation, was independently associated with lower risk of failure (p=0.033 and 0.592 respectively). Among 230 patients initiating cART early, 97 (42%) discontinued it after a median of 7 months; cumulative probabilities of resistance and failure by 8 years were 7% (95% CI 4,11) and 19% (13,25), respectively. Conclusion Although the rate of discontinuation of early cART in our cohort was high, the long-term rate of virological failure was low. Our data do not support early cART initiation being associated with increased risk of failure and drug resistance. PMID:24086588

  20. Rural habitat as risk factor for hepatitis E virus seroconversion in HIV-infected patients: A prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Juarez, A; Cuenca-Lopez, F; Martinez-Peinado, A; Camacho, A; Real, L M; Frias, M; Gordon, A; Cantisán, S; Torre-Cisneros, J; Pineda, J A; Rivero, A

    2017-02-25

    Our objective was to determine the incidence and clinical manifestations of acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) in HIV-infected patients. A prospective longitudinal study including HIV-infected HEV-seronegative patients was conducted; HEV seroconversion (to IgG and/or IgM) was the main outcome variable. All patients were tested for HEV antibodies every 3-6 months. For patients who developed HEV seroconversion, a data collection protocol was followed to identify associated clinical manifestations and analytical alterations. A total of 627 patients (89.9%) were followed during a median of 11.96 months (IQR: 8.52-14.52 months) and formed the study population. Forty-one patients developed detectable anti-HEV antibodies (7.2 cases per 100 patients/year). Our study found a high incidence of HEV in HIV-infected patients in southern Spain strongly associated with a rural habitat.

  1. Prevalence and behavioural risks for HIV and HCV infections in a population of drug users of Dakar, Senegal: the ANRS 12243 UDSEN study

    PubMed Central

    Leprêtre, Annie; Ba, Idrissa; Lacombe, Karine; Maynart, Maryvonne; Toufik, Abdalla; Ndiaye, Ousseynou; Kane, Coumba Toure; Gozlan, Joël; Tine, Judicaël; Ndoye, Ibrahim; Raguin, Gilles; Girard, Pierre-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Data on the extent of drug use and associated HIV, hepatitis C and hepatitis B infection in West Africa are lacking. The objectives of ANRS12244 UDSEN study were to estimate the size of the heroin and/or cocaine drug user (DU) population living in the Dakar area (Senegal), and assess the prevalence and risk factors of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV), including behavioural determinants in this population, in order to set up an integrated prevention and treatment programme for DUs. Design and methods A capture-recapture method was applied for population size estimation, whereas the respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method was used to recruit a sample of DUs living in the Dakar area and determine HIV, HBV and HCV prevalence. Behavioural data were gathered during face-to-face interviews, and blood samples were collected on dried blood spots for analysis in a central laboratory. Data analysis was performed using the RDS analysis tool, and risk factors were determined by logistic regression. Access to laboratory results was organized for the participants. Results The size of the DU population in the Dakar area was estimated to reach 1324 (95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1281–1367)). Based on the 506 DUs included in the study, the HIV, HCV and HBV prevalence were 5.2% (95% CI: 3.8–6.3), 23.3% (95% CI: 21.2–25.2) and 7.9% (95% CI: 5.2–11.1), respectively. In people who inject drugs (PWID), prevalence levels increased to 9.4% for HIV and 38.9% for HCV (p=0.001 when compared to those who never injected). Women were more at risk of being HIV infected (prevalence: 13.04% versus 2.97% in males, p=0.001). Being PWID was a risk factor for HCV and HIV infection (odds ratio, OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.7–4.3, and OR: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.7–10.7, respectively), whereas older age and female sex were additional risk factors for HIV infection (10% increase per year of age, p=0.03 and OR: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.6–156, respectively). No specific determinant was

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in HIV patients: risk factors associated with colonization and/or infection and methods for characterization of isolates - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Dennis de Carvalho; Silva, Glaucilene Rodrigues da; Cavalcante, Fernanda Sampaio; Carmo, Flavia Lima do; Fernandes, Leonardo Alexandre; Moreira, Suelen; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Colombo, Ana Paula Vieira; Santos, Katia Regina Netto dos

    2014-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of infections and HIV-infected individuals are frequently susceptible to this pathogen. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review to identify both the risk factors associated with colonization/infection by methicillin-resistant S. aureus in HIV patients and the methods used for characterization of isolates. An electronic search of articles published between January 2001 and December 2013 was first conducted. Among 116 studies categorized as being at a quality level of A, B or C, only 9 studies were considered to have high methodological quality (level A). The majority of these studies were retrospective (4/9 studies). The risk factors associated with colonization/infection by S. aureus were use of antimicrobials (4/9 studies), previous hospitalization (4/9 studies) and low CD4+ T lymphocyte counts (<200 cells/μl) (3/9 studies). Culture in mannitol salt agar (3/9 studies) and the latex agglutination test (5/9 studies) were the main methods used for bacterial phenotypic identification. Genotypic profiles were accessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (6/9 studies) and USA300 was the most prevalent lineage (5/9 studies). Most isolates were resistant to erythromycin (3/9 studies) and susceptible to vancomycin (4/9 studies). Ultimately, use of antimicrobials and previous hospitalization were the main risk factors for colonization/infection by methicillin-resistant S. aureus in HIV-infected individuals. However, the numbers of evaluated patients, the exclusion and inclusion criteria and the characterization of the S. aureus isolates were not uniform, which made it difficult to establish the characteristics associated with HIV patients who are colonized/infected by S. aureus.

  3. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in HIV patients: Risk factors associated with colonization and/or infection and methods for characterization of isolates – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Dennis de Carvalho; da Silva, Glaucilene Rodrigues; Cavalcante, Fernanda Sampaio; do Carmo, Flavia Lima; Fernandes, Leonardo Alexandre; Moreira, Suelen; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Colombo, Ana Paula Vieira; dos Santos, Katia Regina Netto

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of infections and HIV-infected individuals are frequently susceptible to this pathogen. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review to identify both the risk factors associated with colonization/infection by methicillin-resistant S. aureus in HIV patients and the methods used for characterization of isolates. An electronic search of articles published between January 2001 and December 2013 was first conducted. Among 116 studies categorized as being at a quality level of A, B or C, only 9 studies were considered to have high methodological quality (level A). The majority of these studies were retrospective (4/9 studies). The risk factors associated with colonization/infection by S. aureus were use of antimicrobials (4/9 studies), previous hospitalization (4/9 studies) and low CD4+ T lymphocyte counts (<200 cells/μl) (3/9 studies). Culture in mannitol salt agar (3/9 studies) and the latex agglutination test (5/9 studies) were the main methods used for bacterial phenotypic identification. Genotypic profiles were accessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (6/9 studies) and USA300 was the most prevalent lineage (5/9 studies). Most isolates were resistant to erythromycin (3/9 studies) and susceptible to vancomycin (4/9 studies). Ultimately, use of antimicrobials and previous hospitalization were the main risk factors for colonization/infection by methicillin-resistant S. aureus in HIV-infected individuals. However, the numbers of evaluated patients, the exclusion and inclusion criteria and the characterization of the S. aureus isolates were not uniform, which made it difficult to establish the characteristics associated with HIV patients who are colonized/infected by S. aureus. PMID:25518036

  4. A Case-Control Study of Elective Hip Surgery among HIV-Infected Patients: Exposure to Systemic Glucocorticoids Significantly Increases the Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Elizabeth; Middleton, Annie; Churchill, Duncan; Walker-Bone, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This was a cross-sectional case-control study amongst a cohort of HIV-infected adults aiming to explore the prevalence of and risk factors for elective hip surgery (total hip arthroplasty and resurfacing). Methods Cases were identified from the outpatient database of HIV-infected adults attending one tertiary hospital service. For each case, 5 controls matched by age, gender and ethnicity were identified. From the case notes, information about demographic factors, HIV factors and risk factors for hip surgery due to osteoarthritis or avascular necrosis (body mass index, lipids, alcohol, comorbidities and treatment with oral glucocorticoids) were extracted. Results Amongst the cohort of 1900 HIV-infected outpatients, 13 cases (12 male) who had undergone hip surgery (0.7%) were identified, median age 47 years.11/13 (85%) were Caucasian and 7/13 were in stage 3 of HIV. Significantly more of the control subjects (46% vs. 16%, p=0.04) were in the asymptomatic stage of infection. Ever use of oral glucocorticoids was highly significantly associated with elective hip surgery (92% vs. 11%, P<0.001). Conclusions Amongst this young cohort, the prevalence of elective hip surgery was 0.7% with median age at surgery (47 years) considerably younger than that amongst the general population. Ever exposure to systemic glucocorticoids was highly significantly associated with elective hip surgery, suggesting that the principal mechanism underlying the need for surgery was avascular necrosis. There may be an increased need for elective hip surgery associated with HIV. PMID:24025108

  5. Changes in the Contribution of Genital Tract Infections to HIV acquisition among Kenyan High-Risk Women from 1993 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Masese, Linnet; Baeten, Jared M.; Richardson, Barbra A.; Bukusi, Elizabeth; John-Stewart, Grace; Graham, Susan M.; Shafi, Juma; Kiarie, James; Overbaugh, Julie; McClelland, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand temporal trends in the contribution of different genital tract infections to HIV incidence over 20 years of follow-up in a cohort of high-risk women. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. METHODS We performed monthly evaluations for HIV, vaginal yeast, bacterial vaginosis (BV), Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, non-specific cervicitis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), genital ulcer disease (GUD) and genital warts. We used Cox regression to evaluate the association between STIs and HIV acquisition over 4 time periods (1993–1997, 1998–2002, 2003–2007, 2008–2012). Models were adjusted for age, workplace, sexual risk behavior, hormonal contraceptive use, and other STIs. The resulting hazard ratios were used to calculate population attributable risk percent (PAR%). RESULTS Between 1993 and 2012, 1,964 women contributed 6,135 person-years of follow-up. The overall PAR% for each infection was: prevalent HSV-2 (48.3%), incident HSV-2 (4.5%), BV (15.1%), intermediate microbiota (7.5%), vaginal yeast (6.4%), T. vaginalis (1.1%), N. gonorrhoeae (0.9%), non-specific cervicitis (0.7%), GUD (0.8%), and genital warts (−0.2%). Across the four time periods, the PAR% for prevalent HSV-2 (40.4%, 61.8%, 58.4%, 48.3%) and BV (17.1%, 19.5%, 14.7%, 17.1%), remained relatively high and had no significant trend for change over time. The PAR% for trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, GUD and genital warts remained <3% across the four periods. CONCLUSIONS Bacterial vaginosis and HSV-2 have consistently been the largest contributors to HIV acquisition risk in the Mombasa Cohort over the past 20 years. Interventions that prevent these conditions would benefit women’s health, and could reduce their risk of becoming infected with HIV. PMID:26125141

  6. Vaccine-induced Env V1-V2 IgG3 correlates with lower HIV-1 infection risk and declines soon after vaccination.

    PubMed

    Yates, Nicole L; Liao, Hua-Xin; Fong, Youyi; deCamp, Allan; Vandergrift, Nathan A; Williams, William T; Alam, S Munir; Ferrari, Guido; Yang, Zhi-yong; Seaton, Kelly E; Berman, Phillip W; Alpert, Michael D; Evans, David T; O'Connell, Robert J; Francis, Donald; Sinangil, Faruk; Lee, Carter; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Tartaglia, James; Pinter, Abraham; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Gilbert, Peter B; Nabel, Gary J; Michael, Nelson L; Kim, Jerome H; Montefiori, David C; Haynes, Barton F; Tomaras, Georgia D

    2014-03-19

    HIV-1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass antibodies bind to distinct cellular Fc receptors. Antibodies of the same epitope specificity but of a different subclass therefore can have different antibody effector functions. The study of IgG subclass profiles between different vaccine regimens used in clinical trials with divergent efficacy outcomes can provide information on the quality of the vaccine-induced B cell response. We show that HIV-1-specific IgG3 distinguished two HIV-1 vaccine efficacy studies (RV144 and VAX003 clinical trials) and correlated with decreased risk of HIV-1 infection in a blinded follow-up case-control study with the RV144 vaccine. HIV-1-specific IgG3 responses were not long-lived, which was consistent with the waning efficacy of the RV144 vaccine. These data suggest that specific vaccine-induced HIV-1 IgG3 should be tested in future studies of immune correlates in HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials.

  7. Stages of HIV Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latinx AIDS ...

  8. Bacterial infections in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Berger, B J; Hussain, F; Roistacher, K

    1994-06-01

    Although the original opportunistic pathogens described in AIDS were protozoal and fungal organisms, bacterial infections are now recognized with increased prevalence and altered expression in patients with HIV infection. Especially since populations outside of North America and populations of i.v. drug abusers have been studied, bacterial infections have been shown to cause substantially increased morbidity and mortality both early and late in the course of HIV infection. Just as strategies have been developed for primary and secondary prophylaxis of classical HIV-related opportunistic infections, prevention of bacterial complications should be a high priority. Good hygiene and avoidance of unsterile needles in illicit drug use, tattooing, ear-piercing, or other cosmetic or ritual activities should be emphasized in patient education. Patients should be counseled to avoid uncooked or poorly cooked eggs and poultry and to avoid unpasteurized milk products. Pneumococcal vaccine is recommended for all HIV-seropositive patients and should be given as early as possible after recognition of HIV infection for maximal efficacy. Influenza vaccine is also recommended. It may have a role in preventing bacterial pneumonia secondary to influenza. Patient management should include regular dental care and nutritional evaluation. The use of intravenous or central catheters should be limited to essential therapies. When patients present with new febrile illness, a high index of suspicion for invasive bacterial disease is appropriate. The signs of serious bacterial infection in HIV-positive patients are subtle. Diagnostic evaluation should include cultures of blood and other relevant clinical specimens. Empiric antimicrobial therapy based on the clinical presentation may be life saving in patients with invasive bacterial disease complicating HIV infection.

  9. Are slum dwellers at heightened risk of HIV infection than other urban residents? Evidence from population-based HIV prevalence surveys in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Madise, Nyovani J; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Inungu, Joseph; Khamadi, Samoel A; Ezeh, Alex; Zulu, Eliya M; Kebaso, John; Okoth, Vincent; Mwau, Matilu

    2012-09-01

    In 2008, the global urban population surpassed the rural population and by 2050 more than 6 billion will be living in urban centres. A growing body of research has reported on poor health outcomes among the urban poor but not much is known about HIV prevalence among this group. A survey of nearly 3000 men and women was conducted in two Nairobi slums in Kenya between 2006 and 2007, where respondents were tested for HIV status. In addition, data from the 2008/2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey were used to compare HIV prevalence between slum residents and those living in other urban and rural areas. The results showed strong intra-urban differences. HIV was 12% among slum residents compared with 5% and 6% among non-slum urban and rural residents, respectively. Generally, men had lower HIV prevalence than women although in the slums the gap was narrower. Among women, sexual experience before the age of 15 compared with after 19 years was associated with 62% higher odds of being HIV positive. There was ethnic variation in patterns of HIV infection although the effect depended on the current place of residence.

  10. Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Adults in a Large Integrated Healthcare System.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Julia L; Baxter, Roger; Leyden, Wendy A; Muthulingam, Dharushana; Yee, Arnold; Horberg, Michael A; Klein, Daniel B; Towner, William J; Chao, Chun R; Quesenberry, Charles P; Silverberg, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    It is unclear whether HIV-infected individuals remain at higher risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. We conducted a cohort study of HIV-infected and demographically matched HIV-uninfected adults within Kaiser Permanente Northern California during the period 1996-2011. We used Poisson models to obtain rate ratios (RRs) for incident IPD associated with HIV infection and other risk factors. Among 13,079 HIV-infected and 137,643 HIV-uninfected adults, the IPD rate per 100,000 person-years was 160 (n = 109 events) for HIV-infected and 8 (n = 75 events) for HIV-uninfected subjects, with an adjusted RR of 13.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-18.7]. For HIV-infected individuals, IPD incidence per 100,000 person-years decreased by 71% during study follow-up, from 305 in 1996-1999 to 88 in 2010-2011 (p < 0.001), with an adjusted RR of 6.6 (95% CI: 2.7-16.1) compared with HIV-uninfected subjects in 2010-2011. Risk factors for IPD among HIV-infected individuals included black compared with white race/ethnicity, smoking, cancer, and higher HIV RNA levels. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination was not associated with a reduced risk of IPD in HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected individuals. Among HIV-infected IPD cases, the most common serotype was 19A (33%), and 59% of serotypes were covered by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Despite a dramatic decline in IPD incidence for HIV-infected adults since 1996, IPD rates were nearly sevenfold higher compared with HIV-uninfected adults in recent years, even after adjustment for risk factors. Timely antiretroviral therapy initiation, risk reduction strategies, and recent guidelines recommending PCV13 use may further reduce IPD incidence among HIV patients.

  11. HIV-HCV co-infected patients with low CD4+ cell nadirs are at risk for faster fibrosis progression and portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Reiberger, T; Ferlitsch, A; Sieghart, W; Kreil, A; Breitenecker, F; Rieger, A; Schmied, B; Gangl, A; Peck-Radosavljevic, M

    2010-06-01

    Patients co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are fraught with a rapid fibrosis progression rate and with complications of portal hypertension (PHT) We aimed to assess the influence of immune function [Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stage] on development of PHT and disease progression in HIV-HCV co-infection. Data of 74 interferon-naïve HIV-HCV co-infected patients undergoing liver biopsy, measurement of portal pressure and of liver stiffness and routine laboratory tests (including CD4+ cell count, HIV and HCV viral load) were analysed. Time of initial exposure (risk behaviour) was used to assess fibrosis progression. Fibrosis progression, time to cirrhosis and portal pressure were correlated with HIV status (CDC stage). HIV-HCV patients had rapid progression of fibrosis [0.201 +/- 0.088 METAVIR fibrosis units/year (FU/y)] and accelerated time to cirrhosis (24 +/- 13 years), high HCV viral loads (4.83 x 10(6) IU/mL) and a mean HVPG at the upper limit of normal (5 mmHg). With moderate or severe immunodeficiency, fibrosis progression was even higher (CDC-2 = 0.177 FU/y; CDC-3 = 0.248 FU/y) compared with patients with higher CD4+ nadirs (CDC-1 = 0.120 FU/y; P = 0.0001). An indirect correlation between CD4+ cell count and rate of fibrosis progression (R = -0.6654; P < 0.001) could be demonstrated. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) showed early elevation of portal pressure with median values of 4, 8 and 12 mmHg after 10, 15 and 20 years of HCV infection for CDC-3 patients. Patients treated with highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) had similar rates of progression and portal pressure values than patients without HAART. Progression of HCV disease is accelerated in HIV-HCV co-infection, being more pronounced in patients with low CD4+ cell count. A history of a CD4+ cell nadir <200/microL is a risk factor for rapid development of cirrhosis and PHT. Thus, HCV treatment should be considered

  12. Prevalence of Hypertension and Its Associated Risk Factors among 34,111 HAART Naïve HIV-Infected Adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Aveika, Akum; Spiegelman, Donna; Hawkins, Claudia; Armstrong, Catharina; Liu, Enju; Okuma, James; Chalamila, Guerino; Kaaya, Sylvia; Mugusi, Ferdinand; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2016-01-01

    Background. Elevated blood pressure has been reported among treatment naïve HIV-infected patients. We investigated prevalence of hypertension and its associated risk factors in a HAART naïve HIV-infected population in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among HAART naïve HIV-infected patients. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg. Overweight and obesity were defined as body mass index (BMI) between 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. We used relative risks to examine factors associated with hypertension. Results. Prevalence of hypertension was found to be 12.5%. After adjusting for possible confounders, risk of hypertension was 10% more in male than female patients. Patients aged ≥50 years had more than 2-fold increased risk for hypertension compared to 30–39-years-old patients. Overweight and obesity were associated with 51% and 94% increased risk for hypertension compared to normal weight patients. Low CD4+ T-cell count, advanced WHO clinical disease stage, and history of TB were associated with 10%, 42%, and 14% decreased risk for hypertension. Conclusions. Older age, male gender, and overweight/obesity were associated with hypertension. Immune suppression and history of TB were associated with lower risk for hypertension. HIV treatment programs should screen and manage hypertension even in HAART naïve individuals. PMID:27872756

  13. HIV testing practices among Latina women at risk of getting infected: A five-year follow-up of a community sample in South Florida

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Rojas, Patria; Dillon, Frank; Varga, Leah; De La Rosa, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Latinos are more likely to delay HIV testing, present to care with an AIDS defining illness, and die within one year of learning their HIV-positive status than non-Latino blacks and whites. For this paper, we explore the role of partner-relationship characteristics and health behaviors, in predicting HIV testing among Latina adult women who engaged in risky sexual behaviors (i.e., unprotected vaginal and/or anal sex). Data from a convenience sample of 168 Latina adult women who engaged in risky sexual behavior in the year prior to assessment were analyzed for this paper. Rates and predictors of HIV testing among this sample were assessed after a five year follow-up. Descriptive and analytical estimates include incidence rates and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) from multilevel models. At five-year follow-up, 63.7% (n=107) women reported having been tested for HIV, of whom 12.2% (n=13) were women who never tested before. Main reasons for not having been tested at follow-up included: low risk perception (62.1%) and trusting their partner(s)/being in a monogamous relationship/knowing their partner’s HIV status (17.2%). Predictors of HIV testing included: age (AOR: 0.96; 95%C.I.=0.92–0.99), provider endorsement of HIV testing (AOR: 4.59; 95%C.I.=1.77–11.95), poor quality of their romantic relationships (AOR: 1.12; 95%C.I.=1.03–1.26) and knowing the HIV sero-status of sexual partner (AOR: 4.35; 95%C.I.=1.79–10.54). This study characterizes a group of Latina women at high risk for HIV infection and their HIV testing behaviors. Our findings underscore the need of increasing access to quality health care services and HIV behavioral interventions, and to strengthen the adherence to HIV/STD testing recommendations and guidelines among local health care providers serving the Latino community in South Florida. PMID:26291133

  14. [Osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients].

    PubMed

    Bottaro, Edgardo G; Figueroa, Raúl H; Scapellato, Pablo G; Vidal, Gabriela I; Rodriguez Brieschke, Maria T; Da Representaçao, Silvia; Seoane, Maria B; Laurido, Marcelo F; Caiafa, Diego; Lopardo, Gustavo; Herrera, Fabian; Cassetti, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Osteonecrosis, also known as avascular necrosis, is chiefly characterized by death of bone caused by vascular compromise. The true incidence of osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients is not well known and the pathogenesis remains undefined. Hypothetical risk factors peculiar to HIV-infected individuals that might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis include the introduction of protease inhibitors and resulting hyperlipidemia, the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies in serum leading to a hypercoagulable state, immune recovery and vasculitis. Hereby we present a series of 13 HIV-infected patients with osteonecrosis. The most common symptom upon presentation was arthralgia. The majority of the patients had received steroids, 9 had developed hyperlipidemia after the introduction of HAART, 8 were smokers and 4 patients were alcoholics. In 2 patients, seric anticardiolipin antibodies were detected. Twelve patients had AIDS and were on HAART (11 were on protease inhibitors). We believe that osteonecrosis should be included as differential diagnosis of every HIV-infected patient who complains of pain of weight bearing joints. Likewise, it seems prudent to rule out HIV infection in subjects with osteonecrosis.

