Maksud, Ivia; Fernandes, Nilo Martinez; Filgueiras, Sandra Lucia
This article aims to consider some relevant challenges to the provision of "new prevention technologies" in health services in a scenario where the "advances" in the global response to AIDS control are visible. We take as material for analysis the information currently available on the HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), treatment as prevention (TASP) and over the counter. The methodology consisted of the survey and analysis of the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS: MEDLINE, LILACS, WHOLIS, PAHO, SciELO) articles that addressed the issue of HIV prevention and care in the context of so-called new prevention technologies. The results of the studies show that there is assistance on the ground of clinics for the treatment of disease responses, but there are several challenges related to the sphere of prevention. The articles list some challenges regarding to management, organization of services and the attention given by health professionals to users. The current context shows evidence of the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in reducing the risk of HIV transmission, but the challenges for the provision of preventive technologies in health services permeate health professionals and users in their individual dimensions and health services in organizational and structural dimension. Interventions should be made available in a context of community mobilization; there should be no pressure on people to make HIV testing, antiretroviral treatment or for prevention. In the management is responsible for the training of health professionals to inform, clarify and make available to users, partners and family information about the new antiretroviral use strategies.
Eide, Arne Henning; Schür, Clare; Ranchod, Chitra; Rohleder, Poul; Swartz, Leslie; Schneider, Marguerite
The main research question in this article is how access to information about HIV/AIDS and level of HIV/AIDS prevention related knowledge are distributed among disabled people, and whether level of knowledge predicts access to HIV/AIDS related services. A survey was carried out among a sample of 285 disabled people from three provinces in South Africa. Analyses of the data revealed that gender and level of education, together with geographical differences, are key predictors for access to information and knowledge about HIV/AIDS among disabled people. For male respondents number of information sources predicts access to voluntary counselling and testing services and HIV testing, while knowledge about prevention predicts access to Voluntary Counselling and Testing centres. Significant gender differences with regards to information, knowledge and access to services highlight the need for gender specific prevention strategies among disabled people.
...: National HIV Program for Enhanced HIV/AIDS Screening and Engagement in Care Announcement Type: New. Funding... applications for the Office of Clinical and Preventive Services: National HIV Program for Enhanced HIV/AIDS... Syndrome (HIV/ AIDS) Program serves as the primary source for national advocacy, policy development,...
... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Clinical and Preventive Services: National HIV Program Announcement Type: Cooperative Agreement. Funding Opportunity Number: HHS-2010-IHS-OCPS-HIV-0001. Catalog of... Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/ AIDS) Program. This program is authorized under...
Kelly, J A; Somlai, A M; DiFranceisco, W J; Otto-Salaj, L L; McAuliffe, T L; Hackl, K L; Heckman, T G; Holtgrave, D R; Rompa, D
OBJECTIVES: AIDS service organizations (ASOs) rarely have access to the information needed to implement research-based HIV prevention interventions for their clients. We compared the effectiveness of 3 dissemination strategies for transferring HIV prevention models from the research arena to community providers of HIV prevention services. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with the directors of 74 ASOs to assess current HIV prevention services. ASOs were randomized to programs that provided (1) technical assistance manuals describing how to implement research-based HIV prevention interventions, (2) manuals plus a staff training workshop on how to conduct the implementation, or (3) manuals, the training workshop, and follow-up telephone consultation calls. Follow-up interviews determined whether the intervention model had been adopted. RESULTS: The dissemination package that provided ASOs with implementation manuals, staff training workshops, and follow-up consultation resulted in more frequent adoption and use of the research-based HIV prevention intervention for gay men, women, and other client populations. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies are needed to quickly transfer research-based HIV prevention methods to community providers of HIV prevention services. Active collaboration between researchers and service agencies results in more successful program adoption than distribution of implementation packages alone. PMID:10897186
... Services HIV Overview What is a Preventive HIV Vaccine? (Last updated 2/20/2017; last reviewed 2/ ... preventive HIV vaccine. What is a preventive HIV vaccine? A preventive HIV vaccine is given to people ...
Tran, Nhan T; Hallerdin, Jule M; Flowers-Maple, Charon; Moskosky, Susan B
Since 2001, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Office of Family Planning (OFP), in collaboration with the Minority AIDS Initiative, has provided supplemental grant funds to Title X-funded family planning service delivery sites to expand the availability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention services. This work has resulted in three major outcomes: (1) increased institutional capacity for the delivery of HIV-prevention services at Title X family planning service delivery sites, (2) the successful implementation of HIV-prevention services at these sites, and (3) the identification of HIV-positive individuals who were referred to care services. These efforts resulted in a total of 539,667 unduplicated individuals being tested for HIV. These tests resulted in the identification of 1,692 HIV-positive individuals who otherwise may not have been tested for HIV. More than 85% of the HIV-positive cases were detected among clients who self-identified as members of racial/ethnic minority groups. The integration of HIV-prevention services is a feasible and effective strategy for detecting HIV infection among women, including women in racial/ethnic minority groups.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service Office of Clinical and Preventive Services Funding Opportunity: National HIV Program for Enhanced HIV/AIDS Screening and Engagement in Care AGENCY: Indian Health...
Stewart, Clarence, M., Jr.
This article deals with a service-learning program focused on human sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention at the Howard University Department of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies. Topics discussed include how this program was created, an overview of peer education, HIV/AIDS peer education training, and services provided to…
Lusti-Narasimhan, M; Collins, L; Hopkins, J
Provision of comprehensive sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services that meet the complex and diverse needs of women, in particular, within resource-constrained settings, is often exacerbated by separate and uncoordinated reproductive health (RH) and HIV policies and programmes. A Rapid Assessment Tool for Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV Linkages was developed to assess bi-directional linkages between SRH and HIV at policy, systems and service delivery levels, as well as to identify gaps and contribute to the development of country-specific action plans. Findings from the implementation of this Assessment Tool are of particular relevance to the successful delivery and uptake of multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs), which are products in the development pipeline addressing multiple SRH needs of women, including HIV. The findings highlight the need for better coordination between SRH and HIV programmes in countries; support and training for healthcare providers on SRH, HIV and human rights; supporting SRH and HIV integration at the service delivery level through relevant policies, strategic and operational plans; and strengthening logistics and supplies systems to provide a combination approach to prevention. These lessons learnt could help programme managers and service providers to better understand the strategies for positioning multipurpose prevention products in national policy and service contexts.
Mboya, Beati; Temu, Florence; Awadhi, Bayoum; Ngware, Zubeda; Ndyetabura, Elly; Kiondo, Gloria; Maridadi, Janneth
Introduction Currently, Tanzania's HIV prevalence is 5.7%. Gender inequality and Gender Based Violence (GBV) are among factors fuelling the spread of HIV in Tanzania. This study was conducted to assess universal access to HIV prevention services among GBV survivors in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam where HIV prevalence is as high as 14.7% and 9% respectively compared to a national average of 5.7%. Methods In 2010, a mixed methods study using triangulation model was conducted in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam regions to represent rural and urban settings respectively. Questionnaires were administered to 283 randomly selected survivors and 37 health providers while 28 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were conducted among various stakeholders. Quantitative data was analyzed in SPSS by comparing descriptive statistics while qualitative data was analyzed using thematic framework approach. Results Counseling and testing was the most common type of HIV prevention services received by GBV survivors (29%). Obstacles for HIV prevention among GBV survivors included: stigma, male dominance culture and fear of marital separation. Bribery in service delivery points, lack of confidentiality, inadequate GBV knowledge among health providers, and fear of being involved in legal matters were mentioned to be additional obstacles to service accessibility by survivors. Reported consequences of GBV included: psychological problems, physical trauma, chronic illness, HIV infection. Conclusion GBV related stigma and cultural norms are obstacles to HIV services accessibility. Initiation of friendly health services, integration of GBV into HIV services and community based interventions addressing GBV related stigma and cultural norms are recommended. PMID:23467278
Hanchette, Carol L; Gibbs, Deborah A; Gilliam, Aisha; Fogarty, Kieran J; Bruhn, Mark
Background From 2000–2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded a study that was designed to improve the information available to program planners about the geographic distribution of CDC-funded HIV prevention services provided by community-based organizations (CBOs). Program managers at CDC recognized the potential of a geographic information system (GIS) to organize and analyze information about HIV prevention services and they made GIS a critical component of the study design. The primary objective of this study was to construct a national, geographically-referenced database of HIV prevention services provided by CDC-funded CBOs. We designed a survey instrument to collect information about the geographic service areas where CBOs provided HIV prevention services, then collected data from CBOs that received CDC funding for these services during fiscal year 2000. We developed a GIS database to link questionnaire responses with GIS map layers in a manner that would incorporate overlapping geographies, risk populations and prevention services. We collected geographic service area data in two formats: 1) geopolitical boundaries and 2) geographic distance. Results The survey response rate was 70.3%, i.e. 1,020 of 1,450 community-based organizations responded. The number of HIV prevention programs administered by each CBO ranged from 1 to 23. The survey provided information about 3,028 prevention programs, including descriptions of intervention types, risk populations, race and ethnicity, CBO location and geographic service area. We incorporated this information into a large GIS database, the HIV Prevention Services Database. The use of geopolitical boundaries provided more accurate results than geographic distance. The use of a reference map with the questionnaire improved completeness, accuracy and precision of service area data. Conclusion The survey instrument design and database development procedures that we used for this study
Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Kubicek, Katrina; Supan, Jocelyn; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D.
African American young men who have sex with men and transgender persons are at elevated risk for HIV infection. House and Ball communities, networks of mostly African American gay, bisexual and transgender individuals who compete in modeling and dance, represent a prime venue for HIV prevention with these difficult-to-reach populations; however, little research exists on effective approaches to HIV prevention within these communities. Using a mixed-methods approach, the present study sought to document participation in HIV prevention activities of a sample from the Los Angeles House and Ball communities (N=263) in order to inform future service development. While 80% of participants were tested for HIV within the past 6 months, only 26% report HIV prevention program attendance. House leaders recommend a holistic approach to HIV prevention, one that incorporates attention to social problems beyond HIV, including poverty, housing difficulties, and lack of job training. PMID:23016504
Dutta, Arin; Wallace, Nathan; Savosnick, Peter; Adungosi, John; Kioko, Urbanus Mutuku; Stewart, Scott; Hijazi, Mai; Gichanga, Bedan
Trade-offs may exist between investments to promote health system strengthening, such as investments in facilities and training, and the rapid scale-up of HIV/AIDS services. We analyzed trends in expenditures to support the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Kenya under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) from 2005 to 2010. We examined how expenditures changed over time, considering health system strengthening alongside direct treatment of patients. We focused on two organizations carrying out contracts under PEPFAR: the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation and FHI360 (formerly Family Health International), a nonprofit health and development organization. We found that the average unit expenditure, or the spending on goods and services per mother living with HIV who was provided with antiretroviral drugs, declined by 52 percent, from $567 to $271, during this time period. The unit expenditure per mother-to-infant transmission averted declined by 66 percent, from $7,117 to $2,440. Meanwhile, the health system strengthening proportion of unit expenditure increased from 12 percent to 33 percent during the same time period. The analysis suggests that PEPFAR investments in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Kenya became more efficient over time, and that there was no strong evidence of a trade-off between scaling up services and investing in health systems.
Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Background Bundling is defined as the aggregation of services to increase effectiveness (i.e., creating synergy of effort). The purpose of this commentary is to review the utilization and potential benefits of bundling in its application to HIV prevention. Methods Review of the literature to provide a broad perspective on the concept of bundling and specific examples of bundling in HIV prevention. Benefits, challenges and directions are considered. Results To be effective, bundling must offer strategic advantage: greater value, less cost. It provides an opportunity to target multiple risk behaviors simultaneously for synergistic gain. Technological advances including rapid HIV tests permit noninvasive sampling in clinical and non-clinical settings. Bundling of HIV prevention provides an opportunity to reach high-risk persons who are asymptomatic and/or may not otherwise seek care by eliminating barriers to prevention. Conclusions We must implement programs that work and consider innovative approaches to stem the AIDS epidemic; bundling provides one such opportunity to create an efficient paradigm targeting multiple risk behaviors simultaneously. PMID:17964637
... medicines to treat HIV (called antiretroviral therapy, or ART) the right way, every day. They can keep ... to treat HIV infection (called antiretroviral therapy, or ART) the right way, every day and his or ...
Behel, Stephanie K; MacKellar, Duncan A; Valleroy, Linda A; Secura, Gina M; Bingham, Trista; Celentano, David D; Koblin, Beryl A; Lalota, Marlene; Shehan, Douglas; Torian, Lucia V
We investigated whether there were racial/ethnic differences among young men who have sex with men (MSM) in their use of, perceived importance of, receipt of, and satisfaction with HIV prevention services received at health care providers (HCP) and HIV test providers (HTP) that explain racial disparities in HIV prevalence. Young men, aged 23 to 29 years, were interviewed and tested for HIV at randomly sampled MSM-identified venues in six U.S. cities from 1998 through 2000. Analyses were restricted to five U.S. cities that enrolled 50 or more black or Hispanic MSM. Among the 2,424 MSM enrolled, 1,522 (63%) reported using a HCP, and 1,268 (52%) reported having had an HIV test in the year prior to our interview. No racial/ethnic differences were found in using a HCP or testing for HIV. Compared with white MSM, black and Hispanic MSM were more likely to believe that HIV prevention services are important [respectively, AOR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0, 1.97 to 4.51 and AOR, 95% CI: 2.7, 1.89 to 3.79], and were more likely to receive prevention services at their HCP (AOR, 95% CI: 2.5, 1.72 to 3.71 and AOR, 95% CI: 1.7, 1.18 to 2.41) and as likely to receive counseling services at their HTP. Blacks were more likely to be satisfied with the prevention services received at their HCP (AOR, 95% CI: 1.7, 1.14 to 2.65). Compared to white MSM, black and Hispanic MSM had equal or greater use of, perceived importance of, receipt of, and satisfaction with HIV prevention services. Differential experience with HIV prevention services does not explain the higher HIV prevalence among black and Hispanic MSM.
MacKellar, Duncan A.; Valleroy, Linda A.; Secura, Gina M.; Bingham, Trista; Celentano, David D.; Koblin, Beryl A.; LaLota, Marlene; Shehan, Douglas; Torian, Lucia V.
We investigated whether there were racial/ethnic differences among young men who have sex with men (MSM) in their use of, perceived importance of, receipt of, and satisfaction with HIV prevention services received at health care providers (HCP) and HIV test providers (HTP) that explain racial disparities in HIV prevalence. Young men, aged 23 to 29 years, were interviewed and tested for HIV at randomly sampled MSM-identified venues in six U.S. cities from 1998 through 2000. Analyses were restricted to five U.S. cities that enrolled 50 or more black or Hispanic MSM. Among the 2,424 MSM enrolled, 1,522 (63%) reported using a HCP, and 1,268 (52%) reported having had an HIV test in the year prior to our interview. No racial/ethnic differences were found in using a HCP or testing for HIV. Compared with white MSM, black and Hispanic MSM were more likely to believe that HIV prevention services are important [respectively, AOR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.0, 1.97 to 4.51 and AOR, 95% CI: 2.7, 1.89 to 3.79], and were more likely to receive prevention services at their HCP (AOR, 95% CI: 2.5, 1.72 to 3.71 and AOR, 95% CI: 1.7, 1.18 to 2.41) and as likely to receive counseling services at their HTP. Blacks were more likely to be satisfied with the prevention services received at their HCP (AOR, 95% CI: 1.7, 1.14 to 2.65). Compared to white MSM, black and Hispanic MSM had equal or greater use of, perceived importance of, receipt of, and satisfaction with HIV prevention services. Differential experience with HIV prevention services does not explain the higher HIV prevalence among black and Hispanic MSM. PMID:18622708
...: Enhanced HIV/AIDS Screening and Engagement in Care Announcement Type: New. Funding Announcement Number: HHS... accepting competitive cooperative agreement applications for Enhanced HIV/AIDS Screening and Engagement in... Services (HHS). Funding for the HIV/AIDS award will be provided by OS via an Intra-Departmental...
Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Harris, Taylor; Winetrobe, Hailey; Rice, Eric; Henwood, Ben
Homeless persons suffer disproportionately high rates of HIV infection, and moving into permanent supportive housing (PSH) can provide a stable base from which to access needed prevention services. However, little is known about HIV risk or prevention behavior during this critical time of transition. The current study investigated STI and HIV risk and prevention behavior and recent use of prevention and treatment services (i.e., education, testing, medication) among homeless persons preparing to move into PSH. Data come from interviews with 421 homeless adults before they moved into PSH. Thirty-seven percent of the respondents were sexually active; of those, 75.7% reported unprotected sex. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported past year HIV testing and 40% reported testing for another STI. Fewer than one-third (31%) of respondents reported receiving posttest counseling at their last HIV test. HIV seropositivity was self-reported by 10%. Among those persons who were HIV-positive, 57.1% reported less than 100% antiretroviral (ARV) adherence. Among HIV-negative respondents, less than 1% had been prescribed preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Less than half (46.4%) of the sample reported any HIV prevention education in the past year. This population of homeless adults about to move into PSH report high rates of HIV risk behavior, but low rates of HIV prevention education and very little PrEP utilization. Further, low rates of ARV adherence among HIV-positive respondents indicate significant risk for HIV transmission and acquisition. Entering PSH is a period of transition for homeless persons when integrated care is critically important to ensure positive health outcomes, but these data suggest that PrEP and other HIV prevention services are poorly accessed among this population. As such, multipronged services that integrate PrEP and other HIV prevention services are needed to prevent transmission and acquisition of HIV in this high-risk, vulnerable population and ensure the
Rodriguez, Heather R; Dobalian, Aram
Using Andersen's behavioral model of health services use, this study analyzes data from 62 semistructured interviews of providers and administrators at health clinics and social service agencies in rural Florida. Andersen's model addresses predisposing, enabling, and need factors that influence health services use. ATLASti was used to code all interviews and to extract HIV-related themes. The aim of this study was to: (1) add a new dimension to the literature on HIV care services in rural areas, (2) reveal factors that impact ability to provide care to PLWH in rural areas, and (3) suggest ways in which providers and administrators may address any unmet health care needs of PLWH. Respondents perceived systems factors to be more important determinants of access to care for individuals living with HIV and supported ongoing trainings that would increase staff understanding of the needs of people living with HIV.
Wilton, Leo; Phillips, Gregory; Glick, Sara Nelson; Kuo, Irene; Brewer, Russell A.; Elliott, Ayana; Watson, Christopher; Magnus, Manya
Structural-level factors have contributed to the substantial disproportionate rates of HIV among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. Despite insufficient HIV testing patterns, however, there is a void in research investigating the relationship between structural factors and access to HIV testing and prevention services among BMSM. Building on previous scholarly work and incorporating a dynamic social systems conceptual framework, we conducted a comprehensive review of the literature on structural barriers to HIV testing and prevention services among BMSM across four domains: healthcare, stigma and discrimination, incarceration, and poverty. We found that BMSM experience inadequate access to culturally competent services, stigma and discrimination that impede access to services, a deficiency of services in correctional institutions, and limited services in areas where BMSM live. Structural interventions that eliminate barriers to HIV testing and prevention services and provide BMSM with core skills to navigate complex systems are needed. PMID:24531769
Levy, Matthew E; Wilton, Leo; Phillips, Gregory; Glick, Sara Nelson; Kuo, Irene; Brewer, Russell A; Elliott, Ayana; Watson, Christopher; Magnus, Manya
Structural-level factors have contributed to the substantial disproportionate rates of HIV among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. Despite insufficient HIV testing patterns, however, there is a void in research investigating the relationship between structural factors and access to HIV testing and prevention services among BMSM. Building on previous scholarly work and incorporating a dynamic social systems conceptual framework, we conducted a comprehensive review of the literature on structural barriers to HIV testing and prevention services among BMSM across four domains: healthcare, stigma and discrimination, incarceration, and poverty. We found that BMSM experience inadequate access to culturally competent services, stigma and discrimination that impede access to services, a deficiency of services in correctional institutions, and limited services in areas where BMSM live. Structural interventions that eliminate barriers to HIV testing and prevention services and provide BMSM with core skills to navigate complex systems are needed.
Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan; Kerrigan, Deanna; El-Bassel, Nabila; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Celentano, David D
The provision of appropriate HIV prevention, treatment, and care services for most-at-risk populations (MARP) will challenge many health care systems. For people who sell sex (SW) or inject drugs (IDU) and for men who have sex with men (MSM), stigma, discrimination, and criminalization can limit access to care, inhibit service uptake, and reduce the disclosure of risks. Several models for provision of HIV services to MARP may address these issues. We discuss integrated models, stand-alone services, and hybrid models, which may be appropriate for some MARP in some settings. Both public health and human rights frameworks concur that those at greatest risk should have expanded access to services. PMID:21857306
Anígilájé, Emmanuel Ademola; Ageda, Bem Ruben; Nweke, Nnamdi Okechukwu
Background Perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues in Nigeria because of the poor use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services. This study reports on the barriers preventing mothers of vertically infected HIV-seropositive infants to use the PMTCT services at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi, Nigeria. Methods This is a descriptive study conducted between January and April, 2014. A quantitative survey was applied to detect barriers along the PMTCT services cascade among 52 mothers of vertically infected HIV-seropositive infants. This includes 22 women who attended antenatal care at the Federal Medical Centre (designated as Group A mothers) and 30 women who did not receive any form of PMTCT service (Group B mothers). The study was supplemented with a focused group discussion involving 12 discussants from the two groups. Results In the quantitative assessment: among the Group A mothers, falling asleep was the most common reason (n=22, 100%) for missing therapeutic/prophylactic antiretroviral medicine; financial constraint (n=22, 100%) was the most common reason for antenatal care visit defaults; and a lot of the mothers (n=11, 50.0%) did not give nevirapine to their newborns because they delivered at home. Among Group B mothers, unawareness of HIV-seropositive status was the most common reason (n=28, 93.3%) given for not accessing PMTCT services. In the qualitative study: noninvolvement of male partners, stigma and discrimination experienced by HIV-seropositive mothers, financial constraints in couples, involvement of traditional birth attendants in antenatal care and delivery of HIV-infected women, unawareness of HIV-seropositive status by pregnant women, poor health system, and the lack of funding for PMTCT services at private and rural health facilities were the major barriers preventing the use of PMTCT services. Conclusion In order to reduce the missed opportunities for PMTCT interventions in Makurdi
Aung, Tin; Paw, Ethi; Aye, Nyo Me
Cross-sectional surveys of female sex workers using time-location sampling in seven cities of Myanmar gauged coverage of HIV prevention programs. HIV testing in last year ranged from 28 to 73 %; attending peer educator talks ranged from 15 to 50 %; exposure to media campaigns varied by city and materials (e.g., lower for TV and radio, higher for printed materials). Consistent condom use with clients in last week was high (88–99 %) across all cities. The largest city, Yangon, lagged behind others in coverage of most programs. Such data are necessary for planning, targeting, and evaluating the prevention response for this key population disproportionately affected by HIV. PMID:23695521
Aung, Tin; Paw, Ethi; Aye, Nyo Me; McFarland, Willi
Cross-sectional surveys of female sex workers using time-location sampling in seven cities of Myanmar gauged coverage of HIV prevention programs. HIV testing in last year ranged from 28 to 73 %; attending peer educator talks ranged from 15 to 50 %; exposure to media campaigns varied by city and materials (e.g., lower for TV and radio, higher for printed materials). Consistent condom use with clients in last week was high (88-99 %) across all cities. The largest city, Yangon, lagged behind others in coverage of most programs. Such data are necessary for planning, targeting, and evaluating the prevention response for this key population disproportionately affected by HIV.
Church, Kathryn; Mayhew, Susannah H
The last comprehensive literature review to examine the effectiveness of family planning (FP) services in delivering STI and HIV prevention and care was published in 2000. This review updates that report by examining evidence of the impact of integrating any component of STI or HIV prevention, care, and treatment into a family planning setting in developing countries. Forty-four reports were identified from a comprehensive search of published databases and "grey literature". The weight of evidence demonstrates that integrated services can have a positive impact on client satisfaction, improve access to component services, and reduce clinic-based HIV-related stigma, and that they are cost-effective. Evidence of FP services reaching men and adolescents and of their impact on health outcomes is inconclusive. Several studies found that providers frequently miss opportunities to integrate care and that the capacity to maintain the quality of care is also influenced by many programmatic challenges. The range of experiences indicates that managers need to determine appropriate health-care service-delivery models based on a consideration of epidemiological, structural, and health-systems factors.
Tambo, Ernest; Yah, Clarence S; Ugwu, Chidiebere E; Olalubi, Oluwasogo A; Wurie, Isatta; Jonhson, Jeannetta K; Ngogang, Jeanne Y
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the re-emerging Ebola virus disease (EVD) are closely intertwined and remain a persistent public health threat and global challenge. Their origin and rapid transmission and spread have similar boundaries and share overlapping impact characteristics, including related symptoms and other interactions. The controversies and global threat of these viruses require rapid response policy and evidence-based implementation findings. The constraints and dual burden inflicted by Ebola and HIV infections are highly characterized by similar socio-demographics, socio-economic and political factors. EVD has similar effects and burdens to HIV infection. This study seeks to understand EVD in the context of HIV epidemic despite the challenges in developing an effective vaccine against HIV and EVD. Our findings show that early understanding, prevention and treatment of these diseases a global health threat mainly in Africa is important and valuable. The lessons learned so far from HIV and Ebola epidemics are crucial in health programming and execution of rapid response interventions and continued vigilance against EVD before it become another worldwide health menace. Therefore, the current regional West Africa EVD requires strengthening healthcare systems and building preparedness and response capacity. Importantly, appropriate community participation, health education and resilience coupled with deployment of effective novel diagnostic approaches in early warning and surveillance of threats and emerging diseases. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel key strategies are crucial in curbing the constant viral resurgence, persistence transmission dynamics and spread, as well in accelerating Ebola vaccines regimen (immunization) development and national implementation plans in achieving sustained control, and eventual elimination.
Neumann, Mary Spink; Finlayson, Teresa J; Pitts, Nicole L; Keatley, JoAnne
Transgender persons are at high risk for HIV infection, but prevention efforts specifically targeting these people have been minimal. Part of the challenge of HIV prevention for transgender populations is that numerous individual, interpersonal, social, and structural factors contribute to their risk. By combining HIV prevention services with complementary medical, legal, and psychosocial services, transgender persons' HIV risk behaviors, risk determinants, and overall health can be affected simultaneously. For maximum health impact, comprehensive HIV prevention for transgender persons warrants efforts targeted to various impact levels-socioeconomic factors, decision-making contexts, long-lasting protections, clinical interventions, and counseling and education. We present current HIV prevention efforts that reach transgender persons and present others for future consideration.
Ambia, Julie; Mandala, Justin
Introduction The success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) is dependent upon high retention of mother-infant pairs within these programmes. This is a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions that aim to improve PMTCT service delivery and promote retention throughout the PMTCT steps. Methods Selected databases were searched for studies published in English (up to September 2015). Outcomes of interest included antiretroviral (ARV) drugs or antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among HIV-positive pregnant and/or breastfeeding women and their infants, retention into PMTCT programs, the uptake of early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV and infant HIV status. Risk ratios and random-effect meta-analysis were used in the analysis. Results Interventions assessed in the 34 identified studies included male partner involvement in PMTCT, peer mentoring, the use of community health workers (CHWs), mobile phone-based reminders, conditional cash transfer, training of midwives, integration of PMTCT services and enhanced referral. Five studies (two randomized) that evaluated mobile phone-based interventions showed a statistically significant increase (pooled RR 1.18; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.32, I2=83%) in uptake of EID of HIV at around six weeks postpartum. Male partner involvement in PMTCT was associated with reductions in infant HIV transmission (pooled RR 0.61; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.94, I2=0%) in four studies (one randomized). Four studies (three randomized) that were grounded on psychological interventions reported non-significant results (pooled RR 1.01; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.09, I2=69%) in increasing ARV/ART uptake among HIV-positive pregnant and/or breastfeeding women and infant HIV testing (pooled RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.07, I2=45%). The effect of the other interventions on the effectiveness of improving PMTCT uptake was unclear. Heterogeneity of interventions limits these findings. Conclusions Our findings indicate that mobile phone
Background Male Involvement (MI) in the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) services is essential in a patriarchal society where men are decision makers of the household. Male partners have a role in the woman’s risk of acquiring HIV, uptake of HIV testing and participation in Mother to Child Transmission (MTCT) prevention programmes. Although MI is important for uptake of PMTCT interventions, it remains low in Africa. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that promote and hinder MI in PMTCT services in antenatal care (ANC) services in Blantyre, Malawi. Understanding of the factors that influence MI will assist in developing strategies that will involve men more in the programme thereby improving the uptake of PMTCT and HIV testing and counselling services by women and men respectively. Methods An exploratory qualitative study was conducted from December 2012 to January 2013 at South Lunzu Health Centre (SLHC) in Blantyre, Malawi. It consisted of six face to face Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) with health care workers and four Focus Group discussions (FGDs) with 18 men and 17 pregnant women attending antenatal care at the clinic. The FGDs were divided according to sex and age. All FGDs and KIIs were digitally recorded and simultaneously transcribed and translated verbatim into English. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results Participants in both FGDs and KIIs identified the following barriers: lack of knowledge of MI in PMTCT, socioeconomic factors, relationship issues, timidity to be seen in a woman’s domain, unplanned and or extramarital pregnancies, fear of knowing one's HIV status, unwillingness to be associated with the service, health facility based factors, peer influence and cultural factors. The factors that would potentially promote male involvement were categorized into community, health facility and personal or family level factors. Conclusions The factors that may
Guidry, John A; Lubetkin, Erica; Corner, Geoffrey; Lord-Bessen, Jennifer; Kornegay, Mark; Burkhalter, Jack E
Community-based organizations (CBOs) serving persons living with HIV or AIDS face the challenge of an aging population with more chronic diseases. This study assessed cancer programming needs of AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut by conducting a community needs assessment. Sixty (58%) of 103 organizations completed the survey. ASOs conduct activities most related to early steps along the cancer care continuum, but they also express great interest in expanding cancer-focused programming into new areas. ASOs have resources or capacities in assisting HIV+ clients with mental health or substance abuse problems, but there exists a need for funding in undertaking or expanding cancer-focused programs. ASOs are receptive to collaborating with researchers on disseminating cancer prevention and control knowledge in their settings. Community-academic research partnerships enable resonant training and technical assistance methods to be explored that will enhance the abilities of ASOs to bring cancer-related programming to their clients.
Scheim, Ayden I; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Arreola, Sonya; Makofane, Keletso; Do, Tri D; Hebert, Patrick; Thomann, Matthew; Ayala, George
Introduction Free or low-cost HIV testing, condoms, and lubricants are foundational HIV prevention strategies, yet are often inaccessible for men who have sex with men (MSM). In the global context of stigma and poor healthcare access, transgender (trans) MSM may face additional barriers to HIV prevention services. Drawing on data from a global survey of MSM, we aimed to describe perceived access to prevention services among trans MSM, examine associations between stigma and access, and compare access between trans MSM and cisgender (non-transgender) MSM. Methods The 2014 Global Men's Health and Rights online survey was open to MSM (inclusive of trans MSM) from any country and available in seven languages. Baseline data (n=3857) were collected from July to October 2014. Among trans MSM, correlations were calculated between perceived service accessibility and anti-transgender violence, healthcare provider stigma, and discrimination. Using a nested matched-pair study design, trans MSM were matched 4:1 to cisgender MSM on age group, region, and HIV status, and conditional logistic regression models compared perceived access to prevention services by transgender status. Results About 3.4% of respondents were trans men, of whom 69 were included in the present analysis. The average trans MSM participant was 26 to 35 years old (56.5%); lived in western Europe, North America, or Oceania (75.4%); and reported being HIV-negative (98.6%). HIV testing, condoms, and lubricants were accessible for 43.5, 53.6, and 26.1% of trans MSM, respectively. Ever having been arrested or convicted due to being trans and higher exposure to healthcare provider stigma in the past six months were associated with less access to some prevention services. Compared to matched cisgender controls, trans MSM reported significantly lower odds of perceived access to HIV testing (OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.33, 0.98) and condom-compatible lubricants (OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.30, 0.98). Conclusions This first look at access
Background The coverage and uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services has remained very low in Ethiopia. One of the pillars of improving quality of health services is measuring and addressing client satisfaction. In Ethiopia, information about the quality of PMTCT services regarding client satisfaction is meager. Methods A facility-based cross-sectional study using quantitative methods was conducted in Adama town. We interviewed 423 pregnant women and 31 health providers from eight health facilities. Satisfaction of clients was measured using a standard questionnaire adapted from the UNAIDS best practices collection on HIV/AIDS. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with clients’ satisfaction. Results About three-fourth (74.7%) of clients reported that they were satisfied with the PMTCT services provided by the health facilities. However, a much lower proportion (39%) of the total respondents (pregnant women who underwent an ANC follow-up session), said they received and understood the messages related to mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV and PMTCT. The main challenges reported by service providers were lack of training, lack of feedback on job performance and inadequate pay. Clients’ satisfaction with PMTCT service was found to be associated with liking the discussion they had with their counselor, non-preference to a different counselor with regards to sex and/or age and not seeing the same ANC counselor before and after HIV test. Conclusion Although 74.7% of clients were satisfied, the majority did not have a good understanding of the counseling on MTCT and PMTCT. We recommend more efforts to be exerted on improving provider-client communication, devising ways of increasing clients’ satisfaction and designing an effective motivation strategy for service providers to enhance the status of PMTCT services. PMID:24484774
Reback, Cathy J.; Ferlito, Dahlia; Kisler, Kimberly A.; Fletcher, Jesse B.
Despite disproportionately high HIV prevalence rates and high risk for HIV acquisition and transmission, trans women in the United States are less likely than other high-risk populations to be aware of their HIV status or to perceive HIV infection as a serious health threat. Furthermore, concurrently high rates of unstable housing, few legal employment opportunities, lack of social support, and distrust of social service providers limit trans women's interest or ability to be recruited by, retained within, or linked into HIV prevention and care services. This article provides an overview of the barriers that prevent many high-risk trans women from being recruited, linked, and retained within HIV prevention and care services as well as accessing HIV testing services, and discusses several strategies for overcoming these barriers. Best practices in working with high-risk trans women include hiring trans women indigenous to the local trans communities, designing culturally specific recruitment and retention strategies including the creation of living “community maps” to ensure successful community outreach, the construction of a trans women-specific CAB to create dialogue with community stakeholders including consumers, and extensive cultural sensitivity training for staff and community collaborators to sensitize them to the specific needs of high-risk trans women participants. PMID:27110227
Dejong, W; Wolf, R C; Austin, S B
This article reports a content analysis of 56 English-language public service announcements (PSAs) for HIV/AIDS prevention produced since 1987 by the U.S. federal government for television broadcast. These PSAs do not lead target audiences through a logical sequence from awareness to motivation, skill building, and maintenance. The PSAs underutilize a strategy of "strategic ambiguity" to craft individual PSAs that can address the needs of and appeal to multiple target audiences, thereby directing information not only to heterosexuals, the primary target of these PSAs, but also to homosexuals and bisexuals. The PSAs largely ignore issues related to injection drug use and needle sharing. What drug-related portrayals there are focus on African American street junkies, which perpetuates racial stereotypes and fails to address occasional injection drug use. The PSAs exploit fear of HIV/AIDS to discourage drug use but do not offer drug treatment or counseling information. PSAs produced by the Clinton administration to promote condom use do not fully address key reasons why people fail to use condoms: concern about sexual pleasure, embarrassment about obtaining condoms, and lack of skills to negotiate condom use with sexual partners. Implications of these conclusions for the future of U.S. HIV/AIDS prevention are discussed.
Landis, R. Clive; Carmichael-Simmons, Kelly; Hambleton, Ian R.; Best, Anton
Objective Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL) offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU) Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service. Methods Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama). VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples. Results A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2%) mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001). Conclusion We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network. PMID:25923741
Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Opuni, Marjorie; Contreras-Loya, David; Kwan, Ada; Chaumont, Claire; Chompolola, Abson; Condo, Jeanine; Galárraga, Omar; Martinson, Neil; Masiye, Felix; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Ochoa-Moreno, Ivan; Wamai, Richard; Wang’ombe, Joseph
Objective: We estimate facility-level average annual costs per client along the HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) service cascades. Design: Data collected covered the period 2011–2012 in 230 HTC and 212 PMTCT facilities in Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, and Zambia. Methods: Input quantities and unit prices were collected, as were output data. Annual economic costs were estimated from the service providers’ perspective using micro-costing. Average annual costs per client in 2013 United States dollars (US$) were estimated along the service cascades. Results: For HTC, average cost per client tested ranged from US$5 (SD US$7) in Rwanda to US$31 (SD US$24) in South Africa, whereas average cost per client diagnosed as HIV-positive ranged from US$122 (SD US$119) in Zambia to US$1367 (SD US$2093) in Rwanda. For PMTCT, average cost per client tested ranged from US$18 (SD US$20) in Rwanda to US$89 (SD US$56) in South Africa; average cost per client diagnosed as HIV-positive ranged from US$567 (SD US$417) in Zambia to US$2021 (SD US$3210) in Rwanda; average cost per client on antiretroviral prophylaxis ranged from US$704 (SD US$610) in South Africa to US$2314 (SD US$3204) in Rwanda; and average cost per infant on nevirapine ranged from US$888 (SD US$884) in South Africa to US$2359 (SD US$3257) in Rwanda. Conclusion: We found important differences in unit costs along the HTC and PMTCT service cascades within and between countries suggesting that more efficient delivery of these services is possible. PMID:27753679
Henley, Catherine; Forgwei, Gideon; Welty, Thomas; Golden, Matthew; Adimora, Adaora; Shields, Raymond; Muffih, Pius Tih
Background Partner services (PSs) are a long-standing component of HIV control programs in the United States and some parts of Europe. Small randomized trials suggest that HIV PS can be effective in identifying persons with undiagnosed HIV infection. However, the scalability and effectiveness of HIV PS in low-income countries are unknown. Methods We used data collected from 2009 to 2010 through a large HIV PS program in Cameroon to evaluate HIV PS in a developing country. HIV-positive index cases diagnosed in antenatal care, voluntary counseling and testing, and inpatient facilities were interviewed to collect information on their sexual partners. Partners were contacted via telephone or home visit to notify, test, and enroll those found to be HIV positive in medical care. Results Health advisors interviewed 1462 persons with HIV infection during the evaluation period; these persons provided information about 1607 sexual partners. Health advisors notified 1347 (83.8%) of these partners, of whom 900 (66.8%) were HIV tested. Of partners tested, 451 (50.1%) were HIV positive, of whom 386 (85.6%) enrolled into HIV medical care. An average 3.2 index cases needed to be interviewed to identify 1 HIV case. Conclusions HIV PS can be successfully implemented in a developing country and is highly effective in identifying persons with HIV infection and linking them to care. PMID:24220349
Expansion of HIV testing and ART treatment are core strategies for achieving the ambitious global goal of ending the HIV epidemic by the end of 2030, and achieving the "90-90-90" target by 2020. In China, great progress in HIV control and prevention has been made; however, there is room to enhance the effectiveness of HIV-related strategies. In addition, some implemented strategies have not achieved their expected output. To confront the challenge of sexual transmission of HIV, which is the main route of transmission in China, more targeted HIV prevention strategies that lead to their expected outcomes are essential. It is important to strengthen existing strategies that have been proved effective. However, it is also critical to create innovative strategies, and there are five approaches to achieve this. First, a holistic perspective should be adopted, to better understand the current situation and problems. This means intervention strategies should give serious consideration of how to meet the sociocultural needs of target populations rather than merely carry out behavioral interventions. Second, community-based HIV prevention settings should have more important roles in providing HIV-related health care services. Moreover, to improve the effectiveness of these strategies, a problem-led working style should be integrated into HIV prevention measures overall. Third, thoroughly analyzing characteristics of the current HIV epidemic using more evidence-based considerations must be undertaken, to better control HIV sexual transmission. Fourth, continued improvement of AIDS prevention and control mechanisms is needed, to ensure their sustainable development. Last, it is necessary to involve more NGOs in HIV prevention work by strengthening their management and working capacities to provide HIV-related services. Also needed is further improvement in both technical and management capacities, so as to build a stable basis for effective response.
Hsieh, Amy; Rodrigues, Jessica; Skovdal, Morten; Melillo, Sara; Walker, Damilola
Accelerated efforts to end vertical HIV transmission have resulted in a 52% decrease in new infections among children since 2001. However, current approaches to prevent mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) assume a linearity and universality. These insufficiently guide clinicians and programmes toward interventions that comprehensively address the varying and changing needs of clients. This results in high levels of loss-to-follow-up at each step of the PMTCT cascade. Current PMTCT approaches must be adapted to respond to the different and complex realities of women, children and families affected by HIV. Drawing on the concept of an 'HIV trajectories,' we screened peer-reviewed literature for promising PMTCT approaches and selected 13 articles for qualitative review when the described intervention involved more than a biomedical approach to PMTCT and mother-child HIV treatment and care. Our qualitative analysis revealed that interventions which integrated elements of the 'HIV trajectories' perspective and built on people living with HIV support/network, community health worker, primary healthcare and early childhood development platforms were successful because they recognized that HIV is an illness, experienced, moderated and managed by numerous factors beyond biomedical interventions alone.On the basis of this review, we call for the adoption of an 'HIV trajectories' perspective that can help assess the comprehensiveness of care provided to women, children and families affected by HIV and can inform the planning and delivery of HIV and related services so that they more adequately respond to the varying needs of clients on different 'HIV trajectories'.
Journal of School Health, 1994
Examines issues in preventing further Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among adolescents, highlighting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, substance use, adolescent development, cultural and language diversity, health and social service needs, socioeconomic contexts, and role of media, school, and youth-serving organizations.…
Kaplan, Jonathan E; Masur, Henry; Holmes, King K
In 1995, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) developed guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections (OIs) among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); these guidelines were updated in 1997 and 1999. This fourth edition of the guidelines, made available on the Internet in 2001, is intended for clinicians and other health-care providers who care for HIV-infected persons. The goal of these guidelines is to provide evidence-based guidelines for preventing OIs among HIV-infected adults and adolescents, including pregnant women, and HIV-exposed or infected children. Nineteen OIs, or groups of OIs, are addressed, and recommendations are included for preventing exposure to opportunistic pathogens, preventing first episodes of disease by chemoprophylaxis or vaccination (primary prophylaxis), and preventing disease recurrence (secondary prophylaxis). Major changes since the last edition of the guidelines include 1) updated recommendations for discontinuing primary and secondary OI prophylaxis among persons whose CD4+ T lymphocyte counts have increased in response to antiretroviral therapy; 2) emphasis on screening all HIV-infected persons for infection with hepatitis C virus; 3) new information regarding transmission of human herpesvirus 8 infection; 4) new information regarding drug interactions, chiefly related to rifamycins and antiretroviral drugs; and 5) revised recommendations for immunizing HIV-infected adults and adolescents and HIV-exposed or infected children.
Masur, Henry; Kaplan, Jonathan E; Holmes, King K
In 1995, the U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) developed guidelines for preventing opportunistic infections (OIs) among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); these guidelines were updated in 1997 and 1999. This fourth edition of the guidelines, made available on the Internet in 2001, is intended for clinicians and other health-care providers who care for HIV-infected persons. The goal of these guidelines is to provide evidence-based guidelines for preventing OIs among HIV-infected adults and adolescents, including pregnant women, and HIV-exposed or infected children. Nineteen OIs, or groups of OIs, are addressed, and recommendations are included for preventing exposure to opportunistic pathogens, preventing first episodes of disease by chemoprophylaxis or vaccination (primary prophylaxis), and preventing disease recurrence (secondary prophylaxis). Major changes since the last edition of the guidelines include 1) updated recommendations for discontinuing primary and secondary OI prophylaxis among persons whose CD4+ T lymphocyte counts have increased in response to antiretroviral therapy; 2) emphasis on screening all HIV-infected persons for infection with hepatitis C virus; 3) new information regarding transmission of human herpesvirus 8 infection; 4) new information regarding drug interactions, chiefly related to rifamycins and antiretroviral drugs; and 5) revised recommendations for immunizing HIV-infected adults and adolescents and HIV-exposed or infected children.
Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Kubicek, Katrina; Supan, Jocelyn; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D.
African-American young men who have sex with men and transgender persons are at elevated risk for HIV infection. House and Ball communities, networks of mostly African-American gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals who compete in modeling and dance, represent a prime venue for HIV prevention with these difficult-to-reach populations; however,…
Background Male involvement (MI) in Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) services remains low despite the progress registered in the implementation of the PMTCT program. Male involvement in PMTCT is a fairly new concept in Malawi that has not been fully implemented within PMTCT service provision despite its inclusion in the PMTCT guidelines. One of the reasons for the limited MI is the lack of knowledge on both its relevance and the role of men in the program. Currently, men have been encouraged to participate in PMTCT services without prior research on their understanding of the relevance and their role in PMTCT. This information is vital to the development of programs that will require MI in PMTCT. The objective of this study was to explore the views of men, pregnant women and health care providers on the importance and roles of MI in PMTCT services in Blantyre Malawi. Methods An exploratory descriptive qualitative study was conducted from December 2012 to January 2013 at South Lunzu Health Centre (SLHC) and its catchment area in Blantyre, Malawi. We conducted 6 key informant interviews (KIIs) with health care workers and 4 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 18 men and 17 pregnant women. Interviews and discussions were digitally recorded and simultaneously transcribed and translated into English. Data were analyzed using framework analysis approach. Results The major themes that emerged on the relevance of MI in PMTCT were a) uptake of interventions along the PMTCT cascade b) support mechanism and c) education strategy. Lack of MI in PMTCT was reported to result into non-disclosure of HIV test results and non-compliance with PMTCT interventions. Conclusions Male involvement is paramount for the uptake of interventions at the different cascades of PMTCT. The absence of male involvement may compromise compliance with PMTCT interventions. PMID:25359447
Alemnji, George; Fonjungo, Peter; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Peter, Trevor; Kantor, Rami; Nkengasong, John
Strong laboratory services and systems are critical for delivering timely and quality health services that are vital to reduce patient attrition in the HIV treatment and prevention cascade. However, challenges exist in ensuring effective laboratory health systems strengthening and linkages. In particular, linkages and referrals between laboratory testing and other services need to be considered in the context of an integrated health system that includes prevention, treatment, and strategic information. Key components of laboratory health systems that are essential for effective linkages include an adequate workforce, appropriate point-of-care (POC) technology, available financing, supply chain management systems, and quality systems improvement, including accreditation. In this review, we highlight weaknesses of and gaps between laboratory testing and other program services. We propose a model for strengthening these systems to ensure effective linkages of laboratory services for improved access and retention in care of HIV/AIDS patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.
ANUGWOM, Edlyne; ANUGWOM, Kenechukwu
Background: The South-southern zone of Nigeria is one of the zones in the country that has reported consistent high prevalent rates of HIV/AIDS pandemic in the last decade. In spite of bio-medical reasons adduced for the spread of the pandemic, socio-cultural factors may be major issues in the access to both prevention and treatment services especially for women. Hence, this study investigated the socio-cultural factors, which influence the access of women to HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment services in Nigeria. Methods: We utilised the social survey viz. the unstructured interviews and the focus group discussions (FGDs) as methods for collecting data. Results: Socio-cultural norms, stereotypes and expectations still influence the access of women to these services. Such socio-cultural barriers are not significantly reduced by urbanization and the deadly threat of the epidemic. These socio-cultural variables, which impede the access of women to these services, are webbed around the dominant narratives of male superiority and the immorality culturally ascribed to women who openly discuss safe sex or seek prevention devices like the condom. Conclusion: There is need for more emphasis on gender equality in sexuality and for HIV/AIDS programme planners and policy makers to think and act outside the box of the narratives of male superiority sponsored by socio-cultural norms in addressing the peculiar challenges of women in accessing HIV/AIDS services. PMID:27648418
OKALL, DANCUN O.; ONDENGE, KEN; NYAMBURA, MONICAH; OTIENO, FREDRICK O.; HARDNETT, FELICIA; TURNER, KYLE; MILLS, LISA A.; MASINYA, KENNEDY; CHEN, ROBERT T.; GUST, DEBORAH A.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a crucial and marginalized at risk population for HIV in Africa but are poorly studied. Like other areas of Africa, homosexuality is illegal in Kenya. We assessed MSM comfort in accessing health services and willingness to participate in HIV prevention research in Kisumu, Kenya—an area of high HIV prevalence. We conducted a two-phase formative study with individual interviews (n = 15) and a structured survey (n = 51). Peer contact or snowball method (n = 43, 84.3%) was the primary recruitment strategy used to locate MSM. Exact logistic regression models were used for survey data analysis. Over 60% (32/51) of survey participants were not very comfortable seeking health services from a public hospital. Almost all MSM (49/51; 96.1%) reported willingness to be contacted to participate in future HIV research studies. Efforts to provide facilities that offer safe and confidential health services and health education for MSM is required. Continued community engagement with the MSM population in Kenya is needed to guide best practices for involving them in HIV prevention research. PMID:25089554
Marum, Elizabeth; Conkling, Martha; Kanyanda, Jabez; Gandi, Sheila Birungi; Byaruhanga, Raymond; Alwano, Mary Grace
HIV testing services (HTS) are an essential component of a national response to the HIV epidemic, and in lower and middle income countries, at least 150 million persons are tested annually. HIV testing is necessary to identify persons in need of antiretroviral treatment, which has been documented to be highly effective not only for treatment but also for prevention of HIV transmission to both adults and children. An assessment of the recent literature on sustainability of health and HIV services suggests that organizational performance, flexibility, and integration with other health interventions contribute to sustainability of HIV services and programs. This article describes the experiences of two HIV testing service providers in Uganda and Zambia as well as the track record of services to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission to illustrate the factors of performance, flexibility, adaptability, and integration which are key to the sustainability of HIV testing services.
Semugoma, Paul; Beyrer, Chris; Baral, Stefan
Uganda's response to the HIV epidemic has been lauded for its robustness and achievements. However, a key component of HIV prevention programming has been missing, for men who have sex with men (MSM). The main reason cited has been criminalization of male homosexual behavior. In 2009, the Anti-Homosexuality Bill (AHB) was introduced in the parliament to enhance existing anti-homosexuality law. A multi-disciplinary team made a Health Impact Assessment of the proposed AHB. The bill as tabled would severely increase punishments, increased closeting. Social capital of MSM would be eroded by clauses mandating reporting by friends, relatives, and acquaintances. Health-care professionals would have to inform on homosexuals. Mandatory HIV testing would be a blow to programming. Probable disclosure of HIV status in a public space (court) would also be a deterrent. Heftier punishments for those testing positive increases stigma and hobbles subsequent care. The AHB argues for exclusion, and more discrimination targeting persons living with HIV and sexual minorities. It will exacerbate the negative public health consequences of the existing legislation. The government of Uganda should review guidance documents published by authoritative bodies including the World Bank, World Health Organization to develop and bring to scale Human rights-affirming HIV prevention, treatment, and care responses.
Background There is a huge interest by faith-based organizations (FBOs) in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere in HIV prevention interventions that build on the religious aspects of being. Successful partnerships between the public health services and FBOs will require a better understanding of the conceptual framing of HIV prevention by FBOS to access for prevention intervention, those concepts the churches of various denominations and their members would support or endorse. This study investigated the conceptual framing of HIV prevention among church youths in Botswana; - a country with one of the highest HIV prevalence in the world. Method Participants were 213 Pentecostal church members (67% female; age range 12 to 23 years; median age = 19 years). We engaged the participants in a mixed-method inductive process to collect data on their implicit framing of HIV prevention concepts, taking into account the centrality of religion concepts to them and the moderating influences of age, gender and sexual experience. After, we analysed the data using multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) to map the ways the church youths framed HIV prevention. Results The findings suggest the church youth to conceptually frame their HIV prevention from both faith-oriented and secular-oriented perspectives, while prioritizing the faith-oriented concepts based on biblical teachings and future focus. In their secular-oriented framing of HIV prevention, the church youths endorsed the importance to learn the facts about HIV and AIDS, understanding of community norms that increased risk for HIV and prevention education. However, components of secular-oriented framing of HIV prevention concepts were comparatively less was well differentiated among the youths than with faith-oriented framing, suggesting latent influences of the church knowledge environment to undervalue secular oriented concepts. Older and sexually experienced church youths in their framing
Bockting, W O; Robinson, B E; Rosser, B R
Although clinical experience and preliminary research suggest that some transgender people are at significant risk for HIV, this stigmatized group has so far been largely ignored in HIV prevention. As part of the development of HIV prevention education targeting the transgender population, focus groups of selected transgender individuals assessed their HIV risks and prevention needs. Data were gathered in the following four areas: (1) the impact of HIV/AIDS on transgender persons; (2) risk factors; (3) information and services needed; and (4) recruitment strategies. Findings indicated that HIV/AIDS compounds stigmatization related to transgender identity, interferes with sexual experimentation during the transgender 'coming out' process, and may interfere with obtaining sex reassignment. Identified transgender-specific risk factors include: sexual identity conflict, shame and isolation, secrecy, search for affirmation, compulsive sexual behaviour, prostitution, and sharing needles while injecting hormones. Community involvement, peer education and affirmation of transgender identity were stressed as integral components of a successful intervention. Education of health professionals about transgender identity and sexuality and support groups for transgender people with HIV/AIDS are urgently needed.
