Science.gov

Sample records for hiv rna genotypic

  1. HIV-1 Viral Load and Phenotypic Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Assays Based on Reverse Transcriptase Activity in Comparison to Amplification Based HIV-1 RNA and Genotypic Assays

    PubMed Central

    Napravnik, Sonia; Cachafeiro, Ada; Stewart, Paul; Eron, Joseph J.; Fiscus, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Amplification based HIV-1 viral load and genotypic resistance assays are expensive, technologically complex and may be difficult to implement in resource limited settings. Inexpensive, simpler assays are urgently needed. Objectives To determine the suitability of the ExaVir™ Load and ExaVir™ Drug assays for use in patient monitoring. Study Design Specimens from 108 adults were used to compare ExaVir™ Load HIV-1 RT to Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor® HIV-1 RNA, and ExaVir™ Drug phenotype to HIV GenoSure™ genotype. Results HIV-1 RT and HIV-1 RNA levels were comparable (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.83). Most (94%) had detectable results in both assays. The mean difference (HIV-1 RT minus HIV-1 RNA) was -0.21 log10 cps/mL equivalents. Relationship between HIV-1 RT and HIV-1 RNA was not affected by RT mutations, CD4 cell count, or efavirenz (EFV) or nevirapine (NVP) use. Phenotypes were generally consistent with genotype findings for EFV, but not for NVP. Most patients (93.9%) with phenotypic EFV resistance had at least one EFV mutation, while 78.0% of patients with phenotypic NVP resistance had at least one NVP mutation. Eleven of 49 samples tested for EFV susceptibility were found resistant (n=2) or with reduced susceptibility (n=9) despite the absence of genotypic resistance. Eleven of 45 samples tested for NVP susceptibility were found resistant (n=9) or with reduced susceptibility (n=2) with no evidence of genotypic mutations. Conclusions The ExaVir™ Load assay performed well and may be an alternative to amplification based techniques for HIV-1 RNA quantification. The ExaVir™ Drug assay for phenotypic resistance testing requires further evaluation, especially for NVP. PMID:19896416

  2. Comparison of Matrix-Based and Filter Paper-Based Systems for Transport of Plasma for HIV-1 RNA Quantification and Amplicon Preparation for Genotyping.

    PubMed

    Levine, Molly; Beck, Ingrid; Styrchak, Sheila; Pepper, Gregory; Frenkel, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Two ambient-temperature, dry plasma transport systems, ViveST tubes and RNASound RNA sampling cards, and two extraction methods were compared to frozen plasma for HIV-1 RNA recovery. Significant RNA loss occurred: ViveST+MiniMag > ViveST+QIAamp > RNASound+QIAamp. RNA loss and low specimen volumes may affect the sensitivity of genotyping specimens with HIV-1 RNA of <4.70 log10 copies/ml.

  3. Hepatitis C virus infection in an HIV-positive population in Normandy: antibodies, HCV RNA and genotype prevalence.

    PubMed

    Mendel, I; Clotteau, L; Lambert, S; Buffet-Janvresse, C

    1995-11-01

    The prevalence and the characteristics of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) in 161 HIV-positive patients were studied. HCV seroprevalence was determined by enzyme immunoassay and recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Two different reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods were also used to test the HCV-seropositive samples and 50 EIA-negative sera used as controls. The RNA HCV-positive sera were genotyped by the LiPA procedure. Associations of HCV status with demographic characteristics and risk factors were assessed by chi 2 and Fisher's exact tests. The seroprevalence of HCV was 34.2% with a significant difference between blood and sexual exposure risk groups (60.6% vs. 13.6%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Thirty-six of the 55 anti-HCV-positive sera were also positive for HCV RNA, and PCR detected HCV RNA in 8 HCV-seronegative patients. Various RIBA profiles were found and all sera were positive for antibodies to the c33 protein. A proportion of sera had elevated levels of transaminase activity (37.2%), and abnormal liver function as associated with HCV infection. Forty-two samples were genotyped and five genotypes and subtypes of the HCV virus were detected. Genotype 1a was the most frequent in this cohort, although genotype 1b is generally more common in France. The majority (94.1%) of the patients with genotype 1a had a history of blood exposure, which may account for the difference.

  4. Cryoglobulinaemia associated with hepatitis C virus: influence of HCV genotypes, HCV-RNA viraemia and HIV coinfection.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Casals, M; Forns, X; Brito-Zerón, P; Vargas, A; Ruiz, M; Laguno, M; Yagüe, J; Sánchez-Tapias, J M; Gatell, J M; Font, J

    2007-10-01

    To determine whether the clinical and immunological expression of patients with cryoglobulinaemia associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection varied according to HCV-RNA load, HCV genotype or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. We studied 340 HCV patients (188 women and 152 men, with a mean age of 49 years) consecutively diagnosed with cryoglobulinaemia between 1993 and 2003 in our hospital. HCV infection was confirmed by serum HCV-RNA determination in all patients. Two hundred and forty-eight (73%) patients had asymptomatic cryoglobulinaemia and 92 (27%) presented cryoglobulinaemic symptoms. Patients with genotype 1 had a higher mean age at diagnosis of cryoglobulinaemia (48.2 vs 40.2 yrs, P < 0.001) and a higher prevalence of cryoglobulinaemic symptoms (25%vs 10%, P = 0.02), especially of vasculitic features (19%vs 5%, P = 0.014). In comparison with monoinfected HCV patients, those with HIV coinfection had a lower mean age at diagnosis of cryoglobulinaemia (40.4 vs 52.8 years, P < 0.001), a lower prevalence of cryoglobulinaemic symptoms (15%vs 34%, P < 0.001), vasculitis (10%vs 28%, P < 0.001), associated systemic autoimmune disease (3%vs 14%, P = 0.001), rheumatoid factor (30%vs 70%, P = 0.001) and hypocomplementaemia (50%vs 78%, P = 0.01). In HCV-HIV patients, a high viral load was associated with a high frequency of symptomatic cryoglobulinaemia, especially in patients with a high viral load of the two viruses (50%vs 7%, P = 0.001) A higher frequency of cryoglobulinaemic symptoms (especially vasculitis) was found in patients with HCV monoinfection and in those carrying HCV genotype 1. In contrast, patients with HIV coinfection presented a threefold lower prevalence of vasculitis. Associated HIV infection significantly attenuated the clinical and immunological expression of cryoglobulinaemia, except in coinfected patients with high viral loads for the two viruses.

  5. Genotyping of Pneumocystis jirovecii isolates from Chinese HIV-infected patients based on nucleotide sequence variations in the internal transcribed spacer regions of rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; He, Ai; Cai, Wei Ping; Tang, Xiao Ping; Zheng, Xiao Ying; Li, Zhuo Ya; Zhan, Xi Mei

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity of Pneumocystis jirovecii isolates based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rRNA locus has previously been reported. The information about ITS genotype and epidemiology of this organism in Chinese human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients has not been available. In this study, 12 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimens obtained from HIV-infected patients were analyzed by PCR followed by cloning, sequencing and typing. Three ITS1 genotypes (E, B and 'H') and four ITS2 genotypes (b, g, i and r) as previously reported were identified, the most common of which were E, b and i. Five ITS haplotypes (Eg, Eb, Bi, Er and 'H'r) and 19 new combination types were also identified with the most common types being Eg (four of 12 patients, 10 of 60 clones), Eb (three of 12 patients, 11 of 60 clones) and Bi (three of 12 patients, 10 of 60 clones). Nine patients were found to be co-infected with more than one ITS genotype of P. jirovecii. The prevalence of ITS genotypes in HIV patients from one Chinese hospital did not seem to be significantly different when compared to reports from other countries.

  6. Human papillomavirus genotyping, human papillomavirus mRNA expression, and p16/Ki-67 cytology to detect anal cancer precursors in HIV-infected MSM.

    PubMed

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Tokugawa, Diane; Schwartz, Lauren; Lorey, Thomas S; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Lamere, Brandon; Gage, Julia C; Fetterman, Barbara; Darragh, Teresa M; Castle, Philip E

    2012-11-13

    Anal cancer incidence is high in HIV-infected MSM. Screening for anal intraepithelial lesions and cancers is performed at specialized clinics and relies on high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) and anal cytology. Both approaches have limited reproducibility and sensitivity for detecting anal cancer precursors. We evaluated biomarkers for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related disease in a population of HIV-infected MSM. A cross-sectional screening study with passive follow-up included 363 MSM followed at a HIV/AIDS clinic. All men had anal cytology samples taken and were evaluated using HRA and anal biopsies. Using a composite endpoint of biopsy results and cytology, we compared the performance of HPV16/18 genotyping, HPVE6/E7 mRNA expression, and p16/Ki-67 cytology to detect high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AINs). For all biomarkers analyzed, there was a significant trend of increasing percentage of men testing positive with increasing severity of disease (P < 0.001). HPV DNA testing had the highest sensitivity for anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (AIN3), followed by p16/Ki-67, HPVE6/E7 mRNA testing, and HPV16/18 genotyping. The highest Youden's index was observed for HPVE6/E7 mRNA testing, followed by HPV16/18 genotyping, p16/Ki-67 cytology, and HPV DNA testing. Increasing the threshold for positivity of p16/Ki-67 to five or more positive cells led to significantly higher specificity, but unchanged sensitivity for detecting AIN3. Molecular features of anal disease categories are similar to those of corresponding cervical lesions. Biomarkers evaluated for cervical cancer screening may be used for primary anal cancer screening or to decide who should require immediate treatment vs. expectant management.

  7. Comparing Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell DNA and Circulating Plasma viral RNA pol Genotypes of Subtype C HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Banks, Lauren; Gholamin, Sharareh; White, Elizabeth; Zijenah, Lynn; Katzenstein, David A

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Drug resistance mutations (DRM) in viral RNA are important in defining to provide effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-1 infected patients. Detection of DRM in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) DNA is another source of information, although the clinical significance of DRMs in proviral DNA is less clear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 25 patients receiving ART at a center in Zimbabwe, 32 blood samples were collected. Dideoxy-sequencing of gag-pol identified subtype and resistance mutations from plasma viral RNA and proviral DNA. Drug resistance was estimated using the calibrated population resistance tool on www.hivdb.stanford.edu database. Numerical resistance scores were calculated for all antiretroviral drugs and for the subjects' reported regimen. Phylogenetic analysis as maximum likelihood was performed to determine the evolutionary distance between sequences. RESULTS: Of the 25 patients, 4 patients (2 of which had given 2 blood samples) were not known to be on ART (NA) and had exclusively wild-type virus, 17 had received Protease inhibitors (PI), 18, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and 19, two or more nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). Of the 17 with history of PI, 10 had PI mutations, 5 had minor differences between mutations in RNA and DNA. Eighteen samples had NNRTI mutations, six of which demonstrated some discordance between DNA and RNA mutations. Although NRTI resistance mutations were frequently different between analyses, mutations resulted in very similar estimated phenotypes as measured by resistance scores. The numerical resistance scores from RNA and DNA for PIs differed between 2/10, for NNRTIs between 8/18, and for NRTIs between 17/32 pairs. When calculated resistance scores were collapsed, 3 pairs showed discordance between RNA and DNA for at least one PI, 6 were discordant for at least one NNRTI and 11 for at least one NRTI. Regarding phylogenetic evolutionary analysis, all

  8. Genotypic analysis of plasma HIV-1 RNA after influenza vaccination of patients with previously undetectable viral loads.

    PubMed

    Kolber, Michael A; Gabr, Abdel H; De La Rosa, Abel; Glock, Jonathan A; Jayaweera, Dushyantha; Miller, Nancimae; Dickinson, Gordon M

    2002-03-08

    In this study we evaluated the possibility that plasma viral load elevations secondary to influenza vaccination in HIV-1-seropositive individuals with previously undetectable viral loads (< 200 copies/ml) could develop resistance-bearing mutations in the viral reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease regions. Thirty-four patients with undetectable viral burdens on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were evaluated for elevations in plasma viral load 2 and 4 weeks post-influenza vaccination. Plasma from patients whose viral load increased after vaccination was subject to genotypic resistance analysis by the line probe assay (LiPA) to determine whether primary resistance-bearing mutations developed during this period and at follow-up. Stored plasma was used to evaluate whether RT or protease mutations existed pre-vaccination. Seven out of 34 patients were found to experience elevations in their viral load after influenza vaccination. Two of the patients revealed evidence of primary RT or protease mutations not demonstrated in earlier pre-vaccination samples. One patient failed therapy after vaccination, and one patient revealed post-vaccination viral load elevations that eventually led to the progressive development of primary zidovudine mutations. Evidence is presented that supports the contention that a small subset of patients who experience viral load elevations after influenza vaccination can develop mutational changes in the RT region of the viral genome either acutely or after a failure of the viral load to return to undetectable levels.

  9. A comparison of human papillomavirus genotype-specific DNA and E6/E7 mRNA detection to identify anal precancer among HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Philip E.; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Tokugawa, Diane; Schwartz, Lauren M.; Lorey, Thomas S.; LaMere, Brandon; Gage, Julia C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Darragh, Teresa M.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) RNA detection is reportedly more specific for the detection of anogenital precancer than HPV DNA but it is unknown whether this is due to detection of RNA or due to HPV genotype restriction. Materials and Methods 363 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men had two anal cytology samples taken and were evaluated using high-resolution anoscopy and biopsies of visible lesions. Anal specimens were tested for E6/E7 RNA for 5 carcinogenic HPV genotypes (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, and 45) and tested for the DNA of 13 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. Results DNA testing was more likely to be positive than RNA testing (53% vs. 48%, p = 0.02) for the same 5 HPV genotypes in aggregate. When restricted to 5 HPV genotypes targeted by the RNA test, the sensitivity to detect anal precancer was the same for DNA and RNA (81%) while RNA was more specific than DNA (65% vs. 58%, p = 0.007). By comparison, DNA detection of all 13 carcinogenic HPV genotypes was more sensitive (96% vs. 81%, p = 0.001) but much less specific (65% vs. 33%, p < 0.001) compared to RNA detection of the 5 HPV genotypes. Conclusion After controlling for HPV genotypes, RNA was only slightly more specific than DNA detection for anal precancer. Impact DNA or RNA testing for a subset of the most carcinogenic HPV genotypes may be useful for distinguishing between those HPV-positive men at higher and lower risk of anal precancer and cancer. PMID:23155136

  10. HIV RNA and proviral HIV DNA can be detected in semen after 6 months of antiretroviral therapy although HIV RNA is undetectable in blood.

    PubMed

    Du, Peiwei; Liu, An; Jiao, Yanmei; Liu, Cuie; Jiang, Taiyi; Zhu, Weijun; Zhu, Yunxia; Wu, Hao; Sun, Lijun

    2016-03-01

    The risk of sexual transmission of HIV is strongly correlated with amounts of genital HIV RNA. Few studies have reported amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA in semen in HIV-infected Chinese patients undergoing antiviral treatment (ART). In this observational study, the amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA in semen were assessed after six months of ART in HIV-infected Chinese individuals, when HIV RNA was undetectable in blood . This study included 19 HIV-infected Chinese men undergoing ART for six months. Amounts of HIV in paired semen and blood samples were assessed using real-time PCR. The C2-V5 region of the HIV envelope (env) genes was cloned and sequenced and genotype and co-receptor usage predicted based on the sequence. It was found that HIV RNA was undetectable in the plasma of most patients (17/19), whereas HIV RNA could be detected in the semen of most patients (16/19). HIV DNA could be detected in both semen and blood. Genetic diversity of HIV between the seminal and blood compartments was identified. Thus, amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA remain high in semen of HIV-infected Chinese patients after six months of ART treatment, even when HIV RNA was undetectable in blood.

  11. Decoding noises in HIV computational genotyping.

    PubMed

    Jia, MingRui; Shaw, Timothy; Zhang, Xing; Liu, Dong; Shen, Ye; Ezeamama, Amara E; Yang, Chunfu; Zhang, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Lack of a consistent and reliable genotyping system can critically impede HIV genomic research on pathogenesis, fitness, virulence, drug resistance, and genomic-based healthcare and treatment. At present, mis-genotyping, i.e., background noises in molecular genotyping, and its impact on epidemic surveillance is unknown. For the first time, we present a comprehensive assessment of HIV genotyping quality. HIV sequence data were retrieved from worldwide published records, and subjected to a systematic genotyping assessment pipeline. Results showed that mis-genotyped cases occurred at 4.6% globally, with some regional and high-risk population heterogeneities. Results also revealed a consistent mis-genotyping pattern in gp120 in all studied populations except the group of men who have sex with men. Our study also suggests novel virus diversities in the mis-genotyped cases. Finally, this study reemphasizes the importance of implementing a standardized genotyping pipeline to avoid genotyping disparity and to advance our understanding of virus evolution in various epidemiological settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genotypic and functional properties of early infant HIV-1 envelopes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the properties of HIV-1 variants that are transmitted from women to their infants is crucial to improving strategies to prevent transmission. In this study, 162 full-length envelope (env) clones were generated from plasma RNA obtained from 5 HIV-1 Clade B infected mother-infant pairs. Following extensive genotypic and phylogenetic analyses, 35 representative clones were selected for functional studies. Results Infant quasispecies were highly homogeneous and generally represented minor maternal variants, consistent with transmission across a selective bottleneck. Infant clones did not differ from the maternal in env length, or glycosylation. All infant variants utilized the CCR5 co-receptor, but were not macrophage tropic. Relatively high levels (IC50 ≥ 100 μg/ml) of autologous maternal plasma IgG were required to neutralize maternal and infant viruses; however, all infant viruses were neutralized by pooled sera from HIV-1 infected individuals, implying that they were not inherently neutralization-resistant. All infant viruses were sensitive to the HIV-1 entry inhibitors Enfuvirtide and soluble CD4; none were resistant to Maraviroc. Sensitivity to human monoclonal antibodies 4E10, 2F5, b12 and 2G12 varied. Conclusions This study provides extensive characterization of the genotypic and functional properties of HIV-1 env shortly after transmission. We present the first detailed comparisons of the macrophage tropism of infant and maternal env variants and their sensitivity to Maraviroc, the only CCR5 antagonist approved for therapeutic use. These findings may have implications for improving approaches to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. PMID:21843318

  13. A genotypic HIV-1 proviral DNA coreceptor tropism assay: characterization in viremic subjects

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-1 coreceptor tropism testing is used to evaluate eligibility for CCR5 antagonist therapy. However, HIV-1 RNA-based tests are not suitable for virologically suppressed patients, therefore the use of proviral DNA tropism testing has been investigated. We describe a novel proviral DNA-based genotypic tropism assay and compare its performance to that of a sensitive HIV-1 RNA-based genotypic test. Methods Tropism was determined using HIV-1 plasma RNA and proviral DNA from 42 paired samples from patients with plasma viral loads ≥1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL. Proviral DNA sample types included whole blood, separated peripheral blood mononuclear cells resuspended in phosphate-buffered saline and peripheral blood mononuclear cells resuspended in spun plasma. The HIV-1 envelope V3 region was PCR-amplified, sequenced in triplicate, and analyzed for tropism with the geno2pheno algorithm using a 10% false-positive rate (FPR). Results Amplicons were obtained from proviral DNA and plasma RNA in 41/42 samples. Tropism predictions were highly concordant (93%–98%) between proviral DNA and plasma RNA, regardless of the proviral DNA isolation method. Non-R5 proviral DNA results were obtained for 100% of patients with detectable non-R5 plasma HIV-1 RNA results. Geno2pheno FPRs for proviral DNA and plasma RNA were highly correlated (Spearman rho = 0.86). Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that proviral DNA tropism determinations from whole blood or peripheral blood mononuclear cells were highly concordant with plasma HIV-1 RNA tropism determinations. This assay may be useful for screening virologically suppressed patients for CCR5-antagonist eligibility and for research purposes. PMID:24904682

  14. Polyomavirus JCV excretion and genotype analysis in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lednicky, John A.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of shedding of polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) genotypes in urine of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Single samples of urine and blood were collected prospectively from 70 adult HIV-infected patients and 68 uninfected volunteers. Inclusion criteria for HIV-infected patients included an HIV RNA viral load < 1000 copies, CD4 cell count of 200-700 x 106 cells/l, and stable HAART regimen. PCR assays and sequence analysis were carried out using JCV-specific primers against different regions of the virus genome. RESULTS: JCV excretion in urine was more common in HIV-positive patients but not significantly different from that of the HIV-negative group [22/70 (31%) versus 13/68 (19%); P = 0.09]. HIV-positive patients lost the age-related pattern of JCV shedding (P = 0.13) displayed by uninfected subjects (P = 0.01). Among HIV-infected patients significant differences in JCV shedding were related to CD4 cell counts (P = 0.03). Sequence analysis of the JCV regulatory region from both HIV-infected patients and uninfected volunteers revealed all to be JCV archetypal strains. JCV genotypes 1 (36%) and 4 (36%) were the most common among HIV-infected patients, whereas type 2 (77%) was the most frequently detected among HIV-uninfected volunteers. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that JCV shedding is enhanced by modest depressions in immune function during HIV infection. JCV shedding occurred in younger HIV-positive persons than in the healthy controls. As the common types of JCV excreted varied among ethnic groups, JCV genotypes associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy may reflect demographics of those infected patient populations.

  15. Polyomavirus JCV excretion and genotype analysis in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lednicky, John A.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of shedding of polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) genotypes in urine of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Single samples of urine and blood were collected prospectively from 70 adult HIV-infected patients and 68 uninfected volunteers. Inclusion criteria for HIV-infected patients included an HIV RNA viral load < 1000 copies, CD4 cell count of 200-700 x 106 cells/l, and stable HAART regimen. PCR assays and sequence analysis were carried out using JCV-specific primers against different regions of the virus genome. RESULTS: JCV excretion in urine was more common in HIV-positive patients but not significantly different from that of the HIV-negative group [22/70 (31%) versus 13/68 (19%); P = 0.09]. HIV-positive patients lost the age-related pattern of JCV shedding (P = 0.13) displayed by uninfected subjects (P = 0.01). Among HIV-infected patients significant differences in JCV shedding were related to CD4 cell counts (P = 0.03). Sequence analysis of the JCV regulatory region from both HIV-infected patients and uninfected volunteers revealed all to be JCV archetypal strains. JCV genotypes 1 (36%) and 4 (36%) were the most common among HIV-infected patients, whereas type 2 (77%) was the most frequently detected among HIV-uninfected volunteers. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that JCV shedding is enhanced by modest depressions in immune function during HIV infection. JCV shedding occurred in younger HIV-positive persons than in the healthy controls. As the common types of JCV excreted varied among ethnic groups, JCV genotypes associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy may reflect demographics of those infected patient populations.

  16. Performance characteristics of the TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Kit and the Opengene DNA Sequencing System.

    PubMed

    Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Grant, Robert M; Feorino, Paul; Griswold, Marshal; Hoover, Marie; Young, Russell; Day, Stephen; Lloyd Jr, Robert M; Reid, Caroline; Morgan, Gillian F; Winslow, Dean L

    2003-04-01

    The TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Kit and OpenGene DNA Sequencing System are designed to sequence the protease (PR)- and reverse transcriptase (RT)-coding regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pol. Studies were undertaken to determine the accuracy of this assay system in detecting resistance-associated mutations and to determine the effects of RNA extraction methods, anticoagulants, specimen handling, and potentially interfering substances. Samples were plasma obtained from HIV-infected subjects or seronegative plasma to which viruses derived from wild-type and mutant infectious molecular clones (IMC) of HIV-1 were added. Extraction methods tested included standard and UltraSensitive AMPLICOR HIV-1 MONITOR, QIAGEN viral RNA extraction mini kit, and QIAGEN Ultra HIV extraction kit, and NASBA manual HIV-1 quantitative NucliSens. Sequence data from test sites were compared to a "gold standard" reference sequence to determine the percent agreement. Comparisons between test and reference sequences at the nucleotide level showed 97.5 to 100% agreement. Similar results were obtained regardless of extraction method, regardless of use of EDTA or acid citrate dextrose as anticoagulant, and despite the presence of triglycerides, bilirubin, hemoglobin, antiretroviral drugs, HIV-2, hepatitis C virus (HCV), HBV, cytomegalovirus, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), or HTLV-2. Samples with HIV-1 RNA titers of >or=1,000 copies/ml gave consistent results. The TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Kit and OpenGene DNA Sequencing System consistently generate highly accurate sequence data when tested with IMC-derived HIV and patient samples.

  17. HIV Infection Affects Streptococcus mutans Levels, but Not Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, G.; Saxena, D.; Chen, Z.; Norman, R.G.; Phelan, J.A.; Laverty, M.; Fisch, G.S.; Corby, P.M.; Abrams, W.; Malamud, D.; Li, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We report a clinical study that examines whether HIV infection affects Streptococcus mutans colonization in the oral cavity. Whole stimulated saliva samples were collected from 46 HIV-seropositive individuals and 69 HIV-seronegative control individuals. The level of S. mutans colonization was determined by conventional culture methods. The genotype of S. mutans was compared between 10 HIV-positive individuals before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 10 non-HIV-infected control individuals. The results were analyzed against viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, salivary flow rate, and caries status. We observed that S. mutans levels were higher in HIV-infected individuals than in the non-HIV-infected control individuals (p = 0.013). No significant differences in S. mutans genotypes were found between the two groups over the six-month study period, even after HAART. There was a bivariate linear relationship between S. mutans levels and CD8+ counts (r = 0.412; p = 0.007), but not between S. mutans levels and either CD4+ counts or viral load. Furthermore, compared with non-HIV-infected control individuals, HIV-infected individuals experienced lower salivary secretion (p = 0.009) and a positive trend toward more decayed tooth surfaces (p = 0.027). These findings suggest that HIV infection can have a significant effect on the level of S. mutans, but not genotypes. PMID:22821240

  18. Genotypic variation of Pneumocystis jirovecii isolates in India based on sequence diversity at mitochondrial large subunit rRNA.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rashmi; Mirdha, Bijay Ranjan; Guleria, Randeep; Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar; Samantaray, Jyotish Chandra; Kumar, Lalit; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Luthra, Kalpana; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Iyer, Venkateswaran K

    2011-03-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a common and serious opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, is caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known as Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis). The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and distribution of genotypes of P. jirovecii based on sequence polymorphisms at mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (mt LSU rRNA) region in both HIV and non-HIV immunocompromised individuals with a positive PCR result for PCP in a tertiary health care centre in northern India. From January 2005 to October 2008, 50 patients [22 HIV-seropositive individuals, 10 post-renal transplant (PRT) recipients, 3 cancer patients, and 15 patients with various other kinds of immunosuppression] were found to be positive for P. jirovecii using PCR at the mt LSU rRNA gene. Genotyping of the positive samples was performed at the mt LSU rRNA locus. Genotype 2 was the most common accounting for 42% of total types. This was followed by the genotypes 3 (24%), 1 (20%), and 4 (8%). Mixed infection was observed in 3 cases (6%). The rates of genotype distribution were similar in HIV-seropositive individuals, cancer patients, and in patients with other kinds of immunosuppression. In the PRT recipients, genotype 1 was the most prevalent type (80%). This is the first study describing the prevalence of genotypes in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected, immunocompromised patients based on the mt LSU rRNA gene from the Indian subcontinent. The most prevalent genotype observed was type 2 in contrast to many studies from other parts of the world where genotype 1 was the most prevalent type, suggesting geographical variation.

  19. The HIVdb system for HIV-1 genotypic resistance interpretation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Michele W; Liu, Tommy F; Shafer, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    The Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database hosts a freely available online genotypic resistance interpretation system called HIVdb to help clinicians and laboratories interpret HIV-1 genotypic resistance tests. These tests are designed to assess susceptibility to nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and NNRTI), protease inhibitors and integrase inhibitors. The HIVdb genotypic resistance interpretation system output consists of (1) a list of penalty scores for each antiretroviral (ARV) resistance mutation in a submitted sequence, (2) estimates of decreased NRTI, NNRTI, protease and integrase inhibitor susceptibility, and (3) comments about each ARV resistance mutation in the submitted sequence. The application's strengths are its convenience for submitting sequences, its quality control analysis, its transparency and its extensive comments. The Sierra Web service is an extension that enables laboratories analyzing many sequences to individualize the format of their results. The algorithm specification interface compiler makes it possible for HIVdb to provide results using a variety of different HIV-1 genotypic resistance interpretation algorithms.

  20. The HIV RNA setpoint theory revisited.

    PubMed

    Geskus, Ronald B; Prins, Maria; Hubert, Jean-Baptiste; Miedema, Frank; Berkhout, Ben; Rouzioux, Christine; Delfraissy, Jean-Francois; Meyer, Laurence

    2007-09-21

    The evolution of plasma viral load after HIV infection has been described as reaching a setpoint, only to start rising again shortly before AIDS diagnosis. In contrast, CD4 T-cell count is considered to show a stable decrease. However, characteristics of marker evolution over time depend on the scale that is used to visualize trends. In reconsidering the setpoint theory for HIV RNA, we analyzed the evolution of CD4 T-cell count and HIV-1 RNA level from HIV seroconversion to AIDS diagnosis. Follow-up data were used from two cohort studies among homosexual men (N = 400), restricting to the period before highly active antiretroviral therapy became widely available (1984 until 1996). Individual trajectories of both markers were fitted and averaged, both from seroconversion onwards and in the four years preceding AIDS diagnosis, using a bivariate random effects model. Both markers were evaluated on a scale that is directly related to AIDS risk. Individuals with faster AIDS progression had higher HIV RNA level six months after seroconversion. For CD4 T-cell count, this ordering was less clearly present. However, HIV RNA level and CD4 T-cell count showed qualitatively similar evolution over time after seroconversion, also when stratified by rate of progression to AIDS. In the four years preceding AIDS diagnosis, a non-significant change in HIV RNA increase was seen, whereas a significant biphasic pattern was present for CD4 T-cell decline. HIV RNA level has more setpoint behaviour than CD4 T-cell count as far as the level shortly after seroconversion is concerned. However, with respect to the, clinically more relevant, marker evolution over time after seroconversion, a setpoint theory holds as much for CD4 T-cell count as for HIV RNA level.

  1. Sequencing of Gag/Env association with HIV genotyping resolution and HIV-related epidemiologic studies of HIV in China.

    PubMed

    Ren, L; Wang, H W; Xu, Y; Feng, Y; Zhang, H F; Wang, K H

    2016-10-24

    HIV genotyping has led to conflicting results between laboratories. Therefore, identifying the most accurate gene combinations to sequence remains a priority. Datasets of Chinese HIV subtypes based on several markers and deposited in PubMed, Metstr, CNKI, and VIP databases between 2000 and 2015 were studied. In total, 9177 cases of amplification-positive samples from 26 provinces of China were collected and used to classify HIV subtypes based on eight individual genes or a combination thereof. CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC and B were the prevalent HIV subtypes in China, accounting for 84.07% of all genotypes. Gag/Env sequencing classified a greater number of HIV subtypes compared to other genes or combination of gene fragments. The geographical distribution of Gag and Gag/Env genotypes was similar to that observed with all genetic markers. Further principal component analysis showed a significantly different geographical distribution pattern of HIV in China for HIV genotypes detected with Gag/Env, which was in line with the distribution of all HIV genotypes in China. Gag/Env sequences had the highest diversity of the eight markers studied, followed by Gag and Gag/Pol/Env; Pol/Env polymorphisms were the least divergent. Gag/Env can serve as a high-resolution marker for HIV genotyping.

  2. Japanese external quality assessment program to standardize HIV-1 drug-resistance testing (JEQS2010 program) using in vitro transcribed RNA as reference material.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Hattori, Junko; Matsuda, Masakazu; Okada, Kiyomi; Kazuyama, Yukumasa; Hashimoto, Osamu; Ibe, Shiro; Fujisawa, Shin-ichi; Chiba, Hitoshi; Tatsumi, Masashi; Kato, Shingo; Sugiura, Wataru

    2015-03-01

    To design appropriate antiretroviral therapy regimens and avoid the emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 variants with reduced susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs, genotypic drug-resistance testing (HIV genotyping) is strongly recommended. To monitor the quality of HIV genotyping in Japan, we performed an external quality assessment (EQA), named the Japanese external quality assessment program, to standardize HIV genotyping (JEQS). To accurately evaluate the quality of HIV genotyping, we employed as reference material (RM) a well-characterized sample, in vitro transcribed RNA (trRNA) that includes the HIV gag-pol sequence, and created a JEQS2010 panel consisting of three single variant and three mixed trRNA samples. All 11 participating laboratories showed high concordance rates (>96%) for the single variant samples. Eight laboratories also showed good rates of detecting minor variants, but three laboratories failed to detect the variants comprising one-half of the sample. These three laboratories used a common primer that had four internal mismatches to the minor trRNA clone. This program showed the usefulness of trRNA as RM, the high quality of HIV genotyping, and extensive interlaboratory variation in the ability to detect minor variants. These results suggest that improving the quality of HIV genotyping in Japan requires regularly implementing the EQA program and improving the HIV genotyping protocol in each laboratory.

  3. Performance of genotypic algorithms for predicting tropism of HIV-1CRF02_AG subtype.

    PubMed

    Soulié, C; Fofana, D B; Boukli, N; Sayon, S; Lambert-Niclot, S; Wirden, Marc; Simon, A; Katlama, C; Calvez, V; Girard, P M; Marcelin, A G; Morand-Joubert, L

    2016-03-01

    Several genotypic rules for predicting HIV-1 non-B subtypes tropism are commonly used, but there is no consensus about their performances. Three genotypic methods were compared for CRF02_AG HIV-1 tropism determination. V3 env region of 178HIV-1 CRF02_AG from Pitié-Salpêtrière and Saint-Antoine Hospitals was sequenced from plasma HIV-1 RNA. HIV-1 tropism was determined by Geno2Pheno algorithm, false positive rate (FPR) 5% or 10%, the 11/25 rule or the combined criteria of the 11/25 and net charge rule. A concordance of 91.6% was observed between Geno2pheno 5% and the combined criteria. The results were nearly similar for the comparison between Geno2pheno 5% and the 11/25 rule. More mismatches were observed when Geno2pheno was used with the FPR 10%. A lower nadir CD4 cell count was associated with a discordance of tropism prediction between Geno2pheno 5% and the combined criteria or the 11/25 rule (p=0.02 and p=0.03, respectively). A lower HIV-1 viral load was associated with some discordance for the comparison of Geno2pheno 10% and the combined rule (p=0.02). Geno2pheno FPR 5% or 10% predicted more X4-tropic viruses for this set of CRF02_AG sequences than the combined criteria or the 11/25 rule alone. Furthermore, Geno2pheno FPR 5% was more concordant with the 11/25 rule and the combined rule than Geno2pheno 10% to predict HIV-1 tropism. Overall, Geno2pheno 5% could be used to predict CRF02_AG tropism as well as other genotypic rules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. MicroRNA-155 Reinforces HIV Latency*

    PubMed Central

    Ruelas, Debbie S.; Chan, Jonathan K.; Oh, Eugene; Heidersbach, Amy J.; Hebbeler, Andrew M.; Chavez, Leonard; Verdin, Eric; Rape, Michael; Greene, Warner C.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a small number of infected but transcriptionally dormant cells currently thwarts a cure for the more than 35 million individuals infected with HIV. Reactivation of these latently infected cells may result in three fates: 1) cell death due to a viral cytopathic effect, 2) cell death due to immune clearance, or 3) a retreat into latency. Uncovering the dynamics of HIV gene expression and silencing in the latent reservoir will be crucial for developing an HIV-1 cure. Here we identify and characterize an intracellular circuit involving TRIM32, an HIV activator, and miR-155, a microRNA that may promote a return to latency in these transiently activated reservoir cells. Notably, we demonstrate that TRIM32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, promotes reactivation from latency by directly modifying IκBα, leading to a novel mechanism of NF-κB induction not involving IκB kinase activation. PMID:25873391

  5. Automated prediction of HIV drug resistance from genotype data.

    PubMed

    Shen, ChenHsiang; Yu, Xiaxia; Harrison, Robert W; Weber, Irene T

    2016-08-31

    HIV/AIDS is a serious threat to public health. The emergence of drug resistance mutations diminishes the effectiveness of drug therapy for HIV/AIDS. Developing a computational prediction of drug resistance phenotype will enable efficient and timely selection of the best treatment regimens. A unified encoding of protein sequence and structure was used as the feature vector for predicting phenotypic resistance from genotype data. Two machine learning algorithms, Random Forest and K-nearest neighbor, were used. The prediction accuracies were examined by five-fold cross-validation on the genotype-phenotype datasets. A supervised machine learning approach for automatic prediction of drug resistance was developed to handle genotype-phenotype datasets of HIV protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT). It predicts the drug resistance phenotype and its relative severity from a query sequence. The accuracy of the classification was higher than 0.973 for eight PR inhibitors and 0.986 for ten RT inhibitors, respectively. The overall cross-validated regression R(2)-values for the severity of drug resistance were 0.772-0.953 for 8 PR inhibitors and 0.773-0.995 for 10 RT inhibitors. Machine learning using a unified encoding of sequence and protein structure as a feature vector provides an accurate prediction of drug resistance from genotype data. A practical webserver for clinicians has been implemented.

  6. A randomised trial comparing genotypic and virtual phenotypic interpretation of HIV drug resistance: the CREST study.

    PubMed

    Hales, Gillian; Birch, Chris; Crowe, Suzanne; Workman, Cassy; Hoy, Jennifer F; Law, Matthew G; Kelleher, Anthony D; Lincoln, Douglas; Emery, Sean

    2006-07-28

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of different HIV drug resistance test reports (genotype and virtual phenotype) in patients who were changing their antiretroviral therapy (ART). Randomised, open-label trial with 48-week followup. The study was conducted in a network of primary healthcare sites in Australia and New Zealand. Patients failing current ART with plasma HIV RNA > 2000 copies/mL who wished to change their current ART were eligible. Subjects were required to be > 18 years of age, previously treated with ART, have no intercurrent illnesses requiring active therapy, and to have provided written informed consent. Eligible subjects were randomly assigned to receive a genotype (group A) or genotype plus virtual phenotype (group B) prior to selection of their new antiretroviral regimen. Patient groups were compared for patterns of ART selection and surrogate outcomes (plasma viral load and CD4 counts) on an intention-to-treat basis over a 48-week period. Three hundred and twenty seven patients completing >or= one month of followup were included in these analyses. Resistance tests were the primary means by which ART regimens were selected (group A: 64%, group B: 62%; p = 0.32). At 48 weeks, there were no significant differences between the groups for mean change from baseline plasma HIV RNA (group A: 0.68 log copies/mL, group B: 0.58 log copies/mL; p = 0.23) and mean change from baseline CD4+ cell count (group A: 37 cells/mm(3), group B: 50 cells/mm(3); p = 0.28). In the absence of clear demonstrated benefits arising from the use of the virtual phenotype interpretation, this study suggests resistance testing using genotyping linked to a reliable interpretive algorithm is adequate for the management of HIV infection.

  7. Prevalence and resistance pattern of genotype G and H in chronic hepatitis B and HIV co-infected patients in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mata Marín, José Antonio; Arroyo Anduiza, Carla Ileana; Calderón, Gloria María; Cazares Rodríguez, Sergio; Fuentes Allen, José Luis; Arias Flores, Rafael; Gaytán Martínez, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    We estimated the prevalence and identified the resistance pattern of HBV genotypes H and G in HBV monoinfected and HIV co-infected patients. A cross-sectional prevalence and analytic study were performed in chronic hepatitis B patients at the Hospital de Infectología, La Raza National Medical Center in Mexico City. Chronic HBV monoinfected and HIV co-infected patients were included. HBeAg, HBV viral load and genetic analysis of mutations were collected; CD4+ cells count from HIV co-infected patients and HIV RNA were measured. We calculated the prevalence and exact 95% binomial confidence interval and the Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals to assess the relationship between the presence of risk factors and HBV genotypes H or G. We enrolled 77 patients, 67 men and 10 women with 37 HIV co-infected patients. The distribution of HBV genotypes was: HBV genotype H 55 (71% [95% CI 60% to 80%]), HBV genotype G 16 (20.7%), HBV genotype F 4 (5.1%) and HBV genotype A 2 (2.6%). The most frequent mutations presented in 8 HIV co-infected patients and one mono-infected patient with antiretroviral therapy (ART) experience were rtM204V and six of them showed genotype G (6/9). Mono-infected HBV patients exposed more probability to HBV genotype H than co-infected HIV patients OR 13.0 (CI 95% 3.40-49.79), p = 0.0001. In contrast co-infected patients presented less possibility to have genotype H, 0.56 (CI 95% 0.42-0.75). This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV genotype H in Mexico; furthermore, our results suggest that HBV genotype G predominates in co-infected patients. As well, rtM204V and rtL180M mutations are common in HBV-HIV co-infected patients with genotype G and ART experience.

  8. Epidemiological Distribution and Genotype Characterization of the Hepatitis C Virus Among HIV Patients in Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Afzali, Hasan; Momen-Heravi, Mansooreh; Farokhzad, Asefeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Parenteral transmission is a common route of transmission for both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV); therefore, hepatitis C viral infection is highly prevalent among people infected with HIV. Objectives This study was designed to examine the epidemiology and describe the clinical manifestation as well as the HCV genotypes in patients from the city of Kashan, Iran, who are coinfected with HIV and HCV. Patients and Methods This descriptive study was conducted in 2014 in the city of Kashan. The population consisted of all the HIV-infected patients who were referred to the behavioral counseling center and jail in Kashan. Demographic information and HCV- and HIV-related risk behaviors were obtained through the use of an interviewer-assisted questionnaire. After the participants gave written informed consent to participate, 10 cc venous blood samples were collected. The serum samples were screened for HCV infection using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In the event of a positive test for HCV, the RNA was then amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The HCV subtypes were determined via the direct sequencing of the amplicons. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0 for the descriptive statistics, and then the chi-square test and Pearson coefficient were performed for additional analysis. Results The results of the analysis indicated that 54 (85%) of the 63 HIV-infected patients were males who were also HCV positive and who had less than a high school level education. There was a significant association between HCV infection and both occupation (P < 0.0001) and level of education (P < 0.05). All the HIV/HCV coinfected cases had a history of illicit drug use, while 92.6% had a history of imprisonment and 40.7% had high risk sexual contacts. Overall, genotype 1 was found in 75.9% of HCV patients, while genotype 3 was found in 24.1%. Some 94.4% of HCV patients had subtype A. There were

  9. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  13. Genotypic resistance testing in HIV by arrayed primer extension

    PubMed Central

    Bodem, Jochen; Gerhold-Ay, Aslihan; Jacob, Anette; Fellenberg, Kurt; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Hoheisel, Jörg D.

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of mutations that are associated with the occurrence of drug resistance is important for monitoring the antiretroviral therapy of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here, we describe the establishment and successful application of Arrayed Primer Extension (APEX) for genotypic resistance testing in HIV as a rapid and economical alternative to standard sequencing. The assay is based on an array of oligonucleotide primers that are immobilised via their 5′-ends. Upon hybridisation of template DNA, a primer extension reaction is performed in the presence of the four dideoxynucleotides, each labelled with a distinct fluorophore. The inserted label immediately indicates the sequence at the respective position. Any mutation changes the colour pattern. We designed a microarray for the analysis of 26 and 33 codons in the HIV protease and reverse transcriptase, respectively, which are of special interest with respect to drug resistance. The enormous genome variability of HIV represents a big challenge for genotypic resistance tests, which include a hybridisation step, both in terms of specificity and probe numbers. The use of degenerated oligonucleotides resulted in a significant reduction in the number of primers needed. For validation, DNA of 94 and 48 patients that exhibited resistance to inhibitors of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase, respectively, were analysed. The validation included HIV subtype B, prevalent in industrialised countries, as well as non-subtype B samples that are more common elsewhere. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-007-1775-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18202840

  14. [Genotypic resistance in HIV-1-infected patients with persistent low-level viremia].

    PubMed

    Parra-Ruiz, Jorge; Alvarez, Marta; Chueca, Natalia; Peña, Alejandro; Pasquau, Juan; López-Ruz, Miguel Angel; Maroto, María Del Carmen; Hernández-Quero, José; García, Federico

    2009-02-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV patients is considered successful when plasma viral load (VL) reaches < 50 copies/ml. However, many patients have a persistent VL of 50 to 1000 copies/ml, and treatment guidelines do not recommend genotypic resistance testing at these levels because of poor performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a concentration technique for HIV-1 sequencing in samples with < 1000 copies/ml, and determine the virological consequences of HAART treatment changes guided by resistance testing in this scenario. Observational study performed in 51 patients with plasma VL between 50 and 1000 copies/m; 27 patients had these levels for at least 12 consecutive months. Prior to RNA extraction, virions were concentrated from 3-ml plasma samples and then genotyped following standard procedures. Forty-seven of the 51 samples were successfully sequenced, resulting in a sensitivity of 92%. Among these 47 patients, 27 showed a persistent viral load of 50-1000 copies/ml for 12 months, and 20 patients achieved undetectable viral load following the genotype-guided HAART change (intention-to-treat analysis: NC = F; 20 of 27 [74.1%]; on-treatment analysis: 20 of 23 [86.9%]). We report a simple method for genotype sequencing in patients with persistent low-level viremia that allowed a modification of the HAART regimen leading to undetectable plasma viremia.