  15. Structural factors associated with an increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection transmission among street-involved youth

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Brandon DL; Kerr, Thomas; Shoveller, Jean A; Montaner, Julio SG; Wood, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among street-involved youth greatly exceed that of the general adolescent population; however, little is known regarding the structural factors that influence disease transmission risk among this population. Methods Between September 2005 and October 2006, 529 street-involved youth were enroled in a prospective cohort known as the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS). We examined structural factors associated with number of sex partners using quasi-Poisson regression and consistent condom use using logistic regression. Results At baseline, 415 (78.4%) were sexually active, of whom 253 (61.0%) reported multiple sex partners and 288 (69.4%) reported inconsistent condom use in the past six months. In multivariate analysis, self-reported barriers to health services were inversely associated with consistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.25 – 1.07). Structural factors that were associated with greater numbers of sex partners included homelessness (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] = 1.54, 95%CI: 1.11 – 2.14) and having an area restriction that affects access to services (aIRR = 2.32, 95%CI: 1.28 – 4.18). Being searched or detained by the police was significant for males (aIRR = 1.36, 95%CI: 1.02 – 1.81). Conclusion Although limited by its cross-sectional design, our study found several structural factors amenable to policy-level interventions independently associated with sexual risk behaviours. These findings imply that the criminalization and displacement of street-involved youth may increase the likelihood that youth will engage in sexual risk behaviours and exacerbate the negative impact of resultant health outcomes. Moreover, our findings indicate that environmental-structural interventions may help to reduce the burden of these diseases among street youth in urban settings. PMID:19134203

  16. Cardiovascular disease risk prediction by the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) risk score among HIV-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hemphill, Linda C.; Palai, Tommy; Nkele, Isaac; Bennett, Kara; Lockman, Shahin; Triant, Virginia A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, general population CVD risk prediction equations that identify HIV-infected patients at elevated risk have not been widely assessed in sub-Saharan African (SSA). Methods HIV-infected adults from 30–50 years of age with documented viral suppression were enrolled into a cross-sectional study in Gaborone, Botswana. Participants were screened for CVD risk factors. Bilateral carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) was measured and 10-year predicted risk of cardiovascular disease was calculated using the Pooled Cohorts Equation for atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) and the 2008 Framingham Risk Score (FRS) (National Cholesterol Education Program III–NCEP III). ASCVD ≥7.5%, FRS ≥10%, and cIMT≥75th percentile were considered elevated risk for CVD. Agreement in classification of participants as high-risk for CVD by cIMT and FRS or ASCVD risk score was assessed using McNemar`s Test. The optimal cIMT cut off-point that matched ASCVD predicted risk of ≥7.5% was assessed using Youden’s J index. Results Among 208 HIV-infected patients (female: 55%, mean age 38 years), 78 (38%) met criteria for ASCVD calculation versus 130 (62%) who did not meet the criteria. ASCVD classified more participants as having elevated CVD risk than FRS (14.1% versus 2.6%, McNemar’s exact test p = 0.01), while also classifying similar proportion of participants as having elevated CVD like cIMT (14.1% versus 19.2%, McNemar’s exact test p = 0.34). Youden’s J calculated the optimal cut point at the 81st percentile for cIMT to correspond to an ASCVD score ≥7.5% (sensitivity = 72.7% and specificity = 88.1% with area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic [AUC] of 0.82, 95% Mann-Whitney CI: 0.66–0.99). Conclusion While the ASCVD risk score classified more patients at elevated CVD risk than FRS, ASCVD score classified similar proportion of patients as high risk when compared with

  17. Smoking, HIV, and risk of pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Westreich, Daniel; Cates, Jordan; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen M.; Seidman, Dominika; Cropsey, Karen; Wright, Rodney; Milam, Joel; Young, Mary A.; Mehta, C. Christina; Gustafson, Deborah R.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Fischl, Margaret A.; Adimora, Adaora A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases risks of poor pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage and stillbirth (pregnancy loss), but the effect of smoking on pregnancy loss among HIV-infected women has not been explored. Here, investigated the impact of smoking on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and estimated the potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive women. Design: We analyzed pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study between 1994 and 2014. Methods: We estimated effects of current smoking at or immediately before pregnancy on pregnancy loss; we controlled for confounding using regression approaches, and estimated potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions using a semiparametric g-formula approach. Results: Analysis examined 1033 pregnancies among 659 women. The effect of smoking on pregnancy loss differed dramatically by HIV status: adjusted for confounding, the risk difference comparing current smokers to current nonsmokers was 19.2% (95% confidence limit 10.9–27.5%) in HIV-positive women and 9.7% (95% confidence limit 0.0–19.4%) in HIV-negative women. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. We estimated that we would need to offer a realistic smoking cessation intervention to 36 women to prevent one pregnancy loss. Conclusion: Smoking is a highly prevalent exposure with important consequences for pregnancy in HIV-positive pregnant women in the United States, even in the presence of potent highly active antiretroviral therapy. This evidence supports greater efforts to promote smoking cessation interventions among HIV-positive women, especially those who desire to become pregnant. PMID:27902507

  18. Bone disease and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Amorosa, Valerianna; Tebas, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of bone demineralization among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in the current therapeutic era has been described in multiple studies, sounding the alarm that we may expect an epidemic of fragility fractures in the future. However, despite noting high overall prevalences of osteopenia and osteoporosis, recent longitudinal studies that we review here have generally not observed accelerated bone loss during antiretroviral therapy beyond the initial period after treatment initiation. We discuss the continued progress toward understanding the mechanisms of HIV-associated bone loss, particularly the effects of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy, and host immune factors on bone turnover. We summarize results of clinical trials published in the past year that studied the safety and efficacy of treatment of bone loss in HIV-infected patients and provide provisional opinions about who should be considered for bone disease screening and treatment.

  19. Understanding Women's Risk for HIV Infection Using Social Dominance Theory and the Four Bases of Gendered Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Levy, Sheri R.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models to date have fallen short of accounting for the alarming worldwide rates of HIV infection in women through heterosexual contact. In this article, social dominance theory and the four bases of gendered power--force, resource control, social obligations, and consensual ideologies--are used to organize and explain international…

  20. Projection of HIV infection in Calcutta.

    PubMed

    Basu, A; Basu, S; Chakraborty, M S; Dewanji, A; Ghosh, J K; Majumder, P P

    1998-04-01

    Starting with the base year of 1991, the HIV infection projection for 1992-99 for the total, as well as various high-risk sub-populations of Calcutta, the first of its kind is provided. These projections are based on statistical methodology developed in this paper. Our methodology for spread of HIV infection takes into account various social interactions and practices and also uses available data. Rates of these interactions and practices and estimates of demographic parameters used in making projections were obtained primarily from surveys and census data. Since one of these estimated rates, that of HIV transmission rate through heterosexual encounters between an infected and an uninfected had a large range, we have provided two sets of projections based on the largest of these rates (worst-case scenario) and another that is consistent with the available data. The total projection of the number of HIV infected cases in Calcutta for 1999 is between 49,000 and 1,26,000. Separate projections are also provided for high-risk sub-groups. Among these, the sex workers expectedly will continue to manifest the highest numbers of newly infected cases. The temporal rate of increase in prevalence is projected to be alarmingly higher in the general population than even among sex workers, although the actual prevalence will continue to be the lowest in the general population compared to all other sub-groups of the population.

  1. Protocol for an open-label, single-arm trial of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among people at high risk of HIV infection: the NSW Demonstration Project PRELUDE

    PubMed Central

    Vaccher, S; Grulich, A; McAllister, J; Templeton, D J; Bloch, M; McNulty, A; Holden, J; Poynten, I M; Prestage, G; Zablotska, I

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite a number of HIV prevention strategies, the number of new HIV infections remains high. In Australia, over three-quarters of new HIV diagnoses are in gay and bisexual men (GBM). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been shown to be effective at preventing new HIV infections in several randomised trials. The PRELUDE study aims to evaluate the implementation of PrEP in healthcare settings in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, among a sample of high-risk adults. Methods and analysis PRELUDE is an ongoing open-label, single-arm demonstration project, conducted in public and private clinics across NSW, Australia. Enrolment began in November 2014. The study is designed for 300 high-risk participants—mainly GBM and heterosexual women. Participants receive daily oral PrEP, composed of emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), for up to 2.5 years. Quarterly study visits include testing for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), assessment of ongoing eligibility and side effects, and self-reported adherence. Following each study visit, online behavioural surveys are administered to collect information on medication adherence, risk behaviours and attitudes. Blood samples will be collected in a subset of patients 1, 6 and 12 months after PrEP initiation to measure FTC/TDF concentrations. Analyses using longitudinal regression models will focus on feasibility, adherence, safety, tolerability and effects of PrEP on behaviour. This study will inform PrEP policy and guide the implementation of PrEP in Australia in people at high risk of HIV. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. All patients will provide written informed consent prior to participation in the study. Publications relating to each of the primary end points will be gradually released after 12 months of follow-up is complete. Trial registration number NCT02206555; Pre-results. PMID:27324719

  2. A randomized control trial of personalized cognitive counseling to reduce sexual risk among HIV-infected men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Schwarcz, Sandra K; Chen, Yea-Hung; Murphy, Jessie L; Paul, Jay P; Skinta, Matthew D; Scheer, Susan; Vittinghoff, Eric; Dilley, James W

    2013-01-01

    The increased life expectancy and well-being of HIV-infected persons presents the need for effective prevention methods in this population. Personalized cognitive counseling (PCC) has been shown to reduce unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with a partner of unknown or different serostatus among HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM). We adapted PCC for use among HIV-infected MSM and tested its efficacy against standard risk-reduction counseling in a randomized clinical trial in San Francisco. Between November 2006 and April 2010, a total of 374 HIV-infected MSM who reported UAI with two or more men of negative or unknown HIV serostatus in the previous 6 months were randomized to two sessions of PCC or standard counseling 6 months apart. The primary outcome was the number of episodes of UAI with a non-primary male partner of different or unknown serostatus in the past 90 days, measured at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Surveys assessed participant satisfaction with the counseling. The mean number of episodes of UAI at baseline did not differ between PCC and control groups (2.97 and 3.14, respectively; p=0.82). The mean number of UAI episodes declined in both groups at 6 months, declined further in the PCC group at 12 months, while increasing to baseline levels among controls; these differences were not statistically significant. Episode mean ratios were 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-2.19, p=0.71) at 6 months and 0.48 (95% CI 0.12-1.84, p=0.34) at 12 months. Participants in both groups reported a high degree of satisfaction with the counseling. The findings from this randomized trial do not support the efficacy of a two-session PCC intervention at reducing UAI among HIV-infected MSM and indicate the continued need to identify and implement effective prevention methods in this population.

  3. Bloodstream infections in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Taramasso, Lucia; Tatarelli, Paola; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2016-04-02

    In the combined antiretroviral therapy era, HIV-infected patients remain a vulnerable population for the onset of bloodstream infections (BSI). Worldwide, nontyphoid salmonellae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci are the most important pathogens. Intravenous catheter associated infection, skin-soft tissue infection and endocarditis are associated with Gram-positive bacteremia. Among the Gram-negative, nontyphoidal Salmonella have been previously correlated to sepsis. Other causes of BSI in HIV-infected patients are mycobacteria and fungi. Mycobacteria constitute a major cause of BSI in limited resource countries. Fungal BSI are not frequent and among them Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common life-threatening infection. The degree of immunosuppression remains the key prognostic factor leading to the development of BSI.

  4. Bloodstream infections in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Taramasso, Lucia; Tatarelli, Paola; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the combined antiretroviral therapy era, HIV-infected patients remain a vulnerable population for the onset of bloodstream infections (BSI). Worldwide, nontyphoid salmonellae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci are the most important pathogens. Intravenous catheter associated infection, skin-soft tissue infection and endocarditis are associated with Gram-positive bacteremia. Among the Gram-negative, nontyphoidal Salmonella have been previously correlated to sepsis. Other causes of BSI in HIV-infected patients are mycobacteria and fungi. Mycobacteria constitute a major cause of BSI in limited resource countries. Fungal BSI are not frequent and among them Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common life-threatening infection. The degree of immunosuppression remains the key prognostic factor leading to the development of BSI. PMID:26950194

  5. Estimating the Sizes of Populations At Risk of HIV Infection From Multiple Data Sources Using a Bayesian Hierarchical Model.

    PubMed

    Bao, Le; Raftery, Adrian E; Reddy, Amala

    2015-04-01

    In most countries in the world outside of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV is largely concentrated in sub-populations whose behavior puts them at higher risk of contracting and transmitting HIV, such as people who inject drugs, sex workers and men who have sex with men. Estimating the size of these sub-populations is important for assessing overall HIV prevalence and designing effective interventions. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model for estimating the sizes of local and national HIV key affected populations. The model incorporates multiple commonly used data sources including mapping data, surveys, interventions, capture-recapture data, estimates or guesstimates from organizations, and expert opinion. The proposed model is used to estimate the numbers of people who inject drugs in Bangladesh.

  6. HIV Prevention Counseling Intervention Delivered During Routine Clinical Care Reduces HIV Risk Behavior in HIV-Infected South Africans Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: The Izindlela Zokuphila/Options for Health Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Cornman, Deborah H.; Shuper, Paul A.; Christie, Sarah; Pillay, Sandy; Macdonald, Susan; Ngcobo, Ntombenhle; Amico, K. Rivet; Lalloo, Umesh; Friedland, Gerald; Fisher, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Context Sustainable interventions are needed to minimize HIV risk behavior among people living with HIV (PLWH) in South Africa on antiretroviral therapy (ART), a significant proportion of whom do not achieve viral suppression. Objective To determine whether a brief lay counselor delivered intervention implemented during routine care can reduce risky sex among PLWH on ART. Design Cluster randomized 16 HIV clinical care sites in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, to intervention or standard-of-care. Setting Publicly funded HIV clinical care sites. Patients 1891 PLWH on ART received the HIV prevention counseling intervention (n = 967) or standard-of-care counseling (n = 924). Intervention Lay counselors delivered a brief intervention using motivational interviewing strategies based on the Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills (IMB) model during routine clinical care. Main Outcome Measures Number of sexual events without a condom in the past four weeks with partners of any HIV status, and with partners perceived to be HIV-negative or HIV-status unknown, assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Results Intervention participants reported significantly greater reductions in HIV risk behavior on both primary outcomes, compared to standard-of-care participants. Differences in STI incidence between arms were not observed. Conclusion Effective behavioral interventions, delivered by lay counselors within the clinical care setting, are consistent with the strategy of linking HIV care and HIV prevention and integrating biomedical and behavioral approaches to stemming the HIV epidemic. PMID:25230288

  7. The Strategies of Heterosexuals from Large Metropolitan Areas for Assessing the Risks of Exposure to HIV or Other Sexually Transmitted Infections from Partners Met Online.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Onaga, Marie; Verni, Rachel; Gunn, Hamish

    2017-03-24

    Heterosexuals' use of the Internet for meeting romantic or sexual partners is rapidly increasing, raising concerns about the Internet's potential to facilitate encounters that place individuals at risk for acquiring HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For example, online sharing of personal information and self-revelations can foster virtual intimacy, promoting a false sense of familiarity that might accelerate progression to unprotected sex. Therefore, it is critical to understand how those who meet sexual partners online attempt to assess the possible risk of acquiring HIV or STIs posed by having unprotected sex with a new partner and decide whether to use a condom. To investigate this issue, in-depth interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of heterosexual male and female participants from large metropolitan cities who had had unprotected vaginal or anal sex with at least two partners met online in the past 3 months. With few exceptions, participants relied on faulty strategies and heuristics to estimate these risks; yet, most engaged in unprotected sex at their first meeting or very soon afterward. While some seemed to try to make a genuine effort to arrive at a reliable assessment of the HIV risk posed, most appeared to be looking for a way to justify their desire and intention to have unprotected sex. The findings suggest the need for more HIV and sexual health education targeted at heterosexuals, especially for those who go online to meet partners.

  8. HIV Risk Behavior among Delinquent and Mentally Ill Teens: Case Manager Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael D.; Seal, David Wyatt; Hartley, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    An HIV knowledge survey and qualitative interview were administered to 20 case managers in community-based programs for troubled youth to assess HIV knowledge and their perception of client HIV risk behaviors. Participants had good HIV knowledge. Case managers perceived client youth to be at high risk for HIV infection due to unsafe sexual…

  9. [Attitudes and risk-taking behaviour for HIV infection, of drug addicts followed by a Drug Addiction Treatment Service (Ser.T).].

    PubMed

    Coniglio, Maria Anna; Garofalo, Sergio; Giammanco, Giuseppe; Pignato, Sarina

    2005-01-01

    A questionnaire was administered to 160 injection drug users, enrolled in a methadone or buprenorphine maintenance treatment program at their local Drug Addiction Treatment Service (Ser.T), in order to measure their attitudes and risk-taking behaviours towards HIV. Despite being on a maintenance treatment program, almost half of the interviewed subjects (43,75%) declared that they continued to use drugs, occasionally (15,62%), monthly (6,25%), weekly (10,62%) or daily (11,25%). Moreover, a high rate of risk-taking behaviour for HIV was found among the interviewed drug addicts, such as sharing of injection equipment (39,40%), irregular condom use (15,00%) and unprotected sex with casual partners (9,40%). When asked about which interventions they would consider to be most effective for HIV prevention, more than half of the interviewed subjects (58,12%) indicated qualified information regarding HIV transmission, while a lower but not negligible proportion of subjects thought the free distribution of syringes (21,25%) or condoms (20,63%) would be most effective. In contrast to other studies, our results show that pharmacological maintenance treatments may not have a role in preventing HIV infection among injection drug users. On the other hand, our results suggest that the presence, within the Ser.T team, of professional educators specialized in the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases may be more useful.

  10. Risk factors for default from tuberculosis treatment in HIV-infected individuals in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Concomitant treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) presents a series of challenges for treatment compliance for both providers and patients. We carried out this study to identify risk factors for default from TB treatment in people living with HIV. Methods We conducted a cohort study to monitor HIV/TB co-infected subjects in Pernambuco, Brazil, on a monthly basis, until completion or default of treatment for TB. Logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals and P-values. Results From a cohort of 2310 HIV subjects, 390 individuals (16.9%) who had started treatment after a diagnosis of TB were selected, and data on 273 individuals who completed or defaulted on treatment for TB were analyzed. The default rate was 21.7% and the following risk factors were identified: male gender, smoking and CD4 T-cell count less than 200 cells/mm3. Age over 29 years, complete or incomplete secondary or university education and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were identified as protective factors for the outcome. Conclusion The results point to the need for more specific actions, aiming to reduce the default from TB treatment in males, younger adults with low education, smokers and people with CD4 T-cell counts < 200 cells/mm3. Default was less likely to occur in patients under HAART, reinforcing the strategy of early initiation of HAART in individuals with TB. PMID:22176628

  11. Internet-Based Sex-Seeking Behavior Promotes HIV Infection Risk: A 6-Year Serial Cross-Sectional Survey to MSM in Shenyang, China

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shi; Han, Xiao-Xu; Zhang, Jing; Chu, Zhen-Xing; Hai, Yan-Qiu; Mao, Xiang; Yu, Yan-Qiu; Geng, Wen-Qing; Jiang, Yong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    HIV prevalence is still rapidly increasing among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). The Internet also makes it easier for MSM to have casual partners. This study aims to evaluate the trend of Internet-based sex-seeking behavior of MSM and its impact on HIV prevalence, the distribution of HIV subtype strains, and transmitted drug resistance rates. A serial cross-sectional study was conducted from 2009 to 2014. Of the 1,981 MSM, 50.5% (1,000/1,981) mainly sought homosexual partners through the Internet (Internet-based MSM, IBM). The proportion of IBM among total MSM subjects increased from 43.3% to 61.5% (p < 0.001). HIV prevalence of IBM increased from 5.7% to 20.7%, while that of non-Internet-based MSM (NIBM) increased from 7.0% to 14.7%. A relative higher proportion of NIBM were infected with HIV CRF01_AE subtype than IBM (79.5% versus 72.2%, p = 0.52). Multivariable analysis found IBM had a significantly higher HIV prevalence than NIBM (13.2% versus 10.5%, aOR = 1.4, 95% CI [1.0–1.9]). Being a migrant non-Shenyang resident MSM (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI [1.3–2.9]) and occasionally/never using condoms with casual homosexual partners (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI [1.1–2.6]) were two distinct risk factors for HIV infection in IBM. More efforts should be targeted towards developing interventions aimed at IBM, particularly migrant MSM and who engage in UAI with casual homosexual partners. PMID:28105415

  12. Exploring gender perceptions of risk of HIV infection and related behaviour among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa, Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lekalakala-Mokgele, Eucebious

    2016-12-01

    The literature shows that there are important differences between women and men in the underlying mechanisms of transmission of HIV infection and AIDS, as well as in the social and economic consequences of HIV/AIDS. These stem from sexual behaviour and socially constructed 'gender' differences between women and men in roles and responsibilities. Despite the fact that numerous gender-related sociocultural factors influence HIV/AIDS protective behaviours, little gender specificity is included in HIV prevention among the elderly. In order to close this gap, this study explored gender-related perceptions of risk of HIV infection among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa in Gauteng Province, South Africa. This qualitative study used purposive sampling to conduct three focus group interviews with 22 women and 10 men who were above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that both genders blame each other for the spreading of HIV/AIDS. Male participants displayed the tendency to have multiple partners, whereas females accepted that males are promiscuous. Mixed perceptions about disclosure of HIV status were found. Condom use was a challenge, as men did not know how to introduce it with their wives, and some female participants indicated that men are resistant to using condoms. The elderly men also believed that women will have sex in exchange for money. It is concluded that there is a need for substantial behaviour change among both elderly males and females, which should address gender power relations. More in-depth and extensive research in this area is recommended.

  13. HIV-1 elite controllers: beware of super-infections.

    PubMed

    Clerc, Olivier; Colombo, Sara; Yerly, Sabine; Telenti, Amalio; Cavassini, Matthias

    2010-04-01

    Super- and co-infection with HIV-1 are generally associated with accelerated disease progression. We report on the outcome of super-infection in two HIV-1 infected individuals previously known as elite controllers. Both presented an acute retroviral syndrome following super-infection and showed an immuno-virological progression thereafter. Host genotyping failed to reveal any of the currently recognized protective factors associated with slow disease progression. This report indicates that elite controllers should be informed of the risk of super-infection, and illustrates the complexity of mounting broad anti-HIV immunity.

  14. HIV/STI Risk Behavior of Drug Court Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Angela A.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.; McCluskey, D. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Drug abusing offenders have high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). To date, the HIV/STI prevention needs of offenders in drug court programs have been ignored. This multi-method study employed interviews to assess drug court professionals' perceptions of the need for an HIV risk reduction intervention to be integrated…

  15. HIV-2 infection in an American.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, T R; Polon, C; Schable, C A; VanDevanter, N; Rayfield, M A; Wallace, D; Stuart, A; Holmberg, S D

    1991-01-01

    HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa but rare elsewhere. In the USA there have been 18 reported cases of HIV-2 infection; most identified people have been West Africans. We recently diagnosed the first case of HIV-2 infection in a native-born US citizen, a woman whose serum was found to be reactive to anti-HIV-1 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) when she attempted to donate blood in 1986. Although both HIV-1- and HIV-2-specific EIAs were reactive, the anti-HIV-2 Western blot (WB) was positive, while the anti-HIV-1 WB was positive or indeterminate on different occasions. Synthetic peptide testing was reactive for HIV-2 but not HIV-1. HIV-2 DNA was detected using the polymerase chain reaction procedure. Although she had travelled to West Africa, it is unclear how she became infected with HIV-2.

  16. Cold urticaria and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Lin, R Y; Schwartz, R A

    1993-10-01

    Three patients, all seropositive for HIV antibody, complained of swelling and pruritus on the head and limbs when exposed to the cold. All three had received zidovudine for significant CD4 cell depletion, but had no AIDS-defining illnesses. An ice-cube test was positive on each individual. There was no evidence of cold agglutinins, cryoglobulins, syphilis, or other concurrent diseases in any of the patients. This association may represent yet another allergic manifestation in HIV infection.

  17. Group Intervention to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among Persons Living With HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Rompa, David; Cage, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    Results of a randomized controlled trial show that a behavioral intervention grounded in social cognitive theory reduces unprotected sexual behaviors among men and women living with HIV infection, with the greatest reductions in HIV transmission risk behaviors occurring with non-HIV-positive sex partners. In this article, the authors describe the…

  18. Dental management of HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Aldous, J A

    1990-11-01

    In 1981, a group of male homosexuals was found to have an immunological defect resulting in opportunistic infections. The pattern of symptoms became known as acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much time and expense have been invested to study the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), prevent its spread, and find a cure for HIV infection. Fear of HIV infection has resulted in implementation of stricter infection control practices. Intervention by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated procedures for infection control and waste disposal. Ethical questions and social problems have surfaced concerning the treatment of HIV-infected patients. Despite reports on infection control, literature concerning management of HIV-infected dental patients is limited. Misinformation has prevented the application of reliable information about the care of HIV-infected individuals. An accurate general knowledge of HIV infection is essential for optimal care of these patients.

  19. The macrophage: the intersection between HIV infection and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Suzanne M.; Westhorpe, Clare L. V.; Mukhamedova, Nigora; Jaworowski, Anthony; Sviridov, Dmitri; Bukrinsky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) with underlying mechanisms including chronic immune activation and inflammation secondary to HIV-induced microbial translocation and low-grade endotoxemia; direct effects of HIV and viral proteins on macrophage cholesterol metabolism; and dyslipidemia related to HIV infection and specific antiretroviral therapies. Monocytes are the precursors of the lipid-laden foam cells within the atherosclerotic plaque and produce high levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6. The minor CD14+/CD16+ “proinflammatory” monocyte subpopulation is preferentially susceptible to HIV infection and may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HIV-related CAD. In this review, the central role of monocytes/macrophages in HIV-related CAD and the importance of inflammation and cholesterol metabolism are discussed. PMID:19952353

  20. Understanding motives for intravaginal practices amongst Tanzanian and Ugandan women at high risk of HIV infection: The embodiment of social and cultural norms and well-being☆

    PubMed Central

    Lees, Shelley; Zalwango, Flavia; Andrew, Bahati; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet; Hayes, Richard J.; Francis, Suzanna C.

    2014-01-01

    Some types of intravaginal practices (IVP) may increase the risk for HIV acquisition. This is particularly worrisome for populations with dual high prevalence of HIV and IVP. Women involved in transactional sex are at increased risk for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Social, cultural and economic influences are strong drivers of IVP in this population. To explore this, we carried out a qualitative research study to investigate the drivers and motivations for using IVP within a large observational study of women at high risk of HIV in Tanzania and Uganda from September 2008 to September 2009. Of the 201 women selected, 176 women took part in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Additionally, in Tanzania, eight focus group discussions among study participants and community members were carried out to obtain information on community norms and expectations. IVP were motivated by overlapping concerns with hygiene, morality, sexual pleasure, fertility, relationship security, and economic security. These motives were driven by the need to meet cultural and social expectations of womanhood, and at the same time attend to personal well-being. Among women involved in transactional sex in East Africa, interventions aimed at modifying or eliminating IVP should attend to local cultural and social norms as well as the individual as an agent of change. PMID:24565154

  1. Understanding motives for intravaginal practices amongst Tanzanian and Ugandan women at high risk of HIV infection: the embodiment of social and cultural norms and well-being.