Dai, Zhenzhen; Zhong, Xiaoni; Peng, Bin; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Hao; Peng, HongBin; Zhong, Xiao Hua; Liu, Xiyao; Huang, Ailong
This paper looks into the differences of sexual risk behaviours and prevention services among men who have sex with men and women and men who have sex with men only. The data from a cross-sectional survey of 159 men who have sex with men and women and 1186 men who have sex with men only in western China is analysed. It is found that men who have sex with men and women, with multiple anal sex partners, have higher rates of selling and buying sex than men who have sex with men only, but obtain less HIV-related knowledge from partners or HIV consulting and testing services. More efforts should be made to promote safer sexual behaviours and reduce the barriers for access to health services.
Hamela, Gloria; Kabondo, Charity; Tembo, Tapiwa; Zimba, Chifundo; Kamanga, Esmie; Mofolo, Innocent; Bulla, Bertha; Sellers, Christopher; Nakanga, R C; Lee, Clara; Martinson, Francis; Hoffman, Irving; van der Horst, Charles; Hosseinipour, Mina C
The objective of our intervention was to examine the benefits of incorporating traditional birth attendants (TBA) in HIV Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) service delivery. We developed a training curriculum for TBAs related to PMTCT and current TBA roles in Malawi. Fourteen TBAs and seven TBA assistants serving 4 urban health centre catchment areas were assessed, trained and supervised. Focus group discussions with the TBAs were conducted after implementation of the program. From March 2008 to August 2009, a total of 4017 pregnant women visited TBAs, out of which 2133 (53.1%) were directly referred to health facilities and 1,884 (46.9%) women delivered at TBAs and subsequently referred. 168 HIV positive women were identified by TBAs. Of these, 86/168 (51.2%) women received nevirapine and 46/168 (27.4%) HIV exposed infants received nevirapine. The challenges in providing PMTCT services included lack of transportation for referrals and absence of a reporting system to confirm the woman's arrival at the health center. Non-disclosure of HIV status by patients to the TBAs resulted in inability to assist nevirapine uptake. TBAs, when trained and well-supervised, can supplement efforts to provide PMTCT services in communities.
Haase, Ashley T
In this introductory essay on the landscape of HIV prevention, my intent is to provide context for the subsequent topics discussed at the Symposium on Hormone Regulation of the Mucosal Environment in the female reproductive tract (FRT) and the Prevention of HIV infection: FRT immunity, mucosal microenvironment and HIV prevention, and the risk and impact of hormonal contraceptives on HIV transmission.
Gupta, G R
The Women and AIDS Research Program (International Center for Research on Women) has identified a series of obstacles to preventing HIV infection among women, including social norms that mandate female ignorance about sexual matters, women's economic dependence on men, widespread acceptance of male promiscuity, and violence against women. Most AIDS prevention programs fail to challenge these contextual determinants and continue to focus on the promotion of condom use among men. Recommendations to empower women and improve their status are dismissed as long-term measures outside the domain of AIDS prevention. Feasible, however, is the modification of existing AIDS prevention programs to ensure they are gender-sensitive. This would mean measures such as providing services at times that are convenient to women and integrating services to reduce waiting and travelling times. To address the contextual issues at the root of women's vulnerability to HIV, AIDS prevention programs can link up with economic interventions such as credit programs, agricultural extension services, and women's cooperatives. Moreover, AIDS programs can provide HIV-infected women with social support through group educational sessions or counseling. Finally, because improvements in women's socioeconomic status are essential for the success of all AIDS prevention, program managers should be in the forefront of broader struggles to enact policy changes to eliminate gender-based discrimination and inequality.
... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... prevent a lapse in comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will...
Gilson, L; Mkanje, R; Grosskurth, H; Mosha, F; Picard, J; Gavyole, A; Todd, J; Mayaud, P; Swai, R; Fransen, L; Mabey, D; Mills, A; Hayes, R
Improved management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is consistently advocated as an effective strategy for HIV prevention. The impact, cost, and cost-effectiveness of this approach were evaluated in a prospective, comparative study of six communities in Tanzania's Mwanza Region in which primary health care center workers were trained to provide improved STD treatment and six matched non-intervention communities. The baseline prevalence of HIV was 4% in both groups. During the 2-year study period, 11,632 cases of STDs were treated in the intervention health units. The HIV seroconversion rate was 1.16% in the intervention communities and 1.86% in the comparison communities--a difference in HIV incidence of 0.70 (95% confidence interval, 0.37-1.09) and a reduction of about 40%. The total annual cost of the intervention was US$59,060 ($0.39 per person served). The cost of STD treatment was $10.15 per case. An estimated 252 HIV-1 infections were averted each year. The incremental annual cost of the program was $54,839, equivalent to $217.62 per HIV infection averted and $10.33 per disability-adjusted-life-year (DALY) saved. The estimated cost-effectiveness compares favorably with that of childhood immunization programs ($12-17 per DALY saved) and could be further enhanced through implementation of the intervention on a wider scale. The intervention subsequently has been expanded to encompass 65 health units in Mwanza Region, with no increase in investment costs.
Conner, Ross F; Takahashi, Lois; Ortiz, Eloy; Archuleta, Eduardo; Muniz, Juan; Rodriguez, Julio
Community-researcher partnerships can be powerful mechanisms to understand and effectively address health and social problems such as HIV/AIDS prevention. When the partnership is a positive, productive one, the combined expertise and energy of both parties result in a more effective program and a better evaluation of its effects. This article describes one such partnership and how a program challenge provided the opportunity for both partners to develop new capacities and strengthen others. The program is Proyecto SOLAAR, a community-based and culturally-sensitive HIV prevention program for gay and bisexual Latino men. The program is an experiential, daylong retreat focused on personal aspects of the men (e.g., self-concept), ideas about and aspects of their relationship behavior (e.g., cultural misunderstandings, dating behavior), and HIV prevention; there is a follow-up reunion a month later to share experiences with other participants about new dating and HIV prevention behaviors. The article focuses in particular on how the partners built new capacity in the area of social marketing to address the challenge of participant recruitment and describes the components of the new campaign. These components included distinctive images in ads in publications read by the target population, a toll-free telephone number and Web site for easy initial contact with the program, phone cards and postcards featuring the specially created program image to reinforce a connection to the program, and other aspects. The article describes the partnership between the HIV service providers and the researchers and how the collaborative effort was key to understanding and addressing the recruitment problem, identifying potential solutions, and implementing the new social marketing strategy. This process resulted in four kinds of capacities that were built or strengthened, including program recruitment, program content and implementation, program evaluation, and the partnership itself. The
Kuete, Martin; Yuan, HongFang; Tchoua Kemayou, Aude Laure; Songo, Emmanuel Ancel; Yang, Fan; Ma, XiuLan; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing
Background Integration of family planning services (FPS) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care for HIV-infected women is an important aspect of the global prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) strategy. We assessed the integration of FPS into routine care of HIV-infected mothers by evaluating the uptake and barriers of contraception and PMTCT services. Methods We conducted an interventional study using the interrupted time series approach in the health care facilities located in Yaounde, Cameroon. First, structured questionnaires related to family planning use, PMTCT services use, and infection risk of the sexual partner were administered to the first trimester pregnant women who were HIV infected and living with uninfected partners. Second, 2 weeks before the delivery date, the women were interviewed according to the prior counseling interventions received, in order to assess their behavior on FPS, antiretroviral therapy (ART) use, delivery option, and infant nourishment to be adopted. P-values below 0.05 were considered statistically significant in the statistical analyses. Results Of 94 HIV-infected women, 69% were stable couples. Only 13% of women had attended FPS before conception. Although the vast majority were knowledgeable about modern and traditional contraception methods, only 19% had experienced effective contraceptive methods. However, 66% preferred condom use, 45% having three children still expressed a desire to conceive, while 44% reported abortions, 65% had tried to avoid the current pregnancy, and 12% of women were ART naïve. Several predictors such as education, abortion rate, unplanned pregnancies, and partners’ decision were associated with the nonuse of effective contraceptive methods. Moreover, barriers including sex inequity, lack of partner support, ART shortages, and lack of HIV viral load monitoring were prevalent among the participants (P=0.001). However FPS use, ART compliance, and safe options to PMTCT
Integrated prevention services for HIV infection, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis for persons who use drugs illicitly: summary guidance from CDC and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
This report summarizes current (as of 2011) guidelines or recommendations published by multiple agencies of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) for prevention and control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and tuberculosis (TB) for persons who use drugs illicitly. It also summarizes existing evidence of effectiveness for practices to support delivery of integrated prevention services. Implementing integrated services for prevention of HIV infection, viral hepatitis, STDs, and TB is intended to provide persons who use drugs illicitly with increased access to services, to improve timeliness of service delivery, and to increase effectiveness of efforts to prevent infectious diseases that share common risk factors, behaviors, and social determinants. This guidance is intended for use by decision makers (e.g., local and federal agencies and leaders and managers of prevention and treatment services), health-care providers, social service providers, and prevention and treatment support groups. Consolidated guidance can strengthen efforts of health-care providers and public health providers to prevent and treat infectious diseases and substance use and mental disorders, use resources efficiently, and improve health-care services and outcomes in persons who use drugs illicitly. An integrated approach to service delivery for persons who use drugs incorporates recommended science-based public health strategies, including 1) prevention and treatment of substance use and mental disorders; 2) outreach programs; 3) risk assessment for illicit use of drugs; 4) risk assessment for infectious diseases; 5) screening, diagnosis, and counseling for infectious diseases; 6) vaccination; 7) prevention of mother-to-child transmission of infectious diseases; 8) interventions for reduction of risk behaviors; 9) partner services and contact follow-up; 10) referrals and linkage to care; 11) medical
Schuster, Roseanne C; McMahon, Devon E; Young, Sera L
Despite significant biomedical and policy advances, 199,000 infants and young children in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) became infected with HIV in 2013, indicating challenges to implementation of these advances. To understand the nature of these challenges, we sought to (1) characterize the barriers and facilitators that health workers encountered delivering prevention of vertical transmission of HIV (PVT) services in SSA and (2) evaluate the use of theory to guide PVT service delivery. The PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched using keywords barriers, facilitators, HIV, prevention of vertical transmission of HIV, health workers, and their synonyms to identify relevant studies. Barriers and facilitators were coded at ecological levels according to the Determinants of Performance framework. Factors in this framework were then classified as affecting motivation, opportunity, or ability, per the Motivation-Opportunity-Ability (MOA) framework in order to evaluate domains of health worker performance within each ecological level. We found that the most frequently reported challenges occurred within the health facility level and spanned all three MOA domains. Barriers reported in 30% or more of studies from most proximal to distal included those affecting health worker motivation (stress, burnout, depression), patient opportunity (stigma), work opportunity (poor referral systems), health facility opportunity (overburdened workload, lack of supplies), and health facility ability (inadequate PVT training, inconsistent breastfeeding messages). Facilitators were reported in lower frequencies than barriers and tended to be resolutions to challenges (e.g., quality supervision, consistent supplies) or responses to an intervention (e.g., record systems and infrastructure improvements). The majority of studies did not use theory to guide study design or implementation. Interventions addressing health workers' multiple ecological levels of interactions, particularly the health
Mujinja, Phares; Kilewo, Charles; Bärnighausen, Till; Orsini, Nicola; Manji, Karim; Biberfeld, Gunnel; Sando, David; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Ekström, Anna Mia
Background Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a major source of new HIV infections in children. Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) using lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV (Option B+) is the major strategy for eliminating paediatric HIV. Ensuring that patients are satisfied with PMTCT services is important for optimizing uptake, adherence and retention in treatment. Methods We conducted a facility based quantitative cross-sectional survey in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, between March and April 2014, when the country was transitioning to the implementation of PMTCT Option B+. We interviewed 595 pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV, who received PMTCT care in 36 public health facilities. Predictors of overall dissatisfaction with PMTCT services were identified using a multiple logistic regression. Results Overall 8% of the patients expressed dissatisfaction with PMTCT services. Patients who perceived health care workers (HCW) communication skills as poor, had a 5-fold (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.8–13.4) increased risk of dissatisfaction and those who perceived HCW capacity to understand client concerns as poor, had a 6-fold (OR 5.7, 95% CI 2.3–14.0) increased risk. Having a total visit time longer than two hours was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of being dissatisfied (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1–4.7). Every 30-minute increment in total visit time was associated with a 10% higher (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0–1.2) risk of being dissatisfied. The probability of being dissatisfied ranged from 4% (95% CI 2% - 6%) in the presence of patient-perceived good communication, good understanding of patient concerns, and a total visit time below two hours, to 70% (95% CI 47% - 86%) if HCW failed in all of these aspects. Conclusion Patient dissatisfaction with PMTCT services was generally low; reflecting that quality of care was maintained during Tanzania’s transition to Option B
Gasiorowicz, Mari; Llanas, Michelle R.; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Benotsch, Eric G.; Brondino, Michael J.; Catz, Sheryl L.; Hoxie, Neil J.; Reiser, William J.; Vergeront, James M.
Prevention case management (PCM) for HIV-infected persons is an HIV risk reduction intervention designed to assist clients who are aware of their HIV infection and who continue to engage in risk transmission behaviors. PCM combines individual risk reduction counseling with case management to address the psychosocial factors affecting HIV…
Coomes, Curtis M; Lewis, Megan A; Uhrig, Jennifer D; Furberg, Robert D; Harris, Jennie L; Bann, Carla M
The availability of effective antiretroviral therapy has altered HIV from being an acute disease to being a chronic, manageable condition for many people living with HIV (PLWH). Because of their ubiquity and flexibility, mobile phones with short message service (SMS) offer a unique opportunity to enhance treatment and prevention for people managing HIV. To date, very few US studies using SMS for HIV self-management have been published. In this article, we review the published SMS-based intervention research that aimed to improve healthcare quality and outcomes for PLWH and other chronic health conditions, and propose a conceptual model that integrates the communication functionality of SMS with important psychosocial factors that could mediate the impact of SMS on health outcomes. We posit that an SMS-based intervention that incorporates the elements of interactivity, frequency, timing, and tailoring of messages could be implemented to encourage greater medication adherence as well as impact other mutually reinforcing behaviors and factors (e.g., increasing patient involvement and social support, reducing risk behaviors, and promoting general health and well-being) to support better healthcare quality and clinical outcomes for PLWH. We recommend that future studies explore the potential linkages between variations in SMS characteristics and these mediating factors to determine if and how they influence the larger outcomes.
Laar, Amos Kankponang; Amankwa, Belynda; Asiedu, Charlotte
Background: Developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and partners, the correct adaptation and implementation of the global guidelines on prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is critical. This study explored the challenges that health workers face implementing WHO’s PMTCT guidelines, and the experiences of HIV-positive clients receiving these services. Methods: We interacted with 14 health professionals, and 16 PMTCT clients through in-depth interviews. Four of seven PMTCT sites within the Accra Metropolis were purposively included. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed, analyzed, and then sorted into themes. Results: Health workers had challenges translating PMTCT guidelines into useful messages for their clients. Their counselling was often prescriptive. Counselors identified inadequate in-service training as a key reason for their out-dated and inconsistent messages. HIV-positive clients exhibited general knowledge about the importance of doing exclusive breast-feeding for the first six months of life. Clients had confidence in antiretroviral for PMTCT. However, deeply rooted socio-cultural practices and the attitudes of counselors remain challenges to clients. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Counselors require refresher training which addresses, among other things, long-held socio-cultural practices. Publicizing these challenges will prod policy makers and program implementers to develop strategies that address the challenges both locally and globally. PMID:27621979
Barr, David; Odetoyinbo, Morolake; Mworeko, Lillian; Greenberg, Julia
HIV treatment and prevention strategies are life-long endeavours, requiring not only comprehensive, high-quality, consistent and equitable medical services but also appropriate political and cultural milieus to be effective. Communities directly affected by HIV offer a unique expertise and understanding in developing services to meet the needs of people seeking out and utilizing HIV treatment, prevention and support services. Through their organizations and networks, and through partnerships with health systems, these communities provide leadership, services and advocacy to ensure the delivery of high-quality, comprehensive services to meet the needs of diverse populations affected by HIV. This article describes integrated approaches to service delivery in which affected communities play a key role in the development and implementation of HIV programmes. Further scale-up of these approaches to care can improve overall quality, reduce stigma and discrimination, increase demand for services and improve retention in care.
Hoyte, Tamika; Purcell, David W.; Van Handel, Michelle; Williams, Weston; Krueger, Amy; Dietz, Patricia; Stratford, Dale; Heitgerd, Janet; Dunbar, Erica; Wan, Choi; Linley, Laurie A.; Flores, Stephen A.
Objective The Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning project was the first initiative of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to address the goals of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). Health departments in 12 U.S. cities with a high prevalence of AIDS conducted comprehensive program planning and implemented cost-effective, scalable HIV prevention interventions that targeted high-risk populations. We examined trends in health department HIV prevention programs in these cities during the project. Methods We analyzed the number of people who received partner services, condoms distributed, and people tested for HIV, as well as funding allocations for selected HIV prevention programs by year and by site from October 2010 through September 2013. We assessed trends in the proportional change in services and allocations during the project period using generalized estimating equations. We also conducted thematic coding of program activities that targeted people living with HIV infection (PLWH). Results We found significant increases in funding allocations for HIV testing and condom distribution. All HIV partner services indicators, condom distribution, and HIV testing of African American and Hispanic/Latino populations significantly increased. HIV tests associated with a new diagnosis increased significantly among those self-identifying as Hispanic/Latino but significantly decreased among African Americans. For programs targeting PLWH, health department activities included implementing new program models, improving local data use, and building local capacity to enhance linkage to HIV medical care, retention in care, and treatment adherence. Conclusions Overall, these findings indicate that health departments in areas with a high burden of AIDS successfully shifted their HIV prevention resources to scale up important HIV programs and make progress toward NHAS goals. PMID:26843685
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Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett
HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV testing behavior of homeless men. This study examined the association between individual (HIV risk) and structural (service access) factors and past year HIV testing. Participants were a representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men interviewed from meal programs in the Skid Row region of Los Angeles. Logistic regression examined the association between past year HIV testing and demographic characteristics, HIV risk behavior, and access to other services in the Skid Row area in the past 30 days. Despite high rates of past year HIV testing, study participants also reported high rates of HIV risk behavior, suggesting there is still significant unmet need for HIV prevention among homeless men. Having recently used medical/dental services in the Skid Row area (OR: 1.91; CI: 1.09, 3.35), and being a military veteran (OR: 2.10; CI: 1.01-4.37) were significantly associated with HIV testing service utilization. HIV testing was not associated with HIV risk behavior, but rather with access to services and veteran status, the latter of which prior research has linked to increased service access. We suggest that programs encouraging general medical service access may be important for disseminating HIV testing services to this high-risk, vulnerable population.
Scheibe, A; Drame, F M; Shannon, K
Sex work occurs to meet the demand for sexual services and is a universal phenomenon. In Africa sex work takes many forms and is an important source of income for many women. Yet sex worker reproductive health needs remain largely unmet. The criminalisation of sex work; community and service provider stigma; violence; substance use and limited access to health services and prevention commodities contribute to the high HIV burden evident among female sex workers in Africa. Following UNAIDS' three pillar approach to HIV prevention and sex work we present an overview of current opportunities, barriers and suggestions to improve HIV prevention policy and programming for sex work in Africa. Universal access to a comprehensive package of HIV services is the first pillar. Reproductive health commodities; voluntary and anonymous HIV counselling and testing; treatment of sexually transmitted infections, HIV and opportunistic infections; harm reduction for substance use and psychosocial support services make up the recommended package of services. The second pillar is a sex worker-supportive environment. The inclusion of sex worker programmes within national HIV strategic planning; sex worker-led community mobilisation and the establishment of sex work community networks (comprised of sex workers, health service providers, law enforcers and other stakeholders) enable effective programme implementation and are recommended. The reduction of sex worker vulnerability and addressing structural issues form the final pillar. The decriminalisation of sex work; development of supportive policy; gender equality and economic development are key factors that need to be addressed to increase sex worker resilience. Evidence supports the public health benefit of human rights based approaches to HIV prevention; moralistic and restrictive policy and laws towards sex work are harmful and should be removed. The establishment of these pillars will increase sex worker safety and enhance the
Taylor, Melanie M; Schillinger, Julia A; Furness, Bruce W; Brewer, Toye; Newman, Daniel R; Pathela, Preeti; Skinner, Julia; Braunstein, Sarah; Shepard, Colin; Ahmed, Tashrik; Griffin, Angelique; Blank, Susan; Peterman, Thomas A
: Persons living with HIV/AIDS who acquire new sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) pose a risk for enhanced transmission of both HIV and STDs. To describe the frequency of HIV coinfection among gonorrhea cases (GC), HIV and GC surveillance databases (2000-2008) were cross-matched in New York City (NYC), Washington, DC (DC), Miami/Dade County (MDC), and Arizona (AZ). During 2000-2008, 4.6% (9471/205,689) of reported GCs occurred among persons with previously diagnosed HIV: NYC (5.5%), DC (7.3%), MDC (4%), and AZ (2%). The overall HIV-GC coinfection rates increased over the study period in all 4 sites. Real-time data integration could allow for enhanced prevention among persons with HIV infection and acute STDs.
Flash, Charlene; Krakower, Douglas; Mayer, Kenneth H.
With an estimated 2.6 million new HIV infections diagnosed annually, the world needs new prevention strategies to partner with condom use, harm reduction approaches for injection drug users, and male circumcision. Antiretrovirals can reduce the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission and limit HIV acquisition after occupational exposure. Macaque models and clinical trials demonstrate efficacy of oral or topical antiretrovirals used prior to HIV exposure to prevent HIV transmission, ie pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Early initiation of effective HIV treatment in serodiscordant couples results in a 96% decrease in HIV transmission. HIV testing to determine serostatus and identify undiagnosed persons is foundational to these approaches. The relative efficacy of different approaches, adherence, cost and long-term safety will affect uptake and impact of these strategies. Ongoing research will help characterize the role for oral and topical formulations and help quantify potential benefits in sub-populations at risk for HIV acquisition. PMID:22351302
Poteat, Tonia; Wirtz, Andrea L; Radix, Anita; Borquez, Annick; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Deutsch, Madeline B; Khan, Sharful Islam; Winter, Sam; Operario, Don
Worldwide, transgender women who engage in sex work have a disproportionate risk for HIV compared with natal male and female sex workers. We reviewed recent epidemiological research on HIV in transgender women and show that transgender women sex workers (TSW) face unique structural, interpersonal, and individual vulnerabilities that contribute to risk for HIV. Only six studies of evidence-based prevention interventions were identified, none of which focused exclusively on TSW. We developed a deterministic model based on findings related to HIV risks and interventions. The model examines HIV prevention approaches in TSW in two settings (Lima, Peru and San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify which interventions would probably achieve the UN goal of 50% reduction in HIV incidence in 10 years. A combination of interventions that achieves small changes in behaviour and low coverage of biomedical interventions was promising in both settings, suggesting that the expansion of prevention services in TSW would be highly effective. However, this expansion needs appropriate sustainable interventions to tackle the upstream drivers of HIV risk and successfully reach this population. Case studies of six countries show context-specific issues that should inform development and implementation of key interventions across heterogeneous settings. We summarise the evidence and knowledge gaps that affect the HIV epidemic in TSW, and propose a research agenda to improve HIV services and policies for this population. PMID:25059941
LeBlanc, Tanya Telfair; Reid, Laurie C.
Abstract In the United States, women are a significant proportion of the correctional population. Women also account for an increasing proportion of newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases. When compared with white women, black women have higher incarceration rates and represent more of the newly diagnosed HIV cases. Correctional facilities offer an opportunity to provide women with HIV testing and prevention services so that they will know their status and receive HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk-reduction counseling and other preventive services. In this report, we describe incarcerated population statistics and HIV surveillance epidemiology for women. We also describe HIV prevention activities undertaken by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. Additional research, program development, and implementation are needed to improve HIV prevention efforts for high-risk women. PMID:24116966
Gourlay, Annabelle; Wringe, Alison; Birdthistle, Isolde; Mshana, Gerry; Michael, Denna; Urassa, Mark
Interactions between patients and service providers frequently influence uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa, but this process has not been examined in depth. This study explores how patient-provider relations influence PMTCT service use in four government facilities in Kisesa, Tanzania. Qualitative data were collected in 2012 through participatory group activities with community members (3 male, 3 female groups), in-depth interviews with 21 women who delivered recently (16 HIV-positive), 9 health providers, and observations in antenatal clinics. Data were transcribed, translated into English and analysed with NVIVO9 using an adapted theoretical model of patient-centred care. Three themes emerged: decision-making processes, trust, and features of care. There were few examples of shared decision-making, with a power imbalance in favour of providers, although they offered substantial psycho-social support. Unclear communication by providers, and patients not asking questions, resulted in missed services. Omission of pre-HIV test counselling was often noted, influencing women's ability to opt-out of HIV testing. Trust in providers was limited by confidentiality concerns, and some HIV-positive women were anxious about referrals to other facilities after establishing trust in their original provider. Good care was recounted by some women, but many (HIV-positive and negative) described disrespectful staff including discrimination of HIV-positive patients and scolding, particularly during delivery; exacerbated by lack of materials (gloves, sheets) and associated costs, which frustrated staff. Experienced or anticipated negative staff behaviour influenced adherence to subsequent PMTCT components. Findings revealed a pivotal role for patient-provider relations in PMTCT service use. Disrespectful treatment and lack of informed consent for HIV testing require urgent attention by PMTCT programme managers. Strategies
Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry
ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent–child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent–adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID
Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry
Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352).
Muessig, Kathryn E.; Cohen, Myron S.
Serodiscordant couples play an important role in maintaining the global HIV epidemic. This review summarizes biobehavioral and biomedical HIV prevention options for serodiscordant couples focusing on advances in 2013 and 2014, including World Health Organization guidelines and best-evidence for couples counseling, couples-based interventions, and the use of antiviral agents for prevention. In the past few years marked advances have been made in HIV prevention for serodiscordant couples and numerous ongoing studies are continuously expanding HIV prevention tools, especially in the area of pre-exposure prophylaxis. Uptake and adherence to antiviral therapy remains a key challenge. Additional research is needed to develop evidence-based interventions for couples, and especially for male-male couples. Randomized trials have demonstrated the prevention benefits of antiretroviral-based approaches among serodiscordant couples; however, residual transmission observed in recognized serodiscordant couples represents an important and resolvable challenge in HIV prevention. PMID:25145645
Castro, Jose G; Jones, Deborah L; Weiss, Stephen M
The objective of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge of and preferences regarding effective biomedical interventions among high risk individuals attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and to examine the effect of a brief information intervention on preference. Participants completed a baseline assessment, attended a presentation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention methods, and completed a postintervention assessment. Outcome measures included: demographics and sexual risk factors, self-perceived HIV risk, and knowledge and attitudes regarding new biomedical methods of HIV prevention. After the baseline evaluation, participants were provided with information on new biomedical prevention strategies. Participants were given the option to review the information by reading a pamphlet or by viewing a brief video containing the same information. Participants (n=97) were female (n=51) and male (n=46). At baseline, only a small minority of participants were aware of the newer biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. Postintervention, 40% endorsed having heard about the use of HIV medications to prevent HIV infection; 72% had heard that male circumcision can decrease the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men; and 73% endorsed knowledge of the potential role of microbicides in decreasing the risk of acquiring HIV. Following the intervention, the most preferred prevention method was male condoms, followed by preexposure prophylaxis, and microbicides. The least preferred methods were male circumcision and female condoms. This study provides preliminary information on knowledge and attitudes regarding newer biomedical interventions to protect against HIV infection. PMID:25540597
Chandler, Rasheeta; Anstey, Erica H; Ross, Henry; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne
HIV prevention interventions can help college students engage in safe sexual behaviors. We used the Information, Motivation, Behavioral Skills model to frame four focus group discussions with Black women (n = 32) attending a historically Black college/university or a traditional university to understand their HIV prevention needs. Participants wanted clear information about sexually transmitted infections/HIV and access to contraception. Motivators for practicing safe sex were related to cultural and religious expectations, desire to avoid pregnancy, and conscious efforts to defy racial stereotypes. Barriers to practicing safe sex included issues of accountability, stigma associated with accessing HIV testing/prevention services, and media influences. We found general consensus about the need to develop skill-building HIV prevention interventions focused on communication skills, condom negotiation, access to services, and empowerment. We offer insight into culture- and age-appropriate HIV prevention for Black college women to guide the development of future interventions.
Smith Fawzi, M C; Lambert, W; Singler, J M; Tanagho, Y; Léandre, F; Nevil, P; Bertrand, D; Claude, M S; Bertrand, J; Louissaint, M; Jeannis, L; Mukherjee, J S; Goldie, S; Salazar, J J; Farmer, P E
The goals of the current study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of forced sex among women accessing services at a women's health clinic in rural Haiti; and (2) examine factors associated with forced sex in this population. Based on data from a case-control study of risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), a cross-sectional analysis to examine factors associated with forced sex was performed. A number of factors related to gender inequality/socioeconomic vulnerability placed women in rural Haiti at higher risk of forced sex. The strongest factors associated with forced sex in multivariate analyses were: age, length of time in a relationship, occupation of the woman's partner, STD-related symptoms, and factors demonstrating economic vulnerability. The findings suggest that prevention efforts must go beyond provision of information and education to the pursuit of broader initiatives at both local and national levels. At the community level, policy-makers should consider advancing economic opportunities for women who are vulnerable to forced sex. Improving access to community-based income-generating activities may begin to address this problem. However, the viability of these local projects depends largely upon Haiti's 'macro-economic' situation. In order to ensure the success of local initiatives, external humanitarian and development assistance to Haiti should be supported. By broadening the definition of "prevention" interventions, we may begin to address the systemic problems that contribute to the occurrence of forced sex and the increasing incidence of HIV infection throughout the world, such as gender inequality and economic vulnerability. Taking into account factors influencing risk at the local level as well as the macro-level will potentially improve our capacity to reduce the risk of forced sex and the spread of STDs, including HIV infection, for millions of women living in poverty worldwide.
Des Jarlais, D C; Padian, N
The controversy over "targeted" versus "universalistic" programs for HIV prevention has persisted throughout the history of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States and in some European countries. Building on previous analyses, we outline methods for integrating universalistic and targeted HIV prevention programming. The outline considers possible synergy between targeted and universalistic programs, rather than a forced choice between the two. Components within this framework include a continuum of the intensity of targeted programs, specification of local risk behavior populations, categories of risk behavior, and HIV seroprevalence within local risk-behavior populations. Given the scarce resources currently available, preventing all new HIV infections is not a realistic public health goal, but with better use of current scientific knowledge, it should be possible to greatly reduce the rate of new HIV infections.
Mekiso, Abera Beyamo
Male partners' involvement is a vital issue to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from mother to child; because it is much expectable that women were more vulnerable and high risk group of population portion. Therefore, to save lives of mothers and their newborn from acquiring HIV, male partners should do their maximum endeavor regardless of any determinant factors as our results revealed its status in our study context and elsewhere at past time too.
Granato, S Adam; Gloyd, Stephen; Robinson, Julia; Dali, Serge A; Ahoba, Irma; Aka, David; Kouyaté, Seydou; Billy, Doroux A; Kalibala, Samuel; Koné, Ahoua
Introduction Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes can occur at multiple stages of antenatal and follow-up care. This paper presents findings from a national assessment aimed at identifying major bottlenecks in Côte d'Ivoire's PMTCT cascade, and to distinguish characteristics of high- and low-performing health facilities. Methods This cross-sectional study, based on a nationally representative sample of 30 health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire used multiple data sources (registries, patient charts, patient booklets, interviews) to determine the magnitude of LTFU in PMTCT services. A composite measure of retention – based on child prophylaxis, maternal treatment and infant testing – was used to identify high- and low-performing sites and determine significant differences using Student's t-tests. Results Among 1,741 pregnant women newly recorded as HIV-positive between June 2011 and May 2012, 43% had a CD4 count taken, 77% received appropriate prophylaxis and 70% received prophylaxis intended for their infant. During that time, 1,054 first infant HIV tests were recorded. A conservative rate of adherence to antiretroviral therapy was estimated at 50% (n=219 patient charts). Significant differences between high- and low-performing sites included: duration of time elapsed between HIV testing and CD4 results (29.5 versus 56.3 days, p=0.001); and density (number per 100 first antenatal care visits) of full-time physicians (6.7 versus 1.7, p=0.04), laboratory technicians (2.3 versus 0.7, p=0.046), staff trained in PMTCT (10.7 versus 4.7, p=0.01), and staff performing patient follow-up activities (7.9 versus 2.5, p=0.02). Key informants highlighted staff presence and training, the availability of medical supplies and equipment (i.e., on-site CD4 machine), and the adequacy of infrastructure (i.e., space and ventilation) as perceived key factors positively and negatively impacting retention in care. Conclusions
Lippman, Sheri A.; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Gilvydis, Jennifer M.; Naidoo, Evasen; Khumalo-Sakutukwa, Gertrude; Darbes, Lynae; Raphela, Elsie; Ntswane, Lebogang; Barnhart, Scott
Objective Building a successful combination prevention program requires understanding the community’s local epidemiological profile, the social community norms that shape vulnerability to HIV and access to care, and the available community resources. We carried out a situational analysis in order to shape a comprehensive HIV prevention program that address local barriers to care at multiple contextual levels in the North West Province of South Africa. Method The situational analysis was conducted in two sub-districts in 2012 and guided by an adaptation of WHO’s Strategic Approach, a predominantly qualitative method, including observation of service delivery points and in-depth interviews and focus groups with local leaders, providers, and community members, in order to recommend context-specific HIV prevention strategies. Analysis began during fieldwork with nightly discussions of findings and continued with coding original textual data from the fieldwork notebooks and a select number of recorded interviews. Results We conducted over 200 individual and group interviews and gleaned four principal social barriers to HIV prevention and care, including: HIV fatalism, traditional gender norms, HIV-related stigma, and challenges with communication around HIV, all of which fuel the HIV epidemic. At the different levels of response needed to stem the epidemic, we found evidence of national policies and programs that are mitigating the social risk factors but little community-based responses that address social risk factors to HIV. Conclusions Understanding social and structural barriers to care helped shape our comprehensive HIV prevention program, which address the four ‘themes’ identified into each component of the program. Activities are underway to engage communities, offer community-based testing in high transmission areas, community stigma reduction, and a positive health, dignity and prevention program for stigma reduction and improve communication skills
Crowley, Jocelyn Elise; Roff, Brian H.; Lynch, Jeneve
Understanding the behaviors and attitudes of at-risk populations is fundamental to controlling the spread of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. The problem of nonresponse among these populations, however, plagues survey research designed to address these issues. Previous work undertaken to map out the dynamics of nonresponse--both noncontacts and…
Gordon, Christopher M; Forsyth, Andrew D; Stall, Ron; Cheever, Laura W
The National Institutes of Health (NIH/NIMH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the HIV/AIDS Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) support the CDC's Serostatus Approach to Fighting the HIV Epidemic (SAFE; Janssen et al., 2001). One aim of the strategy is to help individuals living with HIV (and their partners) adopt and sustain HIV and STD risk reduction, treatment adherence, and effective strategies for coping with HIV/AIDS. Efficacious interventions are needed by community organizations and clinics that provide evidence-based services. To expedite translation from research to practice, we convened scientist-practitioners, HIV treatment and prevention providers, and community/consumer members. In this article, we include an overview of prevention trials with HIV-positive persons presented at the meeting, discuss strengths and limitations, recommendations for future research, and discuss sponsoring agencies' plans for advancing prevention tailored for persons living with HIV.
Goncalves, Priscila H.; Montezuma-Rusca, Jairo M.; Yarchoan, Robert; Uldrick, Thomas S.
People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer since the advent of effective combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). While cART substantially decreases the risk of developing some cancers, HIV-infected individuals remain at high risk for Kaposi sarcoma, lymphoma and several solid tumors. Currently HIV-infected patients represent an aging group, and malignancies have become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Tailored cancer-prevention strategies are needed for this population. In this review we describe the etiologic agents and pathogenesis of common malignancies in the setting of HIV, as well as current evidence for cancer prevention strategies and screening programs. PMID:26970136
Lightfoot, Marguerita; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Tevendale, Heather
As the number of youth infected with HIV rises, secondary prevention programs are needed to help youth living with HIV meet three goals: (1) increase self-care behaviors, medical adherence, and health-related interactions; (2) reduce transmission acts; and (3) enhance their quality of life. This article describes an intervention program for youth…
hygienist b. DENTAC— dental activity c. DFO— dental fitness officer d. DODDS—Department of Defense Dependent Schools e. HSC—U.S. Army Health Services Command f...community health dental hygienist (CHDH) in implementing these programs. (3) Coordinate with the preventive medicine activity and post or installation...aspects of preven- tive dentistry and dental public health programs. j. The community health dental hygienist , where assigned, will assist the DFO as
Chandler, Michele Denise; Chandler, Donald S.; Chandler, Donald S., Jr.; Race, James
The study examined the relational-behavior survey (RBS) as a predictor of HIV-related parental miscommunication (HPM) among a voluntary sample 75 African American parents at a private healthcare facility located in the southwest region of the United States. A multiple regression analysis indicated that there was significant marginal prediction of…
Chiao, Chi; Mishra, Vinod; Ksobiech, Kate
High HIV rates among cohabiting couples in many African countries have led to greater programmatic emphasis on spousal communication in HIV prevention. This study examines how demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of cohabiting adults influence their dyadic communication about HIV. A central focus of this research is on how the position of women relative to their male partners influences spousal communication about HIV prevention. The authors analyze gaps in spousal age and education and females' participation in household decision making as key factors influencing spousal communication about HIV, while controlling for sexual behaviors of both partners as well as other individual and contextual factors. Data were obtained from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey for 1,388 cohabiting couples. Information regarding spousal communication was self-reported, assessing whether both, either, or neither partner ever discussed HIV prevention with the other. Analyses showed higher levels of education for the female partner and participation in household decision making are positively associated with spousal communication about HIV prevention. With females' education and other factors controlled, couples with more educated male partners were more likely to have discussed HIV prevention than couples in which both partners have the same level of education. Spousal communication was also positively associated with household wealth status and exposure to the mass media, but couples in which male partners reported having nonspousal sex in the past year were less likely to have discussed HIV prevention with their spouses. Findings suggest HIV prevention programs should promote female empowerment and encourage male participation in sexual health discussion.
Fawzi, M.C. Smith; Lambert, W.; Singler, J.M.; Tanagho, Y.; Léandre, F.; Nevil, P.; Bertrand, D.; Claude, M.S.; Bertrand, J.; Louissaint, M.; Jeannis, L.; Mukherjee, J.S.; Goldie, S.; Salazar, J.J.; Farmer, P.E.
The goals of the current study were to: (1) estimate the prevalence of forced sex among women accessing services at a women’s health clinic in rural Haiti; and (2) examine factors associated with forced sex in this population. Based on data from a case-control study of risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), a cross-sectional analysis to examine factors associated with forced sex was performed. A number of factors related to gender inequality/socioeconomic vulnerability placed women in rural Haiti at higher risk of forced sex. The strongest factors associated with forced sex in multivariate analyses were: age, length of time in a relationship, occupation of the woman’s partner, STD-related symptoms, and factors demonstrating economic vulnerability. The findings suggest that prevention efforts must go beyond provision of information and education to the pursuit of broader initiatives at both local and national levels. At the community level, policy-makers should consider advancing economic opportunities for women who are vulnerable to forced sex. Improving access to community-based income-generating activities may begin to address this problem. However, the viability of these local projects depends largely upon Haiti’s ‘macro-economic’ situation. In order to ensure the success of local initiatives, external humanitarian and development assistance to Haiti should be supported. By broadening the definition of “prevention” interventions, we may begin to address the systemic problems that contribute to the occurrence of forced sex and the increasing incidence of HIV infection throughout the world, such as gender inequality and economic vulnerability. Taking into account factors influencing risk at the local level as well as the macro-level will potentially improve our capacity to reduce the risk of forced sex and the spread of STDs, including HIV infection, for millions of women living in poverty worldwide. PMID:15571887
Cason, Cari; Orrock, Nan; Schmitt, Karla; Tesoriero, James; Lazzarini, Zita; Sumartojo, Esther
HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are major public health problems in the United States. Since the start of the epidemic, nearly 800,000 persons have been reported with AIDS, and approximately 900,000 Americans are currently living with HIV infection. Each year, 15 million people in the United States become infected with one or more STDs. The direct and indirect costs of the major STDs--not including HIV infection--and their complications are estimated to total at least $10 billion annually. This article underscores the importance of law and other structural factors in the prevention and treatment of HIV and STDs. It describes state-level laws on STD screening, name-based reporting of STDs, name-based reporting of HIV and HIV partner notification implementation, and the impact of laws on STD and HIV risk behaviors and prevention services. More broadly, the article focuses on how the law influences the vulnerability or resilience of persons facing the risk of STDs, HIV infection, or AIDS.
Conner, Ross F.; Takahashi, Lois; Ortiz, Eloy; Archuleta, Eduardo; Muniz, Juan; Rodriguez, Julio
Community-researcher partnerships can be powerful mechanisms to understand and effectively address health and social problems such as HIV/AIDS prevention. When the partnership is a positive, productive one, the combined expertise and energy of both parties result in a more effective program and a better evaluation of its effects. This article…
Gordon, Christopher M.; Forsyth, Andrew D.; Stall, Ron; Cheever, Laura W.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH/NIMH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the HIV/AIDS Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) support the CDC's Serostatus Approach to Fighting the HIV Epidemic (SAFE; Janssen et al., 2001). One aim of the strategy is to help individuals living with HIV (and…
The Increased Effectiveness of HIV Preventive Intervention among Men Who Have Sex with Men and of Follow-Up Care for People Living with HIV after ‘Task-Shifting’ to Community-Based Organizations: A ‘Cash on Service Delivery’ Model in China
Yan, Hongjing; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Jinkou; Huan, Xiping; Ding, Jianping; Wu, Susu; Wang, Chenchen; Xu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Li; Xu, Fei; Yang, Haitao
Background A large number of men who have sex with men (MSM) and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are underserved despite increased service availability from government facilities while many community based organizations (CBOs) are not involved. We aimed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the task shifting from government facilities to CBOs in China. Methods HIV preventive intervention for MSM and follow-up care for PLHA were shifted from government facilities to CBOs. Based on ‘cash on service delivery’ model, 10 USD per MSM tested for HIV with results notified, 82 USD per newly HIV cases diagnosed, and 50 USD per PLHA received a defined package of follow-up care services, were paid to the CBOs. Cash payments were made biannually based on the verified results in the national web-based HIV/AIDS information system. Findings After task shifting, CBOs gradually assumed preventive intervention for MSM and follow-up care for PLHA from 2008 to 2012. HIV testing coverage among MSM increased from 4.1% in 2008 to 22.7% in 2012. The baseline median CD4 counts of newly diagnosed HIV positive MSM increased from 309 to 397 cells/µL. HIV tests among MSM by CBOs accounted for less than 1% of the total HIV tests in Nanjing but the share of HIV cases detected by CBOs was 12.4% in 2008 and 43.6% in 2012. Unit cost per HIV case detected by CBOs was 47 times lower than that by government facilities. The coverage of CD4 tests and antiretroviral therapy increased from 71.1% and 78.6% in 2008 to 86.0% and 90.1% in 2012, respectively. Conclusion It is feasible to shift essential HIV services from government facilities to CBOs, and to verify independently service results to adopt ‘cash on service delivery’ model. Services provided by CBOs are cost-effective, as compared with that by government facilities. PMID:25050797
Enriquez, Maithe; Cheng, An-Lin; Kelly, Patricia J; Witt, Jacki; Coker, Angela D; Kashubeck-West, Susan
This article outlines the development and feasibility of an HIV and IPV prevention intervention. Researchers formed a partnership with a group of women representative of the population that the intervention was intended to reach using methods derived from participatory action research. The use of health protective behaviors changed from pre- to postintervention in the clinically desirable direction. Results indicated that intervention delivery was feasible in the novel setting of a large urban day care center. This intervention has promise as a strategy to reduce HIV among low-income women; however, a controlled study is indicated to further examine intervention efficacy.
Ballester-Arnal, R; Gil-Llario, M D; Salmeron-Sánchez, P; Giménez-García, C
The sex industry, where men sell sexual services to other men or women, has grown in recent years. These men who offer sexual services are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection due to such factors as: frequency of risky sexual practices, number of sex partners, drug-taking, prevalence of sexually-transmitted infections (STI) and their specific situation of social exclusion which may hinder access to health services. These multi-faceted realities faced by sex workers explain the burgeoning interest in new avenues of scientific research. There are too few preventive programs however aimed at this population group and the studies that evaluate their effectiveness are fewer still. In this article we survey more recent studies on the difficulties of implementing programs for HIV prevention in male sex workers (MSW), as well as the studies that have gauged the impact of preventive programs in this group.
Gourlay, Annabelle; Wringe, Alison; Birdthistle, Isolde; Mshana, Gerry; Michael, Denna; Urassa, Mark
Interactions between patients and service providers frequently influence uptake of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) HIV services in sub-Saharan Africa, but this process has not been examined in depth. This study explores how patient-provider relations influence PMTCT service use in four government facilities in Kisesa, Tanzania. Qualitative data were collected in 2012 through participatory group activities with community members (3 male, 3 female groups), in-depth interviews with 21 women who delivered recently (16 HIV-positive), 9 health providers, and observations in antenatal clinics. Data were transcribed, translated into English and analysed with NVIVO9 using an adapted theoretical model of patient-centred care. Three themes emerged: decision-making processes, trust, and features of care. There were few examples of shared decision-making, with a power imbalance in favour of providers, although they offered substantial psycho-social support. Unclear communication by providers, and patients not asking questions, resulted in missed services. Omission of pre-HIV test counselling was often noted, influencing women's ability to opt-out of HIV testing. Trust in providers was limited by confidentiality concerns, and some HIV-positive women were anxious about referrals to other facilities after establishing trust in their original provider. Good care was recounted by some women, but many (HIV-positive and negative) described disrespectful staff including discrimination of HIV-positive patients and scolding, particularly during delivery; exacerbated by lack of materials (gloves, sheets) and associated costs, which frustrated staff. Experienced or anticipated negative staff behaviour influenced adherence to subsequent PMTCT components. Findings revealed a pivotal role for patient-provider relations in PMTCT service use. Disrespectful treatment and lack of informed consent for HIV testing require urgent attention by PMTCT programme managers. Strategies
Seth, Puja; Figueroa, Argelia; Wang, Guoshen; Reid, Laurie; Belcher, Lisa
Background Because of health disparities, incarcerated persons are at higher risk for multiple health issues, including HIV. Correctional facilities have an opportunity to provide HIV services to an underserved population. This article describes Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)–funded HIV testing and service delivery in correctional facilities. Methods Data on HIV testing and service delivery were submitted to CDC by 61 health department jurisdictions in 2013. HIV testing, HIV positivity, receipt of test results, linkage, and referral services were described, and differences across demographic characteristics for linkage and referral services were assessed. Finally, trends were examined for HIV testing, HIV positivity, and linkage from 2009 to 2013. Results Of CDC-funded tests in 2013 among persons 18 years and older, 254,719 (7.9%) were conducted in correctional facilities. HIV positivity was 0.9%, and HIV positivity for newly diagnosed persons was 0.3%. Blacks accounted for the highest percentage of HIV-infected persons (1.3%) and newly diagnosed persons (0.5%). Only 37.9% of newly diagnosed persons were linked within 90 days; 67.5% were linked within any time frame; 49.7% were referred to partner services; and 45.2% were referred to HIV prevention services. There was a significant percent increase in HIV testing, overall HIV positivity, and linkage from 2009 to 2013. However, trends were stable for newly diagnosed persons. Conclusions Identification of newly diagnosed persons in correctional facilities has remained stable from 2009 to 2013. Correctional facilities seem to be reaching blacks, likely due to higher incarceration rates. The current findings indicate that improvements are needed in HIV testing strategies, service delivery during incarceration, and linkage to care postrelease. PMID:26462190
Pettifor, Audrey; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Hosek, Sybil; DiClemente, Ralph; Rosenberg, Molly; Bull, Sheana; Allison, Susannah; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Cowan, Frances
Objective To review the current state of knowledge on the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV in adolescents and to highlight existing gaps and priority areas for future research. Background A disproportionate burden of HIV infections falls on adolescents, a developmental stage marked by unique neural, biological, and social transition. Successful interventions are critical to prevent the spread of HIV in this vulnerable population. Methods We summarized the current state of research on HIV prevention in adolescents by providing examples of successful interventions and best practices, and highlighting current research gaps. Results Adolescent interventions fall into three main categories: biomedical, behavioral, and structural. The majority of current research has focused on individual behavior change, while promising biomedical and structural interventions have been largely understudied in adolescents. Combination prevention interventions may be particularly valuable to this group. Conclusions Adolescents have unique needs with respect to HIV prevention and, thus, interventions should be designed to most effectively reach this population with information and services that will be relevant to them. PMID:23764629
Nutan; Gupta, Satish K.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is a global health concern. To control its transmission, safe sex has been proposed as one of the strategies. Microbicides- intravaginal/intrarectal topical formulations of anti-HIV agents have also been proposed to prevent HIV transmission. Microbicides would provide protection by directly inactivating HIV or preventing the attachment, entry or replication of HIV in susceptible target cells as well as their dissemination from target cells present in semen or the host cells lining the vaginal/rectal wall to other migratory cells. Microbicides must be safe, effective following vaginal or rectal administration, and should cause minimal or no genital symptoms or inflammations following long-term repeated usage. However, a safe and efficacious anti-HIV microbicide is not yet available despite the fact that more than 60 candidate agents have been identified to have in vitro activity against HIV, several of which have advanced to clinical testing. Nonetheless, proof-of-concept of microbicides has been established based on the results of recent CAPRISA 004 clinical trials. In this article, the trends and challenges in the development of effective and safe microbicides to combat HIV transmission are reviewed. PMID:22310826
Robinson, P G
This paper, by means of a quality framework, reviews health services research in relation to people with HIV infection. The relevance of oral health care services to people's needs is considered in terms of the goal of health services to reduce the burden of disease on the everyday life of the population. Dental services may therefore have a role in primary prevention in the HIV epidemic, passing on information about HIV and promoting health through the early diagnosis and treatment of oral disease. Effectiveness research of oral health care in HIV assesses the usefulness of oral diagnosis, whether care is safe, and whether treatment is clinically effective. Few data are available on the efficiency of services. People with HIV still have problems accessing dental care, due to the volume of care available in relation to their need and acceptability of care. Access problems in the US are compounded by social inequality. Health services research data are particularly sparse in resource-poor countries, and there is a need to translate the available information into treatment guidelines appropriate to these settings. The research community and funding agencies should place greater emphasis on the quality of oral health services for people with HIV.