  15. RNA structure. Structure of the HIV-1 RNA packaging signal.

    PubMed

    Keane, Sarah C; Heng, Xiao; Lu, Kun; Kharytonchyk, Siarhei; Ramakrishnan, Venkateswaran; Carter, Gregory; Barton, Shawn; Hosic, Azra; Florwick, Alyssa; Santos, Justin; Bolden, Nicholas C; McCowin, Sayo; Case, David A; Johnson, Bruce A; Salemi, Marco; Telesnitsky, Alice; Summers, Michael F

    2015-05-22

    The 5' leader of the HIV-1 genome contains conserved elements that direct selective packaging of the unspliced, dimeric viral RNA into assembling particles. By using a (2)H-edited nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approach, we determined the structure of a 155-nucleotide region of the leader that is independently capable of directing packaging (core encapsidation signal; Ψ(CES)). The RNA adopts an unexpected tandem three-way junction structure, in which residues of the major splice donor and translation initiation sites are sequestered by long-range base pairing and guanosines essential for both packaging and high-affinity binding to the cognate Gag protein are exposed in helical junctions. The structure reveals how translation is attenuated, Gag binding promoted, and unspliced dimeric genomes selected, by the RNA conformer that directs packaging. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Hepatitis B virus prevalence, risk factors and genotype distribution in HIV infected patients from West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fibriani, Azzania; Wisaksana, Rudi; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Indrati, Agnes; Schutten, Martin; van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre; Boucher, Charles A B

    2014-04-01

    Indonesia currently faces both an increasing HIV incidence and a high hepatitis B virus (HBV) burden. The objective of our study is to examine the prevalence, risk factors, and genotypic distribution of HBV infection among HIV infected patients in West Java, Indonesia. A cross sectional study was conducted among a cohort of HIV infected patients in 2008. Demographic and disease related variables were compared between HBV negative and positive patients. Logistic regression was applied to determine risk factors for HBV co-infection. HBV and HIV genotyping was performed in co-infected patients. Of 636 HIV-infected patients, the rate of HBV co-infection was 7%. The proportion of males was higher in HBV/HIV co-infected patients than in HIV mono-infected patients (93% vs. 72%, P=0.001). A history of injecting drug use (IDU), but not tattooing, was associated with HBV co-infection [P=0.035 OR 2.41 (95% CI 1.06-5.47)]. In the HIV and HBV treatment naive patients, CD4 cells counts <50cells/mm(3), HIV-RNA plasma ≥10,000copies/ml and AST level above normal were more often found in patients with high HBV-DNA levels (≥20,000IU/ml) as compared to those with low HBV DNA (<20.000IU/ml) (P<0.05). As in the general population, B3 was the dominant subtype in HBV co-infected patients. The prevalence of active HBV infection and the genotype distribution among HIV infected individuals is similar to the overall population in Java. However, an increased prevalence was observed in men with a history of IDU, underlining the need for routine HBV screening and monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. MicroRNA-155 Reinforces HIV Latency.

    PubMed

    Ruelas, Debbie S; Chan, Jonathan K; Oh, Eugene; Heidersbach, Amy J; Hebbeler, Andrew M; Chavez, Leonard; Verdin, Eric; Rape, Michael; Greene, Warner C

    2015-05-29

    The presence of a small number of infected but transcriptionally dormant cells currently thwarts a cure for the more than 35 million individuals infected with HIV. Reactivation of these latently infected cells may result in three fates: 1) cell death due to a viral cytopathic effect, 2) cell death due to immune clearance, or 3) a retreat into latency. Uncovering the dynamics of HIV gene expression and silencing in the latent reservoir will be crucial for developing an HIV-1 cure. Here we identify and characterize an intracellular circuit involving TRIM32, an HIV activator, and miR-155, a microRNA that may promote a return to latency in these transiently activated reservoir cells. Notably, we demonstrate that TRIM32, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, promotes reactivation from latency by directly modifying IκBα, leading to a novel mechanism of NF-κB induction not involving IκB kinase activation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Hepatitis C virus genotype 4 responds better to pegylated interferon with ribavirin than genotype 1 in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Mira, José A; Rivero, Antonio; de Los Santos-Gil, Ignacio; López-Cortés, Luis F; Girón-González, José A; Márquez, Manuel; Merino, Dolores; del Mar Viloria, María; Téllez, Francisco; Ríos-Villegas, María J; Omar, Mohamed; Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Macías, Juan; Pineda, Juan A

    2012-08-24

    We assess the efficacy of pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) with ribavirin (RBV) and the predictors of sustained virological response (SVR) among HIV/hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV-4)-coinfected patients. Thirty-nine (31.5%) of 124 individuals with HCV-4 achieved SVR compared with 103 (22.7%) of 453 individuals with HCV genotype 1 (P=0.046). Only interleukin-28B (IL28B) genotype CC was independently associated with SVR in HIV/HCV-4-coinfected patients. The efficacy of peg-IFN with RBV in coinfected individuals with genotype 4 is significantly higher than in those with genotype 1. IL28B CC genotype is the main predictor of response in this population.

  19. An update to the HIV-TRePS system: the development of new computational models that do not require a genotype to predict HIV treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Revell, Andrew D; Wang, Dechao; Wood, Robin; Morrow, Carl; Tempelman, Hugo; Hamers, Raph; Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Streinu-Cercel, Adrian; Ene, Luminita; Wensing, Annemarie; Reiss, Peter; van Sighem, Ard I; Nelson, Mark; Emery, Sean; Montaner, Julio S G; Lane, H Clifford; Larder, Brendan A

    2014-04-01

    The optimal individualized selection of antiretroviral drugs in resource-limited settings is challenging because of the limited availability of drugs and genotyping. Here we describe the development of the latest computational models to predict the response to combination antiretroviral therapy without a genotype, for potential use in such settings. Random forest models were trained to predict the probability of a virological response to therapy (<50 copies HIV RNA/mL) following virological failure using the following data from 22,567 treatment-change episodes including 1090 from southern Africa: baseline viral load and CD4 cell count, treatment history, drugs in the new regimen, time to follow-up and follow-up viral load. The models were assessed during cross-validation and with an independent global test set of 1000 cases including 100 from southern Africa. The models' accuracy [area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC)] was evaluated and compared with genotyping using rules-based interpretation systems for those cases with genotypes available. The models achieved AUCs of 0.79-0.84 (mean 0.82) during cross-validation, 0.80 with the global test set and 0.78 with the southern African subset. The AUCs were significantly lower (0.56-0.57) for genotyping. The models predicted virological response to HIV therapy without a genotype as accurately as previous models that included a genotype. They were accurate for cases from southern Africa and significantly more accurate than genotyping. These models will be accessible via the online treatment support tool HIV-TRePS and have the potential to help optimize antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings where genotyping is not generally available.

  20. Performance of a population-based HIV-1 tropism phenotypic assay and correlation with V3 genotypic prediction tools in recent HIV-1 seroconverters.

    PubMed

    de Mendoza, Carmen; Van Baelen, Kurt; Poveda, Eva; Rondelez, Evelien; Zahonero, Natalia; Stuyver, Lieven; Garrido, Carolina; Villacian, Jorge; Soriano, Vincent

    2008-07-01

    Pure X4 and X4R5 dual-tropic viruses may be recognized in approximately 15% of drug-naive HIV-1-positive patients. CCR5 antagonists are active against R5 viruses; therefore, HIV tropism should be known before their prescription. A population-based phenotypic assay was performed in 61 recent HIV-1 seroconverters. The results were compared with those obtained using 8 different predictor software programs (C4.5, C4.5 with 8 and 12, PART, SVM, Charge Rule, PSSMsinsi, PSSMx4r5, and geno2pheno), which are freely available at 3 different Web sites and use V3 sequences derived from patient's viruses. Phenotypic testing reported X4R5 dual-tropic viruses in 10 (16.4%) patients. CD4 cell counts and viral loads were significantly lower in X4R5 dual-tropic (450 cells/microL and 3.9 log HIV RNA copies/mL) than in R5 viruses (629 cells/microL, 4.5 log HIV RNA copies/mL) (P<0.05). The overall concordance of genotype and phenotype was relatively good (>80%). Although specificity was >90% using all but 1 genotypic predictor (geno2pheno), however, the sensitivity for the detection of X4 variants was low (<30%), except for SVM and geno2pheno (70%). The prevalence of X4 and X4/R5 dual-tropic viruses in recent HIV seroconverters is 16%. Current genotypic algorithms need to be improved for the estimation of HIV-1 coreceptor use before moving to the clinic. This information is crucial for the selection of candidates to receive CCR5 antagonists in places where phenotypic tropism assays may not be feasible.

  1. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. 866.3950 Section 866.3950 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a...

  2. Micro RNA in Exosomes from HIV-Infected Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Roth, William W; Huang, Ming Bo; Addae Konadu, Kateena; Powell, Michael D; Bond, Vincent C

    2015-12-22

    Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicles secreted by cells that function to shuttle RNA and proteins between cells. To examine the role of exosomal micro RNA (miRNA) during the early stage of HIV-1 infection we characterized miRNA in exosomes from HIV-infected macrophages, compared with exosomes from non-infected macrophages. Primary human monocytes from uninfected donors were differentiated to macrophages (MDM) which were either mock-infected or infected with the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 BaL strain. Exosomes were recovered from culture media and separated from virus particles by centrifugation on iodixanol density gradients. The low molecular weight RNA fraction was prepared from purified exosomes. After pre-amplification, RNA was hybridized to microarrays containing probes for 1200 miRNA species of known and unknown function. We observed 48 miRNA species in both infected and uninfected MDM exosomes. Additionally, 38 miRNAs were present in infected-cell exosomes but not uninfected-cell exosomes. Of these, 13 miRNAs were upregulated in exosomes from HIV-infected cells, including 4 miRNA species that were increased by more than 10-fold. Though numerous miRNA species have been identified in HIV-infected cells, relatively little is known about miRNA content in exosomes from these cells. In the future, we plan to investigate whether the upregulated miRNA species we identified are increased in exosomes from HIV-1-positive patients.

  3. Efficacy of raltegravir switching strategies in HIV-infected patients with suppressed viraemia according to the genotypic sensitivity score.

    PubMed

    Caby, F; Schneider, L; Blanc, C; Soulié, C; Tindel, M; Peytavin, G; Agher, R; Valantin, M A; Tubiana, R; Wirden, M; Calvez, V; Marcelin, A G; Katlama, C

    2014-04-01

    The lack of antiretroviral (ARV) backbone activity associated with raltegravir has been proposed as the main explanation for virological relapse observed in patients with undetectable viraemia who are switched from a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI) to raltegravir. However ARV activity remains difficult to assess in this context. The aim of our study was to precisely assess the ARV backbone activity in patients with undetectable viraemia who underwent raltegravir switching strategies and to evaluate the efficacy of such switching strategies based on the genotypic sensitivity score (GSS). Patients with a plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA level of <50 copies/mL on a stable two ARV-class regimen were enrolled if they switched one of their ARV drugs to raltegravir 400 mg twice daily. The GSS was calculated using a genotyping test performed on the HIV-1 RNA of the last plasma measurement with a HIV-1 RNA level of >50 copies/mL before the switch and on the results of all previous genotyping tests. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with a plasma HIV-1 RNA level of <50 copies/mL at week 24. Fifty-six patients were enrolled in this study. The proportion of patients with a plasma HIV-1 RNA level of <50 copies/mL at week 24 was 92.9 % (range 83.0-97.2 %) in the intent-to-treat analysis and 98.1 % (90.0-99.7 %) in per-protocol analysis. When the backbone was fully active, the proportion was 100.0 % (86.7-100.0 %) at week 24 and week 48 in the per-protocol analysis. We observed a decrease in plasma total cholesterol and triglycerides of -12.7 % (p = 0.005) and -26.5 % (p = 0.001), respectively. Raltegravir switching strategies are effective when the associated backbone is fully active according to the GSS. In the context of undetectable viraemia, where ARV activity remains difficult to assess, the determination of the GSS requires the entire ARV history of the patient and all previous HIV-RNA genotyping test results.

  4. New Highly Divergent rRNA Sequence among Biodiverse Genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi Strains Isolated from Humans in Gabon and Cameroon▿

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Jacques; Bart-Delabesse, Emmanuelle; Biligui, Sylvestre; Carbone, Alessandra; Seiller, Xavier; Okome-Nkoumou, Madeleine; Nzamba, Chantal; Kombila, Maryvonne; Accoceberry, Isabelle; Thellier, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Intestinal microsporidiosis due to Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a leading cause of chronic diarrhea in severely immunocompromised human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. It may be a public health problem in Africa due to the magnitude of the HIV pandemic and to poor sanitary conditions. We designed two prevalence studies of E. bieneusi in Central Africa, the first with HIV-positive patients from an urban setting in Gabon and the second with a nonselected rural population in Cameroon. Stool samples were analyzed by an immunofluorescence antibody test and PCR. Twenty-five out of 822 HIV-positive patients from Gabon and 22 out of 758 villagers from Cameroon were found to be positive for E. bieneusi. The prevalence rates of the two studies were surprisingly similar (3.0% and 2.9%). Genotypic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene showed a high degree of diversity in samples from both countries. In Gabon, 15 isolates showed seven different genotypes: the previously reported genotypes A, D, and K along with four new genotypes, referred to as CAF1, CAF2, CAF3, and CAF4. In Cameroon, five genotypes were found in 20 isolates: the known genotypes A, B, D, and K and the new genotype CAF4. Genotypes A and CAF4 predominated in Cameroon, whereas K, CAF4, and CAF1 were more frequent in Gabon, suggesting that different genotypes present differing risks of infection associated with immune status and living conditions. Phylogenetic analysis of the new genotype CAF4, identified in both HIV-negative and HIV-positive subjects, indicates that it represents a highly divergent strain. PMID:17537939

  5. Leukotriene A4 Hydrolase Genotype and HIV Infection Influence Intracerebral Inflammation and Survival From Tuberculous Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Thuong, Nguyen T T; Heemskerk, Dorothee; Tram, Trinh T B; Thao, Le T P; Ramakrishnan, Lalita; Ha, Vu T N; Bang, Nguyen D; Chau, Tran T H; Lan, Nguyen H; Caws, Maxine; Dunstan, Sarah J; Chau, Nguyen V V; Wolbers, Marcel; Mai, Nguyen T H; Thwaites, Guy E

    2017-04-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most devastating form of tuberculosis, yet very little is known about the pathophysiology. We hypothesized that the genotype of leukotriene A4 hydrolase (encoded by LTA4H), which determines inflammatory eicosanoid expression, influences intracerebral inflammation, and predicts survival from TBM. We characterized the pretreatment clinical and intracerebral inflammatory phenotype and 9-month survival of 764 adults with TBM. All were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphism rs17525495, and inflammatory phenotype was defined by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocyte and cytokine concentrations. LTA4H genotype predicted survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected patients, with TT-genotype patients significantly more likely to survive TBM than CC-genotype patients, according to Cox regression analysis (univariate P = .040 and multivariable P = .037). HIV-uninfected, TT-genotype patients had high CSF proinflammatory cytokine concentrations, with intermediate and lower concentrations in those with CT and CC genotypes. Increased CSF cytokine concentrations correlated with more-severe disease, but patients with low CSF leukocytes and cytokine concentrations were more likely to die from TBM. HIV infection independently predicted death due to TBM (hazard ratio, 3.94; 95% confidence interval, 2.79-5.56) and was associated with globally increased CSF cytokine concentrations, independent of LTA4H genotype. LTA4H genotype and HIV infection influence pretreatment inflammatory phenotype and survival from TBM. LTA4H genotype may predict adjunctive corticosteroid responsiveness in HIV-uninfected individuals.

  6. Impact of triplicate testing on HIV genotypic tropism prediction in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Symons, J; Vandekerckhove, L; Paredes, R; Verhofstede, C; Bellido, R; Demecheleer, E; van Ham, P M; van Lelyveld, S F L; Stam, A J; van Versendaal, D; Nijhuis, M; Wensing, A M J

    2012-06-01

    Guidelines state that the CCR5-inhibitor Maraviroc should be prescribed to patients infected with R5-tropic HIV-1 only. Therefore, viral tropism needs to be assessed phenotypically or genotypically. Preliminary clinical trial data suggest that genotypic analysis in triplicate is associated with improved prediction of virological response by increasing the detection of X4-tropic variants. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of triplicate genotypic analysis on prediction of co-receptor usage in routine clinical practice. Samples from therapy-naive and therapy-experienced patients were collected for routine tropism testing at three European clinical centres. Viral RNA was isolated from plasma and proviral DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Gp120-V3 was amplified in a triplicate nested RT-PCR procedure and sequenced. Co-receptor usage was predicted using the Geno2Pheno([coreceptor]) algorithm and analysed with a false-positive rate (FPR) of 5.75%, 10%, or an FPR of 20% and according to the current European guidelines on the clinical management of HIV-1 tropism testing. A total of 266 sequences were obtained from 101 patient samples. Discordance in tropism prediction for the triplicates was observed in ten samples using an FPR of 10%. Triplicate testing resulted in a 16.7% increase in X4-predicted samples and to reclassification from R5 to X4 tropism for four cases rendering these patients ineligible for Maraviroc treatment. In conclusion, triplicate genotypic tropism testing increases X4 tropism detection in individual cases, which may prove to be pivotal when CCR5-inhibitor therapy is applied.

  7. Achieving HIV-1 Control through RNA-Directed Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Klemm, Vera; Mitchell, Jye; Cortez-Jugo, Christina; Cavalieri, Francesca; Symonds, Geoff; Caruso, Frank; Kelleher, Anthony Dominic; Ahlenstiel, Chantelle

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 infection has been transformed by combined anti-retroviral therapy (ART), changing a universally fatal infection into a controllable infection. However, major obstacles for an HIV-1 cure exist. The HIV latent reservoir, which exists in resting CD4+ T cells, is not impacted by ART, and can reactivate when ART is interrupted or ceased. Additionally, multi-drug resistance can arise. One alternate approach to conventional HIV-1 drug treatment that is being explored involves gene therapies utilizing RNA-directed gene regulation. Commonly known as RNA interference (RNAi), short interfering RNA (siRNA) induce gene silencing in conserved biological pathways, which require a high degree of sequence specificity. This review will provide an overview of the silencing pathways, the current RNAi technologies being developed for HIV-1 gene therapy, current clinical trials, and the challenges faced in progressing these treatments into clinical trials. PMID:27941595

  8. Suppression of HIV-1 replication by microRNA effectors

    PubMed Central

    Chable-Bessia, Christine; Meziane, Oussama; Latreille, Daniel; Triboulet, Robinson; Zamborlini, Alessia; Wagschal, Alexandre; Jacquet, Jean-Marc; Reynes, Jacques; Levy, Yves; Saib, Ali; Bennasser, Yamina; Benkirane, Monsef

    2009-01-01

    The rate of HIV-1 gene expression is a key step that determines the kinetics of virus spread and AIDS progression. Viral entry and gene expression were described to be the key determinants for cell permissiveness to HIV. Recent reports highlighted the involvement of miRNA in regulating HIV-1 replication post-transcriptionally. In this study we explored the role of cellular factors required for miRNA-mediated mRNA translational inhibition in regulating HIV-1 gene expression. Here we show that HIV-1 mRNAs associate and co-localize with components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC), and we characterize some of the proteins required for miRNA-mediated silencing (miRNA effectors). RCK/p54, GW182, LSm-1 and XRN1 negatively regulate HIV-1 gene expression by preventing viral mRNA association with polysomes. Interestingly, knockdown of RCK/p54 or DGCR8 resulted in virus reactivation in PBMCs isolated from HIV infected patients treated with suppressive HAART. PMID:19272132

  9. Prevalence and genotypic variability of TTV in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Sherman, K E; Rouster, S D; Feinberg, J

    2001-11-01

    TT virus is a small, circular DNA virus, that has been associated with transfusion hepatitis. We sought to determine the prevalence of TT virus (TTV) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and to characterize the virus in terms of genotypic variability and in the relationship to CD4+, HIV viral loads, HCV/HIV coinfection, and ALT abnormalities. A cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected patients in the United States, including 86 HIV-positive subjects and 118 HIV-negative controls was performed. TTV was detected using a seminested PCR technique. Samples underwent cloning and sequence analysis and/or RFLP to determine genotype. Thirty-eight percent of HIV-positive patients had TTV infection versus 14.4% of patients within the matching cohort (P = 0.0009). The highest rate of TTV infection was in patients with concurrent HCV/HIV infection (54% vs 30%, P = 0.038). HIV-infected subjects with TTV had lower ALT levels than those without TTV (P = 0.036). Intravenous drug use was the leading factor associated with TTV positivity among HIV-positive subjects. Mixed genotypes were more common in those with HIV. Therefore, TTV prevalence, ALT levels, and genomic heterogeneity of TTV all seem to be altered in patients with HIV.

  10. Dimeric RNA recognition regulates HIV-1 genome packaging.

    PubMed

    Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Dilley, Kari A; Fu, William; Gorelick, Robert J; Tai, S-H Sheldon; Soheilian, Ferri; Ptak, Roger G; Nagashima, Kunio; Pathak, Vinay K; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2013-03-01

    How retroviruses regulate the amount of RNA genome packaged into each virion has remained a long-standing question. Our previous study showed that most HIV-1 particles contain two copies of viral RNA, indicating that the number of genomes packaged is tightly regulated. In this report, we examine the mechanism that controls the number of RNA genomes encapsidated into HIV-1 particles. We hypothesize that HIV-1 regulates genome packaging by either the mass or copy number of the viral RNA. These two distinct mechanisms predict different outcomes when the genome size deviates significantly from that of wild type. Regulation by RNA mass would result in multiple copies of a small genome or one copy of a large genome being packaged, whereas regulation by copy number would result in two copies of a genome being packaged independent of size. To distinguish between these two hypotheses, we examined the packaging of viral RNA that was larger (≈17 kb) or smaller (≈3 kb) than that of wild-type HIV-1 (≈9 kb) and found that most particles packaged two copies of the viral genome regardless of whether they were 17 kb or 3 kb. Therefore, HIV-1 regulates RNA genome encapsidation not by the mass of RNA but by packaging two copies of RNA. To further explore the mechanism that governs this regulation, we examined the packaging of viral RNAs containing two packaging signals that can form intermolecular dimers or intramolecular dimers (self-dimers) and found that one self-dimer is packaged. Therefore, HIV-1 recognizes one dimeric RNA instead of two copies of RNA. Our findings reveal that dimeric RNA recognition is the key mechanism that regulates HIV-1 genome encapsidation and provide insights into a critical step in the generation of infectious viruses.

  11. Development of an RNA Assay to Assess HIV I Latency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-10

    current study is limited to examining cellular RNAs rather than free genomic RNA in the plasma. Ottmann and colleagues demonstrated HIV-1 genomic RNA in 95...aberrant pattern of viral RNA expression: a molecular model for latency. Cell 1990; 61:1271-1276. 25 Ottmann M, Innocenti P, Tenadey M, Micoud M

  12. Genotypic resistance profiles of HIV-2-treated patients in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Charpentier, Charlotte; Eholié, Serge; Anglaret, Xavier; Bertine, Mélanie; Rouzioux, Christine; Avettand-Fenoël, Véronique; Messou, Eugène; Minga, Albert; Damond, Florence; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Dabis, François; Peytavin, Gilles; Brun-Vézinet, Françoise; Ekouevi, Didier K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the virological response, genotypic resistance profiles, and antiretroviral plasma concentrations in HIV-2 antiretroviral-treated (antiretroviral therapy, ART) patients in Côte d‘Ivoire. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among HIV-2 patients receiving ART. Plasma HIV-2 viral load was performed using the Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA et les hépatites virales (ANRS) assay. Protease and reverse transcriptase sequencing was performed using in-house methods and antiretroviral plasma concentrations were assessed using ultra performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry. Results One hundred and forty-five HIV-2-treated patients were enrolled with a median CD4+ cell count of 360 cells/µl (interquartile range, IQR = 215–528). Median duration of ART was 4 years (IQR = 2–7) and 74% of patients displayed viral load less than 50 copies/ml. Median plasma HIV-2 RNA among patients with viral load more than 50 copies/ml was 3016 copies/ml (IQR = 436–5156). Most patients (84%) received a lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimen. HIV-2 resistance mutations to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors were detected in 21 of 25 (84%) and 20 of 29 (69%) samples, respectively. The most prevalent nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations were M184I/V (90%), Q151M (24%), and S215F/Y (24%). The most prevalent protease inhibitor resistance mutations were V47A (60%) and I54M (30%). Median CD4+ cell counts were 434 cells/µl (292–573) and 204 cells/µl (122–281) in patients with viral load less than 50 copies/ml and those exhibiting virological failure (P < 0.0001), respectively. The proportions of patients with adequate antiretroviral plasma concentrations were 81 and 93% in patients displaying virological failure and in those with viral load less than 50 copies/ml, respectively (P = 0.046), suggesting good treatment adherence. Conclusion We observed adequate drug

  13. Development of candidate reference reagent for HIV-1 RNA and comparison analysis for different HIV-1 RNA quantitative assay.

    PubMed

    Park, Borae G; Park, Ae Ja; Choi, Jee-Hye; Park, Jina; Kim, Sung Soon; Wang, Jin-Sook; Kee, Mee Kyung; Choi, Ju-yeon

    2011-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) RNA viral load is a surrogate marker that is routinely used to determine indications for, and monitor the effectiveness of HIV-1 treatment. We developed three reagents for potential use in routine quality control of HIV-1 RNA quantitative assays. In this report, we compare the stability of these re-agents in storage and compare their performance in three different HIV-1 RNA quantitative assays. The candidate reagents were derived from readily available pre-existing reagents and examined for stability at different storage temperatures. They were compared in three commercially available HIV-1 RNA quantitative assays: the Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Test (Cobas TaqMan), the RealTime HIV-1 Assay (Abbott RealTime), and the NucliSens EasyQ HIV-1 Assay v1.1 (NucliSens EasyQ). The candidate reagent derived from an HIV culture supernatant (candidate CS) was the most stable of the three candidates and showed good reproducibility. Candidate CS yielded the highest HIV-1 titer of the three candidates in the Cobas TaqMan assay and the lowest HIV-1 titer and stability of the three candidates in the NucliSens EasyQ system. The candidate CS is the most appropriate of the three candidate reagents for quantitative testing of HIV-1 RNA. This working reagent should be useful for use in routine calibration for quality control in centers with limited financial resources. The Cobas TaqMan assay tended to yield higher viral load results than the other assays when used with our three candidate reagents.

  14. Lower levels of HIV RNA in semen in HIV-2 compared with HIV-1 infection: implications for differences in transmission

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.; Hawes, Stephen E.; Agne, Habibatou D.; Stern, Joshua E.; Critchlow, Cathy W.; Kiviat, Nancy B.; Sow, Papa Salif

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives HIV-2 infection, in comparison with HIV-1, is characterized by lower plasma viral loads, slower CD4 cell count decline, decreased AIDS-related mortality, and lower rates of mother-to-child and sexual transmission. To gain further insight into why HIV-1 is more readily transmitted as compared with HIV-2, we analyzed semen and plasma HIV RNA levels in HIV-1 and HIV-2-positive men from Senegal. Design and methods Twenty-two HIV-1 and 10 HIV-2-infected subjects from the University of Dakar donated semen and blood samples for this analysis. HIV-1 and HIV-2 viral loads in semen and plasma were quantified using type-specific polymerase chain reaction assays. Results The mean age of the subjects was 37 and 40 years; mean CD4 cell count was 222 and 276 cells/µl and the mean plasma viral load was 4.7 and 3.0 log10 copies/ml for HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively (P = 0.002). HIV RNA was detected in semen in 21 of 22 (95%) of HIV-1 and seven of 10 (70%) of HIV-2-infected subjects; P = 0.07). However, the levels of HIV RNA present in semen were markedly different between those with HIV-1 and HIV-2, with a mean of 4.4 log10 copies/ml among those with HIV-1 and a mean of 2.6 log10 copies/ml among those with HIV-2 (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, plasma viral load and HIV type, but not CD4 cell count, were independently predictive of semen viral load (P = 0.03, 0.05, 0.48, respectively) Conclusions These data suggest that differences in semen viral load between HIV-1 and HIV-2 may be in part responsible for the markedly different transmission rates of these two viruses. In addition, risk of male genital tract shedding strongly correlates with plasma viral loads. Interventions that decrease viral load may help decrease transmission of both HIV-1 and HIV-2. PMID:16549974

  15. Digoxin Suppresses HIV-1 Replication by Altering Viral RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Raymond W.; Balachandran, Ahalya; Ostrowski, Mario A.; Cochrane, Alan

    2013-01-01

    To develop new approaches to control HIV-1 replication, we examined the capacity of recently described small molecular modulators of RNA splicing for their effects on viral RNA metabolism. Of the drugs tested, digoxin was found to induce a dramatic inhibition of HIV-1 structural protein synthesis, a response due, in part, to reduced accumulation of the corresponding viral mRNAs. In addition, digoxin altered viral RNA splice site use, resulting in loss of the essential viral factor Rev. Digoxin induced changes in activity of the CLK family of SR protein kinases and modification of several SR proteins, including SRp20 and Tra2β, which could account for the effects observed. Consistent with this hypothesis, overexpression of SRp20 elicited changes in HIV-1 RNA processing similar to those observed with digoxin. Importantly, digoxin was also highly active against clinical strains of HIV-1 in vitro, validating this novel approach to treatment of this infection. PMID:23555254

  16. Minor Contribution of Chimeric Host-HIV Readthrough Transcripts to the Level of HIV Cell-Associated gag RNA.

    PubMed

    Pasternak, Alexander O; DeMaster, Laura K; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Reiss, Peter; O'Doherty, Una; Berkhout, Ben

    2015-11-11

    Cell-associated HIV unspliced RNA is an important marker of the viral reservoir. HIV gag RNA-specific assays are frequently used to monitor reservoir activation. Because HIV preferentially integrates into actively transcribed genes, some of the transcripts detected by these assays may not represent genuine HIV RNA but rather chimeric host-HIV readthrough transcripts. Here, we demonstrate that in HIV-infected patients on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy, such host-derived transcripts do not significantly contribute to the HIV gag RNA level.

  17. HIV infection among U.S. Army and Air Force military personnel: sociodemographic and genotyping analysis.

    PubMed

    Singer, Darrell E; Bautista, Christian T; O'Connell, Robert J; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Agan, Brian K; Kijak, Gustavo H; Hakre, Shilpa; Sanchez, Jose L; Sateren, Warren B; McCutchan, Francine E; Michael, Nelson L; Scott, Paul T

    2010-08-01

    Since 1985, the U.S. Department of Defense has periodically screened all military personnel for HIV allowing for the monitoring of the infection in this dynamic cohort population. A nested case-control study was performed to study sociodemographics, overseas assignment, and molecular analysis of HIV. Cases were newly identified HIV infections among U.S. Army and Air Force military personnel from 2000 to 2004. Controls were frequency matched to cases by gender and date of case first positive HIV screening test. Genotyping analysis was performed using high-throughput screening assays and partial genome sequencing. HIV was significantly associated with black race [odds ratio (OR) = 6.65], single marital status (OR = 4.45), and age (OR per year = 1.07). Ninety-seven percent were subtype B and 3% were non-B subtypes (A3, CRF01_AE, A/C recombinant, G, CRF02_AG). Among cases, overseas assignment in the period at risk prior to their first HIV-positive test was associated with non-B HIV subtype infection (OR = 8.44). Black and single military personnel remain disproportionately affected by HIV infection. Most non-B HIV subtypes were associated with overseas assignment. Given the increased frequency and length of assignments, and the expanding HIV genetic diversity observed in this population, there is a need for active HIV genotyping surveillance and a need to reinforce primary HIV prevention efforts.

  18. Virologic response following combined ledipasvir and sofosbuvir administration in patients with HCV genotype 1 and HIV co-infection.

    PubMed

    Osinusi, Anu; Townsend, Kerry; Kohli, Anita; Nelson, Amy; Seamon, Cassie; Meissner, Eric G; Bon, Dimitra; Silk, Rachel; Gross, Chloe; Price, Angie; Sajadi, Mohammad; Sidharthan, Sreetha; Sims, Zayani; Herrmann, Eva; Hogan, John; Teferi, Gebeyehu; Talwani, Rohit; Proschan, Michael; Jenkins, Veronica; Kleiner, David E; Wood, Brad J; Subramanian, G Mani; Pang, Phillip S; McHutchison, John G; Polis, Michael A; Fauci, Anthony S; Masur, Henry; Kottilil, Shyam

    There is an unmet need for interferon- and ribavirin-free treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). To evaluate the rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) and adverse events in previously untreated patients with HCV genotype 1 and HIV co-infection following a 12-week treatment of the fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir. Open-label, single-center, phase 2b pilot study of previously untreated, noncirrhotic patients with HCV genotype 1 and HIV co-infection conducted at the Clinical Research Center of the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, from June 2013 to September 2014. Patients included those receiving antiretroviral therapy with HIV RNA values of 50 copies/mL or fewer and a CD4 T-lymphocyte count of 100 cells/mL or greater or patients with untreated HIV infection with a CD4 T-lymphocyte count of 500 cells/mL or greater. Serial measurements of safety parameters, virologic and host immune correlates, and adherence were performed. Fifty patients with HCV genotype 1 never before treated for HCV were prescribed a fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir (90 mg) and sofosbuvir (400 mg) once daily for 12 weeks. The primary study outcome was the proportion of patients with sustained viral response (plasma HCV RNA level <12 IU/mL) 12 weeks after end of treatment. Forty-nine of 50 participants (98% [95% CI, 89% to 100%]) achieved SVR 12 weeks after end of treatment, whereas 1 patient experienced relapse at week 4 following treatment. In the patient with relapse, deep sequencing revealed a resistance associated mutation in the NS5A region conferring resistance to NS5A inhibitors, such as ledipasvir. The most common adverse events were nasal congestion (16% of patients) and myalgia (14%). There were no discontinuations or serious adverse events attributable to study drug. In this open-label, uncontrolled, pilot study enrolling patients co-infected with HCV genotype

  19. Semen Bacterial Concentrations and HIV-1 RNA Shedding Among HIV-1–Seropositive Kenyan Men

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sujatha; Huang, Dandi; Ko, Daisy L.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Peshu, Norbert M.; Krieger, John N.; Muller, Charles H.; Coombs, Robert W.; Fredricks, David N.; Graham, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: HIV-1 is transmitted through semen from men to their sexual partners. Genital infections can increase HIV-1 RNA shedding in semen, but shedding also occurs in the absence of typical pathogens. We hypothesized that higher bacterial concentrations in semen would be associated with higher HIV-1 RNA levels. Methods: We analyzed semen samples from 42 HIV-1–seropositive Kenyan men using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess bacterial concentrations and real-time PCR to measure HIV-1 RNA levels. Generalized estimation equations were used to evaluate associations between these 2 measures. Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR with pyrosequencing was performed on a subset of 13 samples to assess bacterial community composition. Results: Bacteria were detected in 96.6% of 88 samples by quantitative PCR. Semen bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA levels were correlated 0.30 (P = 0.01). The association between bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA detection was not significant after adjustment for antiretroviral therapy (ART) (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.91). Factors associated with semen bacterial concentration included insertive anal sex (adjusted beta 0.92, 95% CI: 0.12 to 1.73) and ART use (adjusted beta: −0.77, 95% CI: −1.50 to 0.04). Among 13 samples with pyrosequencing data, Corynebacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. were most frequently detected. Conclusion: Most of these HIV-1–infected men had bacteria in their semen. ART use was associated with undetectable semen HIV-1 RNA and lower semen bacterial concentrations, whereas insertive anal sex was associated with higher bacterial concentrations. Additional studies evaluating the relationship between semen bacteria, inflammation, mucosal immunity, and HIV-1 shedding are needed to understand implications for HIV-1 transmission. PMID:27861240

  20. Presence of Different Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Plasma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Samples of Iranian Patients with HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Dehghani-Dehej, Farzaneh; Sarvari, Jamal; Esghaei, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyed Younes; Garshasbi, Saba; Kalantari, Saeed; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza; Fakhim, Atousa; Keyvani, Hossein; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah

    2017-08-28

    Due to the similar routes of transmission, individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may become infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) simultaneously. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of HCV co-infection in Iranian individuals with HIV infection, and to genotype HCV in plasma and PBMC specimens of these patients. From September 2015 to October 2016, a total of 140 Iranian individuals with HIV infection were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The RNA from plasma and PBMC specimens was extracted, and genomic HCV-RNA was amplified using RT-nested PCR with primers that target 5'-UTR. The HCV genotyping used the RFLP technique. To confirm HCV genotype, 10 randomly selected HCV-positive samples were also submitted for sequencing. The mean age of patients was 35.7 ± 13.5 years (range: 1-66). Out of 140 patients, 62 (44.3%) were positive for anti-HCV antibodies; among these, viral genomic RNA was detected in 34 (24.3%) and 39 (27.9%) of the plasma and PBMC specimens, respectively. The HCV genotyping showed a similar pattern of subtypes 1a (44% vs 46.2%), 3a (32.4% vs 33.3%) and 1b (17.6% vs 17.9%) in all sera and PBMC samples. It is noteworthy that the HCV genotypes in plasma and PBMC specimens of 6 HCV co-infected patients were not the same. This study reveals that HIV/HCV co-infection is high in Iranian patients (44.3%), especially in people who have high-risk factors (83.9%). Also, HIV/HCV co-infected individuals may have dissimilar HCV genotypes in their plasma and PBMC specimens. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C due to genotype 4.

    PubMed

    Martín-Carbonero, L; Puoti, M; García-Samaniego, J; De Luca, A; Losada, E; Quinzan, G; Bruno, R; Mariño, A; González, M; Núñez, M; Soriano, V

    2008-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1 and 4 respond less well to pegylated interferon (pegIFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) therapy. For this reason most studies merge these two genotypes when assessing virological response. However, in most trials the HCV genotype 4 population is rather small, and conclusions are mainly derived from what occurs in HCV-1 patients. All HCV-4 patients coinfected with HIV who received pegIFN plus RBV in two different multicentre studies, PRESCO and ROMANCE, conducted respectively in Spain and Italy, were retrospectively analyzed. Baseline plasma HCV-RNA, proportion of patients with HCV-RNA <10 IU / mL at week 4 (rapid virological response), and HCV-RNA declines >2 logs at week 12 (early virological response, EVR) were all assessed as predictors of sustained virological response (SVR). Overall, 75 patients (60 men) were evaluated. Median age was 40 years and median CD4 count 598 cells / mm(3); 49% had plasma HIV-RNA <50 copies / mL; 71% had elevated liver enzymes and 31% had advanced liver fibrosis (Metavir F3-F4). Median serum HCV-RNA was 5.7 log IU / mL. Rapid virological response was attained by 10 (20%) patients and EVR by 26 (42%). Using intention-to-treat and on-treatment (OT) analyses, SVR was achieved by 21 / 75 (28%) and 21 / 62 (34%) of HCV-4 patients, respectively. In the multivariate analysis (OT), baseline HCV-RNA (OR 0.09 for every log increment; 95% CI: 0.01-0.7) and EVR (OR: 7.08; 95% CI: 1.8-27.2) were significantly and independently associated with SVR. This is the largest series of HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C due to HCV-4 treated with pegIFN plus RBV examined so far and the results show that HCV-4 behaves similarly to HCV-1. Therefore, these patients should be considered as difficult to treat population. Baseline serum HCV-RNA and EVR are the best predictors of SVR in HCV-4 / HIV-coinfected patients.

  2. Different distributions of hepatitis C virus genotypes among HIV-infected patients with acute and chronic hepatitis C according to interleukin-28B genotype.

    PubMed

    Neukam, K; Nattermann, J; Rallón, N; Rivero, A; Caruz, A; Macías, J; Vogel, M; Benito, Jm; Camacho, A; Mira, Ja; Schwarze-Zander, C; Barreiro, P; Martínez, A; Rockstroh, Jk; Soriano, V; Pineda, Ja

    2011-09-01

    The C allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs12979860, located near the interleukin-28B (IL-28B) gene, has a strong impact on hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment response, as well as on spontaneous viral clearance. In patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), genotype CC carriers harbour HCV genotype 3 more commonly than those with non-CC genotypes. The aim of this study was to compare the HCV genotype distributions, according to IL-28B genotype, in HIV-infected patients with CHC and those with acute hepatitis C (AHC). The rs12979860 genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in two subpopulations of HIV-infected patients. The first consisted of 80 German patients with AHC. The second consisted of 476 patients with CHC, belonging to one German and two Spanish cohorts. In the AHC group, 31 (81.6%) rs12979860 CC carriers were infected with HCV genotype 1 or 4 vs. 32 (76.2%) among non-CC carriers (P=0.948). In patients with CHC, among those with the CC genotype, 119 (54.6%) were infected with HCV genotype 1 or 4 and 99 (45.4%) with genotype 2 or 3, whereas in the subset with non-CC genotypes, 200 (77.5%) harboured HCV genotype 1 or 4 and 58 (22.5%) genotype 2 or 3 (P<0.001). Among HIV-infected patients with CHC, those bearing the IL-28B genotype CC were more commonly infected with genotype 3 than subjects with non-CC genotypes, whereas in HIV-infected subjects with AHC this finding was not obtained. These results strongly suggest that the protective effect of the CC genotype against evolution to CHC is mainly exerted in patients infected with HCV genotype 1 or 4. © 2011 British HIV Association.

  3. Interactions between the HIV-1 Unspliced mRNA and Host mRNA Decay Machineries

    PubMed Central

    Toro-Ascuy, Daniela; Rojas-Araya, Bárbara; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) unspliced transcript is used both as mRNA for the synthesis of structural proteins and as the packaged genome. Given the presence of retained introns and instability AU-rich sequences, this viral transcript is normally retained and degraded in the nucleus of host cells unless the viral protein REV is present. As such, the stability of the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA must be particularly controlled in the nucleus and the cytoplasm in order to ensure proper levels of this viral mRNA for translation and viral particle formation. During its journey, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA assembles into highly specific messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) containing many different host proteins, amongst which are well-known regulators of cytoplasmic mRNA decay pathways such as up-frameshift suppressor 1 homolog (UPF1), Staufen double-stranded RNA binding protein 1/2 (STAU1/2), or components of miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) and processing bodies (PBs). More recently, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA was shown to contain N6-methyladenosine (m6A), allowing the recruitment of YTH N6-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2 (YTHDF2), an m6A reader host protein involved in mRNA decay. Interestingly, these host proteins involved in mRNA decay were shown to play positive roles in viral gene expression and viral particle assembly, suggesting that HIV-1 interacts with mRNA decay components to successfully accomplish viral replication. This review summarizes the state of the art in terms of the interactions between HIV-1 unspliced mRNA and components of different host mRNA decay machineries. PMID:27886048

  4. Interactions between the HIV-1 Unspliced mRNA and Host mRNA Decay Machineries.

    PubMed

    Toro-Ascuy, Daniela; Rojas-Araya, Bárbara; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo

    2016-11-23

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) unspliced transcript is used both as mRNA for the synthesis of structural proteins and as the packaged genome. Given the presence of retained introns and instability AU-rich sequences, this viral transcript is normally retained and degraded in the nucleus of host cells unless the viral protein REV is present. As such, the stability of the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA must be particularly controlled in the nucleus and the cytoplasm in order to ensure proper levels of this viral mRNA for translation and viral particle formation. During its journey, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA assembles into highly specific messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) containing many different host proteins, amongst which are well-known regulators of cytoplasmic mRNA decay pathways such as up-frameshift suppressor 1 homolog (UPF1), Staufen double-stranded RNA binding protein 1/2 (STAU1/2), or components of miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) and processing bodies (PBs). More recently, the HIV-1 unspliced mRNA was shown to contain N⁶-methyladenosine (m⁶A), allowing the recruitment of YTH N⁶-methyladenosine RNA binding protein 2 (YTHDF2), an m⁶A reader host protein involved in mRNA decay. Interestingly, these host proteins involved in mRNA decay were shown to play positive roles in viral gene expression and viral particle assembly, suggesting that HIV-1 interacts with mRNA decay components to successfully accomplish viral replication. This review summarizes the state of the art in terms of the interactions between HIV-1 unspliced mRNA and components of different host mRNA decay machineries.

  5. N6-methyladenosine of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral infection and HIV-1 Gag protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Tirumuru, Nagaraja; Zhao, Boxuan Simen; Lu, Wuxun; Lu, Zhike; He, Chuan; Wu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The internal N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation of eukaryotic nuclear RNA controls post-transcriptional gene expression, which is regulated by methyltransferases (writers), demethylases (erasers), and m6A-binding proteins (readers) in cells. The YTH domain family proteins (YTHDF1–3) bind to m6A-modified cellular RNAs and affect RNA metabolism and processing. Here, we show that YTHDF1–3 proteins recognize m6A-modified HIV-1 RNA and inhibit HIV-1 infection in cell lines and primary CD4+ T-cells. We further mapped the YTHDF1–3 binding sites in HIV-1 RNA from infected cells. We found that the overexpression of YTHDF proteins in cells inhibited HIV-1 infection mainly by decreasing HIV-1 reverse transcription, while knockdown of YTHDF1–3 in cells had the opposite effects. Moreover, silencing the m6A writers decreased HIV-1 Gag protein expression in virus-producing cells, while silencing the m6A erasers increased Gag expression. Our findings suggest an important role of m6A modification of HIV-1 RNA in viral infection and HIV-1 protein synthesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15528.001 PMID:27371828

  6. MinVar: A rapid and versatile tool for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Huber, Michael; Metzner, Karin J; Geissberger, Fabienne D; Shah, Cyril; Leemann, Christine; Klimkait, Thomas; Böni, Jürg; Trkola, Alexandra; Zagordi, Osvaldo

    2017-02-01

    Genotypic monitoring of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in HIV-1 infected individuals is strongly recommended to guide selection of the initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) and changes of drug regimens. Traditionally, mutations conferring drug resistance are detected by population sequencing of the reverse transcribed viral RNA encoding the HIV-1 enzymes target by ART, followed by manual analysis and interpretation of Sanger sequencing traces. This process is labor intensive, relies on subjective interpretation from the operator, and offers limited sensitivity as only mutations above 20% frequency can be reliably detected. Here we present MinVar, a pipeline for the analysis of deep sequencing data, which allows reliable and automated detection of DRMs down to 5%. We evaluated MinVar with data from amplicon sequencing of defined mixtures of molecular virus clones with known DRM and plasma samples of viremic HIV-1 infected individuals and we compared it to VirVarSeq, another virus variant detection tool exclusively working on Illumina deep sequencing data. MinVar was designed to be compatible with a diverse range of sequencing platforms and allows the detection of DRMs and insertions/deletions from deep sequencing data without the need to perform additional bioinformatics analysis, a prerequisite to a widespread implementation of HIV-1 genotyping using deep sequencing in routine diagnostic settings.

  7. Development, validation and clinical evaluation of a low cost in-house HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping assay for Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Arpan; Vaniawala, Salil; Shah, Parth; Misra, Rabindra Nath; Wani, Minal; Mukhopadhyaya, Pratap N

    2014-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) drug resistance genotyping assay is a part of clinical management of HIV-1 positive individuals under treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Routine monitoring of drug resistance mutations in resource limited settings like India is not possible due to high cost of commercial drug resistance assays. In this study we developed an in-house, cost effective HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping assay for Indian patients and validated it against the US-FDA-approved ViroSeq HIV-1 drug resistance testing system. A reference panel of 20 clinical samples was used to develop and validate the assay against ViroSeq HIV-1 drug resistance testing system which was subsequently used to genotype a clinical panel of 225 samples. The Stanford HIV database was used to identify drug resistant mutations. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was 1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml of plasma sample while precision and reproducibility was 99.68 ± 0.16% and 99.76 ± 0.18% respectively. One hundred and one drug resistant mutations were detected by the in-house assay compared to 104 by ViroSeq system in the reference panel. The assay had 91.55% success rate in genotyping the clinical panel samples and was able to detect drug resistant mutations related to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) as well as protease inhibitor (PI) classes of antiretroviral drugs. It was found to be around 71.9% more cost effective compared to ViroSeq genotyping system. This evaluation of the assay on the clinical panel demonstrates its potential for monitoring clinical HIV-1 drug resistance mutations and population-based surveillance in resource limited settings like India.