    PubMed

    Lees, Shelley; Zalwango, Flavia; Andrew, Bahati; Vandepitte, Judith; Seeley, Janet; Hayes, Richard J; Francis, Suzanna C

    2014-02-01

    Some types of intravaginal practices (IVP) may increase the risk for HIV acquisition. This is particularly worrisome for populations with dual high prevalence of HIV and IVP. Women involved in transactional sex are at increased risk for HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Social, cultural and economic influences are strong drivers of IVP in this population. To explore this, we carried out a qualitative research study to investigate the drivers and motivations for using IVP within a large observational study of women at high risk of HIV in Tanzania and Uganda from September 2008 to September 2009. Of the 201 women selected, 176 women took part in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Additionally, in Tanzania, eight focus group discussions among study participants and community members were carried out to obtain information on community norms and expectations. IVP were motivated by overlapping concerns with hygiene, morality, sexual pleasure, fertility, relationship security, and economic security. These motives were driven by the need to meet cultural and social expectations of womanhood, and at the same time attend to personal well-being. Among women involved in transactional sex in East Africa, interventions aimed at modifying or eliminating IVP should attend to local cultural and social norms as well as the individual as an agent of change.

  2. Prevalence of Ischemic Heart Disease and Management of Coronary Risk in Daily Clinical Practice: Results from a Mediterranean Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Echeverría, Patricia; Domingo, Pere; Llibre, Josep-María; Gutierrez, Mar; Mateo, Gracia; Puig, Jordi; Bonjoch, Anna; Pérez-Alvarez, Nuria; Sirera, Guillem; Clotet, Bonaventura; Negredo, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Background. There are conflicting data on the prevalence of coronary events and the quality of the management of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in HIV-infected patients. Methods. We performed a retrospective descriptive study to determine the prevalence of coronary events and to evaluate the management of CVRF in a Mediterranean cohort of 3760 HIV-1-infected patients from April 1983 through June 2011. Results. We identified 81 patients with a history of a coronary event (prevalence 2.15%); 83% of them suffered an acute myocardial infarction. At the time of the coronary event, CVRF were highly prevalent (60.5% hypertension, 48% dyslipidemia, and 16% diabetes mellitus). Other CVRF, such as smoking, hypertension, lack of exercise, and body mass index, were not routinely assessed. After the coronary event, a significant decrease in total cholesterol (P = 0.025) and LDL-cholesterol (P = 0.004) was observed. However, the percentage of patients who maintained LDL-cholesterol > 100 mg/dL remained stable (from 46% to 41%, P = 0.103). Patients using protease inhibitors associated with a favorable lipid profile increased over time (P = 0.028). Conclusions. The prevalence of coronary events in our cohort is low. CVRF prevalence is high and their management is far from optimal. More aggressive interventions should be implemented to diminish cardiovascular risk in HIV-infected patients. PMID:25170515

  3. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    PubMed

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  4. Risk Factors Associated with HIV Infection among Male Homosexuals and Bisexuals Followed in an Open Cohort Study: Project Horizonte, Brazil (1994-2010)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ana Paula; Greco, Marília; Fausto, Maria Arlene; Greco, Dirceu B.; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2014-01-01

    Background There has recently been an increase in HIV infection rates among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aimed at investigating risk factors associated with incident HIV infection in a MSM cohort–Project Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methodology This is a nested case-control study in an ongoing open cohort of homosexual and bisexual men, carried out in 1994–2010, during which 1,085 volunteers were enrolled. Each HIV seroconverted volunteer (case) was compared with three randomly selected HIV negative controls, matched by admission date and age (±3 years). During follow-up, 93 volunteers seroconverted and were compared with 279 controls. Principal Findings The risk factors associated with HIV seroconversion were: contact with partner’s blood during sexual relations (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.2–11.6), attendance at gay saunas in search for sexual partners (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.3–5.4), occasional intake of alcohol when flirting and engaging in sexual activity (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.3–5.1), inconsistent use of condoms in receptive anal sex (OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.1–5.4), little interest to look up information about AIDS (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.0–6.7) particularly in newspapers (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.4–8.1). Conclusions This study shows that MSM are still engaging in risk behavior, such as unprotected anal intercourse, despite taking part in a cohort study on various preventive measures. New preventive strategies in touch with the epidemic’s development and the specificities of this particular population are needed. PMID:25279670

  5. Determinants of Newly Detected Human Papillomavirus Infection in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Injection Drug Using Women

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Darcy F.; Gange, Stephen J.; Ahdieh-Grant, Linda; Mehta, Shruti H.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Shah, Keerti; Gravitt, Patti

    2009-01-01

    Background We sought to identify factors associated with newly detected human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a high-risk cohort of injection drug using women in Baltimore, MD. Methods We studied 146 HIV-infected and 73 HIV-uninfected female participants in a 5-year prospective HIV natural history study. We examined the association of sexual and nonsexual risk factors and newly detected type-specific HPV infection as determined by consensus PCR between consecutive visits. Results Newly detected HPV was more common among HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected women (30% and 6%, respectively; P <0.01). Among the entire cohort, recent crack use (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1−2.6) and HIV infection/CD4 cell count were independent predictors for new HPV detection (HIV-uninfected as reference, OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.3−8.9, OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 2.8−10.3, and OR, 10.9; 95% CI, 5.5−21.7 for HIV-infected CD4 >500, 200−500, and <200, respectively). Among HIV-uninfected women, recent marijuana use was an independent predictor of newly detected HPV infection (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.3−9.5). Conclusions Newly detected HPV clearly increased with greater immunosuppression in HIV-infected injection drug users. Larger studies of HIV-uninfected and infected high-risk individuals are needed to clarify the independent associations of crack and marijuana use with new (or reactivated) HPV infection. PMID:19174735

  6. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis during primary HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Liana; Gulletta, Maurizio; Coppini, Davide; Donzelli, Carla; Stellini, Roberto; Manca, Nino; Carosi, Giampiero; Matteelli, Alberto

    2007-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a well recognized manifestation of AIDS, but the disseminated disease is a rare condition and it has not been associated to HIV seroconversion to our knowledge. We describe a fatal episode of disseminated T. gondii acute infection with massive organ involvement during primary HIV infection. The serological data demonstrate primary T. gondii infection. The avidity index for HIV antibodies supports recent HIV-1 infection.

  7. Serious infection from Staphylococcus aureus in 2 HIV-infected patients receiving fusion inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Elizabeth M; Ritter, Michelle L; Kumar, Princy N; Timpone, Joseph G

    2008-05-01

    Fusion inhibitors are novel antiretroviral agents, administered as subcutaneous injections, approved for use in treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients. HIV-infected patients are at increased risk for Staphylococcus aureus colonization, specifically with methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA), and subsequent systemic infection. We present the cases of 2 patients without a history of MRSA infection in whom a series of severe S aureus infections developed after fusion inhibitor therapy.

  8. Chronic kidney disease at presentation is not an independent risk factor for AIDS-defining events or death in HIV-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tahira P; Wu, Pingsheng; Ikizler, T Alp; Sterling, Timothy R; Stinnette, Samuel E; Rebeiro, Peter F; Ghosh, Suvro; Hulgan, Todd

    2013-02-01

    Studies have documented an association between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and increased risk of end stage renal disease, death and comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome, in the general population. However, there is little data on the relationship between CKD and ADE (AIDS defining event), and to our knowledge, no studies have analyzed death as a competing risk for ADE among HIV-infected persons. An observational cohort study was performed to determine the incidence and risks for developing an ADE or death among HIV-infected persons with and without CKD from 1998 - 2005. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 using the CKDEpidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Log rank test and Cox regression which determined time to development of ADE and/or death as combined and separate outcomes, and competing risk models for ADE versus mortality, were performed. Among the 2,127 persons that contributed to the 5,824 person years of follow-up: 22% were female, 34% African American, 38% on HAART, and 3% had CKD at baseline. ADE occurred in 227 (11%) persons and there were 80 (4%) deaths. CKD was not significantly associated with ADE/death (HR 1.3, 95% CIs: 0.5, 3.2), ADE (HR 1.0, 95% CIs: 0.4, 3.1), or death (HR 1.6, 95% CIs: 0.4, 3.1). Competing risk analyses confirmed no statistically significant associations between CKD and these outcomes. CKD was uncommon in HIV-infected persons presenting for care in this racially diverse cohort, and was not independently associated with risk of developing an ADE or dying during follow-up.

  9. STD Clinic Patients' Awareness of Non-AIDS Complications of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Castro, José Guillermo; Granovsky, Inna; Jones, Deborah; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Participants were recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Florida and were assessed regarding the knowledge and awareness of non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Questionnaires were administered before and after a brief information session on non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Participants included men (n = 46) and women (n = 51). Prior to the information session, at baseline, only 34% of the participants were worried about HIV infection. Most participants (82%) agreed that HIV could be treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), while only 38% were aware that HIV-associated conditions cannot be easily treated with ART. After the information session, almost all participants reported they were concerned regarding the risk of HIV infection. High-risk patients may have limited knowledge about the consequences of HIV infection beyond the traditional AIDS-associated conditions. Increased awareness of these less known consequences of HIV infection may decrease the potential for complacency regarding acquiring HIV infection. PMID:25331221

  10. Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections, Including HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Willard

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Treatment Guidelines were last updated in 2006. To update the “Clinical Guide to Prevention Services” section of the 2010 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines, we reviewed the recent science with reference to interventions designed to prevent acquisition of STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Major interval developments include (1) licensure and uptake of immunization against genital human papillomavirus, (2) validation of male circumcision as a potent prevention tool against acquisition of HIV and some other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), (3) failure of a promising HIV vaccine candidate to afford protection against HIV acquisition, (4) encouragement about the use of antiretroviral agents as preexposure prophylaxis to reduce risk of HIV and herpes simplex virus acquisition, (5) enhanced emphasis on expedited partner management and rescreening for persons infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, (6) recognition that behavioral interventions will be needed to address a new trend of sexually transmitted hepatitis C among men who have sex with men, and (7) the availability of a modified female condom. A range of preventive interventions is needed to reduce the risks of acquiring STI, including HIV infection, among sexually active people, and a flexible approach targeted to specific populations should integrate combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. These would ideally involve an array of prevention contexts, including (1) communications and practices among sexual partners, (2) transactions between individual clients and their healthcare providers, and (3) comprehensive population-level strategies for prioritizing prevention research, ensuring accurate outcome assessment, and formulating health policy. PMID:22080271

  11. Altered Functional Response to Risky Choice in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Colm G.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Jordan, Stephan J.; Woods, Steven Paul; Ellis, Ronald J.; Paulus, Martin P.; Grant, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Background Risky decision-making is commonly observed in persons at risk for and infected with HIV and is associated with executive dysfunction. Yet it is currently unknown whether HIV alters brain processing of risk-taking decision-making. Methods This study examined the neural substrate of a risky decision-making task in 21 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 19 seronegative (HIV-) comparison participants. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted while participants performed the risky-gains task, which involves choosing among safe (20 cents) and risky (40/80 cent win or loss) choices. Linear mixed effects analyses examining group and decision type were conducted. Robust regressions were performed to examine the relationship between nadir CD4 count and Kalichman sexual compulsivity and brain activation in the HIV+ group. The overlap between the task effects and robust regressions was explored. Results Although there were no serostatus effects in behavioral performance on the risky-gains task, HIV+ individuals exhibited greater activation for risky choices in the basal ganglia, i.e. the caudate nucleus, but also in the anterior cingulate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and insula relative to the HIV- group. The HIV+ group also demonstrated reduced functional responses to safe choices in the anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relative to the HIV- group. HIV+ individuals with higher nadir CD4 count and greater sexual compulsivity displayed lower differential responses to safe versus risky choices in many of these regions. Conclusions This study demonstrated fronto-striatal loop dysfunction associated with HIV infection during risky decision-making. Combined with similar between-group task behavior, this suggests an adaptive functional response in regions critical to reward and behavioral control in the HIV+ group. HIV-infected individuals with higher CD4 nadirs demonstrated activation patterns more similar to seronegative individuals. This

  12. A Challenge for the Future: Aging and HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rickabaugh, Tammy M.; Jamieson, Beth D.

    2010-01-01

    Older individuals (≥ 50 years of age) are increasingly becoming a new at-risk group for HIV-1 infection and, together with those surviving longer due to the introduction of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), it is predicted that more than half of all HIV-1-infected individuals in the U.S. will be greater than 50 years of age in the year 2015. Older individuals diagnosed with HIV-1 are prone to faster disease progression and reduced T-cell reconstitution despite successful virologic control with anti-retroviral therapy (ART). There is also growing evidence that the T-cell compartment in HIV-1+ adults displays an aged phenotype and HIV-1-infected individuals are increasingly diagnosed with clinical conditions more commonly seen in older uninfected persons. As aging in the absence of HIV infection is associated with alterations in T-cell function and immunosenescence, the combined impact of both HIV-1 infection and aging may provide an explanation for poorer clinical outcomes observed in older HIV-1-infected individuals. Thus, the development of novel therapeutics to stimulate immune function and delay immunosenescence is critical and would be beneficial to both the elderly and HIV-1 infected individuals. PMID:20734158

  13. Bartonella infections and HIV disease.

    PubMed

    Lindauer, A

    1996-01-01

    Successful assessment and treatment of Bartonella in HIV-seropositive people depends on nursing's fundamental role in the management of these bacterial infections. Bartonella species are responsible for a variety of infections, including cat scratch disease and bacillary angiomatosis, which can be debilitating to people living with AIDS. This paper provides an overview of the clinical presentation and nursing management of Bartonella infection in PLWAs. The author discusses common diagnostic procedures, treatment strategies, and the nurse's role in caring for patients with a Bartonella infection.

  14. HIV-Risk Factors for Midlife and Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neundorfer, Marcia M.; Harris, Phyllis Braudy; Britton, Paula J.; Lynch, Delores A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The number of women aged 45 years and older infected with the HIV virus continues to increase. This study sought to identify, from the voices of midlife and older women living with HIV, the factors in their lives that put them at risk for HIV, so as to improve HIV-prevention efforts for women of this age group. Design and Methods: In this…

  15. Gender Inequity Norms Are Associated with Increased Male-Perpetrated Rape and Sexual Risks for HIV Infection in Botswana and Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Kate; Leiter, Karen; Phaladze, Nthabiseng; Hlanze, Zakhe; Tsai, Alexander C.; Heisler, Michele; Iacopino, Vincent; Weiser, Sheri D.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is limited empirical research on the underlying gender inequity norms shaping gender-based violence, power, and HIV risks in sub-Saharan Africa, or how risk pathways may differ for men and women. This study is among the first to directly evaluate the adherence to gender inequity norms and epidemiological relationships with violence and sexual risks for HIV infection. Methods Data were derived from population-based cross-sectional samples recruited through two-stage probability sampling from the 5 highest HIV prevalence districts in Botswana and all districts in Swaziland (2004–5). Based on evidence of established risk factors for HIV infection, we aimed 1) to estimate the mean adherence to gender inequity norms for both men and women; and 2) to model the independent effects of higher adherence to gender inequity norms on a) male sexual dominance (male-controlled sexual decision making and rape (forced sex)); b) sexual risk practices (multiple/concurrent sex partners, transactional sex, unprotected sex with non-primary partner, intergenerational sex). Findings A total of 2049 individuals were included, n = 1255 from Botswana and n = 796 from Swaziland. In separate multivariate logistic regression analyses, higher gender inequity norms scores remained independently associated with increased male-controlled sexual decision making power (AORmen = 1.90, 95%CI:1.09–2.35; AORwomen = 2.05, 95%CI:1.32–2.49), perpetration of rape (AORmen = 2.19 95%CI:1.22–3.51), unprotected sex with a non-primary partner (AORmen = 1.90, 95%CI:1.14–2.31), intergenerational sex (AORwomen = 1.36, 95%CI:1.08–1.79), and multiple/concurrent sex partners (AORmen = 1.42, 95%CI:1.10–1.93). Interpretation These findings support the critical evidence-based need for gender-transformative HIV prevention efforts including legislation of women's rights in two of the most HIV affected countries in the world. PMID:22247761

  16. Positive correlation of HIV infection with Giardia intestinalis assemblage B but not with assemblage A in asymptomatic Kenyan children.

    PubMed

    Matey, Elizabeth J; Tokoro, Masaharu; Mizuno, Tetsushi; Matsumura, Takahiro; Nagamoto, Takehiro; Bi, Xiuqiong; Oyombra, Jane A; Sang, Willie K; Songok, Elijah M; Ichimura, Hiroshi

    2016-09-24

    A cross-sectional molecular epidemiological study of Giardia intestinalis infection was conducted among asymptomatic Kenyan children with (n = 123) and without (n = 111) HIV infection. G. intestinalis assemblage B infection was positively correlated with HIV infection [HIV (+), 18.7% vs. HIV (-), 11.7%; P = 0.013], whereas assemblage A infection was not [HIV (+), 4.1% vs. HIV (-), 6.3%; P = 0.510]. Thus, HIV infection is a risk factor for G. intestinalis assemblage B infection but not for assemblage A infection.

  17. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) incidence and associated risk factors among high-risk MSM and male-to-female transgender women in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Rostislav; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Salazar, Ximena; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Thomas J.; Cáceres, Carlos F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women (TW) are at increased risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We evaluated factors associated with incidence of HIV, HSV-2, and chlamydia and gonorrhea (anal and pharyngeal). Methods We used data from the Comunidades Positivas trial with MSM/TW who have sex with men in Lima, Peru. Participants were asked about sexual risk behaviors and underwent HIV/STI testing at baseline and 9- and 18-month follow-ups. We used discrete time proportional hazards regression to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for variables associated with incidence of each STI. Results Among 718 MSM/TW, HIV incidence was 3.6 cases per 100 person-years. HIV incidence was associated with having an incident STI (aHR 3.73). Unprotected receptive anal intercourse was associated with incident anal chlamydia (aHR 2.20). An increased number of sexual partners increased incident HSV-2 (aHR 3.15 for 6–14 partners and 3.97 for 15–46 partners compared to 0–2 partners). Risk of anal gonorrhea decreased with each sexually active year (aHR 0.94) and increased for unprotected compensated sex (aHR 2.36). Risk of pharyngeal gonorrhea also decreased with each year since sexual debut (aHR 0.95). Risk of anal chlamydia decreased with each sexually active year (aHR 0.96), risk increased with reports of unprotected sex work (aHR 1.61), and unprotected receptive anal sex (aHR 2.63). All aHRs have p-values < 0.05. Conclusion MSM/TW experience high incidence of HIV. Up-to-date prevalence and incidence information and identifying factors associated with infection can help develop a more effective combination prevention response. PMID:25950207

  18. Women and HIV infection: the makings of a midlife crisis.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Nanette; Fan, Maria; Maslow, BatSheva; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2009-11-20

    With the advent of highly active antiretroviral agents, women with HIV infection can expect to live longer than ever before. This increased survival has led to concerns about the long-term implications of HIV disease and its treatment. Women with HIV infection appear to lose ovarian function earlier in life than women without HIV infection. They also have evidence of reduced bone mineral density and increased cardiovascular risk. Moreover, many of these increases in risk factors are present even prior to the menopausal transition. All of these risks, present at midlife, augur poorly for future health and describe a substantially increased burden of disease likely to accrue to HIV-infected women as they enter older age groups. Further compounding the adversity faced by the HIV infected, the demographics of women most vulnerable to this disease include adverse social and economic influences, both of which worsen their long-term prognosis. For example, drug use and poverty are related to more severe menopausal symptoms and chronic stress is related to worse psychological and cardiovascular risk. An understanding of how menopause interacts with HIV infection is therefore most important to alert the clinician to perform surveillance for common health problems in postmenopausal women, and to address directly and appropriately symptomatology during the menopausal transition.

  19. Gut Microbiota Linked to Sexual Preference and HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Noguera-Julian, Marc; Rocafort, Muntsa; Guillén, Yolanda; Rivera, Javier; Casadellà, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Hildebrand, Falk; Zeller, Georg; Parera, Mariona; Bellido, Rocío; Rodríguez, Cristina; Carrillo, Jorge; Mothe, Beatriz; Coll, Josep; Bravo, Isabel; Estany, Carla; Herrero, Cristina; Saz, Jorge; Sirera, Guillem; Torrela, Ariadna; Navarro, Jordi; Crespo, Manel; Brander, Christian; Negredo, Eugènia; Blanco, Julià; Guarner, Francisco; Calle, Maria Luz; Bork, Peer; Sönnerborg, Anders; Clotet, Bonaventura; Paredes, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The precise effects of HIV-1 on the gut microbiome are unclear. Initial cross-sectional studies provided contradictory associations between microbial richness and HIV serostatus and suggested shifts from Bacteroides to Prevotella predominance following HIV-1 infection, which have not been found in animal models or in studies matched for HIV-1 transmission groups. In two independent cohorts of HIV-1-infected subjects and HIV-1-negative controls in Barcelona (n = 156) and Stockholm (n = 84), men who have sex with men (MSM) predominantly belonged to the Prevotella-rich enterotype whereas most non-MSM subjects were enriched in Bacteroides, independently of HIV-1 status, and with only a limited contribution of diet effects. Moreover, MSM had a significantly richer and more diverse fecal microbiota than non-MSM individuals. After stratifying for sexual orientation, there was no solid evidence of an HIV-specific dysbiosis. However, HIV-1 infection remained consistently associated with reduced bacterial richness, the lowest bacterial richness being observed in subjects with a virological-immune discordant response to antiretroviral therapy. Our findings indicate that HIV gut microbiome studies must control for HIV risk factors and suggest interventions on gut bacterial richness as possible novel avenues to improve HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction. PMID:27077120

  20. Troubled Adolescents and HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, John O., Ed.; And Others

    This report on adolescents, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and Human Immune Virus (HIV) infection had its beginning in the Knowledge Development Workshop "Issues in the Prevention and Treatment of AIDS Among Adolescents with Serious Emotional Disturbance," held June 9-10, 1988 in the District of Columbia. These papers are included:…

  1. Frequency and correlates of late presentation for HIV infection in France: older adults are a risk group - results from the ANRS-VESPA2 Study, France.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kayigan d'Almeida; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Aubrière, Cindy; Hamelin, Christine; Spire, Bruno; Lert, France

    2014-01-01

    Correlates of late presentation (LP) for HIV infection in Metropolitan France and French overseas departments (FODs) were assessed among HIV-infected patients recently diagnosed, using data from a large cross-sectional survey, representative of the French HIV-infected population, conducted in 2011. LP was defined as presentation with either clinical AIDS events within the calendar year of diagnosis or CD4 < 350/mm(3) and presentation with advanced disease (PAD) was defined as presentation with either clinical AIDS events or CD4 < 200/mm(3). Correlates of LP/PAD were assessed through logistic modelling, separately in Metropolitan France and FODs. In Metropolitan France, 47.7% of participants were late presenters and 29.3% presented with advanced disease. LP was more frequent among male and female migrants from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; 58.5% and 56.4%) and non-African heterosexual males (61.8%) than among men who have sex with men (34.8%). In FODs, 53.2% of participants were late presenters and 36.8% presented with an advanced disease. LP was more frequent among men than women (60.6% vs. 45.3%) and among those with a lower level of education (56.6% vs. 47.5%). A consistent positive association was found in adjusted analyses between LP/PAD and increasing age at diagnosis among all subpopulations, in both settings. In Metropolitan France, among men who have sex with men, those self-declaring as bisexual were at higher risk of LP/PAD; among non-African heterosexual males and females, religiosity was associated with increased risk of LP/PAD; and among SSA migrants, those diagnosed within the year following their arrival in France were at higher risk of LP/PAD. Older age at diagnosis is a major risk factor for LP/PAD independently of any other socio-demographic characteristics. Promotion of HIV testing should be renewed to target each subgroup at risk while paying a particular attention to middle-aged or older adults whose attitudes and beliefs towards HIV/AIDS might

  2. HIV in Indian prisons: Risk behaviour, prevalence, prevention & treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Kate; Larney, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Background & Objectives: HIV is a major health challenge for prison authorities. HIV in prisons has implications for HIV in the general community. The aim of this paper was to gather information on HIV risk, prevalence, prevention and treatment in prisons in India. Methods: Relevant published and unpublished reports and information were sought in order to provide a coherent picture of the current situation relating to HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons in India. Information covered prison management and population statistics, general conditions in prisons, provision of general medical care and the HIV situation in prison. Results: No data on drug injection in prison were identified. Sex between men was reported to be common in some Indian prisons. A national study found that 1.7 per cent of inmates were HIV positive. Some prisons provided HIV education. Condom provision was considered illegal. A few prisoners received drug treatment for drug use, HIV infection or co-infection with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Interpretation & conclusions: HIV prevalence in prisons in India was higher than that in the general community. Regular monitoring of information on HIV risk behaviours and prevalence in Indian prisons is strongly recommended. Evidence based treatment for drug injectors and nation-wide provision of HIV prevention strategies are urgently required. Voluntary counselling, testing and treatment for HIV and STIs should be provided. PMID:21245617

  3. Sexual Risk Behaviors and HIV Infection among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women in China: Evidence from a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Yi; Xu, Jun-Jie; Zou, Hua-Chun; Reilly, Kathleen Heather; Zhang, Christiana Meng; Yun, Ke; Li, Yong-Ze; Jiang, Yong-Jun; Geng, Wen-Qing; Shang, Hong; Wang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To understand the current risk of HIV infection and transmission and further elucidate the underlying risk factors among men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) in China. Methods. Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of searching through Chinese and English available literature databases between January 2000 and June 2014 to identify articles. Results. Thirty-six articles (including 19,730 MSMW and 53,536 MSMO) met the selection criteria and the aggregated results found that MSMW have significantly higher HIV prevalence than MSMO (6.6% versus 5.4%, OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.01–1.58). A higher proportion of MSMW had commercial male partners in the past 6 months (18.3% versus 12.2%, OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.01–2.42). Additionally, substance use in the past 6 months was significantly more frequent among MSMW than MSMO (alcohol use: 27.1% versus 13.1%, OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 2.14–2.99; illicit drug use: 5.3% versus 2.5%, OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.48–2.95). Conclusion. A higher proportion of commercial sex and substance use among MSMW may be a potentially indicative factor for significantly higher HIV prevalence compared to MSMO. Targeted interventions should aim at increasing the frequency of HIV/STIs screening and preventing high risk commercial sex and substance use among MSMW to decrease their HIV transmission to the general population. PMID:26779538