Friedman, Samuel R; Downing, Martin J; Smyrnov, Pavlo; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Schneider, John A; Livak, Britt; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Slobodianyk, Liudmyla; Vasylyeva, Tetyana I; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Psichogiou, Mina; Sypsa, Vana; Malliori, Melpomeni M; Hatzakis, Angelos
Current ideas about HIV prevention include a mixture of primarily biomedical interventions, socio-mechanical interventions such as sterile syringe and condom distribution, and behavioral interventions. This article presents a framework for socially-integrated transdisciplinary HIV prevention that may improve current prevention efforts. It first describes one socially-integrated transdisciplinary intervention project, the Transmission Reduction Intervention Project. We focus on how social aspects of the intervention integrate its component parts across disciplines and processes at different levels of analysis. We then present socially-integrated perspectives about how to improve combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) processes at the population level in order to solve the problems of the treatment cascade and make "treatment as prevention" more effective. Finally, we discuss some remaining problems and issues in such a social transdisciplinary intervention in the hope that other researchers and public health agents will develop additional socially-integrated interventions for HIV and other diseases.
McNicholl, Janet M.
ABSTRACT Biomedical preventions for HIV, such as vaccines, microbicides or pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral drugs, can each only partially prevent HIV-1 infection in most human trials. Oral PrEP is now FDA approved for HIV-prevention in high risk groups, but partial adherence reduces efficacy. If combined as biomedical preventions (CBP) an HIV vaccine could provide protection when PrEP adherence is low and PrEP could prevent vaccine breakthroughs. Other types of PrEP or microbicides may also be partially protective. When licensed, first generation HIV vaccines are likely to be partially effective. Individuals at risk for HIV may receive an HIV vaccine combined with other biomedical preventions, in series or in parallel, in clinical trials or as part of standard of care, with the goal of maximally increasing HIV prevention. In human studies, it is challenging to determine which preventions are best combined, how they interact and how effective they are. Animal models can determine CBP efficacy, whether additive or synergistic, the efficacy of different products and combinations, dose, timing and mechanisms. CBP studies in macaques have shown that partially or minimally effective candidate HIV vaccines combined with partially effective oral PrEP, vaginal PrEP or microbicide generally provided greater protection than either prevention alone against SIV or SHIV challenges. Since human CBP trials will be complex, animal models can guide their design, sample size, endpoints, correlates and surrogates of protection. This review focuses on animal studies and human models of CBP and discusses implications for HIV prevention. PMID:27679928
Namuddu, Jane; Waiswa, Peter; Nsangi, Betty; Iriso, Robert; Matovu, Joseph; Maganda, Albert; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata
The aim of this study was to assess the level of availability of HIV prevention strategies in secondary schools in Kabarole district, Uganda in order to inform the design of interventions to strengthen HIV Prevention and psychosocial support. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in eight secondary schools in Kabarole district to establish available HIV prevention and psychosocial support services. Questionnaires were administered to 355 students 12-24 years old. In addition, 20 Key Informant interviews were held with education service providers. Quantitative data was analyzed using Epi-data and qualitative data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Seven of the eight schools had at least one HIV prevention strategy. Two teachers in each of the five schools had been trained in HIV prevention. No school had a nurse trained in HIV prevention, care and support. Education service providers had limited knowledge of HIV prevention support and care of students living with HIV. We found out that students had knowledge on how one can acquire HIV. HIV prevention services reported by students in schools included: talks from teachers and guests (19%), drama with HIV prevention related messages (16%), peer education clubs (15%), workshops and seminars on HIV (8%), sensitization about HIV/AIDS (7%), guidance and counseling (6%), talking compounds- (5%), abstinence talks (6%), keeping students busy in sports (4%), straight talk (4%). Sixty three percent reported receiving HIV reading materials from various sources. Preventing HIV infection among students in schools is still demanding with limited interventions for students. Efforts to support school interventions should focus on including HIV Prevention in the school curriculum, working with peer educators as well as education service providers who spend much of the time with the students while at school. PMID:28299142
Namuddu, Jane; Waiswa, Peter; Nsangi, Betty; Iriso, Robert; Matovu, Joseph; Maganda, Albert; Kekitiinwa, Adeodata
The aim of this study was to assess the level of availability of HIV prevention strategies in secondary schools in Kabarole district, Uganda in order to inform the design of interventions to strengthen HIV Prevention and psychosocial support. Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in eight secondary schools in Kabarole district to establish available HIV prevention and psychosocial support services. Questionnaires were administered to 355 students 12-24 years old. In addition, 20 Key Informant interviews were held with education service providers. Quantitative data was analyzed using Epi-data and qualitative data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. Seven of the eight schools had at least one HIV prevention strategy. Two teachers in each of the five schools had been trained in HIV prevention. No school had a nurse trained in HIV prevention, care and support. Education service providers had limited knowledge of HIV prevention support and care of students living with HIV. We found out that students had knowledge on how one can acquire HIV. HIV prevention services reported by students in schools included: talks from teachers and guests (19%), drama with HIV prevention related messages (16%), peer education clubs (15%), workshops and seminars on HIV (8%), sensitization about HIV/AIDS (7%), guidance and counseling (6%), talking compounds- (5%), abstinence talks (6%), keeping students busy in sports (4%), straight talk (4%). Sixty three percent reported receiving HIV reading materials from various sources. Preventing HIV infection among students in schools is still demanding with limited interventions for students. Efforts to support school interventions should focus on including HIV Prevention in the school curriculum, working with peer educators as well as education service providers who spend much of the time with the students while at school.
Brooks, Ronald A.; Etzel, Mark A.; Hinojos, Ernesto; Henry, Charles L.; Perez, Mario
HIV-related stigma, discrimination, and homophobia impede community based efforts to combat HIV disease among Latino and African American gay and bisexual men. This commentary highlights ways to address these social biases in communities of color in Los Angeles from the perspectives of staff from HIV prevention programs. Information was collected from HIV prevention program staff participating in a two-day symposium. The outcomes from the symposium offer strategies for developing and implementing HIV prevention services for Latino and African American gay and bisexual men, which include: 1) addressing social biases present in a community that can hinder, and even prohibit, utilization of effective HIV prevention programs; 2) recasting HIV prevention messages in a broader social or health context; 3) developing culturally appropriate HIV prevention messages; 4) exploring new modalities and venues for delivering HIV prevention messages that are appropriate for gay and bisexual men of color and the communities in which they live; and 5) broadening the target of HIV prevention services to include service providers, local institutions and agencies, and the community at-large. These strategies underscore the need to consider the social and contextual factors of a community when designing and implementing HIV prevention programs. PMID:16283834
No cure has been found for HIV/AIDS. Therefore, until one is found which is affordable and feasible for use in developing countries, preventing HIV infection is the best way to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic. All of the many biological characteristics of HIV which affect its rate of spread in a population can be affected through individual behavior. The two most important behaviors which spread HIV are having sexual intercourse with an HIV-infected sex partner without using a condom and sharing unsterilized drug injecting equipment. Strategies to reduce risky behavior include providing information, lowering the costs of condom use and safe injecting behavior, and raising the costs of risky behavior. The costs of condom use include the financial and time costs of buying the condoms, the potential inconvenience and social embarrassment of buying and using them, and reduced pleasure among some users. IV drug users face the problems of getting into and remaining in drug treatment programs, and obtaining sterile injecting equipment. Government priorities in preventing HIV/AIDS and mobilizing political support against AIDS are discussed.
The public sector supports most HIV/AIDS prevention and care activities in developing countries, with significant funding provided by the US Agency for International Development, the Overseas Development Authority, the European Community, and international banking institutions such as the World Bank. Local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and international private voluntary organizations (PVOs) implement many of the grassroots prevention and care efforts in developing countries, but often require support from donor agencies. While the private commercial sector has played a minor role in supporting HIV/AIDS prevention and care efforts, a number of local and multinational companies are beginning to recognize the importance of protecting their workers from HIV infection. These companies are motivated by a sense of moral obligation and/or view HIV/AIDS prevention as a cost-effective investment. Mainly affecting the most economically productive age groups, the HIV/AIDS epidemic will have a significant impact upon private industry. Workplace-based prevention programs and policies, private sector resources for HIV/AIDS prevention and care, how HIV/AIDS programs can benefit from the private sector's experience in commercial service delivery, research and development, and corporate direct cash and in-kind contributions to government and NGO HIV/AIDS prevention activities are discussed. The AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's Businesses Managing AIDS Project helps owners and managers understand the potential impact of HIV/AIDS upon their businesses and the benefits of HIV/AIDS prevention.
Alarid, Leanne Fiftal; Hahl, Jeannie M
The prevalence of HIV/AIDS infection among prisoners is 3 to 4 times higher than in the U.S. population. Given that one in seven HIV-positive Americans pass through a correctional facility every year, the criminal justice system is in an ideal position to aggressively implement effective HIV education, treatment, and prevention. This study examines barriers to the effective delivery of these services and evaluates differences in risk perception among nearly 600 female and male inmates. The results underscore gender differences in Perceived Risk of Seroconversion and Exposure to HIV Education, suggesting that jails should implement gender-specific HIV prevention programming.
Downing, Martin J.; Smyrnov, Pavlo; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Schneider, John A.; Livak, Britt; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Slobodianyk, Liudmyla; Vasylyeva, Tetyana I.; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Psichogiou, Mina; Sypsa, Vana; Malliori, Melpomeni M.; Hatzakis, Angelos
Current ideas about HIV prevention include a mixture of primarily biomedical interventions, sociomechanical interventions such as sterile syringe and condom distribution, and behavioral interventions. This article presents a framework for socially-integrated transdisciplinary HIV prevention that may improve current prevention efforts. It first describes one socially-integrated transdisciplinary intervention project, the Transmission Reduction Intervention Project. We focus on how social aspects of the intervention integrate its component parts across disciplines and processes at different levels of analysis. We then present socially-integrated perspectives about how to improve combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) processes at the population level in order to solve the problems of the treatment cascade and make “treatment as prevention” more effective. Finally, we discuss some remaining problems and issues in such a social transdisciplinary intervention in the hope that other researchers and public health agents will develop additional socially-integrated interventions for HIV and other diseases. PMID:24165983
Pettifor, Audrey; MacPhail, Catherine; Nguyen, Nadia; Rosenberg, Molly
Cash payments to improve health outcomes have been used for many years, however, their use for HIV prevention is new and the impact not yet well understood. We provide a brief background on the rationale behind using cash to improve health outcomes, review current studies completed or underway using cash for prevention of sexual transmission of HIV, and outline some key considerations on the use of cash payments to prevent HIV infections. We searched the literature for studies that implemented cash transfer programs and measured HIV or HIV-related outcomes. We identified 16 studies meeting our criteria; 10 are completed. The majority of studies have been conducted with adolescents in developing countries and payments are focused on addressing structural risk factors such as poverty. Most have seen reductions in sexual behavior and one large trial has documented a difference in HIV prevalence between young women getting cash transfers and those not. Cash transfer programs focused on changing risky sexual behaviors to reduce HIV risk suggest promise. The context in which programs are situated, the purpose of the cash transfer, and the population will all affect the impact of such programs; ongoing RCTs with HIV incidence endpoints will shed more light on the efficacy of cash payments as strategy for HIV prevention. PMID:22760738
Horn, Tim; Sherwood, Jennifer; Remien, Robert H; Nash, Denis; Auerbach, Judith D.
Introduction Every new HIV infection is preventable and every HIV-related death is avoidable. As many jurisdictions around the world endeavour to end HIV as an epidemic, missed HIV prevention and treatment opportunities must be regarded as public health emergencies, and efforts to quickly fill gaps in service provision for all people living with and vulnerable to HIV infection must be prioritized. Discussion We present a novel, comprehensive, primary and secondary HIV prevention continuum model for the United States as a conceptual framework to identify key steps in reducing HIV incidence and improving health outcomes among those vulnerable to, as well as those living with, HIV infection. We further discuss potential approaches to address gaps in data required for programme planning, implementation and evaluation across the elements of the HIV prevention continuum. Conclusions Our model conceptualizes opportunities to monitor and quantify primary HIV prevention efforts and, importantly, illustrates the interplay between an outcomes-oriented primary HIV prevention process and the HIV care continuum to move aggressively forward in reaching ambitious reductions in HIV incidence. To optimize the utility of this outcomes-oriented HIV prevention continuum, a key gap to be addressed includes the creation and increased coordination of data relevant to HIV prevention across sectors. PMID:27863535
This guide presents steps to implementing human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) programs in schools, faith communities, AIDS service organizations, and community based organizations. Eight chapters are: (1) "The Need for HIV/STI Prevention Peer Education" (including research findings on peer education);…
Reed, Jason Bailey; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Bacon, Melanie C.; Bailey, Robert; Cherutich, Peter; Curran, Kelly; Dickson, Kim; Farley, Tim; Hankins, Catherine; Hatzold, Karin; Justman, Jessica; Mwandi, Zebedee; Nkinsi, Luke; Ridzon, Renee; Ryan, Caroline; Bock, Naomi
As the science demonstrating strong evidence for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention has evolved, the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has collaborated with international agencies, donors, and partner country governments supporting VMMC programming. Mathematical models forecast that quickly reaching a large number of uncircumcised men with VMMC in strategically chosen populations may dramatically reduce community-level HIV incidence and save billions of dollars in HIV care and treatment costs. Because VMMC is a 1-time procedure that confers life-long partial protection against HIV, programs for adult men are vital short-term investments with long-term benefits. VMMC also provides a unique opportunity to reach boys and men with HIV testing and counseling services and referrals for other HIV services, including treatment. After formal recommendations by WHO in 2007, priority countries have pursued expansion of VMMC. More than 1 million males have received VMMC thus far, with the most notable successes coming from Kenya’s Nyanza Province. However, a myriad of necessary cultural, political, and ethical considerations have moderated the pace of overall success. Because many millions more uncircumcised men would benefit from VMMC services now, US President Barack Obama committed PEPFAR to provide 4.7 million males with VMMC by 2014. Innovative circumcision methods—such as medical devices that remove the foreskin without injected anesthesia and/or sutures—are being rigorously evaluated. Incorporation of safe innovations into surgical VMMC programs may provide the opportunity to reach more men more quickly with services and dramatically reduce HIV incidence for all. PMID:22797745
Reed, Jason Bailey; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel; Thomas, Anne Goldzier; Bacon, Melanie C; Bailey, Robert; Cherutich, Peter; Curran, Kelly; Dickson, Kim; Farley, Tim; Hankins, Catherine; Hatzold, Karin; Justman, Jessica; Mwandi, Zebedee; Nkinsi, Luke; Ridzon, Renee; Ryan, Caroline; Bock, Naomi
As the science demonstrating strong evidence for voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention has evolved, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has collaborated with international agencies, donors, and partner country governments supporting VMMC programming. Mathematical models forecast that quickly reaching a large number of uncircumcised men with VMMC in strategically chosen populations may dramatically reduce community-level HIV incidence and save billions of dollars in HIV care and treatment costs. Because VMMC is a 1-time procedure that confers life-long partial protection against HIV, programs for adult men are vital short-term investments with long-term benefits. VMMC also provides a unique opportunity to reach boys and men with HIV testing and counseling services and referrals for other HIV services, including treatment. After formal recommendations by WHO in 2007, priority countries have pursued expansion of VMMC. More than 1 million males have received VMMC thus far, with the most notable successes coming from Kenya's Nyanza Province. However, a myriad of necessary cultural, political, and ethical considerations have moderated the pace of overall success. Because many millions more uncircumcised men would benefit from VMMC services now, US President Barack Obama committed PEPFAR to provide 4.7 million males with VMMC by 2014. Innovative circumcision methods-such as medical devices that remove the foreskin without injected anesthesia and/or sutures-are being rigorously evaluated. Incorporation of safe innovations into surgical VMMC programs may provide the opportunity to reach more men more quickly with services and dramatically reduce HIV incidence for all.
Sullivan, Patrick S; Jones, Jeb; Kishore, Nishant; Stephenson, Rob
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at disproportionate risk for HIV infection globally. The past 5 years have seen considerable advances in biomedical interventions to reduce the risk of HIV infection. To be impactful in reducing HIV incidence requires the rapid and expansive scale-up of prevention. One mechanism for achieving this is technology-based tools to improve knowledge, acceptability, and coverage of interventions and services. This review provides a summary of the current gap in coverage of primary prevention services, how technology-based interventions and services can address gaps in coverage, and the current trends in the development and availability of technology-based primary prevention tools for use by MSM. Results from agent-based models of HIV epidemics of MSM suggest that 40-50 % coverage of multiple primary HIV prevention interventions and services, including biomedical interventions like preexposure prophylaxis, will be needed to reduce HIV incidence among MSM. In the USA, current levels of coverage for all interventions, except HIV testing and condom distribution, fall well short of this target. Recent findings illustrate how technology-based HIV prevention tools can be used to provide certain kinds of services at much larger scale, with marginal incremental costs. A review of mobile apps for primary HIV prevention revealed that most are designed by nonacademic, nonpublic health developers, and only a small proportion of available mobile apps specifically address MSM populations. We are unlikely to reach the required scale of HIV prevention intervention coverage for MSM unless we can leverage technologies to bring key services to broad coverage for MSM. Despite an exciting pipeline of technology-based prevention tools, there are broader challenges with funding structures and sustainability that need to be addressed to realize the full potential of this emerging public health field.
Brenner, Bluma G; Wainberg, Mark A
The success of the HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 trial has led to revisions in HIV-1 treatment guidelines. Antiretroviral therapy may reduce the risk of HIV-1 transmissions at the population level. The design of successful treatment as prevention interventions will be predicated on a comprehensive understanding of the spatial, temporal, and biological dynamics of heterosexual men who have sex with men and intravenous drug user epidemics. Viral phylogenetics can capture the underlying structure of transmission networks based on the genetic interrelatedness of viral sequences and cluster networks that could not be otherwise identified. This article describes the phylogenetic expansion of the Montreal men who have sex with men epidemic over the last decade. High rates of coclustering of primary infections are associated with 1 infection leading to 13 onward transmissions. Phylogeny substantiates the role of primary and recent stage infection in transmission dynamics, underlying the importance of timely diagnosis and immediate antiretroviral therapy initiation to avert transmission cascades.
Dondero, T J; Pappaioanou, M; Curran, J W
A comprehensive, multifaceted approach to HIV surveillance is needed to provide the information necessary for public health management and policy. Because HIV infection is not readily or uniformly ascertained, survey methods and sentinel surveillance approaches must be used. At least some of the surveys must be blinded, that is, anonymous and unlinked to identifiable persons, to avoid the uninterpretable impact of self-selection bias that could lead to both significant underestimates and occasional overestimates of HIV prevalence. Other surveys must be nonblinded, with careful interviews of volunteer participants to evaluate risk factors for HIV infection. These various surveys must continue over time to evaluate trends in infection. A comprehensive family of complementary HIV surveys and studies and a national household-based HIV seroprevalence survey have been undertaken by the Public Health Service in collaboration with other Federal agencies, State and local health departments, blood collection agencies, and medical research institutions. These projects focus on accessible segments of the general population, childbearing women, persons at high risk for HIV, and persons in special settings such as prisons and colleges. This comprehensive surveillance approach will help monitor the levels and trends of HIV infection in the United States and help prioritize, target, and evaluate HIV prevention activities. PMID:3131809
Byrom, Elizabeth, Ed.; Katz, Ginger, Ed.
This guide was developed out of a 5-year project aimed at preventing the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by promoting HIV prevention and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) education in school health programs. This document includes recommendations of a January, 1989 forum which addressed HIV prevention education for…
Grassly, N. C.; Garnett, G. P.; Schwartländer, B.; Gregson, S.; Anderson, R. M.
Planning an intervention to prevent infections with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should be guided by local epidemiological and socioeconomic conditions. The socioeconomic setting and existing public service capacity determine whether an intervention can have a significant outcome in terms of a reduction in a defined risk. The epidemiological context determines whether such risk reduction translates into a measurable impact on HIV incidence. Measurement of variables describing the epidemiological context can be used to determine the local suitability of interventions, thereby guiding planners and policy-makers in their choice of intervention. Such measurements also permit the retrospective analysis of the impact of interventions where HIV incidence was not recorded. The epidemiological context is defined for four different categories of intervention, shown to be effective in lower-income countries by randomized controlled trials. Appropriate indicators for the epidemiological context and methodological guidelines for their measurement are proposed. Their use in the transfer of a successful intervention from one context to another and in scaling up the effort to control HIV infection is explored. These indicators should provide a useful resource for those involved in planning HIV prevention interventions. PMID:11799444
Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu
Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes.
Levy, Matthew E; Watson, Christopher Chauncey; Wilton, Leo; Criss, Vittoria; Kuo, Irene; Glick, Sara Nelson; Brewer, Russell A; Magnus, Manya
Eliminating racial HIV disparities among men who have sex with men (MSM) will require a greater uptake of HIV prevention and care interventions among Black MSM (BMSM), yet such strategies generally require meaningful engagement in a health care system that often does not meet the unique needs of BMSM. This study assessed the acceptability of, and correlates of having favorable perceptions of, a mobile smartphone application (app) intervention for BMSM that aims to remove structural barriers and improve access to culturally relevant HIV prevention and care services. An Internet-based sample of 93 BMSM completed an online survey on their perceptions of the app using 14 items measured on a 100-point visual analogue scale that were validated in exploratory factor analysis (alpha=0.95). Among the sample, perceptions of two sample app modules were generally favorable and most BMSM agreed that they would use the modules (81.2% and 87.1%). Correlates of having favorable perceptions included trusting medical advice from social networks, lacking private health insurance, and not having accessed a primary care physician in the last year. Our findings warrant the further development of this app and point to subgroups of BMSM for which it may have the greatest impact.
Levy, Matthew E.; Watson, Christopher Chauncey; Wilton, Leo; Criss, Vittoria; Kuo, Irene; Glick, Sara Nelson; Brewer, Russell A.; Magnus, Manya
Eliminating racial HIV disparities among men who have sex with men (MSM) will require a greater uptake of HIV prevention and care interventions among Black MSM (BMSM), yet such strategies generally require meaningful engagement in a health care system that often does not meet the unique needs of BMSM. This study assessed the acceptability of, and correlates of having favorable perceptions of, a mobile smartphone application (app) intervention for BMSM that aims to remove structural barriers and improve access to culturally relevant HIV prevention and care services. An Internet-based sample of 93 BMSM completed an online survey on their perceptions of the app using 14 items measured on a 100-point visual analogue scale that were validated in exploratory factor analysis (alpha=0.95). Among the sample, perceptions of two sample app modules were generally favorable and most BMSM agreed that they would use the modules (81.2% and 87.1%). Correlates of having favorable perceptions included trusting medical advice from social networks, lacking private health insurance, and not having accessed a primary care physician in the last year. Our findings warrant the further development of this app and point to subgroups of BMSM for which it may have the greatest impact. PMID:26594251
Pantin, Hilda; Schwartz, Seth J.; Sullivan, Summer; Prado, Guillermo; Szapocznik, José
The purpose of this article is to illustrate how an ecodevelopmental perspective on risk and protection can be applied to the study and prevention of unsafe sexual behavior in Hispanic immigrant adolescents. Special attention is given to culturally based ecodevelopmental risk and protective processes that may influence unsafe sexual behavior among Hispanic adolescents. Principles for designing prevention programs to offset these risks are offered on the basis of an ecodevelopmental HIV prevention program that has been developed and is currently being tested. PMID:15554814
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD.... 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Health Resources and Services... with advising the Director, CDC and the Administrator, HRSA, regarding activities related to...
Kikaya, Virgile; Kakaire, Rajab; Thompson, Elizabeth; Ramokhele, Mareitumetse; Adamu, Tigistu; Curran, Kelly; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel
ABSTRACT Background: The World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS recommend early infant male circumcision (EIMC) as a component of male circumcision programs in countries with high HIV prevalence and low circumcision rates. Lesotho began incorporating EIMC into routine maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) services in 2013 with funding from the United States Agency for International Development and United Nations Children’s Fund. This presented unique challenges: Lesotho had no previous experience with EIMC and cultural traditions link removal of the foreskin to rites of passage. This process evaluation provides an overview of EIMC implementation. Methodology: The Lesotho Ministry of Health and Jhpiego conducted a baseline assessment before service implementation. Baseline information from an initial assessment was used to develop and implement an EIMC program that had a pilot and a scale-up phase. Key program activities such as staff training, quality assurance, and demand creation were included at the program design phase. Facilitating factors and challenges were identified from a review of information collected during the baseline assessment as well as the pilot. Results: Between September 2013 and March 2015, 592 infants were circumcised at 9 sites: 165 (28%) between 1 day and 6 days after birth; 196 (33%) between 7 and 30 days, and 231 (39%) between 31 and 60 days. Facilitating factors included strong support from the Ministry of Health, collaboration with stakeholders, and donor funding. Providers were enthusiastic about the opportunity to offer new services and receive training. Challenges included gaining consent from family members other than mothers, and parents’ concern about pain and complications. The EIMC program also had to manage providers’ expectations of compensation because overtime was paid to providers who took part in adult circumcision programming but not for EIMC. Limited human resources
Torabi, Mohammad R., Ed.
This second special issue of the Health Education Monograph Series on HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Communities presents seven articles: (1) "Preventing Maternal-Infant Transmission of HIV: Social and Ethical Issues" (James G. Anderson, Marilyn M. Anderson, and Tara Booth); (2) "HIV Infection in Diverse Rural Population: Migrant Farm…
Torabi, Mohammad R., Ed.
This third special issue of the Health Education Monograph Series on HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Communities presents 9 articles on: "Rural Adolescent Views of HIV Prevention: Focus Groups at Two Indiana Rural 4-H Clubs" (William L. Yarber and Stephanie A. Sanders); "Implementing HIV Education: Beyond Curriculum" (Susan…
Wright, Harold A.
The purpose of this guide is to identify the various opportunities available in most communities for delivering crime prevention services to youth so that they will be better prepared to reduce their vulnerability to crime, while enhancing their involvement in prevention efforts. It also serves to outline the benefits of programming with youth;…
and non - ionizing radiation, to include licensing and authorizations, personal protective measures, radiation detection and measuring equipment, control...located at and providing OH services primarily for non -DA(such as the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA)) installations. (2) The DA Form 3076 will be...failure. Hepatitis A and non -A non -B hepa- titis are transmitted by the fecal-oral route, while hepatitis B is transmitted through the exchange of
Phillips-Guzman, Christina M; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Blumberg, Elaine J; Sipan, Carol L; Rovniak, Liza S; Kelley, Norma J
Participation of different community sectors, including the private business sector, is necessary to fight the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Local businesses may be reluctant to participate in HIV prevention because of fear of negative customer reactions and loss of revenue. This study examines the extent to which residents of two communities in San Diego, California, would support HIV prevention initiatives in local businesses. A population-based household survey (N = 200) is conducted in two communities with higher versus lower risk for HIV. The survey includes questions regarding the acceptability of HIV prevention activities, such as condom and brochure distribution in businesses, and history of exposure to HIV prevention activities in local businesses. Most residents agree that (a) business involvement in prevention activities would reduce HIV (92%), (b) free or low-cost condoms available in businesses could prevent the spread of HIV (90.9%) and increase condom accessibility (87%), and (c) they would prefer to shop at businesses that supported HIV prevention versus those that did not (87.4%). These findings suggest that HIV prevention in local businesses would be supported by residents and would be unlikely to adversely affect business profits. This information could be used to design interventions to engage local businesses in HIV-prevention efforts.
Kiene, Susan M; Sileo, Katelyn; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Lule, Haruna; Bateganya, Moses H; Jasperse, Joseph; Nantaba, Harriet; Jayaratne, Kia
In Uganda, a nationwide scale-up of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling presents an opportunity to deliver HIV-prevention services to large numbers of people. In a rural Ugandan hospital, focus group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted with outpatients receiving provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling and staff to explore the HIV-prevention information, motivation and behavioural skills strengths and weaknesses, and community-level and structural barriers to provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling acceptability and HIV prevention among this population. Strengths and weakness occurred at all levels, and results suggest brief client-centred interventions during provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling may be an effective approach to increase prevention behaviours in outpatient settings.
Crocker, Allen C.
The special developmental needs of young children with congenital HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection require evaluation, training, therapy, and other supports. Such services should be guided by developmentalists in a child study center in close alliance with medical, educational, and community service providers. Concerns about the…
Harmon, Thomas; Guo, Wei; Stover, John; Wu, Zunyou; Kaufman, Joan; Schneider, Kammerle; Liu, Li; Feng, Liao; Schwartländer, Bernard
China's commitment to implementing established and emerging HIV/AIDS prevention and control strategies has led to substantial gains in terms of access to antiretroviral treatment and prevention services, but the evolving and multifaceted HIV/AIDS epidemic in China highlights the challenges of maintaining that response. This study presents modeling results exploring the potential impact of HIV vaccines in the Chinese context at varying efficacy and coverage rates, while further exploring the potential implications of vaccination programs aimed at reaching populations at highest risk of HIV infection. A preventive HIV vaccine would add a powerful tool to China's response, even if not 100% efficacious or available to the full population.
Lyons, Thomas; Osunkoya, Emmanuel; Anguh, Ivonne; Adefuye, Adedeji; Balogun, Joseph
The prevalence rate of HIV infection in jails and prisons is approximately 5 times the rate in the U.S. general population. The authors surveyed state prison officials to assess HIV testing and HIV prevention policies--specifically voluntary testing, group HIV prevention counseling, and peer education--in the 50 states and to determine whether those policies are associated with the characteristics of the state and its prison population.
Oladele, Edward Adekola; Khamofu, Hadiza; Asala, Seun; Saleh, Mariya; Ralph-Opara, Uche; Nwosisi, Charles; Anyaike, Chukwuma; Gana, Catherine; Adedokun, Oluwasanmi; Dirks, Rebecca; Adebayo, Olufunsho; Oduwole, Modupe; Mandala, Justin; Torpey, Kwasi
Introduction As the world is making progress towards elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, poor coverage of PMTCT services in Nigeria remains a major challenge. In order to address this, scale-up was planned with activities organized into 3 phases. This paper describes the process undertaken in eight high burden Nigerian states to rapidly close PMTCT coverage gaps at facility and population levels between February 2013 and March 2014. Methods Activities were grouped into three phases–pre-assessment phase (engagement of a wide range of stakeholders), assessment (rapid health facility assessment, a cross sectional survey using mixed methods conducted in the various states between Feb and May 2013 and impact modelling), and post-assessment (drawing up costed state operational plans to achieve eMTCT by 2015, data-driven smart scale-up). Results Over a period of 10 months starting June 2013, 2044 facilities were supported to begin provision of PMTCT services. This increased facility coverage from 8% to 50%. A 246% increase was also recorded in the number of pregnant women and their families who have access to HIV testing and counselling in the context of PMTCT. Similarly, access to antiretrovirals for PMTCT has witnessed a 152% increase in these eight states between October 2013 and October 2014. Conclusion A data-driven and participatory approach can be used to rapidly scale-up PMTCT services at community and facility levels in this region. These results present us with hope for real progress in Nigeria. We are confident that the efforts described here will contribute significantly to eliminating new pediatric HIV infection in Nigeria. PMID:28046045
Davis, Tracy; Teaster, Pamela B.; Thornton, Alice; Watkins, John F.; Alexander, Linda; Zanjani, Faika
Purpose To explore primary care providers' HIV prevention practices for older adults. Primary care providers' perceptions and awareness were explored to understand factors that affect their provision of HIV prevention materials and HIV screening for older adults. Design and Method Data were collected through 24 semistructured interviews with primary care providers (i.e., physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) who see patients older than 50 years. Results Results reveal facilitators and barriers of HIV prevention for older adults among primary care providers and understanding of providers' HIV prevention practices and behaviors. Individual, patient, institutional, and societal factors influenced HIV prevention practices among participants, for example, provider training and work experience, lack of time, discomfort in discussing HIV/AIDS with older adults, stigma, and ageism were contributing factors. Furthermore, factors specific to primary and secondary HIV prevention were identified, for instance, the presence of sexually transmitted infections influenced providers' secondary prevention practices. Implications HIV disease, while preventable, is increasing among older adults. These findings inform future research and interventions aimed at increasing HIV prevention practices in primary care settings for patients older than 50. PMID:25736425
... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preventive services. 405.2449 Section 405.2449... Health Center Services Federally Qualified Health Center Services § 405.2449 Preventive services. For services furnished on or after January 1, 2011, preventive services covered under the Medicare FQHC...
Scott, Yanille; Dezzutti, Charlene S.
Non-antiretroviral microbicide candidates were previously explored as a female-controlled method of preventing sexual transmission of HIV. These products contained non-HIV specific active compounds that were ultimately found to disrupt the vaginal epithelium, cause increased immune activation in the female genital tract, disturb vaginal flora, and/or cause other irritation that precluded their use as vaginal microbicides. Due to the failure of these first-generation candidates, there was a shift in focus to developing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and microbicides containing small-molecule antiretrovirals. Even with the limited success of the antiretroviral-based microbicides in clinical evaluations and no commercially available products, there has been significant progress in microbicide research. The lessons learned from previous trials have given rise to more rigorous preclinical evaluation that aims to be better at predicting microbicide efficacy and safety and to novel formulation and delivery technologies. These advances have resulted in renewed interest in developing non-antiretroviral-based microbicides, such as broadly neutralizing antibodies (for example, VRC01) and anti-viral proteins (for example, Griffithsin), as options for persons not wanting to use antiretroviral drugs, and for their potential to prevent multiple sexually transmitted infections. PMID:27438574
This essay discusses the rationale for targeting HIV prevention programs to the general public, as opposed to focusing strictly on high-risk populations. The author first considers varying definitions of the term "general public," then explains the goal of general public education programs. Additionally, the author lays down the theoretical foundations of general audience education programs and weights related research findings. Finally, he offers recommendations for future practice. Noting the complex socioecological elements involved in health behavior, the author argues in favor of a broad definition for the general public. This broad outlook allows programs to still target high-risk population while not bypassing low-risk persons, who are sometimes treated as irrelevant because they do not contribute to excess morbidity or mortality. When it comes to HIV educational programs for the general public, their goals should be to instruct the public on how the virus is transmitted, to allay unfounded fears, and to increase the level of support for AIDS prevention and control. Such a program would require a theoretical basis drawn from multiple sources: health education, health communication, clinical and social psychology, and social marketing. The author concludes by proving recommendations designed to reinforce existing programs: 1) strengthen efforts to ensure that all people are educated about HIV and to encourage people to treat AIDS patients with compassion; 2) continue to explore for the most effective communication channels; 3) strengthen the communication infrastructure for those who are disenfranchised from health education; and 4) strengthen evaluation efforts of health communication programs.
Lloyd, Stacey W; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha
Though African-American youth in the South are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African-American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates of HIV infection with marked racial disparities. Focus group discussions explored participant views on contributors to the elevated rates of HIV and resources available to reduce transmission. Participants consistently identified the public schools' sex education policies and practices as major barriers toward preventing HIV infection among youth in their community. Ideas for decreasing youth's risk of HIV included public schools providing access to health services and sex education. Policymakers, school administrators, and other stakeholders should consider the public school setting as a place to provide HIV prevention education for youth in rural areas.
Thibodeau, Laura; BlueSpruce, June; Yard, Samantha S.; Seal, David W.; Amico, K. Rivet; Bogart, Laura M.; Mahoney, Christine; Balderson, Benjamin H. K.; Sosman, James M.
Greater understanding of barriers to risk reduction among incarcerated HIV+ persons reentering the community is needed to inform culturally tailored interventions. This qualitative study elicited HIV prevention-related information, motivation and behavioral skills (IMB) needs of 30 incarcerated HIV+ men and women awaiting release from state prison. Unmet information needs included risk questions about viral loads, positive sexual partners, and transmission through casual contact. Social motivational barriers to risk reduction included partner perceptions that prison release increases sexual desirability, partners’ negative condom attitudes, and HIV disclosure-related fears of rejection. Personal motivational barriers included depression and strong desires for sex or substance use upon release. Behavioral skills needs included initiating safer behaviors with partners with whom condoms had not been used prior to incarceration, disclosing HIV status, and acquiring clean needles or condoms upon release. Stigma and privacy concerns were prominent prison context barriers to delivering HIV prevention services during incarceration. PMID:21553252
Catz, Sheryl L; Thibodeau, Laura; BlueSpruce, June; Yard, Samantha S; Seal, David W; Amico, K Rivet; Bogart, Laura M; Mahoney, Christine; Balderson, Benjamin H K; Sosman, James M
Greater understanding of barriers to risk reduction among incarcerated HIV+ persons reentering the community is needed to inform culturally tailored interventions. This qualitative study elicited HIV prevention-related information, motivation and behavioral skills (IMB) needs of 30 incarcerated HIV+ men and women awaiting release from state prison. Unmet information needs included risk questions about viral loads, positive sexual partners, and transmission through casual contact. Social motivational barriers to risk reduction included partner perceptions that prison release increases sexual desirability, partners' negative condom attitudes, and HIV disclosure-related fears of rejection. Personal motivational barriers included depression and strong desires for sex or substance use upon release. Behavioral skills needs included initiating safer behaviors with partners with whom condoms had not been used prior to incarceration, disclosing HIV status, and acquiring clean needles or condoms upon release. Stigma and privacy concerns were prominent prison context barriers to delivering HIV prevention services during incarceration.
Toledo, Lauren; Dunbar, Erica; Aquino, Gustavo A.; Nesheim, Steven R.
Objectives We identified the level and type of program collaboration and service integration (PCSI) among HIV prevention programs in 59 CDC-funded health department jurisdictions. Methods Annual progress reports (APRs) completed by all 59 health departments funded by CDC for HIV prevention activities were reviewed for collaborative and integrated activities reported by HIV programs for calendar year 2009. We identified associations between PCSI activities and funding, AIDS diagnosis rate, and organizational integration. Results HIV programs collaborated with other health department programs through data-related activities, provider training, and providing funding for sexually transmitted disease (STD) activities in 24 (41%), 31 (53%), and 16 (27%) jurisdictions, respectively. Of the 59 jurisdictions, 57 (97%) reported integrated HIV and STD testing at the same venue, 39 (66%) reported integrated HIV and tuberculosis testing, and 26 (44%) reported integrated HIV and viral hepatitis testing. Forty-five (76%) jurisdictions reported providing integrated education/outreach activities for HIV and at least one other disease. Twenty-six (44%) jurisdictions reported integrated partner services among HIV and STD programs. Overall, the level of PCSI activities was not associated with HIV funding, AIDS diagnoses, or organizational integration. Conclusions HIV programs in health departments collaborate primarily with STD programs. Key PCSI activities include integrated testing, integrated education/outreach, and training. Future assessments are needed to evaluate PCSI activities and to identify the level of collaboration and integration among prevention programs. PMID:24385647
Swendeman, Dallas; Flannery, Diane; Rice, Eric; Adamson, David M.; Ingram, Barbara
We propose a set of common factors in evidence-based interventions (EBI) for HIV prevention, which cut across theoretical models of behavior change. Three existing literatures support this agenda: (1) Common factors in psychotherapy; (2) core elements from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention EBIs; and (3) component analyses of EBI. To stimulate discussion among prevention researchers, we propose a set of common factors at the highest level of abstraction that describe what all effective programs do: (1) establish a framework to understand behavior change; (2) convey issue-specific and population-specific information necessary for healthy actions; (3) build cognitive, affective, and behavioral self-management skills; (4) address environmental barriers to implementing health behaviors; and (5) provide tools to develop ongoing social and community support for healthy actions. A focus on common factors will enhance research on new HIV prevention interventions, encourage collaboration among researchers, provide guidelines for adapting EBI, and simplify and speed the adoption of EBI for providers. PMID:18830813
Medley, Amy; Baggaley, Rachel; Bachanas, Pamela; Cohen, Myron; Shaffer, Nathan; Lo, Ying-Ru
Despite efforts to increase access to HIV testing and counseling services, population coverage remains low. As a result, many people in sub-Saharan Africa do not know their own HIV status or the status of their sex partner(s). Recent evidence, however, indicates that as many as half of HIV-positive individuals in ongoing sexual relationships have an HIV-negative partner and that a significant proportion of new HIV infections in generalized epidemics occur within serodiscordant couples. Integrating couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) into routine clinic- and community-based services can significantly increase the number of couples where the status of both partners is known. Offering couples a set of evidence-based interventions once their HIV status has been determined can significantly reduce HIV incidence within couples and if implemented with sufficient scale and coverage, potentially reduce population-level HIV incidence as well. This article describes these interventions and their potential benefits.
Joshi, Beena; Velhal, Gajanan; Chauhan, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Ragini; Begum, Shahina
Background & objectives: Preventing unintended pregnancies among people living with HIV (PLHIV) is one of the strategies of WHO for preventing parent-to-child transmission (PPTCT). Given the limitation of only condom use, the objective of this study was to improve use of dual contraceptive methods among HIV infected women. Methods: An experimental study among HIV positive women was conducted at two tertiary care level hospitals in Mumbai. Linking HIV with family planning services was the focus of intervention at one site and standard level of care was maintained at the control site. At each site, 150 HIV+ve women attending counselling and testing centres, who did not intend to get pregnant in the next one year and were eligible to use dual methods, were enrolled and followed up to one year. Results: At the end of one year, 60 per cent women in the intervention group reached Family Planning Centres compared to eight per cent in the control group. There was three times more acceptance and continuation of use of dual methods along with increase in consistent use of condoms and less number of unplanned pregnancies in the intervention group than the control group. Interpretation & conclusions: The study findings demonstrate that linking HIV and family planning services may facilitate the uptake of dual methods of contraception without reducing consistent condom use among HIV infected women. The PPTCT programmes need to focus on the component of Prong 2 of PPTCT which aims to prevent unintended pregnancies among HIV positive women. PMID:27377503
Surratt, Hilary L.; O’Grady, Catherine; Kurtz, Steven P.; Buttram, Mance E.; Levi-Minzi, Maria A.
Background Although emerging Treatment as Prevention models can be effective in reducing HIV incidence among high-risk populations, many HIV infected individuals remain undiagnosed or fail to engage in HIV care. Methods This study examined the factors associated with HIV testing and care among a population of substance using female sex workers. Results Recent HIV testing was associated with higher education level, having a regular health care provider or clinic, recent crack use, and higher sexual risk behaviors; HIV treatment utilization was associated with higher levels of social support, having a regular health care provider or clinic, housing stability and insurance coverage. Qualitative data revealed HIV-related stigma, denial, social isolation, and substance use as barriers to HIV testing and treatment; social support and accessibility of services were key enablers. Conclusions Improving HIV testing and linkage to treatment among female sex workers will require structural initiatives to reduce stigma and increase service seeking support. PMID:25130245
Whitmore, Suzanne K.; Zaidi, Irum F.; Dean, Hazel D.
HIV/AIDS epidemiologic profiles describe the HIV/AIDS epidemic among state and local populations. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Health Resources Services Administration collaborated to develop one set of guidelines for developing epidemiologic profiles that would serve as the basis for both prevention and care planning.…
Venkatesh, Kartik K.
As antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection has become increasingly accessible, attention has focused on whether these drugs can used for prevention because of increased tolerability of newer medications, decreased cost, and the limitations of other approaches. We review the status of antiretroviral HIV prevention, including chemoprophylaxis, as well as the effects of treatment of infected individuals on prevention. It is possible that the life-saving agents that have transformed the natural history of AIDS can be a critical component of HIV prevention efforts, but their ultimate role in affecting HIV transmission dynamics remains to be defined. PMID:20724682
Holtgrave, David R; McGuire, Jean Flatley; Milan, Jesse
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has undertaken an advisory process to update its national HIV prevention plan. We offer observations on the magnitude of HIV prevention challenges in the United States and reflect on how these challenges might influence the structure of a new HIV prevention plan. We recommend a plan structure that (1) is based on fundamental principles of prevention, (2) enables accountability and mid-course correction, and (3) if achieved, would result in historic changes in the US HIV epidemic. The recommended plan structure would differentially prioritize serostatus determination and prevention and care interventions for people living with HIV while retaining goals directed at high-risk HIV-negative and general population members.
Dolan, Kate; Larney, Sarah
Background & Objectives: HIV is a major health challenge for prison authorities. HIV in prisons has implications for HIV in the general community. The aim of this paper was to gather information on HIV risk, prevalence, prevention and treatment in prisons in India. Methods: Relevant published and unpublished reports and information were sought in order to provide a coherent picture of the current situation relating to HIV prevention, treatment and care in prisons in India. Information covered prison management and population statistics, general conditions in prisons, provision of general medical care and the HIV situation in prison. Results: No data on drug injection in prison were identified. Sex between men was reported to be common in some Indian prisons. A national study found that 1.7 per cent of inmates were HIV positive. Some prisons provided HIV education. Condom provision was considered illegal. A few prisoners received drug treatment for drug use, HIV infection or co-infection with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Interpretation & conclusions: HIV prevalence in prisons in India was higher than that in the general community. Regular monitoring of information on HIV risk behaviours and prevalence in Indian prisons is strongly recommended. Evidence based treatment for drug injectors and nation-wide provision of HIV prevention strategies are urgently required. Voluntary counselling, testing and treatment for HIV and STIs should be provided. PMID:21245617
... prescribe PrEP, more HIV infections could be prevented. Health care providers can: Test patients for HIV as a regular part of ... Helping to monitor PrEP use and its effects. Health care providers can Test patients for HIV as a regular part of ...
Lépine, Aurélia; Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Blanc, Elodie; Le Nestour, Alexis
Governments and donors are investing considerable resources on HIV prevention in order to scale up these services rapidly. Given the current economic climate, providers of HIV prevention services increasingly need to demonstrate that these investments offer good 'value for money'. One of the primary routes to achieve efficiency is to take advantage of economies of scale (a reduction in the average cost of a health service as provision scales-up), yet empirical evidence on economies of scale is scarce. Methodologically, the estimation of economies of scale is hampered by several statistical issues preventing causal inference and thus making the estimation of economies of scale complex. In order to estimate unbiased economies of scale when scaling up HIV prevention services, we apply our analysis to one of the few HIV prevention programmes globally delivered at a large scale: the Indian Avahan initiative. We costed the project by collecting data from the 138 Avahan NGOs and the supporting partners in the first four years of its scale-up, between 2004 and 2007. We develop a parsimonious empirical model and apply a system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and fixed-effects Instrumental Variable (IV) estimators to estimate unbiased economies of scale. At the programme level, we find that, after controlling for the endogeneity of scale, the scale-up of Avahan has generated high economies of scale. Our findings suggest that average cost reductions per person reached are achievable when scaling-up HIV prevention in low and middle income countries.
Wells, Jennifer; Clark, Khaya; Sarno, Karen
The efficacy of a computer-based interactive multimedia HIV/AIDS prevention program for men with intellectual disability (ID) was examined using a quasi-experimental within-subjects design. Thirty-seven men with mild to moderate intellectual disability evaluated the program. The pretest and posttest instruments assessed HIV/AIDS knowledge (high-risk fluids, HIV transmission, and condom facts) and condom application skills. All outcome measures showed statistically significant gains from pretest to posttest, with medium to large effect sizes. In addition, a second study was conducted with twelve service providers who work with men with ID. Service providers reviewed the HIV/AIDS prevention program, completed a demographics questionnaire, and a program satisfaction survey. Overall, service providers rated the program highly on several outcome measures (stimulation, relevance, and usability).
Lépine, Aurélia; Chandrashekar, Sudhashree; Shetty, Govindraj; Vickerman, Peter; Bradley, Janet; Alary, Michel; Moses, Stephen; Vassall, Anna
Expanding essential health services through non-government organisations (NGOs) is a central strategy for achieving universal health coverage in many low-income and middle-income countries. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention services for key populations are commonly delivered through NGOs and have been demonstrated to be cost-effective and of substantial global public health importance. However, funding for HIV prevention remains scarce, and there are growing calls internationally to improve the efficiency of HIV prevention programmes as a key strategy to reach global HIV targets. To date, there is limited evidence on the determinants of costs of HIV prevention delivered through NGOs; and thus, policymakers have little guidance in how best to design programmes that are both effective and efficient. We collected economic costs from the Indian Avahan initiative, the largest HIV prevention project conducted globally, during the first 4 years of its implementation. We use a fixed-effect panel estimator and a random-intercept model to investigate the determinants of average cost. We find that programme design choices such as NGO scale, the extent of community involvement, the way in which support is offered to NGOs and how clinical services are organised substantially impact average cost in a grant-based payment setting.
Chandrashekar, Sudhashree; Shetty, Govindraj; Vickerman, Peter; Bradley, Janet; Alary, Michel; Moses, Stephen; Vassall, Anna
Abstract Expanding essential health services through non‐government organisations (NGOs) is a central strategy for achieving universal health coverage in many low‐income and middle‐income countries. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention services for key populations are commonly delivered through NGOs and have been demonstrated to be cost‐effective and of substantial global public health importance. However, funding for HIV prevention remains scarce, and there are growing calls internationally to improve the efficiency of HIV prevention programmes as a key strategy to reach global HIV targets. To date, there is limited evidence on the determinants of costs of HIV prevention delivered through NGOs; and thus, policymakers have little guidance in how best to design programmes that are both effective and efficient. We collected economic costs from the Indian Avahan initiative, the largest HIV prevention project conducted globally, during the first 4 years of its implementation. We use a fixed‐effect panel estimator and a random‐intercept model to investigate the determinants of average cost. We find that programme design choices such as NGO scale, the extent of community involvement, the way in which support is offered to NGOs and how clinical services are organised substantially impact average cost in a grant‐based payment setting. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26763652
Pinto, R. M.; McKay, M. M.
Grounded in a model of service utilization, this study conceptualizes attendance of African-American women at an HIV prevention intervention as associated with influences across three ecological domains--individual, service (program), and social network. First, the texts of responses to semistructured, open-ended elicitation interviews were…
Kauffman, C; Hue, L
This article describes an adolescent, peer-education training program in Jamaica that was developed and operated by the Red Cross Societies of Jamaica and the US and was funded by AIDSCAP. The program aimed to develop a training system to prepare youth peer educators in preventing the spread of HIV infections and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal was to increase knowledge about, change attitudes toward, and develop prevention skills for HIV/AIDS. The initial program was to be replicated on a large scale and be sustainable over time. The program was developed in response to the 1500+ Jamaicans diagnosed with AIDS and the 20,000 or so with HIV infections. Transmission is mostly heterosexual. 15% of girls and 47% of boys are sexually active by 14 years of age, and almost 50% of syphilis and gonorrhea cases are among adolescents. The national training program relies on peer educators, aged 14-19 years, who are literate to the 6th-grade level. Training sessions are conducted for 10-21 persons/session for 27 hours over 3 weekends. Training relies on engaging games and activities. Trainees are taught how to facilitate 14 specific activities, including the correct way to use a condom. Peer educators work together in groups of twos or threes among groups of 10-15 adolescents, aged 10-15 years. By the third year of operation, most of the systems and materials were in place and the program expanded; cost-benefit analysis revealed that costs were returned. The program has continued with a variety of funds and delivery systems and new funding will likely shift the program emphasis. The program has survived with the enthusiasm and support of the trainers. Other start-up programs should ensure the involvement of youth at all stages of development.
CIANELLI, ROSINA; FERRER, LILIAN; MCELMURRY, BEVERLY J.
Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV. PMID:18432428
Teitelman, Anne M.; Bevilacqua, Amanda W.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet
Background: Women and adolescent girls bear a significant burden of the global HIV pandemic. Both behavioral and biomedical prevention approaches have been shown to be effective. In order to foster the most effective combination HIV-prevention approaches for women and girls, it is imperative to understand the unique biological, social, and structural considerations that increase vulnerability to acquiring HIV within this population. Primary Study Objective: The purpose of this article is to propose novel ideas for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention for women and adolescent girls. The central argument is that we must transcend unilevel solutions for HIV prevention toward comprehensive, multilevel combination HIV prevention packages to actualize personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention. Our hope is to foster transnational dialogue among researchers, practitioners, educators, and policy makers toward the actualization of the proposed recommendations. Methods: We present a commentary organized to review biological, social, and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition among women and adolescent girls. The overview is followed by recommendations to curb HIV rates in the target population in a sustainable manner. Results: The physiology of the lower female reproductive system biologically increases HIV risk among women and girls. Social (eg, intimate partner violence) and structural (eg, gender inequality) factors exacerbate this risk by increasing the likelihood of viral exposure. Our recommendations for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention are to (1) create innovative mechanisms for personalized HIV risk—reduction assessments; (2) develop mathematical models of local epidemics; (3) prepare personalized, evidence-based combination HIV risk—reduction packages; (4) structure gender equity into society; and (5) eliminate violence (both physical and structural) against women and girls. Conclusions: Generalized programs and
Nelwan, Erni J; Indrati, Agnes K; Isa, Ahmad; Triani, Nurlita; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Herlan, Maria S; Husen, Wahid; Pohan, Herdiman T; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Meheus, Andre; Van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre Jam
Validated data regarding HIV-transmission in prisons in developing countries is scarce. We examined sexual and injecting drug use behavior and HIV and HCV transmission in an Indonesian narcotic prison during the implementation of an HIV prevention and treatment program during 2004-2007 when the Banceuy Narcotic Prison in Indonesia conducted an HIV transmission prevention program to provide 1) HIV education, 2) voluntary HIV testing and counseling, 3) condom supply, 4) prevention of rape and sexual violence, 5) antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners and 6) methadone maintenance treatment. During a first survey that was conducted between 2007 and 2009, new prisoners entered Banceuy Narcotics Prison were voluntary tested for HIV and HCV-infection after written informed consent was obtained. Information regarding sexual and injecting risk behavior and physical status were also recorded at admission to the prison. Participants who tested negative for both HIV and HCV during the first survey were included in a second survey conducted during 2008-2011. During both surveys, data on mortality among HIV-seropositive patients were also recorded. All HIV-seropositive participants receive treatment for HIV. HIV/ AIDS-related deaths decreased: 43% in 2006, 18% in 2007, 9% in 2008 and 0% in 2009. No HIV and HCV seroconversion inside Banceuy Narcotic Prison were found after a median of 23 months imprisonment (maximum follow-up: 38 months). Total of 484.8 person-years observation was done. Participants reported HIV transmission risk-behavior in Banceuy Prison during the second survey was low. After implementation of HIV prevention and treatment program, no new HIV or HCV cases were detected and HIV-related mortality decreased.
Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Cheick, Diarra Mahamadou
This issue in the "Literacy Matters" looks at the relationship between literacy and HIV prevention education. It is the result of the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning's work on examining the contribution of non-formal education (NFE) to HIV prevention, carried out in collaboration with the Association for the Development of…
Mouttapa, Michele; Watson, Donnie W.; McCuller, William J.; Reiber, Chris; Tsai, Winnie
Evidence-based programs for substance use and HIV prevention (SUHIP) were adapted for high-risk juveniles detained at 24-hour secure correctional facilities. In this pilot study, comparisons were made between adolescents who received the SUHIP intervention and a control group on changes in: (1) knowledge of HIV prevention behaviors, (2) attitudes…
LaChausse, Robert G.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of Positive Prevention, a theory-based, HIV/STD prevention education curriculum for high school youth. Three hundred fifty-three students participated in a longitudinal experimental design to determine the impact of the curriculum on HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy to abstain from sex, self-efficacy of…
Amaro, Hortensia; Raj, Anita; Reed, Elizabeth; Ulibarri, Monica
This article first presents the political, personal, and epidemiological context of Hortensia Amaro's 1988 publication in "Psychology of Women Quarterly" ("PWQ"), "Considerations for Prevention of HIV Infection Among Hispanic Women" (Amaro, 1988). Second, it provides a brief summary of progress in HIV prevention with Latinas. The third section…
Marseille, Elliot; Dandona, Lalit; Saba, Joseph; McConnel, Coline; Rollins, Brandi; Gaist, Paul; Lundberg, Mattias; Over, Mead; Bertozzi, Stefano; Kahn, James G
Objective To develop data collection methods suitable to obtain data to assess the costs, cost-efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of eight types of HIV prevention programs in five countries. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data collection from prevention programs for 2002–2003 and prior years, in Uganda, South Africa, India, Mexico, and Russia. Study Design This study consisted of a retrospective review of HIV prevention programs covering one to several years of data. Key variables include services delivered (outputs), quality indicators, and costs. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were collected by trained in-country teams during week-long site visits, by reviewing service and financial records and interviewing program managers and clients. Principal Findings Preliminary data suggest that the unit cost of HIV prevention programs may be both higher and more variable than previous studies suggest. Conclusions A mix of standard data collection methods can be successfully implemented across different HIV prevention program types and countries. These methods can provide comprehensive services and cost data, which may carry valuable information for the allocation of HIV prevention resources. PMID:15544641
Cohen, Myron S.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Smith, M. Kumi; Powers, Kimberly A.; Kashuba, Angela D.M.
Antiviral agents can be used to prevent HIV transmission before exposure as preexpo-sure prophylaxis (PrEP), after exposure as postexposure prophylaxis, and as treatment of infected people for secondary prevention. Considerable research has shed new light on antiviral agents for PrEP and for prevention of secondary HIV transmission. While promising results have emerged from several PrEP trials, the challenges of poor adherence among HIV-negative clients and possible increase in sexual risk behaviors remain a concern. In addition, a broader pipeline of antiviral agents for PrEP that focuses on genital tract pharmacology and safety and resistance issues must be developed. Antiretroviral drugs have also been used to prevent HIV transmission from HIV-infected patients to their HIV-discordant sexual partners. The HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 trial demonstrated nearly complete prevention of HIV transmission by early treatment of infection, but the generalizability of the results to other risk groups – including intravenous drug users and MSM – has not been determined. Most importantly, the best strategy for use of antiretroviral agents to reduce the spread of HIV at either the individual level or the population level has not been developed, and remains the ultimate goal of this area of investigation. PMID:22507927
There has been, and still is a firm belief that regular use of dental services is beneficial for all. Thus governments in most European countries have shown some interest in training oral health care professionals, distributing the dental workforce and cost sharing. Constantly evolving treatment options and the introduction of new methods make dental clinicians feel uncertain as to which treatments are most useful, who would benefit from them, and which treatments will achieve cost-effective health gain. Although there is a considerable quantity of scientific literature showing that most available preventive measures are effective, and the number of sensible best-practice guidelines in prevention is growing, there are few studies on cost-efficiency of different methods and, secondly, the prevention and treatment guidelines are poorly known among general practitioners. In the eyes of the public, it is obvious that preventive methods practised by patients at home have been eclipsed by clinical procedures performed in dental clinics. Reliance on an increasingly individualistic approach to health care leads to the medicalisation of issues that are not originally health or medical problems. It is important to move general oral disease prevention back to the people who must integrate this in their daily routines. Prevention primarily based on healthy lifestyles, highlighted in the new public health strategy of the European Union (EU), is the key to future health policy.
Hales, James R
HIV in Australia was first diagnosed in NSW in the early 1980s, and has had a significant effect on public health. The NSW Government commenced its investment in HIV/AIDS in 1984 and the investment now encompasses research, primary and secondary prevention, and care, treatment and support for people living with HIV/AIDS. A recent study examined the historical impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and projected its future impact in NSW. The analysis indicates that the NSW HIV/AIDS investment program has been highly effective in reducing HIV transmission, and has also been cost effective in: avoiding future health-care costs; life years saved; and quality of life benefits. The analysis also indicates that any scaling back of prevention initiatives would result in an increase in the number of people living with HIV.
Kamali, Anatoli; Price, Matt A.; Lakhi, Shabir; Karita, Etienne; Inambao, Mubiana; Sanders, Eduard J.; Anzala, Omu; Latka, Mary H.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Asiki, Gershim; Ssetaala, Ali; Ruzagira, Eugene; Allen, Susan; Farmer, Paul; Hunter, Eric; Mutua, Gaudensia; Makkan, Heeran; Tichacek, Amanda; Brill, Ilene K.; Fast, Pat; Stevens, Gwynn; Chetty, Paramesh; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Gilmour, Jill
HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner. PMID:25602351
Kamali, Anatoli; Price, Matt A; Lakhi, Shabir; Karita, Etienne; Inambao, Mubiana; Sanders, Eduard J; Anzala, Omu; Latka, Mary H; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Asiki, Gershim; Ssetaala, Ali; Ruzagira, Eugene; Allen, Susan; Farmer, Paul; Hunter, Eric; Mutua, Gaudensia; Makkan, Heeran; Tichacek, Amanda; Brill, Ilene K; Fast, Pat; Stevens, Gwynn; Chetty, Paramesh; Amornkul, Pauli N; Gilmour, Jill
HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC) in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner.
Burnside, Helen; Hsu, Katherine; Smock, Laura; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Hall, Christopher; Marrazzo, Jeanne; Nagendra, Gowri; Rietmeijer, Cornelis; Rompalo, Ann; Thrun, Mark
Abstract Persons living with HIV (PLWH) are living longer, remaining sexually active, and may continue risky sexual behaviors. As such, it is crucial for providers to ask all HIV-positive patients about behaviors related to HIV transmission and STD acquisition. The “Ask, Screen, Intervene” (ASI) curriculum was developed to increase provider knowledge, skills, and motivation to incorporate risk assessment and prevention services into the care of PLWH. The ASI curriculum was delivered to 2558 HIV-care providers at 137 sites between September 30, 2007 and December 31, 2010. Immediately post-training, participants self-reported significant gains in perceived confidence to demonstrate ASI knowledge and skills (p<0.001) and 89% agreed they would update practices as a result of the training. Three to six months post-training, 320 participants who served PLWH or supervised HIV-care providers self-reported more frequently performing ASI skills (p<0.001), and 71% self-reported greater perceived confidence than before training to perform those skills (p<0.001). Limitations include self-reported measures and a 30% response rate to the 3–6 month follow-up survey. Our findings suggest that a well-coordinated training program can reach a national audience of HIV-care providers, significantly increase self-reported capacity to incorporate HIV/STD prevention into the care of PLWH, and increase implementation of national recommendations. PMID:24428796
McDavitt, Bryce; Ghani, Mansur A.; Nogg, Kelsey; Winder, Terrell J.A.; Soto, Juliana K.
Abstract Biomedical HIV prevention strategies, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), represent new opportunities to reduce critically high HIV infection rates among young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). We report results of 24 dyadic qualitative interviews (N=48), conducted in Los Angeles, CA, exploring how YBMSM and their friends view PrEP and PEP. Interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Participants had widely divergent levels of knowledge about these prevention methods. Misconceptions and mistrust regarding PrEP were common, and concerns were expressed about PrEP-related stigma and the potential for gossip among peers who might assume a person on PrEP was HIV-positive. Yet participants also framed PrEP and PEP as valuable new options within an expanded “tool kit” of HIV prevention strategies that created possibilities for preventing new HIV infections, dating men with a different HIV status, and decreased anxiety about exposure to HIV. We organized themes around four main areas: (1) information and misinformation about biomedical HIV prevention; (2) expectations about PrEP, sexual behavior, and stigma; (3) gossip, disclosure, and “spreading the word” about PrEP and PEP; and (4) the roles of PrEP and PEP in an expanded HIV prevention tool kit. The findings suggest a need for guidance in navigating the increasingly complex array of HIV-prevention options available to YBMSM. Such “prevention navigation” could counter misconceptions and address barriers, such as stigma and mistrust, while helping YBMSM make informed selections from among expanded HIV prevention options. PMID:26121564
Abraham, Amanda J.; O’Brien, Lauren A.; Bride, Brian E.; Roman, Paul M.
Background HIV infection among substance abusers is a growing concern in the United States. Little research, however, has examined the provision of HIV/AIDS services in substance abuse treatment programs. Methods This study examines the provision of onsite HIV/AIDS services in a nationally representative sample of 345 privately funded substance abuse treatment programs. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews with administrators and clinical directors of treatment programs in 2007–2008. Results Results show that larger programs and programs with a higher percentage of both African American and injection drug using (IDU) patients were more likely to offer onsite HIV/AIDS support groups and a dedicated HIV/AIDS treatment track. Multinomial logistic regression reveals that the odds of offering onsite HIV testing services were higher for hospital based programs, programs providing medical services onsite, and programs with higher percentages of African American patients, relative to the odds of offering no HIV testing or referring patients to an external provider for HIV testing services. The odds of providing onsite testing were lower for outpatient-only treatment programs, relative to the odds of offering no HIV testing or referring patients to an external provider for HIV testing services. Conclusions Our findings highlight critical barriers to the adoption of onsite HIV/AIDS services and suggest treatment programs are missing the opportunity to significantly impact HIV-related health outcomes. PMID:21145179
Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J
Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV.
Salazar, Ximena; Núnez-Curto, Arón; Villayzán, Jana; Castillo, Regina; Benites, Carlos; Caballero, Patricia; Cáceres, Carlos F
Introduction As a group, transwomen in Peru have the highest prevalence of HIV (>20%) in the country, but they have little access to HIV prevention, testing and care services. Until recently, Peru's national HIV programme did not recognize transwomen and had remained essentially static for decades. This changed in December 2014, when the Ministry of Health expressed its commitment to improve programming for transwomen and to involve transwomen organizations by prioritizing the development of a “Targeted Strategy Plan of STIs/HIV/AIDS Prevention and Comprehensive Care for Transwomen.” Discussion A policy dialogue between key stakeholders – Peru's Ministry of Health, academic scientists, civil society, transgender leaders and international agencies – created the conditions for a change in Peru's national HIV policy for transwomen. Supported by the effective engagement of all sectors, the Ministry of Health launched a plan to provide comprehensive HIV prevention and care for transwomen. The five-year plan includes new national guidelines for HIV prevention, care and support, and country-level investments in infrastructure and equipment. In addition to new biomedical strategies, the plan also incorporates several strategies to address structural factors that contribute to the vulnerability of transwomen. We identified three key factors that created the right conditions for this change in Peru's HIV policy. These factors include (1) the availability of solid evidence, based on scientific research; (2) ongoing efforts within the transwomen community to become better advocates of their own rights; and (3) a dialogue involving honest discussions between stakeholders about possibilities of changing the nation's HIV policy. Conclusions The creation of Peru's national plan for HIV prevention and care for transwomen shows that long-term processes, focused on human rights for transwomen in Peru, can lead to organizational and public-policy change. PMID:27431469
O'Dell, Brennan L; Rosser, B R Simon; Miner, Michael H; Jacoby, Scott M
An understanding of men's motivations to avoid risk behavior is needed to create efficacious HIV prevention programs for HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). This study investigates the relationship between sexual risk behavior and HIV prevention altruism, which is defined as the values, motivations, and practices of caretaking towards one's sexual partners to prevent the transmission of HIV. In a sample of 637 HIV-positive MSM, HIV prevention altruism significantly protects against serodiscordant unprotected anal intercourse (SDUAI) in crude analysis, but not after adjustment for drug use and compulsive sexual behavior. HIV prevention altruism is also related to not engaging in anal intercourse, but is not related to serodisclosure to secondary partners. Lack of altruism appears related to sexual risk behavior in HIV-positive MSM, although other psychological and contextual factors play significant roles. The promotion of HIV prevention altruism may provide a formidable new direction for HIV prevention programs.
Abstract The receipt of clinical preventive services is important for health promotion and prevention of illness, death, and disability for women in the United States. Today, the Affordable Care Act makes a variety of evidence-based preventive services available with no out-of-pocket cost to women with certain health insurance plans. Nevertheless, available service receipt data suggest receipt of the services for all American adults remains suboptimal. This article seeks to raise awareness about the critical gaps in the delivery of preventive services to women and highlight opportunities for women, primary care providers, and public health professionals to increase receipt of clinical preventive services among women. PMID:26447836
Mitchell, Jason W.
The majority of HIV prevention studies and programs have targeted individuals or operated at the community level. This has also been the standard approach when incorporating technology (e.g., web-based, smartphones) to help improve HIV prevention efforts. The tides have turned for both approaches: greater attention is now focusing on couples-based HIV prevention and using technology to help improve these efforts for maximizing reach and potential impact. To assess the extent that technology has been used to help advance HIV prevention with couples, a literature review was conducted using four databases and included studies that collected data from 2000 to early 2015. Results from this review suggest technology has primarily been used to help advance HIV prevention with couples as a tool for 1) recruitment and data collection and 2) intervention development. Challenges and limitations of conducting research (e.g., validity of dyadic data) along with future directions for how technology (e.g. mHealth, wearable sensors) can be used to advance HIV prevention with couples are then discussed. Given the growing and near ubiquitous use of the Internet and smartphones, further efforts in the realm of mhealth (e.g., applications or “apps”) and eHealth are needed to develop novel couples-focused HIV preventive interventions. PMID:26412083
Lippman, Sheri A.; Maman, Suzanne; MacPhail, Catherine; Twine, Rhian; Peacock, Dean; Kahn, Kathleen; Pettifor, Audrey
Introduction Community mobilizing strategies are essential to health promotion and uptake of HIV prevention. However, there has been little conceptual work conducted to establish the core components of community mobilization, which are needed to guide HIV prevention programming and evaluation. Objectives We aimed to identify the key domains of community mobilization (CM) essential to change health outcomes or behaviors, and to determine whether these hypothesized CM domains were relevant to a rural South African setting. Method We studied social movements and community capacity, empowerment and development literatures, assessing common elements needed to operationalize HIV programs at a community level. After synthesizing these elements into six essential CM domains, we explored the salience of these CM domains qualitatively, through analysis of 10 key informant in-depth-interviews and seven focus groups in three villages in Bushbuckridge. Results CM domains include: 1) shared concerns, 2) critical consciousness, 3) organizational structures/networks, 4) leadership (individual and/or institutional), 5) collective activities/actions, and 6) social cohesion. Qualitative data indicated that the proposed domains tapped into theoretically consistent constructs comprising aspects of CM processes. Some domains, extracted from largely Western theory, required little adaptation for the South African context; others translated less effortlessly. For example, critical consciousness to collectively question and resolve community challenges functioned as expected. However, organizations/networks, while essential, operated differently than originally hypothesized - not through formal organizations, but through diffuse family networks. Conclusions To date, few community mobilizing efforts in HIV prevention have clearly defined the meaning and domains of CM prior to intervention design. We distilled six CM domains from the literature; all were pertinent to mobilization in rural
AIDS Drug Assistance Programs in several states already have to put HIV-infected people on waiting lists to receive life-saving antiretroviral drugs because of budget shortfalls, and AIDS advocates say this problem will continue through 2002 and 2003 unless Congress provides a financial boost to HIV programs. Activists also say the United States will never achieve its goal of reducing new HIV infection rates by 50% within the next few years unless prevention spending is increased.
Arreola, Sonya; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Beck, Jack; Sundararaj, Mohan; Wilson, Patrick A; Hebert, Pato; Makofane, Keletso; Do, Tri D; Ayala, George
Globally, HIV disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM). This study explored associations between access to HIV services and (1) individual-level perceived sexual stigma; (2) country-level criminalization of homosexuality; and (3) country-level investment in HIV services for MSM. 3,340 MSM completed an online survey assessing access to HIV services. MSM from over 115 countries were categorized according to criminalization of homosexuality policy and investment in HIV services targeting MSM. Lower access to condoms, lubricants, and HIV testing were each associated with greater perceived sexual stigma, existence of homosexuality criminalization policies, and less investment in HIV services. Lower access to HIV treatment was associated with greater perceived sexual stigma and criminalization. Criminalization of homosexuality and low investment in HIV services were both associated with greater perceived sexual stigma. Efforts to prevent and treat HIV among MSM should be coupled with structural interventions to reduce stigma, overturn homosexuality criminalization policies, and increase investment in MSM-specific HIV services.
Solorio, Rosa; Norton-Shelpuk, Pamela; Forehand, Mark; Martinez, Marcos; Aguirre, Joel
Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a) describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b) describe the process of translating these messages into PSAs, including the application of a marketing strategy; (c) describe testing the PSAs within the Latino MSM community; and (c) determine a set of important factors to consider when developing HIV prevention messages for young Latino MSM who do not identify as gay.
Tsai, Alexander C.
Renewed enthusiasm for biomedical HIV prevention strategies has followed the recent publication of several high-profile HIV antiretroviral therapy-based HIV prevention trials. In a recent article, Roberts & Matthews (2012) accurately note some of the shortcomings of these individually targeted approaches to HIV prevention and advocate for increased emphasis on structural interventions that have more fundamental effects on the population distribution of HIV. However, they make some implicit assumptions about the extent to which structural interventions are user-independent and more sustainable than biomedical or behavioral interventions. In this article, I elaborate a simple typology of structural interventions along these two axes and suggest that they may be neither user-independent nor sustainable and therefore subject to the same sustainability concerns, costs, and potential unintended consequences as biomedical and behavioral interventions. PMID:22877933
Kim, Peter S; Read, Sarah W
HIV/AIDS is a global pandemic and is the leading infectious cause of death among adults. Although antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has dramatically improved the quality of life and increased the life expectancy of those infected with HIV, life-long suppressive treatment is required and a cure for HIV infection remains elusive; frequency of dosing and drug toxicity as well as the development of viral resistance pose additional limitations. Furthermore, preventative measures such as a vaccine or microbicide are urgently needed to curb the rate of new infections. The capabilities inherent to nanotechnology hold much potential for impact in the field of HIV treatment and prevention. This article reviews the potential for the multidisciplinary field of nanotechnology to advance the fields of HIV treatment and prevention.
Solorio, Rosa; Forehand, Mark; Aguirre, Joel
Young Latino immigrant men who have sex with men (MSM) are at risk for HIV and for delayed diagnosis. A need exists to raise awareness about HIV prevention in this population, including the benefits of timely HIV testing. This project was developed through collaboration between University of WA researchers and Entre Hermanos, a community-based organization serving Latinos. Building from a community-based participatory research approach, the researchers developed a campaign that was executed by Activate Brands, based in Denver, Colorado. The authors (a) describe the development of HIV prevention messages through the integration of previously collected formative data; (b) describe the process of translating these messages into PSAs, including the application of a marketing strategy; (c) describe testing the PSAs within the Latino MSM community; and (c) determine a set of important factors to consider when developing HIV prevention messages for young Latino MSM who do not identify as gay. PMID:24864201
Kimball, A M; Thant, M
The estimated number of HIV cases in Asia now exceeds the "worst case" scenario envisioned by the World Bank in 1993. While prevention efforts have failed to contain the epidemic in other parts of the world, Asia's private sector has the resources to contain the epidemic if it acts quickly. In parts of Asia, work place-based medical and health services already exist, but, to date, efforts to gain the cooperation of business and industry in HIV prevention programs have led to disappointment. Businesses in Thailand, on the other hand, have begun a vigorous prevention campaign led by the Thailand Business Coalition on AIDS. The countries where the epidemic has not yet made a big impact (Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Viet Nam, and the Philippines) are those where intervention could be most effective. Unfortunately, little corporate cooperation is occurring in these areas. Asian companies seem to fear contamination from the disease if they engage in prevention activities. Businesses in Asia have not faced the reality of the costs of AIDS which will rob companies of highly skilled workers who are expensive to replace, drive away foreign capital, and shrink the home market as people dedicate their resources to health care. While the impact of AIDS on businesses follows a tiered approach, all enterprises will eventually be affected adversely. The interrelated nature of Asia economies will also mean that even nations which are not experiencing the epidemic will feel its economic impact (for example, Japan will see its gross national product decrease because of trade losses caused by the epidemic in Thailand). Prevention efforts by businesses must be supported and encouraged by governments with financial and other incentives. Multinational corporations can have an effect on national companies as well as organize programs for their own employees. Because they depend upon longterm strategic thinking, Asian financial institutions are beginning to understand the role that
Sinha, Gita; Peters, David H; Bollinger, Robert C
The emergence of HIV in rural India has the potential to heighten gender inequity in a context where women already suffer significant health disparities. Recent Indian health policies provide new opportunities to identify and implement gender-equitable rural HIV services. In this review, we adapt Mosley and Chen's conceptual framework of health to outline determinants for HIV health services utilization and outcomes. Examining the framework through a gender lens, we conduct a comprehensive literature review for gender-related gaps in HIV clinical services in rural India, focusing on patient access and outcomes, provider practices, and institutional partnerships. Contextualizing findings from rural India in the broader international literature, we describe potential strategies for gender-equitable HIV services in rural India, as responses to the following three questions: (1) What gender-specific patient needs should be addressed for gender-equitable HIV testing and care? (2) What do health care providers need to deliver HIV services with gender equity? (3) How should institutions enforce and sustain gender-equitable HIV services? Data at this early stage indicate substantial gender-related differences in HIV services in rural India, reflecting prevailing gender norms. Strategies including gender-specific HIV testing and care services would directly address current gender-specific patient needs. Rural care providers urgently need training in gender sensitivity and HIV-related communication and clinical skills. To enforce and sustain gender equity, multi-sectoral institutions must establish gender-equitable medical workplaces, interdisciplinary HIV services partnerships, and oversight methods, including analysis of gender-disaggregated data. A gender-equitable approach to rural India's rapidly evolving HIV services programmes could serve as a foundation for gender equity in the overall health care system. PMID:19244284
This report provides updated, integrated recommendations for services provided to partners of persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and three other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) (i.e., syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infection) and replaces the CDC 2001 Program Operations Guidelines for STD Prevention---Partner Services and the 1998 HIV Partner Counseling and Referral Services Guidance. These recommendations are intended for health department program managers responsible for overseeing partner services programs for HIV infection and the three other STDs at the state and local levels. The recommendations also might be beneficial for HIV prevention community planning groups, STD program advisory bodies, technical assistance providers, community-based organizations, and clinical care providers. The value of partner services in the control of syphilis and gonorrhea is widely accepted. However, such services are underused among partners of persons with HIV infection. On the basis of evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these services, CDC strongly recommends that all persons with newly diagnosed or reported HIV infection or early syphilis receive partner services with active health department involvement. Persons with a diagnosis of, or who are reported with, gonorrhea or chlamydial infection also are suitable candidates for partner services; however, resource limitations and the numerous cases of these infections might preclude direct health department involvement in certain instances. Health departments might need to limit direct involvement in partner services for gonorrhea and chlamydial infection to selected high-priority cases and use other strategies for the remainder (e.g., expedited partner therapy). These recommendations highlight the importance of program collaboration and service integration in the provision of partner services. Because coinfection with HIV and one or more other STDs is common, all persons with a
The World Health Organization estimates that 50% of the 30 million HIV infections worldwide occurred in young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years. In the United States, national statistics estimate that almost 40% of new HIV cases occur in youth ages 13-29 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). Therefore, a focus on preventing…
Aletraris, Lydia; Roman, Paul M
The provision of HIV education and testing in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment programs is an important public health strategy for reducing HIV incidence. For many at-risk individuals, SUD treatment represents the primary point of access for testing and receiving HIV-related services. This study uses two waves of nationally representative data of 265 privately-funded SUD treatment programs in the U.S. to examine organizational and patient characteristics associated with offering a dedicated HIV/AIDS treatment track, onsite HIV/AIDS support groups, and onsite HIV testing. Our longitudinal analysis indicated that the majority of treatment programs reported providing education and prevention services, but there was a small, yet significant, decline in the number of programs providing these services. Programs placed more of an emphasis on providing information on the transmission of HIV rather than on acquiring risk-reduction skills. There was a notable and significant increase (from 26.0% to 31.7%) in programs that offered onsite HIV testing, including rapid HIV testing, and an increase in the percentage of patients who received testing in the programs. Larger programs were more likely to offer a dedicated HIV/AIDS treatment track and to offer onsite HIV/AIDS support groups, while accredited programs and programs with a medical infrastructure were more likely to provide HIV testing. The percentage of injection drug users was positively linked to the availability of specialized HIV/AIDS tracks and HIV/AIDS support groups, and the percentage of female clients was associated with the availability of onsite support groups. The odds of offering HIV/AIDS support groups were also greater in programs that had a dedicated LGBT track. The findings suggest that access to hospitals and medical care services is an effective way to facilitate adoption of HIV services and that programs are providing a needed service among a group of patients who have a heightened risk of HIV
Roman, Paul M.
The provision of HIV education and testing in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment programs is an important public health strategy for reducing HIV incidence. For many at-risk individuals, SUD treatment represents the primary point of access for testing and receiving HIV-related services. This study uses two waves of nationally representative data of 265 privately-funded SUD treatment programs in the U.S. to examine organizational and patient characteristics associated with offering a dedicated HIV/AIDS treatment track, onsite HIV/AIDS support groups, and onsite HIV testing. Our longitudinal analysis indicated that the majority of treatment programs reported providing education and prevention services but there was a small, yet significant, decline in the number of programs providing these services. Programs placed more of an emphasis on providing information on the transmission of HIV rather than on acquiring risk reduction skills. There was a notable and significant increase (from 26.0% to 31.7%) in programs that offered onsite HIV testing, including rapid HIV testing, and an increase in the percentage of patients who received testing in the programs. Larger programs were more likely to offer a dedicated HIV/AIDS treatment track and to offer onsite HIV/AIDS support groups, while accredited programs and programs with a medical infrastructure were more likely to provide HIV testing. The percentage of injection drug users was positively linked to the availability of specialized HIV/AIDS tracks and HIV/AIDS support groups, and the percentage of female clients was associated with the availability of onsite support groups. The odds of offering HIV/AIDS support groups were also greater in programs that had a dedicated LGBT track. The findings suggest that access to hospitals and medical care services is an effective way to facilitate adoption of HIV services and that programs are providing a needed service among a group of patients who have a heightened risk of HIV
Karau, Paul Bundi; Winnie, Mueni Saumu; Geoffrey, Muriira; Mwenda, Mukuthuria
Uptake of VCT and other HIV prevention strategies among rural African women is affected by various socio-cultural and economic factors which need elucidation. Our aim was to establish the responsiveness to HIV education among rural women attending three dispensaries in Kenya. This study was designed to assess gender and psycho-social factors that influence HIV dynamics in rural Kenya. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire based study of 1347 women, conducted in October 2009. Socio-economic status as well as knowledge on methods of HIV transmission was assessed. Testing status, knowledge on existing VCT services and willingness to share HIV information with their children was assessed. Majority of the women have heard about VCT services, but significantly few of them have been tested. Those with secondary school education and above are more knowledgeable on methods of HIV transmission, while those with inadequate education are more likely to cite shaking hands, sharing utensils, mosquito bites and hugging as means of transmission (p = 0.001). 90% of educated women are willing to share HIV information with their children, compared to 40% of uneducated women. Marital status is seen to positively influence testing status, but has no significant effect on dissemination of information to children. We conclude that despite the aggressive HIV education and proliferation of VCT services in Kenya, women are not heeding the call to get tested. Education has a positive impact on dissemination of HIV information. Focus needs to shift into increasing acceptability of testing by women in rural Kenya.
Turchi, Marília Dalva; Duarte, Lucélia da Silva; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi
The objectives of this study were to estimate the risk of vertical HIV transmission and assess the associated factors and missed opportunities for prevention in a cohort of HIV+ pregnant women (1995-2001) treated in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil, with follow-up of their children until 2005. Three data sources were compared: Information System on Reportable Diseases (SINAN), Information System on HIV+ Pregnant Women and Exposed Children (SISGHIV), and patient clinical charts. The study estimated the vertical transmission rates, factors associated with vertical transmission, and use of antiretroviral therapy. 276 HIV+ women were identified (322 pregnancies), and there were 70 HIV+ children. Overall risk of vertical HIV transmission was 27.8%. The vertical transmission rate was 40.8% in the group without prophylaxis and 1% in the group with adequate prophylaxis, i.e., a 97.5% reduction in transmission risk. Year of delivery, consultation with a specialist, and no history of injecting drug use were factors associated with adequate use of antiretroviral therapy. The study showed an important reduction in the risk of vertical transmission in pregnant women who received adequate therapy, besides identifying missed opportunities for prevention.
Carey, James W.; LaLota, Marlene; Villamizar, Kira; McElroy, Tamara; Wilson, M. Maximillion; Garcia, Jersey; Sandrock, Robert; Taveras, Janelle; Candio, Darline; Flores, Stephen A.
In response to the release of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the “Enhanced Comprehensive HIV Prevention Planning” (ECHPP) project, which provided support to health departments in 12 Metropolitan Statistical Areas with the highest AIDS prevalence to strengthen local HIV programs. We describe a case study of how one MSA, Miami-Dade County, developed and implemented a locally tailored plan. Examples include actions to reinforce local partnerships and identify neighborhoods with highest unmet needs; an improved condom distribution system to assist local HIV care providers; collaboration with local stakeholders to establish a new walk-in center for transgender client needs; and overcoming incompatibilities in health department and Ryan White program computer record systems to facilitate faster and more efficient patient services. These examples show how jurisdictions both within Florida and elsewhere can create low-cost and sustainable activities tailored to improve local HIV prevention needs. PMID:26785398
Scott, Yanille M; Park, Seo Young; Dezzutti, Charlene S
Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) specific for HIV are being investigated for use in HIV prevention. Due to their ability to inhibit HIV attachment to and entry into target cells, nAbs may be suitable for use as topical HIV microbicides. As such, they would present an alternative intervention for individuals who may not benefit from using antiretroviral-based products for HIV prevention. We theorize that nAbs can inhibit viral transmission through mucosal tissue, thus reducing the incidence of HIV infection. The efficacy of the PG9, PG16, VRC01, and 4E10 antibodies was evaluated in an ex vivo human model of mucosal HIV transmission. nAbs reduced HIV transmission, causing 1.5- to 2-log10 reductions in HIV replication in ectocervical tissues and ≈3-log10 reductions in HIV replication in colonic tissues over 21 days. These antibodies demonstrated greater potency in colonic tissues, with a 50-fold higher dose being required to reduce transmission in ectocervical tissues. Importantly, nAbs retained their potency and reduced viral transmission in the presence of whole semen. No changes in tissue viability or immune activation were observed in colonic or ectocervical tissue after nAb exposure. Our data suggest that topically applied nAbs are safe and effective against HIV infection of mucosal tissue and support further development of nAbs as a topical microbicide that could be used for anal as well as vaginal protection.
Scott, Yanille M.; Park, Seo Young
Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) specific for HIV are being investigated for use in HIV prevention. Due to their ability to inhibit HIV attachment to and entry into target cells, nAbs may be suitable for use as topical HIV microbicides. As such, they would present an alternative intervention for individuals who may not benefit from using antiretroviral-based products for HIV prevention. We theorize that nAbs can inhibit viral transmission through mucosal tissue, thus reducing the incidence of HIV infection. The efficacy of the PG9, PG16, VRC01, and 4E10 antibodies was evaluated in an ex vivo human model of mucosal HIV transmission. nAbs reduced HIV transmission, causing 1.5- to 2-log10 reductions in HIV replication in ectocervical tissues and ≈3-log10 reductions in HIV replication in colonic tissues over 21 days. These antibodies demonstrated greater potency in colonic tissues, with a 50-fold higher dose being required to reduce transmission in ectocervical tissues. Importantly, nAbs retained their potency and reduced viral transmission in the presence of whole semen. No changes in tissue viability or immune activation were observed in colonic or ectocervical tissue after nAb exposure. Our data suggest that topically applied nAbs are safe and effective against HIV infection of mucosal tissue and support further development of nAbs as a topical microbicide that could be used for anal as well as vaginal protection. PMID:26596954
Rountree, Michele A.; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.
The article reports findings from a pilot study of 21 domestic violence shelters in a southwestern state in the United States. The survey instrument included descriptive information on shelter service delivery. Specifically, questions were asked about the practice of assessing a client's risk of HIV/AIDS, the provision of HIV/AIDS educational and…
Enah, Comfort; Moneyham, Linda; Vance, David E; Childs, Gwendolyn
The search for intervention strategies appropriate for young adolescents has recently led to the use of digital games. Digital gaming interventions are promising because they may be developmentally appropriate for adolescent populations. The gaming approach also capitalizes on an inherent interest to adolescents and circumvents traditional barriers to access to prevention interventions faced in some geographical areas. Notwithstanding, research on gaming in HIV prevention is quite limited. In this review article, we examine the need for contextually relevant HIV prevention interventions among young adolescents. From this, we provide a theoretical framework for exploring contextually relevant HIV risk factors and a foundation for gathering and using input from the target population to adapt an existing game or to create a developmentally appropriate and contextually relevant HIV prevention game.
Reis, Janet S.; Weber, Kathleen M.
Objectives. We examined HIV-infected parents’ conversations about HIV prevention with their uninfected children, including what facilitated or hindered communication. Methods. Parents with HIV/AIDS (n = 90) who had children aged 10 to 18 years were recruited for a mixed method study from 2009 to 2010. Interviews assessed facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention. A questionnaire identified the frequency and content of conversations, parental confidence level, and perceived importance of discussing preventive topics. Results. Eighty-one percent of parents reported “sometimes” or “often” communicating about HIV prevention. A subset of parents found these conversations difficult; 44% indicated their desire for support. Facilitators to communication included utilizing support, focusing on the benefits of talking, and having a previous relationship with one’s child. Barriers to discussions included fear of negative consequences, living in denial, and lacking a parental role model who discussed safer sex. Parents varied as to how they believed their HIV status affected communication. Those who did not disclose their HIV status to their children reported less frequent communication; self-efficacy partially mediated this relationship. Conclusions. Findings highlighted the need for communication skills training that support HIV-infected parents in their efforts to discuss HIV-related information with adolescents. PMID:23763390
Baral, Stefan D.; Strömdahl, Susanne; Beyrer, Chris
Purpose of review Oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has shown HIV preventive efficacy for several key populations at risk for HIV infection including MSM and heterosexual men and women in HIV serodiscordant relationships. An efficacy trial of daily oral tenofovir among people who inject drugs (IDU) is underway in Thailand. Recent findings Although efficacy data is pending, there is emerging biological and public health plausibility data suggesting the utility of PrEP as an effective component of combination HIV prevention for IDU. Drawing from studies characterizing adherence to antiretroviral therapy for IDU, there are a range of scientific and operational considerations for the potential use of PrEP for IDU. We review here the available literature on the potential use of PrEP for IDU, barriers to uptake and adherence, and potential implementation science questions, which could address, and potently increase, the effectiveness of this intervention. Summary IDU remain the most underserved population in the HIV response worldwide, and have a marked gap in prevention services, making PrEP a potentially promising addition to the prevention toolkit for people who use drugs and, for those already living with HIV infection, for their spouses and other sexual partners. PMID:23076122
Golin, Carol; El-Sadr, Wafaa; Hughes, James P.; Wang, Jing; Roman Isler, Malika; Mannheimer, Sharon; Kuo, Irene; Lucas, Jonathan; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Justman, Jessica; Frew, Paula M.; Emel, Lynda; Rompalo, Anne; Polk, Sarah; Adimora, Adaora A.; Rodriquez, Lorenna; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Hodder, Sally
Abstract Background: The challenge of identifying and recruiting U.S. women at elevated risk for HIV acquisition impedes prevention studies and services. HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 064 was a U.S. multisite, longitudinal cohort study designed to estimate HIV incidence among women living in communities with prevalent HIV and poverty. Venue-based sampling (VBS) methodologies and participant and venue characteristics are described. Methods: Eligible women were recruited from 10 U.S. communities with prevalent HIV and poverty using VBS. Participant eligibility criteria included age 18–44 years, residing in a designated census tract/zip code, and self-report of at least one high-risk personal and/or male sexual partner characteristic associated with HIV acquisition (e.g., incarceration history). Ethnography was conducted to finalize recruitment areas and venues. Results: Eight thousand twenty-nine women were screened and 2,099 women were enrolled (88% black, median age 29 years) over 14 months. The majority of participants were recruited from outdoor venues (58%), retail spaces (18%), and social service organizations (13%). The proportion of women recruited per venue category varied by site. Most participants (73%) had both individual and partner characteristics that qualified them for the study; 14% were eligible based on partner risk only. Conclusion: VBS is a feasible and effective approach to rapidly recruit a population of women at enhanced risk for HIV in the United States. Such a recruitment approach is needed in order to engage women most at risk and requires strong community engagement. PMID:24742266
In the United States, 46% of high school students have had sexual intercourse and potentially are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy. The National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States recommends educating young persons about HIV before they begin engaging in behaviors that place them at risk for HIV infection. The Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF) also recommends risk reduction interventions to prevent HIV, other STDs, and pregnancy among adolescents. To estimate changes in the percentage of secondary schools that teach specific HIV, other STD, and pregnancy risk reduction topics, a key intervention consistent with those supported by the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and CPSTF, CDC analyzed 2008 and 2010 School Health Profiles data for public secondary schools in 45 states. This report summarizes the results of those analyses, which indicated that in 2010, compared with 2008, the percentage of secondary schools teaching 11 topics on HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention in a required course in grades 6, 7, or 8 was significantly lower in 11 states and significantly higher in none; the percentage of secondary schools teaching eight topics in a required course in grades 9, 10, 11, or 12 was significantly lower in one state and significantly higher in two states; and the percentage of secondary schools teaching three condom-related topics in a required course in grades 9, 10, 11, or 12 was significantly lower in eight states and significantly higher in three states. Secondary schools can increase efforts to teach all age-appropriate HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention topics to help reduce risk behaviors among students.
Baggaley, Rachel; Dalal, Shona; Johnson, Cheryl; Macdonald, Virginia; Mameletzis, Ioannis; Rodolph, Michelle; Figueroa, Carmen; Samuelson, Julia; Verster, Annette; Doherty, Meg; Hirnschall, Gottfried
Introduction The remarkable expansion in availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the past two decades has transformed HIV infection into a manageable chronic condition. People with HIV infection now live long and healthy lives on treatment that is simpler, safer and cheaper. According to UNAIDS estimates, the global coverage of ART reached 46% in 2015, resulting in a 26% decrease in annual HIV-related deaths since 2010. Such success has positioned treatment access at the centre of the global HIV response as a way to prevent mortality, morbidity and HIV transmission through a “Treat All” approach. Continuing expansion of treatment is needed to further reduce HIV-related mortality. This progress with treatment, however, masks a stagnation in the estimated annual number of new HIV infections. Continuing levels of HIV incidence despite treatment scale-up stem from several factors, which should be addressed in order to prevent new infections and decrease the numbers of people requiring treatment in the future. Discussion ART can only reach those already diagnosed, and although it is unclear what proportion of new infections occur during acute and early infection prior to treatment initiation, phylogenetic studies suggest that it might be substantial. Thus, better testing approaches to reach the 40% of people with undiagnosed HIV infection as early as possible are critical. New approaches to reach men, young people and key populations, where HIV risk is highest and HIV prevention, testing and treatment coverage is lowest, are also needed. Overall coverage of effective prevention interventions remains low, enabling HIV transmission to occur, or time is required to show population-level effects. For example, the full impact of the medical male circumcision intervention will be seen once a larger proportion of men in age cohorts with high incidence are circumcised. Finally, strategically focused pre-exposure prophylaxis interventions have the potential to
Jaiantilal, Prafulta; Gutin, Sarah A.; Cummings, Beverley; Mbofana, Francisco; Rose, Carol Dawson
Abstract Despite the Mozambique government's efforts to curb human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), national prevalence is 11.5% and support is needed to expand HIV-related services and improve program quality. Positive prevention (PP) programs, which prioritize HIV prevention with people living with HIV and AIDS (PLHIV), have been recognized as an important intervention for preventing new HIV infections. To address this, an evidence-based PP training intervention was implemented with HIV healthcare providers in Mozambique. This study focuses on the acceptability and feasibility of a PP intervention in HIV clinics from the healthcare provider perspective. In-depth interviews were conducted with 31 healthcare providers from three provinces who participated in PP trainings in Mozambique. Interview data were coded using content analysis. Study data suggest that healthcare providers found PP acceptable, feasible to implement in their HIV work in clinic settings, and valued this strategy to improve HIV prevention. The PP training also led providers to feel more comfortable counseling their patients about prevention, with a more holistic approach that included HIV testing, treatment and encouraging PLHIV to live positively. While overall acceptance of the PP training was positive, several barriers to feasibility surfaced in the data. Patient-level barriers included resistance to disclosing HIV status due to fear of stigma and discrimination, difficulty negotiating for condom use, difficulty engaging men in testing and treatment, and the effects of poverty on accessing care. Providers also identified work environment barriers including high patient load, time constraints, and frequent staff turnover. Recognizing PP as an important intervention, healthcare providers should be trained to provide comprehensive prevention, care and treatment for PLHIV. Further work is needed to explore the complex social dynamics and cultural challenges
Kalichman, Seth C.; Klein, Susan J.; Kalichman, Moira O.; O'Connell, Daniel A.; Freedman, Jay A.; Eaton, Lisa; Cain, Demetria
People living with HIV/AIDS often need assistance in deciding whether or how to disclose their HIV status to others, and case managers are in a unique position to offer this assistance. The current study surveyed 223 case managers providing services to people living with HIV/AIDS in New York State. The survey was conducted anonymously, and case…
Leitner, Thomas; Campbell, Mary S; Mullins, James I; Hughes, James P; Wong, Kim G; Raugi, Dana N; Scrensen, Stefanie
HIV-1 sequencing has been used extensively in epidemiologic and forensic studies to investigate patterns of HIV-1 transmission. However, the criteria for establishing genetic linkage between HIV-1 strains in HIV-1 prevention trials have not been formalized. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicaITrials.gov NCT00194519) enrolled 3408 HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual African couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression with acyclovir in reducing HIV-1 transmission. The trial analysis required laboratory confirmation of HIV-1 linkage between enrolled partners in couples in which seroconversion occurred. Here we describe the process and results from HIV-1 sequencing studies used to perform transmission linkage determination in this clinical trial. Consensus Sanger sequencing of env (C2-V3-C3) and gag (p17-p24) genes was performed on plasma HIV-1 RNA from both partners within 3 months of seroconversion; env single molecule or pyrosequencing was also performed in some cases. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between HIV-1 sequences in the transmitting and seroconverting partners, and developed a Bayesian algorithm using genetic distances to evaluate the posterior probability of linkage of participants sequences. Adjudicators classified transmissions as linked, unlinked, or indeterminate. Among 151 seroconversion events, we found 108 (71.5%) linked, 40 (26.5%) unlinked, and 3 (2.0%) to have indeterminate transmissions. Nine (8.3%) were linked by consensus gag sequencing only and 8 (7.4%) required deep sequencing of env. In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner, illustrating the relevance of these methods in the design of future HIV-1 prevention trials in serodiscordant couples. A hierarchy of sequencing techniques, analysis methods, and expert adjudication contributed to the linkage
Filice, G A; Pomeroy, C
Secondary infectious diseases contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The authors developed comprehensive, practical recommendations for prevention of infectious complications in HIV-infected people. Recommendations are concerned with the pathogens that are more common or more severe in HIV-infected people. Several infectious complications can be prevented by avoiding ingestion of contaminated food or water. Zoonoses can be prevented by precautions to be taken in contacts with animals. The risk of several fungal diseases can be reduced if activities likely to lead to inhalation of spores are avoided. HIV-infected people should be advised how to lower adverse health effects of travel, especially international travel. The potential for infectious complications of sexual activity and illicit drug use should be stressed, and recommendations to reduce the risk are discussed. Recommendations for use of vaccines in HIV-infected people are reviewed. Blood CD4+ lymphocyte concentrations, tuberculin skin testing, Toxoplasma serology, and sexually transmitted disease screening should be performed in certain subsets of HIV-infected people. Guidelines for chemoprophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii and tuberculosis are presented. Recent data suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin therapy may prevent bacterial infections in HIV-infected children. PMID:1910184
Jacobsen, Margo M.; Walensky, Rochelle P.
With HIV funding plateauing and the number of people living with HIV increasing due to the roll-out of life-saving antiretroviral therapy, policy makers are faced with increasingly tighter budgets to manage the ongoing HIV epidemic. Cost-effectiveness and modeling analyses can help determine which HIV interventions may be of best value. Incidence remains remarkably high in certain populations and countries, making prevention key to controlling the spread of HIV. This paper briefly reviews concepts in modeling and cost-effectiveness methodology, then examines results of recently published cost-effectiveness analyses on the following HIV prevention strategies: condoms and circumcision, behavioral or community-based interventions, prevention of mother to child transmission, HIV testing, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and treatment as prevention. We find that the majority of published studies demonstrate cost-effectiveness; however, not all interventions are affordable. We urge continued research on combination strategies and methodologies that take into account willingness to pay and budgetary impact. PMID:26830283
Jacobsen, Margo M; Walensky, Rochelle P
With HIV funding plateauing and the number of people living with HIV increasing due to the rollout of life-saving antiretroviral therapy, policy makers are faced with increasingly tighter budgets to manage the ongoing HIV epidemic. Cost-effectiveness and modeling analyses can help determine which HIV interventions may be of best value. Incidence remains remarkably high in certain populations and countries, making prevention key to controlling the spread of HIV. This paper briefly reviews concepts in modeling and cost-effectiveness methodology and then examines results of recently published cost-effectiveness analyses on the following HIV prevention strategies: condoms and circumcision, behavioral- or community-based interventions, prevention of mother-to-child transmission, HIV testing, pre-exposure prophylaxis, and treatment as prevention. We find that the majority of published studies demonstrate cost-effectiveness; however, not all interventions are affordable. We urge continued research on combination strategies and methodologies that take into account willingness to pay and budgetary impact.
Holtgrave, D R; Harrison, J; Gerber, R A; Aultman, T V; Scarlett, M
To be effective, HIV prevention programs should be planned in partnership with affected communities and should be built on a solid scientific foundation. In 1994, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and its prevention partners implemented HIV prevention community planning to achieve primarily these two objectives. In order to manage the community planning process effectively, extensive evaluation activities were employed at both the grantee and national level. This paper describes the first year evaluation goals and methods in detail. Throughout, reasons for collecting specific types of information and for using particular methodologies are highlighted. PMID:8862165
... White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive... care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will provide a one-time noncompetitive Ryan...
.../Health Resources and Services Administration (CDC/HRSA) Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and...-463) of October 6, 1972, that the CDC/HRSA Advisory Committee on HIV and STD Prevention and Treatment.... Contact Person for More Information: Kevin Fenton, M.D., PhD, Designated Federal Officer,...
Sullivan, Patrick S; Grey, Jeremy A; Rosser, B R Simon
The field of technology-enabled HIV research and prevention has emerged in the past 10 years as an exciting, dynamic field that offers great potential to help bring HIV prevention efforts to scale in key risk communities. Evolutions in technologies and in HIV epidemics suggest mutual opportunities to reach most at risk populations in novel ways. New technologies cannot completely replace interventions and services currently delivered by people. However, we suggest that emerging technologies hold promise to bring services to scale and produce efficiencies in reaching rural populations of MSM, connecting with populations who aren’t reached in current urban outreach efforts, and providing services or research surveys that can be described algorithmically. Further, the types of technologies (e.g., internet-based, smartphone-based, text messaging) should be matched with both the content to be delivered, and the technology usage patterns of target populations. We suggest several key principles and lessons learned that comprise a framework in which to consider the opportunities of technologies and HIV prevention and research. Future directions include improvement of data quality in online surveying, better characterization of biases, developing improved sampling approaches, working with funders to ensure compatibility of funding mechanisms and online research proposals, and promoting consensus approaches to the duplication and presentation of research and program evaluation results from online research. Given current calls for comprehensive packages of prevention services for MSM, effective prevention might require an intentional combination of technology-enabled prevention services to achieve scale, and strategic use of personally-delivered package components in cases where non-algorithmic services, such as individualized counseling, are needed. PMID:23673879
Polonsky, S; Kerr, S; Harris, B; Gaiter, J; Fichtner, R R; Kennedy, M G
High rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among jail and prison inmates suggest that HIV prevention efforts should focus on incarcerated populations. Overcrowding, the high prevalence of injection drug use, and other high-risk behaviors among inmates create a prime opportunity for public health officials to affect the course of the HIV epidemic if they can remedy these problems. Yet, along with the opportunity, there are certain obstacles that correctional institutions present to public health efforts. The various jurisdictions have differing approaches to HIV prevention and control. Whether testing should be mandatory or voluntary, whether housing should be integrated or segregated by HIV serostatus, and whether condoms, bleach, or clean needles should be made available to the prisoners, are questions hotly debated by public health and correctional officials. Even accurate assessment of risk-taking within the institutions leads to controversy, as asking questions could imply acceptance of the very behaviors correctional officials are trying to prevent. Education and risk-reduction counseling are the least controversial and most widely employed modes of prevention, but the effectiveness of current prevention efforts in reducing HIV transmission in this high-risk population is largely undetermined.