  8. Development, Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Low Cost In-House HIV-1 Drug Resistance Genotyping Assay for Indian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Arpan; Vaniawala, Salil; Shah, Parth; Misra, Rabindra Nath; Wani, Minal; Mukhopadhyaya, Pratap N.

    2014-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) drug resistance genotyping assay is a part of clinical management of HIV-1 positive individuals under treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Routine monitoring of drug resistance mutations in resource limited settings like India is not possible due to high cost of commercial drug resistance assays. In this study we developed an in-house, cost effective HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping assay for Indian patients and validated it against the US-FDA-approved ViroSeq HIV-1 drug resistance testing system. A reference panel of 20 clinical samples was used to develop and validate the assay against ViroSeq HIV-1 drug resistance testing system which was subsequently used to genotype a clinical panel of 225 samples. The Stanford HIV database was used to identify drug resistant mutations. The analytical sensitivity of the assay was 1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml of plasma sample while precision and reproducibility was 99.68±0.16% and 99.76±0.18% respectively. One hundred and one drug resistant mutations were detected by the in-house assay compared to 104 by ViroSeq system in the reference panel. The assay had 91.55% success rate in genotyping the clinical panel samples and was able to detect drug resistant mutations related to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) as well as protease inhibitor (PI) classes of antiretroviral drugs. It was found to be around 71.9% more cost effective compared to ViroSeq genotyping system. This evaluation of the assay on the clinical panel demonstrates its potential for monitoring clinical HIV-1 drug resistance mutations and population-based surveillance in resource limited settings like India. PMID:25157501

  9. Regulated HIV-2 RNA dimerization by means of alternative RNA conformations

    PubMed Central

    Dirac, Annette M. G.; Huthoff, Hendrik; Kjems, Jørgen; Berkhout, Ben

    2002-01-01

    The dimer initiation site (DIS) hairpin of the HIV-2 untranslated leader RNA mediates in vitro dimerization through ‘loop–loop kissing’ of a loop-exposed palindrome sequence. Premature RNA dimerization must be prevented during the retroviral life cycle. A regulatory mechanism has been proposed for the HIV-1 leader RNA that can adopt an alternative conformation in which the DIS motif is effectively masked by long-distance base pairing with upstream leader sequences. We now report that HIV-2 RNA dimerization is also regulated. Sequestering of the DIS motif by base pairing interactions with downstream leader sequences mediates a switch to a dimerization-impaired conformation. The existence of two alternative conformations of the HIV-2 leader RNA is supported by UV melting experiments. Furthermore, the equilibrium between the two conformations can be shifted by annealing of antisense oligonucleotides or by deletion of certain leader regions. These measures have a profound impact on the dimerization properties of the transcript, demonstrating a mutual exclusivity between the alternative conformation and dimerization, similar to what has been described for the HIV-1 leader. The overall resemblance in regulation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 RNA dimerization suggests that a similar mechanism may be operating in other lentiviruses and perhaps all retroviridae. PMID:12060681

  10. Emergence of occult minority genotype 2b hepatitis C infection in an HIV-1-co-infected patient treated for genotype 5a HCV infection with 48 weeks of pegylated-interferon-alpha 2b and ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Buckton, A J; Kulasegaram, R; Ngui, S L; Fisher, M; James, R; Rangarajan, S; Teo, C G

    2007-09-01

    An HIV-1/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patient with haemophilia received a 48-week course of pegylated interferon-alpha-2b and ribavirin therapy for genotype 5a HCV infection. Virological response was achieved at week 24. At the end of treatment, HCV RNA in serum was detected and identified to belong to genotype 2b, rather than genotype 5a. A sensitive method for identifying minority HCV genotypes in pre-treatment serum showed genotype 2b HCV carriage prior to treatment. Sequencing the interferon sensitivity-determining region of the HCV NS5A gene obtained from pre-, intra- and post-treatment sera revealed emergence of quasispecies bearing R-->K and M-->A/T mutations at codons 2222 and 2223, respectively. Occult presence of minority HCV subpopulations and their acquisition of mutations following therapy can result in poor treatment outcome.

  11. The longitudinal and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and host genotype upon neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Levine, Andrew J; Reynolds, Sandra; Cox, Christopher; Miller, Eric N; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Becker, James T; Martin, Eileen; Sacktor, Ned

    2014-06-01

    Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and illicit stimulant use can adversely impact neurocognitive functioning, and these effects can be additive. However, significant variability exists such that as-of-yet unidentified exogenous and endogenous factors affect one's risk for neurocognitive impairment. Literature on both HIV and stimulant use indicates that host genetic variants in immunologic and dopamine-related genes are one such factor. In this study, the individual and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and genotype upon neurocognitive functioning were examined longitudinally over a 10-year period. Nine hundred fifty-two Caucasian HIV+ and HIV- cases from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were included. All cases had at least two comprehensive neurocognitive evaluations between 1985 and 1995. Pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) data were examined in order to avoid the confounding effect of variable drug regimens. Linear mixed models were used, with neurocognitive domain scores as the outcome variables. No four-way interactions were found, indicating that HIV and stimulant use do not interact over time to affect neurocognitive functioning as a function of genotype. Multiple three-way interactions were found that involved genotype and HIV status. All immunologically related genes found to interact with HIV status affected neurocognitive functioning in the expected direction; however, only C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CCL3 affected HIV+ individuals specifically. Dopamine-related genetic variants generally affected HIV-negative individuals only. Neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals who also used stimulants was not significantly different from those who did not use stimulants. The findings support the role of immunologically related genetic differences in CCL2 and CCL3 in neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals; however, their impact is minor. Being consistent with findings from another cohort

  12. Amplicor HIV monitor, NASBA HIV-1 RNA QT and quantiplex HIV RNA version 2.0 viral load assays: a Canadian evaluation.

    PubMed

    Prud'homme, I T; Kim, J E; Pilon, R G; Minkus, T; Hawley-Foss, N; Cameron, W; Rud, E W

    1998-12-01

    HIV-1 viral load quantitation is now recognized as a useful tool to monitor the efficiency of antiviral treatment and a powerful predictor of disease outcome. Three HIV-1 viral load quantitation methods have been currently available as commercial kits in Canada since 1996. To evaluate the ability to quantify HIV-1 RNA in plasma of the Amplicor HIV Monitor Test, the NASBA HIV-1 RNA QT Assay and the Quantiplex HIV RNA Assay, version 2.0, at comparable lower detection limits. Blood was collected from 50 HIV-1-infected patients at various stages of infection and therapy. CD4+ cell count were estimated by flow cytometry. Plasma was isolated and tested in duplicate on four occasions using viral load kits from a single lot. HIV RNA data, performance, sensitivity and intra- and inter-assay variability were compared. RNA could be quantified in 33 patients by each technique. An inverse correlation was observed between viral load level and CD4+ cell counts in patients with counts below 200. Monitor could detect RNA in 94% of patients, but it showed the greatest variability and failure rate. Quantiplex 2.0 could detect HIV-1 RNA in 78%, and NASBA in 88% of the patients at theoretically equivalent lower detection limits, suggesting that the detection limit of Quantiplex 2.0 may be higher than 500 HIV-1 RNA copies per ml. NASBA had the fewest invalid tests and good reproducibility, comparable to that of Quantiplex 2.0. The mean values from NASBA and Monitor were the most similar but the best correlation was observed between Monitor and Quantiplex 2.0 results. Monitor, NASBA and Quantiplex results were comparable, although those obtained by Quantiplex were significantly lower. Performing this study at comparable detection limits showed that the detection limit of Quantiplex 2.0 may be higher than stated by the manufacturer.

  13. Genotypic resistance tests in the management of the HIV-infected patient at virological failure.

    PubMed

    Aceti, Antonio; Carosi, Giampiero

    2003-01-01

    Witness for the prosecution: The IAS-USA and Euro-Resistance Group HIV guidelines recommend the use of resistance testing for all patients experiencing treatment failure for whom therapy change is being considered. However, these assays suffer from several limitations (problems in sensitivity, specificity, complexity of interpretation, cost) and the results of the prospective studies evaluating genotype-guided treatment in HIV patients failing antiretroviral treatment are inconclusive and partially contrasting (virological benefit is short-term). On this basis, incorporating genotypic resistance assays into the clinical management of HIV patients experiencing first treatment failure is not a sufficiently evidence-based practice. Witness for the defence: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has markedly improved the prognosis of HIV-infected patients by controlling HIV replication. However, HAART fails to control HIV replication in an increasing number of patients as a result of a complex array of causes. There is now substantial evidence that the emergence of drug resistance is a leading cause (as well as consequence) of antiretroviral therapy failure. Moreover, HIV drug resistance can be transmitted and this can favour initial treatment failure. Several retrospective and prospective studies have indicated that both genotypic and phenotypic HIV-1 drug resistance testing results are associated with, or predictive of, the virological outcome. As a consequence, international guidelines have soundly recommended the use of resistance testing to guide treatment choices after virological failure. The rationale and advantages of using such testing after first virological failure will be discussed.

  14. Human papillomavirus prevalence and genotype distribution among HIV-infected women in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Kyoung; Cho, Heerim; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Seung Geun; Lee, Sang Yeup; Kim, Ki Hyung; Lee, Chang Hun; Chung, Joo Seop; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women in Korea is not well established. A retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV infection among HIV-infected women in Korea. HPV DNA genotype and cervical cytology were examined in 60 HIV-positive women and 1,938 HIV-negative women. HPV genotypes were analyzed by using a HPV DNA chip. HIV-infected women had higher prevalence of high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) infection (30% vs 4.9%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 6.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.63-13.34, P<0.001) and abnormal cervical cytology (18.3% vs 1.8%, AOR, 10.94; 95% CI, 5.18-23.1, P<0.001) compared with controls. The most common hr-HPV genotype detected in HIV-infected women was HPV 16 (10%), followed by 18 (6.7%) and 52 (5%). Prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine-preventable types (HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18) was 21.7% and 2.3% in HIV-positive women and HIV-negative women, respectively. Age was a significant risk factor for hr-HPV infection in HIV-infected women (P=0.039). The presence of hr-HPV was significantly associated with abnormal cervical cytology (P<0.001). These findings suggest that HPV testing for cervical cancer screening in HIV-infected women would be necessary, particularly among young age group.

  15. Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Genotype Distribution among HIV-Infected Women in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Kyoung; Cho, Heerim; Lee, Seung Geun; Lee, Sang Yeup; Kim, Ki Hyung; Lee, Chang Hun; Chung, Joo Seop; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women in Korea is not well established. A retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV infection among HIV-infected women in Korea. HPV DNA genotype and cervical cytology were examined in 60 HIV-positive women and 1,938 HIV-negative women. HPV genotypes were analyzed by using a HPV DNA chip. HIV-infected women had higher prevalence of high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) infection (30% vs 4.9%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 6.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.63-13.34, P<0.001) and abnormal cervical cytology (18.3% vs 1.8%, AOR, 10.94; 95% CI, 5.18-23.1, P<0.001) compared with controls. The most common hr-HPV genotype detected in HIV-infected women was HPV 16 (10%), followed by 18 (6.7%) and 52 (5%). Prevalence of quadrivalent vaccine-preventable types (HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18) was 21.7% and 2.3% in HIV-positive women and HIV-negative women, respectively. Age was a significant risk factor for hr-HPV infection in HIV-infected women (P=0.039). The presence of hr-HPV was significantly associated with abnormal cervical cytology (P<0.001). These findings suggest that HPV testing for cervical cancer screening in HIV-infected women would be necessary, particularly among young age group. PMID:24431902

  16. Defective HIV-1 proviruses produce novel protein-coding RNA species in HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Imamichi, Hiromi; Dewar, Robin L; Adelsberger, Joseph W; Rehm, Catherine A; O'Doherty, Una; Paxinos, Ellen E; Fauci, Anthony S; Lane, H Clifford

    2016-08-02

    Despite years of plasma HIV-RNA levels <40 copies per milliliter during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the majority of HIV-infected patients exhibit persistent seropositivity to HIV-1 and evidence of immune activation. These patients also show persistence of proviruses of HIV-1 in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Many of these proviruses have been characterized as defective and thus thought to contribute little to HIV-1 pathogenesis. By combining 5'LTR-to-3'LTR single-genome amplification and direct amplicon sequencing, we have identified the presence of "defective" proviruses capable of transcribing novel unspliced HIV-RNA (usHIV-RNA) species in patients at all stages of HIV-1 infection. Although these novel usHIV-RNA transcripts had exon structures that were different from those of the known spliced HIV-RNA variants, they maintained translationally competent ORFs, involving elements of gag, pol, env, rev, and nef to encode a series of novel HIV-1 chimeric proteins. These novel usHIV-RNAs were detected in five of five patients, including four of four patients with prolonged viral suppression of HIV-RNA levels <40 copies per milliliter for more than 6 y. Our findings suggest that the persistent defective proviruses of HIV-1 are not "silent," but rather may contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis by stimulating host-defense pathways that target foreign nucleic acids and proteins.

  17. Defective HIV-1 proviruses produce novel protein-coding RNA species in HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Imamichi, Hiromi; Dewar, Robin L.; Adelsberger, Joseph W.; Rehm, Catherine A.; O’Doherty, Una; Paxinos, Ellen E.; Fauci, Anthony S.; Lane, H. Clifford

    2016-01-01

    Despite years of plasma HIV-RNA levels <40 copies per milliliter during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the majority of HIV-infected patients exhibit persistent seropositivity to HIV-1 and evidence of immune activation. These patients also show persistence of proviruses of HIV-1 in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Many of these proviruses have been characterized as defective and thus thought to contribute little to HIV-1 pathogenesis. By combining 5′LTR-to-3′LTR single-genome amplification and direct amplicon sequencing, we have identified the presence of “defective” proviruses capable of transcribing novel unspliced HIV-RNA (usHIV-RNA) species in patients at all stages of HIV-1 infection. Although these novel usHIV-RNA transcripts had exon structures that were different from those of the known spliced HIV-RNA variants, they maintained translationally competent ORFs, involving elements of gag, pol, env, rev, and nef to encode a series of novel HIV-1 chimeric proteins. These novel usHIV-RNAs were detected in five of five patients, including four of four patients with prolonged viral suppression of HIV-RNA levels <40 copies per milliliter for more than 6 y. Our findings suggest that the persistent defective proviruses of HIV-1 are not “silent,” but rather may contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis by stimulating host-defense pathways that target foreign nucleic acids and proteins. PMID:27432972

  18. A Comparison of Genotype-Phenotype Maps for RNA and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ferrada, Evandro; Wagner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the genotype (sequence) and the phenotype (structure) of macromolecules affects their ability to evolve new structures and functions. We here compare the genotype space organization of proteins and RNA molecules to identify differences that may affect this ability. To this end, we computationally study the genotype-phenotype relationship for short RNA and lattice proteins of a reduced monomer alphabet size, to make exhaustive analysis and direct comparison of their genotype spaces feasible. We find that many fewer protein molecules than RNA molecules fold, but they fold into many more structures than RNA. In consequence, protein phenotypes have smaller genotype networks whose member genotypes tend to be more similar than for RNA phenotypes. Neighborhoods in sequence space of a given radius around an RNA molecule contain more novel structures than for protein molecules. We compare this property to evidence from natural RNA and protein molecules, and conclude that RNA genotype space may be more conducive to the evolution of new structure phenotypes. PMID:22768948

  19. Translation initiation of the HIV-1 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Ohlmann, Théophile; Mengardi, Chloé; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Translation initiation of the full-length mRNA of the human immunodeficiency virus can occur via several different mechanisms to maintain production of viral structural proteins throughout the replication cycle. HIV-1 viral protein synthesis can occur by the use of both a cap-dependant and IRES-driven mechanism depending on the physiological conditions of the cell and the status of the ongoing infection. For both of these mechanisms there is a need for several viral and cellular co-factors for optimal translation of the viral mRNA. In this review we will describe the mechanism used by the full-length mRNA to initiate translation highlighting the role of co-factors within this process. A particular emphasis will be given to the role of the DDX3 RNA helicase in HIV-1 mRNA translation initiation. PMID:26779410

  20. Translation initiation of the HIV-1 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Ohlmann, Théophile; Mengardi, Chloé; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2014-09-01

    Translation initiation of the full-length mRNA of the human immunodeficiency virus can occur via several different mechanisms to maintain production of viral structural proteins throughout the replication cycle. HIV-1 viral protein synthesis can occur by the use of both a cap-dependant and IRES-driven mechanism depending on the physiological conditions of the cell and the status of the ongoing infection. For both of these mechanisms there is a need for several viral and cellular co-factors for optimal translation of the viral mRNA. In this review we will describe the mechanism used by the full-length mRNA to initiate translation highlighting the role of co-factors within this process. A particular emphasis will be given to the role of the DDX3 RNA helicase in HIV-1 mRNA translation initiation.

  1. Prediction of HIV-1 coreceptor usage (tropism) by sequence analysis using a genotypic approach.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Saleta; Kaiser, Rolf; Lübke, Nadine; Thielen, Alexander; Schuelter, Eugen; Heger, Eva; Däumer, Martin; Reuter, Stefan; Esser, Stefan; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Pfister, Herbert; Oette, Mark; Lengauer, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    Maraviroc (MVC) is the first licensed antiretroviral drug from the class of coreceptor antagonists. It binds to the host coreceptor CCR5, which is used by the majority of HIV strains in order to infect the human immune cells (Fig. 1). Other HIV isolates use a different coreceptor, the CXCR4. Which receptor is used, is determined in the virus by the Env protein (Fig. 2). Depending on the coreceptor used, the viruses are classified as R5 or X4, respectively. MVC binds to the CCR5 receptor inhibiting the entry of R5 viruses into the target cell. During the course of disease, X4 viruses may emerge and outgrow the R5 viruses. Determination of coreceptor usage (also called tropism) is therefore mandatory prior to administration of MVC, as demanded by EMA and FDA. The studies for MVC efficiency MOTIVATE, MERIT and 1029 have been performed with the Trofile assay from Monogram, San Francisco, U.S.A. This is a high quality assay based on sophisticated recombinant tests. The acceptance for this test for daily routine is rather low outside of the U.S.A., since the European physicians rather tend to work with decentralized expert laboratories, which also provide concomitant resistance testing. These laboratories have undergone several quality assurance evaluations, the last one being presented in 2011. For several years now, we have performed tropism determinations based on sequence analysis from the HIV env-V3 gene region (V3). This region carries enough information to perform a reliable prediction. The genotypic determination of coreceptor usage presents advantages such as: shorter turnover time (equivalent to resistance testing), lower costs, possibility to adapt the results to the patients' needs and possibility of analysing clinical samples with very low or even undetectable viral load (VL), particularly since the number of samples analysed with VL < 1000 copies/μl roughly increased in the last years (Fig. 3). The main steps for tropism testing (Fig. 4) demonstrated in

  2. Prediction of HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage (Tropism) by Sequence Analysis using a Genotypic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Saleta; Kaiser, Rolf; Lübke, Nadine; Thielen, Alexander; Schuelter, Eugen; Heger, Eva; Däumer, Martin; Reuter, Stefan; Esser, Stefan; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Pfister, Herbert; Oette, Mark; Lengauer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Maraviroc (MVC) is the first licensed antiretroviral drug from the class of coreceptor antagonists. It binds to the host coreceptor CCR5, which is used by the majority of HIV strains in order to infect the human immune cells (Fig. 1). Other HIV isolates use a different coreceptor, the CXCR4. Which receptor is used, is determined in the virus by the Env protein (Fig. 2). Depending on the coreceptor used, the viruses are classified as R5 or X4, respectively. MVC binds to the CCR5 receptor inhibiting the entry of R5 viruses into the target cell. During the course of disease, X4 viruses may emerge and outgrow the R5 viruses. Determination of coreceptor usage (also called tropism) is therefore mandatory prior to administration of MVC, as demanded by EMA and FDA. The studies for MVC efficiency MOTIVATE, MERIT and 1029 have been performed with the Trofile assay from Monogram, San Francisco, U.S.A. This is a high quality assay based on sophisticated recombinant tests. The acceptance for this test for daily routine is rather low outside of the U.S.A., since the European physicians rather tend to work with decentralized expert laboratories, which also provide concomitant resistance testing. These laboratories have undergone several quality assurance evaluations, the last one being presented in 20111. For several years now, we have performed tropism determinations based on sequence analysis from the HIV env-V3 gene region (V3)2. This region carries enough information to perform a reliable prediction. The genotypic determination of coreceptor usage presents advantages such as: shorter turnover time (equivalent to resistance testing), lower costs, possibility to adapt the results to the patients' needs and possibility of analysing clinical samples with very low or even undetectable viral load (VL), particularly since the number of samples analysed with VL<1000 copies/μl roughly increased in the last years (Fig. 3). The main steps for tropism testing (Fig. 4) demonstrated in

  3. The cellular factor TRP-185 regulates RNA polymerase II binding to HIV-1 TAR RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Baer, F; Lane, W S; Gaynor, R B

    1995-01-01

    Activation of HIV-1 gene expression by the transactivator Tat is dependent on an RNA regulatory element located downstream of the transcription initiation site known as TAR. To characterize cellular factors that bind to TAR RNA and are involved in the regulation of HIV-1 transcription, HeLa nuclear extract was fractionated and RNA gel-retardation analysis was performed. This analysis indicated that only two cellular factors, RNA polymerase II and the previously characterized TAR RNA loop binding protein TRP-185, were capable of binding specifically to TAR RNA. To elucidate the function of TRP-185, it was purified from HeLa nuclear extract, amino acid microsequence analysis was performed and a cDNA encoding TRP-185 was isolated. TRP-185 is a novel protein of 1621 amino acids which contains a leucine zipper and potentially a novel RNA binding motif. In gel-retardation assays, the binding of both recombinant TRP-185 and RNA polymerase II was dependent on the presence of an additional group of proteins designated cellular cofactors. Both the TAR RNA loop and bulge sequences were critical for RNA polymerase II binding, while TRP-185 binding was dependent only on TAR RNA loop sequences. Since binding of TRP-185 and RNA polymerase II to TAR RNA was found to be mutually exclusive, our results suggest that TRP-185 may function either alone or in conjunction with Tat to disengage RNA polymerase II which is stalled upon binding to nascently synthesized TAR RNA during transcriptional elongation. Images PMID:8846792

  4. HIV-1 tropism: a comparison between RNA and proviral DNA in routine clinical samples from Chilean patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV in Chile has a notification rate of 0.01%. Coreceptor antagonists are a family of antiretroviral drugs that are used with the prior knowledge of patients HIV-1 tropism. Viral RNA-based tropism detection requires a plasma viral load ≥1000 copies/mL, while proviral DNA-based detection can be performed regardless of plasma viral load. This test is useful in patients with low or undetectable viral loads and would benefit with a proper therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between HIV RNA and proviral genotypic DNA tropism tests. Findings Forty three Chilean patients were examined using population-based V3 sequencing, and a geno2pheno false-positive rate (FPR) cutoff values of 5, 5.75, 10 and 20%. With cutoff 5.75% a concordance of 88.4% in tropism prediction was found after a simultaneous comparison between HIV tropism assessment by RNA and DNA. In total, five discrepancies (11.6%) were found, 3 patients were RNA-R5/DNA-X4 and two were RNA-X4/DNA-R5. Proviral DNA enabled the prediction of tropism in patients with a low or undetectable viral load. For cutoff 5 and 5.75% genotypic testing using proviral DNA showed a similar sensitivity for X4 as RNA. We found that the highest sensitivity for detecting the X4 strain occurred with proviral DNA and cutoff of 10 and 20%. Viral loads were higher among X4 strain carriers than among R5 strain carriers (p < 0.05). Conclusions A high degree of concordance was found between tropism testing with RNA and testing with proviral DNA. Our results suggest that proviral DNA-based genotypic tropism testing is a useful option for patients with low or undetectable viral load who require a different therapy. PMID:24165156

  5. HIV AND HCV COINFECTION: PREVALENCE, ASSOCIATED FACTORS AND GENOTYPE CHARACTERIZATION IN THE MIDWEST REGION OF BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Solange Zacalusni; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Lorenzo, Paulo Cesar; Puga, Marco Antonio Moreira; Tanaka, Tayana Serpa Ortiz; Thomaz, Danilo Yamamoto; Martins, Regina Maria Bringel; Druzian, Angelita Fernandes; Lindenberg, Andréa Siqueira Campos; Torres, Marina Sawada; Pereira, Sérgio A.; Villar, Livia Melo; Lampe, Elisabete; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study on prevalence, associated factors and genotype distribution of HCV infection was conducted among 848 HIV-infected patients recruited at reference centers in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The prevalence rate of HIV-HCV coinfection was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.2 to 8.6). In multivariable analysis, increasing age, use of illicit drugs (injection and non-injection), a history of blood transfusion before 1994, and the absence of a steady partnership were significant independent associated factors for HIV-HCV coinfection. The phylogenetic analysis based on the NS5B region revealed the presence of two major circulating genotypes of HCV: genotypes 1 (58.3%) and 3 (41.7%). The prevalence of HIV-HCV coinfection was lower than those reported in studies conducted with HIV-infected patients in different regions of Brazil, due to the fact that illicit drug use is not a frequent mode of HIV transmission in this region of Brazil. Serologic screening of HIV-patients for HCV before initiating antiretroviral treatment, a comprehensive identification of associated factors, and the implementation of effective harm reduction programs are highly recommended to provide useful information for treatment and to prevent HCV coinfection in these patients. PMID:25351547

  6. Translational Control of the HIV Unspliced Genomic RNA

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Araya, Bárbara; Ohlmann, Théophile; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional control in both HIV-1 and HIV-2 is a highly regulated process that commences in the nucleus of the host infected cell and finishes by the expression of viral proteins in the cytoplasm. Expression of the unspliced genomic RNA is particularly controlled at the level of RNA splicing, export, and translation. It appears increasingly obvious that all these steps are interconnected and they result in the building of a viral ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) that must be efficiently translated in the cytosolic compartment. This review summarizes our knowledge about the genesis, localization, and expression of this viral RNP. PMID:26247956

  7. Impact of HIV-1 group O genetic diversity on genotypic resistance interpretation by algorithms designed for HIV-1 group M.

    PubMed

    Depatureaux, Agnès; Charpentier, Charlotte; Leoz, Marie; Unal, Guillemette; Damond, Florence; Kfutwah, Anfunbom; Vessière, Aurélia; Simon, François; Plantier, Jean-Christophe

    2011-02-01

    HIV-1 group O (HIV-O) is characterized by a high genetic divergence from HIV-1 group M viruses. Little is known about the therapeutic impact of this diversity. The aim of this study was to assess in a large series of samples (1) the genotypic impact of natural polymorphism of the HIV-O reverse transcriptase and protease genes; and (2) the predictive value of resistance interpretation algorithms developed for HIV-1 group M when used for highly mutated HIV-O viruses. Sixty-eight antiretroviral-naive and 9 highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-O-infected patients were included. The viruses were sequenced and resistance-associated mutations were identified using 3 different algorithms (Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les hépatites virales, Rega, Stanford). All HIV-O samples naturally exhibited the A98G and V179E resistance mutations in the reverse transcriptase region; 54% of samples presented the Y181C mutation, conferring resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Twelve minor resistance mutations, present in more than 75% of the protease sequences, led to the different algorithms giving discrepant results for nelfinavir and saquinavir susceptibility. A marked virological response was observed in 8 of the 9 antiretroviral-experienced patients, despite the prediction of limited activity of the combination for 5 to 8 patients according to the algorithm used. The high level of natural polymorphism in HIV-O genes, and the important discrepancies between genotypic resistance interpretation and the virological response, emphasize the need for resistance algorithm rules better adapted to HIV-O.

  8. Two alternating structures of the HIV-1 leader RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Huthoff, H; Berkhout, B

    2001-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate that the HIV-1 leader RNA exists in two alternative conformations, a branched structure consisting of several well-known hairpin motifs and a more stable structure that is formed by extensive long-distance base pairing. The latter conformation was first identified as a compactly folded RNA that migrates unusually fast in nondenaturing gels. The minimally required domains for formation of this conformer were determined by mutational analysis. The poly(A) and DIS regions of the leader are the major determinants of this RNA conformation. Further biochemical characterization of this conformer revealed that both hairpins are disrupted to allow extensive long-distance base pairing. As the DIS hairpin is known to be instrumental for formation of the HIV-1 RNA dimer, the interplay between formation of the conformer and dimerization was addressed. Formation of the conformer and the RNA dimer are mutually exclusive. Consequently, the conformer must rearrange into a branched structure that exposes the dimer initiation signal (DIS) hairpin, thus triggering formation of the RNA dimer. This structural rearrangement is facilitated by the viral nucleocapsid protein NC. We propose that this structural polymorphism of the HIV-1 leader RNA acts as a molecular switch in the viral replication cycle. PMID:11214176

  9. Responder Interferon λ Genotypes Are Associated With Higher Risk of Liver Fibrosis in HIV-Hepatitis C Virus Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Moqueet, Nasheed; Cooper, Curtis; Gill, John; Hull, Mark; Platt, Robert W; Klein, Marina B

    2016-07-01

    Liver fibrosis progresses faster in individuals coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Interferon λ3 (IFN-λ3) has both antiviral and proinflammatory properties. Genotypes at IFNL single-nucleotide proteins (SNPs; rs12979860CC and rs8099917TT) are linked to higher HCV clearance, potentially via rs8103142. We examined the relationship between IFN-λ genotypes and significant liver fibrosis in HIV-HCV coinfection. From the prospective Canadian Co-infection Cohort (n = 1423), HCV RNA-positive participants in whom IFN-λ genotypes were detected and who were free of fibrosis, end-stage liver disease, and chronic hepatitis B at baseline (n = 485) were included. Time to significant fibrosis (defined as an aspartate transaminase level to platelet count ratio index [APRI] of ≥1.5) by IFN-λ genotypes was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards, with adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, alcohol use, CD4(+) T-cell count, HCV genotype, γ-glutamyl transferase level, and baseline APRI. Haplotype analysis was performed, with adjustment for ethnicity. A total of 125 participants developed fibrosis over 1595 person-years (7.84 cases/100 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.58-9.34 cases/100 person-years). Each genotype was associated with an increased fibrosis risk, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.37 (95% CI, .94-2.02) for rs12979860CC, 1.34 (95% CI, .91-1.97) for rs8103142TT, and 1.79 (95% CI, 1.24-2.57) for rs8099917TT. Haplotype TCT was also linked with a higher risk (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, .73-1.77]). IFN-λ SNPs rs12979860, rs8099917, and rs81013142 were individually linked to higher rates of fibrosis in individuals with HIV-HCV coinfection. IFN-λ genotypes may be useful to target HCV treatments to people who are at higher risk of liver disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  10. Near real-time monitoring of HIV transmission hotspots from routine HIV genotyping: an implementation case study.

    PubMed

    Poon, Art F Y; Gustafson, Réka; Daly, Patricia; Zerr, Laura; Demlow, S Ellen; Wong, Jason; Woods, Conan K; Hogg, Robert S; Krajden, Mel; Moore, David; Kendall, Perry; Montaner, Julio S G; Harrigan, P Richard

    2016-05-01

    HIV evolves rapidly and therefore infections with similar genetic sequences are likely linked by recent transmission events. Clusters of related infections can represent subpopulations with high rates of transmission. We describe the implementation of an automated near real-time system to monitor and characterise HIV transmission hotspots in British Columbia, Canada. In this implementation case study, we applied a monitoring system to the British Columbia drug treatment database, which holds more than 32 000 anonymised HIV genotypes for nearly 9000 residents of British Columbia living with HIV. On average, five to six new HIV genotypes are deposited in the database every day, which triggers an automated reanalysis of the entire database. We extracted clusters of five or more individuals with short phylogenetic distances between their respective HIV sequences. The system generated monthly reports of the growth and characteristics of clusters that were distributed to public health officers. In June, 2014, the monitoring system detected the expansion of a cluster by 11 new cases during 3 months, including eight cases with transmitted drug resistance. This cluster generally comprised young men who have sex with men. The subsequent report precipitated an enhanced public health follow-up to ensure linkage to care and treatment initiation in the affected subpopulation. Of the nine cases associated with this follow-up, all had already been linked to care and five cases had started treatment. Subsequent to the follow-up, three additional cases started treatment and most cases achieved suppressed viral loads. During the next 12 months, we detected 12 new cases in this cluster with reduction in the onward transmission of drug resistance. Our findings show the first application of an automated phylogenetic system monitoring a clinical database to detect a recent HIV outbreak and support the ensuing public health response. By making secondary use of routinely collected HIV

  11. HIV-2 Integrase Polymorphisms and Longitudinal Genotypic Analysis of HIV-2 Infected Patients Failing a Raltegravir-Containing Regimen

    PubMed Central

    Cavaco-Silva, Joana; Abecasis, Ana; Miranda, Ana Cláudia; Poças, José; Narciso, Jorge; Águas, Maria João; Maltez, Fernando; Almeida, Isabel; Germano, Isabel; Diniz, António; Gonçalves, Maria de Fátima; Gomes, Perpétua; Cunha, Celso; Camacho, Ricardo Jorge

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the HIV-2 integrase gene polymorphisms and the pathways to resistance of HIV-2 patients failing a raltegravir-containing regimen, we studied 63 integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI)-naïve patients, and 10 heavily pretreated patients exhibiting virological failure while receiving a salvage raltegravir-containing regimen. All patients were infected by HIV-2 group A. 61.4% of the integrase residues were conserved, including the catalytic motif residues. No INSTI-major resistance mutations were detected in the virus population from naïve patients, but two amino acids that are secondary resistance mutations to INSTIs in HIV-1 were observed. The 10 raltegravir-experienced patients exhibited resistance mutations via three main genetic pathways: N155H, Q148R, and eventually E92Q - T97A. The 155 pathway was preferentially used (7/10 patients). Other mutations associated to raltegravir resistance in HIV-1 were also observed in our HIV-2 population (V151I and D232N), along with several novel mutations previously unreported. Data retrieved from this study should help build a more robust HIV-2-specific algorithm for the genotypic interpretation of raltegravir resistance, and contribute to improve the clinical monitoring of HIV-2-infected patients. PMID:24681625

  12. HIV-2 integrase polymorphisms and longitudinal genotypic analysis of HIV-2 infected patients failing a raltegravir-containing regimen.

    PubMed

    Cavaco-Silva, Joana; Abecasis, Ana; Miranda, Ana Cláudia; Poças, José; Narciso, Jorge; Águas, Maria João; Maltez, Fernando; Almeida, Isabel; Germano, Isabel; Diniz, António; Gonçalves, Maria de Fátima; Gomes, Perpétua; Cunha, Celso; Camacho, Ricardo Jorge

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the HIV-2 integrase gene polymorphisms and the pathways to resistance of HIV-2 patients failing a raltegravir-containing regimen, we studied 63 integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI)-naïve patients, and 10 heavily pretreated patients exhibiting virological failure while receiving a salvage raltegravir-containing regimen. All patients were infected by HIV-2 group A. 61.4% of the integrase residues were conserved, including the catalytic motif residues. No INSTI-major resistance mutations were detected in the virus population from naïve patients, but two amino acids that are secondary resistance mutations to INSTIs in HIV-1 were observed. The 10 raltegravir-experienced patients exhibited resistance mutations via three main genetic pathways: N155H, Q148R, and eventually E92Q - T97A. The 155 pathway was preferentially used (7/10 patients). Other mutations associated to raltegravir resistance in HIV-1 were also observed in our HIV-2 population (V151I and D232N), along with several novel mutations previously unreported. Data retrieved from this study should help build a more robust HIV-2-specific algorithm for the genotypic interpretation of raltegravir resistance, and contribute to improve the clinical monitoring of HIV-2-infected patients.

  13. The virion-associated incoming HIV-1 RNA genome is not targeted by RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Westerhout, Ellen M; ter Brake, Olivier; Berkhout, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Background RNA interference (RNAi) has proven to be a powerful tool to suppress gene expression and can be used as a therapeutic strategy against human pathogenic viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Theoretically, RNAi-mediated inhibition can occur at two points in the replication cycle, upon viral entry before reverse transcription of the RNA genome, and on the newly transcribed viral RNA transcripts. There have been conflicting results on whether RNAi can target the RNA genome of infecting HIV-1 particles. We have addressed this issue with HIV-1-based lentiviral vectors. Results We determined the transduction efficiency of a lentiviral vector, as measured by GFP expressing cells, which reflects the number of successful integration events in a cell line stably expressing shNef. We did not observe a difference in the transduction efficiency comparing lentiviral vectors with or without the Nef target sequence in their genome. The results were similar with particles pseudotyped with either the VSV-G or HIV-1 envelope. Additionally, no reduced transduction efficiencies were observed with multiple other shRNAs targeting the vector genome or with synthetic siNef when transiently transfected prior to transduction. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the incoming HIV-1 RNA genome is not targeted by RNAi, probably due to inaccessibility to the RNAi machinery. Thus, therapeutic RNAi strategies aimed at preventing proviral integration should be targeting cellular receptors or co-factors involved in pre-integration events. PMID:16948865

  14. HPV Genotype Distribution in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia among HIV-Infected Women in Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Mane, Arati; Nirmalkar, Amit; Risbud, Arun R.; Vermund, Sten H.; Mehendale, Sanjay M.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.

    2012-01-01

    Background The distribution of HPV genotypes, their association with rigorously confirmed cervical precancer endpoints, and factors associated with HPV infection have not been previously documented among HIV-infected women in India. We conducted an observational study to expand this evidence base in this population at high risk of cervical cancer. Methods HIV-infected women (N = 278) in Pune, India underwent HPV genotyping by Linear Array assay. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) disease ascertainment was maximized by detailed assessment using cytology, colposcopy, and histopathology and a composite endpoint. Results CIN2+ was detected in 11.2% while CIN3 was present in 4.7% participants. HPV genotypes were present in 52.5% (146/278) and ‘carcinogenic’ HPV genotypes were present in 35.3% (98/278) HIV-infected women. ‘Possibly carcinogenic’ and ‘non/unknown carcinogenic’ HPV genotypes were present in 14.7% and 29.5% participants respectively. Multiple (≥2) HPV genotypes were present in half (50.7%) of women with HPV, while multiple ‘carcinogenic’ HPV genotypes were present in just over a quarter (27.8%) of women with ‘carcinogenic’ HPV. HPV16 was the commonest genotype, present in 12% overall, as well as in 47% and 50% in CIN2+ and CIN3 lesions with a single carcinogenic HPV infection, respectively. The carcinogenic HPV genotypes in declining order of prevalence overall included HPV 16, 56, 18, 39, 35, 51, 31, 59, 33, 58, 68, 45 and 52. Factors independently associated with ‘carcinogenic’ HPV type detection were reporting ≥2 lifetime sexual partners and having lower CD4+ count. HPV16 detection was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts and currently receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion HPV16 was the most common HPV genotype, although a wide diversity and high multiplicity of HPV genotypes was observed. Type-specific attribution of carcinogenic HPV genotypes in CIN3 lesions in HIV-infected women, and etiologic

  15. Amplification of the Gp41 gene for detection of mutations conferring resistance to HIV-1 fusion inhibitors on genotypic assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanumihardja, J.; Bela, B.

    2017-08-01

    Fusion inhibitors have potential for future use in HIV control programs in Indonesia, so the capacity to test resistance to such drugs needs to be developed. Resistance-detection with a genotypic assay began with amplification of the target gene, gp41. Based on the sequence of the two most common HIV subtypes in Indonesia, AE and B, a primer pair was designed. Plasma samples containing both subtypes were extracted to obtain HIV RNA. Using PCR, the primer pair was used to produce the amplification product, the identity of which was checked based on length under electrophoresis. Eleven plasma samples were included in this study. One-step PCR using the primer pair was able to amplify gp41 from 54.5% of the samples, and an unspecific amplification product was seen in 1.1% of the samples. Amplification failed in 36.4% of the samples, which may be due to an inappropriate primer sequence. It was also found that the optimal annealing temperature for producing the single expected band was 57.2 °C. With one-step PCR, the designed primer pair amplified the HIV-1 gp41 gene from subtypes AE and B. However, further research should be done to determine the conditions that will increase the sensitivity and specificity of the amplification process.

  16. Stability of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels among interferon-naïve HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals treated with combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Grint, D; Peters, L; Reekie, J; Soriano, V; Kirk, O; Knysz, B; Suetnov, O; Lazzarin, A; Ledergerber, B; Rockstroh, J K; Mocroft, A

    2013-07-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease. High HCV RNA levels have been associated with poor treatment response. This study aimed to examine the natural history of HCV RNA in chronically HCV/HIV-coinfected individuals. Mixed models were used to analyse the natural history of HCV RNA changes over time in HIV-positive patients with chronic HCV infection. A total of 1541 individuals, predominantly White (91%), male (73%), from southern (35%) and western central Europe (23%) and with HCV genotype 1 (58%), were included in the analysis. The median follow-up time was 5.0 years [interquartile range (IQR) 2.8 to 8.3 years]. Among patients not on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HCV RNA levels increased by a mean 27.6% per year [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.1-53.5%; P = 0.0098]. Among patients receiving cART, HCV RNA levels were stable, increasing by a mean 2.6% per year (95% CI -1.1 to 6.5%; P = 0.17). Baseline HCV RNA levels were 25.5% higher (95% CI 8.8 to 39.1%; P = 0.0044) in individuals with HCV genotype 1 compared with HCV genotypes 2, 3 and 4. A 1 log HIV-1 RNA copies/mL increase in HIV RNA was associated with a 10.9% increase (95% CI 2.3 to 20.2%; P = 0.012) in HCV RNA. While HCV RNA levels increased significantly in patients prior to receiving cART, among those treated with cART HCV RNA levels remained stable over time. © 2013 British HIV Association.

  17. Longitudinal analysis of HIV-1 coreceptor tropism by single and triplicate HIV-1 RNA and DNA sequencing in patients undergoing successful first-line antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Meini, Genny; Rossetti, Barbara; Bianco, Claudia; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Sighinolfi, Laura; Monno, Laura; Castagna, Antonella; Rozera, Gabriella; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Zazzi, Maurizio; De Luca, Andrea; Moroni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Armignacco, O.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Perno, C. F.; von Schloesser, F.; Viale, P.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Antinori, A.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Girardi, E.; Lo Caputo, S.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Andreoni, M.; Ammassari, A.; Antinori, A.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M. R.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cingolani, A.; Cinque, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; d'Arminio Monforte, A; De Luca, A.; Di Biagio, A.; Girardi, E.; Gianotti, N.; Gori, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lapadula, G.; Lichtner, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marchetti, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Rusconi, S.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Cicconi, P.; Fanti, I.; Formenti, T.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Angarano, G.; Monno, L.; Santoro, C.; Maggiolo, F.; Suardi, C.; Viale, P.; Vanino, E.; Verucchi, G.; Castelli, F.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Minardi, C.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P.E.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Mazzotta, F.; Lo Caputo, S.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, G.; Alessandrini, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Bonfanti, P.; Caramma, I.; Castelli, A. P.; Galli, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Rizzardini, G.; Puoti, M.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Piolini, R.; Castagna, A.; Salpietro, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Cicconi, P.; Marchetti, G.; Mussini, C.; Puzzolante, C.; Gori, A.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Guida, M. G.; Gargiulo, M.; Baldelli, F.; Francisci, D.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Cauda, R.; Andreoni, M.; Antinori, A.; Vullo, V.; Cingolani, A.; d'Avino, A.; Ammassari, A.; Gallo, L.; Nicastri, E.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Tebano, G.; Cattelan, A.; Mura, M. S.; Madeddu, G.; Caramello, P.; Di Perri, G.; Orofino, G. C.; Bonora, S.; Sciandra, M.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Maraviroc has been shown to be effective in patients harbouring CCR5-tropic HIV-1. While this CCR5 antagonist has initially been used in salvage therapy, its excellent safety profile makes it ideal for antiretroviral treatment simplification strategies in patients with suppressed plasma viraemia. The aim of this study was to compare HIV-1 tropism as detected in baseline plasma RNA and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) DNA prior to first-line therapy and to analyse tropism evolution while on successful treatment. Methods HIV-1 tropism was determined using triplicate genotypic testing combined with geno2pheno[coreceptor] analysis at a 10% false positive rate in 42 patients. Paired pre-treatment plasma RNA and PBMC DNA and two subsequent PBMC DNA samples (the first obtained after reaching undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA and the second after at least 2 years of suppression of plasma viraemia) were evaluated. Results Coreceptor tropism was completely concordant in paired pre-treatment RNA and DNA, with 26.2% of HIV-1 sequences predicted to be non-CCR5-tropic. During follow-up, coreceptor tropism switches were detected in 4 (9.5%) patients without any preferential direction. Although false positive rate discrepancies within triplicates were common, the rate of discordance of coreceptor tropism assignment among triplicate results in this mostly CCR5-tropic dataset was only 2.1%, questioning the added value of triplicate testing compared with single testing. Conclusions HIV-1 coreceptor tropism changes during virologically successful first-line treatment are infrequent. HIV-1 DNA analysis may thus support the choice of a CCR5 antagonist in treatment switch strategies; however, maraviroc treatment outcome data are required to confirm this option. PMID:24155059

  18. On the Selective Packaging of Genomic RNA by HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Comas-Garcia, Mauricio; Davis, Sean R; Rein, Alan

    2016-09-12

    Like other retroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) selectively packages genomic RNA (gRNA) during virus assembly. However, in the absence of the gRNA, cellular messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are packaged. While the gRNA is selected because of its cis-acting packaging signal, the mechanism of this selection is not understood. The affinity of Gag (the viral structural protein) for cellular RNAs at physiological ionic strength is not much higher than that for the gRNA. However, binding to the gRNA is more salt-resistant, implying that it has a higher non-electrostatic component. We have previously studied the spacer 1 (SP1) region of Gag and showed that it can undergo a concentration-dependent conformational transition. We proposed that this transition represents the first step in assembly, i.e., the conversion of Gag to an assembly-ready state. To explain selective packaging of gRNA, we suggest here that binding of Gag to gRNA, with its high non-electrostatic component, triggers this conversion more readily than binding to other RNAs; thus we predict that a Gag-gRNA complex will nucleate particle assembly more efficiently than other Gag-RNA complexes. New data shows that among cellular mRNAs, those with long 3'-untranslated regions (UTR) are selectively packaged. It seems plausible that the 3'-UTR, a stretch of RNA not occupied by ribosomes, offers a favorable binding site for Gag.