  4. Preventing secondary infections among HIV-positive persons.

    PubMed Central

    Filice, G A; Pomeroy, C

    1991-01-01

    Secondary infectious diseases contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The authors developed comprehensive, practical recommendations for prevention of infectious complications in HIV-infected people. Recommendations are concerned with the pathogens that are more common or more severe in HIV-infected people. Several infectious complications can be prevented by avoiding ingestion of contaminated food or water. Zoonoses can be prevented by precautions to be taken in contacts with animals. The risk of several fungal diseases can be reduced if activities likely to lead to inhalation of spores are avoided. HIV-infected people should be advised how to lower adverse health effects of travel, especially international travel. The potential for infectious complications of sexual activity and illicit drug use should be stressed, and recommendations to reduce the risk are discussed. Recommendations for use of vaccines in HIV-infected people are reviewed. Blood CD4+ lymphocyte concentrations, tuberculin skin testing, Toxoplasma serology, and sexually transmitted disease screening should be performed in certain subsets of HIV-infected people. Guidelines for chemoprophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii and tuberculosis are presented. Recent data suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin therapy may prevent bacterial infections in HIV-infected children. PMID:1910184

  5. Association of HIV Infection and HIV/HCV Coinfection With C-Reactive Protein Levels

    PubMed Central

    Reingold, Jason S.; Wanke, Christine; Kotler, Donald P.; Lewis, Cora E.; Tracy, Russell; Heymsfield, Steven; Tien, Phyllis C.; Bacchetti, Peter; Scherzer, Rebecca; Grunfeld, Carl; Shlipak, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Inflammation is a potential mechanism to explain the accelerated atherosclerosis observed in HIV- and hepatitis C virus (HCV)–infected persons. We evaluated C-reactive protein (CRP) in HIV-infected and HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals in the era of effective antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Design Cross-sectional study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) cohort and controls from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Methods CRP levels were measured in 1135 HIV-infected participants from the FRAM cohort and 281 controls from the CARDIA study. The associations of HIV and HIV/HCV infection with CRP levels were estimated by multivariable linear regression. Results Compared with controls, HIV monoinfection was associated with an 88% higher CRP level in men (P < 0.0001) but with no difference in women (5%; P = 0.80) in multivariate analysis. CRP levels were not associated with ARV therapy, HIV RNA level, or CD4 cell count. Compared with controls, HIV/HCV coinfection was associated with a 41% lower CRP level in women (P = 0.012) but with no difference in men (+4%; P = 0.90). Among HIV-infected participants, HCV coinfection was associated with 50% lower CRP levels after multivariable analysis (P < 0.0001) in men and women. Greater visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were strongly associated with CRP levels. Among HIV- infected participants, CRP levels were 17% (P < 0.001) and 21% (P = 0.002) higher per doubling of VAT and SAT; among controls, CRP levels were 34% (P < 0.001) and 61% (P = 0.009) higher, respectively. Conclusions In the absence of HCV coinfection, HIV infection is associated with higher CRP levels in men. HCV coinfection is associated with lower CRP levels in men and women. PMID:18344877

  6. Multiple HIV-1 infections with evidence of recombination in heterosexual partnerships in a low risk Rural Clinical Cohort in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ssemwanga, Deogratius; Lyagoba, Frederick; Ndembi, Nicaise; Mayanja, Billy N.; Larke, Natasha; Wang, Shuyi; Baalwa, Joshua; Williamson, Carolyn; Grosskurth, Heiner; Kaleebu, Pontiano

    2011-01-01

    We report on the frequency of multiple infections, generation of recombinants and consequences on disease progression in 35 HIV-1 infected individuals from 7 monogamous and 6 polygamous partnerships within a Rural Clinical Cohort in Uganda. The env-C2V3, gag-p24 and pol-IN genes were sequenced. Single genome amplified half genome sequences were used to map recombination breakpoints. Three participants were dually infected with subtypes A and D, one case with subtype A and A/D recombinant and the fifth with 2 phylogenetically distinct A/D recombinants. Occurrence of A/D recombination was observed in two multiple infected individuals. Rate of late stage WHO events using Cox regression was 3 times greater amongst multiple infected compared to singly infected individuals (hazard ratio 3.35; 95% CI 1.09, 10.3; p = 0.049). We have shown that polygamous relationships involving subtype discordant partnerships was a major contributor of multiple infections with generation of inter subtype recombinants in our cohort. PMID:21239033

  7. Pharmacotherapy of pediatric and adolescent HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Schuval, Susan J

    2009-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection over the past two decades. Improved therapy has prolonged survival and improved clinical outcome for HIV-infected children and adults. Sixteen antiretroviral (ART) medications have been approved for use in pediatric HIV infection. The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has issued “Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection”, which provide detailed information on currently recommended antiretroviral therapies (ART). However, consultation with an HIV specialist is recommended as the current therapy of pediatric HIV therapy is complex and rapidly evolving. PMID:19707256

  8. The Experience of Children with Hemophilia and HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Christopher S.

    1994-01-01

    Children with hemophilia and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are not a transmission risk to other children, and they can help enact best practices for school attendance by other such children. The article examines the National Hemophilia Foundation's work to promote appropriate inclusion of students with hemophilia and HIV in all…

  9. Potential Clinical and Economic Value of Long-Acting Preexposure Prophylaxis for South African Women at High-Risk for HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Walensky, Rochelle P.; Jacobsen, Margo M.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Parker, Robert A.; Wood, Robin; Resch, Stephen C.; Horstman, N. Kaye; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Paltiel, A. David

    2016-01-01

    Background. For young South African women at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is one of the few effective prevention options available. Long-acting injectable PrEP, which is in development, may be associated with greater adherence, compared with that for existing standard oral PrEP formulations, but its likely clinical benefits and additional costs are unknown. Methods. Using a computer simulation, we compared the following 3 PrEP strategies: no PrEP, standard PrEP (effectiveness, 62%; cost per patient, $150/year), and long-acting PrEP (effectiveness, 75%; cost per patient, $220/year) in South African women at high risk for HIV infection (incidence of HIV infection, 5%/year). We examined the sensitivity of the strategies to changes in key input parameters among several outcome measures, including deaths averted and program cost over a 5-year period; lifetime HIV infection risk, survival rate, and program cost and cost-effectiveness; and budget impact. Results. Compared with no PrEP, standard PrEP and long-acting PrEP cost $580 and $870 more per woman, respectively, and averted 15 and 16 deaths per 1000 women at high risk for infection, respectively, over 5 years. Measured on a lifetime basis, both standard PrEP and long-acting PrEP were cost saving, compared with no PrEP. Compared with standard PrEP, long-acting PrEP was very cost-effective ($150/life-year saved) except under the most pessimistic assumptions. Over 5 years, long-acting PrEP cost $1.6 billion when provided to 50% of eligible women. Conclusions. Currently available standard PrEP is a cost-saving intervention whose delivery should be expanded and optimized. Long-acting PrEP will likely be a very cost-effective improvement over standard PrEP but may require novel financing mechanisms that bring short-term fiscal planning efforts into closer alignment with longer-term societal objectives. PMID:26681778

  10. Risk behaviors for getting HIV infection among the Croatian men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Kolarić, Branko; Bielen, Luka; Gjenero-Margan, Ira

    2008-09-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of obtaining the very first information on the sexual risk behavior of Croatian men who have sex with men (MSM). There were 1127 respondents recruited at four venues: three physical meeting places of the Croatian MSM population (disco club, bar and sauna) in Zagreb and one virtual (gay oriented web-site) meeting place of the Croatian MSM population. The overall response rate was only 19%. The rate of condom use during last anal intercourse was 59% and 56% of those who used a lubricant had chosen an incorrect product to use with latex condoms. There was no connection between drug-use and unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Only a fifth of those who had also had sex with women (MSM/MSW) during last 12 months regularly used protection. The obtained findings will serve for focused and effective prevention activities and a basis for comparison in future research.

  11. Lower levels of HIV RNA in semen in HIV-2 compared with HIV-1 infection: implications for differences in transmission

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.; Hawes, Stephen E.; Agne, Habibatou D.; Stern, Joshua E.; Critchlow, Cathy W.; Kiviat, Nancy B.; Sow, Papa Salif

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives HIV-2 infection, in comparison with HIV-1, is characterized by lower plasma viral loads, slower CD4 cell count decline, decreased AIDS-related mortality, and lower rates of mother-to-child and sexual transmission. To gain further insight into why HIV-1 is more readily transmitted as compared with HIV-2, we analyzed semen and plasma HIV RNA levels in HIV-1 and HIV-2-positive men from Senegal. Design and methods Twenty-two HIV-1 and 10 HIV-2-infected subjects from the University of Dakar donated semen and blood samples for this analysis. HIV-1 and HIV-2 viral loads in semen and plasma were quantified using type-specific polymerase chain reaction assays. Results The mean age of the subjects was 37 and 40 years; mean CD4 cell count was 222 and 276 cells/µl and the mean plasma viral load was 4.7 and 3.0 log10 copies/ml for HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively (P = 0.002). HIV RNA was detected in semen in 21 of 22 (95%) of HIV-1 and seven of 10 (70%) of HIV-2-infected subjects; P = 0.07). However, the levels of HIV RNA present in semen were markedly different between those with HIV-1 and HIV-2, with a mean of 4.4 log10 copies/ml among those with HIV-1 and a mean of 2.6 log10 copies/ml among those with HIV-2 (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, plasma viral load and HIV type, but not CD4 cell count, were independently predictive of semen viral load (P = 0.03, 0.05, 0.48, respectively) Conclusions These data suggest that differences in semen viral load between HIV-1 and HIV-2 may be in part responsible for the markedly different transmission rates of these two viruses. In addition, risk of male genital tract shedding strongly correlates with plasma viral loads. Interventions that decrease viral load may help decrease transmission of both HIV-1 and HIV-2. PMID:16549974

  12. Immunologic Risk Factors for Early Mortality After Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Zambian Children

    PubMed Central

    Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Nkamba, Hope C.; Mubiana-Mbewe, Mwangelwa; Moore, Carolyn Bolton

    2013-01-01

    Abstract To explore immunologic risk factors for death within 90 days of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets were measured by flow cytometry and characterized by logistic regression in 149 Zambian children between 9 months and 10 years of age enrolled in a prospective, observational study of the impact of HAART on measles immunity. Of 21 children who died during follow-up, 17 (81%) had known dates of death and 16 (76%) died within 90 days of initiating HAART. Young age and low weight-for-age z-scores were associated with increased risks of mortality within 90 days of starting HAART, whereas CD4+ T cell percentage was not associated with mortality. After adjusting for these factors, each 10% increase in CD8+ effector T cells increased the odds of overall mortality [OR=1.43 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.90)] and was marginally associated with early mortality [OR=1.29 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.72)]. Conversely, each 10% increase in CD4+ central memory T cells decreased the odds of overall [OR=0.06 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.59)] and early mortality [OR=0.09 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.97)]. Logistic regression prediction models demonstrated areas under the receiver-operator characteristic curves of ≥85% for early and overall mortality, with bootstrapped sensitivities of 82–85% upon validation, supporting the predictive accuracy of the models. CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets may be more accurate predictors of early mortality than CD4+ T cell percentages and could be used to identify children who would benefit from more frequent clinical monitoring after initiating HAART. PMID:23025633

  13. Maternal HIV Infection Influences the Microbiome of HIV Uninfected Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Jeffrey M.; Li, Fan; Martelly, Shoria; Byrt, Erin; Rouzier, Vanessa; Leo, Marguerithe; Tobin, Nicole; Pannaraj, Pia S.; Adisetiyo, Helty; Rollie, Adrienne; Santiskulvong, Chintda; Wang, Shuang; Autran, Chloe; Bode, Lars; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2017-01-01

    More than one million HIV-exposed, uninfected infants are born annually to HIV-positive mothers worldwide. This growing population of infants experiences twice the mortality of HIV-unexposed infants. We found that although there were very few differences seen in the microbiomes of mothers with and without HIV infection, maternal HIV infection was associated with changes in the microbiome of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Furthermore, we observed that human breast milk oligosaccharides were associated with the bacterial species in the infant microbiome. The disruption of the infant’s microbiome associated with maternal HIV infection may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. PMID:27464748

  14. Efficacy of a Multi-level Intervention to Reduce Injecting and Sexual Risk Behaviors among HIV-Infected People Who Inject Drugs in Vietnam: A Four-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Go, Vivian F.; Frangakis, Constantine; Minh, Nguyen Le; Latkin, Carl; Ha, Tran Viet; Mo, Tran Thi; Sripaipan, Teerada; Davis, Wendy W.; Zelaya, Carla; Vu, Pham The; Celentano, David D.; Quan, Vu Minh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Injecting drug use is a primary driver of HIV epidemics in many countries. People who inject drugs (PWID) and are HIV infected are often doubly stigmatized and many encounter difficulties reducing risk behaviors. Prevention interventions for HIV-infected PWID that provide enhanced support at the individual, family, and community level to facilitate risk-reduction are needed. Methods 455 HIV-infected PWID and 355 of their HIV negative injecting network members living in 32 sub-districts in Thai Nguyen Province were enrolled. We conducted a two-stage randomization: First, sub-districts were randomized to either a community video screening and house-to-house visits or standard of care educational pamphlets. Second, within each sub-district, participants were randomized to receive either enhanced individual level post-test counseling and group support sessions or standard of care HIV testing and counseling. This resulted in four arms: 1) standard of care; 2) community level intervention; 3) individual level intervention; and 4) community plus individual intervention. Follow-up was conducted at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Primary outcomes were self-reported HIV injecting and sexual risk behaviors. Secondary outcomes included HIV incidence among HIV negative network members. Results Fewer participants reported sharing injecting equipment and unprotected sex from baseline to 24 months in all arms (77% to 4% and 24% to 5% respectively). There were no significant differences at the 24-month visit among the 4 arms (Wald = 3.40 (3 df); p = 0.33; Wald = 6.73 (3 df); p = 0.08). There were a total of 4 HIV seroconversions over 24 months with no significant difference between intervention and control arms. Discussion Understanding the mechanisms through which all arms, particularly the control arm, demonstrated both low risk behaviors and low HIV incidence has important implications for policy and prevention programming. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  15. Bone health in HIV and hepatitis B or C infections

    PubMed Central

    Biver, Emmanuel; Calmy, Alexandra; Rizzoli, René

    2016-01-01

    Chronic infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) add to age-dependent bone loss and may contribute to lower bone strength in the elderly. In this review, we report recent highlights on the epidemiology of bone fragility in chronic viral infections with HIV, HCV and HBV, its physiopathology and discuss the interference of antiviral therapies with bone metabolism. Chronic infections influence bone through the interactions between risk factors for bone fragility and falls (which are highly prevalent in infected patients), virus activity and antiviral drugs. HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of fracture and the risk is higher in cases of co-infection with HIV and untreated chronic viral hepatitis. In HIV patients, the majority of bone loss occurs during virus activity and at initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, long-term elderly HIV-infected patients on successful ART display bone microstructure alterations only partially captured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Bone loss is associated with an increase of bone resorption, reflecting the upregulation of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) pathways via a crosstalk between virus activity, inflammation and the immune system. The use of some antiviral drugs, such as tenofovir (controlling both HBV and HIV infections) or protease inhibitors, may be associated with higher bone toxicity. The reduction of tenofovir plasma concentrations with the implementation of tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) attenuates bone mineral density (BMD) loss but it remains unknown whether it will contribute to reducing fracture risk in long-term HIV-treated patients. Moreover, to what extent the new direct-acting agents for treatment of HCV, including nucleotide inhibitors and protease inhibitors, may affect bone health similarly as ART in HIV should be investigated. PMID:28101146

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for low bone mineral density in untreated HIV infection: a substudy of the INSIGHT Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment trial

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Andrew; Grund, Birgit; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Schwartz, Ann; Bernardino, Jose I; White, David; Badel-Faesen, Sharlaa; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ensrud, Kristine; Hoy, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV infection is associated with a higher prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures than the general population. There are limited data in HIV-positive adults, naïve to antiretroviral therapy (ART), to estimate the relative contribution of untreated HIV to bone loss. Methods The START Bone Mineral Density substudy is a randomised comparison of the effect of immediate versus deferred initial ART on bone. We evaluated traditional, demographic, HIV-related, and immunological factors for their associations with baseline hip and lumbar spine BMD, measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, using multiple regression. Results A total of 424 ART-naïve participants were enrolled at 33 sites in six continents; mean (SD) age was 34 (10.1) years, 79.0% were nonwhite, 26.0% were women, and 12.5% had a body mass index (BMI) <20 kg/m2. Mean (SD) Z-scores were -0.41 (0.94) at the spine and -0.36 (0.88) for total hip; 1.9% had osteoporosis and 35.1% had low BMD (hip or spine T-score <-1.0). Factors independently associated with lower BMD at the hip and spine were female sex, Latino/Hispanic ethnicity, lower BMI and higher estimated glomerular filtration rate. Longer time since HIV diagnosis was associated with lower hip BMD. Current or nadir CD4 cell counts, and HIV viral load were not associated with BMD. Conclusions In this geographically and racially diverse population of ART-naïve adults with normal CD4 cell counts, low BMD was common, but osteoporosis was rare. Lower BMD was significantly associated with traditional risk factors but not with CD4 cell count or viral load. PMID:25711332

  17. Trends of HIV-1, HIV-2 and dual infection in women attending outpatient clinics in Senegal, 1990–2009

    PubMed Central

    Heitzinger, K; Sow, P S; Badiane, N M Dia; Gottlieb, G S; N’Doye, I; Toure, M; Kiviat, N B; Hawes, S E

    2013-01-01

    Summary We assessed trends in the relative prevalences of HIV-1, HIV-2 and dual HIV-1/HIV-2 infection in 10,321 women attending outpatient clinics in Senegal between 1990 and 2009. The relative prevalence of HIV-1 (defined as the proportion of seropositive subjects having HIV-1) rose sharply from 38% in 1990 until 1993 (P < 0.001), whereupon it continued to rise, but at a slower rate, reaching 72% of HIV infections in 2009. As compared with HIV-1, the relative prevalence of HIV-2 decreased sharply from 54% in 1990 until 1993 (P < 0.001) and continued to decrease at a slower rate through 2009. The relative prevalence of dual infection, as compared with HIV-1, was stable from 1990 to 1993, but decreased slightly thereafter (P < 0.001). These study findings indicate that during the early 1990s, the relative prevalence of HIV-1 increased markedly, while the relative prevalence of HIV-2 decreased and the relative prevalence of dual infection remained stable in Senegal. From 1993 to 2009, the relative prevalence of HIV-1 increased at a slower rate, while the relative prevalences of HIV-2 and dual infection decreased. These results confirm trends in HIV prevalence observed in other West African populations and provide a critical update on HIV transmission risk among women in Senegal. PMID:23104745

  18. Travel, tourism, and HIV risk among older adults.

    PubMed

    Wright, Eric R

    2003-06-01

    Although the importance of human mobility in the spread of infectious disease has been recognized for quite some time, surprisingly little attention has been given to older adults' travel-related HIV risk behavior. This essay discusses the importance of studying the role travel and tourism play in the spread of HIV infection in older adults, reviewing select research on travel/tourism and HIV risk and highlighting the theoretical and methodological challenges confronting researchers in this area.

  19. [People living with HIV: daily life and management of the risk of transmission in the infected person's entourage: study in Ouagadougou].

    PubMed

    Ouedraogo, T L; Ouedraogo, A; Ouedraogo, A V; Soubeiga, A; Kyelem, N

    2005-01-01

    HIV infection has modified social relationships not only within various population subgroups but also at the family level. Patient management has been seriously affected. In 2001 we undertook a descriptive study among a population of PLHIV treated in an ambulatory center in order to 1(o)) describe the socio-demographical characteristics of PLHIV admitted to the center and 2(o)) identify the strategies adopted by PLHIV and their families to control the risk of HIV transmission in the entourage. Patients were systematically included over a period of two weeks. Each patient was asked to indicate the name of a family member that could be interviewed by the research team. A total of 188 PLHIV (122 women) ranging in age from 19 to 55 years were questioned. Interviews were conducted in 66 families. Most PLHIV had received some formal education ranging from primary school to university. Over one third (36.4%) had known that they were seropositive for at least one year. Almost three-fourths (73.4%) were aware that HIV was transmissible to other people. The most frequently mentioned transmission hazards were handling contaminated articles (51.5%), unprotected sexual intercourse (46.4%), contact with blood (34.8%), and sharing personal toilet articles (11.6%). The most commonly mentioned preventive measures were abstinence from sex (27.1%), use condoms (28.7%), and protection from pointed or cutting objects (19.1%). According to responding family members, the most common protective measures against HIV transmission were observing hygiene measures (36.5%), discarding any fluids from the ill person in the toilet (26.5%), wearing gloves (25%), and protecting against handling contaminated objects (5.8%). These data suggest that programs aimed at educating PLHIV and their families on the risk of HIV transmission and preventive measure has had a positive impact on the quality of life.

  20. HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence and associated risk factors among postnatal women in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, J H; Nathoo, K J; Hargrove, J W; Iliff, P J; Mutasa, K E; Moulton, L H; Chidawanyika, H; Malaba, L C; Zijenah, L S; Zvandasara, P; Ntozini, R; Zunguza, C D; Ward, B J

    2007-08-01

    Studies of antenatal women form the predominant source of data on HIV-1 prevalence in Africa. Identifying factors associated with prevalent HIV is important in targeting diagnostic services and care. Between November 1997 and January 2000, 14,110 postnatal women from Harare, Zimbabwe were tested by ELISAs reactive to both HIV-1 and HIV-2; a subset of positive samples was confirmed with assays specific for HIV-1 and HIV-2. Baseline characteristics were elicited and modelled to identify risk factors for prevalent HIV infection. HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalences were 32.0% (95% CI 31.2-32.8) and 1.3% (95% CI 1.1-1.5), respectively; 4% of HIV-1-positive and 99% of HIV-2-positive women were co-infected. HIV-1 prevalence increased from 0% among 14-year-olds to >45% among women aged 29-31 years, then fell to <20% among those aged>40 years. In multivariate analyses, prevalence increased with parity, was lower in married women than in single women, divorcees and widows, and higher in women with the lowest incomes and those professing no religion. Adjusted HIV-1 prevalence increased during 1998 and decreased during 1999. Age modified the effects of parity, home ownership and parental education. Among older women, prevalence was greater for women who were not homeowners. Among younger women, prevalence increased with parity and low parental education. None of these factors distinguished women co-infected with HIV-2 from those infected with HIV-1 alone. Prevalent HIV-1 infection is associated with financial insecurity and weak psychosocial support. The ZVITAMBO study apparently spanned the peak of the HIV-1 epidemic among reproductive women in Harare.

  1. The RARE model of rapid HIV risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bates, Christopher J; Singer, Merrill; Needle, Richard; Trotter, Robert T

    2007-08-01

    The impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on minority communities called for interventions to stem the increase in new HIV infections and identify HIV-positive individuals for referral to care and treatment services. The Rapid Assessment, Response and Evaluation (RARE) project was designed to provide highly affected communities with a tool that would quickly identify conditions that fuel new infections and serve as barriers to HIV-positive individuals getting HIV testing, care, and treatment. RARE brought indigenous community health outreach workers and key community-level stakeholders together to advocate for the transfer of findings into programmatic and policy responses in places where high risk behaviors were practiced. This article describes RARE's qualitative methods that captured the voice of those most affected by the HIV/AIDS threat and identified critical insights and dynamics about factors that lead to HIV infections and those that can move positive individuals into care and treatment.

  2. Comparison of cardiovascular disease risk markers in HIV-infected patients receiving abacavir and tenofovir: the nucleoside inflammation, coagulation and endothelial function (NICE) study

    PubMed Central

    Wohl, David A; Arnoczy, Gretchen; Fichtenbaum, Carl J; Campbell, Thomas; Taiwo, Babafemi; Hicks, Charles; McComsey, Grace A; Koletar, Susan; Sax, Paul; Tebas, Pablo; Ha, Belinda; Massengale, Kelly; Walsh, Kendall; Stein, James H

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between abacavir (ABC) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in HIV-infected individuals is unclear. Putative mechanisms for an effect of ABC on CVD risk including endothelial dysfunction have been proposed; however, a biological mechanism has not been established. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected subjects with HIV RNA levels <400 copies/ml, who were randomly assigned to ABC or tenofovir (TDF) as initial therapy during a prior clinical trial. A small cohort of subjects on zidovudine (AZT; not randomly assigned) were studied to explore long-term exposure to this agent. All underwent brachial artery ultrasound for flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and D-dimer, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fasting lipids were measured. Between-arm differences were evaluated by multivariable linear or logistic regression modelling. Results There were 148 subjects (46 on ABC, 72 on TDF and 30 on AZT). Demographic characteristics were balanced across the groups except, as expected, AZT-treated participants were older, had higher CD4+ T-cell counts, and longer antiretroviral therapy duration. After adjusting for age, brachial artery diameter, and treatment duration, FMD was similar in those on ABC (3.9%) and TDF (5.4%; P=0.181). FMD was higher in those on AZT (6.1%; P<0.005). Levels of IL-6, hsCRP and detectable D-dimer were similar between groups. Conclusions Among individuals assigned to ABC or TDF in randomized clinical trials there were no significant differences in FMD or markers of inflammation and coagulation. Whether ABC contributes to risk of CVD remains unclear, but our results suggest that endothelial dysfunction, heightened inflammation, and altered coagulation are unlikely to be mechanisms by which the drug could increase CVD risk above that seen with TDF. PMID:23985706

  3. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As a ... Preventing fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are ...