Polonsky, S; Kerr, S; Harris, B; Gaiter, J; Fichtner, R R; Kennedy, M G
High rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among jail and prison inmates suggest that HIV prevention efforts should focus on incarcerated populations. Overcrowding, the high prevalence of injection drug use, and other high-risk behaviors among inmates create a prime opportunity for public health officials to affect the course of the HIV epidemic if they can remedy these problems. Yet, along with the opportunity, there are certain obstacles that correctional institutions present to public health efforts. The various jurisdictions have differing approaches to HIV prevention and control. Whether testing should be mandatory or voluntary, whether housing should be integrated or segregated by HIV serostatus, and whether condoms, bleach, or clean needles should be made available to the prisoners, are questions hotly debated by public health and correctional officials. Even accurate assessment of risk-taking within the institutions leads to controversy, as asking questions could imply acceptance of the very behaviors correctional officials are trying to prevent. Education and risk-reduction counseling are the least controversial and most widely employed modes of prevention, but the effectiveness of current prevention efforts in reducing HIV transmission in this high-risk population is largely undetermined. PMID:7938381
Johnson, Blair T.; Redding, Colleen A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Mustanski, Brian S.; Dodge, Brian M.; Sheeran, Paschal; Warren, Michelle R.; Zimmerman, Rick S.; Fisher, William A.; Conner, Mark T.; Carey, Michael P.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.; Stall, Ronald D.; Fishbein, Martin
HIV is transmitted through dyadic exchanges of individuals linked in transitory or permanent networks of varying sizes. To optimize prevention efficacy, a complementary theoretical perspective that bridges key individual level elements with important network elements can be a foundation for developing and implementing HIV interventions with outcomes that are more sustainable over time and have greater dissemination potential. Toward that end, we introduce a Network-Individual-Resource (NIR) model for HIV prevention that recognizes how exchanges of resources between individuals and their networks underlies and sustains HIV-risk behaviors. Individual behavior change for HIV prevention, then, may be dependent on increasing the supportiveness of that individual's relevant networks for such change. Among other implications, an NIR model predicts that the success of prevention efforts depends on whether the prevention efforts (1) prompt behavior changes that can be sustained by the resources the individual or their networks possess; (2) meet individual and network needs and are consistent with the individual's current situation/developmental stage; (3) are trusted and valued; and (4) target high HIV-prevalence networks. PMID:20862606
... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...
... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...
... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...
... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... a lapse in comprehensive primary care services for persons living with HIV/AIDS, HRSA will...
... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS...
...) Enhancing Hepatitis Prevention Treatment and Care in the United States; (2) Integrating HIV Prevention and..., CDC, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road,...
Myers, Janet; Zack, Barry; Kramer, Katie; Gardner, Mick; Rucobo, Gonzalo; Costa-Taylor, Stacy
Individuals leaving prison face challenges to establishing healthy lives in the community, including opportunities to engage in behavior that puts them at risk for HIV transmission. HIV prevention case management (PCM) can facilitate linkages to services, which in turn can help remove barriers to healthy behavior. As part of a federally funded demonstration project, the community-based organization Centerforce provided 5 months of PCM to individuals leaving 3 state prisons in California. Program effects were measured by assessing changes in risk behavior, access to services, reincarnation, and program completion. Although response rates preclude definitive conclusions, HIV risk behavior did decrease. Regardless of race, age, or gender, those receiving comprehensive health services were significantly more likely to complete the program. PCM appears to facilitate healthy behavior for individuals leaving prison.
DeMarco, Rosanna F; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Sprague, Courtenay; Brown, Shelley M
Ageism, in the form of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination targeting older adults, represents a barrier to addressing the graying of the HIV epidemic. There is widespread misperception on the part of older adults themselves, as well as service providers and society in general that HIV risk is low as one ages. In addition, internalized ageism may play a role in poorer physical and mental health outcomes, as the negative stereotypes associated with aging become a self-fulfilling prophecy. A number of steps can be taken to address HIV and aging in the context of ageism with regard to: prevention, education, and outreach; treatment guidelines for older adults with HIV; funding to address the aging of the epidemic; engagement of communities, health and social service organizations, and other providers around mental health and social support, and addressing the needs of special populations. Caring for an aging population with HIV represents a challenge, which is exacerbated in low and/or middle-income countries that typically lack the infrastructure of high resource settings. How we address the aging-related issues of the HIV epidemic across regions and settings could serve as a model in dealing with aging in our society in general regardless of HIV status.
Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily; Tucker, Heidi Toms
In 2002 MTV launched a global multicomponent HIV prevention campaign, "Staying Alive," reaching over 166 countries worldwide. An evaluation of this campaign focused on three diverse sites: Kathmandu, Nepal; São Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal. Data were collected before and after campaign implementation through population-based household surveys. Using linear regression techniques, our evaluation examined the effects of campaign exposure on interpersonal communication about HIV and the effects of campaign exposure and interpersonal communication on beliefs about HIV prevention. We found a consistent positive effect of exposure on interpersonal communication across all sites, though there were differences among sites with regard to whom the respondent talked about HIV. We also found a consistent positive effect of exposure on HIV prevention beliefs across sites when interpersonal communication was simultaneously entered into the model. Finally, in two sites we found a relationship between interpersonal communication and HIV prevention beliefs, controlling for exposure, though again, the effects differed by the type of person the communication was with. These similar findings in three diverse sites provide ecological validity of the findings that "Staying Alive" promoted interpersonal communication and influenced young people's beliefs about HIV prevention in a positive way, evidence for the potential of a global media campaign to have an impact on social norms.
Cutler, Blayne; Justman, Jessica
Worldwide, nearly half of all individuals living with HIV are now women, who acquire the virus largely by heterosexual exposure. With an HIV vaccine likely to be years away, topical microbicide formulations applied vaginally or rectally are being investigated as another strategy for HIV prevention. A review of preclinical and clinical research on the development of microbicides formulated to prevent vaginal HIV transmission yielded 118 studies: 73 preclinical and 45 clinical. Preclinical research included in-vitro assays and cervical explant models, as well as animal models. Clinical research included phase I and II/IIb safety studies, and phase III efficacy studies. Whereas most phase I and phase II clinical trials have found microbicide compounds to be safe and well tolerated, phase III trials completed to date have not demonstrated efficacy in preventing HIV transmission. Topical microbicides are grouped into five classes of agents, based on where they disrupt the pathway of sexual transmission of HIV. These classes include surfactants/membrane disruptors, vaginal milieu protectors, viral entry inhibitors, reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and a fifth group whose mechanism is unknown. The trajectory of microbicide development has been toward agents that block more specific virus—host cell interactions. Microbicide clinical trials face scientifically and ethically complex issues, such as the choice of placebo gel, the potential for viral resistance, and the inclusion of HIV-infected participants. Assessment of combination agents will most likely advance this field of research. PMID:18992405
Sgaier, Sema K; Reed, Jason B; Thomas, Anne; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel
Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is capable of reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV from females to males by approximately 60%. In 2007, the WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) recommended making VMMC part of a comprehensive HIV prevention package in countries with a generalized HIV epidemic and low rates of male circumcision. Modeling studies undertaken in 2009-2011 estimated that circumcising 80% of adult males in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa within five years, and sustaining coverage levels thereafter, could avert 3.4 million HIV infections within 15 years and save US$16.5 billion in treatment costs. In response, WHO/UNAIDS launched the Joint Strategic Action Framework for accelerating the scale-up of VMMC for HIV prevention in Southern and Eastern Africa, calling for 80% coverage of adult male circumcision by 2016. While VMMC programs have grown dramatically since inception, they appear unlikely to reach this goal. This review provides an overview of findings from the PLOS Collection "Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Improving Quality, Efficiency, Cost Effectiveness, and Demand for Services during an Accelerated Scale-up." The use of devices for VMMC is also explored. We propose emphasizing management solutions to help VMMC programs in the priority countries achieve the desired impact of averting the greatest possible number of HIV infections. Our recommendations include advocating for prioritization and funding of VMMC, increasing strategic targeting to achieve the goal of reducing HIV incidence, focusing on programmatic efficiency, exploring the role of new technologies, rethinking demand creation, strengthening data use for decision-making, improving governments' program management capacity, strategizing for sustainability, and maintaining a flexible scale-up strategy informed by a strong monitoring, learning, and evaluation platform.
In the scientific literature on fertility and assisted reproduction, and in the corresponding area of clinical practice, increasing attention has been paid to two groups: people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and gay men. However, research on fertility in the context of HIV focuses almost exclusively on heterosexual couples, whereas studies on non-heterosexual reproduction rarely mention HIV, despite the fact that, in many western countries, HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men is higher than ever before and men who have sex with men are the only group in which new HIV infections are on the rise. This review identifies links between reproduction, HIV and homosexuality, showing that, historically, they are closely intertwined, which has important implications for current issues facing HIV care and fertility services. Considering sex and parenthood as two different but related kinds of intimacy and kinship, the dual role semen plays in sexually transmitted infection and in assisted reproduction is discussed. The review reflects on the future of sperm donation and HIV prevention, asking whether two challenges that potentially face healthcare and medicine today - the shortage of 'high-quality' sperm and the 'surplus' of infected semen - could be addressed by a greater exchange of knowledge.
Matthews, Lynn T; Baeten, Jared M; Celum, Connie; Bangsberg, David R
HIV-serodiscordant couples face complicated choices between fulfilling reproductive desire and risking HIV transmission to their partners and children. Sexual HIV transmission can be dramatically reduced through artificial insemination and sperm washing, however most couples cannot access these resources. We propose that periconception pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could offer an important, complementary therapy to harm reduction counseling programs that aim to decrease HIV transmission for couples who choose to conceive. In this paper we describe the potential benefits of periconception PrEP and define critical points of clarification prior to implementation of PrEP as part of a reproductive health program. We consider sexual transmission risk, current risk reduction options, PrEP efficacy, cost, adherence, resistance, fetal toxicity, and impact of PrEP counseling on entry into health services. We address PrEP in the context of other periconception HIV prevention strategies, including antiretroviral treatment of the HIV-infected partner. We conclude that, should PrEP prove safe and efficacious in ongoing trials, periconception PrEP may offer a useful approach to minimize risk of HIV transmission for individuals of reproductive age in HIV-endemic countries. PMID:20679759
Brown, Joelle; Njoroge, Betty; Akama, Eliud; Breitnauer, Brooke; Leddy, Anna; Darbes, Lynae; Omondi, Richard; Mmeje, Okeoma
Safer conception strategies can prevent HIV transmission between HIV-discordant partners while allowing them to conceive. However, HIV care providers in sub-Saharan Africa report they are not trained in safer conception, and patients are not routinely offered safer conception services. This mixed-methods pilot study evaluated the impact, acceptability, and feasibility of a novel Safer Conception Counseling Toolkit among providers and patients in Kenya. We enrolled 20 HIV-positive women, 10 HIV-discordant couples, and 10 providers from HIV care and treatment clinics. Providers completed questionnaires before/after training, and then counseled HIV-affected patients. Change in patient knowledge was assessed before/after counseling. Qualitative interviews were conducted among providers and patients. The Toolkit was associated with large, significant increases in patient knowledge, and provider confidence, knowledge, and favorable attitudes toward safer conception counseling; 20% felt confident before versus 100% after training (p < 0.01). PMID:27925487
Phanuphak, Nittaya; Lo, Ying-Ru; Shao, Yiming; Solomon, Sunil Suhas; O'Connell, Robert J.; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Chang, David; Kim, Jerome H.
Abstract An overall decrease of HIV prevalence is now observed in several key Asian countries due to effective prevention programs. The decrease in HIV prevalence and incidence may further improve with the scale-up of combination prevention interventions. The implementation of future prevention trials then faces important challenges. The opportunity to identify heterosexual populations at high risk such as female sex workers may rapidly wane. With unabating HIV epidemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender (TG) populations, an effective vaccine would likely be the only option to turn the epidemic. It is more likely that efficacy trials will occur among MSM and TG because their higher HIV incidence permits smaller and less costly trials. The constantly evolving patterns of HIV-1 diversity in the region suggest close monitoring of the molecular HIV epidemic in potential target populations for HIV vaccine efficacy trials. CRF01_AE remains predominant in southeast Asian countries and MSM populations in China. This relatively steady pattern is conducive to regional efficacy trials, and as efficacy warrants, to regional licensure. While vaccines inducing nonneutralizing antibodies have promise against HIV acquisition, vaccines designed to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses of greater breadth and depth in the mucosal compartments should be considered for testing in MSM and TG. The rationale and design of efficacy trials of combination prevention modalities such as HIV vaccine and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) remain hypothetical, require high adherence to PrEP, are more costly, and present new regulatory challenges. The prioritization of prevention interventions should be driven by the HIV epidemic and decided by the country-specific health and regulatory authorities. Modeling the impact and cost–benefit may help this decision process. PMID:26107771
This article examines the effect of introducing a new HIV/AIDS service-prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT)-on overall quality of prenatal and postnatal care. My results suggest that local PMTCT introduction in Zambia may have actually increased all-cause child mortality in the short term. There is some evidence that vaccinations may have declined in the short term in association with local PMTCT introduction, suggesting that the new service may have partly crowded out existing pediatric health services.
Background Counselling is considered a prerequisite for the proper handling of testing and for ensuring effective HIV preventive efforts. HIV testing services have recently been scaled up substantially with a particular focus on provider-initiated models. Increasing HIV test rates have been attributed to the rapid scale-up of the provider-initiated testing model, but there is limited documentation of experiences with this new service model. The aim of this study was to determine the use of different types of HIV testing services and to investigate perceptions and experiences of these services with a particular emphasis on the provider initiated testing in three selected districts in Kenya, Tanzania, and, Zambia. Methods A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was applied using quantitative and qualitative approaches. A population-based survey was conducted among adults in the three study districts, and qualitative data were obtained from 34 focus group discussions and 18 in-depth interviews. The data originates from the ongoing EU funded research project "REsponse to ACountable Priority Setting for Trust in Health Systems" (REACT) implemented in the three countries which has a research component linked to HIV and testing, and from an additional study focusing on HIV testing, counselling perceptions and experiences in Kenya. Results Proportions of the population formerly tested for HIV differed sharply between the study districts and particularly among women (54% Malindi, 34% Kapiri Mposhi and 27% Mbarali) (p < 0.001). Women were much more likely to be tested than men in the districts that had scaled-up programmes for preventing mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Only minor gender differences appeared for voluntary counselling and testing. In places where, the provider-initiated model in PMTCT programmes had been rolled out extensively testing was accompanied by very limited pre- and post-test counselling and by a related neglect of preventative
Chandler-Coley, Rasheeta; Ross, Henry; Ozoya, Oluwatobi; Lescano, Celia; Flannigan, Timothy
Media messages can facilitate the delivery of accurate information related to HIV and sexually transmitted infection. This study's purpose was to examine preexisting media campaigns from the iMPPACS study to assess age-, gender-, and culturally appropriate components identified by African American females who attend historically Black colleges/universities. In 3 separate focus group sessions, 31 Black female college students (M age = 20) viewed 4 vignettes and heard 3 audio-only clips, then ranked and commented on them based on perceived satisfaction with HIV prevention content and appropriateness of delivery. Conventional qualitative analysis using NVivo software was performed until saturation of content was achieved and themes derived. Six major themes emerged and were designated as (a) social media; (b) mirror image; (c) visually dynamic advertisements; (d) the real world; (e) people, place, things; and (f) HIV knowledge. Visually stimulating content (i.e., graphics) was found to be most appealing in marketing HIV prevention, with brief monologue/dialogue from scenarios that resemble daily life. Socially and culturally relevant HIV prevention messages are important to Black college female students. Participants recommended creating short audiovisual messages that encompass familiar contexts like dorm rooms and appealing graphics for HIV health promotion messages, such as emojis. Future audio-only prevention advertisements for this population should use recognizable voices (e.g., celebrities). Finally, messaging should be promoted on open and closed circuit social media platforms.
Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Giménez-García, Cristina; Salmerón-Sánchez, Pedro
The HIV-AIDS remains a public health problem which disproportionally affects women. However, prevention strategies have rarely considered their specific efficacy for them. For this reason, this study examines the differential effectiveness of six intervention elements based on socio-cognitive theories addressing young women. A controlled between-groups design examined the change in risk profile among 167 young Spanish women (mean age 21.3 years old) involved in five sexual risk prevention interventions (informative talk, attitudinal discussion, role-play, fear induction and informative website) and one control non-intervening group (waiting list). Our findings support the differential efficacy of some HIV preventive intervention elements comparing others for women. In particular, the attitudinal discussion stands out followed by the informative talk and the role play. Contrarily, the fear induction component did not reveal relevant improvements. This study provides new evidence related to HIV prevention. Particularly, the higher efficacy of motivational components for these young Spanish women is revealed.
Bhattacharjee, Parinita; McClarty, Leigh M; Musyoki, Helgar; Anthony, John; Kioko, Japheth; Kaosa, Shem; Ogwang, Bernard E; Githuka, George; Sirengo, Martin; Birir, Sarah; Blanchard, James F; Muraguri, Nicholas; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen
In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs' vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among "key populations" (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs) to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya.
Hudson, C P
Networks of concurrent sexual partnerships may be the primary cause of epidemic spread of HIV-1 in parts of sub-Saharan Africa. This pattern of sexual behaviour increases the likelihood that individuals experiencing primary HIV-1 infection transmit the virus to other persons. Networks of concurrent partnerships are likely to be important in both the early ('epidemic') and late ('endemic') phases of HIV-1 transmission. Interventions should aim to break the sexual networks, whatever the stage of the epidemic. However, prevention of transmission in the endemic phase also requires a greater awareness of early clinical manifestations of HIV-1 infection in the general population. Such awareness, coupled with the availability of condoms and access to HIV-1 testing facilities, may reduce transmission in discordant couples.
Kumar, SG Prem; Dandona, Rakhi; Schneider, John A; Ramesh, YK; Dandona, Lalit
Background HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers form part of the HIV control efforts, but systematic data on the outputs and cost of providing such services in India are not readily available for further planning and use of resources. Methods Detailed cost and output data were collected from written records and interviews for 2005–2006 fiscal year using standardized methods at six sampled HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The total economic cost for these programmes was computed and the relation of unit cost of services per truck driver with programme scale was assessed using regression analysis. Results A total of 120,436 truck drivers were provided services by the six programmes of which 55.9% were long distance truck drivers. The annual economic cost of providing services to a truck driver varied between programmes from US$ 1.52 to 4.56 (mean US$ 2.49). There was an inverse relation between unit economic cost of serving a truck driver and scale of the programme (R2 = 0.63; p = 0.061). The variation between programmes in the average number of contacts made by the programme staff with truck drivers was 1.3 times versus 5.8 times for contacts by peer educators. Only 1.7% of the truck drivers were referred by the programmes for counseling and HIV testing. Conclusion These data provide information for further planning of HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers and estimating the resources needed for such programmes. The findings suggest the need to strengthen the role of peer educators and increase referral of truck drivers for HIV testing. PMID:19457269
Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Raymond, H Fisher; Lansky, Amy; Mermin, Jonathan
The National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system (NHBS) was designed to monitor HIV prevalence and risk factors for infection among higher-risk individuals, i.e., sexually active men who have sex with men who attend venues, injection drug users who injected in the past 12 months, and heterosexuals living in low socioeconomic urban areas. These groups were selected as priorities for behavioral surveillance since they represent the major HIV transmission routes and the populations with the highest HIV burden. NHBS contributes to the nation's program of HIV surveillance by being the only multi-site population-based system that provides estimates on key HIV prevention measures among high-risk HIV-negative individuals, HIV-positive individuals unaware of their infection, and HIV-positive individuals aware of their infection who are in and out of care. Accurate and precise data on the behaviors in these populations are critical for tracking the epidemic, planning effective responses, and monitoring and evaluating those responses. Reports in this supplement illustrate the uses of NHBS data at the national and local level and reflect ongoing efforts to improve the system and remains essential for characterizing and monitoring the burden of HIV infection and sexual and behavioral risks.
Bradley, H; Bedada, A; Tsui, A; Brahmbhatt, H; Gillespie, D; Kidanu, A
Integrating voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) with family planning and other reproductive health services may be one effective strategy for expanding VCT service delivery in resource poor settings. Using 30,257 VCT client records with linked facility characteristics from Ethiopian non-governmental, non-profit, reproductive health clinics, we constructed multi-level logistic regression models to examine associations between HIV and family planning service integration modality and three outcomes: VCT client composition, client-initiated HIV testing and client HIV status. Associations between facility HIV and family planning integration level and the likelihood of VCT clients being atypical family planning client-types, versus older (at least 25 years old), ever-married women were assessed. Relative to facilities co-locating services in the same compound, those offering family planning and HIV services in the same rooms were 2-13 times more likely to serve atypical family planning client-types than older, ever-married women. Facilities where counsellors jointly offered HIV and family planning services and served many repeat family planning clients were significantly less likely to serve single clients relative to older, married women. Younger, single men and older, married women were most likely to self-initiate HIV testing (78.2 and 80.6% respectively), while the highest HIV prevalence was seen among older, married men and women (20.5 and 34.2% respectively). Compared with facilities offering co-located services, those integrating services at room- and counsellor-levels were 1.9-7.2 times more likely to serve clients initiating HIV testing. These health facilities attract both standard material and child health (MCH) clients, who are at high risk for HIV in these data, and young, single people to VCT. This analysis suggests that client types may be differentially attracted to these facilities depending on service integration modality and other facility
George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M.
Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers’ economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers’ relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers. PMID:25775122
Rhodes, Corinne M.; Chang, Yuchiao; Regan, Susan; Triant, Virginia A.
Importance The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic has evolved, with an increasing non-communicable disease (NCD) burden emerging and need for long-term management, yet there are limited data to help delineate the optimal care model to screen for NCDs for this patient population. Objective The primary aim was to compare rates of NCD preventive screening in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) by type of HIV care model, focusing on metabolic/cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer screening. We hypothesized that primary care models that included generalists would have higher preventive screening rates. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Partners HealthCare System (PHS) encompassing Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital, and affiliated community health centers. Participants PLWHA age >18 engaged in active primary care at PHS. Exposure HIV care model categorized as infectious disease (ID) providers only, generalist providers only, or ID plus generalist providers. Main Outcome(s) and Measures(s) Odds of screening for metabolic/CVD outcomes including hypertension (HTN), obesity, hyperlipidemia (HL), and diabetes (DM) and cancer including colorectal cancer (CRC), cervical cancer, and breast cancer. Results In a cohort of 1565 PLWHA, distribution by HIV care model was 875 ID (56%), 90 generalists (6%), and 600 ID plus generalists (38%). Patients in the generalist group had lower odds of viral suppression but similar CD4 counts and ART exposure as compared with ID and ID plus generalist groups. In analyses adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical covariates and clustering within provider, there were no significant differences in metabolic/CVD or cancer screening rates among the three HIV care models. Conclusions There were no notable differences in metabolic/CVD or cancer screening rates by HIV care model after adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical factors. These findings suggest that HIV patients receive similar
Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Humair, Salal
The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 study, which showed the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment in reducing HIV transmission, has been hailed as a "game changer" in the fight against HIV, prompting calls for scaling up treatment as prevention (TasP). However, it is unclear how TasP can be financed, given flat-lining support for global HIV programs. We assess whether TasP is indeed a game changer or if comparable benefits are obtainable at similar or lower cost by increasing coverage of medical male circumcision (MMC) and antiretroviral treatment (ART) at CD4 <350/μL. We develop a new mathematical model and apply it to South Africa, finding that high ART coverage combined with high MMC coverage provides approximately the same HIV incidence reduction as TasP, for $5 billion less over 2009-2020. MMC outperforms ART significantly in cost per infection averted ($1,096 vs. $6,790) and performs comparably in cost per death averted ($5,198 vs. $5,604). TasP is substantially less cost effective at $8,375 per infection and $7,739 per death averted. The prevention benefits of HIV treatment are largely reaped with high ART coverage. The most cost-effective HIV prevention strategy is to expand MMC coverage and then scale up ART, but the most cost-effective HIV-mortality reduction strategy is to scale up MMC and ART jointly. TasP is cost effective by commonly used absolute benchmarks but it is far less cost effective than MMC and ART. Given South Africa's current annual ART spending, the $5 billion in savings offered by MMC and ART over TasP in the next decade, for similar health benefits, challenges the widely hailed status of TasP as a game changer.
Valdiserri, Ronald O; Ogden, Lydia O; Janssen, Robert S; Onorato, Ida; Martin, Tonya
Reducing new HIV infections in the United States requires allocating public resources to interventions that will have the greatest impact on reducing the number of new infections. We report on the organizational experience of a federal agency's efforts to align its HIV prevention resources to reflect the specific priorities of a five-year strategic plan that has as its goal a fifty percent reduction in the number of annual HIV infections nationwide. Structural and other impediments encountered during the alignment process, and the steps taken to minimize their impact are described, adding to the empirical data base of strategic planning experiences in the public sector.
Kebede, Bekana; Abate, Tatek; Mekonnen, Desalew
Introduction HIV is still an enormous global burden and it is also causing loss of huge health care workers (HCWs) on the already limited human resource capacity in health care services in Sub-Saharan Africa. Variety of methods of accelerating HIV testing is required to increase the rate of HIV testing and expand treatment services. Therefore, this study was aimed to find out the prevalence, feasibility and options of HIV self-testing practices in Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study design triangulated with qualitative method was conducted from February to May, 2012. The data was collected using a semi-structured pretested questionnaire and in-depth interview, at government and private health centers or clinics and hospitals. During the data collection all the available healthcare workers (HCWs) which encompass the internship students including: Medical, Health Officer, Nurses, Midwives and Laboratory students, and health professionals working in the selected health institutions were involved. Results A total of 307 HCWs were included in the analysis and we found that 288(94.4%) of them were ever tested for HIV, of which majority 203 (70.5%) were tested by themselves though 244(80%) of the HCWs had motivation or interest to be tested by themselves. Generally, of the ever tested only 85(29.5%) were tested by the help of health care providers/counselors other than self. Regarding the place where the HCWs had the test, majority 136 (69.4%) tested by themselves at the health facility and the rest were tested at their home, office, market and church. The main reason stated for self-testing was the need for confidentiality for the test result, which was mentioned by 205(82%). Moreover, 35(14.0%) claims lack of time to access the ordinary counseling and testing services. Conclusion This study depicts high rate of HIV self-testing practice among HCWs. This shows that HIV self-testing can be considered as one pillar to increase the HIV-testing services and a means for
Card, Josefina J.; Newman, Emily N.; Golden, Rachel E.; Kuhn, Tamara; Lomonaco, Carmela
This paper describes the development, content, and capabilities of the online Global HIV Archive (GHA). With the goal of facilitating widespread adaptation and appropriate use of efficacious HIV prevention programs throughout the globe, GHA has: first, expanded and updated the search for HIV prevention programs originating in low-resource countries; second, identified those meritorious HIV prevention programs meeting established efficacy criteria of technical merit, replicability, and positive outcomes; third, prepared both implementation and evaluation materials from the efficacious programs for public use; fourth, developed interactive wizards or capacity-building tools to facilitate appropriate program selection, implementation, and adaptation; and, fifth, made the efficacious programs and accompanying wizards available to health practitioners throughout the globe in both printed and online formats. PMID:24563820
Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Eng, Shirley; de la Iglesia, Gabriela; Falistocco, Carlos; Mazin, Rafael
Introduction Transgender women are the population most vulnerable to HIV in Latin America, with prevalence between 18 and 38%. Although the region has improved antiretroviral coverage, there is an urgent need to strengthen HIV prevention for key populations to meet regional targets set by governments. We conducted an assessment on the state of HIV prevention among transgender women in Latin America. Methods We conducted a desk review of Global AIDS Response Progress Reports, national strategic plans, technical reports and peer-reviewed articles from 17 Latin American countries published through January 2015. The review was preceded by 12 semi-structured interviews with UNAIDS and Pan American Health Organization officers and a discussion group with transgender women regional leaders, to guide the identification of documents. We assessed access to, implementation and coverage of programmes; legal frameworks; community participation; inclusion of new strategies; and alignment with international recommendations. Results and discussion Overall, prevention activities in the region focus on condom distribution, diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections and peer education, mostly delivered at health facilities, with limited community involvement. Argentina and Uruguay have implemented structural interventions to address social inclusion. Argentina, Brazil and Mexico have adopted early initiation of antiretroviral therapy and treatment as prevention strategies. The other countries do not have substantial tailored interventions and consider the trans population a sub-population of men who have sex with men in data collection and programme implementation. Limited coverage of services, discrimination and a deep-seated mistrust of the health system among transgender women are the main barriers to accessing HIV prevention services. Promising interventions include health services adapted to transgender women in Mexico; LGBT-friendly clinics in Argentina that incorporate
Whaley, Kevin J.; Mayer, Kenneth H.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be transmitted through either cell-free virions or leukocytes harboring intracellular HIV in bodily fluids. In recent years, the early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy leading to virological suppression has resulted in decreased HIV transmission to uninfected partners. Additionally, the efficacy of primary chemoprophylaxis with oral or topical antiretroviral regimens containing tenofovir (with or without emtricitabine) has been demonstrated. However, the efficacy of these approaches may be compromised by suboptimal adherence, decreased drug concentrations in mucosal compartments in women, and genital inflammation. Furthermore, in vitro studies on the effects of tenofovir on cell-associated HIV transmission have produced conflicting results. Preclinical studies suggest that combination preventive approaches may be most effective in stopping the transmission of HIV after mucosal exposure. Since the development of antibodies were found to correlate with protection in the only effective HIV vaccine trial, the administration of preformed mucosal and systemic antibodies may inform the development of safe and effective antibody-based oral, topical, and/or systemic preexposure prophylaxis agents and provide guidance in the development of HIV vaccines that effectively block cell-associated HIV transmission. PMID:25414423
Munro, Jenny; McIntyre, Lynn
This paper builds on critiques that call for a more nuanced and contextualised understanding of conditions that affect HIV prevention by looking at West Papuan women's experiences of prevention of mother-to-child transmission services. Drawing on qualitative, ethnographic research with indigenous women and health workers, the paper demonstrates that women experience poor-quality HIV education and counselling, and that indigenous practices and concerns are largely not addressed by HIV services. We attribute this to a combination of national anti-indigenous and anti-separatist political concerns with donor-led interventions that result in limited localisation and reduced effectiveness of HIV prevention measures. In West Papua, services are needed that enhance cooperation and shared commitment, and that acknowledge and work to overcome existing inequalities, ethnic tensions and discrimination in the health system. Beyond Indonesia, donor-led HIV programmes and interventions need to balance avoidance of politically sensitive issues with complicity in perpetuating health inequalities. Translating global health interventions and donor priorities into locally compelling HIV prevention activities involves more than navigating local cultural and religious beliefs. Programme development and implementation strategies that entail confronting structural questions as well as social hierarchies, cleavages and silences are needed to render more effective services; strategies that are inherently political.
... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau; Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program... the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act of 2009 (Ryan White Program or RWHAP), requires that... drugs, for individuals with HIV/AIDS identified and eligible under the statute. The statute also...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) Treatment Guidelines were last updated in 2006. To update the “Clinical Guide to Prevention Services” section of the 2010 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines, we reviewed the recent science with reference to interventions designed to prevent acquisition of STDs, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Major interval developments include (1) licensure and uptake of immunization against genital human papillomavirus, (2) validation of male circumcision as a potent prevention tool against acquisition of HIV and some other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), (3) failure of a promising HIV vaccine candidate to afford protection against HIV acquisition, (4) encouragement about the use of antiretroviral agents as preexposure prophylaxis to reduce risk of HIV and herpes simplex virus acquisition, (5) enhanced emphasis on expedited partner management and rescreening for persons infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, (6) recognition that behavioral interventions will be needed to address a new trend of sexually transmitted hepatitis C among men who have sex with men, and (7) the availability of a modified female condom. A range of preventive interventions is needed to reduce the risks of acquiring STI, including HIV infection, among sexually active people, and a flexible approach targeted to specific populations should integrate combinations of biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions. These would ideally involve an array of prevention contexts, including (1) communications and practices among sexual partners, (2) transactions between individual clients and their healthcare providers, and (3) comprehensive population-level strategies for prioritizing prevention research, ensuring accurate outcome assessment, and formulating health policy. PMID:22080271
... and Care in the United States Through the HIV Care Continuum Initiative #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Improvements in HIV Prevention and Care in the United States Through the HIV Care Continuum Initiative By the... increasing the use of evidence-based approaches to prevention and care among populations and in regions...
American School Health Association, Kent, OH.
This booklet describes a multi-disciplinary approach to student support services related to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic. The guidelines can be used by student support services personnel to evaluate the quality of services they are providing, by school administrators to design a comprehensive student support services delivery…
Amirkhanian, Yuri A.; Kuznetsova, Anna V.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; DiFranceisco, Wayne J; Musatov, Vladimir B.; Avsukevich, Natalya A.; Chaika, Nikolay A.; McAuliffe, Timothy L.
Background Although the dire life circumstances of labor migrants working in Russia are well-known, their HIV risk vulnerability and prevention needs are understudied. Low socioeconomic status, lack of access to services, separation from family, and limited risk awareness all contribute to migrants’ HIV vulnerability. Methods Male labor migrants in St. Petersburg (n=499) were administered assessments of their sexual behavior practices, substance use, and psychosocial characteristics related to risk and well-being. Results Thirty percent of migrants reported multiple female partners in the past 3 months. Condom use was low, ranging from 35% with permanent to 52% with casual partners. Central Asian migrants had very low AIDS knowledge, low levels of substance use, moderate sexual risk, high depression, and poor social supports. Eastern European migrants had higher AIDS knowledge, alcohol and drug use, and sexual risk. Discussion Improved HIV prevention efforts are needed to reduce the risk vulnerability of migrants who relocate to high disease prevalence areas. PMID:20690041
Hogben, Matthew; Collins, Dayne; Hoots, Brooke; O’Connor, Kevin
Background Partner services have been a mainstay of public health sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention programs for decades. The principal goals are to interrupt transmission and reduce STD morbidity and sequelae. In this paper, we review current literature with the goal of informing STD prevention programs. Methods We searched the literature for systematic reviews. We found nine reviews published between 2005 and 2014 (covering 108 studies). The reviews varied by study inclusion criteria (e.g., study methods, geographic location, infections). We abstracted major conclusions and recommendations from the reviews. Results Conclusions and recommendations were divided into patient referral interventions and provider referral interventions. For patient referral, there was evidence supporting the use of expedited partner therapy and interactive counseling, but not purely didactic instruction. Provider referral through Disease Intervention Specialists was efficacious and particularly well-supported for HIV. For other studies, modeling data and testing outcomes showed that partner notification in general reached high-prevalence populations. Reviews also suggested more focus on using technology and population-level implementation strategies. However, partner services may not be the most efficient means to reach infected persons. Conclusions Partner services programs constitute a large proportion of program STD prevention activities. Value is maximized by balancing a portfolio of patient and provider referral interventions and by blending partner notification interventions with other STD prevention interventions in overall partner services program structure. STD prevention needs program-level research and development to generate this portfolio. PMID:26779688
Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Baxter, Cheryl
The impetus for, and efforts in the past 20 years toward a women-initiated method for preventing sexual transmission of HIV has been previously well described. To date, four classes of topical agents categorized by mechanism of action as: surfactants, buffers, cell entry blockers and antiretroviral agents have undergone advanced clinical testing. Thus far, only coitally linked use of 1% tenofovir gel has demonstrated moderate effectiveness in preventing HIV and HSV-2 infection and has generated renewed hope for microbicide development. Studies of new antiviral agents, novel delivery mechanisms and combination/multipurpose products that address challenges of adherence and enhance the effectiveness of tenofovir gel are already underway to further enhance sexual and reproductive health needs of men and women and efforts to prevent HIV infection.
Dodds, Catherine; Weait, Matthew; Bourne, Adam; Egede, Siri
We present qualitative research findings about how perceptions of criminal prosecutions for the transmission of HIV interact with the provision of high-quality HIV health and social care in England and Wales. Seven focus groups were undertaken with a total of 75 diverse professionals working in clinical and community-based services for people with HIV. Participants’ understanding of the law in this area was varied, with many knowing the basic requirements for a prosecution, yet lacking confidence in the best way to communicate key details with those using their service. Prosecutions for HIV transmission have influenced, and in some instances, disrupted the provision of HIV services, creating ambivalence and concern among many providers about their new role as providers of legal information. The way that participants approached the topic with service users was influenced by their personal views on individual and shared responsibility for health, their concerns about professional liability and their degree of trust in non-coercive health promotion approaches to managing public health. These findings reveal an underlying ambivalence among many providers about how they regard the interface between criminal law, coercion and public health. It is also apparent that in most HIV service environments, meaningful exploration of practical ethical issues is relatively rare. The data presented here will additionally be of use to managers and providers of HIV services in order that they can provide consistent and confident support and advice to people with HIV. PMID:26692653
Stewart, Angela; Fasciano, John; Brown, Larry K.
Objective To conduct a critical review of all HIV prevention intervention studies conducted with adolescents in juvenile justice settings to inform future intervention development. Method PubMed and PsycInfo database searches were conducted for peer-reviewed, published HIV prevention intervention studies with juvenile offenders. Results Sixteen studies were identified (N = 3,700 adolescents). Half of the projects utilized rigorous methodologies to determine intervention effect on behavior change, such as conducting a randomized controlled trial (n = 8). Nine studies reported behaviors at least 3 months post-intervention and five out of nine showed decreases in sexual risk behavior. Conclusions Several HIV prevention programs with juvenile offenders have led to sexual risk reduction, although effect sizes are modest. Most existing programs have neglected to address the impact of family, mental health, and substance use on HIV risk. More work is needed to develop evidence-based interventions that include HIV prevention strategies relevant and appropriate for the juvenile justice setting. PMID:19741021
Kalichman, Seth C.; Cain, Demetria; Knecht, Joanna; Hill, Justin
Basic factual information about disease is the cornerstone of health promotion and disease prevention interventions. Previous studies have shown that content analysis of the questions asked of service providers can elucidate the information needs of service consumers. Questions asked by individuals at known high risk for HIV infection have not…
Celum, Connie L; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; McConnell, Margaret; van Rooyen, Heidi; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Kurth, Ann; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Desmond, Chris; Morton, Jennifer; Baeten, Jared M
Introduction HIV incidence remains high among young women in sub-Saharan Africa in spite of scale-up of HIV testing, behavioural interventions, antiretroviral treatment and medical male circumcision. There is a critical need to critique past approaches and learn about the most effective implementation of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies, particularly emerging interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Discussion Women in sub-Saharan Africa are at increased risk of HIV during adolescence and into their 20s, in part due to contextual factors including gender norms and relationship dynamics, and limited access to reproductive and sexual health services. We reviewed behavioural, behavioural economic and biomedical approaches to HIV prevention for young African women, with a particular focus on the barriers, opportunities and implications for implementing PrEP in this group. Behavioural interventions have had limited impact in part due to not effectively addressing the context, broader sexual norms and expectations, and structural factors that increase risk and vulnerability. Of biomedical HIV prevention strategies that have been tested, daily oral PrEP has the greatest evidence for protection, although adherence was low in two placebo-controlled trials in young African women. Given high efficacy and effectiveness in other populations, demonstration projects of open-label PrEP in young African women are needed to determine the most effective delivery models and whether women at substantial risk are motivated and able to use oral PrEP with sufficient adherence to achieve HIV prevention benefits. Conclusions Social marketing, adherence support and behavioural economic interventions should be evaluated as part of PrEP demonstration projects among young African women in terms of their effectiveness in increasing demand and optimizing uptake and effective use of PrEP. Lessons learned through evaluations of implementation strategies for delivering oral Pr
Haase, Ashley T
Measures to prevent sexual mucosal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 are urgently needed to curb the growth of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic and ultimately bring it to an end. Studies in animal models and acute HIV-1 infection reviewed here reveal potential viral vulnerabilities at the mucosal portal of entry in the earliest stages of infection that might be most effectively targeted by vaccines and microbicides, thereby preventing acquisition and averting systemic infection, CD4 T-cell depletion and pathologies that otherwise rapidly ensue.
Reducing the incidence of HIV infection continues to be a crucial public health priority in the United States, especially among populations at elevated risk such as men who have sex with men, transgender women, people who inject drugs, and racial and ethnic minority communities. Although most HIV prevention efforts to date have focused on changing risky behaviors, the past decade has yielded efficacious new biomedical technologies designed to prevent infection, such as the prophylactic use of antiretroviral drugs and the first indications of an efficacious vaccine. Access to prevention technologies will be a significant part of the next decade’s response to HIV, and advocates are mobilizing to achieve more widespread use of these interventions. These breakthroughs, however, arrive at a time of escalating healthcare costs; health insurance coverage therefore raises pressing new questions about priority-setting and the allocation of responsibility for public health. The goals of this Article are to identify legal challenges and potential solutions for expanding access to biomedical HIV prevention through health insurance coverage. This Article discusses the public policy implications of HIV prevention coverage decisions, assesses possible legal grounds on which insurers may initially deny coverage for these technologies, and evaluates the extent to which these denials may survive external and judicial review. Because several of these legal grounds may be persuasive, particularly denials on the basis of medical necessity, this Article also explores alternative strategies for financing biomedical HIV prevention efforts. PMID:23356098
Epps, Patricia H.; Vallenari, Allison
This manual includes all necessary information for implementing the Champs program, which trains older elementary school students or middle/high school students to operate puppets to deliver an HIV/AIDS message to kindergarten through sixth graders. Relying on a peer approach, the Program provides scripted, prerecorded lessons intended to reach…
Eshleman, Susan H; Hudelson, Sarah E; Redd, Andrew D; Swanstrom, Ronald; Ou, San-San; Zhang, Xinyi Cindy; Ping, Li-Hua; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Porcella, Stephen F; Sievers, Matthew F; Martens, Craig A; Bruno, Daniel; Dukhovlinova, Elena; McCauley, Marybeth; Gamble, Theresa; Fogel, Jessica M; Sabin, Devin; Quinn, Thomas C; Gunde, Laurence; Maliwichi, Madalitso; Nhando, Nehemiah; Akelo, Victor; Moyo, Sikhulile; Panchia, Ravindre; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Chotirosniramit, Nuntisa; Melo, Marineide Gonçalves de; Pilotto, Jose; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Mayer, Kenneth; Chen, Ying Q; Hughes, James P; Cohen, Myron S
HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 demonstrated that antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevents HIV transmission in serodiscordant couples. HIV from index-partner pairs was analyzed to determine the genetic linkage status of partner infections. Forty-six infections were classified as linked, indicating that the index was the likely source of the partner's infection. Lack of viral suppression and higher index viral load were associated with linked infection. Eight linked infections were diagnosed after the index started ART: 4 near the time of ART initiation and 4 after ART failure. Linked infections were not observed when the index participant was stably suppressed on ART.
Subiadur, Julie; Harris, Jennie L; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends integrating viral hepatitis prevention services with services for adults evaluated for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The Denver Public Health STD clinic began hepatitis B vaccination in 1999, hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody (anti-HCV) testing in 2000, and hepatitis A vaccination in 2002. Rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing began in late 2004. Hepatitis B vaccinations peaked in 2003 (31/100 client visits) when a full-time nurse was hired to vaccinate and eligibility was expanded. The proportion of clients documented to have received their anti-HCV test results declined from an average of 71% in 2000-2003 to 22% in 2004-2005, coinciding with the introduction of rapid HIV testing. Viral hepatitis prevention services can be incorporated into a busy STD clinic if staff and resources are available. Rapid HIV testing may be associated with lower receipt of anti-HCV test results.
Bahromov, Mahbat; Weine, Stevan
This study was a pilot investigation of the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of TRAIN (Transit to Russia AIDS Intervention with Newcomers) a three-session HIV preventive intervention for Tajik male labor migrants performed in transit. Sixty adult Tajik male labor migrants on the 5-day train ride from Dushanbe to Moscow were randomly assigned to either the intervention or a control condition. Each initially completed an in-person survey then another 3 days later (immediately postintervention), and participated in a cell phone survey three months later. All participants came to all intervention sessions, were satisfied with the program, and completed all postassessments. In comparison with the controls, the TRAIN group reported significant increases in condom use with sex workers and non-sex workers, condom knowledge, worry about HIV/AIDS, talking with persons about HIV/AIDS, talking with wife about HIV/AIDS, community activities, and religious activities. HIV/AIDS prevention performed in transit is feasible, accceptable, and potentially efficacious in diminishing HIV risk behaviors in labor migrants. PMID:21696244
Cottrell, Mackenzie L; Kashuba, Angela D. M.
Worldwide, HIV disproportionately affects women who are often unable to negotiate traditional HIV preventive strategies such as condoms. In the absence of an effective vaccine or cure, chemoprophylaxis may be a valuable self-initiated alternative. Topical microbicides have been investigated as one such option. The first generation topical microbicides were non-specific, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, including surfactants, polyanions, and acid buffering gels, that generally exhibited contraceptive properties. After extensive clinical study, none prevented HIV infection, and their development was abandoned. Second generation topical microbicides include agents with selective mechanisms of antiviral activity. Most are currently being used for, or have previously been explored as, drugs for treatment of HIV. The most advanced of these is tenofovir 1% gel: the first topical agent shown to significantly reduce HIV infection by 39% compared to placebo. This review summarizes the evolution of topical microbicides for HIV chemoprophylaxis, highlights important concepts learned, and offers current and future considerations for this area of research. PMID:24664786
Bahromov, Mahbat; Weine, Stevan
This study was a pilot investigation of the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of TRAIN (Transit to Russia AIDS Intervention with Newcomers) a three-session HIV preventive intervention for Tajik male labor migrants performed in transit. Sixty adult Tajik male labor migrants on the 5-day train ride from Dushanbe to Moscow were randomly assigned to either the intervention or a control condition. Each initially completed an in-person survey then another 3 days later (immediately postintervention), and participated in a cell phone survey three months later. All participants came to all intervention sessions, were satisfied with the program, and completed all postassessments. In comparison with the controls, the TRAIN group reported significant increases in condom use with sex workers and non-sex workers, condom knowledge, worry about HIV/AIDS, talking with persons about HIV/AIDS, talking with wife about HIV/AIDS, community activities, and religious activities. HIV/AIDS prevention performed in transit is feasible, accceptable, and potentially efficacious in diminishing HIV risk behaviors in labor migrants.
Diese, Mulamba; Shrestha, Lexman; Pradhan, Birendra; Singh, Dipendra; Raaijmakers, Hendrikus; Kisesa, Annefrida; Chamla, Dick; Ntambue, Mukengeshayi Abel
Background In children, integration of HIV in MNCH services has been shown to incr. ease uptake of early infant diagnosis. This article examines bottlenecks and opportunities for scaling up integrated pediatric HIV services in Nepal. Methods This is a descriptive study using both mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, conducted in January 2015 in 19 facilities in five regions of Nepal most affected by HIV epidemic. The qualitative methods comprised in-depth structured interviews with key informants (leadership of The National Center for AIDS and STD Control and National Public Health Laboratory, district management teams, medical officers in charge of health facilities and HIV clinics, frontline staff at antenatal care and HIV clinics and laboratory). The quantitative methods were used to abstract data of HIV-infected pregnant women seen between January and December 2014, HIV-exposed infants aged less than 12 months, and HIV infected children aged less than 15 years who were initiated HIV treatment from 2010 to 2014. Structured tools were used to collect data which were analysed using IBM SPSS. Results Of the 19 facilities assessed, 18(98%), 18(98%), 14(75%), and 11(58%) provided prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), pediatric ART and nutrition rehabilitation services, respectively. However, only 1(5%) facility collected onsite dried blood spots (DBS) for PCR HIV testing and 6(32%) facilities provided counselling and referral for DBS. In 2014, of the 121 HIV-exposed infants recorded, only 21(17%) received PCR test. The median turnaround time of the PCR test results was 54 days. Of the 21 records with PCR test, 11(52.5%) were from PMTCT clinics, 7(33%) from Nutritional rehabilitation clinics, and 3(14.5%) from pediatric outpatient clinic. Conversely, 934 children were initiated ART between 2010 and 2014, of which 5% were infants and 29% aged between 1 and 5 years. 298(32%) had comorbidities of which 64% had
Albritton, Tashuna; Martinez, Isabel; Gibson, Crystal; Angley, Meghan; Grandelski, Valen R
Health care budgets and policies are chief drivers in the delivery and access to health services. Place is also a factor that affects patient and provider experiences within the health care system. We examine the impact of policy changes and subsequent budget cuts on rural HIV/AIDS care, support services, and prevention. We interviewed 11 social workers, case managers, and outreach workers who serve rural people living with HIV/AIDS. We conducted telephone interviews inquiring about the effect of economics and policies on direct practice with rural clients. We analyzed data using a content analysis approach. We found several themes from the data. Ryan White funding and policy changes shifted direct practice to a medical case management model. Changes in federal and state poverty levels affected client eligibility for the AIDS Drugs Assistance Program. Policy banning financial support for syringe service programs hindered prevention efforts to reduce HIV/AIDS transmission. Ancillary services were reduced, such as housing assistance, transportation, and emergency financial assistance. In conclusion, we highlight the importance of place-based policies to improve access to healthcare and services. We also provide recommendations for greater inclusion in HIV/AIDS-related policy development, care, and service planning for rural workers.
Worldwide, far more people migrate within than across borders, and although internal migrants do not risk a loss of citizenship, they frequently confront significant social, financial and health consequences, as well as a loss of rights. The recent global financial crisis has exacerbated the vulnerability internal migrants face in realizing their rights to health care generally and to antiretroviral therapy in particular. For example, in countries such as China and Russia, internal migrants who lack official residence status are often ineligible to receive public health services and may be increasingly unable to afford private care. In India, internal migrants face substantial logistical, cultural and linguistic barriers to HIV prevention and care, and have difficulty accessing treatment when returning to poorly served rural areas. Resulting interruptions in HIV services may lead to a wide range of negative consequences, including: individual vulnerability to infection and risk of death; an undermining of state efforts to curb the HIV epidemic and provide universal access to treatment; and the emergence of drug-resistant disease strains. International human rights law guarantees individuals lawfully within a territory the right to free movement within the borders of that state. This guarantee, combined with the right to the highest attainable standard of health set out in international human rights treaties, and the fundamental principle of non-discrimination, creates a duty on states to provide a core minimum of health care services to internal migrants on a non-discriminatory basis. Targeted HIV prevention programs and the elimination of restrictive residence-based eligibility criteria for access to health services are necessary to ensure that internal migrants are able to realize their equal rights to HIV prevention and treatment. PMID:19925647
Chutuape, Kate S.; Willard, Nancy; Sanchez, Kenia; Straub, Diane M.; Ochoa, Tara N.; Howell, Kourtney; Rivera, Carmen; Ramos, Ibrahim; Ellen, Jonathan M.
Increasingly, HIV prevention efforts must focus on altering features of the social and physical environment to reduce risks associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. Community coalitions provide a vehicle for bringing about sustainable structural changes. This article shares lessons and key strategies regarding how three community coalitions located in Miami and Tampa, Florida, and San Juan, Puerto Rico engaged their respective communities in bringing about structural changes affecting policies, practices and programs related to HIV prevention for 12–24-year-olds. Outcomes of this work include increased access to HIV testing and counseling in the juvenile correctional system (Miami), increased monitoring of sexual abuse between young women and older men within public housing, and support services to deter age discordant relationships (Tampa) and increased access to community-based HIV testing (San Juan). PMID:20166784
Chutuape, Kate S; Willard, Nancy; Sanchez, Kenia; Straub, Diane M; Ochoa, Tara N; Howell, Kourtney; Rivera, Carmen; Ramos, Ibrahim; Ellen, Jonathan M
Increasingly, HIV prevention efforts must focus on altering features of the social and physical environment to reduce risks associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. Community coalitions provide a vehicle for bringing about sustainable structural changes. This article shares lessons and key strategies regarding how three community coalitions located in Miami and Tampa, Florida, and San Juan, Puerto Rico engaged their respective communities in bringing about structural changes affecting policies, practices and programs related to HIV prevention for 12-24-year-olds. Outcomes of this work include increased access to HIV testing and counseling in the juvenile correctional system (Miami), increased monitoring of sexual abuse between young women and older men within public housing, and support services to deter age discordant relationships (Tampa) and increased access to community-based HIV testing (San Juan).
Thanks to very effective interventions vertical transmission of HIV has been reduced from over 20% ten years ago to less than 2% today in industrialised countries. This progress has been achieved by combined application of different strategies including antiretroviral treatment of pregnant women, elective caesarian section (prior to labour and rupture of membranes) and refraining from breastfeeding. Fortunately, the Swiss Mother & Child HIV Cohort Study (MoCHiV) has been able to support this evolution with several important contributions. Nevertheless the most important challenge in the prevention of vertical HIV transmission remains to be resolved in this decade. This impressive reduction in vertical transmission achieved in the industrialised world and delineated in this article still needs to be carried forward to those countries in the third world where HIV prevalence is much higher and interventions therefore much more needed.