  19. Abrogation of contaminating RNA activity in HIV-1 Gag VLPs.

    PubMed

    Valley-Omar, Ziyaad; Meyers, Ann E; Shephard, Enid G; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Rybicki, Edward P

    2011-10-06

    HIV-1 Gag virus like particles (VLPs) used as candidate vaccines are regarded as inert particles as they contain no replicative nucleic acid, although they do encapsidate cellular RNAs. During HIV-1 Gag VLP production in baculovirus-based expression systems, VLPs incorporate the baculovirus Gp64 envelope glycoprotein, which facilitates their entry into mammalian cells. This suggests that HIV-1 Gag VLPs produced using this system facilitate uptake and subsequent expression of encapsidated RNA in mammalian cells - an unfavourable characteristic for a vaccine. HIV-1 Gag VLPs encapsidating reporter chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) RNA, were made in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. The presence of Gp64 on the VLPs was verified by western blotting and RT-PCR used to detect and quantitate encapsidated CAT RNA. VLP samples were heated to inactivate CAT RNA. Unheated and heated VLPs incubated with selected mammalian cell lines and cell lysates tested for the presence of CAT protein by ELISA. Mice were inoculated with heated and unheated VLPs using a DNA prime VLP boost regimen. HIV-1 Gag VLPs produced had significantly high levels of Gp64 (~1650 Gp64 molecules/VLP) on their surfaces. The amount of encapsidated CAT RNA/μg Gag VLPs ranged between 0.1 to 7 ng. CAT protein was detected in 3 of the 4 mammalian cell lines incubated with VLPs. Incubation with heated VLPs resulted in BHK-21 and HeLa cell lysates showing reduced CAT protein levels compared with unheated VLPs and HEK-293 cells. Mice inoculated with a DNA prime VLP boost regimen developed Gag CD8 and CD4 T cell responses to GagCAT VLPs which also boosted a primary DNA response. Heating VLPs did not abrogate these immune responses but enhanced the Gag CD4 T cell responses by two-fold. Baculovirus-produced HIV-1 Gag VLPs encapsidating CAT RNA were taken up by selected mammalian cell lines. The presence of CAT protein indicates that encapsidated RNA was expressed in the mammalian cells. Heat

  20. HIV RNA testing in the context of nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Roland, Michelle E; Elbeik, Tarek A; Kahn, James O; Bamberger, Joshua D; Coates, Thomas J; Krone, Melissa R; Katz, Mitchell H; Busch, Michael P; Martin, Jeffrey N

    2004-08-01

    The specificity and positive predictive value of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA assays have not been evaluated in the setting of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). Plasma from subjects enrolled in a nonoccupational PEP study was tested with 2 branched-chain DNA (bDNA) assays, 2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and a transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) assay. Assay specificity and positive predictive value were determined for subjects who remained negative for HIV antibody for >or=3 months. In 329 subjects examined, the lowest specificities (90.1%-93.7%) were seen for bDNA testing performed in real time. The highest specificities were seen with batched bDNA version 3.0 (99.1%), standard PCR (99.4%), ultrasensitive PCR (100%), and TMA (99.6%) testing. Only the 2 assays with the highest specificities had positive predictive values >40%. For the bDNA assays, increasing the cutoff point at which a test is called positive (e.g., from 50 copies/mL to 500 copies/mL for version 3.0) increased both specificity and positive predictive values to 100%. The positive predictive value of HIV RNA assays in individuals presenting for PEP is unacceptably low for bDNA-based testing and possibly acceptable for PCR- and TMA-based testing. Routine use of HIV RNA assays in such individuals is not recommended.

  1. Examining small molecule: HIV RNA interactions using arrayed imaging reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaimayo, Wanaruk; Miller, Benjamin L.

    2014-03-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has been the subject of intense research for more than three decades as it causes an uncurable disease: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, AIDS. In the pursuit of a medical treatment, RNAtargeted small molecules are emerging as promising targets. In order to understand the binding kinetics of small molecules and HIV RNA, association (ka) and dissociation (kd) kinetic constants must be obtained, ideally for a large number of sequences to assess selectivity. We have developed Aqueous Array Imaged Reflectometry (Aq-AIR) to address this challenge. Using a simple light interference phenomenon, Aq-AIR provides real-time high-throughput multiplex capabilities to detect binding of targets to surface-immobilized probes in a label-free microarray format. The second generation of Aq-AIR consisting of high-sensitivity CCD camera and 12-μL flow cell was fabricated. The system performance was assessed by real-time detection of MBNL1-(CUG)10 and neomycin B - HIV RNA bindings. The results establish this second-generation Aq-AIR to be able to examine small molecules binding to RNA sequences specific to HIV.

  2. Structure and stability of RNA/RNA kissing complex: with application to HIV dimerization initiation signal.

    PubMed

    Cao, Song; Chen, Shi-Jie

    2011-12-01

    We develop a statistical mechanical model to predict the structure and folding stability of the RNA/RNA kissing-loop complex. One of the key ingredients of the theory is the conformational entropy for the RNA/RNA kissing complex. We employ the recently developed virtual bond-based RNA folding model (Vfold model) to evaluate the entropy parameters for the different types of kissing loops. A benchmark test against experiments suggests that the entropy calculation is reliable. As an application of the model, we apply the model to investigate the structure and folding thermodynamics for the kissing complex of the HIV-1 dimerization initiation signal. With the physics-based energetic parameters, we compute the free energy landscape for the HIV-1 dimer. From the energy landscape, we identify two minimal free energy structures, which correspond to the kissing-loop dimer and the extended-duplex dimer, respectively. The results support the two-step dimerization process for the HIV-1 replication cycle. Furthermore, based on the Vfold model and energy minimization, the theory can predict the native structure as well as the local minima in the free energy landscape. The root-mean-square deviations (RMSDs) for the predicted kissing-loop dimer and extended-duplex dimer are ~3.0 Å. The method developed here provides a new method to study the RNA/RNA kissing complex.

  3. Structure and stability of RNA/RNA kissing complex: with application to HIV dimerization initiation signal

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Chen, Shi-Jie

    2011-01-01

    We develop a statistical mechanical model to predict the structure and folding stability of the RNA/RNA kissing-loop complex. One of the key ingredients of the theory is the conformational entropy for the RNA/RNA kissing complex. We employ the recently developed virtual bond-based RNA folding model (Vfold model) to evaluate the entropy parameters for the different types of kissing loops. A benchmark test against experiments suggests that the entropy calculation is reliable. As an application of the model, we apply the model to investigate the structure and folding thermodynamics for the kissing complex of the HIV-1 dimerization initiation signal. With the physics-based energetic parameters, we compute the free energy landscape for the HIV-1 dimer. From the energy landscape, we identify two minimal free energy structures, which correspond to the kissing-loop dimer and the extended-duplex dimer, respectively. The results support the two-step dimerization process for the HIV-1 replication cycle. Furthermore, based on the Vfold model and energy minimization, the theory can predict the native structure as well as the local minima in the free energy landscape. The root-mean-square deviations (RMSDs) for the predicted kissing-loop dimer and extended-duplex dimer are ∼3.0 Å. The method developed here provides a new method to study the RNA/RNA kissing complex. PMID:22028361

  4. RNA structures, genomic organization and selection of recombinant HIV.

    PubMed

    Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Rossolillo, Paola; Negroni, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    Recombination is an evolutionary mechanism intrinsic to the evolution of many RNA viruses. In retroviruses and notably in the case of HIV, recombination is so frequent that it can be considered as part of its mode of replication. This process not only plays a central role in shaping HIV genetic diversity worldwide, but has also been involved in immune escape and development of resistance to antiviral treatments. Recombination does not create new mutations in the existing genetic repertoire of the virus, but creates new combinations of pre-existing polymorphisms. The simultaneous insertion of multiple substitutions in a single replication cycle leaves little room for the progressive coevolution of regions of proteins, RNA or, more in general, genomes, to accommodate these drastic sequence changes. Therefore, recombination, while allowing the virus to rapidly explore larger sequence space than the slow accumulation of point mutations, also runs the risk of generating non functional viruses. Recombination is the consequence of a switch in the template used during reverse transcription and is promoted by the presence of structured regions in the genomic RNA template. In this review, we discuss new observations suggesting that the distribution of RNA structures along the HIV genome may enhance recombination rates in regions where the resultant progeny is less likely to be impaired, and could therefore maximize the evolutionary value of this source of genetic diversity.

  5. Dynamic Motions of the HIV-1 Frameshift Site RNA

    PubMed Central

    Mouzakis, Kathryn D.; Dethoff, Elizabeth A.; Tonelli, Marco; Al-Hashimi, Hashim; Butcher, Samuel E.

    2015-01-01

    The HIV-1 frameshift site (FS) plays a critical role in viral replication. During translation, the HIV-1 FS transitions from a 3-helix to a 2-helix junction RNA secondary structure. The 2-helix junction structure contains a GGA bulge, and purine-rich bulges are common motifs in RNA secondary structure. Here, we investigate the dynamics of the HIV-1 FS 2-helix junction RNA. Interhelical motions were studied under different ionic conditions using NMR order tensor analysis of residual dipolar couplings. In 150 mM potassium, the RNA adopts a 43°(±4°) interhelical bend angle (β) and displays large amplitude, anisotropic interhelical motions characterized by a 0.52(±0.04) internal generalized degree of order (GDOint) and distinct order tensor asymmetries for its two helices (η = 0.26(±0.04) and 0.5(±0.1)). These motions are effectively quenched by addition of 2 mM magnesium (GDOint = 0.87(±0.06)), which promotes a near-coaxial conformation (β = 15°(±6°)) of the two helices. Base stacking in the bulge was investigated using the fluorescent purine analog 2-aminopurine. These results indicate that magnesium stabilizes extrahelical conformations of the bulge nucleotides, thereby promoting coaxial stacking of helices. These results are highly similar to previous studies of the HIV transactivation response RNA, despite a complete lack of sequence similarity between the two RNAs. Thus, the conformational space of these RNAs is largely determined by the topology of their interhelical junctions. PMID:25650931

  6. Diversity of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in breast milk from HIV-1-infected mothers.

    PubMed

    Becquart, Pierre; Courgnaud, Valerie; Willumsen, Juana; Van de Perre, Philippe

    2007-07-05

    We compared human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA and DNA populations in the different fractions of breast milk (lactoserum, lipid layer, cell pellet) and between right and left breasts in four HIV-1-infected mothers by analyzing the hypervariable env C2-V5 region. Phylogenetic analyses of the viral quasispecies revealed that RNA populations and DNA populations were clearly distinct and that viral RNA sequences were similar in lipid layer and lactoserum in the milk of 3 out of 4 mothers. Comparison of viral DNA between milk from right and left breast showed a differential distribution of variants in three mothers. In contrast, RNA variants detected from milk of the two breasts were mixed in 3 out of 4 mothers. This study suggests that each mammary gland is subjected to microenvironmental pressure that may differ from the contralateral breast.

  7. [Comparison of three genotyping methods for the detection of HIV-1 resistance to antiretroviral drugs].

    PubMed

    Suárez, A; Picazo, J; Alonso, R; Bouza, E; Delgado, R; Rodríguez-Noriega, A; Bernal, A; García, A

    2002-03-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has dramatically improved the life expectancy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but mutations in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (P) genes confer drug failure. Evaluation of drug resistance genotyping in HIV-1 has proven to be useful for the selection of drug combinations with maximum antiretroviral activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal procedure to determine the resistance profile in the laboratory. Plasma from 90 antiretroviral-treated patients was analyzed by reverse hybridization, which identifies the presence of wild-types or mutations at the 19 key codons for protease and RT regions, and was compared with two other methods of direct cDNA sequencing. A total of 408 mutations were detected by InnoLiPA HIV-1, (Line Probe Assay, Innogenetics, Belgium), 572 by TrueGene HIV-1 Genotyping System (Visible Genetics, Canada), and 721 by ViroSeq HIV-1 Genotyping System (Perkin Elmer/Applied Biosystems, California). Hybridization detected a significantly higher number of primary mutations which are associated with a high level of drug resistance (p <0.001). Hybridization also detected a higher number of mixtures of wild-type and mutant viruses. There was a good concordance among the three methods, although it was higher between the two sequencing methods. Sequencing determines a higher number of mutations, but hybridization better identifies primary mutations correlated with a high level of drug resistance. Hybridization is more suitable for detecting mixed populations and is easier to implement in clinical laboratories but does not eliminate the need for sequence analysis for detection of drug-resistant HIV.

  8. Field Study of Dried Blood Spot Specimens for HIV-1 Drug Resistance Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Parry, C. M.; Diallo, K.; Mwebaza, S.; Batamwita, R.; DeVos, J.; Bbosa, N.; Lyagoba, F.; Magambo, B.; Jordan, M. R.; Downing, R.; Zhang, G.; Kaleebu, P.; Bertagnolio, S.

    2014-01-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) are an alternative specimen type for HIV drug resistance genotyping in resource-limited settings. Data relating to the impact of DBS storage and shipment conditions on genotyping efficiency under field conditions are limited. We compared the genotyping efficiencies and resistance profiles of DBS stored and shipped at different temperatures to those of plasma specimens collected in parallel from patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Uganda. Plasma and four DBS cards from anti-coagulated venous blood and a fifth card from finger-prick blood were prepared from 103 HIV patients with a median viral load (VL) of 57,062 copies/ml (range, 1,081 to 2,964,191). DBS were stored at ambient temperature for 2 or 4 weeks or frozen at −80°C and shipped from Uganda to the United States at ambient temperature or frozen on dry ice for genotyping using a broadly sensitive in-house method. Plasma (97.1%) and DBS (98.1%) stored and shipped frozen had similar genotyping efficiencies. DBS stored frozen (97.1%) or at ambient temperature for 2 weeks (93.2%) and shipped at ambient temperature also had similar genotyping efficiencies. Genotyping efficiency was reduced for DBS stored at ambient temperature for 4 weeks (89.3%, P = 0.03) or prepared from finger-prick blood and stored at ambient temperature for 2 weeks (77.7%, P < 0.001) compared to DBS prepared from venous blood and handled similarly. Resistance profiles were similar between plasma and DBS specimens. This report delineates the optimal DBS collection, storage, and shipping conditions and opens a new avenue for cost-saving ambient-temperature DBS specimen shipments for HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) surveillances in resource-limited settings. PMID:24871219

  9. Nanotherapeutics Using an HIV-1 Poly A and Transactivator of the HIV-1 LTR-(TAR-) Specific siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Supriya D.; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Reynolds, Jessica L.; Nair, Bindukumar; Sykes, Donald E.; Law, Wing-Cheung; Ding, Hong; Bergey, Earl J.; Prasad, Paras N.; Schwartz, Stanley A.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 replication can be efficiently inhibited by intracellular expression of an siRNA targeting the viral RNA. We used a well-validated siRNA (si510) which targets the poly A/TAR (transactivator of the HIV-1 LTR) site and suppresses viral replication. Nanotechnology holds much potential for impact in the field of HIV-1 therapeutics, and nanoparticles such as quantum rods (QRs) can be easily functionalized to incorporate siRNA forming stable nanoplexes that can be used for gene silencing. We evaluated the efficacy of the QR-si510 HIV-1 siRNA nanoplex in suppressing viral replication in the HIV-1-infected monocytic cell line THP-1 by measuring p24 antigen levels and gene expression levels of HIV-1 LTR. Our results suggest that the QR-si510 HIV-1 siRNA nanoplex is not only effective in delivering siRNA, but also in suppressing HIV-1 viral replication for a longer time period. HIV-1 nanotherapeutics can thus enhance systemic bioavailability and offer multifunctionality. PMID:21660279

  10. Prediction of HIV drug resistance from genotype with encoded three-dimensional protein structure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug resistance has become a severe challenge for treatment of HIV infections. Mutations accumulate in the HIV genome and make certain drugs ineffective. Prediction of resistance from genotype data is a valuable guide in choice of drugs for effective therapy. Results In order to improve the computational prediction of resistance from genotype data we have developed a unified encoding of the protein sequence and three-dimensional protein structure of the drug target for classification and regression analysis. The method was tested on genotype-resistance data for mutants of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase. Our graph based sequence-structure approach gives high accuracy with a new sparse dictionary classification method, as well as support vector machine and artificial neural networks classifiers. Cross-validated regression analysis with the sparse dictionary gave excellent correlation between predicted and observed resistance. Conclusion The approach of encoding the protein structure and sequence as a 210-dimensional vector, based on Delaunay triangulation, has promise as an accurate method for predicting resistance from sequence for drugs inhibiting HIV protease and reverse transcriptase. PMID:25081370

  11. HIV genotypes and primary drug resistance among HIV seropositive blood donors in Brazil: role of infected blood donors as sentinel populations for molecular surveillance of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Alencar, CS; Sabino, EC; Carvalho, SMF; Leao, S; Carneiro- Proietti, AB; Capuani, L; Oliveira, CL; Carrick, D; Birch, RJ; Gonçalez, TT; Keating, S; Swanson, P; Hackett, J; Busch, MP

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few surveillance studies analyzing genotypes or primary (transmitted) drug resistance in HIV-infected blood donors in Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize patterns of HIV genotypes and primary resistance among HIV seropositive donors identified at 4 geographically dispersed blood centers in Brazil. Methods All HIV-infected donors who returned for counseling at the 4 REDS-II Hemocenters in Brazil from January 2007–March 2011 were invited to participate in a case-control study involving a questionnaire on risk factors. Viral sequencing was also offered to positive cases to assign genotypes and to detect and characterize primary resistance to RT and protease inhibitors according to WHO guidelines. Results Of the 341 HIV seropositive donors who consented to participate in the risk-factor and genetics study, pol sequences were obtained for 331 (97%). Clade B was predominant (76%) followed by F (15%) and C (5%). Primary resistance was present in 36 (12.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2,15.5) of the 303 individuals not exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART), varying from 8.2% (95%CI 2,7,13.6) in Recife to 19.4% in São Paulo (95%CI 9.5,29.2); there were no significant correlations with other demographics or risk factors. Conclusion Although subtype B remains the most prevalent genotype in all 4 areas, increasing rates of subtype C in Sao Paulo and F in Recife were documented relative to earlier reports. Transmitted drug resistance was relatively frequent, particularly in the city of Sao Paulo which showed an increase compared to previous HIV seropositive donor data from 10 years ago. PMID:23507660

  12. A genotypic method for determining HIV-2 coreceptor usage enables epidemiological studies and clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Döring, Matthias; Borrego, Pedro; Büch, Joachim; Martins, Andreia; Friedrich, Georg; Camacho, Ricardo Jorge; Eberle, Josef; Kaiser, Rolf; Lengauer, Thomas; Taveira, Nuno; Pfeifer, Nico

    2016-12-20

    CCR5-coreceptor antagonists can be used for treating HIV-2 infected individuals. Before initiating treatment with coreceptor antagonists, viral coreceptor usage should be determined to ensure that the virus can use only the CCR5 coreceptor (R5) and cannot evade the drug by using the CXCR4 coreceptor (X4-capable). However, until now, no online tool for the genotypic identification of HIV-2 coreceptor usage had been available. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge on the determinants of HIV-2 coreceptor usage. Therefore, we developed a data-driven web service for the prediction of HIV-2 coreceptor usage from the V3 loop of the HIV-2 glycoprotein and used the tool to identify novel discriminatory features of X4-capable variants. Using 10 runs of tenfold cross validation, we selected a linear support vector machine (SVM) as the model for geno2pheno[coreceptor-hiv2], because it outperformed the other SVMs with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.95. We found that SVMs were highly accurate in identifying HIV-2 coreceptor usage, attaining sensitivities of 73.5% and specificities of 96% during tenfold nested cross validation. The predictive performance of SVMs was not significantly different (p value 0.37) from an existing rules-based approach. Moreover, geno2pheno[coreceptor-hiv2] achieved a predictive accuracy of 100% and outperformed the existing approach on an independent data set containing nine new isolates with corresponding phenotypic measurements of coreceptor usage. geno2pheno[coreceptor-hiv2] could not only reproduce the established markers of CXCR4-usage, but also revealed novel markers: the substitutions 27K, 15G, and 8S were significantly predictive of CXCR4 usage. Furthermore, SVMs trained on the amino-acid sequences of the V1 and V2 loops were also quite accurate in predicting coreceptor usage (AUCs of 0.84 and 0.65, respectively). In this study, we developed geno2pheno[coreceptor-hiv2], the first online tool for the prediction of HIV-2 coreceptor

  13. The roles of RNA processing in translating genotype to phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Kassie S.; Cooper, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    A goal of human genetics studies is to determine the mechanisms by which genetic variation produces phenotypic differences that affect human health. Efforts in this respect have previously focused on genetic variants that affect mRNA levels by altering epigenetic and transcriptional regulation. Recent studies show that genetic variants that affect RNA processing are at least equally as common as, and are largely independent from, those variants that affect transcription. We highlight the impact of genetic variation on pre-mRNA splicing and polyadenylation, and on the stability, translation and structure of mRNAs as mechanisms that produce phenotypic traits. These results emphasize the importance of including RNA processing signals in analyses to identify functional variants. PMID:27847391

  14. Drought stress tolerance strategies revealed by RNA-Seq in two sorghum genotypes with contrasting WUE.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, Alessandra; Trindade, Luisa M; Amaducci, Stefano

    2016-05-21

    Drought stress is the major environmental stress that affects plant growth and productivity. It triggers a wide range of responses detectable at molecular, biochemical and physiological levels. At the molecular level the response to drought stress results in the differential expression of several metabolic pathways. For this reason, exploring the subtle differences in gene expression of drought sensitive and drought tolerant genotypes enables the identification of drought-related genes that could be used for selection of drought tolerance traits. Genome-wide RNA-Seq technology was used to compare the drought response of two sorghum genotypes characterized by contrasting water use efficiency. The physiological measurements carried out confirmed the drought sensitivity of IS20351 and the drought tolerance of IS22330 genotypes, as previously studied. The expression of drought-related genes was more abundant in the drought sensitive genotype IS20351 compared to the tolerant genotype IS22330. Under drought stress Gene Ontology enrichment highlighted a massive increase in transcript abundance in the sensitive genotype IS20351 in "response to stress" and "abiotic stimulus", as well as for "oxidation-reduction reaction". "Antioxidant" and "secondary metabolism", "photosynthesis and carbon fixation process", "lipids" and "carbon metabolism" were the pathways most affected by drought in the sensitive genotype IS20351. In addition, genotype IS20351 showed a lower constitutive expression level of "secondary metabolic process" (GO:0019748) and "glutathione transferase activity" (GO:000004364) under well-watered conditions. RNA-Seq analysis proved to be a very useful tool to explore differences between sensitive and tolerant sorghum genotypes. Transcriptomics analysis results supported all the physiological measurements and were essential to clarify the tolerance of the two genotypes studied. The connection between differential gene expression and physiological response to

  15. Screening Yield of HIV Antigen/Antibody Combination and Pooled HIV RNA Testing for Acute HIV Infection in a High-Prevalence Population.

    PubMed

    Peters, Philip J; Westheimer, Emily; Cohen, Stephanie; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Moss, Nicholas; Tsoi, Benjamin; Hall, Laura; Fann, Charles; Daskalakis, Demetre C; Beagle, Steve; Patel, Pragna; Radix, Asa; Foust, Evelyn; Kohn, Robert P; Marmorino, Jenni; Pandori, Mark; Fu, Jie; Samandari, Taraz; Gay, Cynthia L

    2016-02-16

    Although acute HIV infection contributes disproportionately to onward HIV transmission, HIV testing has not routinely included screening for acute HIV infection. To evaluate the performance of an HIV antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) combination assay to detect acute HIV infection compared with pooled HIV RNA testing. Multisite, prospective, within-individual comparison study conducted between September 2011 and October 2013 in 7 sexually transmitted infection clinics and 5 community-based programs in New York, California, and North Carolina. Participants were 12 years or older and seeking HIV testing, without known HIV infection. All participants with a negative rapid HIV test result were screened for acute HIV infection with an HIV Ag/Ab combination assay (index test) and pooled human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RNA testing. HIV RNA testing was the reference standard, with positive reference standard result defined as detectable HIV-1 RNA on an individual RNA test. Number and proportion with acute HIV infections detected. Among 86,836 participants with complete test results (median age, 29 years; 75.0% men; 51.8% men who have sex with men), established HIV infection was diagnosed in 1158 participants (1.33%) and acute HIV infection was diagnosed in 168 participants (0.19%). Acute HIV infection was detected in 134 participants with HIV Ag/Ab combination testing (0.15% [95% CI, 0.13%-0.18%]; sensitivity, 79.8% [95% CI, 72.9%-85.6%]; specificity, 99.9% [95% CI, 99.9%-99.9%]; positive predictive value, 59.0% [95% CI, 52.3%-65.5%]) and in 164 participants with pooled HIV RNA testing (0.19% [95% CI, 0.16%-0.22%]; sensitivity, 97.6% [95% CI, 94.0%-99.4%]; specificity, 100% [95% CI, 100%-100%]; positive predictive value, 96.5% [95% CI, 92.5%-98.7%]; sensitivity comparison, P < .001). Overall HIV Ag/Ab combination testing detected 82% of acute HIV infections detectable by pooled HIV RNA testing. Compared with rapid HIV testing alone, HIV Ag/Ab combination testing

  16. Quantitation of HIV-1 RNA in breast milk by real time PCR.

    PubMed

    Becquart, Pierre; Foulongne, Vincent; Willumsen, Juana; Rouzioux, Christine; Segondy, Michel; Van de Perre, Philippe

    2006-04-01

    HIV-1 RNA in breast milk is a strong predictor of HIV-1 transmission through breastfeeding. In the present report, breast milk samples from HIV-1 uninfected donors were spiked with dilution of quantified culture supernatant from HIV-1(NDK) infected PBMC. Two RNA extraction techniques based on silica extraction, Nuclisens (BioMerieux) and Triazol (Qiagen), two techniques based on guanidine thiocynanate/chloroforme extraction, TRIzol (Life Technologie) and Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor (Roche Diagnostic Systems), and one technique based on electrostatic adsorption on iron oxide micro beads (Promega) were compared. HIV-1 RNA was quantitated by real time PCR (LTR gene) and Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor. Combining magnetic micro beads extraction and real time PCR quantitation allowed to correctly quantify breast milk HIV-1 RNA, with a difference between the expected and measured HIV-1 RNA levels always lower than 0.3 log copies/ml. The same combination was confirmed on 25 breast milk samples from HIV-1 infected women collected in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, by comparing measurements with those obtained by the Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor (r(2)=0.88). Nucleic acid extraction by magnetic micro beads followed by real time PCR is a reliable, sensitive, rapid and simple procedure to quantify HIV-1 RNA in breast milk and allows for PCR inhibitors found frequently in these samples.

  17. Inferring HIV Escape Rates from Multi-Locus Genotype Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kessinger, Taylor A.; Perelson, Alan S.; Neher, Richard A.

    2013-09-03

    Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) recognize viral protein fragments displayed by major histocompatibility complex molecules on the surface of virally infected cells and generate an anti-viral response that can kill the infected cells. Virus variants whose protein fragments are not efficiently presented on infected cells or whose fragments are presented but not recognized by CTLs therefore have a competitive advantage and spread rapidly through the population. We present a method that allows a more robust estimation of these escape rates from serially sampled sequence data. The proposed method accounts for competition between multiple escapes by explicitly modeling the accumulation of escape mutations and the stochastic effects of rare multiple mutants. Applying our method to serially sampled HIV sequence data, we estimate rates of HIV escape that are substantially larger than those previously reported. The method can be extended to complex escapes that require compensatory mutations. We expect our method to be applicable in other contexts such as cancer evolution where time series data is also available.

  18. Inferring HIV Escape Rates from Multi-Locus Genotype Data

    DOE PAGES

    Kessinger, Taylor A.; Perelson, Alan S.; Neher, Richard A.

    2013-09-03

    Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) recognize viral protein fragments displayed by major histocompatibility complex molecules on the surface of virally infected cells and generate an anti-viral response that can kill the infected cells. Virus variants whose protein fragments are not efficiently presented on infected cells or whose fragments are presented but not recognized by CTLs therefore have a competitive advantage and spread rapidly through the population. We present a method that allows a more robust estimation of these escape rates from serially sampled sequence data. The proposed method accounts for competition between multiple escapes by explicitly modeling the accumulation of escape mutationsmore » and the stochastic effects of rare multiple mutants. Applying our method to serially sampled HIV sequence data, we estimate rates of HIV escape that are substantially larger than those previously reported. The method can be extended to complex escapes that require compensatory mutations. We expect our method to be applicable in other contexts such as cancer evolution where time series data is also available.« less

  19. Modelling HIV-RNA viral load in vertically infected children.

    PubMed

    Gray, Linsay; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2004-03-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ribo-nucleic acid (RNA) viral load is a measure of actively replicating virus and is used as a marker of disease progression. For a thorough understanding of the dynamics of the evolution of the virus in the early life of HIV-1 vertically infected children, it is important to elucidate the pattern of HIV-RNA viral load over age. An aspect of assay systems used in the quantification of RNA viral load is that they measure values above particular cut-off values for detection, below which the assays used are not sufficiently sensitive. In this way, measurements are potentially left-censored. Recent adult studies suggest that to adequately model RNA pattern over age, it is necessary to account for within-subject correlation, due to repeated measures, and censoring. The aim of this study, therefore, was to establish whether it is necessary to use complex methods to allow for repeated measures within individuals and censoring of the HIV-RNA viral load in children enrolled in a cohort study. The approach involved the identification of an appropriate model for the basic pattern of RNA viral load by age and subsequent assessment of various estimation procedures accounting for repeated measures and censoring in different ways. Methods developed by Hughes involving the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm and the Gibbs sampler were taken as the benchmark for comparison of simpler alternatives. Other approaches considered involve linear mixed-effects and ordinary least squares in which censoring is dealt with informally by taking the cut-off value as absolute or taking the mid-point between cut-off and zero. Fractional polynomials provided a substantially superior approach for modelling the dynamics of viral load over age compared to conventional polynomials or change-point models. Allowing for repeated measures was necessary to improve the power of the likelihood ratio tests required to establish the final model, but methods beyond taking

  20. Structure of the HIV-1 RNA Packaging Signal

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Sarah C.; Heng, Xiao; Lu, Kun; Kharytonchyk, Siarhei; Ramakrishnan, Venkateswaran; Carter, Gregory; Barton, Shawn; Hosic, Azra; Florwick, Alyssa; Santos, Justin; Bolden, Nicholas C.; McCowin, Sayo; Case, David A.; Johnson, Bruce; Salemi, Marco; Telesnitsky, Alice; Summers, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The 5′-leader of the HIV-1 genome contains conserved elements that direct selective packaging of the unspliced, dimeric viral RNA into assembling particles. Using a 2H-edited NMR approach, we determined the structure of a 155-nucleotide region of the leader that is independently capable of directing packaging (Core Encapsidation Signal; ΨCES). The RNA adopts an unexpected tandem three-way junction structure, in which residues of the major splice donor and translation initiation sites are sequestered by long-range base pairing, and guanosines essential for both packaging and high-affinity binding to the cognate Gag protein are exposed in helical junctions. The structure reveals how translation is attenuated, Gag binding promoted, and unspliced dimeric genomes selected, by the RNA conformer that directs packaging. PMID:25999508

  1. Consensus siRNA for inhibition of HCV genotype-4 replication

    PubMed Central

    Zekri, Abdel Rahman N; Bahnassy, Abeer A; El-Din, Hanaa M Alam; Salama, Hosny M

    2009-01-01

    Background HCV is circulating as a heterogeneous group of quasispecies. It has been addressed that siRNA can inhibit HCV replication in-vitro using HCV clone and/or replicon which have only one genotype. The current study was conducted to assess whether siRNA can inhibit different HCV genotypes with many quasispecies and to assess whether consensus siRNA have the same effect as regular siRNA. Methods We generated two chemically synthesized consensus siRNAs (Z3 and Z5) which cover most known HCV genotype sequences and quasispecies using Ambium system. Highly positive HCV patient's serum with nine quasispecies was transfected in-vitro to Huh-7 cell line which supports HCV genotype-4 replication. siRNA (Z3&Z5) were transfected according to Qiagen Porta-lipid technique and subsequently cultured for eight days. HCV replication was monitored by RT-PCR for detection of plus and minus strands. Real-time PCR was used for quantification of HCV, whereas detection of the viral core protein was performed by western blot. Results HCV RNA levels decreased 18-fold (P = 0.001) and 25-fold (P = 0.0005) in cells transfected with Z3 and Z5, respectively, on Day 2 post transfection and continued for Day 3 by Z3 and Day 7 by Z5. Reduction of core protein expression was reported at Day 2 post Z3 siRNA transfection and at Day 1 post Z5 siRNA, which was persistent for Day 4 for the former and for Day 6 for the latter. Conclusion Consensus siRNA could be used as a new molecular target therapy to effectively inhibit HCV replication in the presence of more than one HCV quasispecies. PMID:19173711

  2. Genotyping male-specific RNA coliphages by hybridization with oligonucleotide probes.

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, F C; Shieh, Y S; van Duin, J; Beekwilder, M J; Sobsey, M D

    1995-01-01

    F-specific (F+) RNA coliphages are prevalent in sewage and other fecal wastes of humans and animals. There are four antigenically distinct serogroups of F+ RNA coliphages, and those predominating in humans (groups II and III) differ from those predominating in animals (groups I and IV). Hence, it may be possible to distinguish between human and animal wastes by serotyping F+ RNA coliphage isolates. Because serotyping is laborious and requires scarce antiserum reagents, we investigated genotyping using synthetic oligonucleotide probes as an alternative approach to distinguishing the four groups of F+ RNA coliphages. Oligoprobes I, II, III, IV, A, and B were selected to detect group I, II, III, IV, I plus II, and III plus IV phages, respectively. Methods for phage transfer from zones of lysis on a host cell lawn to candidate membrane filters and fixation of genomic nucleic acid on the membranes were optimized. The oligoprobes, which were end labeled with digoxigenin, were applied in DNA-RNA hybridization, and hybrids were observed by colorimetric, immunoenzymatic detection. Of 203 isolates of F+ RNA coliphages from environmental samples of water, wastes, and shellfish, 99.5 and 96.6% could be classified into each group by serotyping and genotyping, respectively. Probes A and B correctly identified 100% of the isolates. On the basis of these results, this method for genotyping F+ RNA coliphages appears to be practical and reliable for typing isolates in field samples. PMID:8526509

  3. siRNA and shRNA screens advance key understanding of host factors required for HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Kok, Kin-Hang; Lei, Ting; Jin, Dong-Yan

    2009-08-27

    A recent RNAi screen used a genome-wide shRNA library to search for cellular factors required for HIV-1 replication. This work complements three other siRNA-based screening studies and potentially opens the door to the discovery of factors that are important for HIV-1 replication in physiological host cells such as T lymphocytes. shRNA screens can be further improved, and they could promise to unravel new pathways and new facets of virus-cell interactions.

  4. Apolipoprotein E4 Genotype Does Not Increase Risk of HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, E.E.; Woods, S.P.; Letendre, S.L.; Franklin, D.R.; Bloss, C.; Goate, A.; Heaton, R.K.; Collier, A.C.; Marra, C.M.; Gelman, B.B.; McArthur, J.C.; Morgello, S.; Simpson, D.M.; McCutchan, J.A.; Ellis, R.J.; Abramson, I.; Gamst, A.; Fennema-Notestine, C.; Smith, D.M.; Grant, I.; Vaida, F.; Clifford, D.B.

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, observational study to evaluate the hypothesis that HIV-seropositive (HIV+) apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) carriers are at increased risk for HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) compared to APOE4 noncarriers with HIV in the CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) Group sample. APOE genotype was determined in 466 CHARTER participants with varying disease stages and histories of antiretroviral treatment who did not have severe psychiatric or medical comorbid conditions that preclude diagnosis of HAND. HAND diagnoses were based on results of comprehensive neurobehavioral evaluation and use of current neuroAIDS diagnostic criteria. HAND status consisting of two levels: neuropsychologically normal status (i.e., no HAND) and any HAND diagnosis (i.e., asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, minor neurocognitive disorder, HIV-associated dementia). Logistic regression analyses revealed no association between APOE4 carrier status and HAND, and there were no interactions between APOE4 carrier status and ethnicity, age, substance use disorders, duration of infection, or nadir CD4. Results did not differ when analysis was restricted to symptomatic HAND, and no APOE4 gene dose-dependent relationship to HAND emerged. APOE4 status was not associated with concurrent HAND in this large, well-characterized sample. This does not preclude emergence of an association between APOE4 status and HAND as this population ages. Prospective, longitudinal studies are needed to examine APOE4 as a risk factor for neurocognitive decline, incident HAND at older ages, and potential associations with CSF amyloid. PMID:23408335

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype is associated with HIV infection in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Sofia O; Machado, Adelina; Groenheit, Ramona; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Pennhag, Alexandra; Gudo, Paula S; Cuna, Zaina; Langa, Egídio; Miotto, Paolo; Cirillo, Daniela M; Rastogi, Nalin; Warren, Rob M; van Helden, Paul D; Koivula, Tuija; Källenius, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    The Beijing genotype is a lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is distributed worldwide and responsible for large epidemics, associated with multidrug-resistance. However, its distribution in Africa is less understood due to the lack of data. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and possible transmission of Beijing strains in Mozambique by a multivariate analysis of genotypic, geographic and demographic data. A total of 543 M. tuberculosis isolates from Mozambique were spoligotyped. Of these, 33 were of the Beijing lineage. The genetic relationship between the Beijing isolates were studied by identification of genomic deletions within some Regions of Difference (RD), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetivie Unit - variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR). Beijing strains from South Africa, representing different sublineages were included as reference strains. The association between Beijing genotype, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) serology and baseline demographic data was investigated. HIV positive serostatus was significantly (p=0.023) more common in patients with Beijing strains than in patients with non-Beijing strains in a multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex and province (14 (10.9%) of the 129 HIV positive patients had Beijing strains while 6/141 (4.3%) of HIV negative patients had Beijing strains). The majority of Beijing strains were found in the Southern region of Mozambique, particularly in Maputo City (17%). Only one Beijing strain was drug resistant (multi-drug resistant). By combined use of RD and spoligotyping, three genetic sublineages could be tentatively identified where a distinct group of four isolates had deletion of RD150, a signature of the "sublineage 7" recently emerging in South Africa. The same group was very similar to South African "sublineage 7" by RFLP and MIRU-VNTR, suggesting that this sublineage could have been recently introduced in Mozambique from South Africa

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype Is Associated with HIV Infection in Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Viegas, Sofia O.; Machado, Adelina; Groenheit, Ramona; Ghebremichael, Solomon; Pennhag, Alexandra; Gudo, Paula S.; Cuna, Zaina; Langa, Egídio; Miotto, Paolo; Cirillo, Daniela M.; Rastogi, Nalin; Warren, Rob M.; van Helden, Paul D.; Koivula, Tuija; Källenius, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    The Beijing genotype is a lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is distributed worldwide and responsible for large epidemics, associated with multidrug-resistance. However, its distribution in Africa is less understood due to the lack of data. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence and possible transmission of Beijing strains in Mozambique by a multivariate analysis of genotypic, geographic and demographic data. A total of 543 M. tuberculosis isolates from Mozambique were spoligotyped. Of these, 33 were of the Beijing lineage. The genetic relationship between the Beijing isolates were studied by identification of genomic deletions within some Regions of Difference (RD), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetivie Unit – variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR). Beijing strains from South Africa, representing different sublineages were included as reference strains. The association between Beijing genotype, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) serology and baseline demographic data was investigated. HIV positive serostatus was significantly (p=0.023) more common in patients with Beijing strains than in patients with non-Beijing strains in a multivariable analysis adjusted for age, sex and province (14 (10.9%) of the 129 HIV positive patients had Beijing strains while 6/141 (4.3%) of HIV negative patients had Beijing strains). The majority of Beijing strains were found in the Southern region of Mozambique, particularly in Maputo City (17%). Only one Beijing strain was drug resistant (multi-drug resistant). By combined use of RD and spoligotyping, three genetic sublineages could be tentatively identified where a distinct group of four isolates had deletion of RD150, a signature of the “sublineage 7” recently emerging in South Africa. The same group was very similar to South African “sublineage 7” by RFLP and MIRU-VNTR, suggesting that this sublineage could have been recently introduced in Mozambique from

  7. HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations: Potential Applications for Point-of-Care Genotypic Resistance Testing.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Soo-Yon; Jordan, Michael R; Raizes, Elliot; Chua, Arlene; Parkin, Neil; Kantor, Rami; Van Zyl, Gert U; Mukui, Irene; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Frenkel, Lisa M; Ndembi, Nicaise; Hamers, Raph L; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Wallis, Carole L; Gupta, Ravindra K; Fokam, Joseph; Zeh, Clement; Schapiro, Jonathan M; Carmona, Sergio; Katzenstein, David; Tang, Michele; Aghokeng, Avelin F; De Oliveira, Tulio; Wensing, Annemarie M J; Gallant, Joel E; Wainberg, Mark A; Richman, Douglas D; Fitzgibbon, Joseph E; Schito, Marco; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Yang, Chunfu; Shafer, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of acquired and transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance is an obstacle to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV-1 pandemic. Genotypic drug resistance testing could facilitate the choice of initial ART in areas with rising transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and enable care-providers to determine which individuals with virological failure (VF) on a first- or second-line ART regimen require a change in treatment. An inexpensive near point-of-care (POC) genotypic resistance test would be useful in settings where the resources, capacity, and infrastructure to perform standard genotypic drug resistance testing are limited. Such a test would be particularly useful in conjunction with the POC HIV-1 viral load tests that are currently being introduced in LMICs. A POC genotypic resistance test is likely to involve the use of allele-specific point mutation assays for detecting drug-resistance mutations (DRMs). This study proposes that two major nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-associated DRMs (M184V and K65R) and four major NNRTI-associated DRMs (K103N, Y181C, G190A, and V106M) would be the most useful for POC genotypic resistance testing in LMIC settings. One or more of these six DRMs was present in 61.2% of analyzed virus sequences from ART-naïve individuals with intermediate or high-level TDR and 98.8% of analyzed virus sequences from individuals on a first-line NRTI/NNRTI-containing regimen with intermediate or high-level acquired drug resistance. The detection of one or more of these DRMs in an ART-naïve individual or in a individual with VF on a first-line NRTI/NNRTI-containing regimen may be considered an indication for a protease inhibitor (PI)-containing regimen or closer virological monitoring based on cost-effectiveness or country policy.

  8. Probing interaction of a fluorescent ligand with HIV TAR RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Liang; Zhang, Jing; He, Tian; Huo, Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2017-02-01

    Trans-activator of Transcription (Tat) antagonists could block the interaction between Tat protein and its target, trans-activation responsive region (TAR) RNA, to inhibit Tat function and prevent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. For the first time, a small fluorescence ligand, ICR 191, was found to interact with TAR RNA at the Tat binding site and compete with Tat. It was also observed that the fluorescence of ICR 191 could be quenched when binding to TAR RNA and recovered when discharged via competition with Tat peptide or a well-known Tat inhibitor, neomycin B. The binding parameters of ICR 191 to TAR RNA were determined through theoretical calculations. Mass spectrometry, circular dichroism and molecular docking were used to further confirm the interaction of ICR 191 with TAR RNA. Inspired by these discoveries, a primary fluorescence model for the discovery of Tat antagonists was built using ICR 191 as a fluorescence indicator and the feasibility of this model was evaluated. This ligand-RNA interaction could provide a new strategy for research aimed at discovering Tat antagonists.

  9. Probing interaction of a fluorescent ligand with HIV TAR RNA.

    PubMed

    Qi, Liang; Zhang, Jing; He, Tian; Huo, Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2017-02-15

    Trans-activator of Transcription (Tat) antagonists could block the interaction between Tat protein and its target, trans-activation responsive region (TAR) RNA, to inhibit Tat function and prevent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. For the first time, a small fluorescence ligand, ICR 191, was found to interact with TAR RNA at the Tat binding site and compete with Tat. It was also observed that the fluorescence of ICR 191 could be quenched when binding to TAR RNA and recovered when discharged via competition with Tat peptide or a well-known Tat inhibitor, neomycin B. The binding parameters of ICR 191 to TAR RNA were determined through theoretical calculations. Mass spectrometry, circular dichroism and molecular docking were used to further confirm the interaction of ICR 191 with TAR RNA. Inspired by these discoveries, a primary fluorescence model for the discovery of Tat antagonists was built using ICR 191 as a fluorescence indicator and the feasibility of this model was evaluated. This ligand-RNA interaction could provide a new strategy for research aimed at discovering Tat antagonists.

  10. Short Communication: CD4 Count and HIV RNA Trends for HIV-Associated Lymphoproliferative Disorders in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kaimila, Bongani; van der Gronde, Toon; Kasonkanji, Edwards; Fox, Paula; Chikasema, Maria; Tewete, Blessings; Gopal, Satish

    2017-10-01

    Given scarce data from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), we sought to describe CD4 count and HIV RNA trends over time among patients with HIV-positive lymphoproliferative disorders in Malawi. We prospectively enrolled HIV-positive individuals with pathologically confirmed lymphoproliferative disorders between 2013 and 2016. Chemotherapy was standardized with concurrent antiretroviral therapy (ART). We assessed CD4 count and HIV RNA at baseline and every 6 months for up to 2 years. Of 72 HIV-positive patients, 59 had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), 5 classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL), and 8 multicentric Castleman disease (MCD). Median age was 43 years (range 23-64). Fifty-five patients (76%) were on ART at enrollment for a median 47 months (range 1-387), with median CD4 count of 138 cells/μl (range 2-2,235) and median HIV RNA of 2.2 log10copies/ml (range 0.3-7.3). MCD patients had longer median ART durations, higher median CD4 counts, and lower median HIV RNA at baseline than NHL or CHL patients. CD4 count and HIV RNA steadily improved during follow-up, with different patterns in different histological groups. Twelve-month overall survival (OS) was 55% [95% confidence interval (CI) 42%-66%]. There were trends toward baseline CD4 count <100 cells/μl and HIV RNA >2.0 log10copies/ml being associated with worse OS. However, CD4 count and HIV RNA improvements during follow-up were independent of possible effects on OS. Distribution of HIV-positive lymphoproliferative disorders may change with continued ART scale-up in SSA. Chemotherapy and concurrent ART can lead to good immunological and virological outcomes.