  4. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in HIV-infected Pregnant Women and Infant HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kristina; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Bristow, Claire C.; Xu, Jiahong; Ank, Bonnie; Morgado, Mariza G; Watts, D. Heather; Weir, Fred; Persing, David; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Joao, Esau; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) can lead to adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. STI prevalence and its association with HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) were evaluated in a sub-study analysis from a randomized, multi-center clinical trial. METHODOLOGY Urine samples from HIV-infected pregnant women collected at the time of labor and delivery were tested using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for the detection of CT and NG (Xpert® CT/NG, Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA). Infant HIV infection was determined by HIV DNA PCR at 3 months. RESULTS Of the 1373 urine specimens, 249 (18.1%) were positive for CT and 63 (4.6%) for NG; 35 (2.5%) had both CT and NG detected. Among 117 cases of HIV MTCT (8.5% transmission) the lowest transmission rate occurred among infants born to CT and NG uninfected mothers (8.1%) as compared to those infected with only CT (10.7%) and both CT and NG (14.3%), (p = 0.04). Infants born to CT-infected mothers had almost a 1.5-fold increased risk for HIV acquisition (OR 1.47, 95% CI 0.9–2.3, p=0.09). CONCLUSION This cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women are at high risk for infection with CT and NG. Analysis suggests that STIs may predispose to an increased HIV MTCT risk in this high risk cohort of HIV-infected women. PMID:26372927

  5. Structural Definition of an Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Response Implicated in Reduced Risk for HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Priyamvada; Tolbert, William D.; Gohain, Neelakshi; Wu, Xueji; Yu, Lei; Liu, Tongyun; Huang, Wensheng; Huang, Chih-chin; Kwon, Young Do; Louder, Robert K.; Luongo, Timothy S.; McLellan, Jason S.; Pancera, Marie; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Flinko, Robin; Foulke, James S.; Sajadi, Mohammad M.; Kamin-Lewis, Roberta; Robinson, James E.; Martin, Loïc; Kwong, Peter D.; Guan, Yongjun; DeVico, Anthony L.; Lewis, George K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The RV144 vaccine trial implicated epitopes in the C1 region of gp120 (A32-like epitopes) as targets of potentially protective antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses. A32-like epitopes are highly immunogenic, as infected or vaccinated individuals frequently produce antibodies specific for these determinants. Antibody titers, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against these epitopes, however, do not consistently correlate with protection. Here, we report crystal structures of CD4-stabilized gp120 cores complexed with the Fab fragments of two nonneutralizing, A32-like monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), N5-i5 and 2.2c, that compete for antigen binding and have similar antigen-binding affinities yet exhibit a 75-fold difference in ADCC potency. We find that these MAbs recognize overlapping epitopes formed by mobile layers 1 and 2 of the gp120 inner domain, including the C1 and C2 regions, but bind gp120 at different angles via juxtaposed VH and VL contact surfaces. A comparison of structural and immunological data further showed that antibody orientation on bound antigen and the capacity to form multivalent antigen-antibody complexes on target cells were key determinants of ADCC potency, with the latter process having the greater impact. These studies provide atomic-level definition of A32-like epitopes implicated as targets of protective antibodies in RV144. Moreover, these studies establish that epitope structure and mode of antibody binding can dramatically affect the potency of Fc-mediated effector function against HIV-1. These results provide key insights for understanding, refining, and improving the outcome of HIV vaccine trials, in which relevant immune responses are facilitated by A32-like elicited responses. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 Env is a primary target for antibodies elicited during infection. Although a small number of infected individuals elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies, the bulk of the humoral response

  6. Monitoring the levels and trends of HIV infection: the Public Health Service's HIV surveillance program.

    PubMed Central

    Dondero, T J; Pappaioanou, M; Curran, J W

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive, multifaceted approach to HIV surveillance is needed to provide the information necessary for public health management and policy. Because HIV infection is not readily or uniformly ascertained, survey methods and sentinel surveillance approaches must be used. At least some of the surveys must be blinded, that is, anonymous and unlinked to identifiable persons, to avoid the uninterpretable impact of self-selection bias that could lead to both significant underestimates and occasional overestimates of HIV prevalence. Other surveys must be nonblinded, with careful interviews of volunteer participants to evaluate risk factors for HIV infection. These various surveys must continue over time to evaluate trends in infection. A comprehensive family of complementary HIV surveys and studies and a national household-based HIV seroprevalence survey have been undertaken by the Public Health Service in collaboration with other Federal agencies, State and local health departments, blood collection agencies, and medical research institutions. These projects focus on accessible segments of the general population, childbearing women, persons at high risk for HIV, and persons in special settings such as prisons and colleges. This comprehensive surveillance approach will help monitor the levels and trends of HIV infection in the United States and help prioritize, target, and evaluate HIV prevention activities. PMID:3131809

  7. Profile of candidiasis in HIV infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Khan P; Malik, A; Subhan, Khan H

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. The spectrum of Candida infection is diverse, starting from asymptomatic colonization to pathogenicforms. The low absolute CD4+ T-lymphocyte count has traditionally been cited as the greatest risk factor for the development of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis and current guidelines suggest increased risk once CD4+ T lymphocyte counts fall below 200 cells/µL. Gradual emergence of non-albicans Candida species as a cause of refractory mucosal and invasive Candidiasis, particularly in patients with advanced immunosuppression and problem of resistance to azoles and other antifungal agents in the Candida species is a point of concern. Materials and Methods A prospective study was carried out over a period of 2 years (2010-2011) on patients suffering from AIDS for the presence of candida infection. After thorough clinical examination relevant specimens were collected and processed specifically to ascertain candida infection. Speciation of candida isolates and antifungal sensitivity testing was also done. The CD4 cell counts of all the patients were estimated and correlated with the presence (or absence) of candidiasis. Results Out of a total of 165 HIV positive patients, a definitive diagnosis of candidiasis was made in 80 patients. Candida albicans was the most common yeast isolated. Patients with candidiasis had CD4 counts less than 200 cells/mm3. Maximum resistance was seen with fluconazole while no resistance was seen with voriconazole. Conclusion The most common opportunistic fungal infection in HIV positive patients is candidiasis, affecting the mucocutaneous system mainly but the invasive form is also common. Resistance to azoles and other antifungal agents in the Candida species is a point of concern. PMID:23205253

  8. A Multimodal Behavioral Intervention to Impact Adherence and Risk Behavior among Perinatally and Behaviorally HIV-Infected Youth: Description, Delivery, and Receptivity of Adolescent Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandwani, Sulachni; Abramowitz, Susan; Koenig, Linda J.; Barnes, William; D'Angelo, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Secondary prevention programs are needed to help HIV-positive youth reduce risk behavior and improve adherence to HIV medications. This article provides an overview of Adolescent Impact, a secondary HIV prevention intervention, including its description, delivery, and receptivity among the two unique groups of participants. Adolescent Impact, a…

  9. HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infections Among U.S. Peace Corps Volunteers Returning from West Africa.

    PubMed

    Eng; O'Brien; Bernard; Schable; van der Vlugt T; Holmberg

    1995-09-01

    Background: The risk of acquiring HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections among expatriates in, and travelers to, West Africa is not known. The objective of the study was to examine the risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and type 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) infections among Peace Corps volunteers in West Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional serosurvey was carried out in 18 West African countries. Subjects were 2491 returning Peace Corps volunteers. The main outcome measure was seropositivity for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. Results: From March 1988 through February 1993, of 2491 study participants, no HIV-2 infections were detected, but three HIV-1 infections were. All three HIV-1-infected persons reported having had unprotected sex with host-country national partners. Conclusions: Results suggest that although persons having unprotected sex with partners from countries with a high prevalence of HIV-1 are at risk for acquiring the infection, casual transmission of HIV-1 or HIV-2 is extremely unlikely.

  10. Evaluation of Olfactory and Gustatory Function of HIV Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Kuti, Kehinde Mobolanle; Nwaorgu, Onyekwere George; Akinyinka, Olusina Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    Background. Compliance with medication requires good sense of smell and taste. Objective. To evaluate the olfactory and gustatory function of HIV infected women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods. A case control study of women comprising 83 HIV infected women and 79 HIV uninfected women. Subjective self-rating of taste and smell function was by visual analogue scale. Olfactory function was measured via olfactory threshold (OT), olfactory discrimination (OD), olfactory identification (OI), and TDI using “Sniffin' sticks” kits and taste function (Total Taste Strips (TTS) score) measurement was by taste strips. Results. The mean age of the HIV infected women was 43.67 years ± 10.72 and control was 41.48 years ± 10.99. There was no significant difference in the self-reported assessment of smell (p = 0.67) and taste (p = 0.84) of HIV infected and uninfected women. Although the mean OT, OD, OI, TDI, and TTS scores of HIV infected and uninfected women were within the normosmic and normogeusic values, the values were significantly higher in the controls (p < 0.05). Hyposmia was in 39.7% of subjects and 12.6% of controls while hypogeusia was in 15.7% of subjects and 1.3% of controls. Conclusions. Hyposmia and hypogeusia are commoner among the HIV infected women than the HIV uninfected women and the risk increases with an increased duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy. PMID:27047688

  11. [Impact of HIV infection and AIDS on dental practice].

    PubMed

    Kielbassa, A M

    1990-11-01

    Describing the results of a study on the impact of HIV on practitional dentistry, the author finds out a considerable uncertainty of knowledge among elder practitioners. While 62% are willing to treat HIV-infected persons, a big part of the participants is looking on AIDS as an occupational risk. Regarding infection control procedures, the results show a limited compliance with the generally accepted recommendations.

  12. The physical and psychological effects of HIV infection and its treatment on perinatally HIV-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Rachel C; Scanlon, Michael L; McHenry, Megan S; Nyandiko, Winstone M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) transforms human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into a manageable chronic disease, new challenges are emerging in treating children born with HIV, including a number of risks to their physical and psychological health due to HIV infection and its lifelong treatment. Methods We conducted a literature review to evaluate the evidence on the physical and psychological effects of perinatal HIV (PHIV+) infection and its treatment in the era of HAART, including major chronic comorbidities. Results and discussion Perinatally infected children face concerning levels of treatment failure and drug resistance, which may hamper their long-term treatment and result in more significant comorbidities. Physical complications from PHIV+ infection and treatment potentially affect all major organ systems. Although treatment with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has reduced incidence of severe neurocognitive diseases like HIV encephalopathy, perinatally infected children may experience less severe neurocognitive complications related to HIV disease and ARV neurotoxicity. Major metabolic complications include dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, complications that are associated with both HIV infection and several ARV agents and may significantly affect cardiovascular disease risk with age. Bone abnormalities, particularly amongst children treated with tenofovir, are a concern for perinatally infected children who may be at higher risk for bone fractures and osteoporosis. In many studies, rates of anaemia are significantly higher for HIV-infected children. Renal failure is a significant complication and cause of death amongst perinatally infected children, while new data on sexual and reproductive health suggest that sexually transmitted infections and birth complications may be additional concerns for perinatally infected children in adolescence. Finally, perinatally infected children may face psychological challenges, including

  13. An assessment of the feasibility and acceptability of a friendship-based social network recruitment strategy to screen at-risk African American and Hispanic/Latina young women for HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Cherrie B; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa; Bethel, James; Li, Su X; Henry-Reid, Lisa; Futterman, Donna; Maturo, Donna; Straub, Diane M; Howell, Kourtney; Reid, Shirleta; Lowe, Jaime; Kapogiannis, Bill G; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2013-03-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the feasibility and acceptability of a friendship-based network recruitment strategy for identifying undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection within young women's same-sex friendship networks and to determine factors that facilitated and hindered index recruiters (IRs) in recruiting female friendship network members (FNMs) as well as factors that facilitated and hindered FNMs in undergoing HIV screening. DESIGN A cross-sectional study design that incorporated dual incentives for IRs and their female FNMs. SETTING The IRs were recruited through 3 Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions sites within their Adolescent Medicine Trials Units. Data were collected from January 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010. PARTICIPANTS The IRs self-identifying as HIV positive, negative, or status unknown were enrolled to recruit FNMs to undergo HIV screening. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reports of HIV risk and facilitators and barriers to network recruitment and HIV screening were assessed using an audio-computer-assisted self-interview. Participants were identified as HIV negative or positive on the basis of an OraQuick HIV test with confirmatory enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or Western blot tests. RESULTS Nearly all (156 [98.1%]) eligible IRs agreed to participate and most (78.4%) recruited 1 or more FNMs. Of the 381 FNMs, most (342 [89.8%]) agreed to HIV screening. Although a high acceptance of HIV screening was achieved, the HIV prevalence was low (0.26%). CONCLUSION Our findings provide compelling evidence to suggest that use of a female friendship network approach is a feasible and acceptable means for engaging at-risk young women in HIV screening, as shown by their high rates of agreement to undergo HIV screening.

  14. Ocular manifestations of HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Jabs, D A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of ocular complications and the clinical outcomes of these complications in patients with various stages of HIV infection. METHODS: Retrospective review of all HIV-infected patients seen in an AIDS ophthalmology clinic from November 1983 through December 31, 1992. RESULTS: Eleven-hundred sixty-three patients were seen for ophthalmologic evaluation. Of these, 781 had the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 226 had symptomatic HIV infection (AIDs-related complex [ARC]), and 156 had asymptomatic HIV infection. Non-infectious HIV retinopathy was the most common ocular complication, affecting 50% of the patients with AIDS, 34% of the patients with ARC, and 3% of the patients with asymptomatic HIV infection. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis was the most common opportunistic ocular infection, affecting 37% of the patients with AIDS. Other opportunistic ocular infections, including ocular toxoplasmosis, varicella zoster virus retinitis, and Pneumocystis choroidopathy were all much less common, each occurring in < or = 1% of the patients with AIDS. Treatment of CMV retinitis with either foscarnet or ganciclovir was successful in initially controlling the retinitis. However, relapse represented a significant problem and required frequent re-inductions. As a consequence of the retinal damage associated with relapse, loss of visual acuity occurred. The median time to a visual acuity of 20/200 or worse for all eyes with CMV retinitis was 13.4 months, and the median time to a visual acuity of 20/200 or worse in the better eye was 21.1 months. At last follow-up, 75% of the patients had a final visual acuity of 20/40 or better in at least one eye. Retinal detachments were a frequent ophthalmologic complication of CMV retinitis with a cumulative probability of a retinal detachment in at least one eye of 57% at 12 months after the diagnosis of CMV retinitis. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus developed in 3% of the overall series and was seen in

  15. Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Diagnosis and Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, Philip; Roder, Navid; Colgate, Emily; Cheeseman, Sarah H

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate screening for HIV infection is the cornerstone of HIV-related care. There have been several recent changes in testing technology and screening recommendations. The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends universal HIV screening at least once for adolescents and adults ages 15 to 65 years, and additional screening for patients at higher risk, although evidence is insufficient to determine optimum rescreening intervals. All pregnant women should be screened for HIV infection in the first trimester, and pregnant women at high risk should be screened again in the third trimester. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends use of an algorithm using fourth-generation tests for screening; this decreases the window period between infection and detection to as few as 14 days, thereby reducing the number of false-negative results. Home HIV testing kits, which require follow-up confirmatory testing, also are available. Clinicians should be aware of HIV-specific laws in their states, including those criminalizing HIV exposure and transmission. Thorough medical and laboratory evaluations are essential at initiation of care for patients with HIV infection, along with appropriate follow-up monitoring, as recommended in various guidelines.

  16. Treatment optimization for HIV/HCV co-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jake A.; Chew, Kara W.

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections affect millions of persons around the globe and cause profound morbidity and mortality. A major intersection exists between these two epidemics, with HCV infection being more common in persons with HIV than in the general population, largely due to shared routes of transmission. HCV co-infection increases risk for liver- and non-liver-related morbidity and mortality, making HCV treatment a priority in HIV co-infected persons, but the treatment of HCV in co-infected patients has been daunting for multiple reasons. Until recently, HCV treatment has frequently been deferred due to the low rates of cure, significant adverse effects, burdensome duration of therapy and drug–drug interactions with HIV antiretroviral medications. Untreated HCV has resulted in significant health consequences for the millions of those infected and has led to multiple downstream impacts on our healthcare systems around the world. The development of a remarkable number of new HCV direct-acting agents (DAAs) that are significantly more efficacious and tolerable than the previous interferon-based regimens has transformed this important field of medicine, with the potential to dramatically reduce the burden of infection and improve health outcomes in this population. This review will summarize the epidemiology and clinical impact of HIV/HCV co-infection and current approaches to the treatment of HCV in HIV/HCV co-infected patients. PMID:28357062

  17. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 infection in Tamilnadu, India.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S; Anuradha, S; Ganapathy, M; Jagadeeswari

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to determine the time trends in the prevalence of HIV infection and to evaluate appropriate preventive intervention in different population groups. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 infection by anonymous unlinked technique was carried out in Tamilnadu from December 1989 to March 1993. The sentinel population monitored were attendees of STD clinics, blood donors and antenatal mothers. The results of HIV seropositivity were compared for each 6-month period. During the study period there was 10-fold rise of HIV seropositivity among STD patients (1% to 10%), 2-fold rise among antenatal attendees (0.37% to 0.76%), and 3-fold rise in blood donors (0.24% to 0.72%). There was a steady increase in the incidence of HIV infection among those with high risk behaviour (STD attendees) as well as in the general population. This information is of value in planning and evaluation of preventive and control programmes in India.

  18. Early Life Circumstances as Contributors to HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Ramjohn, Destiny; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; VanDevanter, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents may come from family settings that heighten their vulnerability to early sexual initiation, promiscuity and sexual exploitation. To illuminate how this may occur, we present a set of five representative cases of HIV-infected females from a sample of 26 adolescent and young adult HIV-infected females (ages 16–24) enrolled in a study about the adaptive challenges people their age faced living with the disease. Study participants were recruited from five New York City adolescent HIV clinics that provided comprehensive specialty medical and supportive ancillary social services to adolescents and young adults with HIV. Study participants completed a battery of standardizes measures, using ACASI, and participated in a semi-structured in-depth interview. Using the qualitative interview data, we illustrate how early life and family circumstances including neglectful or dysfunctional parenting (e.g., low parental supervision), sexual abuse, and unstable housing placed these young women on a risk trajectory for HIV infection. PMID:25397349

  19. Astrocytes as an HIV Reservoir: Mechanism of HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Guan-Han; Henderson, Lisa; Nath, Avindra

    2016-01-01

    If we have any hope of achieving a cure for HIV infection, close attention to the cell types capable of getting infected with HIV is necessary. Of these cell types, astrocytes are the most ideal cell type for the formation of such a reservoir. These are long-lived cells with a very low turnover rate and are found in the brain and the gastrointestinal tract. Although astrocytes are evidently resistant to infection of cell-free HIV in vitro, these cells are efficiently infected via cell-tocell contact by which immature HIV virions bud off lymphocytes and have the ability to directly bind to CXCR4, triggering the process of fusion in the absence of CD4. In this review, we closely examine the evidence for HIV infection of astrocytes in the brain and the mechanisms for viral entry and regulation in this cell type, and discuss an approach for controlling this viral reservoir.

  20. [HIV infection in northwestern Sardinia].

    PubMed

    Cherchi, G B; Mura, M S; Calia, M G; Gakis, C; Ginanneschi, R; Zara, G M; Flumene, A; Andreoni, G

    1987-01-01

    The prevalence of anti HIV antibodies was investigated in the sera of 150 drug addicts and of 62 patients not drug addicts hospitalized in the Institute of Infectious diseases of the University of Sassari in the years 1980-86. No seropositivity was detected in not drug addicts patients in the years of observation and in the drug addict ones in the years 1980-81-82. The seropositivity discovered in 1983 in 24% of drug addicts raised to 75% in the first 8 months of 1986. As regards the prevalence of anti HIV antibodies in 1986 the sera of different categories were investigated. Seropositivity was detected in 55% of 20 drug addicts prisoners, in 6.25% of 16 homosexual men, 13 of which prisoners and 3 drug addicts, in 3.7% of 27 transfused individuals, 26 of which under dyalitical treatment, and in 33.3% of sexual partners of HIV positive patients. Anti HIV antibodies were not detected in the sera of 20 laboratory workers, 22 prisoners with a negative history for homosexuality and drug addiction, 45 prison guards and 100 individuals taken at random from general population. The stages of infection in 27 drug addicts were classified according to Atlanta CDC criteria as follows: 63% of cases asymptomatic, 22.2% persistent generalized lymphoadenopathy, 7.4% minor clinical features, 3.7% serious clinical picture, 3.7% full clinical picture of AIDS.

  1. [Cofactors in the course of HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Meyer, L; Carré, N

    Cohorts of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and followed-up since their infection, have identified risk factors of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The risk of progression increases with the subject's age at contamination by 40% for each decade. Other host factors such as certain HLA subtypes would be related to progression. Virus-related factors have also been described. Sexual or transfusional transmission from a highly immunodepressed subject increases the risk of progression in the infected subject. Progression is more rapid in male homosexuals than in heterosexuals, even after exclusion of Kaposi's syndrome. There has been little success in isolating co-infections which might explain this finding. The more rapid progression in homosexuals could be due to infection with particularly virulent strains or particular subtypes. Finally, progresion is more rapid when signs of primary infection are major or prolonged, an observation which probably results from a complex host-virus interaction. Behavioral factors occurring after contamination (pregnancy, continued intravenous drug abuse, tobacco, alcohol) have not been demonstrated until now to play a role in progression.

  2. HIV testing, risk perception, and behaviour in the British population

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Soazig; Nardone, Anthony; Field, Nigel; Mercer, Catherine H.; Tanton, Clare; Macdowall, Wendy; Johnson, Anne M.; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between HIV risk behaviour, risk perception and testing in Britain. Design: A probability sample survey of the British population. Methods: We analyzed data on sexual behaviour, self-perceived HIV risk and HIV testing (excluding testing because of blood donation) from 13 751 sexually experienced men and women aged 16–74, interviewed between 2010 and 2012 using computer-assisted face-to-face and self-interviewing. Results: Altogether, 3.5% of men and 5.4% of women reported having an HIV test in the past year. Higher perceived risk of HIV was associated with sexual risk behaviours and with HIV testing. However, the majority of those rating themselves as ‘greatly’ or ‘quite a lot’ at risk of HIV (3.4% of men, 2.5% of women) had not tested in the past year. This was also found among the groups most affected by HIV: MSM and black Africans. Within these groups, the majority reporting sexual risk behaviours did not perceive themselves as at risk and had not tested for HIV. Overall, 29.6% of men and 39.9% of women who tested for HIV in the past year could be classified as low risk across a range of measures. Conclusion: Most people who perceive themselves as at risk of HIV have not recently tested, including among MSM and black Africans. Many people tested in Britain are at low risk, reflecting current policy that aims to normalize testing. Strategies to further improve uptake of testing are needed, particularly in those at greatest risk, to further reduce undiagnosed HIV infection at late diagnoses. PMID:26963528

  3. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Susan; Meigs, James B.; Grinspoon, Steven K.; Triant, Virginia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is widespread among HIV-infected patients, who confront increased risk of smoking-related co-morbidities. The effects of HIV infection and HIV-related variables on smoking and smoking cessation are incompletely understood. We investigated the correlates of smoking and quitting in an HIV-infected cohort using a validated natural language processor to determine smoking status. Method We developed and validated an algorithm using natural language processing (NLP) to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data. The algorithm was applied to records for a cohort of 3487 HIV-infected from a large health care system in Boston, USA, and 9446 uninfected control patients matched 3:1 on age, gender, race and clinical encounters. NLP was used to identify and classify smoking-related portions of free-text notes. These classifications were combined into patient-year smoking status and used to classify patients as ever versus never smokers and current smokers versus non-smokers. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations of HIV with 3 outcomes, ever smoking, current smoking, and current smoking in analyses limited to ever smokers (persistent smoking), while adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and psychiatric illness. Analyses were repeated within the HIV cohort, with the addition of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load to assess associations of these HIV-related factors with the smoking outcomes. Results Using the natural language processing algorithm to assign annual smoking status yielded sensitivity of 92.4, specificity of 86.2, and AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88–0.91). Ever and current smoking were more common in HIV-infected patients than controls (54% vs. 44% and 42% vs. 30%, respectively, both P<0.001). In multivariate models HIV was independently associated with ever smoking (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.13–1.24, P <0.001), current smoking (ARR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25

  4. Human papillomavirus infections in nonsexually active perinatally HIV infected children.

    PubMed

    Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Puga, Ana; Farhat, Sepideh; Ma, Yifei

    2014-02-01

    Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common in HIV-infected adults, little is known about children. Our objective was to examine the prevalence of and risks for HPV of the oral mucosal and external genital areas in nonsexually active (NSA) perinatally (P) HIV+ children and compare with HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children. A convenience sample attending a pediatric clinic were enrolled. Samples for HPV were obtained from the oral and anogenital areas and tested for one of 37 HPV types. The mean age of the 48 PHIV+ children was 14.3±3.9 years vs. 6.2±4.8 for the 52 HEU (p<0.001). Of the 23 PHIV+ girls, 30.4% had anogenital and 17% had oral HPV, and of the 27 HEU girls, 2 (7.4%) anogenital and 0 had oral HPV. Of the boys, 4/23 (17.4%) and 1/25 (4%) PHIV+ had anogenital and oral HPV, respectively, and 3/24 (12.5%) and 1/25 (4%) HEU had anogenital and oral HPV, respectively. Rates of HPV did not differ by age among the PHIV+, whereas older HEU were more likely to have HPV than younger HEU (p=0.07). This large age gap precluded statistical comparison by HIV status. The presence of HPV in NSA PHIV+ children may have implications regarding HPV vaccination efficacy.