Background A growing number of studies highlight men's disinclination to make use of HIV services. This suggests there are factors that prevent men from engaging with health services and an urgent need to unpack the forms of sociality that determine men's acceptance or rejection of HIV services. Methods Drawing on the perspectives of 53 antiretroviral drug users and 25 healthcare providers, we examine qualitatively how local constructions of masculinity in rural Zimbabwe impact on men's use of HIV services. Results Informants reported a clear and hegemonic notion of masculinity that required men to be and act in control, to have know-how, be strong, resilient, disease free, highly sexual and economically productive. However, such traits were in direct conflict with the 'good patient' persona who is expected to accept being HIV positive, take instructions from nurses and engage in health-enabling behaviours such as attending regular hospital visits and refraining from alcohol and unprotected extra-marital sex. This conflict between local understandings of manhood and biopolitical representations of 'a good patient' can provide a possible explanation to why so many men do not make use of HIV services in Zimbabwe. However, once men had been counselled and had the opportunity to reflect upon the impact of ART on their productivity and social value, it was possible for some to construct new and more ART-friendly versions of masculinity. Conclusion We urge HIV service providers to consider the obstacles that prevent many men from accessing their services and argue for community-based and driven initiatives that facilitate safe and supportive social spaces for men to openly discuss social constructions of masculinity as well as renegotiate more health-enabling masculinities. PMID:21575149
Waldura, Jess Fogler
Among the most frequently asked questions by callers to the National Perinatal HIV Hotline are those on the use of hormonal contraception in women receiving antiretroviral therapy. Estradiol levels are reduced by ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PIs), nelfinavir, and nevirapine and increased by non-ritonavir-boosted PIs (except nelfinavir), efavirenz, and etravirine. Oral contraceptives do not affect antiretroviral drug levels, and several options are available for hormonal contraception that can compensate for or avoid the effects of antiretroviral drugs on estrogen levels. Other common questions on the hotline involve interpretation and management issues that arise from indeterminate Western blot test results early and late in pregnancy and from positive rapid test results during labor. Many questions focus on appropriate selection of antiretroviral drugs in pregnancy and the need to change regimens to reduce risk of birth defects in the child. This articlesummarizes a presentation by Jess Fogler Waldura, MD, at the 13th Annual Clinical Conference for the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program held in August 2010 in Washington, DC.
Stoliaroff-Pépin, Anna; Speck, Roberto F; Vernazza, Pietro
The number of new HIV-1 infections remains stable in Switzerland over the last years thanks to the effective prevention programs. However, the aim to halve the new HIV infection rate has not been reached. Early identification of patients at risk of acquiring HIV infection and counselling "safer sex" rules as well as treating HIV-infected patients plays a decisive role in this program. Studies are -ongoing to investigate additional preventive measures such as pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides and vaccines, but none of those approaches permit omitting "safer sex". Incidences of other sexual transmitted infections are increasing rapidly, in particular the incidence of Syphilis. Transmission occurs more often orally or rectally than vaginally and patients are often asymptomatic. Condoms provide only limited protection. In addition antibiotic resistance emerges complicating the therapy, as for example for gonorrhea. Testing and treatment of infected patients is primordial as well as contact tracing. In this work, we discuss the different elements for preventing STIs with major emphasis on HIV.
Buchbinder, Susan P; Liu, Albert Y
The 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) highlighted hot spots in HIV infection. Men who have sex with men (MSM), transgender populations, people who inject drugs, fisherfolk, migrants, adolescents, and older adults are heavily impacted in a number of regions. Stigma contributes to risk behaviors and HIV acquisition across populations. HIV testing is a crucial first step in the HIV care continuum, and several large community-based surveys are underway in Africa to increase HIV testing, linkage to care, and uptake of antiretroviral treatment. Advances in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) featured prominently at CROI 2016. Two large efficacy trials of a vaginal ring containing the investigational drug dapivirine demonstrated efficacy and safety in preventing HIV infections in women in Africa. Data on the safety of long-acting injectable PrEP and several investigational PrEP drugs and formulations were also presented. Knowledge and use of PrEP among MSM in the United States appears to be increasing, and high uptake was seen among black MSM when provided as part of a culturally tailored support program. The use of broadly neutralizing antibodies for HIV prevention is a novel and promising approach to be evaluated in efficacy trials.
Barker, Pierre M; Mate, Kedar
Although some low- and middle-income countries have made progress toward eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV, others lack health systems that can deliver accessible and reliable care. We modeled how access to maternal and child health services and the effective delivery of interventions would affect efforts to eliminate HIV transmission during pregnancy and after childbirth in low- and middle-income countries. In countries with high HIV rates, our model predicts transmission rates of 19.7 percent at current levels of access and efficiency of maternal and child health and HIV treatment. Even if current treatment programs were carried out at or near perfect levels, we predict that significant residual mother-to-child transmission (7.9 percent) would remain. The model suggests that under current conditions, poor access to routine health services contributes three times more to overall mother-to-child HIV transmission than do current suboptimal levels of efficiency of anti-HIV-transmission interventions. We conclude that current efforts to optimize programs to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission will not, on their own, eliminate HIV in newborns. Access to maternal and child health services will need to be dramatically improved, as will prevention measures, such as identifying and treating HIV before pregnancy.
Klein, Daniel J.; Eckhoff, Philip A.; Bershteyn, Anna
Background Migrant populations such as mine workers contributed to the spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. We used a mathematical model to estimate the community-wide impact of targeting treatment and prevention to male migrants. Methods We augmented an individual-based network model, EMOD-HIV v0.8, to include an age-dependent propensity for males to migrate. Migrants were exposed to HIV outside their home community, but continued to participate in HIV transmission in the community during periodic visits. Results Migrant-targeted interventions would have been transformative in the 1980s to 1990s, but post-2015 impacts were more modest. When targetable migrants comprised 2% of adult males, workplace HIV prevention averted 3.5% of community-wide infections over 20 years. Targeted treatment averted 8.5% of all-cause deaths among migrants. When migrants comprised 10% of males, workplace prevention averted 16.2% of infections in the community, one-quarter of which were among migrants. Workplace prevention and treatment acted synergistically, averting 17.1% of community infections and 11.6% of deaths among migrants. These estimates do not include prevention of secondary spread of HIV or tuberculosis at the workplace. Conclusions Though cost-effective, targeting migrants cannot collapse generalized epidemics in their home communities. Such a strategy would only have been possible prior to the early 1990s. However, migrant-targeted interventions synergize with general-population expansion of HIV services. PMID:25733560
Jones, Tiffany; Mitchell, Anne
Australia has not seen a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic among young people. However, early research in the Australian context had indicated that the degree of unprotected sexual activity, partner change, and STI infection in this cohort would fuel a young people's epidemic if HIV ever reached a tipping point in the country. The difficulty of reaching young people outside school for HIV prevention has been no more successfully addressed in Australia than elsewhere. Therefore, the investment of Australian HIV prevention funds for youth has had an emphasis on school-based programs. This emphasis on formal schooling has led to a history of engagement with the ad hoc and unreliable nature of sexuality education in Australian schools. It has particularly been the catalyst for a struggle to construct young people as sexually active and as possessing a right to appropriate education, against tides of both secular and religiously-motivated resistance. The eight state and territory education sectors, along with the independent sectors, have had differing and sometimes troubled histories with HIV prevention. This paper discusses the differing HIV education policies and programs that have emerged in Australian schooling historically, and in some cases been abandoned altogether, amid strong public debates. It also considers current approaches, the new national curriculum, and future challenges. Additionally, the particular case of same sex attracted young men, who have a heightened level of vulnerability to HIV, is explored. Australian schools have struggled to address both the imperative for relevant sexuality education for same-sex-attracted young people and the broader issue of combating homophobia, which research has linked directly to this vulnerability.
Fowler, Mary Glenn; Gable, Alicia R; Lampe, Margaret A; Etima, Monica; Owor, Maxensia
This article reviews the epidemiology of perinatal (HIV)-1 in the United States in the past 2 decades and the international HIV epidemic among pregnant women and their infants. Since the peak of 1700 reported cases of pediatric AIDS in 1992, there has been dramatic progress in decreasing perinatal HIV transmission in the United States with fewer than 50 new cases of AIDS annually (>96% reduction) and fewer than 300 annual perinatal HIV transmissions in 2005. This success has been due to use of combination antiretrovirals given to mothers during pregnancy and labor/delivery, obstetric interventions that reduce the risk of transmission, provision of zidovudine (ZDV) prophylaxis for 6 weeks to HIV-exposed newborns and use of formula. Internationally, the burden of mother-to-child HIV transmission remains heavy with 2.1 million children less than 15 years of age estimated to be living with HIV and 430,000 new HIV infections in infants occurring each year, with most cases occurring in Africa. Current international efforts are directed at scaling up successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission interventions and new research directed at making breastfeeding safer using antiretroviral prophylaxis to either mothers or their infants.
This paper examines the ways in which HIV prevention is understood including "biomedical", "behavioural", "structural", and "combination" prevention. In it I argue that effective prevention entails developing community capacity and requires that public health addresses people not only as individuals but also as connected members of groups, networks and collectives who interact (talk, negotiate, have sex, use drugs, etc.) together. I also examine the evaluation of prevention programmes or interventions and argue that the distinction between efficacy and effectiveness is often glossed and that, while efficacy can be evaluated by randomized controlled trials, the evaluation of effectiveness requires long-term descriptive strategies and/or modelling. Using examples from a number of countries, including a detailed account of the Australian HIV prevention response, effectiveness is shown to be dependent not only on the efficacy of the prevention technology or tool but also on the responses of people - individuals, communities and governments - to those technologies. Whether a particular HIV prevention technology is adopted and its use sustained depends on a range of social, cultural and political factors. The paper concludes by calling on biomedical and social scientists to work together and describes a "social public health".
Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.
Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…
Tshikung, Olivier Nawej; Calmy, Alexandra
In 2015, the publication of important studies allowed the development of new guidelines, notably by WHO and the European AIDS ClinicalSociety (EACS), for HIV preventive treatment (pre-exposure prophylaxis), as well as for the start of antiretroviral treatment. The START and TEMPRANO studies have extended the treatment to all HIV-infected patients, irrespective of the level of immunosuppression and therefore the CD4 count. In addition, innovative screening methods, such as self-tests, are now available in all French pharmacies since 15 September 2015. The latest developments in 2015 concerning the prevention, screening, and treatment of HIV are discussed in this article and will certainly have an impact on the care of patients in Switzerland.
Napp, David; Gibbs, Deborah; Jolly, David; Westover, Bonita; Uhl, Gary
Funding agencies are using technical assistance to promote evaluation of their community-based HIV prevention programs. Using qualitative methods, we identified 11 factors that hinder and facilitate evaluation within community-based organizations (CBOs): staff perceptions, availability of funding, data collection, data validity, data utility, technical assistance, effects on services, effects on funding, staff skills, tools and technology, and expectations of the funding agency. Using these factors, we developed eight strategies to promote CBO evaluation. These strategies go beyond the traditional role of technical assistance and address the broader context within which CBOs evaluate their programs. Funding agencies and technical assistance providers can use these strategies to enhance CBO evaluation, which may result in more and better quality evaluations and, ultimately, improvements in the effectiveness of HIV prevention services.
Gorsky, R D; Farnham, P G; Straus, W L; Caldwell, B; Holtgrave, D R; Simonds, R J; Rogers, M F; Guinan, M E
OBJECTIVE. To calculate the national costs of reducing perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus through counseling and voluntary testing of pregnant women and zidovudine treatment of infected women and their infants, as recommended by the Public Health Service, and to compare these costs with the savings from reducing the number of pediatric infections. METHOD. The authors analyzed the estimated costs of the intervention and the estimated cost savings from reducing the number of pediatric infections. The outcome measures are the number of infections prevented by the intervention and the net cost (cost of intervention minus the savings from a reduced number of pediatric HIV infections). The base model assumed that intervention participation and outcomes would resemble those found in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 076. Assumptions were varied regarding maternal seroprevalence, participation by HIV-infected women, the proportion of infected women who accepted and completed the treatment, and the efficacy of zidovudine to illustrate the effect of these assumptions on infections prevented and net cost. RESULTS. Without the intervention, a perinatal HIV transmission rate of 25% would result in 1750 HIV-infected infants born annually in the United States, with lifetime medical-care costs estimated at $282 million. The cost of the intervention (counseling, testing, and zidovudine treatment) was estimated to be $ 67.6 million. In the base model, the intervention would prevent 656 pediatric HIV infections with a medical care cost saving of $105.6 million. The net cost saving of the intervention was $38.1 million. CONCLUSION. Voluntary HIV screening of pregnant women and ziovudine treatment for infected women and their infants resulted in cost savings under most of the assumptions used in this analysis. These results strongly support implementation of the Public Health Service recommendations for this intervention. PMID:8711101
The Female Health Co. (FHC), London, United Kingdom, has signed a three-year agreement with the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) to provide a global public sector price for the female condom to 193 affiliated countries. An adjunct education and social marketing program, supported by UNAIDS, will be launched. High rates of acceptance have been shown previously when the female condom has been introduced with an effective educational approach. Negotiations between FHC and UNAIDS began in September 1996; 80 of 193 countries, upon inquiry, have already identified a requirement for over 7 million female condoms in 1997. UNAIDS estimates that nearly 50% of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are in women; the female condom is the only woman-controlled product providing protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Studies have indicated that the number of unprotected sex acts decreases when the female condom is available. Dr. Peter Piot (UNAIDS) states that the female condom is important in those cultures and situations where women have limited control over sexual decisions. Dr. Mary Ann Leeper (FHC) states that the company is committed to making the female condom available in developing countries.
Oyediran, Kola’ A; Mullen, Stephanie; Kolapo, Usman M
Decentralizing health services, including those for HIV prevention and treatment, is one strategy for maximizing the use of limited resources and expanding treatment options; yet few methods exist for systematically identifying where investments for service expansion might be most effective, in terms of meeting needs and rapid availability of improved services. The Nigerian Government, the United States Government under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) program and other donors are expanding services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV to primary health care facilities in Nigeria. Nigerian primary care facilities vary greatly in their readiness to deliver HIV/AIDS services. In 2012, MEASURE Evaluation assessed 268 PEPFAR-supported primary health care facilities in Nigeria and developed a systematic method for prioritizing these facilities for expansion of PMTCT services. Each assessed facility was scored based on two indices with multiple, weighted variables: one measured facility readiness to provide PMTCT services, the other measured local need for the services and feasibility of expansion. These two scores were compiled and the summary score used as the basis for prioritizing facilities for PMTCT service expansion. The rationale was that using need and readiness to identify where to expand PMTCT services would result in more efficient allocation of resources. A review of the results showed that the indices achieved the desired effect—that is prioritizing facilities with high need even when readiness was problematic and also prioritizing facilities where rapid scale-up was feasible. This article describes the development of the two-part index and discusses advantages of using this approach when planning service expansion. The authors' objective is to contribute to development of methodologies for prioritizing investments in HIV, as well as other public health arenas, that should improve cost-effectiveness and
Fronczak, Nancy; Oyediran, Kola' A; Mullen, Stephanie; Kolapo, Usman M
Decentralizing health services, including those for HIV prevention and treatment, is one strategy for maximizing the use of limited resources and expanding treatment options; yet few methods exist for systematically identifying where investments for service expansion might be most effective, in terms of meeting needs and rapid availability of improved services. The Nigerian Government, the United States Government under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) program and other donors are expanding services for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV to primary health care facilities in Nigeria. Nigerian primary care facilities vary greatly in their readiness to deliver HIV/AIDS services. In 2012, MEASURE Evaluation assessed 268 PEPFAR-supported primary health care facilities in Nigeria and developed a systematic method for prioritizing these facilities for expansion of PMTCT services. Each assessed facility was scored based on two indices with multiple, weighted variables: one measured facility readiness to provide PMTCT services, the other measured local need for the services and feasibility of expansion. These two scores were compiled and the summary score used as the basis for prioritizing facilities for PMTCT service expansion. The rationale was that using need and readiness to identify where to expand PMTCT services would result in more efficient allocation of resources. A review of the results showed that the indices achieved the desired effect-that is prioritizing facilities with high need even when readiness was problematic and also prioritizing facilities where rapid scale-up was feasible. This article describes the development of the two-part index and discusses advantages of using this approach when planning service expansion. The authors' objective is to contribute to development of methodologies for prioritizing investments in HIV, as well as other public health arenas, that should improve cost-effectiveness and
Hanefeld, Johanna; Bond, Virginia; Seeley, Janet; Lees, Shelley; Desmond, Nicola
Increasing attention is being paid to the potential of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) for HIV prevention. The possibility of eliminating HIV from a population through a universal test and treat intervention, where all people within a population are tested for HIV and all positive people immediately initiated on ART, as part of a wider prevention intervention, was first proposed in 2009. Several clinical trials testing this idea are now in inception phase. An intervention which relies on universally testing the entire population for HIV will pose challenges to human rights, including obtaining genuine consent to testing and treatment. It also requires a context in which people can live free from fear of stigma, discrimination and violence, and can access services they require. These challenges are distinct from the field of medical ethics which has traditionally governed clinical trials and focuses primarily on patient researcher relationship. This paper sets out the potential impact of a population wide treatment as prevention intervention on human rights. It identifies five human right principles of particular relevance: participation, accountability, the right to health, non-discrimination and equality, and consent and confidentiality. The paper proposes that explicit attention to human rights can strengthen a treatment as prevention intervention, contribute to mediating likely health systems challenges and offer insights on how to reach all sections of the population.
Every day, more than 1 million people are newly infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that can lead to morbidity, mortality, and an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Existing prevention and management strategies, including behavior change, condom promotion, and therapy have not reduced the global incidence and prevalence, pointing to the need for novel innovative strategies. This review summarizes important issues raised during a satellite session at the first HIV R4P conference, held in Cape Town, on October 31, 2014. We explore key STIs that are challenging public health today; new biomedical prevention approaches including multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs); and the scientific and regulatory hurdles that must be overcome to make combination prevention tools a reality. PMID:25759332
Hardon, Anita Petra; Oosterhoff, Pauline; Imelda, Johanna D; Anh, Nguyen Thu; Hidayana, Irwan
How do women and frontline health workers engage in preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) in urban areas of Vietnam and Indonesia, where HIV is highly stigmatized and is associated with injecting drug use and sex work? This qualitative study explores local dynamics of care, using a mix of observations, focus group discussions, and interviews. In Indonesia the study was conducted in a community-based PMTCT program run by an NGO, while in Vietnam the study explored the care dynamics in routine PMTCT services, implemented by district and provincial public health facilities. In both of these PMTCT arrangements (the routine provider initiated approach in Vietnam and a more client-oriented system in Indonesia), pregnant women value the provision of HIV tests in antenatal care (ANC). Concerns are raised, however, by the unhappy few who test positive. These women are unsatisfied with the quality of counselling, and the failure to provide antiretroviral treatments. Acceptability of HIV testing in ANC is high, but the key policy issue from the perspective of pregnant women is whether the PMTCT services can provide good quality counselling and the necessary follow-up care. We find local level providers of PMTCT are pleased with the PMTCT program. In Vietnam, the PMTCT program offers health workers protection against HIV, since they can refer women away from the district health service for delivery. In Indonesia, community cadres are pleased with the financial incentives gained by mobilizing clients for the program. We conclude that achieving the global aims of reducing HIV infections in children by 50% requires a tailoring of globally designed public health programs to context-specific gendered transmission pathways of HIV, as well as local opportunities for follow-up care and social support.
Office of the Surgeon General (DHHS/PHS), Washington, DC.
This packet of materials is Phase 1 of a toolkit designed to enlighten education leaders about the need for HIV prevention for youth, especially in communities of color. One element of the toolkit is a VHS videotape that features a brief message from former Surgeon General, Dr. David Satcher. The toolkit also includes a copy of a letter sent to…
Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Murphy, Debra A.
Notes that research to date has yielded important findings for primary prevention efforts for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and has identified psychological dimensions relevant to mental health interventions for persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Sees pressing need for more systematic intervention outcome research in…
DeMuth, Diane; Symons, Cynthia Wolford
Presents examples of appropriate intervention strategies for professionals working with school-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention among adolescents. A multidisciplinary approach is advisable because influencing adolescent sexual behavior is a complex matter. Consistent, continuous messages through multiple channels and by multiple…
Hohman, Melinda; Shillington, Audrey M.; Min, Jong Won; Clapp, John D.; Mueller, Kristin; Hovell, Melbourne
This study compared two groups of adolescents seeking help at HIV prevention drop-in agencies. The first group attended agencies in low-income Hispanic neighborhoods which recruited within the locale. The second group of youth attended agencies that recruited based upon a specific population--they targeted homeless and LGBQ youth. We explored the…
Goggin, K.; Metcalf, K.; Wise, D.; Kennedy, S.; Murray, T.; Burgess, D.; Reese-Smith, J.; Terhune, N.; Broadus, K.; Downes, A.; Buckendahl, H.
This study evaluates the first year of a novel HIV and substance use prevention program for inner city youth (Offering New Youth eXperiences--ONYX). Baseline and follow-up measures of knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors were administered seven months apart to 441 youth participating in the ONYX program. Youth (n=71) who provided data at both…
Fisher, Gloria; And Others
This study was undertaken to evaluate Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention and comprehensive health activities in public secondary schools in Mississippi. The Comprehensive School Health Curriculum (CSHC), for implementation in junior, middle, and senior high schools, was designed to promote improved knowledge and behaviors related to the…
Hennessy, Michael; Mercier, Michele M.; Williams, Samantha P.; Arno, Janet N.
Conducted a formative research study designed to elicit preferences for sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV prevention programs from clients at a midwestern STD clinic. Responses of 126 participants show preferences for mixed group or individual meetings with counselors, with extensive intervention less favored than single sessions. Discusses…
Rovniak, Liza S.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Blumberg, Elaine J.; Sipan, Carol L.; Batista, Marcia F.; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Mulvihill, Mary M.; Ayala, Guadalupe X.
Purpose To explore the feasibility of engaging community businesses in HIV prevention. Design Randomly selected business owners/managers were asked to display discreetly wrapped condoms and brochures provided free-of-charge for 3 months. Assessments were conducted at baseline, mid-, and post-program. Customer feedback was obtained through an online survey. Setting San Diego, California neighborhood with a high rate of AIDS. Subjects Fifty-one business owners/managers representing 10 retail categories, and 52 customers. Measures Participation rates, descriptive characteristics, number of condoms and brochures distributed, customer feedback, business owners'/managers' program satisfaction and willingness to provide future support for HIV prevention. Analysis Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's exact, and McNemar's tests were used to analyze data. Results The 20 business owners/managers (39%) who agreed to distribute condoms and brochures reported fewer years in business and more employees than those who agreed only to distribute brochures (20%) or refused to participate (41%), p <.05. Bars were the easiest of ten retail categories to recruit. Businesses with more employees and customers distributed more condoms and brochures, p < .05. More than 90% of customers supported distributing condoms and brochures in businesses and 96% of business owners/managers described their program experience as “positive.” Conclusion Businesses are willing to distribute condoms and brochures to prevent HIV. Policies to increase business participation in HIV prevention should be developed and tested. PMID:20465150
The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia. PMID:22770267
Background Although various HIV prevention programs targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) are operating in China, whether and how these programs are being utilized is unclear. This study explores participation of HIV prevention programs and influencing factors among MSM in two cities in China. Methods This is a mixed-method study conducted in Beijing and Chongqing. A qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 54 MSM, 11 key informants, and 8 focus group discussions, a cross-sectional survey using respondent-driven sampling among 998 MSM were conducted in 2009 and 2010 respectively to elicit information on MSM’s perception and utilization of HIV prevention programs. Qualitative findings were integrated with quantitative multivariate factors to explain the quantitative findings. Results Fifty-six percent of MSM in Chongqing and 75.1% in Beijing ever participated in at least one type of HIV prevention program (P=0.001). Factors related to participation in HIV prevention programs included age, ethnicity, income, HIV risk perception, living with boyfriend, living in urban area, size of MSM social network, having talked about HIV status with partners, and knowing someone who is HIV positive. Reasons why MSM did not participate in HIV prevention programs included logistical concerns like limited time for participation and distance to services; program content and delivery issues such as perceived low quality services and distrust of providers; and, cultural issues like HIV-related stigma and low risk perception. Conclusions The study shows that there is much room for improvement in reaching MSM in China. HIV prevention programs targeting MSM in China may need to be more comprehensive and incorporate the cultural, logistic and HIV-related needs of the population in order to effectively reach and affect this population’s risk for HIV. PMID:23039880
Anderson, James E; Kanters, Steve
This study set out to assess the relationship between variation in human rights for sexual minorities in Asian countries and indicators of HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women. To quantitatively measure the relationship between variation in HIV prevention and variation in human rights for sexual minorities, this study developed the Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity (SOGI) Human Rights Index (an original index with scores ranging from 0.0 to 1.0). Subsequently, this study collected 237 epidemiological and behavioral studies from 22 Asian countries and performed a series of meta-analyses in order to calculate national averages for five indicators of HIV prevention: HIV prevalence, inconsistent condom use, recent HIV testing, adequate HIV knowledge, and exposure to HIV prevention services. A change of human rights for sexual minorities from a score of 0.0 to 1.0 as measured by the SOGI Human Rights Index was correlated with a decrease in unprotected anal intercourse by 25.5% (p=0.075), and increases in recent HIV testing by 42.9% (p=0.011), HIV knowledge by 29.5% (p=0.032), and exposure to HIV prevention services by 37.9% (p=0.119). The relationship between HIV prevalence and variation in human rights for sexual minorities was not statistically significant. Our study found correlations between human rights and indicators of HIV prevention, further supporting the need for increased rights among marginalized populations. The paucity of studies from many Asian countries as well as the disparity in how indicators of HIV prevention are measured reveals a need for increased coverage and standardization of MSM serological and behavioral data in order to better inform evidence-based policymaking.
This paper explores the point of intersection of the substance abuse treatment and HIV services industries with the criminal justice system. Section I reviews the literature and "best practices" that have integrated substance abuse treatment and HIV care and prevention services for ex-offenders and which informed the development of a community- based organization's initiative, the VIP STRIVE Project. Section II presents a brief history of VIP in the context of its ability to adapt to its environment and to the changing needs of its target population,with specific reference to the development of HIV and substance abuse treatment services for members of the criminal justice population. The concluding section brings the two previous sections together by explaining how the VIP STRIVE Project can assist VIP in enhancing its capacity to integrate its substance abuse treatment and HIV services in order to improve services for this target population.
Travers, Jasmine; Rojas, Marlene; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex
Background While the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence rate has remained steady in most groups, the overall incidence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) has been steadily increasing in the United States. eHealth is a platform for health behavior change interventions and provides new opportunities for the delivery of HIV prevention messages. Objective The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the use of eHealth interventions for HIV prevention in high-risk MSM. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, OVID, ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, and Google for articles and grey literature reporting the original results of any studies related to HIV prevention in MSM and developed a standard data collection form to extract information on study characteristics and outcome data. Results In total, 13 articles met the inclusion criteria, of which five articles targeted HIV testing behaviors and eight focused on decreasing HIV risk behaviors. Interventions included Web-based education modules, text messaging (SMS, short message service), chat rooms, and social networking. The methodological quality of articles ranged from 49.4-94.6%. Wide variation in the interventions meant synthesis of the results using meta-analysis would not be appropriate. Conclusions This review shows evidence that eHealth for HIV prevention in high-risk MSM has the potential to be effective in the short term for reducing HIV risk behaviors and increasing testing rates. Given that many of these studies were short term and had other limitations, but showed strong preliminary evidence of improving outcomes, additional work needs to rigorously assess the use of eHealth strategies for HIV prevention in high-risk MSM. PMID:24862459
Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.
Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…
Vernooij, Eva; Mehlo, Mandhla; Hardon, Anita; Reis, Ria
This article explores how notions of the individual and population are evoked in two ongoing HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) implementation studies in Swaziland. By contrasting policy discourses with lived kinship experiences of people living with HIV, we seek to understand how TasP unfolds in the Swazi context. Data collection consisted of eight focus group discussions with people living with HIV who were members of support groups to examine their perspectives about TasP. In addition, 18 key informant interviews were conducted with study team members, national-level policy-makers and NGO representatives involved in the design of health communication messages about TasP in Swaziland. Thematic analysis was used to identify recurrent themes in transcripts and field notes. Policy-makers and people living with HIV actively resisted framing HIV treatment as a prevention technology but promoted it as (earlier) access to treatment for all. TasP was not conceptualised in terms of individual or societal benefits, which are characteristic of international public health debates; rather its locally situated meanings were embedded in kinship experiences, concerns about taking responsibility for one's own health and others, local biomedical knowledge about drug resistance, and secrecy. The findings from this study suggest that more attention is needed to understand how the global discourse of TasP becomes shaped in practice in different cultural contexts.
HIV infection is the greatest health crisis in human history. It continues to spread unchecked among the poor in the developing world because we have failed to design simple preventative methods that are available and affordable to those living on under $2 a day. Five new methods are discussed. (i) A natural microbicide. Intravaginal lime or lemon juice has been used for centuries as a traditional contraceptive. The juice can also kill HIV in the laboratory, but clinical trials are needed to see if vaginal application is acceptable, safe and effective. (ii) Intravaginal oestrogen. Monkeys can be protected from Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection by keratinizing the vagina with topical oestrogen. If women take the oral contraceptive pill vaginally it retains its contraceptive efficacy, and the oestrogen it contains should thicken the vagina and protect against HIV infection. Clinical trials are needed. (iii) Male circumcision. Removal of the inner foreskin removes the main site of HIV entry into the penis, resulting in a sevenfold reduction in susceptibility to infection. The practice needs to be promoted. (iv) Post-coital penile hygiene. Wiping the penis immediately after intercourse with lime or lemon juice or vinegar should kill the virus before it has had a chance to infect. A clinical trial of efficacy is needed. (v) PhotoVoice. Asking schoolchildren in developing countries to photograph their impressions of HIV/AIDS is a powerful way of getting them to discuss the subject openly, and develop their own preventative strategies. PMID:16627296
Short, R V
HIV infection is the greatest health crisis in human history. It continues to spread unchecked among the poor in the developing world because we have failed to design simple preventative methods that are available and affordable to those living on under Dollars 2 a day. Five new methods are discussed. (i) A natural microbicide. Intravaginal lime or lemon juice has been used for centuries as a traditional contraceptive. The juice can also kill HIV in the laboratory, but clinical trials are needed to see if vaginal application is acceptable, safe and effective. (ii) Intravaginal oestrogen. Monkeys can be protected from Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection by keratinizing the vagina with topical oestrogen. If women take the oral contraceptive pill vaginally it retains its contraceptive efficacy, and the oestrogen it contains should thicken the vagina and protect against HIV infection. Clinical trials are needed. (iii) Male circumcision. Removal of the inner foreskin removes the main site of HIV entry into the penis, resulting in a sevenfold reduction in susceptibility to infection. The practice needs to be promoted. (iv) Post-coital penile hygiene. Wiping the penis immediately after intercourse with lime or lemon juice or vinegar should kill the virus before it has had a chance to infect. A clinical trial of efficacy is needed. (v) PhotoVoice. Asking schoolchildren in developing countries to photograph their impressions of HIV/AIDS is a powerful way of getting them to discuss the subject openly, and develop their own preventative strategies.
Ousman, Kevin; Polomano, Rosemary C; Seloilwe, Esther; Odero, Theresa; Tarimo, Edith; Mashalla, Yohana J; Voss, Joachim G; O'Malley, Gabrielle; Chapman, Susan A; Gachuno, Onesmus; Manabe, Yukari; Nakanjako, Damalie; Sewankambo, Nelson; Urassa, David; Wasserheit, Judith N; Wiebe, Douglas J; Green, Wendy; Farquhar, Carey
HIV continues to challenge health systems, especially in low- and middle-income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. A qualified workforce of transformational leaders is required to strengthen health systems and introduce policy reforms to address the barriers to HIV testing, treatment, and other HIV services. The 1-year Afya Bora Consortium Fellowship in Global Health capitalizes on academic partnerships between African and U.S. universities to provide interprofessional leadership training through classroom, online, and service-oriented learning in 5 countries in Africa. This fellowship program prepares health professionals to design, implement, scale-up, evaluate, and lead health programs that are population-based and focused on prevention and control of HIV and other public health issues of greatest importance to African communities and health service settings. Afya Bora nurse fellows acquire leadership attributes and competencies that are continuously and systematically tested during the entire program. This multinational training platform promotes interprofessional networks and career opportunities for nurses.
Gerbi, Gemechu B.; Habtemariam, Tsegaye; Robnett, Vinaida; Nganwa, David; Tameru, Berhanu
The purpose of this study was to examine if religious affiliation and frequency of attendance at religious services were associated with HIV risky behaviors among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The participants are HIV positive clients of a community based HIV/AIDS outreach facility (CBHAOF) located in Montgomery, Alabama, USA. The participants completed the questionnaire during their medical visits to the clinic at their own convenience and that of the facility's staff. A total of 341 questionnaires were distributed to PLWHA and 326 (96%) were fully completed and returned. There were more male than female participants (56 versus 42%). The majority of the respondents (67%) were between 30 and 49 years of age. Nearly two thirds of the participants (64%) were African Americans whilst 36% were other races combined (White = 29%, Hispanic = 3% and other races = 4%). A chi-square test was used to examine the association between selected variables. Findings show substantial variations of selected HIV risky behaviors according to religious affiliation and frequency of attendance at religious services (p < 0.05). The study findings suggest the importance of religious affiliation and frequency of attendance at religious services in reducing HIV risky behaviors among PLWHA. The findings have implications for HIV/AIDS prevention and we recommend that it is important to incorporate Faith-based organizations in the global fight against HIV/AIDS. PMID:24707442
McNairy, Margaret L; Deryabina, Anna; Hoos, David; El-Sadr, Wafaa M
Interest in the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention stems from mounting evidence from research studies demonstrating that ART is associated with a decrease in sexual HIV transmission among serodiscordant couples and, perhaps, in other populations at risk. There is paucity of data on the efficacy of ART for prevention in key populations, including persons who inject drugs (PWID). In this paper, we examine the current status of HIV services for PWID in Central Asia, the use of ART by this population and explore ART for prevention for PWID in this context. We also discuss research and implementation questions with relevance to such a strategy in the region.
Hakim, Avi J; Aho, Josephine; Semde, Gisele; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Ehoussou, Konan; Vuylsteke, Bea; Murrill, Christopher S; Thiam, Marguerite; Wingate, Therese
To determine HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional RDS survey of MSM in Abidjan from October 2011 to February 2012. Eligibility criteria included age ≥ 18 years and having had oral or anal sex with another man in the last 12 months. Weighted data analysis was conducted with RDSAT and SAS. We enrolled 603 participants, of whom 601 (99.7%) completed the questionnaire and 581 (96.7%) consented to HIV testing. HIV population prevalence was estimated as 18.0% (95% CI: 13.0-23.1); 86.4% (95% CI: 75.1-94.9) of HIV-positive MSM were unaware of their serostatus. In multivariable analysis, adjusting for age, education, and income, HIV infection was associated with unprotected sex at last sex with a woman, more than two male anal sex partners in last 12 months, inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a man, self-perceived risk of HIV, history of forced sex, history of physical abuse due to MSM status, and not receiving last HIV test result prior to study. HIV prevalence among MSM in Abidjan is more than four times as high as that of general population men. MSM engage in high-risk sexual behavior and most HIV-positive MSM are unaware of their serostatus. Greater access to HIV prevention, care, and treatment services targeted to MSM is necessary.
Cohen, Myron S.; Chen, Ying Q.; McCauley, Marybeth; Gamble, Theresa; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Hakim, James G.; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Pilotto, Jose H.S.; Godbole, Sheela V.; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Santos, Breno R.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Eshleman, Susan H.; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Cottle, Leslie; Zhang, Xinyi C.; Makhema, Joseph; Mills, Lisa A.; Panchia, Ravindre; Faesen, Sharlaa; Eron, Joseph; Gallant, Joel; Havlir, Diane; Swindells, Susan; Elharrar, Vanessa; Burns, David; Taha, Taha E.; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Celentano, David D.; Essex, Max; Hudelson, Sarah E.; Redd, Andrew D.; Fleming, Thomas R.
BACKGROUND An interim analysis of data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 trial showed that antiretroviral therapy (ART) prevented more than 96% of genetically linked infections caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in serodiscordant couples. ART was then offered to all patients with HIV-1 infection (index participants). The study included more than 5 years of follow-up to assess the durability of such therapy for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission. METHODS We randomly assigned 1763 index participants to receive either early or delayed ART. In the early-ART group, 886 participants started therapy at enrollment (CD4+ count, 350 to 550 cells per cubic millimeter). In the delayed-ART group, 877 participants started therapy after two consecutive CD4+ counts fell below 250 cells per cubic millimeter or if an illness indicative of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (i.e., an AIDS-defining illness) developed. The primary study end point was the diagnosis of genetically linked HIV-1 infection in the previously HIV-1– negative partner in an intention-to-treat analysis. RESULTS Index participants were followed for 10,031 person-years; partners were followed for 8509 person-years. Among partners, 78 HIV-1 infections were observed during the trial (annual incidence, 0.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7 to 1.1). Viral-linkage status was determined for 72 (92%) of the partner infections. Of these infections, 46 were linked (3 in the early-ART group and 43 in the delayed-ART group; incidence, 0.5%; 95% CI, 0.4 to 0.7) and 26 were unlinked (14 in the early-ART group and 12 in the delayed-ART group; incidence, 0.3%; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.4). Early ART was associated with a 93% lower risk of linked partner infection than was delayed ART (hazard ratio, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.22). No linked infections were observed when HIV-1 infection was stably suppressed by ART in the index participant. CONCLUSIONS The early initiation of ART led to a sustained
Edwards, Arlene E.; Collins, Charles B.
When seeking to prevent HIV/AIDS in women, attending to aspects of their lived experience provides opportunities to address the presence of social determinants in prevention strategies. According to the CDC, in 2010, the rate of new HIV infections among Black women was 20 times that of White women, while among Hispanic/Latino women it was 4 times the rate of White women. Additionally, 86% of HIV infections in women were attributed to heterosexual contact and 14% to injection drug use. The WHO indicates that worldwide, 49% of individuals infected by HIV are women, with a predominant source of infection tied to heterosexual transmission. This paper presents social determinants as influential factors in terms of women’s sexual behavior decision-making, along with suggested structural interventions to address the social determinants of their HIV risks. Secondary analysis was conducted on data from an earlier study (Abdul-Quader and Collins, 2011) which used concept-mapping to examine the feasibility, evaluability, and sustainability of structural interventions for HIV prevention. The current analysis focused on structural interventions applicable to women and their HIV prevention needs. Three themes emerged: economic interventions, responses to violence against women, and integrated health service delivery strategies. The themes provide a foundation for next steps regarding research, policy planning, and intervention implementation that is inclusive of women’s lived experience. The paper concludes with suggestions such as attention to innovative projects and a paradigm shift regarding policy planning as key next steps towards HIV prevention that reflects the contextual complexity of women’s lived experiences. PMID:27134801
Wright, James A.
The Air Force Surgeon General has established the Office for Prevention and Health Care ASsessment (OPHSA) to become the center of excellence for preventive services and health care assessment in the U.S. Air Force and the Department of Defense. OPHSA using the principles of total quality management and integrated teams will evaluate, compare, and modify preventive services delivery guidelines to preserve the fighting force by preventing illness and injuries in military populations. OPHSA will evaluate and formulate health care delivery guidelines to improve health care access and delivery to military patient populations. OPHSA will develop data to determine the health status and health needs to beneficiary populations so medical managers can deliver medical care in the most cost effective manner. OPHSA is located at Brooks Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. OPHSA will have thirty seven active duty military, civil service, and contract employees and should be fully functional by the end of 1995.
Fisher, Celia B
This special issue of the Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics represents a sampling of projects fostered through the NIDA-funded Fordham University HIV Prevention Research Ethics Institute. The first three articles employ processes of co-learning to give voice to the experiences of individuals recovering from substance abuse and engaged in sex work who have participated in HIV prevention studies in the United States, India, and the Philippines. The fourth article describes a unique community-based approach to the development of research ethics training modules designed to increase participation of American Indian and Alaskan Native (AI/AN) tribal members as partners in research on health disparities. The last two articles focus a critical scholarly lens on two underexamined areas confronting IRB review of HIV research: The emerging and continuously changing ethical challenges of using social media sites for recruitment into HIV prevention research, and the handling of research-related complaints from participants involving perceived research harms or research experiences that do not accord with their initial expectations. Together, the articles in this special issue identify key ethical crossroads and provide suggestions for best practices that respect the values and merit the trust of research participants.
Cluver, Lucie Dale; Orkin, Frederick Mark; Meinck, Franziska; Boyes, Mark Edward; Sherr, Lorraine
Introduction Social protection is high on the HIV-prevention agenda for youth in sub-Saharan Africa. However, questions remain: How do unconditional cash transfers work? What is the effect of augmenting cash provision with social care? And can “cash plus care” social protection reduce risks for adolescents most vulnerable to infection? This study tackles these questions by first identifying mediated pathways to adolescent HIV risks and then examining potential main and moderating effects of social protection in South Africa. Methods This study was a prospective observational study of 3515 10-to-17-year-olds (56.7% female; 96.8% one-year retention). Within randomly selected census areas in four rural and urban districts in two South African provinces, all homes with a resident adolescent were sampled between 2009/2010 and 2011/2012. Measures included 1) potential structural drivers of HIV infection such as poverty and community violence; 2) HIV risk behaviours; 3) hypothesized psychosocial mediating factors; and 4) types of social protection involving cash and care. Using gender-disaggregated analyses, longitudinal mediation models were tested for potential main and moderating effects of social protection. Results Structural drivers were associated with increased onset of adolescent HIV risk behaviour (p<0.001, B=0.06, SE=0.01), fully mediated by increased psychosocial problems. Both cash and care aspects of social protection were associated with reductions in HIV risk behaviour and psychosocial deprivations. In addition, cash social protection moderated risk pathways: for adolescent girls and boys experiencing more acute structural deprivation, social protection had the greatest associations with HIV risk prevention (e.g. moderation effects for girls: B=−0.08, p<0.002 between structural deprivation and psychosocial problems, and B=−0.07, p<0.001 between psychosocial problems and HIV risk behaviour). Conclusions Adolescents with the greatest structural
Reducing the incidence of HIV infection continues to be a crucial public health priority in the United States, especially among populations at elevated risk such as men who have sex with men, transgender women, people who inject drugs, and racial and ethnic minority communities. Although most HIV prevention efforts to date have focused on changing risky behaviors, the past decade yielded efficacious new biomedical technologies designed to prevent infection, such as the prophylactic use of antiretroviral drugs and the first indications of an efficacious vaccine. Access to prevention technologies will be a significant part of the next decade's response to HIV and advocates are mobilizing to achieve more widespread use of these interventions. These breakthroughs, however, arrive at a time of escalating healthcare costs; health insurance coverage therefore raises pressing new questions about priority-setting and the allocation of responsibility for public health. The goals of this Article are to identify legal challenges and potential solutions for expanding access to biomedical HIV prevention through health insurance coverage. This Article discusses the public policy implications of HIVprevention coverage decisions, assesses possible legal grounds on which insurers may initially deny coverage for these technologies, and evaluates the extent to which these denials may survive external and judicial review. Because several of these legal grounds may be persuasive, particularly denials on the basis of medical necessity, this Article also explores alternative strategies for financing biomedical HIV prevention efforts.
This paper compares policies on named HIV testing in the context of HIV prevention in Britain, Hungary and Sweden, and considers the extent to which these policies are based on evidence of effectiveness or on other, more contextual, factors. In Britain, testing has not featured significantly as a prevention strategy, and named testing has generally been carried out only with the voluntary, informed consent of individuals. In Hungary, testing is central to HIV prevention, and is required by law of certain groups. HIV testing is carried out mainly on a voluntary basis in Sweden, but, unlike in Britain, it has been actively promoted by public health authorities. The paper contrasts the 'right not to know' one's HIV status which is widely respected in Britain, with the 'responsibility to find out' which is more pervasive in Hungary and Sweden. Although policy makers in all three countries appear convinced that their's is the right approach, there appears to be as yet a dearth of convincing evidence to support their arguments.
Brown, Graham; Reeders, Daniel; Dowsett, Gary W.; Ellard, Jeanne; Carman, Marina; Hendry, Natalie; Wallace, Jack
Introduction Treatment as prevention has mobilized new opportunities in preventing HIV transmission and has led to bold new UNAIDS targets in testing, treatment coverage and transmission reduction. These will require not only an increase in investment but also a deeper understanding of the dynamics of combining behavioural, biomedical and structural HIV prevention interventions. High-income countries are making substantial investments in combination HIV prevention, but is this investment leading to a deeper understanding of how to combine interventions? The combining of interventions involves complexity, with many strategies interacting with non-linear and multiplying rather than additive effects. Discussion Drawing on a recent scoping study of the published research evidence in HIV prevention in high-income countries, this paper argues that there is a gap between the evidence currently available and the evidence needed to guide the achieving of these bold targets. The emphasis of HIV prevention intervention research continues to look at one intervention at a time in isolation from its interactions with other interventions, the community and the socio-political context of their implementation. To understand and evaluate the role of a combination of interventions, we need to understand not only what works, but in what circumstances, what role the parts need to play in their relationship with each other, when the combination needs to adapt and identify emergent effects of any resulting synergies. There is little development of evidence-based indicators on how interventions in combination should achieve that strategic advantage and synergy. This commentary discusses the implications of this ongoing situation for future research and the required investment in partnership. We suggest that systems science approaches, which are being increasingly applied in other areas of public health, could provide an expanded vocabulary and analytic tools for understanding these
Ratmann, O.; van Sighem, A.; Bezemer, D.; Gavryushkina, A.; Jurriaans, S.; Wensing, A.; de Wolf, F.; Reiss, P.; Fraser, C.
New HIV diagnoses among men having sex with men (MSM) have not decreased appreciably in most countries, even though care and prevention services have been scaled up substantially in the past twenty years. To maximize the impact of prevention strategies, it is crucial to quantify the sources of transmission at the population level. We used viral sequence and clinical patient data from one of Europe’s nation-wide cohort studies to estimate probable sources of transmission for 617 recently infected MSM. 71% of transmissions were from undiagnosed men, 6% from men who had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART), 1% from men with no contact to care for at least 18 months, and 43% from those in their first year of infection. The lack of substantial reductions in incidence amongst Dutch MSM is not a result of ineffective ART provision or inadequate retention in care. In counterfactual modeling scenarios, 19% of these past cases could have been averted with current annual testing coverage and immediate ART to those testing positive. 66% of these cases could have been averted with available antiretrovirals (immediate ART provided to all MSM testing positive, and pre-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis taken by half of all who test negative for HIV), but only if half of all men at risk of transmission had tested annually. With increasing sequence coverage, molecular epidemiological analyses can be a key tool to direct HIV prevention strategies to the predominant sources of infection, and help send HIV epidemics amongst MSM into a decisive decline. PMID:26738795
Albright, Kendra S.; Gavigan, Karen
HIV/AIDS infections are growing at an alarming rate for young adults. In 2009, youth, ages 13-29, accounted for 39% of all new HIV infections in the U.S. (Division of HIV/ AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 2011). South Carolina ranks eighth in the nation for new HIV cases, while the capital city of Columbia ranks seventh…
Grossman, Cynthia I.; Purcell, David W.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Veniegas, Rosemary
Despite advances in HIV prevention and care, African Americans and Latino Americans remain at much higher risk of acquiring HIV, are more likely to be unaware of their HIV-positive status, are less likely to be linked to and retained in care, and are less likely to have suppressed viral load than are Whites. The first National HIV/AIDS Strategy…
Chandrashekar, Sudhashree; Guinness, Lorna; Pickles, Michael; Shetty, Govindraj Y.; Alary, Michel; Vickerman, Peter; Vassall, Anna
Objective The study objective is to measure, analyse costs of scaling up HIV prevention for high-risk groups in India, in order to assist the design of future HIV prevention programmes in South Asia and beyond. Design Prospective costing study. Methods This study is one of the most comprehensive studies of the costs of HIV prevention for high-risk groups to date in both its scope and size. HIV prevention included outreach, sexually transmitted infections (STI) services, condom provision, expertise enhancement, community mobilisation and enabling environment activities. Economic costs were collected from 138 non-government organisations (NGOs) in 64 districts, four state level lead implementing partners (SLPs), and the national programme level (Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF)) office over four years using a top down costing approach, presented in US$ 2011. Results Mean total unit costs (2004–08) per person reached at least once a year and per monthly contact were US$ 235(56–1864) and US$ 82(12–969) respectively. 35% of the cost was incurred by NGOs, 30% at the state level SLP and 35% at the national programme level. The proportion of total costs by activity were 34% for expertise enhancement, 37% for programme management (including support and supervision), 22% for core HIV prevention activities (outreach and STI services) and 7% for community mobilisation and enabling environment activities. Total unit cost per person reached fell sharply as the programme expanded due to declining unit costs above the service level (from US$ 477 per person reached in 2004 to US$ 145 per person reached in 2008). At the service level also unit costs decreased slightly over time from US$ 68 to US$ 64 per person reached. Conclusions Scaling up HIV prevention for high risk groups requires significant investment in expertise enhancement and programme administration. However, unit costs decreased with programme expansion in spite of an increase in the scope of activities
Gahagan, Jacqueline; Rehman, Laurene; Barbour, Laura; McWilliam, Susan
Despite the increasing numbers of young Canadian females becoming infected with HIV through heterosexual transmission with an infected male sexual partner, the majority of current HIV prevention programs and services in Canada continue to ignore the needs of young heterosexual males. This research is derived from 30 in-depth interviews, 9 focus…
Malow, Robert M; Kershaw, Trace; Sipsma, Heather; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Dévieux, Jessy G
HIV and sexual risk continue to be central threats to the health and well-being of adolescents in the United States and abroad. Great strides have been made in creating interventions that reduce contracting and transmitting the deadly virus among adolescents. Numerous interventions have been designed and evaluated, with many having positive results in reducing adolescents' HIV risk behavior. However, the complexity of adolescents as well as limited effects on many sexual risk outcomes indicate that much more work needs to be done. This article provides a review of the literature on interventions among adolescents, summarizing why adolescents provide a unique challenge for HIV prevention, the intervention approaches that have been taken, and the challenges and recommendations for the future as the field confronts the neurobiologic dimension of risk.
Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Shoptaw, Steven; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Quan, Vu Minh; Aramrattana, Apinun
Purpose of the review Recent breakthroughs in HIV-prevention science led us to evaluate the current state of combination HIV-prevention for injection drug users (IDUs). We review the recent literature focusing on possible reasons why coverage of prevention interventions for HIV, HCV and tuberculosis among IDUs remains dismal. We make recommendations for future HIV research and policy. Recent findings IDUs disproportionately under-utilize VCT, primary care and ART, especially in countries that have the largest burden of HIV among IDUs. IDUs present later in the course of HIV infection and experience greater morbidity and mortality. Why are IDUs under-represented in HIV-prevention research, access to treatment for both HIV and addiction, and access to HIV combination prevention? Possible explanations include addictophobia, apathy, and inattention, which we describe in the context of recent literature and events. Summary This commentary discusses the current state of HIV-prevention interventions for IDUs including, VCT, NSP, OST, ART and PrEP, and discusses ways to work towards true combination HIV-prevention for IDU populations. Communities need to overcome tacit assumptions that IDUs can navigate through systems that are maintained as separate silos, and take a rights-based approach to HIV-prevention to ensure that IDUs have equitable access to life-saving prevention and treatments. PMID:22498479
Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke; Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane; Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily; Tucker, Heidi Toms
In 2002 MTV launched a global multicomponent HIV prevention campaign, "Staying Alive," reaching over 166 countries worldwide. An evaluation of this campaign focused on three diverse sites: Kathmandu, Nepal; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal. Data were collected before and after campaign implementation through population-based…
Safe, cost-effective interventions are being developed to reduce HIV transmission to children, suitable for lower income countries such as Tanzania. The interventions include Nevirapine treatment, replacement feeding, exclusive breast-feeding and heat-treating breast milk. This article reports on research to explore factors, which may influence the acceptability of these interventions. Data collection methods used were qualitative in-depth interviews with 12 health workers and focus group discussions with five community groups. Findings are presented with reference to the theory of diffusion of innovation, which seeks to explain how new ideas and products are disseminated through a community. Respondents describe the factors that may help and hinder this process. They propose ways to maximize this diffusion, such as integrating HIV and antenatal services, encouraging male participation, community-wide education, offering free HIV testing, and training health workers as change agents.