  11. Dynamics of HIV-1 RNA Near the Plasma Membrane during Virus Assembly.

    PubMed

    Sardo, Luca; Hatch, Steven C; Chen, Jianbo; Nikolaitchik, Olga; Burdick, Ryan C; Chen, De; Westlake, Christopher J; Lockett, Stephen; Pathak, Vinay K; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2015-11-01

    To increase our understanding of the events that lead to HIV-1 genome packaging, we examined the dynamics of viral RNA and Gag-RNA interactions near the plasma membrane by using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We labeled HIV-1 RNA with a photoconvertible Eos protein via an RNA-binding protein that recognizes stem-loop sequences engineered into the viral genome. Near-UV light exposure causes an irreversible structural change in Eos and alters its emitted fluorescence from green to red. We studied the dynamics of HIV-1 RNA by photoconverting Eos near the plasma membrane, and we monitored the population of photoconverted red-Eos-labeled RNA signals over time. We found that in the absence of Gag, most of the HIV-1 RNAs stayed near the plasma membrane transiently, for a few minutes. The presence of Gag significantly increased the time that RNAs stayed near the plasma membrane: most of the RNAs were still detected after 30 min. We then quantified the proportion of HIV-1 RNAs near the plasma membrane that were packaged into assembling viral complexes. By tagging Gag with blue fluorescent protein, we observed that only a portion, ∼13 to 34%, of the HIV-1 RNAs that reached the membrane were recruited into assembling particles in an hour, and the frequency of HIV-1 RNA packaging varied with the Gag expression level. Our studies reveal the HIV-1 RNA dynamics on the plasma membrane and the efficiency of RNA recruitment and provide insights into the events leading to the generation of infectious HIV-1 virions. Nascent HIV-1 particles assemble on plasma membranes. During the assembly process, HIV-1 RNA genomes must be encapsidated into viral complexes to generate infectious particles. To gain insights into the RNA packaging and virus assembly mechanisms, we labeled and monitored the HIV-1 RNA signals near the plasma membrane. Our results showed that most of the HIV-1 RNAs stayed near the plasma membrane for only a few minutes in the absence of Gag, whereas

  12. Dynamics of HIV-1 RNA Near the Plasma Membrane during Virus Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Sardo, Luca; Hatch, Steven C.; Chen, Jianbo; Nikolaitchik, Olga; Burdick, Ryan C.; Chen, De; Westlake, Christopher J.; Lockett, Stephen; Pathak, Vinay K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT To increase our understanding of the events that lead to HIV-1 genome packaging, we examined the dynamics of viral RNA and Gag-RNA interactions near the plasma membrane by using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We labeled HIV-1 RNA with a photoconvertible Eos protein via an RNA-binding protein that recognizes stem-loop sequences engineered into the viral genome. Near-UV light exposure causes an irreversible structural change in Eos and alters its emitted fluorescence from green to red. We studied the dynamics of HIV-1 RNA by photoconverting Eos near the plasma membrane, and we monitored the population of photoconverted red-Eos-labeled RNA signals over time. We found that in the absence of Gag, most of the HIV-1 RNAs stayed near the plasma membrane transiently, for a few minutes. The presence of Gag significantly increased the time that RNAs stayed near the plasma membrane: most of the RNAs were still detected after 30 min. We then quantified the proportion of HIV-1 RNAs near the plasma membrane that were packaged into assembling viral complexes. By tagging Gag with blue fluorescent protein, we observed that only a portion, ∼13 to 34%, of the HIV-1 RNAs that reached the membrane were recruited into assembling particles in an hour, and the frequency of HIV-1 RNA packaging varied with the Gag expression level. Our studies reveal the HIV-1 RNA dynamics on the plasma membrane and the efficiency of RNA recruitment and provide insights into the events leading to the generation of infectious HIV-1 virions. IMPORTANCE Nascent HIV-1 particles assemble on plasma membranes. During the assembly process, HIV-1 RNA genomes must be encapsidated into viral complexes to generate infectious particles. To gain insights into the RNA packaging and virus assembly mechanisms, we labeled and monitored the HIV-1 RNA signals near the plasma membrane. Our results showed that most of the HIV-1 RNAs stayed near the plasma membrane for only a few minutes in the

  13. Genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity in the U3R region of HIV type 1 subtype C.

    PubMed

    Mates, Jessica M; Kumar, Surender B; Bazan, Jose; Mefford, Megan; Voronkin, Igor; Handelman, Samuel; Mwapasa, Victor; Ackerman, William; Janies, Daniel; Kwiek, Jesse J

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20% of all HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) occurs in utero (IU). In a chronic HIV infection, HIV-1 exists as a complex swarm of genetic variants, and following IU MTCT, viral genomic diversity is restricted through a mechanism that remains to be described. The 5' U3R region of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) contains multiple transcription factor (TF) binding sites and regulates viral transcription. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sequence polymorphisms in the U3R region of LTR are associated with IU MTCT. To this end, we used single template amplification to isolate 517 U3R sequences from maternal, placental, and infant plasma derived from 17 HIV-infected Malawian women: eight whose infants remained HIV uninfected (NT) and nine whose infants became HIV infected IU. U3R sequences show pairwise diversities ranging from 0.2% to 2.3%. U3R sequences from one participant contained two, three, or four putative NF-κB binding sites. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicated that U3R sequences from eight of nine IU participants were consistent with placental compartmentalization of HIV-1 while only one of eight NT cases was consistent with such compartmentalization. Specific TF sequence polymorphisms were not significantly associated with IU MTCT. To determine if replication efficiency of the U3R sequences was associated with IU MTCT, we cloned 90 U3R sequences and assayed promoter activity in multiple cell lines. Although we observed significant, yet highly variable promoter activity and TAT induction of promoter activity in the cell lines tested, there was no association between measured promoter activity and MTCT status. Thus, we were unable to detect a promoter genotype or phenotype associated with IU MTCT.

  14. Telaprevir alone or with peginterferon and ribavirin reduces HCV RNA in patients with chronic genotype 2 but not genotype 3 infections.

    PubMed

    Foster, Graham R; Hézode, Christophe; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Carosi, Giampiero; Weiland, Ola; Verlinden, Lieselotte; van Heeswijk, Rolf; van Baelen, Ben; Picchio, Gaston; Beumont, Maria

    2011-09-01

    We evaluated antiviral activity of 2 weeks therapy with telaprevir alone, peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin (PR), or all 3 drugs (TPR) in treatment-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2 or 3 infections. We performed a randomized, multicenter, partially blinded study of patients (23 with HCV genotype 2, 26 with genotype 3) who received telaprevir (750 mg every 8 h), placebo plus PR (peginterferon, 180 μg, once weekly and ribavirin, 400 mg, twice daily), or TPR for 15 days, followed by PR for 22 or 24 weeks. Plasma levels of HCV RNA were quantified. Levels of HCV RNA decreased in all patients with HCV genotype 2, including those who received telaprevir monotherapy. The decrease was more rapid among patients who received telaprevir. By day 15, 0% (telaprevir), 40% (TPR), and 22% (PR) of patients with HCV genotype 2 had undetectable levels of HCV RNA; rates of sustained virologic response were 56%, 100%, and 89%, respectively. Overall, 6 of 9 HCV genotype 2 patients that received only telaprevir had viral breakthrough within 15 days after an initial response. HCV RNA levels decreased slightly among patients with HCV genotype 3 who received telaprevir and decreased rapidly among patients given PR or TPR (telaprevir had no synergistic effects with PR). Sustained virologic response rates were 50%, 67%, and 44% among patients given telaprevir, TPR, or PR respectively; 7 patients with HCV genotype 3 relapsed after therapy (2 given telaprevir, 3 given TPR, and 2 given PR) and 3 patients with HCV genotype 3 had viral breakthrough during telaprevir monotherapy. The incidence of adverse events was similar among groups. Telaprevir monotherapy for 2 weeks reduces levels of HCV RNA in patients with chronic HCV genotype 2 infections, but has limited activity in patients with HCV genotype 3. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tat-dependent production of an HIV-1 TAR-encoded miRNA-like small RNA

    PubMed Central

    Harwig, Alex; Jongejan, Aldo; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that retroviruses can produce microRNAs (miRNAs). To prevent cleavage of their RNA genome, retroviruses have to use an alternative RNA source as miRNA precursor. The transacting responsive (TAR) hairpin structure in HIV-1 RNA has been suggested as source for miRNAs, but how these small RNAs are produced without impeding virus replication remained unclear. We used deep sequencing analysis of AGO2-bound HIV-1 RNAs to demonstrate that the 3′ side of the TAR hairpin is processed into a miRNA-like small RNA. This ∼21 nt RNA product is able to repress the expression of mRNAs bearing a complementary target sequence. Analysis of the small RNAs produced by wild-type and mutant HIV-1 variants revealed that non-processive transcription from the HIV-1 LTR promoter results in the production of short TAR RNAs that serve as precursor. These TAR RNAs are cleaved by Dicer and processing is stimulated by the viral Tat protein. This biogenesis pathway differs from the canonical miRNA pathway and allows HIV-1 to produce the TAR-encoded miRNA-like molecule without cleavage of the RNA genome. PMID:26984525

  16. DDX3 RNA helicase is required for HIV-1 Tat function.

    PubMed

    Yasuda-Inoue, Mariko; Kuroki, Misao; Ariumi, Yasuo

    2013-11-22

    Host RNA helicase has been involved in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication, since HIV-1 does not encode an RNA helicase. Indeed, DDX1 and DDX3 DEAD-box RNA helicases are known to be required for efficient HIV-1 Rev-dependent RNA export. However, it remains unclear whether DDX RNA helicases modulate the HIV-1 Tat function. In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that DDX3 is required for the HIV-1 Tat function. Notably, DDX3 colocalized and interacted with HIV-1 Tat in cytoplasmic foci. Indeed, DDX3 localized in the cytoplasmic foci P-bodies or stress granules under stress condition after the treatment with arsenite. Importantly, only DDX3 enhanced the Tat function, while various distinct DEAD-box RNA helicases including DDX1, DDX3, DDX5, DDX17, DDX21, and DDX56, stimulated the HIV-1 Rev-dependent RNA export function, indicating a specific role of DDX3 in Tat function. Indeed, the ATPase-dependent RNA helicase activity of DDX3 seemed to be required for the Tat function as well as the colocalization with Tat. Furthermore, the combination of DDX3 with other distinct DDX RNA helicases cooperated to stimulate the Rev but not Tat function. Thus, DDX3 seems to interact with the HIV-1 Tat and facilitate the Tat function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. HIV-1 RNAs are Not Part of the Argonaute 2 Associated RNA Interference Pathway in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Shivendra; Jaskiewicz, Lukasz; Hall, Jonathan; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Metzner, Karin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background MiRNAs and other small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) are key players in post-transcriptional gene regulation. HIV-1 derived small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) have been described in HIV-1 infected cells, but their biological functions still remain to be elucidated. Here, we approached the question whether viral sncRNAs may play a role in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway or whether viral mRNAs are targeted by cellular miRNAs in human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM). Methods The incorporation of viral sncRNAs and/or their target RNAs into RNA-induced silencing complex was investigated using photoactivatable ribonucleoside-induced cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) as well as high-throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP), which capture Argonaute2-bound miRNAs and their target RNAs. HIV-1 infected monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were chosen as target cells, as they have previously been shown to express HIV-1 sncRNAs. In addition, we applied small RNA deep sequencing to study differential cellular miRNA expression in HIV-1 infected versus non-infected MDMs. Results and Conclusion PAR-CLIP and HITS-CLIP data demonstrated the absence of HIV-1 RNAs in Ago2-RISC, although the presence of a multitude of HIV-1 sncRNAs in HIV-1 infected MDMs was confirmed by small RNA sequencing. Small RNA sequencing revealed that 1.4% of all sncRNAs were of HIV-1 origin. However, neither HIV-1 derived sncRNAs nor putative HIV-1 target sequences incorporated into Ago2-RISC were identified suggesting that HIV-1 sncRNAs are not involved in the canonical RNAi pathway nor is HIV-1 targeted by this pathway in HIV-1 infected macrophages. PMID:26226348

  18. Dynamics of breast milk HIV-1 RNA with unilateral mastitis or abscess

    PubMed Central

    Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Brooks, Daniel R.; Cabral, Howard; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Thea, Donald M.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mastitis and abscess in HIV-infected women increase risk of breastfeeding transmission of HIV. Guidelines encourage women to stop breastfeeding on the affected breast and feed on the contralateral breast. However, impact of breast pathology on breast milk HIV dynamics is unknown. Methods HIV RNA was quantified in 211 breast milk samples collected before, during and after a clinical mastitis or abscess diagnosis from 38 HIV-infected women participating in a Zambian breastfeeding study. HIV RNA quantity was compared between affected and unaffected breasts over time using generalized estimating equation models. A sample of 115 women without breast pathology was selected as a control group. Results In the affected breast, breast milk HIV RNA quantity increased from the pre- to during-pathology period by log10 0.45 copies/mL (95% CI: 0.16, 0.74) and after symptom resolution, HIV RNA levels were no different from pre-pathology levels (log10 -0.04 copies/mL 95%CI: -0.33, 0.25). In the contralateral unaffected breast, HIV RNA quantity did not significantly increase (log10 0.15 copies/mL, 95% CI: -0.41, 0.10). Increase was more marked in women with abscess or with a greater number of mastitis symptoms. HIV RNA was not significantly different between affected and unaffected women, except at the time of diagnosis. Conclusions Breast milk HIV RNA increased modestly in the affected breast with unilateral mastitis or abscess and returned to pre-pathology levels with symptom resolution. Contralateral HIV RNA was not affected. Results support guidelines encouraging feeding from the contralateral breast to minimize risk of HIV transmission associated with unilateral breast pathology. PMID:23202812

  19. Automating HIV Drug Resistance Genotyping with RECall, a Freely Accessible Sequence Analysis Tool

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Conan K.; Brumme, Chanson J.; Liu, Tommy F.; Chui, Celia K. S.; Chu, Anna L.; Wynhoven, Brian; Hall, Tom A.; Trevino, Christina; Shafer, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Genotypic HIV drug resistance testing is routinely used to guide clinical decisions. While genotyping methods can be standardized, a slow, labor-intensive, and subjective manual sequence interpretation step is required. We therefore performed external validation of our custom software RECall, a fully automated sequence analysis pipeline. HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping was performed on 981 clinical samples at the Stanford Diagnostic Virology Laboratory. Sequencing trace files were first interpreted manually by a laboratory technician and subsequently reanalyzed by RECall, without intervention. The relative performances of the two methods were assessed by determination of the concordance of nucleotide base calls, identification of key resistance-associated substitutions, and HIV drug resistance susceptibility scoring by the Stanford Sierra algorithm. RECall is freely available at http://pssm.cfenet.ubc.ca. In total, 875 of 981 sequences were analyzed by both human and RECall interpretation. RECall analysis required minimal hands-on time and resulted in a 25-fold improvement in processing speed (∼150 technician-hours versus ∼6 computation-hours). Excellent concordance was obtained between human and automated RECall interpretation (99.7% agreement for >1,000,000 bases compared). Nearly all discordances (99.4%) were due to nucleotide mixtures being called by one method but not the other. Similarly, 98.6% of key antiretroviral resistance-associated mutations observed were identified by both methods, resulting in 98.5% concordance of resistance susceptibility interpretations. This automated sequence analysis tool provides both standardization of analysis and a significant improvement in data workflow. The time-consuming, error-prone, and dreadfully boring manual sequence analysis step is replaced with a fully automated system without compromising the accuracy of reported HIV drug resistance data. PMID:22403431

  20. Seroprevalence and genotyping of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV among healthy population and Turkish soldiers in Northern Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    Altindis, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Sebahattin; Dikengil, Tansel; Acemoglu, Hamit; Hosoglu, Salih

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the prevalence of hepatitis viral markers among soldiers from Turkey, blood donors from Northern Cyprus, and soldiers from Northern Cyprus. METHODS: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV and anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence, HBV DNA, HCV RNA and HCV genotyping among soldiers from Turkey (groupI), civil blood donors from Northern Cyprus (group II), and soldier candidates from Northern Cyprus (group III) were studied and compared to one another. In total, 17 545 cases (13 546 males and 3999 females with a mean age of 34.5 ± 10.3 year, groupI= 11 234, group II = 5057, and group III = 1254) were included into the study. RESULTS: Among all cases, HBsAg positivity rates were 2.46%, anti-HCV was 0.46% and anti-HIV was 0.00%. HBV DNA was 2.25%, HCV RNA was 0.33% in all groups. HBsAg positivity rates were 2.16% in groupI, 3.00% in group II and 2.71% in group III. There was a significant difference between groupIand group II (χ2 = 6.11, P = 0.047 < 0.05). Anti-HCV positivity rates were 0.45% in groupI, 0.45% in group II, and 0.56% in group III. Genotypes of HCV were 1b and 1a in groupI, 1b, 1a and 2 in group II, and 1b, 1a in group III. HBsAg carrier rates were 2.20% in females and 2.53% in males. Anti-HCV prevalence was 0.38% in females and 0.48% in males. HBsAg positivity rates were 2.53% in individuals younger than 50, and 1.47% in older than 50. There was a significant difference between the two groups (χ2 = 23.48, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Prevalences of HBsAg, HCV and HIV infections in Northern Cyprus population are similar to those of Turkey. PMID:17106927

  1. Association of APOL1 Genotype with Renal Histology among Black HIV-Positive Patients Undergoing Kidney Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Estrella, Michelle M.; Skorecki, Karl L.; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Wasser, Walter G.; Shemer, Revital; Racusen, Lorraine C.; Kuperman, Michael; Foy, Matthew C.; Lucas, Gregory M.; Fine, Derek M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Prior studies have shown that the APOL1 risk alleles are associated with a greater risk of HIV-associated nephropathy and FSGS among blacks who are HIV positive. We sought to determine whether the APOL1 high–risk genotype incrementally improved the prediction of these underlying lesions beyond conventional clinical factors. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from 203 blacks who are HIV positive, underwent kidney biopsies between 1996 and 2011, and were genotyped for the APOL1 G1 and G2 alleles. Predictive logistic regression models with conventional clinical factors were compared with those that also included APOL1 genotype using receiver-operating curves and bootstrapping analyses with crossvalidation. Results The addition of APOL1 genotype to HIV–related risk factors for kidney disease in a predictive model improved the prediction of non–HIV–associated nephropathy FSGS, specifically, increasing the c statistic from 0.65 to 0.74 (P=0.04). Although two risk alleles were significantly associated with higher odds of HIV-associated nephropathy, APOL1 genotype did not add incrementally to the prediction of this specific histopathology. Conclusions APOL1 genotype may provide additional diagnostic information to traditional clinical variables in predicting underlying FSGS spectrum lesions in blacks who are HIV positive. In contrast, although APOL1 risk genotype predicts HIV-associated nephropathy, it lacked a high c statistic sufficient for discrimination to eliminate the role of kidney biopsy in the clinical care of blacks who are HIV positive with nephrotic proteinuria or unexplained kidney disease. PMID:26668025

  2. Sensitive Deep-Sequencing-Based HIV-1 Genotyping Assay To Simultaneously Determine Susceptibility to Protease, Reverse Transcriptase, Integrase, and Maturation Inhibitors, as Well as HIV-1 Coreceptor Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Richard M.; Meyer, Ashley M.; Winner, Dane; Archer, John; Feyertag, Felix; Ruiz-Mateos, Ezequiel; Leal, Manuel; Robertson, David L.; Schmotzer, Christine L.

    2014-01-01

    With 29 individual antiretroviral drugs available from six classes that are approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, a combination of different phenotypic and genotypic tests is currently needed to monitor HIV-infected individuals. In this study, we developed a novel HIV-1 genotypic assay based on deep sequencing (DeepGen HIV) to simultaneously assess HIV-1 susceptibilities to all drugs targeting the three viral enzymes and to predict HIV-1 coreceptor tropism. Patient-derived gag-p2/NCp7/p1/p6/pol-PR/RT/IN- and env-C2V3 PCR products were sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. Reads spanning the 3′ end of the Gag, protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), integrase (IN), and V3 regions were extracted, truncated, translated, and assembled for genotype and HIV-1 coreceptor tropism determination. DeepGen HIV consistently detected both minority drug-resistant viruses and non-R5 HIV-1 variants from clinical specimens with viral loads of ≥1,000 copies/ml and from B and non-B subtypes. Additional mutations associated with resistance to PR, RT, and IN inhibitors, previously undetected by standard (Sanger) population sequencing, were reliably identified at frequencies as low as 1%. DeepGen HIV results correlated with phenotypic (original Trofile, 92%; enhanced-sensitivity Trofile assay [ESTA], 80%; TROCAI, 81%; and VeriTrop, 80%) and genotypic (population sequencing/Geno2Pheno with a 10% false-positive rate [FPR], 84%) HIV-1 tropism test results. DeepGen HIV (83%) and Trofile (85%) showed similar concordances with the clinical response following an 8-day course of maraviroc monotherapy (MCT). In summary, this novel all-inclusive HIV-1 genotypic and coreceptor tropism assay, based on deep sequencing of the PR, RT, IN, and V3 regions, permits simultaneous multiplex detection of low-level drug-resistant and/or non-R5 viruses in up to 96 clinical samples. This comprehensive test, the first of its class, will be instrumental in the development of new

  3. Sustained virological response to peginterferon therapy in patients infected with HCV (genotypes 2 and 3), with or without HIV

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV infection leads to a faster progression of liver disease in subjects infected with HCV, as compared with HCV mono-infected patients. Previous reports suggest that sustained virological response (SVR) rates are lower in HIV/HCV coinfection than in HCV monoinfection. We aimed to compare SVR rates of these two populations. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical, biochemical and virological data of HCV and HIV/HCV infected patients with HCV genotypes 2 and 3 who started anti-HCV treatment between March 2004 and November 2012, at a single large center. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analysis were performed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess predictors of SVR. Results 461 patients were analyzed: 307 (66.6%) males, 76 (16.5%) infected with HIV. Several differences at baseline between HCV monoinfected and HIV/HCV coinfected patients were observed. HCV monoinfected group was characterized by higher prevalence of genotype 2 (53% vs 5.3%), higher baseline HCV viral load (50% vs 35%), shorter mean duration of treatment (19 vs 41 weeks), more frequent use of peginterferon alfa-2a (84.5% vs 69.7%), lower prevalence of cirrhosis (6% vs 31.6%). Globally, SVR was achieved by 353 (76.6%) patients and 321 (83.8%) in the PP analysis. No statistically relevant differences were found in SVR rates between the two groups, either in ITT [78.2% (n = 301/385) vs 68.4% (n = 52/76), p =0.066, respectively] than in PP analysis [83.6% (n = 276/330) vs 84.9% (n = 45/53), p = 0.8]. ITT analysis At univariate and multivariate analysis, baseline HCV-RNA >500.000 IU/ml [OR 0.4 (0.24-0.66), p = 0.0004], use of peginterferon alfa-2b [OR 0.5 (0.27-0.93) p = 0.033], platelets count <130.000/mm3 [OR 0.45 (0.2-0.99), p = 0.045], interruption of peginterferon therapy [OR 0.2 (0.1-0.4), p<0.0001], interruption of ribavirin treatment [OR 0.34 (0.17-0.69), p = 0.0026] were related with lower rate of SVR. PP analysis Only HCV-RNA

  4. Sensitive and Selective Detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA Using Vertical Silicon Nanowire Electrode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehyung; Hong, Min-Ho; Han, Sanghun; Na, Jukwan; Kim, Ilsoo; Kwon, Yong-Joon; Lim, Yong-beom; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) RNA was detected via an Au-coated vertical silicon nanowire electrode array (VSNEA). The VSNEA was fabricated by combining bottom-up and top-down approaches and then immobilized by artificial peptides for the recognition of HIV-1 RRE. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis was used to measure the electrochemical response of the peptide-immobilized VSNEA to the concentration and types of HIV-1 RRE RNA. DPV peaks showed linearity to the concentration of RNA with a detection limit down to 1.513 fM. It also showed the clear different peaks to the mutated HIV-1 RRE RNA. The high sensitivity and selectivity of VSNEA for the detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA may be attributed to the high surface-to-volume ratio and total overlap diffusion mode of ions of the one-dimensional nanowire electrodes.

  5. Nuclear RNA Export and Packaging Functions of HIV-1 Rev Revisited▿

    PubMed Central

    Blissenbach, Maik; Grewe, Bastian; Hoffmann, Bianca; Brandt, Sabine; Überla, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Although the viral Rev protein is necessary for HIV replication, its main function in the viral replication cycle has been controversial. Reinvestigating the effect of Rev on the HIV-1 RNA distribution in various cell lines and primary cells revealed that Rev enhanced cytoplasmic levels of the unspliced HIV-1 RNA, mostly 3- to 12-fold, while encapsidation of the RNA and viral infectivity could be stimulated >1,000-fold. Although this clearly questions the general notion that the nuclear export of viral RNAs is the major function of Rev, mechanistically encapsidation seems to be linked to nuclear export, since the tethering of the nuclear export factor TAP to the HIV-1 RNA also enhanced encapsidation. Interference with the formation of an inhibitory ribonucleoprotein complex in the nucleus could lead to enhanced accessibility of the cytoplasmic HIV-1 RNA for translation and encapsidation. This might explain why Rev and tethered TAP exert the same pattern of pleiotropic effects. PMID:20427541

  6. A Comparative Study of CSF Viral RNA Loads between HIV Positive Patients with Neurological Manifestations and Neurologically Asymptomatic HIV Patients.

    PubMed

    Mathur, A D; Devesh, S

    2017-08-01

    There are conflicting reports in literature about correlation of CSF viral RNA levels with neurological manifestations in HIV positive patients. Many studies in animals and human subjects have shown that CSF HIV-1 RNA can be useful as a specific marker of HIV induced neuropathology. To the contrary there are studies which show that neurological disease states can occur in absence of significant increase of CSF HIV RNA. This was a prospective study conducted at Base hospital Delhi Cantt, New Delhi, a tertiary care hospitals for HIV patients. The study period was from 16 May 2006 to16 Jun 2011. The current study included forty (40) patients (Twenty HIV positive patients with neurological manifestations and twenty HIV positive patients clinically without any neurological manifestation). All potential study subjects and controls were explained the nature of this study and enrolled thereafter with written consent. In our study all the cases (HIV/AIDS patients with Neuro AIDS) and controls (HIV/AIDS patients without Neuro manifestations) were males only. 45% of the cases and 60% of controls were in the age group of 25 to 35 yrs and 35 % of cases and 40% of controls were in age group of 36 to 45 yrs. Among cases (HIV patients with neurological manifestations), The neurological manifestations in our 20 patients included; dementia-5, cryptococcal meningitis-4, Tubercular meningitis-4, CVA-3, Headache-3, (without CSF abnormality), 1 case each of pyogenic meningitis, Candida meningitis, Tremors and Herpes Zoster. Among the 20 cases fourteen patients had abnormal CSF (70%) whereas only one patient among the controls showed CSF abnormality (5%). Out of 20 cases, radio-imaging (CT Scan/ MRI) of brain was done in 18 cases. Twelve cases (66.66) had some abnormality on CT/ MRI. Various abnormalities seen were as under Calcified granuloma-1, Infarcts-5, Hydrocephalus-2, TBM (meningeal enhancement)-2, Candidiasis (Focal hypodensities in subcortical white matter of cerebral

  7. Computational models can predict response to HIV therapy without a genotype and may reduce treatment failure in different resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Revell, A D; Wang, D; Wood, R; Morrow, C; Tempelman, H; Hamers, R L; Alvarez-Uria, G; Streinu-Cercel, A; Ene, L; Wensing, A M J; DeWolf, F; Nelson, M; Montaner, J S; Lane, H C; Larder, B A

    2013-06-01

    Genotypic HIV drug-resistance testing is typically 60%-65% predictive of response to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) and is valuable for guiding treatment changes. Genotyping is unavailable in many resource-limited settings (RLSs). We aimed to develop models that can predict response to ART without a genotype and evaluated their potential as a treatment support tool in RLSs. Random forest models were trained to predict the probability of response to ART (≤400 copies HIV RNA/mL) using the following data from 14 891 treatment change episodes (TCEs) after virological failure, from well-resourced countries: viral load and CD4 count prior to treatment change, treatment history, drugs in the new regimen, time to follow-up and follow-up viral load. Models were assessed by cross-validation during development, with an independent set of 800 cases from well-resourced countries, plus 231 cases from Southern Africa, 206 from India and 375 from Romania. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was the main outcome measure. The models achieved an AUC of 0.74-0.81 during cross-validation and 0.76-0.77 with the 800 test TCEs. They achieved AUCs of 0.58-0.65 (Southern Africa), 0.63 (India) and 0.70 (Romania). Models were more accurate for data from the well-resourced countries than for cases from Southern Africa and India (P < 0.001), but not Romania. The models identified alternative, available drug regimens predicted to result in virological response for 94% of virological failures in Southern Africa, 99% of those in India and 93% of those in Romania. We developed computational models that predict virological response to ART without a genotype with comparable accuracy to genotyping with rule-based interpretation. These models have the potential to help optimize antiretroviral therapy for patients in RLSs where genotyping is not generally available.

  8. Genotypes at chromosome 22q12-13 are associated with HIV-1-exposed but uninfected status in Italians.

    PubMed

    Kanari, Yasuyoshi; Clerici, Mario; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kawabata, Hiroyuki; Trabattoni, Daria; Caputo, Sergio Lo; Mazzotta, Francesco; Fujisawa, Hironori; Niwa, Atsuko; Ishihara, Chiaki; Takei, Yumiko A; Miyazawa, Masaaki

    2005-07-01

    Despite multiple and repeated exposures to HIV-1, some individuals possess no detectable HIV genome and show T-cell memory responses to the viral antigens. HIV-1-reactive mucosal IgA detected in such uninfected individuals suggests their possible immune resistance against HIV. We tested if the above HIV-1-exposed but uninfected status was associated with genetic markers other than a homozygous deletion of the CCR5 gene. Based on our mapping in chromosome 15 of a gene controlling the production of neutralizing antibodies in a mouse retrovirus infection, we genotyped 42 HIV-1-exposed but uninfected Italians at polymorphic loci in the syntenic segment of human chromosome 22, and compared them with 49 HIV-1-infected and 47 uninfected healthy control individuals by a closed testing procedure. A significant association was found between chromosome 22q12-13 genotypes and a putative dominant locus conferring anti-HIV-1 immune responses in the exposed but uninfected individuals. Distributions of linkage disequilibrium across chromosome 22 also differed between the exposed but uninfected and two other phenotypic groups. The data indicated the presence of a new genetic factor associated with the HIV-1-exposed but uninfected status.

  9. Comparative Resistance of Phage Isolates of Four Genotypes of F-Specific RNA Bacteriophages to Various Inactivation Processes

    PubMed Central

    Schaper, M.; Durán, A. E.; Jofre, J.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of natural inactivation in freshwater, chlorination, ammonia, extreme pHs, temperature, and salt content on phage inactivation was evaluated on mixtures of F-specific RNA bacteriophage isolates belonging to genotypes I, II, III, and IV. The bacteriophages studied were previously but recently isolated from natural samples, characterized as F-specific RNA bacteriophages and genotyped by plaque hybridization with genotype-specific probes. Natural inactivation in river water was modeled by in situ incubation of bacteriophages inside submerged dialysis tubes. After several days bacteriophages of genotype I showed the highest persistence, which was significantly different from that of bacteriophages of genotype II, IV, or III. The pattern of resistance of phages belonging to the various genotypes to extreme pHs, ammonia, temperature, salt concentration, and chlorination was similar. In all cases, phages of genotype I showed the highest persistence, followed by the phages of genotypes II, III, and IV. The phages of genotypes III and IV were the least resistant to all treatments, and resistance of genotypes III and IV to the treatments was similar. Bacteriophages of genotype II showed intermediate resistance to some of the treatments. The resistance of four phages of genotype I to natural inactivation and chlorination did not differ significantly. These results indicate that genotypes III and IV are much more sensitive to environmental stresses and to treatments than the other genotypes, especially than genotype I. This should be taken into consideration in future studies aimed at using genotypes of F-specific RNA bacteriophages to fingerprint the origin of fecal pollution. PMID:12147462

  10. Quantitative Distribution of Infectious F-Specific RNA Phage Genotypes in Surface Waters

    PubMed Central

    Hanamoto, Seiya; Shirasaka, Yuya; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT F-specific RNA phages (FRNAPHs) are considered potential viral indicators of water pollution due to their occurrence and stability in water environments. However, their suitability as viral indicators is not fully elucidated because the characteristics of FRNAPHs are variable depending on the genotype. In this study, for the characterization of infectious FRNAPH genotypes, integrated culture reverse transcription-PCR coupled with the most probable number approach was applied to surface water samples. Further, to recover low concentrations of FRNAPH genotypes, an FRNAPH recovery method was developed. The novel FRNAPH recovery method using a noncharged microfiltration membrane could effectively recover FRNAPH strains without inactivation, while a method using an electronegative microfiltration membrane resulted in the inactivation of some strains. Infectious FRNAPH genotypes in surface water samples were successfully quantified with an efficiency comparable to that of the conventional plaque assay. Genotype I (GI) and GII FRNAPHs tended to be predominant at locations impacted by treated and untreated municipal wastewater, respectively. The numbers and proportions of infectious FRNAPHs tended to be higher during the winter season when water temperature decreased. IMPORTANCE Properties of FRNAPHs are highly variable depending on their genotypes. Previous typing methods for FRNAPHs are not quantitative and/or are based on molecular assays, which cannot differentiate infective strains from inactive strains. Due to the reasons mentioned above, the utility of FRNAPHs as viral indicators of water pollution has not been fully validated. In this study, a quantitative genotyping method for infectious FRNAPHs was developed and applied to surface water samples. The method enabled characterization of infectious FRNAPH genotypes in terms of their occurrence and seasonality. Moreover, comparison of the method to a conventional molecular assay (reverse transcription

  11. A Rapid, Self-confirming Assay for HIV: Simultaneous Detection of Anti-HIV Antibodies and Viral RNA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zongyuan; Zhu, Hui; Malamud, Daniel; Barber, Cheryl; Ongagna, Yhombi Yvon Serge; Yasmin, Rubina; Modak, Sayli; Janal, Malvin N.; Abrams, William R.; Montagna, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We developed a microfluidic system to simultaneously detect host anti-HIV antibodies and viral RNA in the same specimen in order to satisfy two important diagnostic criteria, especially within resource-limited settings. First, the system can detect acute HIV infection and allow immediate confirmation of a seropositive screening result by detection of HIV RNA. It also addresses the well-known "seroconversion window" during early HIV infection when antibodies are not yet detectable and viral loads are at their highest. Methods We first developed and optimized two separate manual assays for the detection of host anti-HIV antibodies and viral RNA and then converted them to the microfluidic system. We optimized a commercially available serologic assay to run within the microfluidic device while we incorporated the isothermal LAMP assay to detect the presence of viral RNA. The microfluidic device and instrumentation were developed to simultaneously perform both assays without any user intervention. Results The finalized system consists of a disposable injection molded and film-laminated microfluidic CARD disposable device and a portable, software controlled instrument, which together can automatically perform all steps of both assays without any user intervention after the initial loading of samples and reagents. The microfluidic CARD cartridge has multiple microchannels, valves, pumps and reservoirs, which perform the immunoassay, isolates viral RNA for detection by magnetic bead based purification, and Reverse Transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). The microfluidic system was able to detect host anti-HIV antibodies and viral RNA in either a blood or saliva sample. Conclusion The ability to detect antibodies and simultaneously confirm a seropositive HIV-RNA result provides healthcare workers with a complete and accurate appraisal of a patient's infection status in the earliest stages of the disease and represents an important tool for

  12. A Rapid, Self-confirming Assay for HIV: Simultaneous Detection of Anti-HIV Antibodies and Viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zongyuan; Zhu, Hui; Malamud, Daniel; Barber, Cheryl; Ongagna, Yhombi Yvon Serge; Yasmin, Rubina; Modak, Sayli; Janal, Malvin N; Abrams, William R; Montagna, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    We developed a microfluidic system to simultaneously detect host anti-HIV antibodies and viral RNA in the same specimen in order to satisfy two important diagnostic criteria, especially within resource-limited settings. First, the system can detect acute HIV infection and allow immediate confirmation of a seropositive screening result by detection of HIV RNA. It also addresses the well-known "seroconversion window" during early HIV infection when antibodies are not yet detectable and viral loads are at their highest. We first developed and optimized two separate manual assays for the detection of host anti-HIV antibodies and viral RNA and then converted them to the microfluidic system. We optimized a commercially available serologic assay to run within the microfluidic device while we incorporated the isothermal LAMP assay to detect the presence of viral RNA. The microfluidic device and instrumentation were developed to simultaneously perform both assays without any user intervention. The finalized system consists of a disposable injection molded and film-laminated microfluidic CARD disposable device and a portable, software controlled instrument, which together can automatically perform all steps of both assays without any user intervention after the initial loading of samples and reagents. The microfluidic CARD cartridge has multiple microchannels, valves, pumps and reservoirs, which perform the immunoassay, isolates viral RNA for detection by magnetic bead based purification, and Reverse Transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). The microfluidic system was able to detect host anti-HIV antibodies and viral RNA in either a blood or saliva sample. The ability to detect antibodies and simultaneously confirm a seropositive HIV-RNA result provides healthcare workers with a complete and accurate appraisal of a patient's infection status in the earliest stages of the disease and represents an important tool for the "Test and Treat" and "Treatment

  13. Cell-associated HIV RNA: a dynamic biomarker of viral persistence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In most HIV-infected individuals adherent to modern antiretroviral therapy (ART), plasma viremia stays undetectable by clinical assays and therefore, additional virological markers for monitoring and predicting therapy responses and for measuring the degree of HIV persistence in patients on ART should be identified. For the above purposes, quantitation of cell-associated HIV biomarkers could provide a useful alternative to measurements of viral RNA in plasma. This review concentrates on cell-associated (CA) HIV RNA with the emphasis on its use as a virological biomarker. We discuss the significance of CA HIV RNA as a prognostic marker of disease progression in untreated patients and as an indicator of residual virus replication and the size of the dynamic viral reservoir in ART-treated patients. Potential value of this biomarker for monitoring the response to ART and to novel HIV eradication therapies is highlighted. PMID:23587031

  14. HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations: Potential Applications for Point-of-Care Genotypic Resistance Testing

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Soo-Yon; Jordan, Michael R.; Raizes, Elliot; Chua, Arlene; Parkin, Neil; Kantor, Rami; Van Zyl, Gert U.; Mukui, Irene; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Frenkel, Lisa M.; Ndembi, Nicaise; Hamers, Raph L.; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Wallis, Carole L.; Gupta, Ravindra K.; Fokam, Joseph; Zeh, Clement; Schapiro, Jonathan M.; Carmona, Sergio; Katzenstein, David; Tang, Michele; Aghokeng, Avelin F.; De Oliveira, Tulio; Wensing, Annemarie M. J.; Gallant, Joel E.; Wainberg, Mark A.; Richman, Douglas D.; Fitzgibbon, Joseph E.; Schito, Marco; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Yang, Chunfu; Shafer, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of acquired and transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance is an obstacle to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) hardest hit by the HIV-1 pandemic. Genotypic drug resistance testing could facilitate the choice of initial ART in areas with rising transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and enable care-providers to determine which individuals with virological failure (VF) on a first- or second-line ART regimen require a change in treatment. An inexpensive near point-of-care (POC) genotypic resistance test would be useful in settings where the resources, capacity, and infrastructure to perform standard genotypic drug resistance testing are limited. Such a test would be particularly useful in conjunction with the POC HIV-1 viral load tests that are currently being introduced in LMICs. A POC genotypic resistance test is likely to involve the use of allele-specific point mutation assays for detecting drug-resistance mutations (DRMs). This study proposes that two major nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-associated DRMs (M184V and K65R) and four major NNRTI-associated DRMs (K103N, Y181C, G190A, and V106M) would be the most useful for POC genotypic resistance testing in LMIC settings. One or more of these six DRMs was present in 61.2% of analyzed virus sequences from ART-naïve individuals with intermediate or high-level TDR and 98.8% of analyzed virus sequences from individuals on a first-line NRTI/NNRTI-containing regimen with intermediate or high-level acquired drug resistance. The detection of one or more of these DRMs in an ART-naïve individual or in a individual with VF on a first-line NRTI/NNRTI-containing regimen may be considered an indication for a protease inhibitor (PI)-containing regimen or closer virological monitoring based on cost-effectiveness or country policy. PMID:26717411

  15. Dramatic Decline in the HIV-1 RNA Level Over Calendar Time in a Large Urban HIV Practice

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, John G.

    2011-01-01

    (See the Editorial Commentary by Sax, on pages 605–608.) Background. We have previously showed that as antiretroviral therapy has improved over time since 1995–1996, the likelihood of achieving virologic suppression has also improved. Antiretroviral therapy and antiretroviral therapy guidelines have continued to evolve, and we wished to determine the trend in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) RNA levels over time in HIV-infected persons receiving care in our large urban HIV clinical practice in Baltimore, Maryland. Methods. The HIV-1 RNA level was assessed each year from 1996 through 2010 at the date closest to 1 July for all patients in care and followed up in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinical Cohort. The clinic population’s median HIV-1 RNA level and stratified threshold levels were plotted. The demographic characteristics of the population were also assessed over time. Results. From 1996 (shortly after highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART] was introduced) to 2010, the median HIV-1 RNA level decreased from 10 400 to <200 copies/mL. The proportion of patients with an HIV-1 RNA level >500 copies/mL decreased from 75% to only 16% during this same period. The population itself became older, had a higher proportion of women, and a lower proportion of patients with injection drug use as a transmission risk, but it was geographically stable. There was an increase in HAART use over time. Discussion. Our results demonstrate the remarkable impact of increased use of and improved management with HAART in this urban HIV-infected population. PMID:21844006

  16. HIV-2 genomic RNA accumulates in stress granules in the absence of active translation.

    PubMed

    Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Valiente-Echeverria, Fernando; Rubilar, Paulina S; Garcia-de-Gracia, Francisco; Ricci, Emiliano P; Limousin, Taran; Décimo, Didier; Mouland, Andrew J; Ohlmann, Théophile

    2014-11-10

    During the post-transcriptional events of the HIV-2 replication cycle, the full-length unspliced genomic RNA (gRNA) is first used as an mRNA to synthesize Gag and Gag-Pol proteins and then packaged into progeny virions. However, the mechanisms responsible for the coordinate usage of the gRNA during these two mutually exclusive events are poorly understood. Here, we present evidence showing that HIV-2 expression induces stress granule assembly in cultured cells. This contrasts with HIV-1, which interferes with stress granules assembly even upon induced cellular stress. Moreover, we observed that the RNA-binding protein and stress granules assembly factor TIAR associates with the gRNA to form a TIAR-HIV-2 ribonucleoprotein (TH2RNP) complex localizing diffuse in the cytoplasm or aggregated in stress granules. Although the assembly of TH2RNP in stress granules did not require the binding of the Gag protein to the gRNA, we observed that increased levels of Gag promoted both translational arrest and stress granule assembly. Moreover, HIV-2 Gag also localizes to stress granules in the absence of a 'packageable' gRNA. Our results indicate that the HIV-2 gRNA is compartmentalized in stress granules in the absence of active translation prior to being selected for packaging by the Gag polyprotein.

  17. HIV-2 genomic RNA accumulates in stress granules in the absence of active translation

    PubMed Central

    Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Valiente-Echeverria, Fernando; Rubilar, Paulina S.; Garcia-de-Gracia, Francisco; Ricci, Emiliano P.; Limousin, Taran; Décimo, Didier; Mouland, Andrew J.; Ohlmann, Théophile

    2014-01-01

    During the post-transcriptional events of the HIV-2 replication cycle, the full-length unspliced genomic RNA (gRNA) is first used as an mRNA to synthesize Gag and Gag-Pol proteins and then packaged into progeny virions. However, the mechanisms responsible for the coordinate usage of the gRNA during these two mutually exclusive events are poorly understood. Here, we present evidence showing that HIV-2 expression induces stress granule assembly in cultured cells. This contrasts with HIV-1, which interferes with stress granules assembly even upon induced cellular stress. Moreover, we observed that the RNA-binding protein and stress granules assembly factor TIAR associates with the gRNA to form a TIAR-HIV-2 ribonucleoprotein (TH2RNP) complex localizing diffuse in the cytoplasm or aggregated in stress granules. Although the assembly of TH2RNP in stress granules did not require the binding of the Gag protein to the gRNA, we observed that increased levels of Gag promoted both translational arrest and stress granule assembly. Moreover, HIV-2 Gag also localizes to stress granules in the absence of a ‘packageable’ gRNA. Our results indicate that the HIV-2 gRNA is compartmentalized in stress granules in the absence of active translation prior to being selected for packaging by the Gag polyprotein. PMID:25352557

  18. HIV-1 RNA genome dimerizes on the plasma membrane in the presence of Gag protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianbo; Rahman, Sheikh Abdul; Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Grunwald, David; Sardo, Luca; Burdick, Ryan C; Plisov, Sergey; Liang, Edward; Tai, Sheldon; Pathak, Vinay K; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2016-01-12

    Retroviruses package a dimeric genome comprising two copies of the viral RNA. Each RNA contains all of the genetic information for viral replication. Packaging a dimeric genome allows the recovery of genetic information from damaged RNA genomes during DNA synthesis and promotes frequent recombination to increase diversity in the viral population. Therefore, the strategy of packaging dimeric RNA affects viral replication and viral evolution. Although its biological importance is appreciated, very little is known about the genome dimerization process. HIV-1 RNA genomes dimerize before packaging into virions, and RNA interacts with the viral structural protein Gag in the cytoplasm. Thus, it is often hypothesized that RNAs dimerize in the cytoplasm and the RNA-Gag complex is transported to the plasma membrane for virus assembly. In this report, we tagged HIV-1 RNAs with fluorescent proteins, via interactions of RNA-binding proteins and motifs in the RNA genomes, and studied their behavior at the plasma membrane by using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We showed that HIV-1 RNAs dimerize not in the cytoplasm but on the plasma membrane. Dynamic interactions occur among HIV-1 RNAs, and stabilization of the RNA dimer requires Gag protein. Dimerization often occurs at an early stage of the virus assembly process. Furthermore, the dimerization process is probably mediated by the interactions of two RNA-Gag complexes, rather than two RNAs. These findings advance the current understanding of HIV-1 assembly and reveal important insights into viral replication mechanisms.