  5. HIV risk behavior and access to services: what predicts HIV testing among heterosexually active homeless men?

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett

    2012-06-01

    HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV testing behavior of homeless men. This study examined the association between individual (HIV risk) and structural (service access) factors and past year HIV testing. Participants were a representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men interviewed from meal programs in the Skid Row region of Los Angeles. Logistic regression examined the association between past year HIV testing and demographic characteristics, HIV risk behavior, and access to other services in the Skid Row area in the past 30 days. Despite high rates of past year HIV testing, study participants also reported high rates of HIV risk behavior, suggesting there is still significant unmet need for HIV prevention among homeless men. Having recently used medical/dental services in the Skid Row area (OR: 1.91; CI: 1.09, 3.35), and being a military veteran (OR: 2.10; CI: 1.01-4.37) were significantly associated with HIV testing service utilization. HIV testing was not associated with HIV risk behavior, but rather with access to services and veteran status, the latter of which prior research has linked to increased service access. We suggest that programs encouraging general medical service access may be important for disseminating HIV testing services to this high-risk, vulnerable population.

  6. Integrating Cervical Cancer Screening with HIV Care in Cameroon: Comparative Risk Analysis of Cervical Disease in HIV-Infected Women Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy to Women in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Bekolo, Cavin Epie; O’Bryan, Gillian; Tchago, François Edmond; Nangue, Charlette; Bekoule, Patrick Sylvestre; Kollo, Basile

    2016-01-01

    Background While the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on natural history of cervical lesions remains controversial, resource limited countries need to understand the relevance of their own data to their settings. We compared the risk of cervical disease in HAART-experienced women with that in women in the general population of Cameroon. Methods A retrospective cross sectional survey of women aged 35 years and above, attending a voluntary screening campaign for cervical cancer at the Nkongsamba Regional Hospital in Cameroon between February and May 2014. Squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) were determined by Pap smear. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare the odds of SIL in women on HAART to women from the community with unknown HIV status. Results Included were 302 women of whom 131(43.4%) were HIV-infected and receiving HAART on the site while 171 (56.6%) were women from the community. Cervical disease was observed in 51(16.9%) persons of whom 15 (11.5%) cases in the HAART group and 36 (21.1%) cases in the general group (p = 0.027). After controlling for age and other covariates, women in the HAART group had a 67% reduction in the odds of cervical lesions compared with the community group [adjusted odd ratio (aOR) = 0.33, 95%CI: 0.15–0.73, p = 0.006). Conclusion HIV-infected women receiving HAART have a lower risk of cancer than women in the general population. This finding may not be attributed to HAART alone but to all the health benefits derived from receiving a comprehensive HIV care. PMID:26866371

  7. Circulating HIV DNA Correlates With Neurocognitive Impairment in Older HIV-infected Adults on Suppressive ART

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Michelli Faria de; Murrel, Ben; Pérez-Santiago, Josué; Vargas, Milenka; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor; Smith, Davey M.; Woods, Steven Paul; Gianella, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Older HIV-infected adults have a higher risk of neurocognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the associations between levels of HIV DNA in peripheral blood, soluble markers of inflammation and cellular trafficking in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neurocognitive functioning among 18 younger (22–40 years) and 26 older (50–71 years) HIV-infected subjects, who were administered a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Older HIV-infected individuals presented higher levels of inflammation in CSF and blood compared to younger individuals, but no difference was observed in HIV DNA levels. Among older participants, higher HIV DNA levels were significantly associated with more severe neurocognitive impairment (p = 0.005), particularly in the Executive Functions domain (p = 0.004). No association was observed between HIV DNA and neurocognition among younger individuals. Despite significantly increased inflammation observed in the older group, none of the inflammatory markers were associated with neurocognitive impairment among older HIV+ individuals (p > 0.05). Our study supports the involvement of peripheral HIV DNA reservoir in the pathogenesis of neurocognitive disorder during suppressive ART. Correlates of neurocognitive impairment might differ between younger and older adults, suggesting that future treatment and prevention strategies for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders likely need to be tailored based on age. PMID:26603568

  8. Greater drug injecting risk for HIV, HBV, and HCV infection in a city where syringe exchange and pharmacy syringe distribution are illegal.

    PubMed

    Neaigus, Alan; Zhao, Mingfang; Gyarmathy, V Anna; Cisek, Linda; Friedman, Samuel R; Baxter, Robert C

    2008-05-01

    Comparing drug-injecting risk between cities that differ in the legality of sterile syringe distribution for injection drug use provides a natural experiment to assess the efficacy of legalizing sterile syringe distribution as a structural intervention to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other parenterally transmitted infections among injection drug users (IDUs). This study compares the parenteral risk for HIV and hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection among IDUs in Newark, NJ, USA, where syringe distribution programs were illegal during the period when data were collected, and New York City (NYC) where they were legal. IDUs were nontreatment recruited, 2004-2006, serotested, and interviewed about syringe sources and injecting risk behaviors (prior 30 days). In multivariate logistic regression, adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for city differences are estimated controlling for potential city confounders. IDUs in Newark (n = 214) vs. NYC (n = 312) were more likely to test seropositive for HIV (26% vs. 5%; AOR = 3.2; 95% CI = 1.6, 6.1), antibody to the HBV core antigen (70% vs. 27%; AOR = 4.4; 95% CI = 2.8, 6.9), and antibody to HCV (82% vs. 53%; AOR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 4.9), were less likely to obtain syringes from syringe exchange programs or pharmacies (AOR = 0.004; 95% CI = 0.001, 0.01), and were more likely to obtain syringes from street sellers (AOR = 74.0; 95% CI = 29.9, 183.2), to inject with another IDU's used syringe (AOR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.1, 5.0), to reuse syringes (AOR = 2.99; 95% CI = 1.63, 5.50), and to not always inject once only with a new, sterile syringe that had been sealed in a wrapper (AOR = 5.4; 95% CI = 2.9, 10.3). In localities where sterile syringe distribution is illegal, IDUs are more likely to obtain syringes from unsafe sources and to engage in injecting risk behaviors. Legalizing and rapidly implementing sterile syringe distribution programs are critical for reducing parenterally

  9. The inner foreskin of healthy males at risk of HIV infection harbors epithelial CD4+ CCR5+ cells and has features of an inflamed epidermal barrier.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Maria P; Lama, Javier R; Karuna, Shelly T; Fong, Youyi; Montano, Silvia M; Ganoza, Carmela; Gottardo, Raphael; Sanchez, Jorge; McElrath, M Juliana

    2014-01-01

    Male circumcision provides partial protection against multiple sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. To examine potential vulnerabilities in foreskin epithelial structure, we used Wilcoxon paired tests adjusted using the false discovery rate method to compare inner and outer foreskin samples from 20 healthy, sexually active Peruvian males who have sex with males or transgender females, ages 21-29, at elevated risk of HIV infection. No evidence of epithelial microtrauma was identified, as assessed by keratinocyte activation, fibronectin deposition, or parakeratosis. However, multiple suprabasal tight junction differences were identified: 1) inner foreskin stratum corneum was thinner than outer (p = 0.035); 2) claudin 1 had extended membrane-bound localization throughout inner epidermis stratum spinosum (p = 0.035); 3) membrane-bound claudin 4 was absent from inner foreskin stratum granulosum (p = 0.035); and 4) occludin had increased membrane deposition in inner foreskin stratum granulosum (p = 0.042) versus outer. Together, this suggests subclinical inflammation and paracellular transport modifications to the inner foreskin. A setting of inflammation was further supported by inner foreskin epithelial explant cultures secreting higher levels of GM-CSF (p = 0.029), IP-10 (p = 0.035) and RANTES (p = 0.022) than outer foreskin, and also containing an increased density of CCR5+ and CD4+ CCR5+ cells (p = 0.022). Inner foreskin dermis also secreted more RANTES than outer (p = 0.036), and had increased density of CCR5+ cells (p = 0.022). In conclusion, subclinical changes to the inner foreskin of sexually active males may support an inflammatory state, with availability of target cells for HIV infection and modifications to epidermal barriers, potentially explaining the benefits of circumcision for STI prevention.

  10. Sexual Behavior and Risk Practices of HIV Positive and HIV Negative Rwandan Women.

    PubMed

    Adedimeji, Adebola A; Hoover, Donald R; Shi, Qiuhu; Gard, Tracy; Mutimura, Eugene; Sinayobye, Jean d'Amour; Cohen, Mardge H; Anastos, Kathryn

    2015-07-01

    It is not well understood how infection with HIV and prior experience of sexual violence affects sexual behavior in African women. We describe factors influencing current sexual practices of Rwandan women living with or without HIV/AIDS. By design, 75 % of participants were HIV positive and ~50 % reported having experienced genocidal rape. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fit to describe demographic and clinical characteristics that influenced sexual behavior in the previous 6 months, condom use, history of transactional sex, and prior infection with a non-HIV sexually transmitted disease. Respondents' age, where they lived, whether or not they lived with a husband or partner, experience of sexual trauma, CD4 count, CES-D and PTSD scores were strongly associated with risky sexual behavior and infection with non-HIV STI. HIV positive women with a history of sexual violence in the contexts of war and conflict may be susceptible to some high-risk sexual behaviors.

  11. Sexual behavior and risk practices of HIV positive and HIV negative Rwandan women

    PubMed Central

    ADEDIMEJI, Adebola A.; HOOVER, Donald R.; SHI, Qiuhu; GARD, Tracy; MUTIMURA, Eugene; SINAYOBYE, Jean d’Amour; COHEN, Mardge H.; ANASTOS, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    It is not well understood how infection with HIV and prior experience of sexual violence affects sexual behavior in African women. We describe factors influencing current sexual practices of Rwandan women living with or without HIV/AIDS. By design, 75% of participants were HIV positive and ~50% reported having experienced genocidal rape. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fit to describe demographic and clinical characteristics that influenced sexual behavior in the previous 6 months, condom use, history of transactional sex, and prior infection with a non-HIV sexually transmitted disease. Respondents’ age, where they lived, whether or not they lived with a husband or partner, experience of sexual trauma, CD4 count, CES-D and PTSD scores were strongly associated with risky sexual behavior and infection with non-HIV STI. HIV positive women with a history of sexual violence in the contexts of war and conflict may be susceptible to some high-risk sexual behaviors. PMID:25488169

  12. Low-level Viremia Early in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Iris; Cummings, Vanessa; Fogel, Jessica M.; Marzinke, Mark A.; Clarke, William; Connor, Matthew B.; Griffith, Sam; Buchbinder, Susan; Shoptaw, Steven; del Rio, Carlos; Magnus, Manya; Mannheimer, Sharon; Wheeler, Darrell P.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2014-01-01

    HIV RNA levels are usually high early in HIV infection. In the HPTN 061 study, men were tested for HIV infection every six months; six (21.4%) of 28 men who acquired HIV infection during the study had low or undetectable HIV RNA at the time of HIV diagnosis. Antiretroviral drugs were not detected at the time of HIV diagnosis. False-negative HIV test results were obtained for two men using multiple assays. Antiretroviral drug resistance mutations were detected in HIV from one man. Additional studies are needed to identify factors associated with low HIV RNA levels during early HIV infection. PMID:25140905

  13. Predicting the Onset of Sexual and Drug Risk Behaviors in HIV-Negative Youths with HIV-Positive Mothers: The Role of Contextual, Self-Regulation, and Social-Interaction Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellins, Claude A.; Dolezal, Curtis; Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Nicholson, Ouzama; Warne, Patricia; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.

    2007-01-01

    HIV-negative, inner-city adolescents with HIV-infected parents are considered to be at high risk for acquiring HIV themselves. Using a modified theory of health behavior, this study examined the effects of maternal HIV infection and psychosocial variables on the onset of sexual and drug risk behavior in 144 HIV-negative adolescents with and…

  14. Lay Counsellor-Based Risk Reduction Intervention with HIV Positive Diagnosed Patients at Public HIV Counselling and Testing Sites in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer, Karl; Tabane, Cily; Matseke, Gladys; Simbayi, Leickness

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, fidelity, and effect of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention delivered to HIV-infected patients by lay counsellors during routine HIV counselling and testing (HCT) public service in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Methods: A total of 488 HIV-infected patients, aged 18 years and older,…

  15. CCR5 and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Blanpain, Cédric; Libert, Frédérick; Vassart, Gilbert; Parmentier, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Chemokines and chemokine receptors play a crucial role in the trafficking of leukocyte populations across the body, and are involved in the development of a large variety of human diseases. CCR5 is the main coreceptor used by macrophage (M)-tropic strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2, which are responsible for viral transmission. CCR5 therefore plays an essential role in HIV pathogenesis. A number of inflammatory CC-chemokines, including MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, RANTES, MCP-2, and HCC-1[9-74] act as CCR5 agonists, while MCP-3 is a natural antagonist of the receptor. CCR5 is mainly expressed in memory T-cells, macrophages, and immature dendritic cells, and is upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines. It is coupled to the Gi class of heterotrimeric G-proteins, and inhibits cAMP production, stimulates Ca2+ release, and activates PI3-kinase and MAP kinases, as well as other tyrosine kinase cascades. A mutant allele of CCR5, CCR5 delta 32 is frequent in populations of European origin, and encodes a nonfunctional truncated protein that is not transported to the cell surface. Homozygotes for the delta 32 allele exhibit a strong, although incomplete, resistance to HIV infection, whereas heterozygotes display delayed progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many other alleles, affecting the primary structure of CCR5 or its promoter have been described, some of which lead to nonfunctional receptors or otherwise influence AIDS progression. CCR5 is considered as a drug target in the field of HIV, but also in a growing number of inflammatory diseases. Modified chemokines, monoclonal antibodies and small chemical antagonists, as well as a number of gene therapy approaches have been developed in this frame.

  16. Neurological Complications in Controlled HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Kate M; Brew, Bruce J

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, there have been great advances in therapies for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that have allowed suppression of the virus and its effects on the body. Despite this progress, neurological complications persist in HIV-infected individuals. In this review we consider the possible ways that HIV might cause neurotoxicity and neuroinflammation. We discuss the spectrum of neurological disorders caused by HIV and its treatment, with a particular focus on both HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and peripheral neuropathies. Since there has been a shift to HIV being a chronic illness, we also review the increasing prevalence of cerebrovascular disease and neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. The association of tuberculosis and HIV infection in Burundi.

    PubMed

    Standaert, B; Niragira, F; Kadende, P; Piot, P

    1989-04-01

    AIDS and tuberculosis (TB) are both endemic in Bujumbura, Burundi. An 11% failure rate to standard antituberculosis treatment (n = 173) was observed at the Tuberculosis Treatment Center of Bujumbura (CATB) in 1985-1986. All resistant cases (n = 19) were HIV seropositive. Among 328 consecutive cases with tuberculosis at the CATB during a 3 month period in 1986, 54.5% were HIV seropositive, which is five times higher than the prevalence in the general population in Bujumbura. More female patients than male cases were HIV antibody positive (62 versus 49%, respectively; p less than 0.02). Persistent weight loss, cough, and an anergic tuberculin test were more common in the HIV-seropositive group. Among 48 household members of HIV-seropositive patients with tuberculosis, 6 (12.5%) new cases of tuberculosis were identified, compared with none among 28 household members of HIV-seronegative patients with tuberculosis (odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-33.2). HIV infection is a new risk factor for tuberculosis in Africa, and HIV-infected cases of tuberculosis may be more infectious than HIV-negative patients. The AIDS epidemic may drastically complicate the diagnosis, management, and control of tuberculosis in populations in which both infections are endemic.

  18. HIV-Risk Reduction with Juvenile Offenders on Probation

    PubMed Central

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen; Udell, Wadiya

    2014-01-01

    Youth involved in the juvenile justice system are at elevated risk for HIV as a result of high rates of sexual risk taking, substance use, mental health problems and sexually transmitted infections. Yet few HIV prevention programs exist for young offenders. This pilot study examined change in juvenile offenders’ sexual activity, drug/alcohol use, HIV testing and counseling, and theoretical mediators of risk taking following participation in PHAT Life, an HIV-prevention program for teens on probation. Participants (N=54) were 13–17 year-old arrested males and females remanded to a detention alternative setting. Youth participated in a uniquely tailored HIV prevention intervention and completed a baseline and 3-month follow up assessment of their HIV and substance use knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. At 3-month follow up, teens reported less alcohol use, more positive attitudes toward peers with HIV, greater ability to resist temptation to use substances, and for males, improved HIV prevention self-efficacy and peer norms supporting prevention. Teens were also more likely to seek HIV counseling and males were more likely to get tested for HIV. Effect sizes revealed moderate change in sexual behavior. Findings support PHAT Life as a promising intervention to reduce HIV-risk among youth in juvenile justice. PMID:26097376

  19. Does cerumen have a risk for transmission of HIV?

    PubMed

    Hanege, F M; Kalcioglu, M T; Sargin, F; Cetinkaya, Z; Tekin, M; Vahaboglu, H

    2015-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is mainly transmitted via sexual activity, mother-to-child transmission, and contact with body fluids, such as saliva and semen. Cerumen, however, has not been investigated for its capability to transmit HIV. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of cerumen for transmission of HIV infection. This study was conducted among 42 treatment-naive HIV-infected patients with positive HIV RNA and 27 HIV-infected patients with negative HIV RNA receiving antiviral treatment. Simultaneous blood samples were studied as positive controls. Sixty-nine prospectively collected cerumen specimens were analyzed for the presence of HIV RNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). None of the 69 cerumen specimens were positive for HIV RNA. These results conclude that cerumen in HIV-positive patients with or without antiretroviral therapy (ART) carry only an insignificant risk of transmission. However, standard infection control precautions should be applied carefully in all examinations and surgical operations of the ears.

  20. In men at risk of HIV infection, IgM, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA reach the human foreskin epidermis.

    PubMed

    Lemos, M P; Karuna, S T; Mize, G J; Fong, Y; Montano, S M; Ganoza, C; Lama, J R; Sanchez, J; McElrath, M J

    2016-05-01

    We profiled the humoral response in the penis, an area that has been minimally explored but may be relevant for protecting insertive men against HIV and other sexually acquired infections. Comparing paired tissue samples from 20 men at risk of HIV infection, foreskin contains less immunoglobulin A (IgA) and more IgG2 than colon. Using foreskin dermal and epidermal explants and paired plasma from 17 men, we examined Ig accumulation by normalizing Ig to human serum albumin (HSA) transudation. Dermal IgM, IgG2, IgA, and IgE ratios were greater than that in plasma, suggesting there is local antibody secretion at the dermis. Local Ig transcription was concentrated at the inner rather than the outer foreskin, and inner foreskin Ig ratios did not correlate with blood, indicating that localized production can contribute to the foreskin response. IgM, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA have preferential access to the foreskin epidermis, whereas IgG2, IgG4, and IgE are restricted to the dermis. Lastly, Ad5-specific IgA was selectively present in the colon, whereas foreskin Ad5 IgG was mainly derived from blood, and reached the inner epidermis at higher ratios than the outer (P<0.002). In summary, the foreskin antibody response combines local and systemic sources, and there is selective isotype accumulation in the epidermis.

  1. In Men at Risk of HIV Infection, IgM, IgG1, IgG3 and IgA Reach the Human Foreskin Epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Maria P.; Karuna, Shelly T.; Mize, Gregory J.; Fong, Youyi; Montano, Silvia M.; Ganoza, Carmela; Lama, Javier R.; Sanchez, Jorge; McElrath, M. Juliana

    2015-01-01

    We profiled the humoral response in the penis, an area that has been minimally explored but may be relevant for protecting insertive men against HIV and other sexually-acquired infections. Comparing paired tissue samples from 20 men at risk of HIV infection, foreskin contains less IgA and more IgG2 than colon. Using foreskin dermal and epidermal explants and paired plasma from 17 men, we examined Ig accumulation by normalizing Ig to human serum albumin (HSA) transudation. Dermal IgM, IgG2, IgA, and IgE ratios were greater than in plasma, suggesting there is local antibody secretion at the dermis. Local Ig transcription was concentrated at the inner rather than the outer foreskin, and inner foreskin Ig ratios did not correlate with blood, indicating that localized production can contribute to the foreskin response. IgM, IgG1, IgG3, and IgA have preferential access to the foreskin epidermis, whereas IgG2, IgG4, and IgE are restricted to the dermis. Lastly, Ad5-specific IgA was selectively in the colon; whereas foreskin Ad5 IgG was mainly derived from blood, and reached the inner epidermis at higher ratios than the outer (p<0.002). In summary, the foreskin antibody response combines local and systemic sources and there is selective isotype accumulation in the epidermis. PMID:26509877

  2. High prevalence of multiple syndemic conditions associated with sexual risk behavior and HIV infection among a large sample of Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking men who have sex with men in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Biello, Katie B; Robertson, Angela M; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Rosenberger, Joshua G; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Novak, David S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2015-10-01

    The HIV epidemic in Latin America is highly concentrated in men who have sex with men (MSM). In the United States, multiple co-occurring psychosocial conditions have been shown to act as intertwined epidemics to potentiate HIV transmission among MSM. To date, no study has examined the role of syndemics and condomless sex among MSM in Latin America. In 2012, an online survey was conducted among members of the largest social/sexual networking website for MSM in Latin America. Participants were asked about demographics, sexual behaviors, HIV/STI diagnoses, and psychosocial well-being, including depression, suicidal ideation, hazardous alcohol use, hard drug use during sex, history of childhood/adolescent sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, and sexual compulsivity. Multivariable logistic generalized estimation equations were used to assess the relationship of syndemic factors and (1) engagement in higher risk condomless anal sex and (2) self-report of prior HIV diagnosis. Among 24,274 survey respondents, 74.6 % of the sample had at least one syndemic factor. In an additive model, syndemics were associated with increased odds of higher risk condomless anal sex, ranging from adjusted odds ratio of 1.31 (95 % CI 1.20, 1.43) for one syndemic factor to 4.06 (95 % CI 3.25, 5.09) for 6/7 syndemic factors. Similarly, syndemics were associated with increased odds of HIV infection (p < .0001). This study provides initial evidence that intertwined syndemics increase HIV risk behavior and HIV infection among MSM in Latin America. In the Latin American context, comprehensive HIV prevention interventions for MSM should be developed and tested that simultaneously address co-occurring psychosocial conditions and HIV risk.

  3. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Nana, Christelle Tafou; Payne, Vincent Khan

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6%) were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42) were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354) of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%), Entamoeba coli (4.04%), Giardia lamblia (0.25%), Trichuris trichura (0.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%). In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%), Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%), Entamoeba coli (21.42%), Giardia lamblia (2.38%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%) were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction of

  4. Increased Rates of Respiratory and Diarrheal Illnesses in HIV-Negative Persons Living With HIV-Infected Individuals in a Densely Populated Urban Slum in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Joshua M.; Cosmas, Leonard; Nyachieo, Dhillon; Williamson, John M.; Olack, Beatrice; Okoth, George; Njuguna, Henry; Feikin, Daniel R.; Burke, Heather; Montgomery, Joel M.; Breiman, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged pathogen shedding and increased duration of illness associated with infections in immunosuppressed individuals put close human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–negative contacts of HIV-infected persons at increased risk of exposure to infectious pathogens. Methods We calculated incidence and longitudinal prevalence (number of days per year) of influenzalike illness (ILI), diarrhea, and nonspecific febrile illness during 2008 from a population-based surveillance program in the urban slum of Kibera (Kenya) that included 1830 HIV-negative household contacts of HIV-infected individuals and 13 677 individuals living in exclusively HIV-negative households. Results For individuals ≥5 years old, incidence was significantly increased for ILI (risk ratio [RR], 1.47; P < .05) and diarrhea (RR, 1.41; P < .05) in HIV-negative household contacts of HIV-infected individuals compared with exclusively HIV-negative households. The risk of illness among HIV-negative persons was directly proportional to the number of HIV-infected persons living in the home for ILI (RR, 1.39; P < .05) and diarrhea (RR, 1.36; P < .01). We found no increased rates of illness in children <5 years old who lived with HIV-infected individuals. Conclusions Living with HIV-infected individuals is associated with modestly increased rates of respiratory and diarrheal infections in HIV-negative individuals >5 years old. Targeted interventions are needed, including ensuring that HIV-infected persons are receiving appropriate care and treatment. PMID:25722292

  5. Infective endocarditis in an HIV-infected intravenous drug user.

    PubMed

    Mėlinytė, Karolina; Savickaitė, Jurgita; Rekienė, Daiva Emilija; Naudžiūnas, Albinas; Burkauskienė, Aušra; Jankauskienė, Laima

    2015-10-01

    Infective endocarditis is a common complication among injecting drug users. Disease risk among these patients is increased by the spread of HIV infection. In the following article, we discuss the exceptional clinical presentation of a 28-year-old patient who used intravenous drugs (heroin) for 10 years, had been infected with HIV for seven years and as a complication had developed Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis. The patient came to the hospital in serious condition, complaining of bodily pain, swelling of the legs and general weakness. During hospitalization, besides infective endocarditis, she was also diagnosed with anemia, toxic hepatitis, renal failure, ascites, sepsis, and pneumonia. A completely disrupted tricuspid valve, damaged aortic valve, and fibrosis of the mitral valve were detected. Echocardiographic and radiologic data showed that the patient's condition continued to deteriorate day by day, with significant progression of heart failure, ejection fraction decreasing from 45% to 10%, and development of myocarditis, hydrothorax and pericarditis. However, this progressive worsening of the patient's condition ceased when vancomycin was administered. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first such case described in the literature in which significant improvement was observed despite the patient's complex condition with associated complications.