Dzeletovic, A; Popovic, R
This article discusses the specific actions taken by Yugoslavia in preventing the spread of HIV and AIDS in their country. Two years after the first HIV infection was diagnosed and recognized in 1985, a national level program was established based on the Global AIDS Strategy as defined in 1986 and the Global AIDS Program in 1987. Three essential elements in the program were prevention and control of risky behavior; safe public health procedures, and social tolerance. Among the first major activities organized was the First Conference on AIDS, held in 1987; it was followed in the following year by another conference which registered almost 150 papers regarding epidemiology, transfusiology, health education and drug dependence. In 1988, the Institute of Public Health of Serbia, Belgrade, published and distributed numerous pamphlets, folders, posters and video cassettes including 5,000 copies of the multi-colored poster "Beware of AIDS." The program activities have resulted in the design of a variety of projects that focused on specific problems and segments of the population, namely: AIDS Information for Dentists, The Health Education Program for Elementary School Children and AIDS, and Measures on AIDS Prevention in Health Facilities. Furthermore, The Resolution on Protecting the Population from STDs was passed in 1994 and a new Program of Protecting the Population from STDs was been adopted; this program includes activities on the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis and Hepatitis B.
Söderlund, N; Lavis, J; Broomberg, J; Mills, A
Since many evaluations of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) prevention programmes do not include data on costs, a preliminary analysis of the costs and outputs of a sample of HIV prevention projects was attempted. Case studies, representing six broad HIV prevention strategies in developing countries with differing levels of per capita gross domestic product, were sought on the basis of availability of data and potential generalizability. The six prevention strategies studied were mass media campaigns, peer education programmes, sexually transmitted disease treatment, condom social marketing, safe blood provision, and needle exchange/bleach provision programmes. Financial cost data were abstracted from published studies or were obtained directly from project coordinators. Although estimates of cost-effectiveness were not made, calculations of the relative cost per common process measure of output were compared. Condom distribution costs ranged from US$ 0.02 to 0.70 per condom distributed, and costs of strategies involving personal educational input ranged from US$ 0.15 to 12.59 per contact.
Marques, Joilson Santana; Gomes, Romeu; do Nascimento, Elaine Ferreira
The study aims to examine the relationship between masculinity, vulnerability and the prevention of HIV/AIDS, based on reports from young men from the so-called urban working classes, taking into account not only the meanings attributed to prevention by these subjects, but also considering the dialectical relationship between the individual and society. The conceptual framework encompasses the three main aspects of hegemonic masculinity, prevention and vulnerability. This involves qualitative research based on the perspective of dialectical hermeneutics that uses the method of interpretation of meanings. The analysis yielded two main results, namely hegemonic masculinity as a vulnerability factor, and myths and prejudices as factors of vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. By way of conclusion, it reinforces the need for discussion of prevention encompassing the need to put on the agenda the construction of the sex/gender system around which to articulate the social meanings of masculinity and femininity that influence the structural plan of affective sexual relations in general and HIV/AIDS in particular.
Söderlund, N.; Lavis, J.; Broomberg, J.; Mills, A.
Since many evaluations of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) prevention programmes do not include data on costs, a preliminary analysis of the costs and outputs of a sample of HIV prevention projects was attempted. Case studies, representing six broad HIV prevention strategies in developing countries with differing levels of per capita gross domestic product, were sought on the basis of availability of data and potential generalizability. The six prevention strategies studied were mass media campaigns, peer education programmes, sexually transmitted disease treatment, condom social marketing, safe blood provision, and needle exchange/bleach provision programmes. Financial cost data were abstracted from published studies or were obtained directly from project coordinators. Although estimates of cost-effectiveness were not made, calculations of the relative cost per common process measure of output were compared. Condom distribution costs ranged from US$ 0.02 to 0.70 per condom distributed, and costs of strategies involving personal educational input ranged from US$ 0.15 to 12.59 per contact. PMID:8261563
Dawson, Liza; Zwerski, Sheryl
This article seeks to advance ethical dialogue on choosing standards of prevention in clinical trials testing improved biomedical prevention methods for HIV. The stakes in this area of research are high, given the continued high rates of infection in many countries and the budget limitations that have constrained efforts to expand treatment for all who are currently HIV-infected. New prevention methods are still needed; at the same time, some existing prevention and treatment interventions have been proven effective but are not yet widely available in the countries where they most urgently needed. The ethical tensions in this field of clinical research are well known and have been the subject of extensive debate. There is no single clinical trial design that can optimize all the ethically important goals and commitments involved in research. Several recent articles have described the current ethical difficulties in designing HIV prevention trials, especially in resource limited settings; however, there is no consensus on how to handle clinical trial design decisions, and existing international ethical guidelines offer conflicting advice. This article acknowledges these deep ethical dilemmas and moves beyond a simple descriptive approach to advance an organized method for considering what clinical trial designs will be ethically acceptable for HIV prevention trials, balancing the relevant criteria and providing justification for specific design decisions.
... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preventive primary services. 405.2448 Section 405... Qualified Health Center Services Federally Qualified Health Center Services § 405.2448 Preventive primary services. (a) Preventive primary services are those health services that— (1) A FQHC is required to...
Robbins, Reuben N.; Spector, Anya Y.; Mellins, Claude A.; Remien, Robert H.
Optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is central to achieving viral suppression and positive health outcomes in HIV-infected individuals. Virally suppressed individuals can also reduce the risk of HIV transmission to uninfected partners. Hence, adherence to ART has become both an HIV treatment and an HIV prevention strategy. However, achieving optimal ART adherence can be challenging, especially over the long term. It is increasingly important for clinicians and researchers to be abreast of the most recent developments in the field as new biomedical approaches to treatment emerge, and as guidelines for the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are disseminated to providers serving HIV affected populations. Several reviews have described numerous ART adherence interventions that have been developed and/or tested with the most recent review including literature up to 2012. To augment the literature, we present a review of ART adherence interventions from 2013 – present. We included peer-reviewed journals as well as abstracts from two key conferences. PMID:25304006
Black heterosexual men (BHM) are seldom mentioned in HIV prevention research, policy, and interventions, despite evidence that heterosexual contact is becoming the leading exposure category for BHM. The disparate effect of HIV/AIDS on BHM; the debunked “down low” myth; the contexts of BHM's lives in terms of disproportionate poverty, unemployment, and incarceration; and a growing empirical base linking these factors to increased HIV risk, underscore the need to prioritize HIV risk and prevention initiatives for BHM. We highlighted the structural contexts of HIV risk for BHM, and four community-based approaches to address HIV risk and prevention for BHM: (1) men's health programs; (2) workforce and postincarceration release programs; (3) linkages to women's prevention programs; and (4) faith-based initiatives. PMID:22401513
Steen, Richard; Wi, Teodora Elvira; Kamali, Anatoli; Ndowa, Francis
Control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is feasible, leads to improved sexual and reproductive health and contributes to preventing HIV transmission. The most advanced HIV epidemics have developed under conditions of poor STI control, particularly where ulcerative STIs were prevalent. Several countries that have successfully controlled STIs have documented stabilization or reversal of their HIV epidemics. STI control is a public health outcome measured by reduced incidence and prevalence. The means to achieve this include: (i) targeting and outreach to populations at greatest risk; (ii) promoting and providing condoms and other means of prevention; (iii) effective clinical interventions; (iv) an enabling environment; and (v) reliable data. Clinical services include STI case management, screening and management of STIs in sex partners. Syndromic case management is effective for most symptomatic curable STIs and screening strategies exist to detect some asymptomatic infections. Presumptive epidemiologic treatment of sex partners and sex workers complement efforts to interrupt transmission and reduce prevalence. Clinical services alone are insufficient for control since many people with STIs do not attend clinics. Outreach and peer education have been effectively used to reach such populations. STI control requires effective interventions with core populations whose rates of partner change are high enough to sustain transmission. Effective, appropriate targeting is thus necessary and often sufficient to reduce prevalence in the general population. Such efforts are most effective when combined with structural interventions to ensure an enabling environment for prevention. Reliable surveillance and related data are critical for designing and evaluating interventions and for assessing control efforts.
Alvarez, Maria E; Jakhmola, Priya; Painter, Thomas M; Taillepierre, Julio Dicent; Romaguera, Raúl A; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Wolitski, Richard J
In April 2008, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) hosted a national consultation meeting of academic researchers, public health officials, service providers, and community leaders to examine the HIV/AIDS epidemic and prevention needs of Hispanics/Latinos in the United States and its territories. The consultation engaged key stakeholders to review available information on HIV-related behavioral research and prevention efforts, describe gaps in current HIV prevention programs and research on Hispanics/Latinos, and identify community and societal-level factors that can increase vulnerability of Hispanics/Latinos for acquiring or transmitting HIV infection. Recommendations were also made to CDC for future collaboration with the Hispanic/Latino community in areas of HIV prevention research and prevention programs. This article summarizes participants' recommendations for HIV prevention research, program and capacity building, policy and planning, and partnerships and communication. These recommendations will be used by CDC to inform the development of a National Plan of Action for HIV/AIDS prevention among Hispanics/Latinos, and can provide a framework for use by other federal and non-federal agencies, academic researchers, community-based organizations, and policymakers as they seek to curtail the HIV epidemic among Hispanics/Latinos.
Mesquita, Pedro M.M.; Herold, Betsy C.
Abstract In the past few years, the transdisciplinary field of HIV prevention has reached several milestones. Topically applied tenofovir gel provided significant protection from sexual transmission of HIV in a large-scale clinical trial and oral Truvada (emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) was recently approved for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) following two successful clinical trials in men and women. These achievements are tempered by the disappointing results of other clinical trials, which highlight the complexities of prevention research. In this perspective, we discuss scientific and developmental gaps for topical chemoprophylaxis of the sexual transmission of HIV, which depends on the complex interactions between the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, formulation and delivery systems, anatomic site of transmission, and host mucosal immune defenses. Despite the considerable time and resources devoted to unraveling the initial steps in sexual transmission of HIV, current knowledge is based on animal models and human explanted tissue, which may not fully recapitulate what happens clinically. Understanding these events, including the role that sex hormones, semen, and mucosal secretions play in transmission, and the interplay between innate immunity, the mucosal environment, and drug efficacy is paramount. This drives some of the most pressing questions in the field. PMID:22966871
Poku, Nana K; Bonnel, René
Since the start of the HIV epidemic, community responses have been at the forefront of the response. Following the extraordinary expansion of global resources, the funding of community responses rose to reach at least US$690 million per year in the period 2005-2009. Since then, many civil society organisations (CSOs) have reported a drop in funding. Yet, the need for strong community responses is even more urgent, as shown by their role in reaching the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Fast-Track targets. In the case of antiretroviral treatment, interventions need to be adopted by most people at risk of HIV in order to have a substantial effect on the prevention of HIV at the population level. This paper reviews the published literature on community responses, funding and effectiveness. Additional funding is certainly needed to increase the coverage of community-based interventions (CBIs), but current evidence on their effectiveness is extremely mixed, which does not provide clear guidance to policy makers. This is especially an issue for adolescent girls and young women in Eastern and Southern Africa, who face extremely high infection risk, but the biomedical prevention tools that have been proven effective for the general population still remain pilot projects for this group. Research is especially needed to isolate the factors affecting the likelihood that interventions targeting this group are consistently successful. Such work could be focused on the community organisations that are currently involved in delivering gender-sensitive interventions.
Beyrer, Chris; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Sanchez, Jorge; Dowdy, David; Altman, Dennis; Trapence, Gift; Collins, Chris; Katabira, Elly; Kazatchkine, Michel; Sidibe, Michel; Mayer, Kenneth H.
Where surveillance has been done, it has shown that men (MSM) who have sex with men bear a disproportionate burden of HIV. Yet they continue to be excluded, sometimes systematically, from HIV services because of stigma, discrimination, and criminalisation. This situation must change if global control of the HIV epidemic is to be achieved. On both public health and human rights grounds, expansion of HIV prevention, treatment, and care to MSM is an urgent imperative. Effective combination prevention and treatment approaches are feasible, and culturally competent care can be developed, even in rights-challenged environments. Condom and lubricant access for MSM globally is highly cost effective. Antiretroviral-based prevention, and antiretroviral access for MSM globally, would also be cost effective, but would probably require substantial reductions in drug costs in high-income countries to be feasible. To address HIV in MSM will take continued research, political will, structural reform, community engagement, and strategic planning and programming, but it can and must be done. PMID:22819663
El-Bassel, Nabila; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Women account for more than half of all individuals living with HIV globally. Despite increasing drug and HIV epidemics among women, females who use drugs are rarely found in research, harm reduction programs, or drug and HIV treatment and care. Women who use drugs continue to face challenges that increase their vulnerability to HIV and other co-morbidities due to high rates of gender-based violence, human rights violations, incarceration, and institutional and societal stigmatization. This special issue emphasizes how the burdens of HIV, drug use and their co-occurring epidemics affect women in a global context. Papers included focus on the epidemiology of HIV, HCV and other co-morbidities; HIV treatment, prevention, and care; and policies affecting the lives of female who use drugs. This issue also highlights the state of the science of biomedical and behavioral research related to women who use drugs. The final paper highlights the major findings of papers covered and presents a call to action regarding needed research, treatment, and preventive services for women who use drugs. To address these needs, we advocate for women-specific thinking and approaches that considers the social, micro, and macro contexts of women’s lives. We present a woman-specific risk environment framework that reflects the unique lives and contexts of women who use drugs and provide a call to action for intervention, prevention, and policies. PMID:25978486
El-Bassel, Nabila; Strathdee, Steffanie A
Women account for more than half of all individuals living with HIV globally. Despite increasing drug and HIV epidemics among women, women who use drugs are rarely found in research, harm reduction programs, or drug and HIV treatment and care. Women who use drugs continue to face challenges that increase their vulnerability to HIV and other comorbidities because of high rates of gender-based violence, human rights violations, incarceration, and institutional and societal stigmatization. This special issue emphasizes how the burdens of HIV, drug use, and their co-occurring epidemics affect women in a global context. Articles included focus on the epidemiologies of HIV and hepatitis C virus and other comorbidities; HIV treatment, prevention, and care; and policies affecting the lives of women who use drugs. This issue also highlights the state of the science of biomedical and behavioral research related to women who use drugs. The final article highlights the major findings of articles covered and presents a call to action regarding needed research, treatment, and preventive services for women who use drugs. To address these needs, we advocate for women-specific thinking and approaches that consider the social, micro, and macro contexts of women's lives. We present a women-specific risk environment framework that reflects the unique lives and contexts of women who use drugs and provides a call to action for intervention, prevention, and policies.
Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chen; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita
Commercial sex plays a critical role in rapidly increasing heterosexual transmission of HIV in China. Low-paid female sex workers (FSWs) are especially vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Because of the illegality and stigma associated with sex work, FSWs may constantly live with fears in their daily life. Based on cross-sectional study of 794 low-paid FSWs in China we described their psychological fears related to commercial sex and examined the associations between fears and HIV-related behaviors. Fear of HIV infection was significantly associated with consistent use of condoms with clients. However, fear of breaching sex worker identity significantly prevented the FSWs from consistently using condoms with clients and taking HIV tests. Fear of being arrested by the police was positively associated with consistent use of condoms but negatively associated with accessing HIV prevention services. Our findings underlined the importance of examining the triadic interaction of behavioral, psychological and environmental factors in HIV prevention interventions among low-paid FSWs. PMID:25330242
Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Heiss-Wendt, Renate M.; Mizan, Ainon N.; Kittleson, Mark J.; Sarvela, Paul D.
Identified the best methods of reaching people at high risk with HIV-prevention messages. Data from men who had sex with men, injection drug users, sex workers, HIV-positive people, heterosexuals, migrant workers, and perinatal women indicated that over 70 percent were exposed to HIV-prevention messages, though sources of exposure varied by risk…
Brown, Jennifer L.; Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.
Background Combination HIV prevention interventions that integrate efficacious behavioral and biomedical strategies offer the potential to reduce new HIV infections. Purpose We overview the efficacy data for three biomedical HIV prevention approaches: microbicides, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and an HIV vaccination, review factors associated with differential acceptability and uptake of these methods, and suggest strategies to optimize the effectiveness and dissemination of combination HIV prevention approaches. Methods A narrative review was conducted highlighting key efficacy data for microbicides, PrEP, and an HIV vaccination and summarizing acceptability data for each of the three biomedical HIV prevention approaches. Recommendations for the integration and dissemination of combined behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention approaches are provided. Results To date, microbicides and an HIV vaccination have demonstrated limited efficacy for the prevention of HIV. However, PrEP has demonstrated efficacy in reducing HIV incident infections. A diverse array of factors influences both hypothetical willingness and actual usage of each biomedical prevention method. Conclusions Strategies to effectively integrate and evaluate combination HIV prevention interventions are urgently needed. PMID:25216985
Earl, Allison; Albarracin, Dolores; Durantini, Marta R.; Gunnoe, Joann B.; Leeper, Josh; Levitt, Justin H.
HIV-prevention intervention effectiveness depends on understanding whether clients with highest need for HIV-prevention counseling accept it. With this objective, a field study with a high-risk community sample from the southeastern United States (N = 350) investigated whether initial knowledge about HIV, motivation to use condoms,…
Thrun, Mark; Cook, Paul F.; Bradley-Springer, Lucy A.; Gardner, Lytt; Marks, Gary; Wright, Julie; Wilson, Tracey E.; Quinlivan, E. Byrd; O'Daniels, Christine; Raffanti, Stephen; Thompson, Melanie; Golin, Carol
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended that HIV care clinics incorporate prevention into clinical practice. This report summarizes HIV care providers' attitudes and counseling practices before and after they received training to deliver a counseling intervention to patients. Providers at seven HIV clinics received training…
Sivaram, Sudha; Zelaya, Carla; Srikrishnan, A. K.; Latkin, Carl; Go, V. F.; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David
Stigma against persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) is a barrier to seeking prevention education, HIV testing, and care. Social capital has been reported as an important factor influencing HIV prevention and social support upon infection. In the study, we explored the associations between social capital and stigma among men and women who are…
Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Shiu, Chen-Shi; Krieger, Cathy
Background: Access and adoption of HIV prevention information are important criteria for reducing HIV infection rates among men who have sex with men. Methods: Using focus group data, researchers sought to identify sources of HIV prevention information and barriers to adopting protective behaviors among young African American men who have sex with…
Lennon, Carter A.; White, Angela C.; Finitsis, David; Pishori, Alefiyah; Hernandez, Dominica; Kelly, David M.; Pellowski, Jennifer A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Turcios-Cotto, Viana; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Kane, Sister Ann; Lanouette, Gertrude A.
Housing for people living with HIV/AIDS has been linked to a number of positive physical and mental health outcomes, in addition to decreased sexual and drug-related risk behavior. The current study identified service priorities for people living with HIV/AIDS, services provided by HIV/AIDS housing agencies, and unmet service needs for people living with HIV/AIDS through a nationwide telephone survey of HIV/AIDS housing agencies in the United States. Housing, alcohol/drug treatment, and mental health services were identified as the three highest priorities for people living with HIV/AIDS and assistance finding employment, dental care, vocational assistance, and mental health services were the top needs not being met. Differences by geographical region were also examined. Findings indicate that while housing affords people living with HIV/AIDS access to services, there are still areas (e.g., mental health services) where gaps in linkages to care exist. PMID:23305552
Idele, Priscilla; Hayashi, Chika; Porth, Tyler; Mamahit, Awandha; Mahy, Mary
Progress towards achievement of global targets for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) and paediatric HIV care and treatment is an integral part of global and national HIV and AIDS responses. This paper documents the development of the global and national monitoring and reporting systems for PMTCT and paediatric HIV care and treatment programmes, achievements and remaining challenges. A review of the development of the monitoring and reporting process since 2002-2016 was conducted using existing published literature and taking into account changes in WHO HIV treatment guidelines, global HIV goals and targets, programmatic and methodological developments, and increased need for interagency partnerships, coordination and harmonization of global monitoring and reporting mechanisms. The number and type of indicators reported increased and evolved from monitoring of existence of national policies and guidelines, service delivery sites and trained health workers and coverage of PMTCT and paediatric HIV interventions to measuring outcomes and impact in reducing new HIV infections and AIDS related deaths, including efforts to validate elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. These changes were required to mirror changes in WHO and national PMTCT and HIV treatment guidelines. The number of countries reporting PMTCT coverage increased from 53 in 2003 to over 130 in 2015. National monitoring processes have also expanded in scope and the capacity to report on disaggregated data by type of ARV regimen and for paediatric HIV care and treatment has increased. Monitoring of PMTCT and paediatric HIV programmes has contributed a rich body of evidence that helped monitor how quickly countries were adopting and implementing the latest WHO HIV treatment guidelines for pregnant and breastfeeding women and children. The reported data and experiences were instrumental in shaping global policies, national programmes, and investment choices.
McKinney, Martha M.
The Northeast Conference on Rural HIV Service Delivery was attended by 51 health and social service professionals, people with HIV, and federal and state health officials with expertise or interest in developing HIV care capacity in rural areas. Low population density, low prevalence of HIV/AIDS, rugged topography and climate, and limited health…
Levy, Matthew E; Watson, Christopher Chauncey; Glick, Sara Nelson; Kuo, Irene; Wilton, Leo; Brewer, Russell A; Fields, Sheldon D; Criss, Vittoria; Magnus, Manya
Characterization of structural barriers that impede the receipt of HIV prevention and care services is critical to addressing the HIV epidemic among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM). This study investigated the utilization of HIV prevention and general care services among a non-clinic-based sample of BMSM who reported at least one structural barrier to engagement in care. Proportions of participants who had received HIV prevention services and general care services in different settings were compared using Fisher's exact test and correlates of service receipt were assessed using logistic regression. Among 75 BMSM, 60% had accessed a community-based clinic, 21% had accessed a primary care setting, and 36% had accessed an acute care setting in the last 6 months. Greater proportions of participants who had accessed community-based clinics received HIV prevention services during these visits (90%) compared to those who had accessed primary care (53%) and acute care (44%) settings (p = .005). Opportunities for BMSM to receive HIV prevention interventions differed by care setting. Having access to health care did not necessarily facilitate the uptake of HIV prevention interventions. Further investigation of the structurally rooted reasons why BMSM are often unable to access HIV prevention services is warranted.
McKee, Michael B.; Picciano, Joseph F.; Roffman, Roger A.; Swanson, Fred; Kalichman, Seth C.
Designing effective marketing and recruitment strategies for HIV prevention research requires attention to cultural relevance, logistical barriers, and perceived psychosocial barriers to accessing services. McGuire's communication/persuasion matrix (1985) guided our evaluation, with particular attention to success of each marketing "channel"…
Holloway, Ian W; Cederbaum, Julie A; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven
Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, M(age) = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to participation in HIV prevention programs. Summative content analyses were used to evaluate transcribed field notes from these interviews. Results showed that 28.0 % of all participants had previously attended an HIV prevention program, and that 21.3 % of those who were also asked if they had ever participated in any research pertaining to HIV prevention had done so. A significantly higher percentage of those who had participated in HIV prevention programs had been tested for HIV in the past 6 months compared to those who had not (p < .05). The most frequently mentioned barriers to participation in such a program were being too busy to attend (12.0 %), not perceiving themselves to be at risk for HIV infection (14.0 %), and believing that they already knew everything they needed to know about HIV transmission (23.0 %). YMSM suggested that future interventions should use technology (e.g., the Internet, mobile devices), engage their social networks, and highlight HIV prevention as a means for community connection. Collectively, these results provide some explanations for why YMSM account for a minority of HIV prevention program participants and offer possible directions for future HIV prevention efforts that target YMSM.
Barrington, Clare; Wejnert, Cyprian; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Bailey, Gabriela Paz
The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of HIV vulnerability and opportunities for HIV prevention within the social networks of male-to-female transgender persons in San Salvador, El Salvador. We compare HIV prevalence and behavioral data from a sample of gay-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 279), heterosexual or bisexual identified MSM (n = 229) and transgender persons (n = 67) recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. Transgender persons consistently reported higher rates of HIV risk behavior than the rest of the study population and were significantly more likely to be involved in sex work. While transgender persons reported the highest rates of exposure to HIV educational activities they had the lowest levels of HIV-related knowledge. Transgender respondents' social networks were homophilous and efficient at recruiting other transgender persons. Findings suggest that transgender social networks could provide an effective and culturally relevant opportunity for HIV prevention efforts in this vulnerable population.
Barrington, Clare; Wejnert, Cyprian; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Bailey, Gabriela Paz
The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of HIV vulnerability and opportunities for HIV prevention within the social networks of male-to-female transgender persons in San Salvador, El Salvador. We compare HIV prevalence and behavioral data from a sample of gay-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 279), heterosexual or bisexual identified MSM (n = 229) and transgender persons (n = 67) recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. Transgender persons consistently reported higher rates of HIV risk behavior than the rest of the study population and were significantly more likely to be involved in sex work. While transgender persons reported the highest rates of exposure to HIV educational activities they had the lowest levels of HIV-related knowledge. Transgender respondents’ social networks were homophilous and efficient at recruiting other transgender persons. Findings suggest that transgender social networks could provide an effective and culturally relevant opportunity for HIV prevention efforts in this vulnerable population. PMID:21538082
Lin, Feng; Lasry, Arielle; Sansom, Stephanie L.; Wolitski, Richard J.
Background In the wake of a national economic downturn, the state of California, in 2009–2010, implemented budget cuts that eliminated state funding of HIV prevention and testing. To mitigate the effect of these cuts remaining federal funds were redirected. This analysis estimates the impact of these budget cuts and reallocation of resources on HIV transmission and associated HIV treatment costs. Methods and Findings We estimated the effect of the budget cuts and reallocation for California county health departments (excluding Los Angeles and San Francisco) on the number of individuals living with or at-risk for HIV who received HIV prevention services. We used a Bernoulli model to estimate the number of new infections that would occur each year as a result of the changes, and assigned lifetime treatment costs to those new infections. We explored the effect of redirecting federal funds to more cost-effective programs, as well as the potential effect of allocating funds proportionately by transmission category. We estimated that cutting HIV prevention resulted in 55 new infections that were associated with $20 million in lifetime treatment costs. The redirection of federal funds to more cost-effective programs averted 15 HIV infections. If HIV prevention funding were allocated proportionately to transmission categories, we estimated that HIV infections could be reduced below the number that occurred annually before the state budget cuts. Conclusions Reducing funding for HIV prevention may result in short-term savings at the expense of additional HIV infections and increased HIV treatment costs. Existing HIV prevention funds would likely have a greater impact on the epidemic if they were allocated to the more cost-effective programs and the populations most likely to acquire and transmit the infection. PMID:23520447
Tun, Waimar; Okal, Jerry; Schenk, Katie; Esantsi, Selina; Mutale, Felix; Kyeremaa, Rita Kusi; Ngirabakunzi, Edson; Asiah, Hilary; McClain-Nhlapo, Charlotte; Moono, Grimond
Introduction Knowledge about experiences in accessing HIV services among persons with disabilities who are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is limited. Although HIV transmission among persons with disabilities in Africa is increasingly acknowledged, there is a need to bring to life the experiences and voices from persons with disabilities living with HIV to raise awareness of programme implementers and policy makers about their barriers in accessing HIV services. This paper explores how the barriers faced by persons with disabilities living with HIV impede their ability to access HIV-related services and manage their disease. Methods We conducted focus group discussions with 76 persons (41 females; 35 males) with physical, visual and/or hearing impairments who were living with HIV in Ghana, Uganda and Zambia (2012–2013). We explored challenges and facilitators at different levels (individual, psychosocial and structural) of access to HIV services. Transcripts were analyzed using a framework analysis approach. Results Persons with disabilities living with HIV encountered a wide variety of challenges in accessing HIV services. Delays in testing for HIV were common, with most waiting until they were sick to be tested. Reasons for delayed testing included challenges in getting to the health facilities, lack of information about HIV and testing, and HIV- and disability-related stigma. Barriers to HIV-related services, including care and treatment, at health facilities included lack of disability-friendly educational materials and sign interpreters, stigmatizing treatment by providers and other patients, lack of skills to provide tailored services to persons with disabilities living with HIV and physically inaccessible infrastructure, all of which make it extremely difficult for persons with disabilities to initiate and adhere to HIV treatment. Accessibility challenges were greater for women than men due to gender-related roles. Challenges were similar across the
Ssetaala, Ali; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Asiimwe, Stephen; Nanvubya, Annet; Mpendo, Juliet; Asiki, Gershim; Nielsen, Leslie; Kiwanuka, Noah; Seeley, Janet; Kamali, Anatoli; Kaleebu, Pontiano
Introduction Women in fishing communities in Uganda are more at risk and have higher rates of HIV infection. Socio-cultural gender norms, limited access to health information and services, economic disempowerment, sexual abuse and their biological susceptibility make women more at risk of infection. There is need to design interventions that cater for women's vulnerability. We explore factors affecting recruitment and retention of women from fishing communities in HIV prevention research. Methods An HIV incidence cohort screened 2074 volunteers (1057 men and 1017 women) aged 13-49 years from 5 fishing communities along Lake Victoria using demographic, medical history, risk behaviour assessment questionnaires.1000 HIV negative high risk volunteers were enrolled and followed every 6 months for 18 months. Factors associated with completion of study visits among women were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Results Women constituted 1,017(49%) of those screened, and 449(45%) of those enrolled with a median (IQR) age of 27 (22-33) years. Main reasons for non-enrolment were HIV infection (33.9%) and reported low risk behaviour (37.5%). A total of 382 (74%) women and 332 (69%) men completed all follow up visits. Older women (>24 yrs) and those unemployed, who had lived in the community for 5 years or more, were more likely to complete all study visits. Conclusion Women had better retention rates than men at 18 months. Strategies for recruiting and retaining younger women and those who have stayed for less than 5 years need to be developed for improved retention of women in fishing communities in HIV prevention and research Programs. PMID:26379811
Dillard, Dorothy; Bincsik, Arlene K; Zebley, Christopher; Mongare, Kefa; Harrison, James; Gerardi, Kimberly E; Parcher, David W
Treating minority substance abusers at risk of HIV or HIV positive is a critical public health issue. Delaware has achieved success in treating this population through its integrated nested services approach. Through three Center for Substance Abuse funded projects, Delaware has synthesized a number of evidence-based and best practices from the HIV medical treatment, substance abuse treatment and mental health treatment. Evaluation findings show that Project HOPE and Meeting the Challenges are having a positive impact on clients in a number of areas, including medical compliance, physical health, sobriety, employment/income and living situations. Clearly, this approach benefits all stakeholders, including the State of Delaware, local communities, staff and clients.
Villegas, Natalia; Cianelli, Rosina; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa; Kaelber, Lorena; Ferrer, Lilian; Peragallo, Nilda
Self-efficacy is a critical element for HIV prevention, however little is known about the predictors of self-efficacy for HIV prevention among Hispanic women. In this cross-sectional study we assessed if age, living with a partner, employment status, HIV knowledge, self-esteem, and intimate partner violence (IPV) predicted self-efficacy for HIV prevention in 548 Hispanic women in South Florida who participated in a randomized controlled trial (SEPA). The majority of Hispanic women reported high levels of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. Women who were older, living with a partner, with less HIV knowledge, and a history of IPV reported significantly lower levels of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. HIV knowledge was the most important predictor of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. Employment was not a significant predictor of self-efficacy for HIV prevention. Predictors identified in the study can be used to identify high-risk Hispanic women who are in need of HIV prevention interventions. PMID:22795758
Safren, Steven A.; Perry, Nicholas S.; Blashill, Aaron J.; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H.
Recently, behavioral prevention interventions for HIV have been criticized as being ineffective, costly, or inefficient. In this commentary, using HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) as an illustrative high-risk population, we argue that the opposite is true – that behavioral interventions for HIV prevention, if implemented with the populations who need them, are affordable and critical for future prevention efforts. We base this argument on recent evidence showing that 1) adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) for prevention purposes is necessary to suppress HIV replication and reduce transmissibility, 2) individuals living with HIV have multiple psychosocial concerns that impact self-care and moderate the potential effectiveness of health behavior interventions, and 3) intensive interventions targeting both concerns together (psychosocial and HIV care) can show clinically significant improvement. We follow by comparing the cost of these types of interventions to the cost of standard clinical treatment for HIV with ART, and demonstrate a cost-savings of potential intensive behavioral interventions for, in this case, HIV-positive MSM who have uncontrolled virus. Keeping this evidence in mind, we conclude that individual intervention must remain a mainstay of HIV prevention for certain critical populations. PMID:26223385
Aholou, Tiffiany M; Nanin, Jose; Drumhiller, Kathryn; Sutton, Madeline Y
Conversations about HIV prevention before engaging in sex may result in safer sex practices and decreased HIV transmission. However, partner communication for HIV prevention has been understudied among black/African American men who have sex with men (BMSM), a group that is disproportionately affected by HIV. We explored and described encounters and perceptions about HIV prevention conversations among BMSM and their sex partner(s) in New York City. We conducted an inductive thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with BMSM who reported sex with a man in the previous 3 months. Interviews were professionally transcribed; Nvivo was used for data analysis. Twenty-two BMSM were included in this analysis; median age = 29.1 years; 71.4% self-identified as MSM; 85.7% were ever HIV tested; and 52.6% reported no disclosure or discussion about HIV status with their previous sex partner. The main themes were: (1) missed opportunities for HIV prevention conversations (e.g., no HIV prevention conversations or HIV prevention conversations after sex had occurred); (2) barriers to HIV prevention conversations (e.g., being in the moment; not wanting to pause); (3) emotional thoughts after sex (e.g., feeling worried about possible HIV exposure); and (4) rethinking relationships and sexual health (e.g., changed sex practices by asking partners' HIV status before sex; started using condoms). These findings offer insight into HIV prevention conversations by BMSM around the time of or during sexual encounters and may inform and strengthen partner-level HIV prevention communication interventions for BMSM.
This study, called the ANCHOR trial, will investigate whether screening and prevention methods similar to those used to prevent cervical cancer can help prevent anal cancer in HIV-infected men and women.
Malebranche, David; Bowleg, Lisa; Sangaramoorthy, Thurka
Abstract Few studies have explored how overall general health care and HIV/STI testing experiences may influence receipt of “Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain” (STTR) HIV prevention approaches among Black men in the southern United States. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with 78 HIV-negative/unknown Black men in Georgia, we explored factors influencing their general health care and HIV/STI testing experiences. The Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization (Andersen model) offers a useful framework through which to examine the general health care experiences and HIV testing practices of Black men. It has four primary domains: Environment, Population characteristics, Health behavior, and Outcomes. Within the Andersen model framework, participants described four main themes that influenced HIV testing: access to insurance, patient–provider communication, quality of services, and personal belief systems. If STTR is to be successful among Black men, improving access and quality of general health care, integrating HIV testing into general health care, promoting health empowerment, and consumer satisfaction should be addressed. PMID:23268586
Background Ukraine has one of the most severe HIV epidemics in Eastern Europe, with an estimated 1.6% of the adult population living with the virus. Injection drug use accounts for 36% of new HIV cases. Nongovernmental organizations in Ukraine have little experience with effective, theory-based behavioral risk reduction interventions necessary to reduce the scope of the HIV epidemic among Ukrainians who inject drugs. This study seeks to promote the use of evidence-based HIV prevention strategies among Ukrainian organizations working with drug users. Methods/design This study combines qualitative and quantitative methods to explore a model of HIV prevention intervention development and implementation that disseminates common factors of effective behavioral risk reduction interventions and enables service providers to develop programs that reflect their specific organizational contexts. Eight agencies, located in regions of Ukraine with the highest HIV and drug use rates and selected to represent key organizational context criteria (e.g., agency size, target population, experience with HIV prevention), will be taught common factors as the basis for intervention development. We will use qualitative methods, including interviews and observations, to document the process of intervention development and implementation at each agency. Using risk assessments with intervention participants, we will also assess intervention effectiveness. The primary outcome analyses will determine the extent to which agencies develop and implement an intervention for drug users that incorporates common factors of effective behavioral interventions. Effectiveness analyses will be conducted, and effect size of each intervention will be compared to that of published HIV prevention interventions for drug users with demonstrated effectiveness. This study will explore the role of organizational context on intervention development and implementation, including resource allocation decisions
Parker, Richard G; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Garcia, Jonathan; Gavigan, Kelly; Ramirez, Ana; Milnor, Jack; Terto, Veriano
Introduction Critical technological advances have yielded a toolkit of HIV prevention strategies. This literature review sought to provide contextual and historical reflection needed to bridge the conceptual gap between clinical efficacy and community effectiveness (i.e. knowledge and usage) of existing HIV prevention options, especially in resource-poor settings. Methods Between January 2015 and October 2015, we reviewed scholarly and grey literatures to define treatment literacy and health literacy and assess the current need for literacy related to HIV prevention. The review included searches in electronic databases including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Permutations of the following search terms were used: “treatment literacy,” “treatment education,” “health literacy,” and “prevention literacy.” Through an iterative process of analyses and searches, titles and/or abstracts and reference lists of retrieved articles were reviewed for additional articles, and historical content analyses of grey literature and websites were additionally conducted. Results and discussion Treatment literacy was a well-established concept developed in the global South, which was later partially adopted by international agencies such as the World Health Organization. Treatment literacy emerged as more effective antiretroviral therapies became available. Developed from popular pedagogy and grassroots efforts during an intense struggle for treatment access, treatment literacy addressed the need to extend access to underserved communities and low-income settings that might otherwise be excluded from access. In contrast, prevention literacy is absent in the recent surge of new biomedical prevention strategies; prevention literacy was scarcely referenced and undertheorized in the available literature. Prevention efforts today include multimodal techniques, which jointly comprise a toolkit of biomedical, behavioural, and structural/environmental approaches
Stein, Judith A.; Li, Li
An HIV-related stigma scale for health care workers needs to be multidimensional in that it should encompass attitudes that might be experienced by the general public about people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) (e.g., fear, shame, blame) and, further, specifically capture perceptions of appropriate professional care and medical responsibilities regarding PLWHA. A 17-item, 5-factor multidimensional HIV-related stigma scale was developed and validated using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis among 1,101 service providers in China. The sample was divided into a development sample (N = 551) and a validation sample (N = 550). The fit of the final confirmatory factor model with five hypothesized subscales was excellent in both samples. The final stigma subscales included: Discrimination Intent at Work, Opinion about Health Care for HIV/AIDS Patients, Prejudiced Attitudes, Internalized Shame, and Fear of PLWHA. PMID:18064554
Batluk, Julia V.; Bryant, Kendall J.; Shaboltas, Alla V.
Abstract HIV transmission is a major health concern. Global efforts are necessary to control the spread of infection. International collaborative studies in countries with high rates of new infections are essential for increasing knowledge on the behavioral, social, and biomedical aspects of HIV/AIDS and HIV transmission. Statistics indicate a growing HIV epidemic in Russia. There are alarming proportions of new cases attributed to heterosexual contact, and HIV is increasingly affecting people in the general population who are not part of any traditional high-risk group. Despite recent advances in HIV prevention, data on effective behavioral prevention approaches are limited. There is minimal evidence to suggest which types of prevention will be effective in reducing the risk for HIV transmission among people at risk in the general population. This article presents a review and discussion of an international research seminar, HIV Prevention Research: Evidence-Based Behavioral Approaches. Local and international interdisciplinary researchers gathered for the purposes of exchanging research results and information about ongoing studies, identifying gaps in knowledge, and discussing promising prevention strategies. The overarching goal was to advance HIV prevention research through scientific integration. The seminar provided an excellent platform for building research capacity in interdisciplinary HIV research in Russia and integrating research efforts with the international research community to contribute to HIV prevention research throughout the world. PMID:25430518
Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Ratanasuwan, Winai; Techasathit, Wichai; Rongrungruang, Yong; Suwanagool, Surapol
The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of HIV/AIDS patients who were admitted to the medical service, Siriraj Hospital from January 1, 2002 through December 31, 2002. Demographics, CD4 lymphocyte counts, discharge diagnoses, the incidence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), cerebral toxoplasmosis and cryptococcosis in patients who received and did not receive appropriate chemoprophylaxis against those opportunistic infections when indicated, and outcome of the patients were collected. Three hundred medical records of 286 HIV/AIDS patients were available for review. One hundred and seventy two patients (60.1%) were male. Mean age of the patients was 36.8 +/- 9.91 years (range 14-74). The mean CD4 lymphocyte count that was determined in 165 patients was 74.7 +/- 134.21 cells/mm3 (range 0-894). Of the 300 admissions, 36 per cent were newly diagnosed HIV infection. Only 23 (7.7%) patients had received antiretroviral drugs at the time of hospitalization. The leading HIV-related diseases were tuberculosis (29.3%), Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (18.7%), and cryptococcosis (15.7%). The rest of them included cytomegalovirus diseases (6.3%), lymphoma (6.3%), Salmonella bacteremia (6%), cerebral toxoplasmosis (5.7%), cryptosporidiosis (5.3%), disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection (1.0%), extrapulmonary histoplasmosis (1.0%), Candida esophagitis (1.0%), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (1.0%), and rhodococcosis (0.7%). Among those for whom HIV infection was established and chemoprophylaxis for PCP, cerebral toxoplasmosis and cryptococcosis were indicated, 9.8 per cent vs 28.2 per cent, 3.6 per cent vs 5.1 per cent, and 10 per cent vs 15.2 per cent of whom received and did not receive the appropriate chemoprophylaxis developed PCP, cerebral toxoplasmosis and cryptococcosis respectively. One hundred and ninety (63.3%) patients were alive at discharge, 84 (28.0%) had died, 21 (7%) were referred to other hospitals, and 5 (1.7%) left
Uhrig, Jennifer D; Bann, Carla M; Wasserman, Jill; Guenther-Grey, Carolyn; Eroğlu, Doğan
This study measured audience reactions and receptivity to five draft HIV prevention messages developed for people living with HIV (PLWH) to inform future HIV message choice and audience targeting decisions. Our premise was that message concepts that receive wide audience appeal constitute a strong starting point for designing future HIV prevention messages, program activities, and health communication and marketing campaigns for PLWH. The majority of participants indicated agreement with evaluative statements that expressed favorable attitudes toward all five of the message concepts we evaluated. Participants gave the lowest approval to the message promoting sero-sorting. Sociodemographic characteristics played less of a role in predicting differences in message perceptions than attitudes, beliefs and sexual behavior. The general appeal for these messages is encouraging given that messages were expressed in plain text without the support of other creative elements that are commonly used in message execution. These results confirm the utility of systematic efforts to generate and screen message concepts prior to large-scale testing.
Ramallo, Jorge; Kidder, Thomas; Albritton, Tashuna; Blick, Gary; Pachankis, John; Grandelski, Valen; Grandeleski, Valen; Kershaw, Trace
Social networking technologies are influential among men who have sex with men (MSM) and may be an important strategy for HIV prevention. We conducted focus groups with HIV positive and negative participants. Almost all participants used social networking sites to meet new friends and sexual partners. The main obstacle to effective HIV prevention campaigns in social networking platforms was stigmatization based on homosexuality as well as HIV status. Persistent stigma associated with HIV status and disclosure was cited as a top reason for avoiding HIV-related conversations while meeting new partners using social technologies. Further, social networking sites have different social etiquettes and rules that may increase HIV risk by discouraging HIV status disclosure. Overall, successful interventions for MSM using social networking technologies must consider aspects of privacy, stigma, and social norms in order to enact HIV reduction among MSM.
Munakata, T; Tajima, K
This study is to identify the risk behaviors of the Japanese that may lead to HIV infection and the behaviors that prevent such infection, as well as their background factors. Two behavioral surveys were conducted for the present study. (1) For international comparison on knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) related to HIV/AIDS, we conducted a survey on a sample of 10,000 adults, randomly selected from a nationwide population in Japan; and (2) for sexual partner relation, we conducted a survey on a sample of 10,000 adults randomly selected from a population in five major cities of Japan. Our main findings include: (1) Most of the Japanese adult did not regard AIDS as a major threat in the area where they lived; (2) People in their twenties are too casual about "having sex without using a condom with someone they've met for the first time and know little about"; (3) Thirteen percent (19% male, 8% female) of those with a steady sex partner including a spouse, on average, had sex with 2.4 non-steady partners in the previous year; and (4) Only 25 percent used condoms always when they engaged in casual sex during the previous four weeks. These risk behaviors of the Japanese adults might lead to an explosive rise in the number of HIV-infected in the near future unless steps are taken immediately to prevent it.
Medley, Amy; Bachanas, Pamela; Grillo, Michael; Hasen, Nina; Amanyeiwe, Ugochukwu
Introduction This review assesses the impact of prevention interventions for people living with HIV on HIV-related mortality, morbidity, retention in care, quality of life, and prevention of ongoing HIV transmission in resource-limited settings (RLSs). Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting the results of prevention interventions for people living with HIV in RLS published between January 2000 and August 2014. Standardized methods of searching and data abstraction were used. Results Ninety-two studies met the eligibility criteria: 24 articles related to adherence counseling and support, 13 on risk reduction education and condom provision, 19 on partner HIV testing and counseling, 14 on provision of family planning services, and 22 on assessment and treatment of other sexually transmitted infections. Findings indicate good evidence that adherence counseling and sexually transmitted infection treatment can have a high impact on morbidity, whereas risk reduction education, partner HIV testing and counseling, and family planning counseling can prevent transmission of HIV. More limited evidence was found to support the impact of these interventions on retention in care and quality of life. Most studies did not report cost information, making it difficult to draw conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Conclusions This evidence suggests that these prevention interventions, if brought to sufficient scale and coverage, can help support and optimize the impact of core treatment and prevention interventions in RLS. Further operational research with more rigorous study designs, and ideally with biomarkers and costing information, is needed to determine the best model for providing these interventions in RLS. PMID:25768868
... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Part C Early..., Florida, that will ensure continuity of Part C, Early Intervention Services (EIS), HIV/AIDS care and...: Critical funding for HIV/AIDS care and treatment to the target populations in Orange County,...
... Administration Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Core Medical Services Waiver; Application Requirements AGENCY: Health... XXVI of the Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Treatment Extension Act of... on core medical services, including antiretroviral drugs, for individuals with HIV/AIDS...
Wanyu, Benjamin; Diom, Emmanuel; Mitchell, Patricia; Tih, Pius M; Meyer, Dorothy J
Since 1984, Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Board's Life Abundant Primary health care program has established primary health centers in remote villages and trained literate women in these villages as birth attendants to offer antenatal care, low-risk delivery, and triage of high-risk mothers to larger health facilities. In 2002, the birth attendants were trained to provide Prevention of Maternal-to-Child HIV Transmission (PMTCT) services, including counseling, voluntary testing, performing oral rapid HIV tests (OraQuick; OraSure Technologies, Inc., Bethlehem, PA), posttest counseling, and administering single-dose nevirapine to HIV-positive women, to be taken in labor, and to their newborns. Ongoing supervision is provided by nurse supervisors. Between July 2002 and June 2005, 30 PMTCT-trained birth attendants in 20 villages counseled 2331 pregnant women and tested 2310 (99.1%) for HIV. Eighty-two women had a positive OraQuick HIV test (3.5%). Forty-two of these mothers were delivered by the trained birth attendants, with 88.1% of mothers and 85.7% of newborns receiving single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis. Nevirapine-treated babies were tested after 15 months of age, and two of 13 HIV-exposed infants had a positive rapid HIV antibody test (15.3% transmission rate with treatment). Program challenges include: maintaining adequate supplies of HIV tests kits and medications, supervising and supporting the PMCT-trained birth attendants on a regular basis, and achieving exclusive breastfeeding and early weaning.
Auerbach, Judith D.; Smith, Laramie R.
Although substance use continues to be a significant component of HIV risk among women worldwide, to date relatively little attention has been paid in research, services, or policy to substance-involved women (SIW). HIV acquisition for SIW stems from transmission risks directly related to substance use, as well as risks associated with sexual activity where power to negotiate risk and safety are influenced by dynamics of male partnerships, sex work, and criminalization (of both drug use and sex work), among other things. As such, HIV risk for such women resides as much in the environment—physical, social, cultural, economic, and political--in which drug use occurs as it does from transmission-related behaviors of individual women. To reduce HIV infections among SIW, it is important to specify the interaction of individual- and environmental-level factors, including, but not limited to those related to women's own substance use, that can and ought to be changed. This involves theorizing about the interplay of gender, substance use, and HIV risk and incorporating that theoretical understanding into intervention design and evaluation. A review of the published literature focused on HIV prevention among SIW revealed a general lack of theoretical and conceptual foundation specific to the gender-related and environmental drivers of HIV in this population. Greater theoretical linkages to intersectionality and syndemics approaches are recommended to better identify and target relevant mechanisms by which the interplay of gender dynamics and substance use potentiate the likelihood of HIV acquisition and transmission among SIW. PMID:25978481
Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Swendeman, Dallas; Chovnick, Gary
In the past 25 years, the field of HIV prevention research has been transformed repeatedly. Today, effective HIV prevention requires a combination of behavioral, biomedical, and structural intervention strategies. Risk of transmitting or acquiring HIV is reduced by consistent male and female-condom use, reductions in concurrent and/or sequential sexual and needle-sharing partners, male circumcision, and treatment with antiretroviral medications. At least 144 behavioral prevention programs have been found effective in reducing HIV transmission acts; however, scale up of these programs has not occurred outside of the United States. A series of recent failures of HIV-prevention efficacy trials for biomedical innovations such as HIV vaccines, treating herpes simplex 2 and other sexually transmitted infections, and diaphragm and microbicide barriers highlights the need for behavioral strategies to accompany biomedical strategies. This challenges prevention researchers to reconceptualize how cost-effective, useful, realistic, and sustainable prevention programs will be designed, delivered, tested, and diffused. The next generation of HIV prevention science must draw from the successes of existing evidence-based interventions and the expertise of the market sector to integrate preventive innovations and behaviors into everyday routines. PMID:19327028
Talbert-Slagle, Kristina M.; Canavan, Maureen E.; Rogan, Erika M.; Curry, Leslie A.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.
Objective: Despite considerable advances in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, the burden of new infections of HIV and AIDS varies substantially across the country. Previous studies have demonstrated associations between increased healthcare spending and better HIV/AIDS outcomes; however, less is known about the association between spending on social services and public health spending and HIV/AIDS outcomes. We sought to examine the association between state-level spending on social services and public health and HIV/AIDS case rates and AIDS deaths across the United States. Design: We conducted a retrospective, longitudinal study of the 50 U.S. states over 2000–2009 using a dataset of HIV/AIDS case rates and AIDS deaths per 100 000 people matched with a unique dataset of state-level spending on social services and public health per person in poverty. Methods: We estimated multivariable regression models for each HIV/AIDS outcome as a function of the social service and public health spending 1 and 5 years earlier in the state, adjusted for the log of state GDP per capita, regional and time fixed effects, Medicaid spending as % of GDP, and socio-demographic, economic, and health resource factors. Results: States with higher spending on social services and public health per person in poverty had significantly lower HIV and AIDS case rates and fewer AIDS deaths, both 1 and 5 years post expenditure (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that spending on social services and public health may provide a leverage point for state policymakers to reduce HIV/AIDS case rates and AIDS deaths in their state. PMID:26605512
Boyd, Mark A; Cooper, David A
The unprecedented, successful collaborative international effort to provide universal access to HIV care, including effective antiretroviral therapy, has reached a crucial point. Global economic downturn, changing donor priorities, and competing priorities in the health sector threaten the target of provision of 15 million people with HIV/AIDS with treatment by 2015, as agreed by the UN General Assembly. This aspiration has received added impetus from the finding that treatment prevents transmission by reduction of infectiousness of patients. In this report we critically review success thus far and examine efforts to optimise delivery of HIV care including antiretroviral therapy in low-income and middle-income countries for four main domains: treatment strategy, drug dosing, monitoring, and service delivery.