  19. Hierarchical Modeling and Differential Expression Analysis for RNA-seq Experiments with Inbred and Hybrid Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lithio, Andrew; Nettleton, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The performance of inbred and hybrid genotypes is of interest in plant breeding and genetics. High-throughput sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq) has proven to be a useful tool in the study of the molecular genetic responses of inbreds and hybrids to environmental stresses. Commonly used experimental designs and sequencing methods lead to complex data structures that require careful attention in data analysis. We demonstrate an analysis of RNA-seq data from a split-plot design involving drought stress applied to two inbred genotypes and two hybrids formed by crosses between the inbreds. Our generalized linear modeling strategy incorporates random effects for whole-plot experimental units and uses negative binomial distributions to allow for overdispersion in count responses for split-plot experimental units. Variations in gene length and base content, as well as differences in sequencing intensity across experimental units, are also accounted for. Hierarchical modeling with thoughtful parameterization and prior specification allows for borrowing of information across genes to improve estimation of dispersion parameters, genotype effects, treatment effects, and interaction effects of primary interest. PMID:27110090

  20. Hierarchical Modeling and Differential Expression Analysis for RNA-seq Experiments with Inbred and Hybrid Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Lithio, Andrew; Nettleton, Dan

    2015-12-01

    The performance of inbred and hybrid genotypes is of interest in plant breeding and genetics. High-throughput sequencing of RNA (RNA-seq) has proven to be a useful tool in the study of the molecular genetic responses of inbreds and hybrids to environmental stresses. Commonly used experimental designs and sequencing methods lead to complex data structures that require careful attention in data analysis. We demonstrate an analysis of RNA-seq data from a split-plot design involving drought stress applied to two inbred genotypes and two hybrids formed by crosses between the inbreds. Our generalized linear modeling strategy incorporates random effects for whole-plot experimental units and uses negative binomial distributions to allow for overdispersion in count responses for split-plot experimental units. Variations in gene length and base content, as well as differences in sequencing intensity across experimental units, are also accounted for. Hierarchical modeling with thoughtful parameterization and prior specification allows for borrowing of information across genes to improve estimation of dispersion parameters, genotype effects, treatment effects, and interaction effects of primary interest.

  1. Multiparametric characterization of rare HIV-infected cells using an RNA-flow FISH technique.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Amy E; Niessl, Julia; Fromentin, Rémi; Richard, Jonathan; Porichis, Filippos; Massanella, Marta; Brassard, Nathalie; Alsahafi, Nirmin; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Finzi, Andrés; Chomont, Nicolas; Kaufmann, Daniel E

    2017-10-01

    Efforts to cure HIV are hampered by limited characterization of the cells supporting HIV replication in vivo and inadequate methods for quantifying the latent viral reservoir in individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We describe a protocol for flow cytometric identification of viral reservoirs, based on concurrent detection of cellular HIV Gagpol mRNA by in situ RNA hybridization combined with antibody staining for the HIV Gag protein. By simultaneously detecting both HIV RNA and protein, the CD4 T cells harboring translation-competent virus can be identified. The HIV(RNA/Gag) method is 1,000-fold more sensitive than Gag protein staining alone, with a detection limit of 0.5-1 Gagpol mRNA(+)/Gag protein(+) cells per million CD4 T cells. Uniquely, the HIV(RNA/Gag) assay also allows parallel phenotyping of viral reservoirs, including reactivated latent reservoirs in clinical samples. The assay takes 2 d, and requires antibody labeling for surface and intracellular markers, followed by mRNA labeling and multiple signal amplification steps.

  2. Improved darunavir genotypic mutation score predicting treatment response for patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B and non-subtype B receiving a salvage regimen.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Andrea; Flandre, Philippe; Dunn, David; Zazzi, Maurizio; Wensing, Annemarie; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Günthard, Huldrych F; Wittkop, Linda; Kordossis, Theodoros; Garcia, Federico; Castagna, Antonella; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Churchill, Duncan; De Wit, Stéphane; Brockmeyer, Norbert H; Imaz, Arkaitz; Mussini, Cristina; Obel, Niels; Perno, Carlo Federico; Roca, Bernardino; Reiss, Peter; Schülter, Eugen; Torti, Carlo; van Sighem, Ard; Zangerle, Robert; Descamps, Diane

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the prediction of the impact of HIV-1 protease mutations in different viral subtypes on virological response to darunavir. Darunavir-containing treatment change episodes (TCEs) in patients previously failing PIs were selected from large European databases. HIV-1 subtype B-infected patients were used as the derivation dataset and HIV-1 non-B-infected patients were used as the validation dataset. The adjusted association of each mutation with week 8 HIV RNA change from baseline was analysed by linear regression. A prediction model was derived based on best subset least squares estimation with mutational weights corresponding to regression coefficients. Virological outcome prediction accuracy was compared with that from existing genotypic resistance interpretation systems (GISs) (ANRS 2013, Rega 9.1.0 and HIVdb 7.0). TCEs were selected from 681 subtype B-infected and 199 non-B-infected adults. Accompanying drugs were NRTIs in 87%, NNRTIs in 27% and raltegravir or maraviroc or enfuvirtide in 53%. The prediction model included weighted protease mutations, HIV RNA, CD4 and activity of accompanying drugs. The model's association with week 8 HIV RNA change in the subtype B (derivation) set was R(2) = 0.47 [average squared error (ASE) = 0.67, P < 10(-6)]; in the non-B (validation) set, ASE was 0.91. Accuracy investigated by means of area under the receiver operating characteristic curves with a binary response (above the threshold value of HIV RNA reduction) showed that our final model outperformed models with existing interpretation systems in both training and validation sets. A model with a new darunavir-weighted mutation score outperformed existing GISs in both B and non-B subtypes in predicting virological response to darunavir. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. CCR5 chemokine receptor genotype frequencies among Puerto Rican HIV-1-seropositive individuals.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, S; Tirado, G; Revuelta, G; Yamamura, Y; Lu, Y; Nerurkar, V R; Yanagihara, R

    1998-01-01

    Some individuals remain uninfected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), despite multiple sexual contacts with subjects with confirmed HIV-1 infection. Several studies have confirmed that individuals who are homozygous for a 32 base pair (bp) deletion mutation in the chemokine receptor gene CCR5, designated as delta 32/ delta 32, are protected against HIV-1 infection. Heterozygotes of the same chemokine receptor deletion mutation are, however, not protected from acquiring HIV-1 infection but seemingly have slower progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndromes (AIDS). Genotype frequencies of the delta 32 CCR5 mutation vary markedly among different ethnic groups; heterozygosity is found in approximately 15% of Caucasians, about 5-7% of Hispanics and African Americans and 1% or less of Asians. The ethnic background of Puerto Ricans is highly complex and usually includes admixture of Caucasian, Caribbean Indian and African traits to a varying extent. This study was conducted to examine the frequencies of the delta 32 CCR5 mutation among Puerto Ricans who are infected with HIV-1. Samples were received from different geographical regions of the island. Of 377 samples tested, 94.2% were wild type (non-deletion mutant) homozygotes, 5.8% were delta 32 CCR5 heterozygotes, and none were delta 32 CCR5 homozygotes. The incidence of CCR5 delta 32/w heterozygous mutation among Puerto Ricans seems to be somewhat lower than what was reported with US Hispanics. Some age and gender associated bias of the mutation frequency were observed with the study population, the reason for which is unclear at present.

  4. Long-term persistence of primary genotypic resistance after HIV-1 seroconversion.

    PubMed

    Pao, David; Andrady, Ushan; Clarke, Janette; Dean, Gillian; Drake, Susan; Fisher, Martin; Green, Tanya; Kumar, Siva; Murphy, Maurice; Tang, Alan; Taylor, Stephen; White, David; Underhill, Gillian; Pillay, Deenan; Cane, Patricia

    2004-12-15

    Primary infection with drug-resistant HIV-1 is well documented. We have followed up patients infected with such viruses to determine the stability of resistance-associated mutations. Fourteen patients who experienced primary infection with genotypic evidence of resistance were followed for up to 3 years. Drug resistance-associated mutations persisted over time in most patients studied. In particular, M41L, T69N, K103N, and T215 variants within reverse transcriptase (RT) and multidrug resistance demonstrated little reversion to wild-type virus. By contrast, Y181C and K219Q in RT, occurring alone, disappeared within 25 and 9 months, respectively. Multidrug resistance in 2 patients was found to be stable for up to 18 months, the maximum period studied. We conclude that certain resistance-associated mutations are highly stable and these data support the recommendation that all new HIV diagnoses in areas where primary resistance may occur should undergo genotyping irrespective of whether the date of seroconversion is known.

  5. Genotypic characterisation of human papillomavirus infections among persons living with HIV infection; a case-control study in Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Yar, Denis Dekugmen; Salifu, Samson Pandam; Darko, Samuel Nkansah; Annan, Augustina Angelina; Gyimah, Akosua Adumea; Buabeng, Kwame Ohene; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women living with HIV and non-infected women in Ghana. A case-control study was conducted involving 107 women living with HIV aged between 18 and 59 years (cases) and 100 non-HIV-infected apparently healthy women (controls) who were recruited from the Kumasi South Hospital, from July to December, 2014. Cervicovaginal swabs were taken from study participants to characterise 28 high- and low-risk HPV genotypes using a multiplex real-time PCR. The overall mean age for the participants was 40.10 ± 9.76 years. The prevalence of high-risk (hr)-HPV genotypes was significantly higher among the cases than the controls (77.4% vs. 41.6%, P < 0.0001). Overall, HPV 58 and 54 were the most predominant high-risk (18.8%) and low-risk (15.0%) genotypes detected. The two most common hr-HPV genotype isolates were 58 (18.8%) and 35 (15.9%) with 58 being the most prevalent among age group 35-44 years compared with hr-HPV 16, 18, 35 and 45, found predominantly among 18-34 age group. Significant variations exist in HPV genotypes among HIV-infected and uninfected women. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Strong serological responses and HIV RNA increase following AS03-adjuvanted pandemic immunization in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Calmy, A; Bel, M; Nguyen, A; Combescure, C; Delhumeau, C; Meier, S; Yerly, S; Kaiser, L; Hirschel, B; Siegrist, C-A

    2012-04-01

    We aimed to determine the antibody responses and effect on viral load of the AS03-adjuvanted pandemic H1N1 vaccine in HIV-infected patients. A total of 121 HIV-infected patients and 138 healthy subjects were enrolled in a prospective, open-label study. Healthy subjects received one dose and HIV-infected patients two doses of the AS03-adjuvanted split influenza A/09/H1N1 vaccine (Pandemrix®; GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, United Kingdom.) at an interval of 3-4 weeks. The study was extended in 2010/2011 for 66 patients. Geometric mean titres (GMTs), seroprotection rates (post-vaccination titre ≥ 1:40) and HIV-1 RNA levels were measured before and 4 weeks after immunization. After two immunizations, the seroprotection rate (94.2 vs. 87%, respectively) and GMT (376 vs. 340, respectively) in HIV-infected patients were as high as in healthy subjects after one dose, regardless of CD4 cell count. Four weeks after immunization, HIV RNA was detected in plasma samples from 40 of 68 (58.0%) previously aviraemic patients [median 152 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL; interquartile range (IQR) 87-509 copies/mL]. Subsequent measures indicated that HIV RNA levels had again declined to <20 copies/mL in most patients (27 of 34; 79.4%). Following (nonadjuvanted) influenza immunization in 2010/2011, HIV RNA levels only slightly increased (median final level 28 copies/mL) in three of 66 (4.5%) previously aviraemic patients, including two of 25 (8%) patients in whom an increase had been elicited by AS03-adjuvanted vaccine the year before. Most HIV-infected patients developed seroprotection after two doses of AS03-adjuvanted pandemic vaccine. A transient effect on HIV RNA levels was observed in previously aviraemic patients. A booster dose of the nonadjuvanted influenza vaccine containing the A/09/H1N1 strain the following year did not reproduce this finding, indicating a non-antigen-specific adjuvant effect. © 2011 British HIV Association.

  7. A comparison of computational models with and without genotyping for prediction of response to second-line HIV therapy.

    PubMed

    Revell, A D; Boyd, M A; Wang, D; Emery, S; Gazzard, B; Reiss, P; van Sighem, A I; Montaner, J S; Lane, H C; Larder, B A

    2014-08-01

    We compared the use of computational models developed with and without HIV genotype vs. genotyping itself to predict effective regimens for patients experiencing first-line virological failure. Two sets of models predicted virological response for 99 three-drug regimens for patients on a failing regimen of two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors and one nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in the Second-Line study. One set used viral load, CD4 count, genotype, plus treatment history and time to follow-up to make its predictions; the second set did not include genotype. Genotypic sensitivity scores were derived and the ranking of the alternative regimens compared with those of the models. The accuracy of the models and that of genotyping as predictors of the virological responses to second-line regimens were compared. The rankings of alternative regimens by the two sets of models were significantly correlated in 60-69% of cases, and the rankings by the models that use a genotype and genotyping itself were significantly correlated in 60% of cases. The two sets of models identified alternative regimens that were predicted to be effective in 97% and 100% of cases, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating curve was 0.72 and 0.74 for the two sets of models, respectively, and significantly lower at 0.55 for genotyping. The two sets of models performed comparably well and significantly outperformed genotyping as predictors of response. The models identified alternative regimens predicted to be effective in almost all cases. It is encouraging that models that do not require a genotype were able to predict responses to common second-line therapies in settings where genotyping is unavailable. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  8. The RNA Binding Specificity of Human APOBEC3 Proteins Resembles That of HIV-1 Nucleocapsid

    PubMed Central

    Errando, Manel; Bieniasz, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    The APOBEC3 (A3) cytidine deaminases are antiretroviral proteins, whose targets include human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Their incorporation into viral particles is critical for antiviral activity and is driven by interactions with the RNA molecules that are packaged into virions. However, it is unclear whether A3 proteins preferentially target RNA molecules that are destined to be packaged and if so, how. Using cross-linking immunoprecipitation sequencing (CLIP-seq), we determined the RNA binding preferences of the A3F, A3G and A3H proteins. We found that A3 proteins bind preferentially to RNA segments with particular properties, both in cells and in virions. Specifically, A3 proteins target RNA sequences that are G-rich and/or A-rich and are not scanned by ribosomes during translation. Comparative analyses of HIV-1 Gag, nucleocapsid (NC) and A3 RNA binding to HIV-1 RNA in cells and virions revealed the striking finding that A3 proteins partially mimic the RNA binding specificity of the HIV-1 NC protein. These findings suggest a model for A3 incorporation into HIV-1 virions in which an NC-like RNA binding specificity is determined by nucleotide composition rather than sequence. This model reconciles the promiscuity of A3 RNA binding that has been observed in previous studies with a presumed advantage that would accompany selective binding to RNAs that are destined to be packaged into virions. PMID:27541140

  9. The thermodynamics of Pr55Gag-RNA interaction regulate the assembly of HIV.

    PubMed

    Tanwar, Hanumant S; Khoo, Keith K; Garvey, Megan; Waddington, Lynne; Leis, Andrew; Hijnen, Marcel; Velkov, Tony; Dumsday, Geoff J; McKinstry, William J; Mak, Johnson

    2017-02-01

    The interactions that occur during HIV Pr55Gag oligomerization and genomic RNA packaging are essential elements that facilitate HIV assembly. However, mechanistic details of these interactions are not clearly defined. Here, we overcome previous limitations in producing large quantities of full-length recombinant Pr55Gag that is required for isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies, and we have revealed the thermodynamic properties of HIV assembly for the first time. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the binding between RNA and HIV Pr55Gag is an energetically favourable reaction (ΔG<0) that is further enhanced by the oligomerization of Pr55Gag. The change in enthalpy (ΔH) widens sequentially from: (1) Pr55Gag-Psi RNA binding during HIV genome selection; to (2) Pr55Gag-Guanosine Uridine (GU)-containing RNA binding in cytoplasm/plasma membrane; and then to (3) Pr55Gag-Adenosine(A)-containing RNA binding in immature HIV. These data imply the stepwise increments of heat being released during HIV biogenesis may help to facilitate the process of viral assembly. By mimicking the interactions between A-containing RNA and oligomeric Pr55Gag in immature HIV, it was noted that a p6 domain truncated Pr50Gag Δp6 is less efficient than full-length Pr55Gag in this thermodynamic process. These data suggest a potential unknown role of p6 in Pr55Gag-Pr55Gag oligomerization and/or Pr55Gag-RNA interaction during HIV assembly. Our data provide direct evidence on how nucleic acid sequences and the oligomeric state of Pr55Gag regulate HIV assembly.

  10. The thermodynamics of Pr55Gag-RNA interaction regulate the assembly of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Waddington, Lynne; Hijnen, Marcel; Velkov, Tony; McKinstry, William J.

    2017-01-01

    The interactions that occur during HIV Pr55Gag oligomerization and genomic RNA packaging are essential elements that facilitate HIV assembly. However, mechanistic details of these interactions are not clearly defined. Here, we overcome previous limitations in producing large quantities of full-length recombinant Pr55Gag that is required for isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) studies, and we have revealed the thermodynamic properties of HIV assembly for the first time. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the binding between RNA and HIV Pr55Gag is an energetically favourable reaction (ΔG<0) that is further enhanced by the oligomerization of Pr55Gag. The change in enthalpy (ΔH) widens sequentially from: (1) Pr55Gag-Psi RNA binding during HIV genome selection; to (2) Pr55Gag-Guanosine Uridine (GU)-containing RNA binding in cytoplasm/plasma membrane; and then to (3) Pr55Gag-Adenosine(A)-containing RNA binding in immature HIV. These data imply the stepwise increments of heat being released during HIV biogenesis may help to facilitate the process of viral assembly. By mimicking the interactions between A-containing RNA and oligomeric Pr55Gag in immature HIV, it was noted that a p6 domain truncated Pr50Gag Δp6 is less efficient than full-length Pr55Gag in this thermodynamic process. These data suggest a potential unknown role of p6 in Pr55Gag-Pr55Gag oligomerization and/or Pr55Gag-RNA interaction during HIV assembly. Our data provide direct evidence on how nucleic acid sequences and the oligomeric state of Pr55Gag regulate HIV assembly. PMID:28222188

  11. Association of chemokine receptor gene variants with HIV-1 genotype predicted tropism.

    PubMed

    Parczewski, M; Urbańska, A; Maciejewska, K; Clark, J; Leszczyszyn-Pynka, M

    2014-11-01

    As a switch from chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 [CCR5 (R5)] to chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 [CXCR4 (X4)] HIV-1 tropism is associated with symptomatic and AIDS stages of infection, while chemokine receptor gene variants modify the tempo of HIV disease progression, we aimed to analyse the association between pretreatment HIV-1 tropism and chemokine polymorphisms known to restrict disease progression. V3 genotype tropism prediction was performed in a group of 221 treatment-naïve patients, with subsequent CCR5 Δ32 (rs333), CCR2 V64I (rs1799864), CCR5 promoter (-627 C/T; rs1799988) and CX3CR1 V249I (rs3732378) genotyping performed in 206 patients. Alleles with a protective effect were assigned positive values while risk alleles were assigned negative values to calculate genetic scores. χ(2) tests, Mann-Whitney U-tests and logistic and linear regression models were used for statistical analyses. R5 tropism was found in 85.5% of patients (n = 189) using a false positive rate (FPR) of 5.75% and in 72.8% of patients (n = 161) using an FPR of 10%. A higher frequency of the 5.75% FPR predicted R5 tropism was associated with the CX3CR1 A allele (P = 0.027). Lower additive genetic scores were associated with an increased frequency of 5.75% FPR predicted R5 tropism (P = 0.0059), with the trend confirmed by logistic regression [odds ratio (OR) 0.5819; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3457-0.9795; P = 0.0416]. Viral load tended to increase with decreasing genetic score in the logistic regression analysis (slope = -0.127 ± 0.076; P = 0.095; r(2)  = 0.161). The CX3CR1 A allele and lower genetic scores may restrict the switch of HIV-1 tropism from R5 to X4. This effect may be associated with the amount of co-receptor on the cell surface. Chemokine receptor gene polymorphisms influence both disease progression and tropism variability. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  12. Differences in HIV type 1 RNA plasma load profile of closely related cocirculating Ethiopian subtype C strains: C and C'.

    PubMed

    Ayele, Workenesh; Mekonnen, Yared; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Mengistu, Yohannes; Tsegaye, Aster; Bakker, Margreet; Berkhout, Ben; Dorigo-Zetsma, Wendelien; Wolday, Dawit; Goudsmit, Jaap; Coutinho, Roel; de Baar, Michel; Paxton, William A; Pollakis, Georgios

    2010-07-01

    Two HIV-1 subtype C subclusters have been identified in Ethiopia (C and C') with little knowledge regarding their biological or clinical differences. We longitudinally monitored HIV-1 viral loads and CD4(+) T cell counts for 130 subtype C-infected individuals from Ethiopia over 5 years. The genetic subclusters C and C' were determined and comparisons were made between the groups. None of the study individuals received antiretroviral therapy. Subcluster C' was found to be the more prevalent (72.3%) genotype circulating. Individuals infected with subcluster C' harbored higher viral loads in comparison to subcluster C-infected individuals when the CD4(+) T cell counts were high (500-900 cells/mm(3)), whereas at low CD4(+) T cell counts (0-150 cells/mm(3)) individuals infected with subcluster C viruses showed higher viral loads. We identified a greater number of deaths among individuals infected with subcluster C viruses in comparison to C'. Our results indicate that infection with subcluster C viruses leads to a more rapid onset of disease, despite the initial lower HIV-1 RNA plasma loads. Additionally, the higher viral loads seen for HIV-1 subcluster C' infections at higher CD4(+) T cell counts can help explain the higher prevalence of this subtype in Ethiopia.

  13. HIV Infection Status as a Predictor of Hepatitis C Virus RNA Testing in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Yartel, Anthony K.; Morgan, Rebecca L.; Rein, David B.; Brown, Kimberly Ann; Kil, Natalie B.; Massoud, Omar I.; Fallon, Michael B.; Smith, Bryce D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Receipt of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA testing following a positive HCV antibody (anti-HCV+) test result to establish current infection is a quality indicator for HCV-related care. This study examines HIV infection status as a predictor of HCV RNA test receipt after an anti-HCV+ result in the primary care setting. Methods Electronic medical records of anti-HCV+ patients from a multisite retrospective study of patients aged ≥18 years who utilized one or more primary care outpatient services during 2005–2010 were analyzed in 2014. A multivariable logistic regression model examined the independent relationships between patient characteristics and receipt of HCV RNA testing. Results Among 1,115 anti-HCV+ patients, 133 (11.9%) were also HIV-positive. Of these, 77.4% (n=103) underwent HCV RNA testing to determine current infection status. By contrast, 66.7% (n=654/980) of anti-HCV+ patients who were HIV-negative received HCV RNA testing. Following multivariable adjustment, the odds of receiving HCV RNA testing were higher among anti-HCV+ patients who were also HIV-positive (AOR=1.9, 95% CI=1.2, 3.0), compared with their HIV-negative counterparts. Elevated alanine aminotransferase level was also associated with receipt of HCV RNA testing (AOR=1.9, 95% CI=1.4, 2.4). Black race was associated with decreased odds of receiving HCV RNA testing (AOR=0.7, 95% CI=0.5, 1.0). Conclusions HIV infection status is independently associated with the likelihood of receiving HCV RNA testing following an anti-HCV+ result. One quarter of anti-HCV+ patients who were also HIV-positive and one third of their HIV-negative counterparts, respectively, did not receive testing to establish active HCV infection, which is imperative for appropriate care and treatment. PMID:25896194

  14. Caught in translation: innate restriction of HIV mRNA translation by a schlafen family protein.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Martin R; Mogensen, Trine H; Paludan, Søren R

    2013-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the cause of AIDS. In recent years it has emerged that cellular interferon-stimulated genes (ISG), play important roles in cell-intrinsic restriction of HIV replication. A publication now describes a novel strategy employed by HIV-infected cells to restrict viral replication, which involves inhibition of viral mRNA translation by the ISG Schlafen 11.

  15. The Distribution of HIV DNA and RNA in Cell Subsets Differs in Gut and Blood of HIV-Positive Patients on ART: Implications for Viral Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Yukl, Steven A.; Shergill, Amandeep K.; Ho, Terence; Killian, Maudi; Girling, Valerie; Epling, Lorrie; Li, Peilin; Wong, Lisa K.; Crouch, Pierre; Deeks, Steven G.; Havlir, Diane V.; McQuaid, Kenneth; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Wong, Joseph K.

    2013-01-01

    Even with optimal antiretroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in plasma, blood cells, and tissues. To develop new therapies, it is essential to know what cell types harbor residual HIV. We measured levels of HIV DNA, RNA, and RNA/DNA ratios in sorted subsets of CD4+ T cells (CCR7+, transitional memory, and effector memory) and non-CD4+ T leukocytes from blood, ileum, and rectum of 8 ART-suppressed HIV-positive subjects. Levels of HIV DNA/million cells in CCR7+ and effector memory cells were higher in the ileum than blood. When normalized by cell frequencies, most HIV DNA and RNA in the blood were found in CCR7+ cells, whereas in both gut sites, most HIV DNA and RNA were found in effector memory cells. HIV DNA and RNA were observed in non-CD4+ T leukocytes at low levels, particularly in gut tissues. Compared to the blood, the ileum had higher levels of HIV DNA and RNA in both CD4+ T cells and non-CD4+ T leukocytes, whereas the rectum had higher HIV DNA levels in both cell types but lower RNA levels in CD4+ T cells. Future studies should determine whether different mechanisms allow HIV to persist in these distinct reservoirs, and the degree to which different therapies can affect each reservoir. PMID:23852128

  16. The distribution of HIV DNA and RNA in cell subsets differs in gut and blood of HIV-positive patients on ART: implications for viral persistence.

    PubMed

    Yukl, Steven A; Shergill, Amandeep K; Ho, Terence; Killian, Maudi; Girling, Valerie; Epling, Lorrie; Li, Peilin; Wong, Lisa K; Crouch, Pierre; Deeks, Steven G; Havlir, Diane V; McQuaid, Kenneth; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Wong, Joseph K

    2013-10-15

    Even with optimal antiretroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in plasma, blood cells, and tissues. To develop new therapies, it is essential to know what cell types harbor residual HIV. We measured levels of HIV DNA, RNA, and RNA/DNA ratios in sorted subsets of CD4+ T cells (CCR7+, transitional memory, and effector memory) and non-CD4+ T leukocytes from blood, ileum, and rectum of 8 ART-suppressed HIV-positive subjects. Levels of HIV DNA/million cells in CCR7+ and effector memory cells were higher in the ileum than blood. When normalized by cell frequencies, most HIV DNA and RNA in the blood were found in CCR7+ cells, whereas in both gut sites, most HIV DNA and RNA were found in effector memory cells. HIV DNA and RNA were observed in non-CD4+ T leukocytes at low levels, particularly in gut tissues. Compared to the blood, the ileum had higher levels of HIV DNA and RNA in both CD4+ T cells and non-CD4+ T leukocytes, whereas the rectum had higher HIV DNA levels in both cell types but lower RNA levels in CD4+ T cells. Future studies should determine whether different mechanisms allow HIV to persist in these distinct reservoirs, and the degree to which different therapies can affect each reservoir.

  17. Acute kidney injury and inflammatory immune reconstitution syndrome in mixed genotype (A/E) hepatitis B virus co-infection in HIV-associated lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Katsushi; Kohno, Kei; Shiono, Yosuke; Suzuki, Ikuko; Kato, Yuichi; Hiroshima, Yuki; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Ohtake, Hiroya; Iwaba, Akiko; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Kato, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    We report a first case of HIV-associated lymphoma (HAL) presenting with acute kidney injury (AKI) and inflammatory immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS). A 39-year-old male, treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for one month prior to admission, developed AKI, left testicular tumor, and recurrent swelling of the right parotid gland. A resected testicular tumor exhibited features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma. Renal biopsy showed hydro-degeneration of renal tubules, interstitial inflammatory cells, and a small number of lymphoma cells in the sub-capsule, compatible with acute interstitial nephritis. His renal dysfunction rapidly recovered following chemotherapy and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). He developed pneumonia concomitantly with a decrease in HIV-RNA level and an increase in CD4+ cells after the first cycle of chemotherapy, which spontaneously resolved after the second cycle of chemotherapy without additional anti-infection drugs; thus, his pneumonia fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for IRIS. We suggest that IRIS may frequently develop during chemotherapy for HAL, but may be overlooked. He was coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), which genotypes known as is associated with liver-related mortality and response to antiviral therapy; recently, an intimate interplay between HIV and HBV in the onset of lymphoma has been reported. Therefore, we addressed the HBV genotype in the patient. The analysis revealed that he exhibited a mixed genotype (A/E) not native to Japan and primarily found in Europe and North America or West Africa. These findings suggest that universal vaccination for juveniles against HBV is warranted in Japan.

  18. Epidemiology of HPV Genotypes among HIV Positive Women in Kenya: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Menon, Sonia; Wusiman, Aibibula; Boily, Marie Claude; Kariisa, Mbabazi; Mabeya, Hillary; Luchters, Stanley; Forland, Frode; Rossi, Rodolfo; Callens, Steven; Vanden Broeck, Davy

    2016-01-01

    There is a scarcity of data on the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in the HIV positive population and in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Kenya. This may be different from genotypes found in abnormal cytology. Yet, with the advent of preventive HPV vaccines that target HPV 16 and 18, and the nonavalent vaccine targeting 90% of all ICC cases, such HPV genotype distribution data are indispensable for predicting the impact of vaccination and HPV screening on prevention. Even with a successful vaccination program, vaccinated women will still require screening to detect those who will develop ICC from other High risk (HR) HPV genotypes not prevented by current vaccines. The aim of this review is to report on the prevalence of pHR/HR HPV types and multiple pHR/HR HPV genotypes in Kenya among HIV positive women with normal, abnormal cytology and ICC. PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and PROQUEST were searched for articles on HPV infection up to August 2nd 2016. Search terms were HIV, HPV, Cervical Cancer, Incidence or Prevalence, and Kenya. The 13 studies included yielded a total of 2116 HIV-infected women, of which 89 had ICC. The overall prevalence of pHR/HR HPV genotypes among HIV-infected women was 64% (95%CI: 50%-77%). There was a borderline significant difference in the prevalence of pHR/HR HPV genotypes between Female Sex workers (FSW) compared to non-FSW in women with both normal and abnormal cytology. Multiple pHR/HR HPV genotypes were highly prominent in both normal cytology/HSIL and ICC. The most prevalent HR HPV genotypes in women with abnormal cytology were HPV 16 with 26%, (95%CI: 23.0%-30.0%) followed by HPV 35 and 52, with 21% (95%CI: 18%-25%) and 18% (95%CI: 15%-21%), respectively. In women with ICC, the most prevalent HPV genotypes were HPV 16 (37%; 95%CI: 28%-47%) and HPV 18 (24%; 95%CI: 16%-33%). HPV 16/18 gains prominence as the severity of cervical disease increases, with HPV 16/18 accounting for 61% (95%CI: 50.0%-70.0%) of all ICC cases

  19. Epidemiology of HPV Genotypes among HIV Positive Women in Kenya: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Sonia; Wusiman, Aibibula; Boily, Marie Claude; Kariisa, Mbabazi; Mabeya, Hillary; Luchters, Stanley; Forland, Frode; Rossi, Rodolfo; Callens, Steven; vanden Broeck, Davy

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a scarcity of data on the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in the HIV positive population and in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Kenya. This may be different from genotypes found in abnormal cytology. Yet, with the advent of preventive HPV vaccines that target HPV 16 and 18, and the nonavalent vaccine targeting 90% of all ICC cases, such HPV genotype distribution data are indispensable for predicting the impact of vaccination and HPV screening on prevention. Even with a successful vaccination program, vaccinated women will still require screening to detect those who will develop ICC from other High risk (HR) HPV genotypes not prevented by current vaccines. The aim of this review is to report on the prevalence of pHR/HR HPV types and multiple pHR/HR HPV genotypes in Kenya among HIV positive women with normal, abnormal cytology and ICC. Methods PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and PROQUEST were searched for articles on HPV infection up to August 2nd 2016. Search terms were HIV, HPV, Cervical Cancer, Incidence or Prevalence, and Kenya. Results The 13 studies included yielded a total of 2116 HIV-infected women, of which 89 had ICC. The overall prevalence of pHR/HR HPV genotypes among HIV-infected women was 64% (95%CI: 50%-77%). There was a borderline significant difference in the prevalence of pHR/HR HPV genotypes between Female Sex workers (FSW) compared to non-FSW in women with both normal and abnormal cytology. Multiple pHR/HR HPV genotypes were highly prominent in both normal cytology/HSIL and ICC. The most prevalent HR HPV genotypes in women with abnormal cytology were HPV 16 with 26%, (95%CI: 23.0%-30.0%) followed by HPV 35 and 52, with 21% (95%CI: 18%-25%) and 18% (95%CI: 15%-21%), respectively. In women with ICC, the most prevalent HPV genotypes were HPV 16 (37%; 95%CI: 28%-47%) and HPV 18 (24%; 95%CI: 16%-33%). Conclusion HPV 16/18 gains prominence as the severity of cervical disease increases, with HPV 16/18 accounting for 61

  20. HIV-1 Drug Discovery: Targeting Folded RNA Structures With Branched Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is an RNA virus that is prone to high rates of mutation. While the disease is managed with current antiretroviral therapies, drugs with a new mode of action are needed. A strategy towards this goal is aimed at targeting the native three-dimensional fold of conserved RNA structures. This perspective highlights medium-sized peptides and peptidomimetics used to target two conserved RNA structures of HIV-1. In particular, branched peptides have the capacity to bind in a multivalent fashion, utilizing a large surface area to achieve the necessary affinity and selectivity toward the target RNA. PMID:25958855

  1. Cellular RNA helicases and HIV-1: insights from genome-wide, proteomic, and molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Yen; Liu, Xiang; Boris-Lawrie, Kathleen; Sharma, Amit; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2013-02-01

    RNA helicases are ubiquitous in plants and animals and function in many cellular processes. Retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), encode no RNA helicases in their genomes and utilize host cellular RNA helicases at various stages of their life cycle. Here, we briefly summarize the roles RNA helicases play in HIV-1 replication that have been identified recently, in part, through genome-wide screenings, proteomics, and molecular studies. Some of these helicases augment virus propagation while others apparently participate in antiviral defenses against viral replication.

  2. Performance of genotypic tools for prediction of tropism in HIV-1 subtype C V3 loop sequences.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Soham; Neogi, Ujjwal; Srinivasa, Hiresave; Shet, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is no consensus on the genotypic tools to be used for tropism analysis in HIV-1 subtype C strains. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of the different V3 loop-based genotypic algorithms available. We compiled a dataset of 645 HIV-1 subtype C V3 loop sequences of known coreceptor phenotypes (531 R5-tropic/non-syncytium-inducing and 114 X4-tropic/R5X4-tropic/syncytium-inducing sequences) from the Los Alamos database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/) and previously published literature. Coreceptor usage was predicted based on this dataset using different software-based machine-learning algorithms as well as simple classical rules. All the sophisticated machine-learning methods showed a good concordance of above 85%. Geno2Pheno (false-positive rate cutoff of 5-15%) and CoRSeqV3-C were found to have a high predicting capability in determining both HIV-1 subtype C X4-tropic and R5-tropic strains. The current sophisticated genotypic tropism tools based on V3 loop perform well for tropism prediction in HIV-1 subtype C strains and can be used in clinical settings. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Expression signature of microRNA-155 in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection.

    PubMed

    Riad, Sarah Ehab; El-Ekiaby, Nada; Mekky, Radwa Yehia; Ahmed, Rasha; El Din, Mohammad Ahmed Mohey; El-Sayed, Mohammad; Abouelkhair, Mahmoud Mohammad; Salah, Ayman; Zekri, Abdel Rahman; Esmat, Gamal; Abdelaziz, Ahmed Ihab

    2015-01-01

    Hepatits C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (GT4) shows low treatment response rates and discrepancies when compared to other genotypes. However, the reason underlying these discrepancies remains unclear due to the limited number of studies on GT4. microRNA-155 (miR-155) is a noteworthy example of a discrepancy in GT4, as it was found to be upregulated in genotypes 1, 2 and 3 HCV infection, but downregulated in GT4-HCV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The present study aimed to investigate the expression of miR-155 in PBMCs, serum and liver tissues of GT4-HCV-infected patients. miR-155 expression was assessed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in GT4-HCV-infected PBMCs, serum and liver tissues, as well as GT2- and GT4-infected Huh7 cells, and compared to the healthy controls. There was no difference in miR-155 expression observed between naïve GT4-HCV patients and healthy controls in the PBMCs and serum. In HCV-infected liver tissues, however, a significant downregulation was observed. The unique miR-155 expression pattern during GT4 infection was confirmed in the infected Huh7 cell lines when compared to GT2 infection. Clinical data showed a positive correlation between liver transaminases and serum miR-155 expression. In addition, serum miR-155 expression was significantly lower in naïve non-responders (NRs) than naïve sustained virological responders (SVRs), and in post-treatment NRs compared to post-treatment SVRs. In conclusion, miR-155 was not only proven to be a genotype-specific microRNA that is not induced during GT4-HCV infection, but also a good prognostic factor and predictor of response to treatment enabling a non-invasive differentiation between NRs and SVRs during GT4-HCV infection.

  4. Genotypes and Transmitted Drug Resistance among Treatment-Naive HIV-1-Infected Patients in a Northwestern Province, China: Trends from 2003 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingquan; Li, Yuan; Liu, Qing; Jiang, Wei; Zhuang, Yan; Guo, Zisheng; Yu, Zhuoran; Li, Xinhong; Wang, Chunfu; Yao, Na; Sun, Yongtao

    2014-01-01

    Background Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) reduces the efficacy of initial antiretroviral treatment and has become a public health concern. Little information is available regarding the genetic diversity of HIV-1 and the prevalence of TDR among treatment-naïve patients in a northwestern province of China since the implementation of national free antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods Blood samples from 372 HIV-1 treatment-naive patients were collected between 2003 and 2013 in Shaanxi province. Viral RNA was extracted for nested PCR, and phylogenetic reconstruction and recombination analyses were performed to characterize patterns of the HIV-1 subtypes. Genotypic drug resistance testing was performed using an in-house assay to determine trends in the prevalence of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance. Results Multiple genotypes were identified among the patients in Shaanxi, including B (25.0%), C (0.3%), G (0.3%), and CRF01_AE (39.2%), CRF07_BC (32.7%), CRF08_BC (0.8%), CRF55_01B (1.1%), and URFs (0.6%). The subtypes were associated with the transmission routes (χ2 = 77.113, p<0.01). In this study, a low baseline CD4+ T cell count and a high viral load were found among CRF01_AE-infected patients compared with patients who were infected with non-CRF01_AE (p<0.01) through sexual transmission; however, the CRF01_AE subtype was not associated with a low baseline CD4+ T cell count or a high viral load in Chinese patients infected through blood transmission (p = 0.249). The overall TDR rate in this population was 4.4% between 2003 and 2013. A univariate logistic regression model revealed that a low CD4 T cell count (≤100 cells/µL) was associated with the development of drug-resistant strains. Conclusion Our work revealed diverse HIV-1 subtype distributions in Shaanxi province. We identified a low and stable TDR time trend among ART-naive patients. These findings enhance our understanding of HIV-1 genetic diversity and provide some guidelines for the improvement

  5. Increased hepatic expression of miRNA-122 in patients infected with HCV genotype 3.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ketti G; Malta, Fernanda M; Nastri, Ana C S S; Widman, Azzo; Faria, Paola L; Santana, Rúbia A F; Alves, Venâncio A F; Carrilho, Flair J; Pinho, João R R

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects approximately 3 % of the world population. HCV targets hepatic tissue, and most infected patients develop a chronic infection. Currently, studies have demonstrated an association between HCV-RNA replication and miR-122, the most abundant microRNA in the liver. Our aim was to evaluate liver and serum expression of miR-122 in patients infected with HCV genotypes 1 and 3, and to identify possible associations between miR-122 expression and lipid profiles, HCV viral load, apolipoproteins and liver enzymes. MicroRNAs were isolated from blood and liver tissue, and miR-122 expression was quantified by real-time PCR. HCV viral load was quantified by real-time PCR and HCV genotype, and serum biomarkers were obtained from medical report. The levels of miR-122 were higher in liver than those in blood from individuals infected with HCV genotypes 1 and 3 (p < 0.0001). The tissue levels of miR-122 were higher in subjects infected with HCV genotype 3 (6.22-fold, p < 0.001). A positive correlation was observed between the blood and hepatic levels of miR-122 in patients infected with HCV genotype 1 (r = 0.302, p = 0.026); in these patients, an inverse correlation was observed between serum apolipoprotein A-II (ApoA-II) levels and the blood (r = -0.330; p = 0.014) and hepatic (r = -0.311; p = 0.020) levels of miR-122. In patients infected with HCV genotype 3, there was a positive correlation between the hepatic miR-122 and the high-density lipoprotein-HDL (r = 0.412, p = 0.036) and insulin (r = 0.478, p = 0.044). Lipid metabolism proteins and miR-122 expression levels have different relations in HCV-3- and HCV-1-infected patients.

  6. Full Viral Suppression, Low-Level Viremia, and Quantifiable Plasma HIV-RNA at the End of Pregnancy in HIV-Infected Women on Antiretroviral Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Baroncelli, Silvia; Pirillo, Maria F.; Tamburrini, Enrica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Pinnetti, Carmela; Antoni, Anna Degli; Galluzzo, Clementina M.; Stentarelli, Chiara; Amici, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There is limited information on full viral suppression and low-level HIV-RNA viremia in HIV-infected women at the end of pregnancy. We investigated HIV-RNA levels close to delivery in women on antiretroviral treatment in order to define rates of complete suppression, low-level viremia, and quantifiable HIV-RNA, exploring as potential determinants some clinical and viroimmunological variables. Plasma samples from a national study in Italy, collected between 2003 and 2012, were used. According to plasma HIV-RNA levels, three groups were defined: full suppression (target not detected), low-level viremia (target detected but <37 copies/ml), and quantifiable HIV-RNA (≥37 copies/ml). Multivariable logistic regression was used to define determinants of full viral suppression and of quantifiable HIV-RNA. Among 107 women evaluated at a median gestational age of 35 weeks, 90 (84.1%) had HIV-RNA <37 copies/ml. Most of them (59/90, 65.6%) had full suppression, with the remaining (31/90, 34.4%) showing low-level viremia (median: 11.9 copies/ml; IQR 7.4–16.3). Among the 17 women with quantifiable viral load, median HIV-RNA was 109 copies/ml (IQR 46–251), with only one case showing resistance (mutation M184V; rate: 9.1%). In multivariable analyses, women with higher baseline HIV-RNA levels and with hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection were significantly more likely to have quantifiable HIV-RNA in late pregnancy. Full viral suppression was significantly more likely with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens and significantly less likely with higher HIV-RNA in early pregnancy. No cases of HIV transmission occurred. In conclusion, HIV-infected pregnant women showed a high rate of viral suppression and a low resistance rate before delivery. In most cases no target HIV-RNA was detected in plasma, suggesting a low risk of subsequent virological rebound and development of resistance. Women with high levels of HIV-RNA in early pregnancy and

  7. Co-occurrence of Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis and vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA.

    PubMed

    Fastring, Danielle R; Amedee, Angela; Gatski, Megan; Clark, Rebecca A; Mena, Leandro A; Levison, Judy; Schmidt, Norine; Rice, Janet; Gustat, Jeanette; Kissinger, Patricia

    2014-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are independently associated with increased risk of vaginal shedding in HIV-positive women. Because these 2 conditions commonly co-occur, this study was undertaken to examine the association between TV/BV co-occurrence and vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA. HIV-positive women attending outpatient HIV clinics in 3 urban US cities underwent a clinical examination; were screened for TV, BV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis; and completed a behavioral survey. Women shedding HIV-1 RNA vaginally (≥50 copies/mL) were compared with women who had an undetectable (<50 copies/mL) vaginal viral load to determine if women who were TV positive and BV positive or had co-occurrence of TV/BV had higher odds of shedding vaginally when compared with women who did not have these conditions. In this sample of 373 HIV-positive women, 43.1% (n = 161) had co-occurrence of TV/BV and 33.2% (n = 124) were shedding HIV-1 RNA vaginally. The odds of shedding HIV vaginally in the presence of TV alone or BV alone and when TV/BV co-occurred were 4.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-9.37), 5.65 (95% CI, 2.64-12.01), and 18.63 (95% CI, 6.71-51.72), respectively, when compared with women with no diagnosis of TV or BV, and after adjusting for age, antiretroviral therapy status, and plasma viral load. T. vaginalis and BV were independently and synergistically related to vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA. Screening and prompt treatment of these 2 conditions among HIV-positive women are important not only clinically but for HIV prevention, as well.

  8. Mechanism of HIV-1 Tat RNA translation and its activation by the Tat protein

    PubMed Central

    Charnay, Nicolas; Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ohlmann, Théophile; López-Lastra, Marcelo; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    Background The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein is a major viral transactivator required for HIV-1 replication. In the nucleus Tat greatly stimulates the synthesis of full-length transcripts from the HIV-1 promoter by causing efficient transcriptional elongation. Tat induces elongation by directly interacting with the bulge of the transactivation response (TAR) RNA, a hairpin-loop located at the 5'-end of all nascent viral transcripts, and by recruiting cellular transcriptional co-activators. In the cytoplasm, Tat is thought to act as a translational activator of HIV-1 mRNAs. Thus, Tat plays a central role in the regulation of HIV-1 gene expression both at the level of mRNA and protein synthesis. The requirement of Tat in these processes poses an essential question on how sufficient amounts of Tat can be made early on in HIV-1 infected cells to sustain its own synthesis. To address this issue we studied translation of the Tat mRNA in vitro and in human cells using recombinant monocistronic and dicistronic RNAs containing the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) of Tat RNA. Results This study shows that the Tat mRNA can be efficiently translated both in vitro and in cells. Furthermore, our data suggest that translation initiation from the Tat mRNA probably occurs by a internal ribosome entry site (IRES) mechanism. Finally, we show that Tat protein can strongly stimulate translation from its cognate mRNA in a TAR dependent fashion. Conclusion These results indicate that Tat mRNA translation is efficient and benefits from a feedback stimulation by the Tat protein. This translational control mechanism would ensure that minute amounts of Tat mRNA are sufficient to generate enough Tat protein required to stimulate HIV-1 replication. PMID:19671151

  9. Identification of RNA helicases in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) replication – a targeted small interfering RNA library screen using pseudotyped and WT HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Claire A.; Abbink, Truus E. M.; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2015-01-01

    Central to the development of new treatments for human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) is a more thorough understanding of the viral life cycle and the cellular cofactors upon which this depends. Targeting cellular proteins and their interaction with HIV-1 has the potential to reduce the problem of emerging viral resistance to drugs as mutational escape is more difficult. We performed a short interfering RNA (siRNA) library screen targeting 59 cellular RNA helicases, assessing the effect on both viral capsid protein production and infectious virion formation. Five RNA helicases were identified which, when knocked down, reproducibly decreased infectious particle production: DDX5, DDX10, DDX17, DDX28 and DDX52. Two of these proteins (DDX5 and DDX17) have known roles in HIV-1 replication. A further helicase (DDX10) was a positive hit from a previous genome-wide siRNA screen; however, DDX28 and DDX52 have not previously been implicated as essential cofactors for HIV-1. PMID:25701821

  10. Intra-tRNA distance measurements for nucleocapsid proteindependent tRNA unwinding during priming of HIV reverse transcription.