  6. Sexually Transmitted Infections among HIV-1-Discordant Couples

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Brandon L.; Kiarie, James N.; Morrison, Susan; John-Stewart, Grace C.; Kinuthia, John; Whittington, William L. H.; Farquhar, Carey

    2009-01-01

    Introduction More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples. Methods HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI. Results Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11%) females and 30 (7%) males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9%) and syphilis (2.6%). Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01), and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01) and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01). Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01). Conclusions Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519 PMID:20011596

  7. HIV Risk Behaviors Among Latina Women Tested for HIV in Florida by Country of Birth, 2012.

    PubMed

    Taveras, Janelle; Trepka, Mary Jo; Khan, Hafiz; Madhivanan, Purnima; Gollub, Erica L; Devieux, Jessy

    2016-10-01

    Latina women in the United States (US) are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Data are limited on the risk differences in HIV among Latinas by country of birth. This paper describes the risk behaviors among Latina women tested for HIV at public sites in Florida. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the demographic characteristics associated with the report of specific risk behaviors. Results indicate that foreign-born Latina women were 54 % less likely to report partner risk [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.40, 0.54] than US-born Latina women. Reported risk behaviors varied by race/ethnicity, US-born versus foreign-born status, and by Latina country of origin. Knowledge of these differences can aid in targeting HIV prevention messaging, program decision-making, and allocation of resources, corresponding to the central approach of High Impact Prevention and the National HIV/AIDS Strategy.

  8. Periodontitis as an early presentation of HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Tenenbaum, H C; Mock, D; Simor, A E

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the presence of rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP) in people at high risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) may be the first symptom of previously unrecognized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Dental clinic. PATIENTS: Twenty patients who presented or were referred to the dental clinic over 6 months for the treatment of unexplained RPP and were at high risk for AIDS. OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnosis of HIV infection: identification of candidal organisms in cytologic smears, determination of complete and differential blood counts and of ratio between T4 (helper) and T8 (suppressor) lymphocytes, and performance of HIV antibody assays. MAIN RESULTS: All of the patients were men, although sex was not an inclusion criterion. Sixteen (80%) of the 20 patients were found to have HIV infection. Four had been aware that they were HIV positive: two admitted it only when their T4:T8 ratio was known and the other two when the T4:T8 test was explained or requested. Fifteen of the patients were homosexual, three came from AIDS-endemic areas, and two had hemophilia. The RPP was responsible for alveolar bone loss in all of the patients. One patient lost bone in one site because of localized osteomyelitis. Only five patients had concurrent candidal overgrowth, and three had Kaposi's sarcoma. The mean T4:T8 ratio was 0.57 (standard deviation 0.52). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that periodontal disease may be one of the first clinical presentations of previously undiagnosed HIV infection. Thus, patients at high risk for AIDS who present with aggressive periodontal disease should be investigated for possible HIV infection. However, further, prospective studies are required to confirm the contention that RPP is one of the first signs of HIV infection or AIDS. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:2025822

  9. African American women's experience of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The design of effective behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection among African American women requires a more complete understanding of the context and circumstances that precipitate infection with the virus. A descriptive study was designed to explore African American women's experiences of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States. Ten women living with HIV participated in interviews. All were infected through sex with a man or men; three had engaged in high-risk activities associated with HIV infection including sex trading; seven described themselves as at low risk for infection related to serial monogamy, no injection drug use, and no history of addiction. Participants reported that desire for intimacy coupled with inaccurate risk appraisal of sex partners contributed to their infection. These results provide insight into the role of intimacy in sexual risk taking. Inquiry into how women can be assisted to protect themselves in the context of intimate relationships may improve interventions to prevent HIV.

  10. Community Mobilization and Empowerment of Female Sex Workers in Karnataka State, South India: Associations With HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Harnalli L.; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Isac, Shajy; Wheeler, Tisha; Prakash, Ravi; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M.; Blanchard, James F.; Heise, Lori; Vickerman, Peter; Moses, Stephen; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of community mobilization (CM) on the empowerment, risk behaviors, and prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infection in female sex workers (FSWs) in Karnataka, India. Methods. We conducted behavioral–biological surveys in 2008 and 2011 in 4 districts of Karnataka, India. We defined exposure to CM as low, medium (attended nongovernmental organization meeting or drop-in centre), or high (member of collective or peer group). We used regression analyses to explore whether exposure to CM was associated with the preceding outcomes. Pathway analyses explored the degree to which effects could be attributable to CM. Results. By the final survey, FSWs with high CM exposure were more likely to have been tested for HIV (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] = 25.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 13.07, 48.34) and to have used a condom at last sex with occasional clients (AOR = 4.74; 95% CI =  2.17, 10.37), repeat clients (AOR = 4.29; 95% CI = 2.24, 8.20), and regular partners (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI = 1.43, 5.45) than FSWs with low CM exposure. They were also less likely to be infected with gonorrhea or chlamydia (AOR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.87). Pathway analyses suggested CM acted above and beyond peer education; reduction in gonorrhea or chlamydia was attributable to CM. Conclusions. CM is a central part of HIV prevention programming among FSWs, empowering them to better negotiate condom use and access services, as well as address other concerns in their lives. PMID:24922143

  11. Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infection seropositivity and risk behavior among sexually active transgender patients at an adolescent and young adult urban community health center.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Vetters, Ralph; White, Jaclyn M; Cohen, Elijah L; LeClerc, M; Zaslow, Shayne; Wolfrum, Sarah; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    The sexual health of transgender adolescents and young adults who present for health care in urban community health centers is understudied. A retrospective review of electronic health record (EHR) data was conducted from 180 transgender patients aged 12-29 years seen for one or more health-care visits between 2001 and 2010 at an urban community health center serving youth in Boston, MA. Analyses were restricted to 145 sexually active transgender youth (87.3% of the sample). Laboratory-confirmed HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) seroprevalence, demographics, sexual risk behavior, and structural and psychosocial risk indicators were extracted from the EHR. Analyses were descriptively focused for HIV and STIs. Stratified multivariable logistic regression models were fit for male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male (FTM) patients separately to examine factors associated with any unprotected anal and/or vaginal sex (UAVS). The mean age was 20.0 (SD=2.9); 21.7% people of color, 46.9% white (non-Hispanic), 21.4% race/ethnicity unknown; 43.4% MTF, and 56.6% FTM; and 68.3% were on cross-sex hormones. Prevalence of STIs: 4.8% HIV, 2.8% herpes simplex virus, 2.8% syphilis, 2.1% chlamydia, 2.1% gonorrhea, 2.8% hepatitis C, 1.4% human papilloma virus. Only gonorrhea prevalence significantly differed by gender identity (MTF 2.1% vs. 0.0% FTM; p=0.046). Nearly half (47.6%) of the sample engaged in UAVS (52.4% MTF, 43.9% FTM, p=0.311). FTM more frequently had a primary sex partner compared to MTF (48.8% vs. 25.4%; p=0.004); MTF more frequently had a casual sex partner than FTM (69.8% vs. 42.7% p=0.001). In multivariable models, MTF youth who were younger in age, white non-Hispanic, and reported a primary sex partner had increased odds of UAVS; whereas, FTM youth reporting a casual sex partner and current alcohol use had increased odds of UAVS (all p<0.05). Factors associated with sexual risk differ for MTF and FTM youth. Partner type appears pivotal to understanding

  12. Receipt of HIV/STD Prevention Counseling by HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Medical Care in the United States

    PubMed Central

    MIZUNO, Yuko; ZHU, Julia; CREPAZ, Nicole; BEER, Linda; PURCELL, David W.; JOHNSON, Christopher H.; VALVERDE, Eduardo E.; SKARBINSKI, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Objective Guidelines recommend risk-reduction counseling by HIV providers to all HIV-infected persons. Among HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States, we estimated prevalence of exposure to three types of HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk-reduction interventions and described the characteristics of persons who received these interventions. Design Data were from the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP), a supplemental HIV surveillance system designed to produce nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States. Methods Descriptive analyses were conducted to estimate the exposure to each type of HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess associations between the selected correlates with each exposure variable. Results About 44% of participants reported a one-on-one conversation with a health care provider about HIV/STD prevention, 30% with a prevention program worker, 16% reported participation in a small group risk-reduction intervention, and 52% reported receiving at least one of the three interventions in the past 12 months. Minority race/ethnicity, low income, and risky sexual behavior consistently predicted greater intervention exposure. However, 39% of persons who reported risky sex did not receive any HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions. Conclusions HIV-infected persons in care with fewer resources or those who engaged in risk behaviors were more likely to receive HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions. However, less than half of HIV-infected persons in care received HIV/STD prevention counseling from their provider, an intervention that has been shown to be effective and is supported by guidelines. PMID:24056066

  13. The evidence for using conjugate vaccines to protect HIV-infected children against pneumococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Sandra J; O'Brien, Katherine L; Janoff, Edward N; Cotton, Mark F; Musoke, Philippa; Coovadia, Hoosen; Levine, Orin S

    2008-01-01

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are a potentially useful complement to existing treatment strategies in HIV-infected children, for whom pneumococcal infections are common and serious. This Review summarises available data on the burden of pneumococcal disease and the safety and efficacy of PCVs in HIV-infected children. The data demonstrate that children with HIV have significantly increased risk of pneumococcal disease compared with uninfected children; the serotypes included in currently licensed or near-licensure conjugate vaccines include most serotypes that cause invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in HIV-infected children and adults; PCVs provide substantial protection against IPD and clinical pneumonia when given to HIV-infected infants; and HIV-infected adults gain an indirect benefit when children in the community are vaccinated. PCV should be considered as an important intervention for improving the lives of HIV-infected children.

  14. Hepatic Fibrosis Progression in HIV-Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection – The Effect of Sex on Risk of Significant Fibrosis Measured by Aspartate-to-Platelet Ratio Index

    PubMed Central

    Rollet-Kurhajec, Kathleen C.; Moodie, Erica E. M.; Walmsley, Sharon; Cooper, Curtis; Pick, Neora; Klein, Marina B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infection, male sex is associated with faster liver fibrosis progression but the effects of sex have not been well studied in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. We examined the influence of sex on progression to significant liver fibrosis in HIV-HCV co-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) using the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) as a surrogate biomarker of liver fibrosis. Methods We evaluated 308 HIV infected, HCV RNA positive participants of a Canadian multicentre prospective cohort receiving antiretrovirals and without significant liver fibrosis or end-stage liver disease at baseline. We used multivariate discrete-time proportional hazards models to assess the effect of sex on time to significant fibrosis (APRI≥1.5) adjusting for baseline age, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, HCV duration, and APRI and time-updated CD4 count and HIV RNA. Results Overall, 55 (18%) participants developed an APRI ≥ 1.5 over 544 person-years of at-risk follow-up time; 18 (21%) women (incidence rate (IR)=14.0/100 PY; 7.5-20.4) and 37 (17%) men (IR=8.9/100 PY; 6.0-11.8). Women had more favourable profiles with respect to traditional risk factors for liver disease progression (younger, shorter duration of HCV infection and less alcohol use). Despite this, female sex was associated with a greater than two-fold increased risk of fibrosis progression (adjusted hazard rate (HR) =2.23; 1.22-4.08). Conclusions HIV-HCV co-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy were at significantly greater risk of progressing to liver fibrosis as measured by APRI compared with men. Enhanced efforts to engage and treat co-infected women for HCV are needed. PMID:26090666

  15. HIV-associated opportunistic CNS infections: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Lauren N; Smith, Bryan; Reich, Daniel; Quezado, Martha; Nath, Avindra

    2016-10-27

    Nearly 30 years after the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), CNS opportunistic infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Unknown HIV-positive disease status, antiretroviral drug resistance, poor drug compliance, and recreational drug abuse are factors that continue to influence the morbidity and mortality of infections. The clinical and radiographic pattern of CNS opportunistic infections is unique in the setting of HIV infection: opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients often have characteristic clinical and radiological presentations that can differ from the presentation of opportunistic infections in immunocompetent patients and are often sufficient to establish the diagnosis. ART in the setting of these opportunistic infections can lead to a paradoxical worsening caused by an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In this Review, we discuss several of the most common CNS opportunistic infections: cerebral toxoplasmosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), tuberculous meningitis, cryptococcal meningitis and cytomegalovirus infection, with an emphasis on clinical pearls, pathological findings, MRI findings and treatment. Moreover, we discuss the risk factors, pathophysiology and management of IRIS. We also summarize the challenges that remain in management of CNS opportunistic infections, which includes the lack of phase II and III clinical trials, absence of antimicrobials for infections such as PML, and controversy regarding the use of corticosteroids for treatment of IRIS.

  16. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    MedlinePlus

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  17. HIV/STI Risk Behavior of Drug Court Participants

    PubMed Central

    ROBERTSON, ANGELA A.; ST LAWRENCE, JANET S.; MCCLUSKEY, D. LEE

    2012-01-01

    Drug abusing offenders have high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). To date, the HIV/STI prevention needs of offenders in drug court programs have been ignored. This multi-method study employed interviews to assess drug court professionals’ perceptions of the need for an HIV risk reduction intervention to be integrated into the services provided to drug court participants. Then, surveys were completed by 235 drug court participants to assess whether their sexual risk behaviors affirmed the need for such an intervention. The survey also assessed demographic characteristics, drug use prior to program entry, HIV knowledge, and condom attitudes. The relationship between duration in the drug court program and sexual risk behavior was also examined. Implications for the development and delivery of HIV risk reduction interventions within drug court programs are discussed. PMID:23658472

  18. Partner Violence and Health among HIV-Infected Jail Detainees

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jaimie P.; Wickersham, Jeffrey A.; Fu, Jeannia J.; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Sullivan, Tami P.; Springer, Sandra A.; Altice, Frederick L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the association of intimate partner violence (IPV) with specific HIV treatment outcomes, especially among criminal justice (CJ) populations who are disproportionately affected by IPV, HIV, mental and substance use disorders (SUDs) and are at high risk of poor post-release continuity of care. Design/Methodology/Approach Mixed methods were used to describe the prevalence, severity, and correlates of lifetime IPV exposure among HIV-infected jail detainees enrolled in a novel jail-release demonstration project in Connecticut. Additionally, the effect of IPV on HIV treatment outcomes and longitudinal healthcare utilization was examined. Findings Structured baseline surveys defined 49% of 84 participants as having significant IPV-exposure, which was associated with female gender, longer duration since HIV diagnosis, suicidal ideation, having higher alcohol use severity, having experienced other forms of childhood and adulthood abuse, and homo/bisexual orientation. IPV was not directly correlated with HIV healthcare utilization or treatment outcomes. In-depth qualitative interviews with 20 surveyed participants, however, confirmed that IPV was associated with disengagement from HIV care especially in the context of overlapping vulnerabilities, including transitioning from CJ to community settings, having untreated mental disorders, and actively using drugs or alcohol at the time of incarceration. Value Post-release interventions for HIV-infected CJ populations should minimally integrate HIV secondary prevention with violence reduction and treatment for SUDs. PMID:24376468

  19. Social characteristics and sexual behaviour of women at high risk of HIV infection in a town in Central Province of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Katsivo, M N; Muthami, L N

    1991-01-01

    Forty seven women food handlers who were considered to be at high risk of HIV infection in Thika town of Central Province of Kenya were studied. The women were interviewed individually for information related to their social characteristics and sexual behaviour. The study showed that 91% were bar attendants, 58% had less than 7 years of formal education and 95% were either unmarried or divorced. All the women had at least one child. One of them practised anal sex but the rest practised vaginal sex. Their opinions on condom use revealed that they lacked knowledge on the advantages of condom use. Certain issues have been raised by this study, which call for in depth studies or incorporation into ongoing studies.

  20. Correlation of EGFR, pEGFR and p16INK4 expressions and high risk HPV infection in HIV/AIDS-related squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva has increased tenfold in the era of HIV/AIDS. The disease pattern has also changed in Africa, affecting young persons, with peak age-specific incidence of 30-39 years, similar to that of Kaposi sarcoma, a well known HIV/AIDS defining neoplasm. In addition, the disease has assumed more aggressive clinical course. The contributing role of exposure to high risk HPV in the development of SCCC is still emerging. Objective The present study aimed to investigate if immunohistochemical expressions of EGFR, pEGFR and p16, could predict infection with high risk HPV in HIV-related SCCC. Methods FFPE tissue blocks of fifty-eight cases diagnosed on hematoxylin and eosin with SCCC between 2005-2011, and subsequently confirmed from medical records to be HIV positive at the department of human pathology, UoN/KNH, were used for the study. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the expressions of p16INK4A, EGFR and pEGFR. This was followed with semi-nested PCR based detection and sequencing of HPV genotypes. The sequences were compared with the GenBank database, and data analyzed for significant statistical correlations using SPSS 16.0. Ethical approval to conduct the study was obtained from KNH-ERC. Results Out of the fifty-eight cases of SCCC analyzed, twenty-nine (50%) had well differentiated (grade 1), twenty one (36.2%) moderately differentiated (grade 2) while eight (13.8%) had poorly differentiated (grade 3) tumours. Immunohistochemistry assay was done in all the fifty eight studied cases, of which thirty nine cases (67.2%) were positive for p16INK4A staining, forty eight cases (82.8%) for EGFR and fifty one cases (87.9%) showed positivity for p-EGFR. HPV DNA was detected in 4 out of 40 SCCC cases (10%) in which PCR was performed, with HPV16 being the only HPV sub-type detected. Significant statistical association was found between HPV detection and p16INK4 (p=0.000, at 99% C.I) and EGFR (p=0.028, at 95% C.I) expressions

  1. Development and Validation of a Risk Score for Chronic Kidney Disease in HIV Infection Using Prospective Cohort Data from the D:A:D Study

    PubMed Central

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens D.; Ross, Michael; Law, Matthew; Reiss, Peter; Kirk, Ole; Smith, Colette; Wentworth, Deborah; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Fux, Christoph A.; Moranne, Olivier; Morlat, Phillipe; Johnson, Margaret A.; Ryom, Lene

    2015-01-01

    groups (risk score ≥ 5, 505 events), respectively. Number needed to harm (NNTH) at 5 y when starting unboosted atazanavir or lopinavir/ritonavir among those with a low risk score was 1,702 (95% CI 1,166–3,367); NNTH was 202 (95% CI 159–278) and 21 (95% CI 19–23), respectively, for those with a medium and high risk score. NNTH was 739 (95% CI 506–1462), 88 (95% CI 69–121), and 9 (95% CI 8–10) for those with a low, medium, and high risk score, respectively, starting tenofovir, atazanavir/ritonavir, or another boosted protease inhibitor. The Royal Free Hospital Clinic Cohort included 2,548 individuals, of whom 94 individuals developed CKD (3.7%) during 18,376 PYFU (median follow-up 7.4 y, range 0.3–12.7 y). Of 2,013 individuals included from the SMART/ESPRIT control arms, 32 individuals developed CKD (1.6%) during 8,452 PYFU (median follow-up 4.1 y, range 0.6–8.1 y). External validation showed that the risk score predicted well in these cohorts. Limitations of this study included limited data on race and no information on proteinuria. Conclusions Both traditional and HIV-related risk factors were predictive of CKD. These factors were used to develop a risk score for CKD in HIV infection, externally validated, that has direct clinical relevance for patients and clinicians to weigh the benefits of certain antiretrovirals against the risk of CKD and to identify those at greatest risk of CKD. PMID:25826420

  2. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D’ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26495131

  3. Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jasper FW; Lau, Susanna KP; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick CY

    2016-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. The clinical significance of T. marneffei became evident when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic arrived in Southeast Asia in 1988. Subsequently, a decline in the incidence of T. marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients was seen in regions with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy and other control measures for HIV. Since the 1990s, an increasing number of T. marneffei infections have been reported among non-HIV-infected patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Their comorbidities included primary adult-onset immunodeficiency due to anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies and secondary immunosuppressive conditions including other autoimmune diseases, solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, T-lymphocyte-depleting immunsuppressive drugs and novel anti-cancer targeted therapies such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors. Moreover, improved immunological diagnostics identified more primary immunodeficiency syndromes associated with T. marneffei infection in children. The higher case-fatality rate of T. marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected than HIV-infected patients might be related to delayed diagnosis due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Correction of the underlying immune defects and early use of antifungals are important treatment strategies. Clinicians should be familiar with the changing epidemiology and clinical management of T. marneffei infection among non-HIV-infected patients. PMID:26956447

  4. Geriatric Syndromes in Older HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Meredith; Covinsky, Kenneth E.; Valcour, Victor; Miao, Yinghui; Madamba, Joy; Lampiris, Harry; Cenzer, Irena Stijacic; Martin, Jeffrey; Deeks, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Geriatric syndromes such as falls, frailty, and functional impairment are multifactorial conditions used to identify vulnerable older adults. Limited data exists on these conditions in older HIV-infected adults and no studies have comprehensively examined these conditions. Methods Geriatric syndromes including falls, urinary incontinence, functional impairment, frailty, sensory impairment, depression and cognitive impairment were measured in a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults age 50 and older who had an undetectable viral load on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined both HIV and non-HIV related predictors of geriatric syndromes including sociodemographics, number of co-morbidities and non-antiretroviral medications, and HIV specific variables in multivariate analyses. Results We studied 155 participants with a median age of 57 (IQR 54-62); (94%) were men. Pre-frailty (56%), difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (46%), and cognitive impairment (47%) were the most frequent geriatric syndromes. Lower CD4 nadir (IRR 1.16, 95% CI 1.06-1.26), non-white race (IRR 1.38, 95% CI 1.10-1.74), and increasing number of comorbidities (IRR 1.09, 95%CI 1.03-1.15) were associated with increased risk of having more geriatric syndromes. Conclusions Geriatric syndromes are common in older HIV infected adults. Treatment of comorbidities and early initiation of ART may help to prevent development of these age related complications. Clinical care of older HIV-infected adults should consider incorporation of geriatric principles. PMID:26009828

  5. Realizing HOPE: The Ethics of Organ Transplantation from HIV infected Donors

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Christine M.; Segev, Dorry; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    The HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act now allows transplantation of organs from HIV infected (HIV+) living and deceased donors to HIV+ individuals with end-stage organ disease in the United States. Although clinical experience with such transplants is limited to a small number of HIV+ to HIV+ deceased donor kidney transplants in South Africa, unprecedented HIV+ to HIV+ liver transplants and living donor kidney transplants are also now on the horizon. Initially all HIV+ to HIV+ transplants will occur under research protocols with safeguards and criteria mandated by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Nevertheless, this historic change brings ethical opportunities and challenges. For HIV+ individuals in need of organ transplant, issues of access, risk, and consent must be considered. For potential HIV+ donors, there are additional ethical challenges of privacy, fairness and the right to donate. Careful consideration of the ethical issues involved are critical to the safe and appropriate evaluation of this novel approach to transplantation. PMID:27043422

  6. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection

    SciTech Connect

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J.; Belshan, Michael

    2016-02-15

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. - Highlights: • CypB has been identified in several proteomic studies of HIV-1 infection. • CypB expression is upregulated in activated and infected T-cells. • Over-expression of CypB enhances HIV nuclear import and infection. • The N-terminus of CypB is necessary for these effects.

  7. Demographic changes and trends in risk behaviours, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Bangalore, India involved in a focused HIV preventive intervention.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Gayatri C; Kumar, Shiv; Isac, Shajy; Javalkar, Prakash; Gowda, Pushpalatha Rama Narayana; Raghunathan, N; Gowda, Chandra Shekhar; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Moses, Stephen; Blanchard, James F

    2013-12-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to assess the changing demographic characteristics of female sex workers (FSWs) in the urban Bangalore district, India, and trends in programme coverage, HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevalence rates and condom use. Cross-sectional, integrated behavioural and biological assessments of FSWs were conducted in 2006, 2009 and 2011. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to describe trends over time. The results indicate the mean age of initiation into sex work has increased (26.9 years in 2006 vs 27.6 years in 2011, p<0.01), a higher proportion of FSWs reported being in 'stable' relationships in 2011 (70.2% vs 43.2% in 2006, p<0.01) and having conducted sex work outside the district in the past 6 months (10.0% in 2011 vs 16.0% in 2006 p=0.01). There was an increase in the proportion of FSWs using cellphones to solicit clients (4.4% in 2006 vs 57.5% in 2011, p<0.01) and their homes for sex work (61.4% in 2006 vs 77.8% in 2011, p<0.01). Reactive syphilis prevalence declined (12.6% in 2006 to 4% in 2011, p=0.02), as did high-titre syphilis prevalence (9.5% in 2006 to 2.5% in 2011, p=0.01). HIV prevalence declined but not significantly (12.7% in 2006 and 9.3% in 2011, p=0.39). Condom use remained above 90% increasing significantly among repeat (paying) clients (66.6% in 2006 to 93.6% in 2011, p<0.01). However, condom use remained low with non-paying partners when compared with occasional paying partners (17.6% vs 97.2% in 2011, p<0.01). Given the changing dynamics in the FSW population at multiple levels, there is a need to develop and customise strategies to meet local needs.

  8. Viral sequence analysis from HIV-infected mothers and infants: molecular evolution, diversity, and risk factors for mother-to-child transmission.

    PubMed

    Bulterys, Philip L; Dalai, Sudeb C; Katzenstein, David A

    2010-12-01

    Great progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis, treatment, and transmission of HIV and the factors influencing the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Many questions regarding the molecular evolution and genetic diversity of HIV in the context of MTCT remain unanswered. Further research to identify the selective factors governing which variants are transmitted, how the compartmentalization of HIV in different cells and tissues contributes to transmission, and the influence of host immunity, viral diversity, and recombination on MTCT may provide insight into new prevention strategies and the development of an effective HIV vaccine.