Chi, Benjamin H; Adler, Michelle R; Bolu, Omotayo; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Ekouevi, Didier K; Gieselman, Anna; Chipato, Tsungai; Luo, Chewe; Phelps, B Ryan; McClure, Craig; Mofenson, Lynne M; Stringer, Jeffrey S A
In June 2011, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), and other collaborators outlined a transformative plan to virtually eliminate pediatric AIDS worldwide. The ambitious targets of this initiative included a 90% reduction in new pediatric HIV infections and a 50% reduction in HIV-related maternal mortality--all by 2015. PEPFAR has made an unprecedented commitment to the expansion and improvement of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services globally and is expected to play a critical role in reaching the virtual elimination target. To date, PEPFAR has been instrumental in the success of many national programs, including expanded coverage of PMTCT services, an enhanced continuum of care between PMTCT and HIV care and treatment, provision of more efficacious regimens for antiretroviral prophylaxis, design of innovative but simplified PMTCT approaches, and development of new strategies to evaluate program effectiveness. These accomplishments have been made through collaborative efforts with host governments, United Nations agencies, other donors (eg, the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria), nongovernmental organizations, and private sector partners. To successfully meet the ambitious global targets to prevent new infant HIV infections, PEPFAR must continue to leverage the existing PMTCT platform, while developing innovative approaches to rapidly expand quality HIV services. PEPFAR must also carefully integrate PMTCT into the broader combination prevention agenda for HIV, so that real progress can be made toward an "AIDS-free generation" worldwide.
Gibson, David R; Zhang, Guili; Cassady, Diana; Pappas, Les; Mitchell, Joyce; Kegeles, Susan M
Social marketing involves applying marketing principles to promote social goods. In the context of health behavior, it has been used successfully to reduce alcohol-related car crashes, smoking among youths, and malaria transmission, among other goals. Features of social marketing, such as audience segmentation and repeated exposure to prevention messages, distinguish it from traditional health promotion programs. A recent review found 8 of 10 rigorously evaluated social marketing interventions responsible for changes in HIV-related behavior or behavioral intentions. We studied 479 injection drug users to evaluate a community-based social marketing campaign to reduce injection risk behavior among drug users in Sacramento, California. Injecting drugs is associated with HIV infection in more than 130 countries worldwide.
Clinical and epidemiologic research has identified increasingly effective interventions to reduce mother to child HIV transmission in resource-limited settings These scientific breakthroughs have been implemented in some programmes, although much remains to be done to improve coverage and quality of these programmes. But prevention of HIV transmission is not enough. It is necessary also to consider ways to improve maternal health and protect child survival. A win-win approach is to ensure that all pregnant and lactating women with CD4 counts of <350 cells/mm3 have access to antiretroviral therapy. On its own, this approach will substantially improve maternal health and markedly reduce mother to child HIV transmission during pregnancy and delivery and through breastfeeding. This approach can be combined with additional interventions for women with higher CD4 counts, either extended prophylaxis to infants or extended regimens of antiretroviral drugs to women, to reduce transmission even further. Attempts to encourage women to abstain from all breastfeeding or to shorten the optimal duration of breastfeeding have led to increases in mortality among both uninfected and infected children. A better approach is to support breastfeeding while strengthening programmes to provide antiretroviral therapy for pregnant and lactating women who need it and offering antiretroviral drug interventions through the duration of breastfeeding. This will lead to reduced HIV transmission and will protect the health of women without compromising the health and well-being of infants and young children. PMID:20015345
Data suggest that HIV prevalence rates among Muslim populations may be increasing due to unprotected sexual intercourse and shared injection equipment, despite popular belief that adherence to religious injunctions has shielded Muslim populations from the HIV epidemic. HIV prevention programs targeting Muslim populations to date have often lacked a theoretical foundation and have neglected the important Islamic concept of jihad, or struggle. This article reviews the cultural and religious factors that may facilitate or reduce HIV risk in Muslim communities. The theory of reasoned action and a harm reduction approach are utilized to demonstrate how the important concept of jihad can be integrated with HIV prevention theory to develop HIV prevention approaches at individual and structural levels. The proposed approach to HIV prevention must be validated, refined, and evaluated for specific cultures and locales through field testing.
Toska, Elona; Gittings, Lesley; Hodes, Rebecca; Cluver, Lucie D; Govender, Kaymarlin; Chademana, K Emma; Gutiérrez, Vincent Evans
Adolescents are the only age group with growing AIDS-related morbidity and mortality in Eastern and Southern Africa, making HIV prevention research among this population an urgent priority. Structural deprivations are key drivers of adolescent HIV infection in this region. Biomedical interventions must be combined with behavioural and social interventions to alleviate the socio-structural determinants of HIV infection. There is growing evidence that social protection has the potential to reduce the risk of HIV infection among children and adolescents. This research combined expert consultations with a rigorous review of academic and policy literature on the effectiveness of social protection for HIV prevention among children and adolescents, including prevention for those already HIV-positive. The study had three goals: (i) assess the evidence on the effectiveness of social protection for HIV prevention, (ii) consider key challenges to implementing social protection programmes that promote HIV prevention, and (iii) identify critical research gaps in social protection and HIV prevention, in Eastern and Southern Africa. Causal pathways of inequality, poverty, gender and HIV risk require flexible and responsive social protection mechanisms. Results confirmed that HIV-inclusive child-and adolescent-sensitive social protection has the potential to interrupt risk pathways to HIV infection and foster resilience. In particular, empirical evidence (literature and expert feedback) detailed the effectiveness of combination social protection particularly cash/in-kind components combined with "care" and "capability" among children and adolescents. Social protection programmes should be dynamic and flexible, and consider age, gender, HIV-related stigma, and context, including cultural norms, which offer opportunities to improve programmatic coverage, reach and uptake. Effective HIV prevention also requires integrated social protection policies, developed through strong national
Kearns, Rachel; Siegler, Aaron J; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Stephenson, Rob; Baral, Stefan D; Brookmeyer, Ron; Yah, Clarence S; Lambert, Andrew J; Brown, Benjamin; Rosenberg, Eli; Blalock Tharp, Mondie; de Voux, Alex; Beyrer, Chris; Sullivan, Patrick S
Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention intervention programs and related research for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the southern African region remain limited, despite the emergence of a severe epidemic among this group. With a lack of understanding of their social and sexual lives and HIV risks, and with MSM being a hidden and stigmatized group in the region, optimized HIV prevention packages for southern African MSM are an urgent public health and research priority. Objective The objective of the Sibanye Health Project is to develop and evaluate a combination package of biomedical, behavioral, and community-level HIV prevention interventions and services for MSM in South Africa. Methods The project consists of three phases: (1) a comprehensive literature review and summary of current HIV prevention interventions (Phase I), (2) agent-based mathematical modeling of HIV transmission in southern African MSM (Phase II), and (3) formative and stigma-related qualitative research, community engagement, training on providing health care to MSM, and the pilot study (Phase III). The pilot study is a prospective one-year study of 200 men in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The study will assess a package of HIV prevention services, including condom and condom-compatible lubricant choices, risk-reduction counseling, couples HIV testing and counseling, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for eligible men, and non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis for men with a high risk exposure. The pilot study will begin in October 2014. Results Preliminary results from all components but the pilot study are available. We developed a literature review database with meta-data extracted from 3800 documents from 67 countries. Modeling results indicate that regular HIV testing and promotion of condom use can significantly impact new HIV infections among South African MSM, even in the context of high coverage of early treatment of HIV-positive men and high
Background All violence against women has serious consequences for their mental, physical wellbeing, reproductive and sexual health including HIV infection and no study was conducted in this regard in Ethiopia and particularly in the present study area. Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar town from 22 July–18 August 2011. Of the 400 pregnant women who actively participated in this study, 314 (78.50%) expected a negative reaction for HIV positive test result from their partners. A positive reaction from the partner was associated with women having their own income (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% CI) =2.18 (1.21, 3.92)), residing in the urban areas (AOR (95% CI) =2.26 (1.21, 4.22)), having education level of secondary level and above (AOR (95% CI) = 6.05 (3.12, 11.72)), not having a stigmatizing attitude towards people living with HIV (AOR (95% CI) = 2.15 (1.24, 3.73)), having a positive attitude towards counselors (AOR (95% CI) = 2.46 (1.42, 4.25)) and being able to access health facilities (AOR (95% CI) = 2.35(1.22, 4.50)). Conclusion Most of the participants in this study expected their partner to react negatively towards a positive HIV test result. Since women’s having their own income is strongly associated with a positive partner’s reaction on HIV test disclosure for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV services, emphasis should be given for education and economic empowerment of women. A well functioning and accessible health facility with prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV service is important, especially in rural areas. PMID:23497642
Hosek, Sybil; Celum, Connie; Wilson, Craig M; Kapogiannis, Bill; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Bekker, Linda-Gail
Introduction Adolescents and young adults aged <25 are a key population in the HIV epidemic, with very high HIV incidence rates in many geographic settings and a large number who have limited access to prevention services. Thus, any biomedical HIV prevention approach should prepare licensure and implementation strategies for young populations. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the first antiretroviral-based prevention intervention with proven efficacy across many settings and populations, and regulatory and policy approvals at global and national levels are occurring rapidly. We discuss available data from studies in the United States and South Africa on the use of oral PrEP for HIV prevention in adolescent minors, along with some of the implementation challenges. Discussion Ongoing studies in the United States and South Africa among youth under the age of 18 should provide the safety data needed by the end of 2016 to contribute to licensure of Truvada as daily PrEP in adolescents. The challenges of completing these studies as well as foreseeable broader challenges highlighted by this work are presented. Adherence to daily PrEP is a greater challenge for younger populations, and poor adherence was associated with decreased efficacy in all PrEP trials. Individual-level barriers include limited familiarity with antiretroviral-based prevention, stigma, product storage, and social support. Structural challenges include healthcare financing for PrEP, clinician acceptability and comfort with PrEP delivery, and the limited youth-friendly health services available. These challenges are discussed in the context of the work done to date in the United States and South Africa, but will likely be magnified in the setting of limited resources in many other countries that are heavily impacted by HIV. Conclusions Adolescent populations are particularly vulnerable to HIV, and oral PrEP in these populations is likely to have an impact on population-level HIV incidence. The
Hoshi, Tomonori; Fuji, Yoshito; Nzou, Samson Muuo; Tanigawa, Chihiro; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Karama, Mohamed; Hirayama, Kenji; Goto, Kensuke; Kaneko, Satoshi
HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to collect 1,957 blood samples from 42,617 individuals registered in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Mbita, which is located on the shore of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. We used these samples to evaluate existing antibody detection assays for several infectious diseases, including HIV antibody titers. Based on the results of the assays, we evaluated the prevalence of HIV infection according to sex, age, and altitude of participating households. We also used Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic to test for HIV clustering in the study area. The prevalence of HIV at our study site was 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15–19 years), adults aged 30–34 years were 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women was 1.43 times larger than among men. Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic detected one marginally significant (P = 0.055) HIV-positive and one significant HIV-negative cluster (P = 0.047) in the study area. These results suggest a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages. In addition to individual behavior, more complex and diverse factors related to the social and cultural environment can contribute to a homogeneous distribution pattern of HIV infection outside of African fishing villages. To reduce rates of transmission in HIV-endemic areas, HIV prevention and control programs optimized for the local environment need to be developed. PMID:26862764
Hoshi, Tomonori; Fuji, Yoshito; Nzou, Samson Muuo; Tanigawa, Chihiro; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Karama, Mohamed; Hirayama, Kenji; Goto, Kensuke; Kaneko, Satoshi
HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to collect 1,957 blood samples from 42,617 individuals registered in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Mbita, which is located on the shore of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. We used these samples to evaluate existing antibody detection assays for several infectious diseases, including HIV antibody titers. Based on the results of the assays, we evaluated the prevalence of HIV infection according to sex, age, and altitude of participating households. We also used Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic to test for HIV clustering in the study area. The prevalence of HIV at our study site was 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15-19 years), adults aged 30-34 years were 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women was 1.43 times larger than among men. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic detected one marginally significant (P = 0.055) HIV-positive and one significant HIV-negative cluster (P = 0.047) in the study area. These results suggest a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages. In addition to individual behavior, more complex and diverse factors related to the social and cultural environment can contribute to a homogeneous distribution pattern of HIV infection outside of African fishing villages. To reduce rates of transmission in HIV-endemic areas, HIV prevention and control programs optimized for the local environment need to be developed.
Pulerwitz, J; Michaelis, A P; Lippman, S A; Chinaglia, M; Díaz, J
HIV-related stigma and discrimination (S&D) have been shown to impede prevention, care and treatment. Yet, few quantitative studies have tested the associations between stigma, service utilization and status disclosure, especially in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics. Surveys, administered to a random sample of 1,775 truck drivers crossing Southern borders in Brazil, included items on multiple conceptual domains of S&D, such as fear of casual contact and blame towards people living with HIV/AIDS. Pearson's chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to examine correlations. Less stigma (both individual items and grouped as a scale) was significantly correlated with VCT use (p
... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Task Force on Community Preventive Services Name: Task Force on Community Preventive Services meeting. Times and Dates: 8 a.m.-5:30 p.m. EST, June...: The mission of the Task Force is to develop and publish the Guide to Community Preventive...
... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional preventive services. 410.64 Section 410... Additional preventive services. (a) Medicare Part B pays for additional preventive services not described in paragraph (1) or (3) of the definition of “preventive services” under § 410.2, that identify...
Ankunda, Racheal; Atuyambe, Lynn Muhimbuura; Kiwanuka, Noah
Introduction As young people living with HIV grow their sexual behaviour and it's implication on HIV prevention is of concern. This study describes the sexual risk related-behaviours and factors associated with abstinence among Youth Living with HIV in central Uganda. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among 338 unmarried youth between 15 and 24 years accessing HIV care in central Uganda. Data was collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaires. Adjusted prevalence proportion ratios (adj. PPRs) of factors associated with sexual abstinence for at least six months were determined by multivariable log-binomial regression. Results Overall, 79% (269/338) of respondents were abstaining from sexual intercourse for atleast six months, although, 45% (150/338) had ever been sexually active. Of the 283 respondents who desired to get married in future, 40% preferred negative marriage partners. Only 31% (39/126) of respondents in boy/girl relationships had disclosed their HIV status to their partners. Among those currently sexually active (n = 69), 57% did not consistently use condoms and 30% had more than one sexual partner in the past six months. The adj.PRR of abstinence was higher among youth between 15 and 19 years compared to those between 20 and 24 years (adj. PPR = 1.26, 95% CI; 1.08-1.46). The prevalence of abstinence was significantly lower among respondent who consumed alcohol (adj. PPR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.16-0.61). Conclusion Tailored interventions promoting disclosure, consistent condoms use and discouraging alcohol consumption among sero-positive youth could reduce HIV transmission risk. PMID:27642390
MIZUNO, Yuko; ZHU, Julia; CREPAZ, Nicole; BEER, Linda; PURCELL, David W.; JOHNSON, Christopher H.; VALVERDE, Eduardo E.; SKARBINSKI, Jacek
Objective Guidelines recommend risk-reduction counseling by HIV providers to all HIV-infected persons. Among HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States, we estimated prevalence of exposure to three types of HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk-reduction interventions and described the characteristics of persons who received these interventions. Design Data were from the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP), a supplemental HIV surveillance system designed to produce nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States. Methods Descriptive analyses were conducted to estimate the exposure to each type of HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess associations between the selected correlates with each exposure variable. Results About 44% of participants reported a one-on-one conversation with a health care provider about HIV/STD prevention, 30% with a prevention program worker, 16% reported participation in a small group risk-reduction intervention, and 52% reported receiving at least one of the three interventions in the past 12 months. Minority race/ethnicity, low income, and risky sexual behavior consistently predicted greater intervention exposure. However, 39% of persons who reported risky sex did not receive any HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions. Conclusions HIV-infected persons in care with fewer resources or those who engaged in risk behaviors were more likely to receive HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions. However, less than half of HIV-infected persons in care received HIV/STD prevention counseling from their provider, an intervention that has been shown to be effective and is supported by guidelines. PMID:24056066
Background Most HIV prevention strategies assume beneficiaries can act on their prevention decisions. But some people are unable to do so. They are ‘choice-disabled’. Economic and educational interventions can reduce sexual violence, but there is less evidence that they can reduce HIV. There is little research on complex interventions in HIV prevention, yet all countries in southern Africa implement combination prevention programmes. Methods/Design The primary objective is to reduce HIV infections among women aged 15 to 29 years. Secondary objectives are reduction in gender violence and improvement in HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices among youth aged 15 to 29 years. A random sample of 77 census enumeration areas in three countries (Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland) was allocated randomly to three interventions, alone or in combination, in a factorial design stratified by country, HIV rates (above or below average for country), and urban/rural location. A baseline survey of youth aged 15 to 29 years provided cluster specific rates of HIV. All clusters continue existing prevention efforts and have a baseline and follow-up survey. Cluster is the unit of allocation, intervention and analysis, using generalised estimating equations, on an intention-to-treat basis. One intervention discusses evidence about choice disability with local HIV prevention services, to help them to serve the choice-disabled. Another discusses an eight-episode audio-docudrama with community groups, of all ages and both sexes, to generate endogenous strategies to reduce gender violence and develop an enabling environment. A third supports groups of women aged 18 to 25 years to build self-esteem and life skills and to set up small enterprises to generate income. A survey in all clusters after 3 years will measure outcomes, with interviewers unaware of group assignment of the clusters. The primary outcome is HIV infection in women aged 15 to 29 years. Secondary outcomes in youth
Background Delivery of community-based prevention services for HIV, malaria, and diarrhea is a major priority and challenge in rural Africa. Integrated delivery campaigns may offer a mechanism to achieve high coverage and efficiency. Methods We quantified the resources and costs to implement a large-scale integrated prevention campaign in Lurambi Division, Western Province, Kenya that reached 47,133 individuals (and 83% of eligible adults) in 7 days. The campaign provided HIV testing, condoms, and prevention education materials; a long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net; and a water filter. Data were obtained primarily from logistical and expenditure data maintained by implementing partners. We estimated the projected cost of a Scaled-Up Replication (SUR), assuming reliance on local managers, potential efficiencies of scale, and other adjustments. Results The cost per person served was $41.66 for the initial campaign and was projected at $31.98 for the SUR. The SUR cost included 67% for commodities (mainly water filters and bed nets) and 20% for personnel. The SUR projected unit cost per person served, by disease, was $6.27 for malaria (nets and training), $15.80 for diarrhea (filters and training), and $9.91 for HIV (test kits, counseling, condoms, and CD4 testing at each site). Conclusions A large-scale, rapidly implemented, integrated health campaign provided services to 80% of a rural Kenyan population with relatively low cost. Scaling up this design may provide similar services to larger populations at lower cost per person. PMID:22189090
Cohen, Myron S; Dye, Christopher; Fraser, Christophe; Miller, William C; Powers, Kimberly A; Williams, Brian G
Universal HIV testing and immediate antiretroviral therapy for infected individuals has been proposed as a way of reducing the transmission of HIV and thereby bringing the HIV epidemic under control. It is unclear whether transmission during early HIV infection--before individuals are likely to have been diagnosed with HIV and started on antiretroviral therapy--will compromise the effectiveness of treatment as prevention. This article presents two opposing viewpoints by Powers, Miller, and Cohen, and Williams and Dye, followed by a commentary by Fraser.
In May 1997, the Advisory Committee for HIV and STD Prevention (ACHSP) reviewed data on the relation between curable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the risk for sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ACHSP considered that the evidence was strong that early detection and treatment of other STDs is an effective strategy for preventing sexually transmitted HIV infection but was concerned that this strategy has not been clearly articulated or implemented as a core strategy for HIV prevention in the United States. In the context of persistently high prevalence of STDs in many parts of the United States and with emerging evidence that the U.S. epidemic of HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) increasingly is affecting population groups with the highest rates of curable STDs, ACHSP recommends the following actions: Early detection and treatment of curable STDs should become a major, explicit component of comprehensive HIV prevention programs at national, state, and local levels. In areas where STDS that facilitate HIV transmission are prevalent, screening and treatment programs should be expanded. HIV and STD prevention programs in the United States, together with private and public sector partners, should take joint responsibility for implementing this strategy.
Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E
Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p < 0.01), sterilization of delivery equipment (p < 0.01), participation in blood safety training (p < 0.01), and disposal of sharps (p < 0.01). As long as a high percent of births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health.
Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R.; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E.
Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p < 0.01), sterilization of delivery equipment (p < 0.01), participation in blood safety training (p < 0.01), and disposal of sharps (p < 0.01). As long as a high percent of births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health. PMID:25674783
Loue, S; Lane, S D; Lloyd, L S; Loh, L
Asian Pacific Islander communities in the United States have experienced an alarming increase in HIV infection over the past few years, possibly due to a lack of knowledge and the relative absence of appropriate educational interventions. The authors propose a new approach to the development of HIV prevention programs in U.S. southeast Asian communities. This article reviews the cultural and economic factors that may facilitate HIV transmission within these communities. Relying on the basic precepts of Buddhism, the dominant religion of many southeast Asian populations in the United States, the health belief model is utilized to demonstrate how recognizable, acceptable religious constructs can be integrated into the content of HIV prevention messages. This integration of religious concepts with HIV prevention messages may increase the likelihood that the message audience will accept the prevention messages as relevant. This nuanced approach to HIV prevention must be validated and refined through field research.
Baptiste, Donna R.; Kapungu, Chisina; Miller, Steve; Crown, Laurel; Henry, David; Da Costa Martinez, Dona; Jo-Bennett, Karen
This article presents preliminary findings of a randomized HIV prevention study in Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean. The study centers on a family HIV workshop aimed at strengthening parenting skills that are empirically linked to reducing adolescent HIV exposure and other sexual risks. These skills include parental monitoring; educating youth…
Nelson, Annabelle; Cordova, David; Walters, Andrew S.; Szecsy, Elsie
Latino adolescents are disproportionately impacted by HIV, but researchers have documented few programs to prevent and reduce HIV risk. The Storytelling for Empowerment (SFE) "HIV StoryBook" was designed with an innovative ecodevelopment approach combining empowerment, family communication, and positive cultural identity. A mixed method…
Kaljee, Linda M.; Genberg, Becky; Riel, Rosemary; Cole, Matthew; Tho, Le Huu; Thoa, Le Thi Kim; Stanton, Bonita; Li, Xiaoming; Minh, Tuong Tan
As of April 2003, 64,801 HIV cases have been documented in Vietnam (Policy Project 2003), 53.9% of which are among individuals 20-29 years of age. Although HIV education efforts have increased, there remains a need for proven effective programs. We present findings from a randomized-controlled effectiveness trial of an HIV prevention program for…
Nabunya, Proscovia; Ssewamala, Fred M.; Mukasa, Miriam N.; Byansi, William; Nattabi, Jennifer
Adolescents and young adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are particularly vulnerable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection. Adolescents orphaned as a direct result of HIV/AIDS are at an elevated risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. However, limited empirical evidence exists on HIV knowledge and prevention programs, especially those designed to address HIV information gaps among adolescents. This study evaluates the effect of a peer mentorship program provided in addition to other supportive services on HIV/AIDS knowledge, beliefs, and prevention attitudes, among school-going orphaned adolescents in southern Uganda. We utilize data from the Bridges to the Future Study, a 5-year longitudinal randomized experimental study funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Out of the 1410 adolescents enrolled in the study (average age = 12.7 at study initiation), 855 of them participated in a nine-session, curriculum based peer mentorship program. We analyzed data collected at baseline and 12-months post intervention initiation. The results from bivariate and regression analysis indicate that, controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, adolescents who participated in a peer mentorship program were more likely than non-participants to report increased scores on HIV/AIDS knowledge(b = .86, 95%CI = .47 – 1.3, p ≤ .001); better scores on desired HIV/AIDS-related beliefs (b = .29, 95%CI = .06 – .52, p ≤ .01); and better scores on HIV/AIDS prevention attitudes (b = .76, 95%CI = .16 – 1.4, p ≤ .01). Overall, the study findings point to the potential role a of peer mentorship program in promoting the much-desired HIV/AIDS knowledge, beliefs, and prevention attitudes among orphaned adolescents. Future programs and policies that support AIDS-orphaned adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa should consider incorporating peer mentoring programs that provide
Santelli, John S; Speizer, Ilene S; Edelstein, Zoe R
Abstinence-until-marriage (AUM) - strongly supported by religious conservatives in the USA - became a key element of initial human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention efforts under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR). AUM programmes have demonstrated limited efficacy in changing behaviours, promoted medically inaccurate information and withheld life-saving information about risk reduction. A focus on AUM also undermined national efforts in Africa to create integrated youth HIV prevention programmes. PEPFAR prevention efforts after 2008 shifted to science-based programming, however, vestiges of AUM remain. Primary prevention programmes within PEPFAR are essential and nations must be able to design HIV prevention based on local needs and prevention science.
Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Simon, Norma-Jean; Rhoads, Natalie; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ahmed Asadi
Mobile populations are at increased risk for HIV infection. Exposure to HIV prevention messages at all phases of the migration process may help decrease im/migrants’ HIV risk. We investigated levels of exposure to HIV prevention messages, factors associated with message exposure, and the association between exposure to prevention messages and HIV testing behavior among Mexican im/migrants at different phases of the migration process. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey of Mexican im/migrants (N=3,149) traveling through the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. The results indicate limited exposure to prevention messages (57%–75%) and suboptimal last 12-month HIV testing rates (14%–25%) across five migration phases. Compared to pre-departure levels (75%), exposure to messages decreases at all post-departure migration phases (57%–63%, p<.001). In general, exposure to prevention messages is positively associated with greater odds of HIV testing at the pre-departure, destination, and interception phases. Binational efforts need to be intensified to reach and deliver HIV prevention to Mexican im/migrants across the migration continuum. PMID:26595267
Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Magaña, Cristina G; Vega, William A; Alejo-Garcia, Christina; Quintanar, Tania Real; Vazquez, Lucía; Ballesteros, Patricia D; Ibarra, Juan; Rosales, Heidi
The purpose of this article is to review the research status of illicit drug use and its data sources in Latin America, with particular attention to the research that has been produced in the past 15 years in epidemiology of illicit drug use services utilization, and relationship between HIV and drug use. This article complements the series of articles that are published in this same volume which examine drug abuse research (epidemiology, prevention, and treatment) and HIV prevention in Latinos residing in the United States. This review resulted from extensive international and national searches using the following databases: Current Contents Connect, Social and Behavioral Sciences; EBSCO; EMBASE(R) Psychiatry; Evidence Based Medicine (through OVID); Medline, Neurosciences, PsychINFO, Pubmed, BIREME/PAHO/WHO--Virtual Health Library, and SciELO. Papers selected for further review included those published in Spanish, English, and Portuguese in peer-reviewed journals. From the evidence reviewed, it was found that the published research literature is heavily concentrated on descriptive epidemiologic surveys, providing primarily prevalence rates and general information on associated factors. Evidence on patterns of service delivery and HIV prevention and treatment is limited. The cumulative scope of this research clearly indicates variability in quantity and quality of research across Latin American nations and the need for greater uniformity in data collection elements, methodologies, and the creation of international collaborative research networks.
Santos, Sérgio P; Amado, Carla A E; Santos, Mauro F
AIDS is one of the most significant health care problems worldwide. Due to the difficulty and costs involved in treating HIV, preventing infection is of paramount importance in controlling the AIDS epidemic. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to establish international comparisons on the efficiency of implementation of HIV prevention programmes. To do this we use data from 52 low- and middle-income countries regarding the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Our results indicate that there is a remarkable variation in the efficiency of prevention services across nations, suggesting that a better use of resources could lead to more and improved services, and ultimately, prevent the infection of thousands of children. These results also demonstrate the potential strategic role of DEA for the efficient and effective planning of scarce resources to fight the epidemic.
Parkhurst, Justin O
Background The fact that HIV prevention often deals with politicised sexual and drug taking behaviour is well known, but structural HIV prevention interventions in particular can involve alteration of social arrangements over which there may be further contested values at stake. As such, normative frameworks are required to inform HIV prevention decisions and avoid conflicts between social goals. Methods This paper provides a conceptual review and discussion of the normative issues surrounding structural HIV prevention strategies. It applies political and ethical concepts to explore the contested nature of HIV planning and suggests conceptual frameworks to inform future structural HIV responses. Results HIV prevention is an activity that cannot be pursued without making value judgements; it is inherently political. Appeals to health outcomes alone are insufficient when intervention strategies have broader social impacts, or when incidence reduction can be achieved at the expense of other social values such as freedom, equality, or economic growth. This is illustrated by the widespread unacceptability of forced isolation which may be efficacious in preventing spread of infectious agents, but conflicts with other social values. Conclusions While no universal value system exists, the capability approach provides one potential framework to help overcome seeming contradictions or value trade-offs in structural HIV prevention approaches. However, even within the capability approach, valuations must still be made. Making normative values explicit in decision making processes is required to ensure transparency, accountability, and representativeness of the public interest, while ensuring structural HIV prevention efforts align with broader social development goals as well. PMID:22713355
Johnson-Masotti, A P; Pinkerton, S D; Holtgrave, D R; Valdiserri, R O; Willingham, M
Since 1994, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has required that the 65 health department grantees that receive funding for HIV prevention interventions engage in a community planning process to involve affected communities in local prevention decision making; to increase the use of epidemiological data to target HIV prevention resources; and to ensure that the planning process takes into account scientific information on the effectiveness and efficiency of different HIV interventions. Local community planning groups are charged with identifying and prioritizing unmet HIV prevention needs in their communities, as well as prioritizing prevention interventions designed to address these needs. Their recommendations, in turn, form the basis for the local health department's request for HIV prevention funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Given the community planning process's central role in the allocation of federal HIV prevention funds, it is critical that sound decision-making procedures inform this process. In this article, we review the basics of the community planning prioritization process and summarize the decision-making experiences of community planning groups across the US. We then describe several priority-setting tools and decision analytic models that have been developed to assist in HIV community planning prioritization and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we offer suggestions for improving the decision-analytic basis for HIV prevention community planning.
Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Beckham, Sarah; Mwampashi, Ard; Shembilu, Catherine; Mantsios, Andrea; Leddy, Anna; Davis, Wendy; Galai, Noya
Background: Community empowerment approaches have been found to be effective in responding to HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in South Asia and Latin America. To date, limited rigorous evaluations of these approaches have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: A phase II community randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Iringa, Tanzania, to evaluate the effectiveness of a community empowerment–based combination HIV prevention model (Project Shikamana) among a stratified sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected FSWs. Cohort members were recruited from entertainment venues across 2 communities in the region using time-location sampling. All study participants gave consent, and were surveyed and screened for HIV at baseline. Primary biological study outcomes are viral suppression among the HIV-infected and remaining free of HIV among HIV-uninfected women. Results: A cohort of 496 FSWs was established and is currently under follow-up. Baseline HIV prevalence was 40.9% (203/496). Among HIV-infected FSWs, 30.5% (62/203) were previously aware of their HIV status; among those who were aware, 69.4% were on antiretroviral therapy (43/62); and for those on antiretroviral therapy, 69.8% (30/43) were virally suppressed. Factors associated with both HIV infection and viral suppression at baseline included community, age, number of clients, and substance use. Amount of money charged per client and having tested for sexually transmitted infection in the past 6 months were protective for HIV infection. Social cohesion among FSWs was protective for viral suppression. Conclusions: Significant gaps exist in HIV service coverage and progress toward reaching the 90-90-90 goals among FSWs in Iringa, Tanzania. Community empowerment approaches hold promise given the high HIV prevalence, limited services and stigma, discrimination, and violence. PMID:27930613
Westerhaus, Michael J; Finnegan, Amy C; Zabulon, Yoti; Mukherjee, Joia S
In northern Uganda, physical and structural violence (political repression, economic inequality, and gender-based discrimination) increase vulnerability to HIV infection. In settings of war, traditional HIV prevention that solely promotes risk avoidance and risk reduction and assumes the existence of personal choice inadequately addresses the realities of HIV transmission. The design of HIV prevention strategies in northern Uganda must recognize how HIV transmission occurs and the factors that put people at risk for infection. A human rights approach provides a viable model for achieving this aim.
Feteh, Vitalis F.; Tindong, Maxime; Tanyi, John T.; Bihle, Nestor Mbinkar; Angwafo, Fru F.
Background In 2010, an estimated 141 new HIV infections occurred per day in Cameroon and reports suggest an upsurge of these rates by 2020 if current trends continue. Mother—to—child transmission (MTCT) of HIV is a major public health challenge, and maternal knowledge on HIV transmission during pregnancy and its prevention is important in curtailing paediatric HIV acquisition. Objectives We aimed at establishing the prevalence of maternal HIV infection as well as assessing knowledge on HIV, MTCT and prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) of HIV among pregnant women in a rural area of Cameroon. Methods This study was conducted in two phases: a 29 month retrospective analysis of 1866 deliveries within three rural health facilities in the Babessi sub—division, Northwest Cameroon and a 1 month prospective phase wherein 150 consenting pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) at the study centres were consecutively recruited. Results Overall, the prevalence of maternal HIV infection was 5.0% (100/2016). All (100%) of the interviewed pregnant women were aware of HIV infection and most (76.7%) had adequate knowledge on its routes of transmission. Meanwhile, only 79.3% (119/150) of them were aware of MTCT with slightly above a third (37.0%) having adequate knowledge on the periods of transmission. The proportions of women correctly stating: during pregnancy, during labour/delivery and during breastfeeding as possible periods of MTCT of HIV were 63.0%, 60.5% and 89.1% respectively. A majority (76.3%) of these women had inadequate knowledge on PMTCT of HIV. Conclusion The overall prevalence of maternal HIV warrants strengthening of current intervention strategies including scaling—up of PMTCT measures. Among others, intensification of HIV—related ANC services to improve the pregnant women’s awareness and knowledge on MTCT and its prevention are vital steps in curbing the growing burden of paediatric HIV. PMID:28199373
Azkune, Harkaitz; Ibarguren, Maialen; Camino, Xabier; Iribarren, José Antonio
In these almost thirty years since the epidemic of HIV infection strategies have been developed to decrease the transmission risk when a non-infected person comes into contact with HIV. One of the key landmarks was the use zidovudine was shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection by vertical transmission from 25% to 8% when given from the second trimester of pregnancy, during partum and for several weeks in the newborn. These strategies have been subsequently perfected until achieving vertical transmission rates less than 1%. Almost at the same time, strategies have been developed in an attempt to reduce the risk of transmission of infection after occupational accidents and, in the last few years prophylaxis after non-occupational exposure has been a field of particular concern. Even in this past year several experiments on pre-exposure prophylaxis have been published, which are generating an intense debate on is applicability. In this article, we analyse the state of the art in the prevention of vertical transmission and occupational and non-occupational prophylaxis, from a perspective of applying this in the developed world. We also review the published data on pre-exposure prophylaxis.
Poku, Nana K.
There is no viable substitute for re-energizing, funding and supporting culturally attuned, locally staffed HIV advocacy and prevention programmes, especially in resource poor settings. The evidence that such interventions are effective remains compelling; and although the cost implications are not negligible, the medium to long-term outcomes must be regarded not as complementary, but as integral, to biomedical interventions. The success of the anti-retroviral drugs upscale has enabled a noticeable improvement in AIDS related morbidity and mortality in the recent years; yet the underlying dynamics of the epidemic remains undetermined by the rate at which new infections are taking place in relation to the number of AIDS deaths. While the rate of new HIV infections is stabilising in some of the hardest hit countries, it remains far too high and the future cost of maintaining an ever-expanding pool of people reliant on daily drugs for survival is unsustainable. Countries must exercise caution in continuing to focus on treatment as a ‘quick fix’ to end AIDS as a public health concern. HIV is a socially culturally induced crisis and, as such, a variety of measures are needed simultaneously to appeal to different people, groups and circumstances. PMID:27347272
Bryan, Angela; Robbins, Reuben N; Ruiz, Monica S; O'Neill, Dennis
Prisons and prison inmates present important targets for HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. Inmates often have histories of high-risk behavior that place them in danger of contracting HIV/AIDS, and rates of HIV/AIDS tend to be much higher in this population. The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a prison-based HIV/AIDS intervention to change attitudes toward HIV prevention, norms supporting HIV prevention, perceived behavioral control (i.e., self-efficacy) for HIV prevention behaviors, and intentions to engage in HIV prevention behaviors postrelease. The intervention also had the goal of encouraging inmates to become HIV/AIDS peer educators. The intervention appeared most successful at influencing beliefs and behaviors related to peer education and somewhat successful at influencing beliefs and intentions related to condom use. Analyses also showed some significant differences in effectiveness by race/ethnicity. Results are discussed from the perspectives of both research and practice with regard to prison-based HIV prevention efforts.
Kang, Ezer; Chin, John J.; Behar, Elana
Ethnic churches attended by first generation Chinese immigrants are uniquely positioned to address emerging HIV prevention and care needs within the Chinese community at-large. Efforts to develop faith-based HIV programs necessitate identifying how HIV intersects with the sinicization of Christianity within Chinese churches. This paper will review the process of contextualizing HIV within theological and cultural frameworks that are meaningful for ethnic Chinese church leaders and members. The authors specifically propose two points of integration between public health and ecclesial functions: (1) HIV stigma-mitigation initiatives as informed by Christo-centric teachings of compassion and justice, and (2) HIV prevention and care reframed as social responsibility and informed by the Christian tradition of evangelism. Systems and practices that hinder and promote the involvement of Chinese churches in HIV prevention, care, and stigma-reduction will be discussed. PMID:23483037
Kang, Ezer; Chin, John J; Behar, Elana
Ethnic churches attended by first generation Chinese immigrants are uniquely positioned to address emerging HIV prevention and care needs within the Chinese community at-large. Efforts to develop faith-based HIV programs necessitate identifying how HIV intersects with the sinicization of Christianity within Chinese churches. This paper will review the process of contextualizing HIV within theological and cultural frameworks that are meaningful for ethnic Chinese church leaders and members. The authors specifically propose two points of integration between public health and ecclesial functions: (1) HIV stigma-mitigation initiatives as informed by Christo-centric teachings of compassion and justice, and (2) HIV prevention and care reframed as social responsibility and informed by the Christian tradition of evangelism. Systems and practices that hinder and promote the involvement of Chinese churches in HIV prevention, care, and stigma-reduction will be discussed.
Ngure, Kenneth; Vusha, Sophie; Mugo, Nelly; Emmanuel-Fabula, Mira; Ngutu, Mariah; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M; Heffron, Renee
In spite of access to behavioral and biomedical HIV prevention strategies, HIV transmission occurs. For HIV-serodiscordant couples, prevention programs can be tailored to address individual and couples' needs to preserve their relationship while minimizing HIV risk. Programs for serodiscordant couples may benefit from learning from experiences of couples who transmit HIV. We conducted 20 individual in-depth interviews with 10 initially HIV-serodiscordant couples who transmitted HIV during prospective follow-up at a peri-urban research site in Thika, Kenya. Data were analyzed inductively to identify situations that led to prevention failure and coping mechanisms. Inconsistent condom use driven by low HIV risk perception and alcohol use often preceded seroconversion while persistent blame frequently hindered couples' communication soon after seroconversion. In this emerging era of antiretroviral-based HIV prevention, couples' counseling can capitalize on opportunities to foster a supportive environment to discuss initiation and adherence to time-limited pre-exposure prophylaxis and lifelong antiretroviral therapy, in addition to strategies to reduce alcohol use, diffuse blame, and use condoms.
Wirtz, AL; Trapence, G; Jumbe, V; Umar, E; Ketende, S; Kamba, D; Berry, M; Strömdahl, SK; Beyrer, C; Muula, AS; Baral, S
Introduction The use of combination HIV prevention interventions (CHPI) now represent the standard of care to minimize HIV acquisition risks among men who have sex with men (MSM). There has been limited evaluation of these approaches in generalized HIV epidemics and/or where MSM are stigmatized. A peer-based CHPI program to target individual, social, and structural risks for HIV was developed for MSM in Blantyre, Malawi. Methods To test the feasibility of CHPI, adult MSM were followed prospectively from January 2012-May 2013. Participants (N=103) completed sociobehavioral surveys and HIV testing at each of three follow-up study visits. Results Approximately 90% of participants attended each study visit and 93.2% (n=96) completed the final visit. Participants met with peer-educators a median of 3 times (range: 1-10) in follow-up visits 2 and 3. Condom use at last sex improved from baseline through follow-up visit 3 with main (Baseline:62.5%, Follow-up 3:77.0%, p=0.02) and casual male partners (Baseline:70.7%, Follow-up 3:86.3%, p=0.01). Disclosure of sexual behaviors/orientation to family increased from 25% in follow-up 1 to 55% in follow-up 3 (p<0.01). Discussion Participants maintained a high level of retention in the study highlighting the feasibility of leveraging community based organizations to recruit and retain MSM in HIV prevention and treatment interventions in stigmatizing settings. Group-level changes in sexual behavior and disclosure in safe settings for MSM were noted. CHPI may represent a useful model to providing access to other HIV prevention for MSM and aiding retention in care and treatment services for MSM living with HIV in challenging environments. PMID:26010028
Trezza, Christine R.; Kashuba, Angela D. M.
The incidence of HIV remains alarmingly high in many parts of the world. Prophylactic use of antiretrovirals, capable of concentrating in the anatomical sites of transmission, may reduce the risk of infection after an unprotected sexual exposure. To date, orally and topically administered antiretrovirals have exhibited variable success in preventing HIV transmission in large-scale clinical trials. Antiretroviral mucosal pharmacokinetics may help explain the outcomes of these investigations. Penetration and accumulation of antiretrovirals into sites of transmission can influence dosing strategies and pre-exposure prophylaxis clinical trial design. Antiretroviral tissue distribution varies widely within and between drug classes, attributed in part to their physicochemical properties and tissue-specific drug transporter expression. Nucleoside (-tide) reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc, and the integrase inhibitor raltegravir demonstrate the highest penetration into the male and female reproductive tracts and colorectal tissue relative to blood. This review will describe antiretroviral exposure in anatomic sites of transmission, and place these findings in context with the prevention of HIV and the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylactic strategies. PMID:24859035
Puffer, Eve S.; Pian, Jessica; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A.; Broverman, Sherryl A.
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) introduces new ethical challenges for HIV prevention studies in low-resource international settings. We describe a CBPR study in rural Kenya to develop and pilot a family-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion intervention. Academic partners (APs) worked with a community advisory committee (CAC) during formative research, intervention development, and a pilot trial. Ethical challenges emerged related to: negotiating power imbalances between APs and the CAC; CAC members’ shifting roles as part of the CAC and wider community; and anticipated challenges in decision making about sustainability. Factors contributing to ethical dilemmas included low access to education, scarcity of financial resources, and the shortage of HIV-related services despite high prevalence. PMID:23651936
Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W; Serrano-García, Irma
Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men's involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Pérez-Jiménez, David; Seal, David W.; Serrano-García, Irma
Although HIV prevention interventions for women are efficacious, long-term behavior change maintenance within power-imbalanced heterosexual relationships has been difficult. To explore the feasibility, content, and format of an HIV intervention for Latino couples, the authors conducted 13 focus groups with HIV/AIDS researchers, service providers, and heterosexual men and women in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, and Mexico. Reasons that participants thought that men should be involved in prevention efforts included promotion of shared responsibility, creation of a safe environment for open conversation about sex, and increased sexual negotiation skills. Perceived barriers to men’s involvement included cultural taboos, sexual conservatism associated with Catholicism and machismo, and power-imbalanced relationships. Participants stressed the need for recruitment of men within naturally occurring settings or by influential community leaders. Participants indicated that couples-level interventions would be successful if they used strong coed facilitators, included both unigender and mixed-gender discussion opportunities, and addressed personally meaningful topics. Implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:19209976
Hess, Rosanna F; Mbavu, Martin
HIV/AIDS fatalism may impact on individuals' health-seeking behaviour and HIV-prevention efforts. This descriptive study measured levels of HIV/AIDS fatalism and documented HIV/AIDS beliefs and practices among a sample of Gabonese and Malians living in Gabon, West Africa. The Powe Fatalism Inventory-HIV/AIDS version was used to measure levels of fatalism, while a short-answer survey was used to document personal beliefs and behaviours related to HIV and AIDS among 160 people in Gabon. The mean score of HIV/AIDS fatalism for the total sample was 6.8 on a 15-point scale. Malians had a more fatalistic outlook than Gabonese (mean scores 9.4 versus 5.3), Muslims were more fatalistic than persons of other religions (mean scores 9.2 versus 5.3), while healthcare providers were less fatalistic than non-providers (mean scores 3.8 versus 7.4). People that did not believe that HIV/AIDS is a punishment from God had a lower mean score of fatalism than those who did. Most of the sample believed that AIDS is a real disease, and most did not think that only immoral people discuss HIV and AIDS. The HIV-prevention indicators that related to lower scores of fatalism included knowing HIV-positive people, having had more years of formal education, a willingness to disclose one's HIV status (if known), and experience of HIV/AIDS education. Respondents who had tested for HIV were no less fatalistic than those who had never tested. The findings provide data from a part of the world where HIV/AIDS beliefs have rarely been documented. The results indicate a need for additional studies on correlations between HIV/ AIDS fatalism, HIV-prevention behaviours, and religious belief systems.
Holloway, Ian W.; Cederbaum, Julie A.; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven
Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, M[subscript age] = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to…
Villegas, N.; Santisteban, D.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Ambrosia, T.; Peragallo, N.; Lara, L.
Background Young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age are at high risk of contracting sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The literature shows a shortage of STI–HIV prevention interventions focused on this specific high-risk population and a unique set of barriers to receiving prevention messages. Internet-based interventions are promising for delivering STI–HIV prevention interventions and avoiding barriers to services. Aims The study aimed to develop a culturally informed Internet-based STI–HIV prevention intervention for Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age, to investigate its feasibility and acceptability, and to compile recommendations on what would make the intervention more acceptable and feasible for these women. Methods The development of the Internet intervention was facilitated by a process that featured consultation with content and technology experts. A pre-post test design was used to test the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention with 40 young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age. Results The intervention website consisted of four modules of content and activities that support learning. The intervention was feasible and acceptable for young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age. Discussion and conclusion This study demonstrated the value of engaging multiple expert panels to develop culturally informed and technology-based interventions. The results of this study support the feasibility and acceptability of conducting an Internet-based intervention with multiple sessions, yielding high participation rates in a population in which there are barriers to discussion of STI–HIV prevention and sex-related content. Implications for nursing and health policy The outcomes have implications for nursing education and clinical practice and they can be used for the legal and judicial systems to promote or reinforce policies that encourage STI–HIV prevention strategies
Anekthananon, Thanomsak; Munsakul, Warangkana; Jirajariyavej, Supunnee; Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Hancharoenkit, Ubonsri; Roongpisuthipong, Anuvat; Pattanasin, Sarika; Martin, Michael; Guntamala, Lisa
Background We implemented a hospital-based prevention with positives (PwP) intervention among people living with HIV (PLHIV) that included HIV transmission risk screening, short HIV prevention messages, family planning, HIV disclosure counseling, and partner HIV testing at five hospitals in Thailand. We assessed changes in sexual risk behaviors among PLHIV who received the PwP services at the hospitals. Methods From January 2008-March 2009, we systematically selected a subset of PLHIV receiving care at the five hospitals to offer participation in the PwP intervention. We collected demographic, risk behavior, and laboratory data using a standardized questionnaire. We analyzed data from PLHIV who completed at least four visits, using generalized estimating equations to identify baseline participant characteristics that were associated with adopting sexual practices less likely to be associated with HIV transmission during follow-up. Results A total of 830 PLHIV were interviewed and 756 (91.1%) completed four visits. The median age of these 756 participants was 37 years, 400 (52.9%) were women, and 475 (62.8%) had a steady partner. At baseline, 353 (74.3%) of the steady partners had been tested for HIV and 132 (37.4%) had tested negative. Among the 756 PLHIV, 427 (56.5%) reported having sex in the 3 months before enrollment and 413 (54.6%) in the 3 months before the fourth visit. The proportion reporting having vaginal or anal sex without a condom decreased from 20.8% at baseline to 5.1% at the fourth visit (p<0.001). Factors associated (p<0.05) with abstinence or 100% condom use at follow-up visits included: completing ≥ two visits, being diagnosed with HIV for longer than 3 months, and receiving HIV prevention messages from a doctor (versus a nurse or counselor). Conclusion Safe sex behaviors increased among PLHIV receiving PwP services, suggesting that expansion of hospital-based PwP services may reduce the number of new HIV infections in Thailand. PMID:28158210
Anglemyer, Andrew; Rutherford, George W; Horvath, Tara; Baggaley, Rachel C; Egger, Matthias; Siegfried, Nandi
subgroup analyses among the observational studies to see if the effect of ART on prevention of HIV differed by the index partner’s CD4 cell count. Among couples in which the infected partner had ≥350 CD4 cells/µL, we estimated a rate ratio of 0.12 [95% CI 0.01, 1.99]. In this subgroup, there were 247 transmissions in untreated couples and 30 in treated couples. Authors’ conclusions ART is a potent intervention for prevention of HIV in discordant couples in which the index partner has ≤550 CD4 cells/µL. A recent multicentre RCT confirms the suspected benefit seen in earlier observational studies and reported in more recent ones. Questions remain about durability of protection, the balance of benefits and adverse events associated with earlier therapy, long-term adherence and transmission of ART-resistant strains to partners. Resource limitations and implementation challenges must also be addressed. Counselling, support, and follow up, as well as mutual disclosure, may have a role in supporting adherence, so programmes should be designed with these components. In addition to ART provision, the operational aspects of delivering such programmes must be considered. PMID:23633367
Background In the current context of diversity and coexistence of HIV testing approaches, limited information exists on test recipient’s views of HIV testing services and programme attributes that could ease the testing process and make it more appealing for at risk individuals who don’t know their HIV status. This study analyzed ratings given to different testing sites and programme characteristics that might facilitate testing. Methods We analyzed data from 3120 persons attending a mobile HIV testing programme located on a central street in the gay district of Madrid. Results 64% were men (of which, 55% had had sex with other men), 59.5% were <30 years, 35.4% foreigners, 50.6% had a university degree,71.7% a regular employment, 59.3% reported multiple partners and inconsistent condom use and 56.5% had been tested for HIV. Non Governmental Organizations and specific HIV/STI centres received the maximum rating from over 60% of participants, followed by self-testing (38.9%). Pharmacies (20.8%) and hospital emergency departments (14.2%) were the worst valued testing sites. Over 80% gave the highest rating to having immediate test results, not needing a previous appointment, and free testing, while less than 50% gave the maximum rating to privacy and anonymity. Conclusions HIV testing services that don’t require an appointment, based on free tests with rapid results are most valued by a young, not socially marginalized but high risk sexual exposure population. On the contrary, issues traditionally highly valued by health care providers or AIDS social organizations (privacy and anonymity) are much less valued. PMID:23987230
HIV/AIDS prevention, faith, and spirituality among black/African American and Latino communities in the United States: strengthening scientific faith-based efforts to shift the course of the epidemic and reduce HIV-related health disparities.
Sutton, Madeline Y; Parks, Carolyn P
Black/African American and Latino communities are disproportionately affected by the domestic HIV/AIDS epidemic. Blacks/African Americans and Latinos are also more likely to report a formal, religious, or faith affiliation when compared with non-Hispanic whites. As such, faith leaders and their institutions have been identified in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy as having a vital role to serve in reducing: (1) HIV-related health disparities and (2) the number of new HIV infections by promoting non-judgmental support for persons living with and at risk for HIV/AIDS and by serving as trusted information resources for their congregants and communities. We describe faith doctrines and faith-science partnerships that are increasing in support of faith-based HIV prevention and service delivery activities and discuss the vital role of these faith-based efforts in highly affected black/African American and Latino communities.
Wiktor, S Z; Ekpini, E; Nduati, R W
With the prevalence of HIV among pregnant women higher than 35% in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the number of HIV-infected children will continue to grow. It is estimated that almost 70% of the approximately 500,000 children who became infected with HIV in 1995 were born in sub-Saharan Africa. An effective intervention to prevent the vertical transmission of HIV is therefore most urgently needed in Africa. Following the release of the results of the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) 076 study, the routine use of zidovudine (AZT) among HIV-infected pregnant women in the