    PubMed

    Chan, B; Weidemaier, K; Yip, W T; Barbara, P F; Musier-Forsyth, K

    1999-01-19

    We report here the direct measurement of intra-tRNA distances during annealing of the tRNA primer to the HIV RNA genome. This key step in the initiation of retroviral reverse transcription involves hybridization of one strand of the acceptor arm of a specific lysine tRNA to the primer binding site on the RNA genome. Although the mechanism of tRNA unwinding and annealing is not known, previous studies have shown that HIV nucleocapsid protein (NC) greatly accelerates primer/template binary complex formation in vitro. An open question is whether NC alone unwinds the primer or whether unwinding by NC requires the RNA genome. We monitored the annealing process in solution by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Distance measurements demonstrate unequivocally that the tRNA acceptor stem is not substantially unwound by NC in the absence of the RNA genome, that is, unwinding is not separable from hybridization. Moreover, FRET measurements show that both heat- and NC-mediated annealing result in an approximately 40-A increase in the separation of the two ends of the tRNA acceptor arm on binding to the template. This large increase in separation of the two ends suggests a complete displacement of the nonhybridized strand of the acceptor stem in the initiation complex.

  11. Ledipasvir-sofosbuvir for 6 weeks to treat acute hepatitis C virus genotype 1 or 4 infection in patients with HIV coinfection: an open-label, single-arm trial.

    PubMed

    Rockstroh, Jürgen K; Bhagani, Sanjay; Hyland, Robert H; Yun, Chohee; Dvory-Sobol, Hadas; Zheng, Wei; Brainard, Diana M; Ingiliz, Patrick; Lutz, Thomas; Boesecke, Christoph; Nelson, Mark

    2017-05-01

    The latest European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines now recommend that patients with acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection should be treated with a combination of sofosbuvir and an NS5A inhibitor for 8 weeks. However, the ideal duration of treatment with interferon-free regimens, particularly in HIV-coinfected individuals, remains unknown. We assessed the efficacy and safety of 6 weeks of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir for acute genotype 1 or 4 HCV in HIV-1-coinfected patients. This open-label, single-arm trial, done in Germany and the UK, included patients with acute HCV genotype 1 or 4 and HIV-1. At screening, patients were either receiving HIV antiretrovirals and had HIV RNA less than 200 copies per mL, or not receiving antiretrovirals and had a CD4 T-cell count of greater than 500 cells per μL. All patients received ledipasvir-sofosbuvir once daily for 6 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients with sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02457611. Between June 11, 2015, and Jan 8, 2016, we enrolled and treated 26 patients. All (100%) were men, 24 (92%) were white, and 25 (96%) were receiving antiretroviral treatment. 19 (73%) had genotype 1a and seven (27%) had genotype 4 HCV. Overall, 20 (77%; 95% CI 56-91) of 26 patients achieved SVR12: 15 (79%) of 19 with genotype 1a, and five (71%) of seven with genotype 4. Of six patients not achieving SVR12, three relapsed, two achieved sustained virological response 4 weeks after the end of treatment but were lost to follow-up, and one was reinfected. The most common adverse events were fatigue (seven participants [27%]), nasopharyngitis (seven [27%]), and headache (six [23%]). No patient discontinued or interrupted therapy due to adverse events. No HIV rebound occurred during the study. The rate of cure with a fixed-dose combination of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir for patients with

  12. The Evolving Genotypic Profile of HIV-1 Mutations Related to Antiretroviral Treatment in the North Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Carmen Andréa F.; Soares, Marcelo A.; Falci, Diego R.; Sprinz, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    HIV related mutations can be associated with decreased susceptibility to antiretrovirals and treatment failures. There is scarce information about HIV mutations in persons failing HIV treatment in North of Brazil. Our aim was to evaluate evolution of HIV subtypes and mutations patterns related to antiretroviral therapy in this region. We investigated HIV resistance profile in adults failing antiretroviral regimen in Northern Brazil from January, 2004, through December, 2013. Genotype data was evaluated through Stanford University algorithm. There were 377 genotypes from different individuals to evaluate. Resistance mutations were similar to worldwide reports and related to antiretroviral exposure. Most prevalent mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene were M184V (80.1%) and K130N (40.6%). Thymidine associated mutations were more frequent in multiexperienced patients. Most common protease mutations were M46I, V82A, I54V, L90M, I84V, M46L, and L76V. Subtype B was the most prevalent (90.7%). There were differences between subtypes B and non-B mutations. We documented for the first time subtypes and patterns of HIV associated mutations in Northern Brazil. A1 subtype was identified for the first time in this area. Depending on drug regimen and how experienced the patient is, an empirical switch of a failing antiretroviral treatment could be a reasonable option. PMID:26543866

  13. HIV and hepatitis C virus RNA in seronegative organ and tissue donors.

    PubMed

    Challine, Dominique; Pellegrin, Bertrand; Bouvier-Alias, Magali; Rigot, Pierrette; Laperche, Liliane; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel

    The objective of our study was to determine whether nucleic acid testing could detect HIV RNA or hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in a large series of seronegative organ and tissue donors, and whether this technique should be routinely used to improve viral safety of grafts. We studied 2236 organ donors, 636 tissue donors, and 177 cornea donors. We identified five HCV RNA-positive donors in 2119 HCV-seronegative organ donors, and one HCV RNA-positive donor in 631 HCV-seronegative tissue donors. No HIV-seronegative, HIV RNA-positive donor was identified. Our data suggest that routine nucleic acid testing of organ and tissue donors might increase viral safety in transplantation.

  14. Crystal methamphetamine injection predicts slower HIV RNA suppression among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Nadia; Kerr, Thomas; Milloy, M-J; Zhang, Ruth; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2011-07-01

    We examined the impact of crystal methamphetamine injection on HIV RNA suppression among a prospective cohort of HIV-positive injection drug users initiating antiretroviral therapy. A multivariate Cox regression analysis found crystal methamphetamine injection to be negatively associated with viral load suppression (RH=0.63 [95% CI: 0.40-0.98]; p=0.039). This study is the first to our knowledge to demonstrate an association between crystal methamphetamine use and HIV RNA suppression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. RNA-Seq reveals genotype-specific molecular responses to water deficit in eucalyptus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a context of climate change, phenotypic plasticity provides long-lived species, such as trees, with the means to adapt to environmental variations occurring within a single generation. In eucalyptus plantations, water availability is a key factor limiting productivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of eucalyptus to water shortage remain unclear. In this study, we compared the molecular responses of two commercial eucalyptus hybrids during the dry season. Both hybrids differ in productivity when grown under water deficit. Results Pyrosequencing of RNA extracted from shoot apices provided extensive transcriptome coverage - a catalog of 129,993 unigenes (49,748 contigs and 80,245 singletons) was generated from 398 million base pairs, or 1.14 million reads. The pyrosequencing data enriched considerably existing Eucalyptus EST collections, adding 36,985 unigenes not previously represented. Digital analysis of read abundance in 14,460 contigs identified 1,280 that were differentially expressed between the two genotypes, 155 contigs showing differential expression between treatments (irrigated vs. non irrigated conditions during the dry season), and 274 contigs with significant genotype-by-treatment interaction. The more productive genotype displayed a larger set of genes responding to water stress. Moreover, stress signal transduction seemed to involve different pathways in the two genotypes, suggesting that water shortage induces distinct cellular stress cascades. Similarly, the response of functional proteins also varied widely between genotypes: the most productive genotype decreased expression of genes related to photosystem, transport and secondary metabolism, whereas genes related to primary metabolism and cell organisation were over-expressed. Conclusions For the most productive genotype, the ability to express a broader set of genes in response to water availability appears to be a key characteristic in the maintenance

  16. RNA-Seq reveals genotype-specific molecular responses to water deficit in eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Villar, Emilie; Klopp, Christophe; Noirot, Céline; Novaes, Evandro; Kirst, Matias; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2011-11-02

    In a context of climate change, phenotypic plasticity provides long-lived species, such as trees, with the means to adapt to environmental variations occurring within a single generation. In eucalyptus plantations, water availability is a key factor limiting productivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of eucalyptus to water shortage remain unclear. In this study, we compared the molecular responses of two commercial eucalyptus hybrids during the dry season. Both hybrids differ in productivity when grown under water deficit. Pyrosequencing of RNA extracted from shoot apices provided extensive transcriptome coverage - a catalog of 129,993 unigenes (49,748 contigs and 80,245 singletons) was generated from 398 million base pairs, or 1.14 million reads. The pyrosequencing data enriched considerably existing Eucalyptus EST collections, adding 36,985 unigenes not previously represented. Digital analysis of read abundance in 14,460 contigs identified 1,280 that were differentially expressed between the two genotypes, 155 contigs showing differential expression between treatments (irrigated vs. non irrigated conditions during the dry season), and 274 contigs with significant genotype-by-treatment interaction. The more productive genotype displayed a larger set of genes responding to water stress. Moreover, stress signal transduction seemed to involve different pathways in the two genotypes, suggesting that water shortage induces distinct cellular stress cascades. Similarly, the response of functional proteins also varied widely between genotypes: the most productive genotype decreased expression of genes related to photosystem, transport and secondary metabolism, whereas genes related to primary metabolism and cell organisation were over-expressed. For the most productive genotype, the ability to express a broader set of genes in response to water availability appears to be a key characteristic in the maintenance of biomass growth during the

  17. Low Efficacy of Pegylated Interferon plus Ribavirin plus Nitazoxanide for HCV Genotype 4 and HIV Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Macías, Juan; López-Cortés, Luis F.; Téllez, Francisco; Recio, Eva; Ojeda-Burgos, Guillermo; Ríos, MªJosé; Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Delgado, Marcial; Jeremías, Rivas-; Pineda, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nitazoxanide (NTZ) plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin (Peg-IFN/RBV) improved the sustained virological response (SVR) achieved with Peg-IFN/RBV in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 (HCV-4)-monoinfected patients. There are no data currently on the efficacy of Peg-IFN/RBV plus NTZ for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-4 coinfection. Therefore, the objectives of this clinical trial were to assess the efficacy and to evaluate the safety of Peg-IFN/RBV plus NTZ in HIV/HCV-4-coinfected patients. Patients and Methods This was an open-label, single arm, multicenter phase II pilot clinical trial (NCT01529073) enrolling HIV-infected individuals with HCV-4 chronic infection, naïve to HCV therapy. Patients were treated with NTZ 500 mg bid for 4 weeks, followed by NTZ 500 mg bid plus Peg-IFN alpha-2b 1.5 μg/kg/week plus weight-adjusted RBV during 48 weeks. Analyses were done by intention-to-treat (ITT, missing = failure). A historical cohort of HIV/HCV-4-infected patients treated with Peg-IFN alpha-2b and RBV at the same area was used as control. Results Two (9.5%) of 21 patients included in the trial compared with 5 (21.7%) of 23 patients included in the historical cohort achieved SVR (SVR risk difference, -12.2%; 95% confidence interval, -33.2% to 8.8%; p = 0.416). Virological failure was due to lack of response in 13 (62%) individuals recruited in the trial. Two (9.5%) patients included in the trial and two (9.5%) individuals from the historical cohort discontinued permanently due to adverse events. Conclusions No increase in SVR was observed among HIV/HCV-4-coinfected patients receiving Peg-IFN/RBV plus NTZ compared with a historical cohort treated with Peg-IFN/RBV. Interruptions due to adverse events of Peg-IFN/RBV plus NTZ were similar to those of dual therapy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01529073 PMID:26640956

  18. RNA helicase A modulates translation of HIV-1 and infectivity of progeny virions

    PubMed Central

    Bolinger, Cheryl; Sharma, Amit; Singh, Deepali; Yu, Lianbo; Boris-Lawrie, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Retroviruses rely on host RNA-binding proteins to modulate various steps in their replication. Previously several animal retroviruses were determined to mediate Dhx9/RNA helicase A (RHA) interaction with a 5′ terminal post-transcriptional control element (PCE) for efficient translation. Herein PCE reporter assays determined HTLV-1 and HIV-1 RU5 confer orientation-dependent PCE activity. The effect of Dhx9/RHA down-regulation and rescue with siRNA-resistant RHA on expression of HIV-1NL4–3 provirus determined that RHA is necessary for efficient HIV-1 RNA translation and requires ATPase-dependent helicase function. Quantitative analysis determined HIV-1 RNA steady-state and cytoplasmic accumulation were not reduced; rather the translational activity of viral RNA was reduced. Western blotting determined that RHA-deficient virions assemble with Lys-tRNA synthetase, exhibit processed reverse transcriptase and contain similar level of viral RNA, but they are poorly infectious on primary lymphocytes and HeLa cells. The results demonstrate RHA is an important host factor within the virus-producer cell and within the viral particle. The identification of RHA-dependent PCE activity in cellular junD RNA and in six of seven genera of Retroviridae suggests conservation of this translational control mechanism among vertebrates, and convergent evolution of Retroviridae to utilize this host mechanism. PMID:20007598

  19. Extensive Genetic Diversity of HIV-1 in Incident and Prevalent Infections among Malaysian Blood Donors: Multiple Introductions of HIV-1 Genotypes from Highly Prevalent Countries.

    PubMed

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Bon, Abdul Hamid; Keating, Sheila; Anderios, Fread; Halim, Hazwan Abdul; Takebe, Yutaka; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Busch, Michael P; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-01-01

    Transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV-1 continue to pose major risks for unsafe blood transfusions due to both window phase infections and divergent viruses that may not be detected by donor screening assays. Given the recent emergence of several HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) in high-risk populations in the Southeast Asia region, we investigated the genetic diversity of HIV-1 among the blood donors in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 211 HIV-positive plasma samples detected among 730,188 donations to the National Blood Centre between 2013 and 2014 were provided (90.5% male, median age: 27.0 years old). Recent or long-term infection status at the time of donation was determined using a limiting antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay (LAg-Avidity EIA). HIV-1 gag-pol genes were amplified and sequenced from residual plasma for 149 cases followed by genotype determination using phylogenetic and recombination analyses. Transmitted antiretroviral resistance mutations were not observed among the blood donors, among which 22.7% were classified as recent or incident infections. Major circulating HIV-1 genotypes determined by neighbour-joining phylogenetic inference included CRF01_AE at 40.9% (61/149), CRF33_01B at 21.5% (32/149), and subtype B at 10.1% (15/149). Newly-described CRFs including CRF54_01B circulated at 4.0%, CRF74_01B at 2.0%, and CRF53_01B and CRF48_01B at 0.7% each. Interestingly, unique HIV-1 genotypes including African subtype G (8.7%), CRF45_cpx (1.3%), CRF02_AG (0.7%) and CRF07_BC (0.7%) from China were detected for the first time in the country. A cluster of subtype G sequences formed a distinct founder sub-lineage within the African strains. In addition, 8.7% (13/149) of HIV-infected donors had unique recombinant forms (URFs) including CRF01_AE/B' (4.7%), B'/C (2.7%) and B'/G (1.3%) recombinants. Detailed analysis identified similar recombinant structures with shared parental strains among the B'/C and B'/G URFs, some of which

  20. Combinatorial RNA-based gene therapy for the treatment of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Chung, Janet; DiGiusto, David L; Rossi, John J

    2013-03-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to be a worldwide health problem and viral eradication has been an elusive goal. HIV+ patients are currently treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) which is not curative. For many patients, cART is inaccessible, intolerable or unaffordable. Therefore, a new class of therapeutics for HIV is required to overcome these limitations. Cell and gene therapy for HIV has been proposed as a way to provide a functional cure for HIV in the form of a virus/infection resistant immune system. In this review, the authors describe the standard therapy for HIV/AIDS, its limitations, current areas of investigation and the potential of hematopoietic stem cells modified with anti-HIV RNAs as a means to affect a functional cure for HIV. Cell and gene therapy for HIV/AIDS is a promising alternative to antiviral drug therapy and may provide a functional cure. In order to show clinical benefit, multiple mechanisms of inhibition of HIV entry and lifecycle are likely to be required. Among the most promising antiviral strategies is the use of transgenic RNA molecules that provide protection from HIV infection. When these molecules are delivered as gene-modified hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, long-term repopulation of the patient's immune system with gene-modified progeny has been observed.

  1. Cold-Temperature Plastic Resin Embedding of Liver for DNA- and RNA-Based Genotyping

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Sydney D.; Dhir, Rajiv; Rabinovitz, Mordechai; Bischeglia, Michelle; Swalsky, Patricia A.; DeFlavia, Petrina; Woods, Jeffrey; Bakker, Anke; Becich, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The standard practice of tissue fixation in 10% formalin followed by embedding in paraffin wax preserves cellular morphology at the expense of availability and quality of DNA and RNA. The negative effect on cellular constituents results from a combination of extensive cross-linking and strand scission of DNA, RNA, and proteins induced by formaldehyde as well as RNA loss secondary to ubiquitous RNase activity and negative effects of high temperature exposure during paraffin melting, microscopic section collection, and tissue adherence to glass slides. An effective strategy to correlate cellular phenotype with molecular genotype involves microdissection of tissue sections based on specific histopathological features followed by genotyping of minute representative samples for specific underlying molecular alterations. Currently, this approach is limited to short-length polymerase chain reaction amplification (<250 bp) of DNA, due to the negative effects of standard tissue fixation and processing. To overcome this obstacle and permit both cellular morphology and nucleic acid content to be preserved to the fullest extent, we instituted a system of cold-temperature plastic resin embedding based on the use of the water-miscible methyl methacrylate polymer known as Immunobed (Polysciences, Warminster, PA). The system is simple, easy to adapt to clinical practice, and cost-effective. Immunobed tissue sections demonstrate a cellular appearance equivalent or even superior to that of standard tissue sections. Moreover, thin sectioning (0.5–1.0 μm thickness) renders ultrastructural evaluation feasible on plastic-embedded blocks. Tissue microdissection is readily performed, yielding high levels of long DNA and RNA for genomic and transcription-based correlative molecular analysis. We recommend the use of Immunobed or similar products for use in molecular anatomical pathology. PMID:11272904

  2. Association between immunoglobulin GM and KM genotypes and placental malaria in HIV-1 negative and positive women in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C; Pandey, Janardan P; Williamson, John; Blackstock, Anna J; Yesupriya, Ajay; Namboodiri, Aryan M; Rocca, Keith M; van Eijk, Anna Maria; Ayisi, John; Oteino, Juliana; Lal, Renu B; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Steketee, Richard; Nahlen, Bernard; Slutsker, Laurence; Shi, Ya Ping

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) GM and KM allotypes, genetic markers of γ and κ chains, are associated with humoral immune responsiveness. Previous studies have shown the relationships between GM6-carrying haplotypes and susceptibility to malaria infection in children and adults; however, the role of the genetic markers in placental malaria (PM) infection and PM with HIV co-infection during pregnancy has not been investigated. We examined the relationship between the gene polymorphisms of Ig GM6 and KM allotypes and the risk of PM infection in pregnant women with known HIV status. DNA samples from 728 pregnant women were genotyped for GM6 and KM alleles using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Individual GM6 and KM genotypes and the combined GM6 and KM genotypes were assessed in relation to PM in HIV-1 negative and positive women, respectively. There was no significant effect of individual GM6 and KM genotypes on the risk of PM infection in HIV-1 negative and positive women. However, the combination of homozygosity for GM6(+) and KM3 was associated with decreased risk of PM (adjusted OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.08-0.8; P = 0.019) in HIV-1 negative women while in HIV-1 positive women the combination of GM6(+/-) with either KM1-3 or KM1 was associated with increased risk of PM infection (adjusted OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.18-3.73; P = 0.011). Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) tests further showed an overall significant positive F(is) (indication of deficit in heterozygotes) for GM6 while there was no deviation for KM genotype frequency from HWE in the same population. These findings suggest that the combination of homozygous GM6(+) and KM3 may protect against PM in HIV-1 negative women while the HIV-1 positive women with heterozygous GM6(+/-) combined with KM1-3 or KM1 may be more susceptible to PM infection. The deficit in heterozygotes for GM6 further suggests that GM6 could be under selection likely by malaria infection.

  3. Association between Immunoglobulin GM and KM Genotypes and Placental Malaria in HIV-1 Negative and Positive Women in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C.; Pandey, Janardan P.; Williamson, John; Blackstock, Anna J.; Yesupriya, Ajay; Namboodiri, Aryan M.; Rocca, Keith M.; van Eijk, Anna Maria; Ayisi, John; Oteino, Juliana; Lal, Renu B.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Steketee, Richard; Nahlen, Bernard; Slutsker, Laurence; Shi, Ya Ping

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) GM and KM allotypes, genetic markers of γ and κ chains, are associated with humoral immune responsiveness. Previous studies have shown the relationships between GM6-carrying haplotypes and susceptibility to malaria infection in children and adults; however, the role of the genetic markers in placental malaria (PM) infection and PM with HIV co-infection during pregnancy has not been investigated. We examined the relationship between the gene polymorphisms of Ig GM6 and KM allotypes and the risk of PM infection in pregnant women with known HIV status. DNA samples from 728 pregnant women were genotyped for GM6 and KM alleles using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Individual GM6 and KM genotypes and the combined GM6 and KM genotypes were assessed in relation to PM in HIV-1 negative and positive women, respectively. There was no significant effect of individual GM6 and KM genotypes on the risk of PM infection in HIV-1 negative and positive women. However, the combination of homozygosity for GM6(+) and KM3 was associated with decreased risk of PM (adjusted OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.08–0.8; P = 0.019) in HIV-1 negative women while in HIV-1 positive women the combination of GM6(+/−) with either KM1-3 or KM1 was associated with increased risk of PM infection (adjusted OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.18–3.73; P = 0.011). Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) tests further showed an overall significant positive F(is) (indication of deficit in heterozygotes) for GM6 while there was no deviation for KM genotype frequency from HWE in the same population. These findings suggest that the combination of homozygous GM6(+) and KM3 may protect against PM in HIV-1 negative women while the HIV-1 positive women with heterozygous GM6(+/−) combined with KM1-3 or KM1 may be more susceptible to PM infection. The deficit in heterozygotes for GM6 further suggests that GM6 could be under selection likely by malaria infection. PMID

  4. Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1) Inhibits HIV-1 Replication in Human Alveolar Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Levy, David N.; Li, Yonghua; Kumar, Rajnish; Burke, Sean A.; Dawson, Rodney; Hioe, Catarina E.; Borkowsky, William; Rom, William N.; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-01

    While exploring the effects of aerosol IFN-γ treatment in HIV-1/tuberculosis co-infected patients, we observed A to G mutations in HIV-1 envelope sequences derived from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of aerosol IFN-γ-treated patients and induction of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) in the BAL cells. IFN-γ induced ADAR1 expression in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) but not T cells. ADAR1 siRNA knockdown induced HIV-1 expression in BAL cells of four HIV-1 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Similar results were obtained in MDM that were HIV-1 infected in vitro. Over-expression of ADAR1 in transformed macrophages inhibited HIV-1 viral replication but not viral transcription measured by nuclear run-on, suggesting that ADAR1 acts post-transcriptionally. The A to G hyper-mutation pattern observed in ADAR1 over-expressing cells in vitro was similar to that found in the lungs of HIV-1 infected patients treated with aerosol IFN-γ suggesting the model accurately represented alveolar macrophages. Together, these results indicate that ADAR1 restricts HIV-1 replication post-transcriptionally in macrophages harboring HIV-1 provirus. ADAR1 may therefore contribute to viral latency in macrophages. PMID:25272020

  5. Relation of cerebrospinal fluid/plasma HIV-RNA discordance with neurocognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Graciela; López-González, M; Monzón-Falconi, J F; Soto-Hernández, J L; Perales-Martínez, D; López-Vejar, C

    2015-01-01

    Neurological involvement is common in patients infected with HIV. The effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs in lowering the levels of HIV-RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is limited by their inability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Discordance in CSF/plasma HIV-RNA levels may have a bearing on the progression of neurological disease in these patients. We report a woman with subacute neurocognitive impairment and abnormal findings on brain MRI, in whom there was a discordance between CSF/plasma HIV-RNA levels. The patient improved after a change in her highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. We also reviewed the available literature on the subject and found seven articles describing 27 patients.

  6. No tRNA3Lys unwinding in a complex with HIV NCp7.

    PubMed

    Gregoire, C J; Gautheret, D; Loret, E P

    1997-10-03

    The nucleocapsid protein NCp7 of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 is important for the annealing of HIV RNA and tRNA3Lys, the tRNA acting as a primer during reverse transcription of HIV RNA. A wild type NCp7 and a Cys23 mutant having a disrupted zinc finger were analyzed with far UV circular dichroism (CD). CD data analysis revealed that NCp7 has a high content of extended structures in aqueous buffer, decreasing in Cys23 NCp7 and in NCp7 in the absence of zinc. An increase in beta-turn structures is observed in NCp7 bound to tRNA3Lys. Furthermore, CD data shows that Cys23 NCp7 binds tRNA3Lys. The CD spectrum of tRNA3Lys is typical of an A-form helix and retains this structure after binding of NCp7, which demonstrates that NCp7 does not induce tRNA3Lys unwinding. CD spectra of tRNA3Lys were measured from 5 to 80 degrees C to observe CD changes resulting from tRNA3Lys melting. Molecular modeling of the complex identifies two potential tRNA anticodon binding sites in the NCp7 N-terminal region and first zinc finger. In this model, both binding sites can interact with 12 nucleotides in the anticodon domain without requiring a base specificity.

  7. Genotype-specific RNA probes for direct identification of wild polioviruses by blot hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    De, L; Yang, C F; Da Silva, E; Boshell, J; Cáceres, P; Gómez, J R; Pallansch, M; Kew, O

    1997-01-01

    We have developed RNA probes for the direct identification of wild poliovirus isolates by blot hybridization. The probes are complementary to sequences of the first 30 to 32 codons of VP1, which evolve more extensively (approximately 1.5-fold) than the rest of VP1. To illustrate our general approach, we describe the design of probes specific to each of four major genotypes recently endemic (1981 to 1991) to the Americas: Andean type 1, Brazil type 1, Brazil type 3, and Central America-Mexico type 3. A wild isolate of each genotype was selected according to molecular and epidemiologic criteria to be representative of the principal lineages in circulation. Variable VP1 sequences of the representative isolates were amplified by the reverse transcriptase PCR and were inserted into a plasmid vector containing a T7 promoter. The in vitro transcripts, labeled with digoxigenin, served as probes. These formed stable hybrids only with RNAs of isolates of the corresponding genotypes. Hybrids were detected by a sensitive chemiluminescence assay, capable under normal diagnostic conditions of detecting specific wild poliovirus sequences in samples containing up to a 100-fold excess of Sabin vaccine strain-related sequences of the same serotype. PMID:9350743

  8. The HIV-1 Rev/RRE system is required for HIV-1 5' UTR cis elements to augment encapsidation of heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles.

    PubMed

    Cockrell, Adam S; van Praag, Henriette; Santistevan, Nicholas; Ma, Hong; Kafri, Tal

    2011-06-24

    The process of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) encapsidation is governed by a number of viral encoded components, most notably the Gag protein and gRNA cis elements in the canonical packaging signal (ψ). Also implicated in encapsidation are cis determinants in the R, U5, and PBS (primer binding site) from the 5' untranslated region (UTR). Although conventionally associated with nuclear export of HIV-1 RNA, there is a burgeoning role for the Rev/RRE in the encapsidation process. Pleiotropic effects exhibited by these cis and trans viral components may confound the ability to examine their independent, and combined, impact on encapsidation of RNA into HIV-1 viral particles in their innate viral context. We systematically reconstructed the HIV-1 packaging system in the context of a heterologous murine leukemia virus (MLV) vector RNA to elucidate a mechanism in which the Rev/RRE system is central to achieving efficient and specific encapsidation into HIV-1 viral particles. We show for the first time that the Rev/RRE system can augment RNA encapsidation independent of all cis elements from the 5' UTR (R, U5, PBS, and ψ). Incorporation of all the 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance RNA encapsidation in the absence of the Rev/RRE system. In fact, we demonstrate that the Rev/RRE system is required for specific and efficient encapsidation commonly associated with the canonical packaging signal. The mechanism of Rev/RRE-mediated encapsidation is not a general phenomenon, since the combination of the Rev/RRE system and 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance encapsidation into MLV-derived viral particles. Lastly, we show that heterologous MLV RNAs conform to transduction properties commonly associated with HIV-1 viral particles, including in vivo transduction of non-dividing cells (i.e. mouse neurons); however, the cDNA forms are episomes predominantly in the 1-LTR circle form. Premised on encapsidation of a heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles, our findings define a functional

  9. The HIV-1 Rev/RRE system is required for HIV-1 5' UTR cis elements to augment encapsidation of heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The process of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) encapsidation is governed by a number of viral encoded components, most notably the Gag protein and gRNA cis elements in the canonical packaging signal (ψ). Also implicated in encapsidation are cis determinants in the R, U5, and PBS (primer binding site) from the 5' untranslated region (UTR). Although conventionally associated with nuclear export of HIV-1 RNA, there is a burgeoning role for the Rev/RRE in the encapsidation process. Pleiotropic effects exhibited by these cis and trans viral components may confound the ability to examine their independent, and combined, impact on encapsidation of RNA into HIV-1 viral particles in their innate viral context. We systematically reconstructed the HIV-1 packaging system in the context of a heterologous murine leukemia virus (MLV) vector RNA to elucidate a mechanism in which the Rev/RRE system is central to achieving efficient and specific encapsidation into HIV-1 viral particles. Results We show for the first time that the Rev/RRE system can augment RNA encapsidation independent of all cis elements from the 5' UTR (R, U5, PBS, and ψ). Incorporation of all the 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance RNA encapsidation in the absence of the Rev/RRE system. In fact, we demonstrate that the Rev/RRE system is required for specific and efficient encapsidation commonly associated with the canonical packaging signal. The mechanism of Rev/RRE-mediated encapsidation is not a general phenomenon, since the combination of the Rev/RRE system and 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance encapsidation into MLV-derived viral particles. Lastly, we show that heterologous MLV RNAs conform to transduction properties commonly associated with HIV-1 viral particles, including in vivo transduction of non-dividing cells (i.e. mouse neurons); however, the cDNA forms are episomes predominantly in the 1-LTR circle form. Conclusions Premised on encapsidation of a heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles

  10. A case-based reasoning system for genotypic prediction of HIV-1 co-receptor tropism.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark C; Paquet, Agnes C; Huang, Wei; Napolitano, Laura; Frantzell, Arne; Toma, Jonathan; Stawiski, Eric W; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Petropoulos, Christos J; Whitcomb, Jeannette; Coakley, Eoin; Haddad, Mojgan

    2013-08-01

    Accurate co-receptor tropism (CRT) determination is critical for making treatment decisions in HIV management. We created a genotypic tropism prediction tool by utilizing the case-based reasoning (CBR) technique that attempts to solve new problems through applying the solution from similar past problems. V3 loop sequences from 732 clinical samples with diverse characteristics were used to build a case library. Additional sequence and molecular properties of the V3 loop were examined and used for similarity assessment. A similarity metric was defined based on each attribute's frequency in the CXCR4-using viruses. We implemented three other genotype-based tropism predictors, support vector machines (SVM), position specific scoring matrices (PSSM), and the 11/25 rule, and evaluated their performance as the ability to predict CRT compared to Monogram's enhanced sensitivity Trofile(®) assay (ESTA). Overall concordance of the CBR based tropism prediction algorithm was 81%, as compared to ESTA. Sensitivity to detect CXCR4 usage was 90% and specificity was at 73%. In comparison, sensitivity of the SVM, PSSM, and the 11/25 rule were 85%, 81%, and 36% respectively while achieving a specificity of 90% by SVM, 75% by PSSM, and 97% by the 11/25 rule. When we evaluated these predictors in an unseen dataset, higher sensitivity was achieved by the CBR algorithm (87%), compared to SVM (82%), PSSM (76%), and the 11/25 rule (33%), while maintaining similar level of specificity. Overall this study suggests that CBR can be utilized as a genotypic tropism prediction tool, and can achieve improved performance in independent datasets compared to model or rule based methods.

  11. Bacterial vaginosis, human papilloma virus and herpes viridae do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding in women living with HIV in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Wessman, Maria; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Jensen, Jørgen S; Storgaard, Merete; Rönsholt, Frederikke F; Johansen, Isik S; Pedersen, Gitte; Nørregård Nielsen, Lars; Bonde, Jesper; Katzenstein, Terese L; Weis, Nina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-05-31

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been found to be associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. This is suggested to be due to higher HIV RNA levels in cervicovaginal fluids in women living with HIV (WLWH) with BV, as bacteria associated with BV may induce viral replication and shedding in the genital tract despite undetectable HIV RNA plasma viral load. We examined the prevalence and diagnostic predictors of BV and HIV-1 RNA vaginal shedding in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, taking into account the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes viridae. WLWH between 18-51 years were recruited from six Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark during enrolment in the SHADE cohort; a prospective cohort study of WLWH attending regular outpatient care. BV was diagnosed by microscopy of vaginal swabs and PCR was used for detection of BV-associated bacteria, HPV, herpes viridae, and vaginal HIV viral load. Median age of the 150 included women was 41 years; ethnicity was predominantly White (35%) or Black (47%). The majority (96%) was on ART and had undetectable (85%) plasma HIV RNA (<40 copies/mL). BV was diagnosed in 32%. Overall, 11% had detectable vaginal HIV RNA. Both before and after adjustment for BV, age, ethnicity, plasma HIV RNA, CD4 cell count, herpes viridae and HPV, we found no significant predictors of HIV RNA vaginal shedding. In well-treated WLWH, BV, herpes viridae or HPV do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding. This implies that HIV shedding does not seem to be increased by BV.

  12. Laboratory indicators of mastitis are not associated with elevated HIV-1 DNA loads or predictive of HIV-1 RNA loads in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Gantt, Soren; Shetty, Avinash K; Seidel, Kristy D; Matasa, Kuda; Musingwini, Georgina; Woelk, Godfrey; Zijenah, Lynn S; Katzenstein, David A; Frenkel, Lisa M

    2007-08-15

    Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 has been associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic mastitis and with the quantity of HIV-1 RNA and DNA in maternal milk. An improved understanding of the relationship between indicators of inflammation and HIV-1 loads in breast milk could improve MTCT prevention strategies. In a cross-sectional study, laboratory indicators of mastitis (breast milk sodium [Na(+)] concentration, sodium : potassium ratio [Na(+) : K(+)], and leukocyte count) were related to breast milk HIV-1 RNA and DNA loads and were evaluated for predicting viral loads in milk. Mastitis was present in 63 (15%) of 407, 60 (15%) of 407, and 76 (18%) of 412 milk specimens, as defined by Na(+) concentration >12 mmol/L, Na(+) : K(+) >1, and total leukocyte counts > or =10(6) cells/mL, respectively. Each indicator was associated with an increased milk HIV-1 RNA load (P<.05) but not with HIV-1 DNA load. Neutrophils correlated better with milk HIV-1 RNA load than total leukocytes. However, neither neutrophil count, Na(+) concentration, nor Na(+) : K(+) displayed a threshold that was both sensitive and specific for the detection of HIV-1 RNA in milk at thresholds of > or =50 or > or =10(4) copies/mL. HIV-1 DNA loads in breast milk were not increased during mastitis. Neither milk cell counts nor electrolyte concentrations were useful predictors of milk HIV-1 RNA or DNA loads for individual women.

  13. Collaborative study for the calibration of HCV RNA, HBV DNA and HIV RNA reference preparations against the relative international standards.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Giulio; Marino, Francesco; Cristiano, Karen; Bisso, Guillermo Mario; Mele, Caludio; Luciani, Francesca; Wirz, Maria; Gentili, Giuliano

    2007-01-01

    We organised a collaborative study to calibrate three new ISS reference preparations (ISS: Istituto Superiore di Sanità), one for HCV RNA, one for HIV RNA and one for HBV DNA, to be used for nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT) in blood testing. Serial dilution of the ISS reference preparations and the respective international standards were tested in different days by each participating laboratory using two commercial NAT assays. Data were collected by the ISS for statistical analysis. Based on the mean potency of the HCV RNA and HIV RNA preparations, calculated from the results provided by the 12 participating laboratories, a definitive concentrations of 5700 IU/mL and 4000 IU/mL, respectively, were assigned to the reference materials. On the contrary, it was not possible to obtain a consensus titre for the HBV DNA reference material. These new Italian reference preparations (HCV RNA ISS/1005 and HIV RNA ISS/1005) calibrated against the respective international standards are available free of charge to any laboratory upon request.

  14. Does HIV-1 mRNA 5'-untranslated region bear an internal ribosome entry site?

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Victoria V; Terenin, Ilya M; Khutornenko, Anastasia A; Andreev, Dmitri E; Dmitriev, Sergey E; Shatsky, Ivan N

    2016-02-01

    Unspliced human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) mRNA is capped and therefore can be translated via conventional scanning mechanism. In addition, its 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) is thought to function as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) during G2/M-phase of cell cycle or when cap-dependent translation is inhibited. Recently, customary methods of internal initiation demonstrating have been challenged, and consequently existence of certain IRESs of cellular origin has been put under question. Since a precise knowledge of translation initiation mechanism used by HIV may be important for cure development, presence of the IRES in HIV-1 mRNA demands a careful reexamination using contemporary stringent criteria. The key point of our strategy is to compare translation efficiency of bicistronic mRNA bearing HIV-1 unspliced mRNA 5' UTR in the intercistronic position to that of the corresponding capped monocistronic mRNA. This approach allows determination of internal initiation contribution into the overall level of particular mRNA translation. We found that both in cell-free systems and in cultured cells monocistronic mRNA with HIV-1 unspliced mRNA 5'UTR is translated significantly better than bicistronic one. Importantly, it is also true for G2/M-phase stalled cells or for cells under conditions of inhibited cap-dependent translation. Thus, in our hands contribution of internal ribosome entry into the overall level of translation driven by HIV-1 unspliced mRNA 5'UTR is negligible, and 5'-dependent scanning is a primary mechanism of its translation initiation.

  15. RRE-dependent HIV-1 Env RNA effects on Gag protein expression, assembly and release

    SciTech Connect

    López, Claudia S.; Sloan, Rachel; Cylinder, Isabel; Kozak, Susan L.; Kabat, David; Barklis, Eric

    2014-08-15

    The HIV-1 Gag proteins are translated from the full-length HIV-1 viral RNA (vRNA), whereas the envelope (Env) protein is translated from incompletely spliced Env mRNAs. Nuclear export of vRNAs and Env mRNAs is mediated by the Rev accessory protein which binds to the rev-responsive element (RRE) present on these RNAs. Evidence has shown there is a direct or indirect interaction between the Gag protein, and the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the Env protein. Our current work shows that env gene expression impacts HIV-1 Gag expression and function in two ways. At the protein level, full-length Env expression altered Gag protein expression, while Env CT-deletion proteins did not. At the RNA level, RRE-containing Env mRNA expression reduced Gag expression, processing, and virus particle release from cells. Our results support models in which Gag is influenced by the Env CT, and Env mRNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export. - Highlights: • At the protein level, full-length HIV-1 Env alters Gag protein expression. • HIV-1 Env RNA expression reduces Gag levels and virus release. • Env RNA effects on Gag are dependent on the RRE. • RRE-containing Env RNAs compete with vRNAs for nuclear export.

  16. Argonaute proteins regulate HIV-1 multiply spliced RNA and viral production in a Dicer independent manner.

    PubMed

    Eckenfelder, Agathe; Ségéral, Emmanuel; Pinzón, Natalia; Ulveling, Damien; Amadori, Céline; Charpentier, Marine; Nidelet, Sabine; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Zagury, Jean-François; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Berlioz-Torrent, Clarisse; Seitz, Hervé; Emiliani, Stéphane; Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah

    2016-12-20

    Argonaute (Ago) proteins associate with microRNAs (miRNAs) to form the core of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) that mediates post-transcriptional gene silencing of target mRNAs. As key players in anti-viral defense, Ago proteins are thought to have the ability to interact with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA. However, the role of this interaction in regulating HIV-1 replication has been debated. Here, we used high throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP) to explore the interaction between Ago2 and HIV-1 RNA in infected cells. By only considering reads of 50 nucleotides length in our analysis, we identified more than 30 distinct binding sites for Ago2 along the viral RNA genome. Using reporter assays, we found four binding sites, located near splice donor sites, capable of repressing Luciferase gene expression in an Ago-dependent manner. Furthermore, inhibition of Ago1 and Ago2 levels in cells expressing HIV-1 led to an increase of viral multiply spliced transcripts and to a strong reduction in the extracellular CAp24 level. Depletion of Dicer did not affect these activities. Our results highlight a new role of Ago proteins in the control of multiply spliced HIV-1 transcript levels and viral production, independently of the miRNA pathway.

  17. SHAPE-directed Discovery of Potent shRNA Inhibitors of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Low, Justin T; Knoepfel, Stefanie A; Watts, Joseph M; ter Brake, Olivier; Berkhout, Ben; Weeks, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway can be exploited using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to durably inactivate pathogenic genes. Prediction of optimal target sites is notoriously inaccurate and current approaches applied to HIV-1 show weak correlations with virus inhibition. In contrast, using a high-content model for disrupting pre-existing intramolecular structure in the HIV-1 RNA, as achievable using high-resolution SHAPE (selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) chemical probing information, we discovered strong correlations between inhibition of HIV-1 production in a quantitative cell-based assay and very simple thermodynamic features in the target RNA. Strongest inhibition occurs at RNA target sites that both have an accessible “seed region” and, unexpectedly, are structurally accessible in a newly identified downstream flanking sequence. We then used these simple rules to create a new set of shRNAs and achieved inhibition of HIV-1 production of 90% or greater for up to 82% of designed shRNAs. These shRNAs inhibit HIV-1 replication in therapy-relevant T cells and show no or low cytotoxicity. The remarkable success of this straightforward SHAPE-based approach emphasizes that RNAi is governed, in significant part, by very simple, predictable rules reflecting the underlying RNA structure and illustrates principles likely to prove broadly useful in understanding transcriptome-scale biological recognition and therapeutics involving RNA. PMID:22314289

  18. Argonaute proteins regulate HIV-1 multiply spliced RNA and viral production in a Dicer independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Eckenfelder, Agathe; Ségéral, Emmanuel; Pinzón, Natalia; Ulveling, Damien; Amadori, Céline; Charpentier, Marine; Nidelet, Sabine; Concordet, Jean-Paul; Zagury, Jean-François; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Berlioz-Torrent, Clarisse; Seitz, Hervé

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Argonaute (Ago) proteins associate with microRNAs (miRNAs) to form the core of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) that mediates post-transcriptional gene silencing of target mRNAs. As key players in anti-viral defense, Ago proteins are thought to have the ability to interact with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA. However, the role of this interaction in regulating HIV-1 replication has been debated. Here, we used high throughput sequencing of RNA isolated by cross-linking immunoprecipitation (HITS-CLIP) to explore the interaction between Ago2 and HIV-1 RNA in infected cells. By only considering reads of 50 nucleotides length in our analysis, we identified more than 30 distinct binding sites for Ago2 along the viral RNA genome. Using reporter assays, we found four binding sites, located near splice donor sites, capable of repressing Luciferase gene expression in an Ago-dependent manner. Furthermore, inhibition of Ago1 and Ago2 levels in cells expressing HIV-1 led to an increase of viral multiply spliced transcripts and to a strong reduction in the extracellular CAp24 level. Depletion of Dicer did not affect these activities. Our results highlight a new role of Ago proteins in the control of multiply spliced HIV-1 transcript levels and viral production, independently of the miRNA pathway. PMID:28003477

  19. Reconstitution of selective HIV-1 RNA packaging in vitro by membrane-bound Gag assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Lars-Anders; Bai, Yun; Keane, Sarah C; Doudna, Jennifer A; Hurley, James H

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Gag selects and packages a dimeric, unspliced viral RNA in the context of a large excess of cytosolic human RNAs. As Gag assembles on the plasma membrane, the HIV-1 genome is enriched relative to cellular RNAs by an unknown mechanism. We used a minimal system consisting of purified RNAs, recombinant HIV-1 Gag and giant unilamellar vesicles to recapitulate the selective packaging of the 5’ untranslated region of the HIV-1 genome in the presence of excess competitor RNA. Mutations in the CA-CTD domain of Gag which subtly affect the self-assembly of Gag abrogated RNA selectivity. We further found that tRNA suppresses Gag membrane binding less when Gag has bound viral RNA. The ability of HIV-1 Gag to selectively package its RNA genome and its self-assembly on membranes are thus interdependent on one another. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14663.001 PMID:27343348

  20. Epidemiological data of different human papillomavirus genotypes in cervical specimens of HIV-1-infected women without history of cervical pathology.