  9. Perceptions of Community HIV/STI Risk Among U.S Women Living in Areas with High Poverty and HIV Prevalence Rates.

    PubMed

    Blackstock, Oni J; Frew, Paula; Bota, Dorothy; Vo-Green, Linda; Parker, Kim; Franks, Julie; Hodder, Sally L; Justman, Jessica; Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Kuo, Irene; Adimora, Adaora A; Rompalo, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Wang, Jing; Mannheimer, Sharon B

    2015-08-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that women at high risk for HIV and non-HIV sexually transmitted infections (STIs) tend to underestimate their individual risk, little is known about how women at risk perceive their community's HIV/STI risk. We explored perceptions of community HIV/STI risk among U.S. women living in areas with high poverty and HIV prevalence rates as part of a qualitative substudy of the Women's HIV SeroIncidence Study. Semi-structured focus groups were conducted. Data were coded and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Participants expressed the perception that their communities were at elevated HIV/STI risk, mostly due to contextual and structural factors such as lack of access to health care and education. Findings suggest that HIV prevention messages that target U.S. women at high risk for HIV may be strengthened by addressing the high perceived community HIV/STI risk driven by structural factors.

  10. Acute HIV infection among pregnant women in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Gay, Cynthia L; Mwapasa, Victor; Murdoch, David M; Kwiek, Jesse J; Fiscus, Susan A; Meshnick, Steven R; Cohen, Myron S

    2010-04-01

    There are limited data on acute HIV infection (AHI) prevalence during pregnancy. Malawian pregnant women admitted in the third trimester and meeting eligibility criteria underwent dual HIV rapid antibody testing. AHI prevalence was retrospectively detected through HIV RNA pooling of seronegative plasma. Among 3,825 pregnant women screened, dual HIV rapid testing indicated that 30.2% were HIV positive, 69.7% were HIV negative, and 0.1% were indeterminate. Sensitivity and specificity of dual rapid testing was 99.0% and 98.7%, respectively. Of 2,666 seronegative specimens, 2,327 had samples available for HIV RNA pooling; 5 women (0.21%) (95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.40%) had AHI with a median peripartum viral load of 1,324,766 copies/mL. Pregnant women are at risk for AHI, warranting counseling of all women and their sexual partners about incident HIV during pregnancy. Dual HIV rapid tests have high sensitivity and specificity. HIV testing should be repeated in the third trimester and/or at delivery.

  11. Acute HIV Infection among Pregnant Women in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Cynthia L.; Mwapasa, Victor; Murdoch, David M.; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Fiscus, Susan A.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Cohen, Myron S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction There are limited data on acute HIV infection (AHI) prevalence during pregnancy. Methods Malawian pregnant women admitted in the third trimester and meeting eligibility criteria underwent dual HIV rapid antibody testing. AHI prevalence was retrospectively detected through HIV RNA pooling of seronegative plasma. Results Among 3825 pregnant women screened, dual HIV rapid testing indicated that 30.2% were HIV positive, 69.7% were HIV negative and 0.1% were indeterminate. Sensitivity and specificity of dual rapid testing was 99.0% and 98.7%, respectively. Of 2666 seronegative specimens, 2327 had samples available for HIV RNA pooling; 5 women (0.21%) (95% CI: 0.03, 0.40%) had AHI with a median peripartum viral load of 1,324,766 copies/mL. Discussion Pregnant women are at risk for AHI, warranting counseling of all women and their sexual partners about incident HIV during pregnancy. Dual HIV rapid tests have high sensitivity and specificity. HIV testing should be repeated in the third trimester and/or at delivery. PMID:20226326

  12. Serosorting and recreational drug use are risk factors for diagnosis of genital infection with chlamydia and gonorrhoea among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: results from a clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Ramandip; Allen, Vanessa G; Gardner, Sandra; Moravan, Veronika; Raboud, Janet; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; Mazzulli, Tony; McGee, Frank; Rourke, Sean B; Burchell, Ann N

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Rates of chlamydia and gonorrhoea have been rising in urban centres in Canada, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Our objective was to identify behavioural risk factors for diagnosis with chlamydia and gonorrhoea in this population, with a focus on the HIV status of sexual partners. Methods The OHTN Cohort Study follows people in HIV care across Ontario. We restricted the analysis to 1997 MSM who completed questionnaires in 2010–2013 at one of seven clinics that submit all chlamydia and gonorrhoea tests to the provincial public health laboratory; we obtained test results via record linkage. We estimated cumulative incidences using Kaplan–Meier methods and identified risk factors for diagnosis of a composite outcome (chlamydia or gonorrhoea infection) using Cox regression. Results At follow-up, there were 74 new chlamydia/gonorrhoea diagnoses with a 12-month cumulative incidence of 1.7% (95% CI 1.1% to 2.2%). Risk factors for chlamydia/gonorrhoea diagnosis were: 5+ HIV-positive partners (HR=3.3, 95% CI 1.4 to 7.8; reference=none) and recreational drug use (HR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.9). Conclusions Heightened risks with recreational drug use and multiple HIV-positive partners suggest that chlamydia/gonorrhoea may have achieved high prevalence in certain sexual networks among HIV-positive MSM. Interventions to promote safer sex and timely testing among MSM are needed. PMID:27154185

  13. Knowledge, attitude, the perceived risks of infection and sources of information about HIV/AIDS among pregnant women in an urban population of Delhi.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saudan; Fukuda, Hideki; Ingle, G K; Tatara, Kozo

    2002-03-01

    Knowledge, attitude, perceived risks of infection and sources of information about HIV/AIDS were assessed among pregnant women. Large proportion of study subjects was illiterate (44.5%) and least was graduate or more (3.5%). Subjects mainly belonged to middle (46.1%) and lower socioe-conomic status (53.8%). Only 39.3% of subjects heard of AIDS. There was rising trend on heard of AIDS with various educational levels. Only 45% subjects responded correctly that AIDS was not transmitted by mosquito bite. Lower level of correct knowledge was also observed among all educational groups and it was lowest 21.1% among illiterate. Senior secondary or graduate or more educated responded 100% correct to question that one could get AIDS by having sex with prostitutes while illiterate responded 78.9% correctly. More educated had higher correct knowledge on modes of transmission compared to illiterate and less educated. Among various groups of educational status, the relationship of correct knowledge on modes of transmission was statistically significant. Of those heard of AIDS 79.3% perceived threat of AIDS to the health of local community. Mass media was source of information on HIV/AIDS among 86.3% out of which television was most popular source (74.6%). Large proportion of subjects (48.6%) had preference to get information on AIDS from doctors.

  14. Immune quiescence: a model of protection against HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Card, Catherine M; Ball, Terry Blake; Fowke, Keith R

    2013-11-20

    Aberrant immune activation is a strong correlate of HIV disease progression, but little is known about how immune activation alters susceptibility to HIV infection. Susceptibility to HIV infection varies between individuals, but the immunological determinants of HIV transmission are not well understood. Here, we present evidence from studies of HIV transmission in the context of clinical trials and HIV-exposed seronegative (HESN) cohorts that implicates elevated immune activation as a risk factor for acquiring HIV. We propose a model of protection from infection based on a phenotype of low baseline immune activation referred to as immune quiescence. Immune quiescence is evidenced by reduced expression of T cell activation markers, low levels of generalized gene transcription and low levels of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in the periphery and genital mucosa of HESN. Since HIV preferentially replicates in activated CD4+ T cells, immune quiescence may protect against infection by limiting HIV target cell availability. Although the determinants of immune quiescence are unclear, several potential factors have been identified that may be involved in driving this phenotype. HESN were shown to have elevated proportions of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are known to suppress T cell activation. Likewise, proteins involved in controlling inflammation in the genital tract have been found to be elevated in HESN. Furthermore, expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) is reduced in HESN as a consequence of genetic polymorphisms and differential epigenetic regulation. Since IRF-1 is an important regulator of immune responses, it may play a role in maintaining immune quiescence. Based on this model, we propose a novel avenue for HIV prevention targeted based on reducing host mucosal immune activation.

  15. Risk factors associated with virologic failure in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy at a public hospital in Peru”

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Alave R; Jorge, Paz B; Elsa, Gonzalez L; Miguel, Campos S; Rodriguez, Martin; Willig, James; Juan, Echevarría Z

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe clinical and biological characteristics of subjects with virologic failure who participated in the sexually transmitted diseases HIV/AIDS National Program from a Peruvian public hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS An exploratory descriptive study was performed with data from subjects older than 18 who started high activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between May 2004 and December 2009 and who had a viral load control after 24 weeks of HAART. Virologic failure was defined as a viral load value above 1000 copies/mL on follow up after 24 weeks on HAART. RESULTS Of 1 478 records of patients on HAART analized, the median age was 35 years [IQR, 29-41] and 69.6% were male. Also, virologic failure occurred in 24% and 3.7% died. Of subjects with virologic failure, 9.5% died. On multivariate analysis, age, history of antiretroviral use before starting HAART, change of antiretroviral therapy due to toxicity, opportunistic infections during HAART, level of CD4 + lymphocytes below 100 cells/ml at start of HAART, adherence and clinical stage were independently associated with virologic failure. In the group of patient with no history of antiretroviral use before starting HAART, age, opportunistic infections during HAART were associated with virologic failure. CONCLUSION This study identified factors associated with virologic failure. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether the use of these factors can help to identify prospectively patients at high risk of failure, and to design interventions aimed to reduce this risk. PMID:23450408

  16. Risk behaviours and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV in a group of Dominican gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Maximo O; Hodge, David; Donastorg, Yeycy; Khosla, Shaveta; Lerebours, Leonel; Pope, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to estimate the point prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and to investigate the sexual practices and behaviours associated with STIs in a group of gay men, other men who have sex with men and transgender women (GMT) in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic. Design A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of GMT persons. Setting The study was conducted in the province of La Romana, Dominican Republic, in June–July 2013. Participants Out of 117 GMT persons screened, a total of 100 completed the study. Participants had to be at least 18 years of age, reside in La Romana and have had sex with another man in the preceding 12 months. All participants were interviewed and tested for STI. Primary outcome measure The main outcome of interest was the detection of any STI (HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), syphilis, hepatitis B or C) by serology. Results Among 100 participants, the median age was 22 years (range 18–65). One-third had consumed illicit drugs the preceding year and only 43% consistently used condoms. Prevalence was 38% for HSV-2, 5% for HIV and 13% for syphilis. There were no cases of hepatitis B or C. Factors associated with the odds of a STI were age >22 years (OR=11.1, 95% CI 3.6 to 34.5), receptive anal intercourse (OR=4.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 13.6) and having ≥2 male sexual partners during the preceding month (OR=4, 95% CI 1.3 to 12.5). Conclusions In this group of GMT persons, seroprevalence of STI was high, and a number of risk behaviours were associated with STI. These preliminary data will help inform policy and programmes to prevent HIV/STI in GMT persons in the region. PMID:25926151

  17. Risk factors, CD4 long-term evolution and mortality of HIV-infected patients who persistently maintain low CD4 counts, despite virological response to HAART.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Yolanda M; Jarrín, Inmaculada; Del Amo, Julia; Moreno, Santiago; Iribarren, José A; Viciana, Pompeyo; Parra, Jorge; Gomez-Sirvent, Juan L; Gutierrez, Félix; Blanco, José R; Vidal, Francesc; Leal, Manuel

    2009-11-01

    A proportion of HIV-patients does not normally restore their CD4 counts despite virological response to HAART. Those whose CD4 counts persistently remain closed to the critical threshold for opportunistic infections deserve special interest. To study the risk factors, the long-term CD4 counts evolution, and the risk of death of patients who persistently maintain low CD4 counts, despite virological response to HAART, within a multicenter, hospital-based cohort study. A total of 147 patients were selected from CoRIS-MD and classified into a "Low-Group" or a "High-Group", depending on their CD4 counts after two-years of effective HAART (threshold 250 cells/microL). Associated risk factors were analysed by logistic regression, the CD4 dynamics were evaluated over a total period of 7.70 years (IQR, 6.70-9.00), and mortality was estimated by Cox proportional hazard. A total of 40 patients (27%) were classified into the "Low-Group". The odds ratio for this group increased with age, being 4.56 (2.23-9.33) for over 40, and was also higher among IDU, 3.63 (1.04-12.68). Six years thereafter, among these patients, only a 30% exceeded 350 CD4 cells/microL and a 12% exceeded 500 CD4 cells/microL. Furthermore, the "Low-Group" had a death rate of 2.42 per 100 persons/year (95%CI, 1.01-5.81), although once adjusted by age the estimates were no longer significant [4.14 (0.87-19.72)]. Our results suggest that those HIV patients who have not overcome the critical threshold of 250 CD4 cells/microL after a two years period of virologically effective HAART do persist with the aforementioned failure of CD4 restoration for a much longer time.

  18. Increased risk of virologic failure to the first antiretroviral regimen in HIV-infected migrants compared to natives: data from the ICONA cohort.

    PubMed

    Saracino, A; Lorenzini, P; Lo Caputo, S; Girardi, E; Castelli, F; Bonfanti, P; Rusconi, S; Caramello, P; Abrescia, N; Mussini, C; Monno, L; d'Arminio Monforte, A

    2016-03-01

    Migrant and Italian HIV-infected patients (n = 5773) enrolled in the ICONA cohort in 2004-2014 were compared for disparities in access to an initial antiretroviral regimen and/or risk of virologic failure (VF), and determinants of failure were evaluated. Variables associated with initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) were analysed. Primary endpoint was time to failure after at least 6 months of ART and was defined as: VF, first of two consecutive virus loads (VL) >200 copies/mL; treatment discontinuation (TD) for any reason; and treatment failure as confirmed VL >200 copies/mL or TD. A Poisson multivariable analysis was performed to control for confounders. Migrants presented significantly lower CD4 counts and more frequent AIDS events at baseline. When adjusting for baseline confounders, migrants presented a lower likelihood to begin ART (odds ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-0.95, p 0.012). After initiating ART, the incidence VF rate was 6.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI 4.8-8.5) in migrants and 2.7 in natives (95% CI 2.2-3.3). Multivariable analysis confirmed that migrants had a higher risk of VF (incidence rate ratio 1.90, 95% CI 1.25-2.91, p 0.003) and treatment failure (incidence rate ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.33, p 0.031), with no differences for TD. Among migrants, variables associated with VF were age, unemployment and use of a boosted protease inhibitor-based regimen versus nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Despite the use of more potent and safer drugs in the last 10 years, and even in a universal health care setting, migrants living with HIV still present barriers to initiating ART and an increased risk of VF compared to natives.

  19. Incidence and Risk Factors for Severe Bacterial Infections in People Living with HIV. ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Amandine; Le Marec, Fabien; Vandenhende, Marie-Anne; Lazaro, Estibaliz; Duffau, Pierre; Cazanave, Charles; Gérard, Yann; Dabis, François; Bruyand, Mathias; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Severe non-AIDS bacterial infections (SBI) are the leading cause of hospital admissions among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in industrialized countries. We aimed to estimate the incidence of SBI and their risk factors in a large prospective cohort of PLHIV patients over a 13-year period in France. Patients followed up in the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine cohort between 2000 and 2012 were eligible; SBI was defined as a clinical diagnosis associated with hospitalization of ≥48 hours or death. Survival analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for SBI.Total follow-up duration was 39,256 person-years [PY] (31,370 PY on antiretroviral treatment [ART]). The incidence of SBI decreased from 26.7/1000 PY [95% CI: 22.9–30.5] over the period 2000–2002 to 11.9/1000 PY [10.1–13.8] in 2009–2012 (p <0.0001). Factors independently associated to increased risk of SBI were: plasma HIVRNA>50 copies/mL (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 5.1, 95% Confidence Interval: 4.2–6.2), CD4 count <500 cells/mm3 and CD4/CD8 ratio <0.8 (with a dose-response relationship for both markers), history of cancer (HR = 1.4 [1.0–1.9]), AIDS stage (HR = 1.7 [1.3–2.1]) and HCV coinfection (HR = 1.4, [1.1–1.6]). HIV-positive patients with diabetes were more prone to SBI (HR = 1.6 [0.9–2.6]). Incidence of SBI decreased over a 13-year period due to the improvement in the virological and immune status of PLHIV on ART. Risk factors for SBI include low CD4 count and detectable HIV RNA, but also CD4/CD8 ratio, HCV coinfection, history of cancer and diabetes, comorbid conditions that have been frequent among PLHIV in recent years. PMID:27050752

  20. Enhanced U.S. Army HIV diagnostic algorithm used to diagnose acute HIV infection in a deployed soldier.

    PubMed

    Hakre, Shilpa; Paris, Robert M; Brian, Julie E; Malia, Jennifer; Sanders-Buell, Eric E; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Sleigh, Bryan C; Cook, James E; Michael, Nelson L; Scott, Paul T; Deuter, Dan R; Cersovsky, Steven B; Peel, Sheila A

    2012-05-01

    Antibody screening alone may fail to detect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in recently infected individuals. By U.S. Army regulation, HIV-infected soldiers are not permitted to deploy to areas of conflict, including Iraq and Afghanistan. We report here the first case of acute HIV infection (AHI) in a soldier in a combat area of operation detected by an enhanced U.S. Army HIV testing algorithm and discuss features of the tests which aided in clinical diagnosis. We tested the sample from the AHI case with a third generation HIV-1/HIV-2 plus O enzyme immunoassay, HIV-1 Western Blot, and a qualitative HIV-1 ribonucleic acid molecular diagnostic assay. Risk factors for HIV acquisition were elicited in an epidemiologic interview. Evaluation of the blood sample for AHI indicated an inconclusive serologic profile and a reactive HIV-1 ribonucleic acid result. The main risk factor for acquisition reported was unprotected sexual intercourse with casual strangers in the U.S. while on leave during deployment. The clinical diagnosis of AHI in a combat area of operation is important. Diagnosis of HIV is key to preventing adverse effects to the infected soldier from deployment stressors of deployment and further transmission via parenteral or sexual exposures.

  1. [HIV infection and AIDS in urology].

    PubMed

    Fischer, C; Miller, J; Gahr, M; Ringert, R H

    1994-05-01

    Up to December 1993, a total of 10858 AIDS cases were reported to the central AIDS registry at the Federal Health Office. Human immunodeficiency virus is acquired through needle sharing (i.v. drug users), contaminated blood transfusions, intercourse with infected persons and transplacentally by fetuses. In Germany, about seven people a day are estimated to acquire the HIV infection. Half the patients will develop systemic manifestations of AIDS within 12-13 years. Only a small percentage of these patients suffer from urological manifestations, e.g. urinary tract infection, prostatism or HIV-associated nephropathy. Nevertheless, knowledge of genitourinary pathology caused by HIV makes early diagnosis of AIDS possible.

  2. FRAILTY AND CONSTELLATIONS OF FACTORS IN AGING HIV-INFECTED AND UNINFECTED WOMEN - THE WOMEN'S INTERAGENCY HIV STUDY

    PubMed Central

    GUSTAFSON, D.R.; SHI, Q.; THURN, M.; HOLMAN, S.A.; MINKOFF, H.; COHEN, M.; PLANKEY, M.W.; HAVLIK, R.; SHARMA, A.; GANGE, S.; GANDHI, M.; MILAM, J.; HOOVER, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Biological similarities are noted between aging and HIV infection. Middle-aged adults with HIV infection may present as elderly due to accelerated aging or having more severe aging phenotypes occurring at younger ages. Objectives We explored age-adjusted prevalence of frailty, a geriatric condition, among HIV+ and at risk HIV− women. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Participants 2028 middle-aged (average age 39 years) female participants (1449 HIV+; 579 HIV−). Measurements The Fried Frailty Index (FFI), HIV status variables, and constellations of variables representing Demographic/health behaviors and Aging-related chronic diseases. Associations between the FFI and other variables were estimated, followed by stepwise regression models. Results Overall frailty prevalence was 15.2% (HIV+, 17%; HIV−, 10%). A multivariable model suggested that HIV infection with CD4 count<200; age>40 years; current or former smoking; income ≤$12,000; moderate vs low fibrinogen-4 (FIB-4) levels; and moderate vs high estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were positively associated with frailty. Low or moderate drinking was protective. Conclusions Frailty is a multidimensional aging phenotype observed in mid-life among women with HIV infection. Prevalence of frailty in this sample of HIV-infected women exceeds that for usual elderly populations. This highlights the need for geriatricians and gerontologists to interact with younger `at risk' populations, and assists in the formulation of best recommendations for frailty interventions to prevent early aging, excess morbidities and early death. PMID:26980368

  3. Neuromuscular Diseases Associated with HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Robinson-Papp, Jessica; Simpson, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders are common in HIV, occurring at all stages of disease and affecting all parts of the peripheral nervous system. These disorders have diverse etiologies including HIV itself, immune suppression and dysregulation, co-morbid illnesses and infections, and side effects of medications. In this article, we review the following HIV-associated conditions: distal symmetric polyneuropathy, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, autonomic neuropathy, progressive polyradiculopathy due to cytomegalovirus, herpes zoster, myopathy and other rarer disorders. PMID:19771594

  4. Modeling the Impact of Breast-Feeding by HIV-Infected Women on Child Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heymann, Sally Jody

    1990-01-01

    Models the survival outcomes of children in developing countries born to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are breast-fed, bottle-fed, and wet-nursed. Uses decision analysis to assess the relative risk of child mortality from HIV transmission and non-HIV causes associated with different methods of feeding. (FMW)

  5. Anal human papillomavirus in HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men: incidence and clearance rates, duration of infection, and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Donà, M G; Vescio, M F; Latini, A; Giglio, A; Moretto, D; Frasca, M; Benevolo, M; Rollo, F; Colafigli, M; Cristaudo, A; Giuliani, M

    2016-12-01

    Little is known regarding the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We aimed to evaluate incidence and clearance rates, their risk factors, and duration of anal HPV infection in HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM). A longitudinal study was conducted. Anal samples were analysed using the Linear Array HPV Genotyping test. Incidence and clearance rates, and corresponding risk factors, were estimated using a two-state Markov model. Overall, 155 MSM (median age 33.4 years) attending the largest sexually transmitted infection (STI) centre in Rome, Italy, were followed for a median of 12.2 months (Q1-Q3: 7.0-18.1). Incidence and clearance rates for any HPV were 85.6 (95% CI: 58.4-125.4) and 35.6 (95% CI: 24.7-51.5) × 1000 person-months, respectively; the median duration of infection was 9.4 months (Q1-Q3: 7.5-12.1). Receptive anal sex emerged as the only risk factor for the acquisition of any HPV (Hazard Ratio, HR = 2.65, 95% CI: 1.16-6.06). The incidence rates for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic types were 42.3 (95% CI: 29.2-61.4) and 29.2 (95% CI: 19.5-43.7) × 1000 person-months, respectively (p = 0.13); their clearance rates were 62.9 (95% CI: 45.1-87.7) and 65.7 (95% CI: 47.4-91.0) × 1000 person-months, respectively (p = 0.83). HPV16 showed the lowest clearance rate among carcinogenic types (59.7 × 1000 person-months), and a duration of infection of 16.8 months. In conclusion, a higher incidence rate was observed for carcinogenic compared to non-carcinogenic HPV types, although the difference was not significant. HPV16 emerged as the type with the longest duration of infection and the lowest clearance rate among carcinogenic types.

  6. Impact of HIV Infection on Medicare Beneficiaries with Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeannette Y; Moore, Page C; Lensing, Shelly Y

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of lung cancer among individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is elevated compared to that among the general population. This study examines the prevalence of HIV and its impact on outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries who are 65 years of age or older and were diagnosed with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) between 1997 and 2008. Prevalence of HIV was estimated using the Poisson point estimate and its 95% confidence interval. Relative risks for potential risk factors were estimated using the log-binomial model. A total of 111,219 Medicare beneficiaries met the study criteria. The prevalence of HIV was 156.4 per 100,000 (95% CI: 140.8 to 173.8) and has increased with time. Stage at NSCLC diagnosis did not vary by HIV status. Mortality rates due to all causes were 44%, 76%, and 88% for patients with stage I/II, III, and IV NSCLC, respectively. Across stages of disease, there was no difference between those who were HIV-infected and those who were not with respect to overall mortality. HIV patients, however, were more likely to die of causes other than lung cancer than their immunocompetent counterparts.

  7. Human papillomavirus in the HIV-infected host: epidemiology and pathogenesis in the antiretroviral era.

    PubMed

    Brickman, Cristina; Palefsky, Joel M

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with essentially all cervical cancers, 80-90 % of anal cancers, and a high proportion of oropharyngeal, vaginal, penile, and vulvar cancers. Malignancy is preceded by the development of precancerous lesions termed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Men and women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at high risk of HPV-related malignancies. The incidence of anal cancer in particular has markedly risen during the antiretroviral era due to the increased longevity of patients with HIV and the absence of anal malignancy screening programs. HIV infection may facilitate initial HPV infection by disrupting epithelial cell tight junctions. Once infection is established, HIV may promote HSIL development via the up-regulation of HPV oncogene expression and impairment of the immune response needed to clear the lesion. HIV-infected women should be screened for cervical HSIL and cancer, and HIV-infected men and women should be considered for anal screening programs.

  8. MRSA Infections in HIV-Infected People Are Associated with Decreased MRSA-Specific Th1 Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Utay, Netanya S.; Roque, Annelys; Timmer, J. Katherina; Morcock, David R.; DeLeage, Claire; Somasunderam, Anoma; Weintrob, Amy C.; Agan, Brian K.; Estes, Jacob D.; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.; Douek, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    People with HIV infection are at increased risk for community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Lower CD4 T-cell counts, higher peak HIV RNA levels and epidemiological factors may be associated with increased risk but no specific immune defect has been identified. We aimed to