    PubMed

    Videla, Sebastian; Darwich, Laila; Cañadas, Maria Paz; Paredes, Roger; Tarrats, Antoni; Castella, Eva; Llatjos, Mariona; Bofill, Margarita; Clotet, Bonaventura; Sirera, Guillem

    2009-02-01

    To study the epidemiology of different human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in cervical samples of HIV-1-infected women with normal Papanicolau smears. : Retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort. We selected HIV-1-infected women with 2 consecutive normal Papanicolau smears at baseline and at least 1 baseline and 1 follow-up cervical sample. HPV infection was assessed by second-generation hybrid capture (HC-2) and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). HPV genotypes were determined by mPCR. From a cohort of 139 women followed up to 4 years, 93 women meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed. The mean period between samples was 20 months (range, 6-44 months). HPV baseline prevalence was 63% [59/93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 53% to 73%] using polymerase chain reaction and 41% (38/93; 95% CI, 31% to 51%) using HC-2, P = 0.007 (kappa, 0.45; P = 0.001). The most prevalent high oncogenic risk genotypes (HR-HPV) were HPV-16 (28%), HPV-33 (18%), HPV-52 (12%), HPV-58 (11%), and HPV-39 (11%). Infection with multiple HPV genotypes was detected in >40% of women. HPV infection persisted at follow-up in 86% (51/59; 95% CI, 77% to 95%) by polymerase chain reaction and 76% (29/38; 95% CI, 62% to 90%) by HC-2. HPV infection persisted in 55% of women with samples available beyond 3 years. The actuarial probabilities of clearance and incidence of HPV infection at 36 months were 16% and 45%, respectively. HPV infection is highly prevalent and persistent among HIV-1-infected women with normal Papanicolau smears. HR-HPV genotypes other than HPV-16 (HPV-33, HPV-52) are frequently detected in HIV-infected women. mPCR provides better surveillance of HPV infection than HC-2 methods.

  1. RNA interference-based therapeutics for human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 treatment: synthetic siRNA or vector-based shRNA?

    PubMed

    Subramanya, Sandesh; Kim, Sang-Soo; Manjunath, N; Shankar, Premlata

    2010-02-01

    Despite the clinical benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the prospect of life-long antiretroviral treatment poses significant problems, which has spurred interest in developing new drugs and strategies to treat HIV infection and eliminate persistent viral reservoirs. RNAi has emerged as a therapeutic possibility for HIV. We discuss progress in overcoming hurdles to translating transient and stable RNAi enabling technologies to clinical application for HIV; covering the past 2 - 3 years. HIV inhibition can be achieved by transfection of chemically or enzymatically synthesized siRNAs or by DNA-based vector systems expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) that are processed intracellularly into siRNA. We compare these approaches, focusing on technical and safety issues that will guide the choice of strategy for clinical use. Introduction of synthetic siRNA into cells or its stable endogenous production using vector-driven shRNA have been shown to suppress HIV replication in vitro and, in some instances, in vivo. Each method has advantages and limitations in terms of ease of delivery, duration of silencing, emergence of escape mutants and potential toxicity. Both appear to have potential as future therapeutics for HIV, once the technical and safety issues of each approach are overcome.

  2. Effect of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device on genital HIV-1 RNA shedding among HIV-1–infected women not taking antiretroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Jenell S.; Mwachari, Christina; Balkus, Jennifer; Sanguli, Lucy; Muliro, Angela; Agnew, Kathy; Coombs, Robert W.; Cohen, Craig R; Hitti, Jane

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) on genital HIV-1 RNA shedding and inflammation among 25 HIV-infected women. Blood, endocervical, and cervicovaginal lavage samples were collected from HIV-infected women not taking antiretrovirals before LNG-IUD insertion and 1-, 3-, and 6-months thereafter. HIV-1 RNA was quantitated by real-time RT-PCR. Inflammatory markers were measured by EIA. Genital HIV-1 RNA shedding and inflammatory markers did not differ between LNG-IUD placement and month 6, with the exception of interleukin-1B, which increased (0.42 log10; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.75). The LNG-IUD did not increase genital HIV-1 RNA shedding after 6-months of use. PMID:23446496

  3. In vivo SELEX of single-stranded domains in the HIV-1 leader RNA.

    PubMed

    van Bel, Nikki; Das, Atze T; Berkhout, Ben

    2014-02-01

    The 5' untranslated leader region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA genome is a strongly conserved sequence that encodes several regulatory motifs important for viral replication. Most of these motifs are exposed as hairpin structures, including the dimerization initiation signal (DIS), the major splice donor site (SD), and the packaging signal (Ψ), which are connected by short single-stranded regions. Mutational analysis revealed many functions of these hairpins, but only a few studies have focused on the single-stranded purine-rich sequences. Using the in vivo SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) approach, we probed the sequence space in these regions that is compatible with efficient HIV-1 replication and analyzed the impact on the RNA secondary structure of the leader RNA. Our results show a strong sequence requirement for the DIS hairpin flanking regions. We postulate that these sequences are important for the binding of specific protein factors that support leader RNA-mediated functions. The sequence between the SD and Ψ hairpins seems to have a less prominent role, despite the strong conservation of the stretch of 5 A residues in natural isolates. We hypothesize that this may reflect the subtle evolutionary pressure on HIV-1 to acquire an A-rich RNA genome. In silico analyses indicate that sequences are avoided in all 3 single-stranded domains that affect the local or overall leader RNA folding. IMPORTANCE Many regulatory RNA sequences are clustered in the untranslated leader domain of the HIV-1 RNA genome. Several RNA hairpin structures in this domain have been proposed to fulfill specific roles, e.g., mediating RNA dimer formation to facilitate HIV-1 recombination. We now focus on the importance of a few well-conserved single-stranded sequences that connect these hairpins. We created libraries of HIV-1 variants in which these segments were randomized and selected the best-replicating variants. For two

  4. Genital Tract HIV RNA Levels and Their Associations with Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk of Cervical Pre-Cancer

    PubMed Central

    GHARTEY, Jeny; KOVACS, Andrea; BURK, Robert D.; MASSAD, L. Stewart; MINKOFF, Howard; XIE, Xianhong; D’SOUZA, Gypsyamber; XUE, Xiaonan; WATTS, D. Heather; LEVINE, Alexandra M.; EINSTEIN, Mark H.; COLIE, Christine; ANASTOS, Kathryn; ELTOUM, Isam-Eldin; HEROLD, Betsy C.; PALEFSKY, Joel M.; STRICKLER, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Plasma HIV RNA levels have been associated with risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia in HIV-seropositive women. However, little is known regarding local genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with cervical HPV and neoplasia. Design/Methods In an HIV-seropositive women’s cohort with semi-annual follow-up, we conducted a nested case-control study of genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with incident high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions sub-classified as severe (severe HSIL), as provided for under the Bethesda 2001 classification system. Specifically, 66 incident severe HSIL were matched to 130 controls by age, CD4+ count, HAART use, and other factors. We also studied HPV prevalence, incident detection, and persistence in a random sample of 250 subjects. Results Risk of severe HSIL was associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels (odds ratio comparing HIV RNA ≥ the median among women with detectable levels versus undetectable [ORVL] 2.96; 95% CI: 0.99–8.84; Ptrend=0.03). However, this association became non-significant (Ptrend=0.51) following adjustment for plasma HIV RNA levels. There was also no association between genital tract HIV RNA levels and the prevalence of any HPV or oncogenic HPV. However, the incident detection of any HPV (Ptrend=0.02) and persistence of oncogenic HPV (Ptrend=0.04) were associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels, after controlling plasma HIV RNA levels. Conclusion These prospective data suggest that genital tract HIV RNA levels are not a significant independent risk factor for cervical pre-cancer in HIV-seropositive women, but leave open the possibility that they may modestly influence HPV infection, an early stage of cervical tumoriogenesis. PMID:24694931

  5. Collaborative update of a rule-based expert system for HIV-1 genotypic resistance test interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Roger; Tzou, Philip L.; van Zyl, Gert; Barrow, Geoff; Camacho, Ricardo; Carmona, Sergio; Grant, Philip M.; Gupta, Ravindra K.; Hamers, Raph L.; Harrigan, P. Richard; Jordan, Michael R.; Kantor, Rami; Katzenstein, David A.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Maldarelli, Frank; Otelea, Dan; Wallis, Carole L.; Schapiro, Jonathan M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction HIV-1 genotypic resistance test (GRT) interpretation systems (IS) require updates as new studies on HIV-1 drug resistance are published and as treatment guidelines evolve. Methods An expert panel was created to provide recommendations for the update of the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB) GRT-IS. The panel was polled on the ARVs to be included in a GRT report, and the drug-resistance interpretations associated with 160 drug-resistance mutation (DRM) pattern-ARV combinations. The DRM pattern-ARV combinations included 52 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (13 patterns x 4 NRTIs), 27 nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (9 patterns x 3 NNRTIs), 39 protease inhibitor (PI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (13 patterns x 3 PIs) and 42 integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (14 patterns x 3 INSTIs). Results There was universal agreement that a GRT report should include the NRTIs lamivudine, abacavir, zidovudine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; the NNRTIs efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine, and rilpivirine; the PIs atazanavir/r, darunavir/r, and lopinavir/r (with “/r” indicating pharmacological boosting with ritonavir or cobicistat); and the INSTIs dolutegravir, elvitegravir, and raltegravir. There was a range of opinion as to whether the NRTIs stavudine and didanosine and the PIs nelfinavir, indinavir/r, saquinavir/r, fosamprenavir/r, and tipranavir/r should be included. The expert panel members provided highly concordant DRM pattern-ARV interpretations with only 6% of NRTI, 6% of NNRTI, 5% of PI, and 3% of INSTI individual expert interpretations differing from the expert panel median by more than one resistance level. The expert panel median differed from the HIVDB 7.0 GRT-IS for 20 (12.5%) of the 160 DRM pattern-ARV combinations including 12 NRTI, two NNRTI, and six INSTI pattern-ARV combinations. Eighteen of these differences were updated in

  6. Collaborative update of a rule-based expert system for HIV-1 genotypic resistance test interpretation.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Roger; Tzou, Philip L; van Zyl, Gert; Barrow, Geoff; Camacho, Ricardo; Carmona, Sergio; Grant, Philip M; Gupta, Ravindra K; Hamers, Raph L; Harrigan, P Richard; Jordan, Michael R; Kantor, Rami; Katzenstein, David A; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Maldarelli, Frank; Otelea, Dan; Wallis, Carole L; Schapiro, Jonathan M; Shafer, Robert W

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 genotypic resistance test (GRT) interpretation systems (IS) require updates as new studies on HIV-1 drug resistance are published and as treatment guidelines evolve. An expert panel was created to provide recommendations for the update of the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB) GRT-IS. The panel was polled on the ARVs to be included in a GRT report, and the drug-resistance interpretations associated with 160 drug-resistance mutation (DRM) pattern-ARV combinations. The DRM pattern-ARV combinations included 52 nucleoside RT inhibitor (NRTI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (13 patterns x 4 NRTIs), 27 nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (NNRTI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (9 patterns x 3 NNRTIs), 39 protease inhibitor (PI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (13 patterns x 3 PIs) and 42 integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) DRM pattern-ARV combinations (14 patterns x 3 INSTIs). There was universal agreement that a GRT report should include the NRTIs lamivudine, abacavir, zidovudine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; the NNRTIs efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine, and rilpivirine; the PIs atazanavir/r, darunavir/r, and lopinavir/r (with "/r" indicating pharmacological boosting with ritonavir or cobicistat); and the INSTIs dolutegravir, elvitegravir, and raltegravir. There was a range of opinion as to whether the NRTIs stavudine and didanosine and the PIs nelfinavir, indinavir/r, saquinavir/r, fosamprenavir/r, and tipranavir/r should be included. The expert panel members provided highly concordant DRM pattern-ARV interpretations with only 6% of NRTI, 6% of NNRTI, 5% of PI, and 3% of INSTI individual expert interpretations differing from the expert panel median by more than one resistance level. The expert panel median differed from the HIVDB 7.0 GRT-IS for 20 (12.5%) of the 160 DRM pattern-ARV combinations including 12 NRTI, two NNRTI, and six INSTI pattern-ARV combinations. Eighteen of these differences were updated in HIVDB 8.1 GRT-IS to reflect the

  7. Outbreak of infections by hepatitis B virus genotype A and transmission of genetic drug resistance in patients coinfected with HIV-1 in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Seiichiro; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Shiino, Teiichiro; Koibuchi, Tomohiko; Hattori, Junko; Ibe, Shiro; Iwatani, Yasumasa; Iwamoto, Aikichi; Shirasaka, Takuma; Hamaguchi, Motohiro; Sugiura, Wataru

    2011-03-01

    The major routes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Japan has been mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and blood transfusion. However, HBV cases transmitted through sexual contact are increasing, especially among HIV-1-seropositive patients. To understand the molecular epidemiology of HBV in HBV/HIV-1 coinfection, we analyzed HBV genotypes and HIV-1 subtypes in HBV/HIV-1-coinfected patients at Nagoya Medical Center from 2003 to 2007. Among 394 HIV-1-infected Japanese men having sex with men (MSM) who were newly diagnosed during the study period, 31 (7.9%) tested positive for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen. HBV sequence analyses were successful in 26 cases, with 21 (80.7%) and 5 (19.3%) cases determined as genotypes A and C, respectively. Our finding that HBV genotype A was dominant in HIV-1-seropositive patients alerts clinicians to an alternative outbreak of HBV genotype A in the HIV-1-infected MSM population and a shift in HBV genotype from C to A in Japan. The narrow genetic diversity in genotype A cases suggests that genotype A has been recently introduced into the MSM population and that sexual contacts among MSM were more active than speculated from HIV-1 tree analyses. In addition, we found a lamivudine resistance mutation in one naïve case, suggesting a risk of drug-resistant HBV transmission. As genotype A infection has a higher risk than infection with other genotypes for individuals to become HBV carriers, prevention programs are urgently needed for the target population.

  8. Exosomes Derived from HIV-1-infected Cells Contain Trans-activation Response Element RNA*

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Aarthi; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Das, Ravi; Van Duyne, Rachel; Santos, Steven; Jaworski, Elizabeth; Guendel, Irene; Sampey, Gavin; Dalby, Elizabeth; Iglesias-Ussel, Maria; Popratiloff, Anastas; Hakami, Ramin; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Young, Mary; Subra, Caroline; Gilbert, Caroline; Bailey, Charles; Romerio, Fabio; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles produced by healthy and virus-infected cells. Exosomes derived from infected cells have been shown to contain viral microRNAs (miRNAs). HIV-1 encodes its own miRNAs that regulate viral and host gene expression. The most abundant HIV-1-derived miRNA, first reported by us and later by others using deep sequencing, is the trans-activation response element (TAR) miRNA. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of TAR RNA in exosomes from cell culture supernatants of HIV-1-infected cells and patient sera. TAR miRNA was not in Ago2 complexes outside the exosomes but enclosed within the exosomes. We detected the host miRNA machinery proteins Dicer and Drosha in exosomes from infected cells. We report that transport of TAR RNA from the nucleus into exosomes is a CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1)-dependent active process. Prior exposure of naive cells to exosomes from infected cells increased susceptibility of the recipient cells to HIV-1 infection. Exosomal TAR RNA down-regulated apoptosis by lowering Bim and Cdk9 proteins in recipient cells. We found 104–106 copies/ml TAR RNA in exosomes derived from infected culture supernatants and 103 copies/ml TAR RNA in the serum exosomes of highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated patients or long term nonprogressors. Taken together, our experiments demonstrated that HIV-1-infected cells produced exosomes that are uniquely characterized by their proteomic and RNA profiles that may contribute to disease pathology in AIDS. PMID:23661700

  9. Exosomes derived from HIV-1-infected cells contain trans-activation response element RNA.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Aarthi; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Das, Ravi; Van Duyne, Rachel; Santos, Steven; Jaworski, Elizabeth; Guendel, Irene; Sampey, Gavin; Dalby, Elizabeth; Iglesias-Ussel, Maria; Popratiloff, Anastas; Hakami, Ramin; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Young, Mary; Subra, Caroline; Gilbert, Caroline; Bailey, Charles; Romerio, Fabio; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2013-07-05

    Exosomes are nano-sized vesicles produced by healthy and virus-infected cells. Exosomes derived from infected cells have been shown to contain viral microRNAs (miRNAs). HIV-1 encodes its own miRNAs that regulate viral and host gene expression. The most abundant HIV-1-derived miRNA, first reported by us and later by others using deep sequencing, is the trans-activation response element (TAR) miRNA. In this study, we demonstrate the presence of TAR RNA in exosomes from cell culture supernatants of HIV-1-infected cells and patient sera. TAR miRNA was not in Ago2 complexes outside the exosomes but enclosed within the exosomes. We detected the host miRNA machinery proteins Dicer and Drosha in exosomes from infected cells. We report that transport of TAR RNA from the nucleus into exosomes is a CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1)-dependent active process. Prior exposure of naive cells to exosomes from infected cells increased susceptibility of the recipient cells to HIV-1 infection. Exosomal TAR RNA down-regulated apoptosis by lowering Bim and Cdk9 proteins in recipient cells. We found 10(4)-10(6) copies/ml TAR RNA in exosomes derived from infected culture supernatants and 10(3) copies/ml TAR RNA in the serum exosomes of highly active antiretroviral therapy-treated patients or long term nonprogressors. Taken together, our experiments demonstrated that HIV-1-infected cells produced exosomes that are uniquely characterized by their proteomic and RNA profiles that may contribute to disease pathology in AIDS.

  10. Trans-inhibition of HIV-1 by a long hairpin RNA expressed within the viral genome

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinova, Pavlina; ter Brake, Olivier; Haasnoot, Joost; de Haan, Peter; Berkhout, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can be inhibited by means of RNA silencing or interference (RNAi) using synthetic short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or gene constructs encoding short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) or long hairpin RNAs (lhRNAs). The use of siRNA and shRNA as antiviral therapeutic is limited because of the emergence of viral escape mutants. This problem is theoretically prevented by intracellular expression of lhRNAs generating multiple siRNAs that target the virus simultaneously, thus reducing the chance of viral escape. However, gene constructs encoding lhRNA molecules face problems with delivery to the right cells in an infected individual. In order to solve this problem, we constructed an HIV-1 variant with a 300 bp long hairpin structure in the 3' part of the genome corresponding to the Nef gene (HIV-lhNef). Results Intriguingly, HIV-lhNef potently inhibited wild-type HIV-1 production in trans. However, HIV-lhNef demonstrated a severe production and replication defect, which we were able to solve by selecting spontaneous virus variants with truncated hairpin structures. Although these escape variants lost the ability to trans-inhibit HIV-1, they effectively outgrew the wild-type virus in competition experiments in SupT1 cells. Conclusion Expression of the lhNef hairpin within the HIV-1 genome results in potent trans-inhibition of wild-type HIV-1. Although the mechanism of trans-inhibition is currently unknown, it remains of interest to study the molecular details because the observed effect is extremely potent. This may have implications for the development of virus strains to be used as live-attenuated virus vaccines. PMID:17331227

  11. Associations of Genetically Determined Continental Ancestry With CD4+ Count and Plasma HIV-1 RNA Beyond Self-Reported Race and Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Brummel, Sean S; Singh, Kumud K; Maihofer, Adam X; Farhad, Mona; Qin, Min; Fenton, Terry; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Spector, Stephen A

    2016-04-15

    Ancestry informative markers (AIMs) measure genetic admixtures within an individual beyond self-reported racial/ethnic (SRR) groups. Here, we used genetically determined ancestry (GDA) across SRR groups and examine associations between GDA and HIV-1 RNA and CD4 counts in HIV-positive children in the United States. Forty-one AIMs, developed to distinguish 7 continental regions, were detected by real-time PCR in 994 HIV-positive, antiretroviral naive children. GDA was estimated comparing each individual's genotypes to allele frequencies found in a large set of reference individuals originating from global populations using STRUCTURE. The means of GDA were calculated for each category of SRR. Linear regression was used to model GDA on CD4 count and log10 RNA, adjusting for SRR and age. Subjects were 61% black, 25% Hispanic, 13% white, and 1.3% Unknown. The mean age was 2.3 years (45% male), mean CD4 count of 981 cells per cubic millimeter, and mean log10 RNA of 5.11. Marked heterogeneity was found for all SRR groups with high admixture for Hispanics. In adjusted linear regression models, subjects with 100% European ancestry were estimated to have 0.33 higher log10 RNA levels (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.62, P = 0.028) and 253 CD4 cells per cubic millimeter lower (95% CI: -517 to 11, P = 0.06) in CD4 count, compared to subjects with 100% African ancestry. Marked continental admixture was found among this cohort of HIV-infected children from the United States. GDA contributed to differences in RNA and CD4 counts beyond SRR and should be considered when outcomes associated with HIV infection are likely to have a genetic component.

  12. Associations of Genetically Determined Continental Ancestry with CD4+ Count and Plasma HIV-1 RNA beyond Self-Reported Race and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Brummel, Sean S; Singh, Kumud K; Maihofer, Adam X.; Farhad, Mona; Qin, Min; Fenton, Terry; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Spector, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ancestry informative markers (AIMs) measure genetic admixtures within an individual beyond self-reported racial/ethnic (SRR) groups. Here, we used genetically determined ancestry (GDA) across SRR groups and examine associations between GDA and HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ counts in HIV-positive children in the US. Methods 41 AIMs, developed to distinguish 7 continental regions, were detected by real-time-PCR in 994 HIV-positive, antiretroviral naïve children. GDA was estimated comparing each individual’s genotypes to allele frequencies found in a large set of reference individuals originating from global populations using STRUCTURE. The means of GDA were calculated for each category of SRR. Linear regression was used to model GDA on CD4+ count and log10 RNA, adjusting for SRR and age. Results Subjects were 61% Black, 25% Hispanic, 13% White and 1.3% Unknown. The mean age was 2.3 years (45% male), mean CD4+ count 981 cells/mm3, and mean log10 RNA 5.11. Marked heterogeneity was found for all SRR groups with high admixture for Hispanics. In adjusted linear regression models, subjects with 100% European ancestry were estimated to have 0.33 higher log10 RNA levels (95% CI: (0.03, 0.62), p=0.028) and 253 CD4+ cells /mm3 lower (95% CI: (−517, 11), p = 0.06) in CD4+ count, compared to subjects with 100% African ancestry. Conclusion Marked continental admixture was found among this cohort of HIV-infected children from the US. GDA contributed to differences in RNA and CD4+ counts beyond SRR, and should be considered when outcomes associated with HIV infection are likely to have a genetic component. PMID:26536313

  13. Prevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B and C Infections and an Assessment of HCV-Genotypes and Two IL28B SNPs among People Who Inject Drugs in Three Regions of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Kinkel, Hans-Tilmann; Karmacharya, Dibesh; Shakya, Jivan; Manandhar, Sulochana; Panthi, Santosh; Karmacharya, Prajwola; Sitaula, Deepika; Thapaliya, Reenu; K. C., Prawachan; Rai, Apurva; Dixit, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive health care programme for people who use drugs in Nepal, HIV and viral hepatitis B and C status—including risk factors, HCV-genotypes and co-infections—as well as two IL28B Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed for a random sample of 401 people who inject drugs in three regions of Nepal: mid-western Terrai (Nepalgunj), the eastern region (Dharan, Biratnagar) and the central region (Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Chitwan). Individuals were included who showed at least a minimum of health care seeking behaviour. This latter criterion was defined by being registered with any organisation offering health services. The average age of the participants was 30.5 yrs, and the average length of intravenous drug use was 8.5 yrs. The prevalence rates of HBsAg, anti-HIV antibodies and HCV-RNA were 3.5%, 13.8% and 41.9%, respectively. Spontaneous HCV clearance was evident in 16% of all of those who tested positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Independent risk factors for HCV-RNA positivity were age, gender, geographical region, duration of injecting drug use, history of imprisonment and HIV co-infection. In the age group ≤24 yrs, the rate of spontaneous HCV clearance was 43.5%. Overall, 59.8% of HCV infections were caused by HCV genotype 3 and 40.2% by HCV genotype 1. No other HCV genotypes were identified in this study. The IL28B SNP rs12979860 and rs8099917 were identified in 122 patients, and 75.4% of all participants had both favourable genotypes rs12979860 C/C and rs8099917 T/T. PMID:26263394

  14. On the role of four small hairpins in the HIV-1 RNA genome

    PubMed Central

    Knoepfel, Stefanie A.; Berkhout, Ben

    2013-01-01

    An RNA secondary structure model for the complete HIV-1 genome has recently been published based on SHAPE technology. Several well-known RNA motifs such as TAR and RRE were confirmed and numerous new structured motifs were described that may play important roles in virus replication. The 9 kb viral RNA genome is densely packed with many RNA hairpin motifs and the collective fold may play an important role in HIV-1 biology. We initially focused on 16 RNA hairpin motifs scattered along the viral genome. We considered conservation of these structures, despite sequence variation among virus isolates, as a first indication for a significant function. Four relatively small hairpins exhibited considerable structural conservation and were selected for experimental validation in virus replication assays. Mutations were introduced into the HIV-1 RNA genome to destabilize individual RNA structures without affecting the protein-coding properties (silent codon changes). No major virus replication defects were scored, suggesting that these four hairpin structures do not play essential roles in HIV-1 replication. PMID:23535706

  15. On the role of four small hairpins in the HIV-1 RNA genome.

    PubMed

    Knoepfel, Stefanie A; Berkhout, Ben

    2013-04-01

    An RNA secondary structure model for the complete HIV-1 genome has recently been published based on SHAPE technology. Several well-known RNA motifs such as TAR and RRE were confirmed and numerous new structured motifs were described that may play important roles in virus replication. The 9 kb viral RNA genome is densely packed with many RNA hairpin motifs and the collective fold may play an important role in HIV-1 biology. We initially focused on 16 RNA hairpin motifs scattered along the viral genome. We considered conservation of these structures, despite sequence variation among virus isolates, as a first indication for a significant function. Four relatively small hairpins exhibited considerable structural conservation and were selected for experimental validation in virus replication assays. Mutations were introduced into the HIV-1 RNA genome to destabilize individual RNA structures without affecting the protein-coding properties (silent codon changes). No major virus replication defects were scored, suggesting that these four hairpin structures do not play essential roles in HIV-1 replication.

  16. PEGylated poly(ethylene imine) copolymer-delivered siRNA inhibits HIV replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Weber, Nick D; Merkel, Olivia M; Kissel, Thomas; Muñoz-Fernández, María Ángeles

    2012-01-10

    RNA interference is increasingly being utilized for the specific targeting and down-regulation of disease-causing genes, including targeting viral infections such as HIV. T lymphocytes, the primary target for HIV, are very difficult to treat with gene therapy applications such as RNA interference because of issues with drug delivery. To circumvent these problems, we investigated poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) as a method of improving transfection efficiency of siRNA to T lymphocytes. Additionally, polyethylene glycol (PEG) moieties were engrafted to the PEI polymers with the goals of improving stability and reducing cytotoxicity. Initial studies on PEG-PEI/siRNA polyplex formation, size and their interaction with cell membranes demonstrated their feasibility as drug delivery agents. Assays with lymphocytes revealed low cytotoxicity profiles of the polyplexes at pharmacologically relevant concentrations with PEGylated copolymers obtaining the best results. Successful transfection of a T cell line or primary T cells with siRNA was observed via flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Finally, the biological effect of copolymer-delivered siRNA was measured. Of particular significance, siRNA targeted to the HIV gene nef and delivered by one of the PEG-PEI copolymers in repetitive treatments every 2-3 days was observed to inhibit HIV replication to the same extent as azidothymidine over the course of 15 days. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression signature of microRNA-155 in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection

    PubMed Central

    RIAD, SARAH EHAB; EL-EKIABY, NADA; MEKKY, RADWA YEHIA; AHMED, RASHA; EL DIN, MOHAMMAD AHMED MOHEY; EL-SAYED, MOHAMMAD; ABOUELKHAIR, MAHMOUD MOHAMMAD; SALAH, AYMAN; ZEKRI, ABDEL RAHMAN; ESMAT, GAMAL; ABDELAZIZ, AHMED IHAB

    2015-01-01

    Hepatits C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (GT4) shows low treatment response rates and discrepancies when compared to other genotypes. However, the reason underlying these discrepancies remains unclear due to the limited number of studies on GT4. microRNA-155 (miR-155) is a noteworthy example of a discrepancy in GT4, as it was found to be upregulated in genotypes 1, 2 and 3 HCV infection, but downregulated in GT4-HCV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The present study aimed to investigate the expression of miR-155 in PBMCs, serum and liver tissues of GT4-HCV-infected patients. miR-155 expression was assessed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in GT4-HCV-infected PBMCs, serum and liver tissues, as well as GT2- and GT4-infected Huh7 cells, and compared to the healthy controls. There was no difference in miR-155 expression observed between naïve GT4-HCV patients and healthy controls in the PBMCs and serum. In HCV-infected liver tissues, however, a significant downregulation was observed. The unique miR-155 expression pattern during GT4 infection was confirmed in the infected Huh7 cell lines when compared to GT2 infection. Clinical data showed a positive correlation between liver transaminases and serum miR-155 expression. In addition, serum miR-155 expression was significantly lower in naïve non-responders (NRs) than naïve sustained virological responders (SVRs), and in post-treatment NRs compared to post-treatment SVRs. In conclusion, miR-155 was not only proven to be a genotype-specific microRNA that is not induced during GT4-HCV infection, but also a good prognostic factor and predictor of response to treatment enabling a non-invasive differentiation between NRs and SVRs during GT4-HCV infection. PMID:25469255

  18. Trends in use of genotypic resistance testing and frequency of major drug resistance among antiretroviral-naive persons in the HIV Outpatient Study, 1999-2011.

    PubMed

    Buchacz, Kate; Young, Benjamin; Palella, Frank J; Armon, Carl; Brooks, John T

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring antiretroviral drug resistance can inform treatment recommendations; however, there are few such data from US patients before they initiate ART. We analysed data from HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) participants from nine US HIV clinics who were diagnosed with HIV infection during 1999-2011. Using the IAS-USA December 2010 guidelines, we assessed the frequency of major drug resistance mutations (mDRMs) related to antiretroviral agents in viral isolates from patients who underwent commercial genotypic testing (GT) for resistance before initiating ART. We employed general linear regression models to assess factors associated with having undergone GT, and then factors associated with having mDRM. Among 1531 eligible patients, 758 (49.5%) underwent GT before first ART, increasing from 15.5% in 1999-2002 to 75.9% in 2009-11 (P < 0.001). GT was carried out a median of 1.2 months after the diagnosis of HIV. In adjusted regression analyses, patients with pre-ART CD4+ T lymphocyte counts ≥200 cells/mm(3) or with HIV RNA levels >5.0 log10 copies/mL and those with a first HOPS visit in 2006 or later were significantly (P < 0.05) more likely to have undergone GT. Of the 758 patients, 114 (15.0%) had mDRMs; mutations relating to NRTIs, NNRTIs and PIs were present in 8.0%, 7.1% and 2.6%, respectively. There was no temporal change in the frequency of mDRM, and mDRMs were associated with an HIV RNA level <4.0 log10 copies/mL. During 1999-2011, GT use among antiretroviral-naive patients became more common, but a quarter of patients in recent years remained untested. The frequency of mDRMs remained stable over time at about 15%. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. RNA Structures Facilitate Recombination-Mediated Gene Swapping in HIV-1 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Martin, Darren P.; Weeks, Kevin M.; Negroni, Matteo

    2010-01-01

    Many viruses, including retroviruses, undergo frequent recombination, a process which can increase their rate of adaptive evolution. In the case of HIV, recombination has been responsible for the generation of numerous intersubtype recombinant variants with epidemiological importance in the AIDS pandemic. Although it is known that fragments of genetic material do not combine randomly during the generation of recombinant viruses, the mechanisms that lead to preferential recombination at specific sites are not fully understood. Here we reanalyze recent independent data defining (i) the structure of a complete HIV-1 RNA genome and (ii) favorable sites for recombination. We show that in the absence of selection acting on recombinant genomes, regions harboring RNA structures in the NL4-3 model strain are strongly predictive of recombination breakpoints in the HIV-1 env genes of primary isolates. In addition, we found that breakpoints within recombinant HIV-1 genomes sampled from human populations, which have been acted upon extensively by natural selection, also colocalize with RNA structures. Critically, junctions between genes are enriched in structured RNA elements and are also preferred sites for generating functional recombinant forms. These data suggest that RNA structure-mediated recombination allows the virus to exchange intact genes rather than arbitrary subgene fragments, which is likely to increase the overall viability and replication success of the recombinant HIV progeny. PMID:20881047

  20. RNA structures facilitate recombination-mediated gene swapping in HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Martin, Darren P; Weeks, Kevin M; Negroni, Matteo

    2010-12-01

    Many viruses, including retroviruses, undergo frequent recombination, a process which can increase their rate of adaptive evolution. In the case of HIV, recombination has been responsible for the generation of numerous intersubtype recombinant variants with epidemiological importance in the AIDS pandemic. Although it is known that fragments of genetic material do not combine randomly during the generation of recombinant viruses, the mechanisms that lead to preferential recombination at specific sites are not fully understood. Here we reanalyze recent independent data defining (i) the structure of a complete HIV-1 RNA genome and (ii) favorable sites for recombination. We show that in the absence of selection acting on recombinant genomes, regions harboring RNA structures in the NL4-3 model strain are strongly predictive of recombination breakpoints in the HIV-1 env genes of primary isolates. In addition, we found that breakpoints within recombinant HIV-1 genomes sampled from human populations, which have been acted upon extensively by natural selection, also colocalize with RNA structures. Critically, junctions between genes are enriched in structured RNA elements and are also preferred sites for generating functional recombinant forms. These data suggest that RNA structure-mediated recombination allows the virus to exchange intact genes rather than arbitrary subgene fragments, which is likely to increase the overall viability and replication success of the recombinant HIV progeny.

  1. Interactions between HIV-1 Gag and Viral RNA Genome Enhance Virion Assembly.

    PubMed

    Dilley, Kari A; Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Galli, Andrea; Burdick, Ryan C; Levine, Louis; Li, Kelvin; Rein, Alan; Pathak, Vinay K; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2017-08-15

    Most HIV-1 virions contain two copies of full-length viral RNA, indicating that genome packaging is efficient and tightly regulated. However, the structural protein Gag is the only component required for the assembly of noninfectious viruslike particles, and the viral RNA is dispensable in this process. The mechanism that allows HIV-1 to achieve such high efficiency of genome packaging when a packageable viral RNA is not required for virus assembly is currently unknown. In this report, we examined the role of HIV-1 RNA in virus assembly and found that packageable HIV-1 RNA enhances particle production when Gag is expressed at levels similar to those in cells containing one provirus. However, such enhancement is diminished when Gag is overexpressed, suggesting that the effects of viral RNA can be replaced by increased Gag concentration in cells. We also showed that the specific interactions between Gag and viral RNA are required for the enhancement of particle production. Taken together, these studies are consistent with our previous hypothesis that specific dimeric viral RNA-Gag interactions are the nucleation event of infectious virion assembly, ensuring that one RNA dimer is packaged into each nascent virion. These studies shed light on the mechanism by which HIV-1 achieves efficient genome packaging during virus assembly.IMPORTANCE Retrovirus assembly is a well-choreographed event, during which many viral and cellular components come together to generate infectious virions. The viral RNA genome carries the genetic information to new host cells, providing instructions to generate new virions, and therefore is essential for virion infectivity. In this report, we show that the specific interaction of the viral RNA genome with the structural protein Gag facilitates virion assembly and particle production. These findings resolve the conundrum that HIV-1 RNA is selectively packaged into virions with high efficiency despite being dispensable for virion assembly

  2. Detection of HIV-1 RNA/DNA and CD4 mRNA in feces and urine from chronic HIV-1 infected subjects with and without anti-retroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Caruso, Lori; Ding, Ming; Shen, Chengli; Buchanan, William; Gupta, Phalguni; Rinaldo, Charles R; Chen, Yue

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 infects gut associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) very early after transmission by multiple routes. The infected GALT consequently serves as the major reservoir for HIV-1 infection and could constantly shed HIV-1 and CD4+ T cells into the intestinal lumen. To examine this hypothesis, we monitored HIV-1 RNA/DNA and CD4 mRNA in fecal samples of chronically infected subjects with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared this to levels of HIV-1 RNA/DNA in urine and blood from the same subjects. Our results show that HIV-1 DNA, RNA and CD4 mRNA were detected in 8%, 19% and 31% respectively, of feces samples from infected subjects with detectable plasma viral load, and were not detected in any of subjects on ART with undetectable plasma viral load. In urine samples, HIV-1 DNA was detected in 24% of infected subjects with detectable plasma viral load and 23% of subjects on ART with undetectable plasma viral load. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope sequences of HIV-1 revealed distinct virus populations in concurrently collected serum, feces and urine samples from one subject. In addition, our study demonstrated for the first time the presence of CD4 mRNA in fecal specimens of HIV-1 infected subjects, which could be used to assess GALT pathogenesis in HIV-1 infection. PMID:19799780

  3. Virus-Specific CD8+ T-Cell Responses Better Define HIV Disease Progression than HLA Genotype ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Dinges, Warren L.; Richardt, Julia; Friedrich, David; Jalbert, Emilie; Liu, Yi; Stevens, Claire E.; Maenza, Janine; Collier, Ann C.; Geraghty, Daniel E.; Smith, Jeremy; Moodie, Zoe; Mullins, James I.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Horton, Helen

    2010-01-01

    HLA alleles B57/58, B27, and B35 have the strongest genetic associations with HIV-1 disease progression. The mechanisms of these relationships may be host control of HIV-1 infection via CD8+ T-cell responses. We examined these immune responses in subjects from the Seattle Primary Infection Cohort with these alleles. CD8+ T-cell responses to conserved HIV epitopes within B57/58 alleles (TW10 and KF11) and B27 alleles (KK10 and FY10) delayed declines in CD4+ T-cell counts (4 to 8 times longer), while responses to variable epitopes presented by B35 alleles (DL9 and IL9) resulted in more rapid progression. The plasma viral load was higher in B57/58+ and B27+ subjects lacking the conserved B57/58- and B27-restricted responses. The presence of certain B57/58-, B27-, and B35-restricted HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses after primary HIV-1 infection better defined disease progression than the HLA genotype alone, suggesting that it is the HIV-specific CD8+ T cells and not the presence of a particular HLA allele that determine disease progression. Further, the most effective host CD8+ T-cell responses to HIV-1 were prevalent within an HLA allele, represented a high total allele fraction of the host CD8+ T-cell response, and targeted conserved regions of HIV-1. These data suggest that vaccine immunogens should contain only conserved regions of HIV-1. PMID:20147397

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 RNA levels in asymptomatic patients with early stage chronic HIV-1 infection: support for the hypothesis of local virus replication.

    PubMed

    García, F; Niebla, G; Romeu, J; Vidal, C; Plana, M; Ortega, M; Ruiz, L; Gallart, T; Clotet, B; Miró, J M; Pumarola, T; Gatell, J M

    1999-08-20

    To assess HIV-1 RNA levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and their potential correlation with plasma viral load and central nervous system (CNS) HIV-1 infection markers in stable asymptomatic patients with a CD4 T cell count >500x10(6) cells/l. Consecutive patients screened for two trials were eligible for lumbar puncture assessment. At day 0, simultaneous samples of CSF and plasma were obtained and levels of total proteins, albumin, IgG, antibodies against HIV-1 p24 antigen, HIV-1 RNA (using the polymerase chain technique) and white cells were measured. The integrity of the blood-brain barrier was preserved (albumin index > or =7) in 59 out of 70 patients (84%). Intrathecal production of antibodies against HIV-1 p24 antigen was demonstrated in 55 out of 70 individuals (78%). Viral load in CSF was significantly lower than plasma values (3.13+/-0.95 versus 4.53+/-0.53, P = 0.0001). HIV-1 RNA was not detected in CSF in only three of the 70 patients (4%). Overall, there was a significant correlation between plasma and CSF HIV-1 RNA levels (r = 0.43, P = 0.0001); however, in 29 patients (41%) there were significant differences (>1.5 log10 copies/ml) between the viral loads in plasma and CSF. In the multivariate analysis, a high level of protein and white cells in CSF, but not the HIV-1 RNA plasma level, were factors independently associated with a higher level of HIV-1 RNA in CSF (P = 0.0001). HIV-1 RNA can be detected almost always in CSF of asymptomatic patients in early stages of HIV-1 infection including those with a preserved integrity of the blood-brain barrier. The important discrepancies between plasma and CSF viral load, and the independent association between CSF abnormalities and CSF viral load, support the hypothesis of local production of HIV-1.

  5. Estimating HIV-1 fitness characteristics from cross-sectional genotype data.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Sathej; Montazeri, Hesam; Menz, Stephan; Beerenwinkel, Niko; Huisinga, Wilhelm

    2014-11-01

    Despite the success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection, virological failure due to drug resistance development remains a major challenge. Resistant mutants display reduced drug susceptibilities, but in the absence of drug, they generally have a lower fitness than the wild type, owing to a mutation-incurred cost. The interaction between these fitness costs and drug resistance dictates the appearance of mutants and influences viral suppression and therapeutic success. Assessing in vivo viral fitness is a challenging task and yet one that has significant clinical relevance. Here, we present a new computational modelling approach for estimating viral fitness that relies on common sparse cross-sectional clinical data by combining statistical approaches to learn drug-specific mutational pathways and resistance factors with viral dynamics models to represent the host-virus interaction and actions of drug mechanistically. We estimate in vivo fitness characteristics of mutant genotypes for two antiretroviral drugs, the reverse transcriptase inhibitor zidovudine (ZDV) and the protease inhibitor indinavir (IDV). Well-known features of HIV-1 fitness landscapes are recovered, both in the absence and presence of drugs. We quantify the complex interplay between fitness costs and resistance by computing selective advantages for different mutants. Our approach extends naturally to multiple drugs and we illustrate this by simulating a dual therapy with ZDV and IDV to assess therapy failure. The combined statistical and dynamical modelling approach may help in dissecting the effects of fitness costs and resistance with the ultimate aim of assisting the choice of salvage therapies after treatment failure.

  6. Inhibition of HIV-1 by multiple siRNAs expressed from a single microRNA polycistron

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying Poi; Haasnoot, Joost; ter Brake, Olivier; Berkhout, Ben; Konstantinova, Pavlina

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful approach to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. However, HIV-1 can escape from RNAi-mediated antiviral therapy by selection of mutations in the targeted sequence. To prevent viral escape, multiple small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against conserved viral sequences should be combined. Ideally, these RNA inhibitors should be expressed simultaneously from a single transgene transcript. In this study, we tested a multiplex microRNA (miRNA) expression strategy by inserting multiple effective anti-HIV siRNA sequences in the miRNA polycistron mir-17-92. Individual anti-HIV miRNAs that resemble the natural miRNA structures were optimized by varying the siRNA position in the hairpin stem to obtain maximal effectiveness against luciferase reporters and HIV-1. We show that an antiviral miRNA construct can have a greater intrinsic inhibitory activity than a conventional short hairpin (shRNA) construct. When combined in a polycistron setting, the silencing activity of an individual miRNA is strongly boosted. We demonstrate that HIV-1 replication can be efficiently inhibited by simultaneous expression of four antiviral siRNAs from the polycistronic miRNA transcript. These combined results indicate that a multiplex miRNA strategy may be a promising therapeutic approach to attack escape-prone viral pathogens. PMID:18346971

  7. Annealing to sequences within the primer binding site loop promotes an HIV-1 RNA conformation favoring RNA dimerization and packaging

    PubMed Central

    Seif, Elias; Niu, Meijuan; Kleiman, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) includes structural elements that regulate reverse transcription, transcription, translation, tRNALys3 annealing to the gRNA, and gRNA dimerization and packaging into viruses. It has been reported that gRNA dimerization and packaging are regulated by changes in the conformation of the 5′-UTR RNA. In this study, we show that annealing of tRNALys3 or a DNA oligomer complementary to sequences within the primer binding site (PBS) loop of the 5′ UTR enhances its dimerization in vitro. Structural analysis of the 5′-UTR RNA using selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) shows that the annealing promotes a conformational change of the 5′ UTR that has been previously reported to favor gRNA dimerization and packaging into virus. The model predicted by SHAPE analysis is supported by antisense experiments designed to test which annealed sequences will promote or inhibit gRNA dimerization. Based on reports showing that the gRNA dimerization favors its incorporation into viruses, we tested the ability of a mutant gRNA unable to anneal to tRNALys3 to be incorporated into virions. We found a ∼60% decrease in mutant gRNA packaging compared with wild-type gRNA. Together, these data further support a model for viral assembly in which the initial annealing of tRNALys3 to gRNA is cytoplasmic, which in turn aids in the promotion of gRNA dimerization and its incorporation into virions. PMID:23960173

  8. RNA dependent DNA replication fidelity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: evidence of discrimination between DNA and RNA substrates.

    PubMed

    Kerr, S G; Anderson, K S

    1997-11-18

    The RNA dependent DNA replication fidelity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase has been investigated using pre-steady-state kinetics under single turnover conditions. In contrast to previous estimates of low replication fidelity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, the present study finds the enzyme to be more highly discriminating when an RNA/DNA template-primer is employed as compared with the corresponding DNA/DNA template-primer. The basis of this selectivity is due to extremely slow polymerization kinetics for incorporation of an incorrect deoxynucleotide. The maximum rates for misincorporation (kpol) of dGTP, dCTP, and dTTP opposite a template uridine were 0.2, 0.03, and 0.003 s-1, respectively. The equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) for the incorrect nucleotide opposite a template uridine were 1.0, 1.1, and 0.7 mM for dGTP, dCTP, and dTTP, respectively. These kinetic values provide fidelity estimates of 26 000 for discrimination against dGTP, 176 000 for dCTP, and 1 x 10(6) for dTTP misincorporation at this position. Similar observations were obtained when incorrect nucleotide misincorporation was examined opposite a template adenine. Thus in a direct comparison of RNA/DNA and DNA/DNA template-primer substrates, HIV-1 RT exhibits approximately a 10-60-fold increase in fidelity. This study augments our current understanding of the similarities and differences of catalytic activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase using RNA and DNA substrates. Moreover, these studies lend further support for a model for nucleotide incorporation by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase involving a two-step binding mechanism governed by a rate-limiting conformational change for correct incorporation.

  9. Structure-guided discovery of a novel aminoglycoside conjugate targeting HIV-1 RNA viral genome.

    PubMed

    Ennifar, Eric; Aslam, Muhammad Waqar; Strasser, Perrine; Hoffmann, Guillaume; Dumas, Philippe; van Delft, Floris L

    2013-11-15

    The dimerization initiation site (DIS) of the HIV-1 genomic RNA is a conserved stem-loop that promotes viral genome dimerization by forming a loop-loop complex. The DIS constitutes a potentially interesting target because it is crucial for several key steps of the viral replication. In this work we describe the synthesis of a rationally designed aminoglycoside conjugate that binds the HIV-1 DIS viral RNA with high specificity, as shown by an extensive in vitro binding characterization. We propose a three-dimensional model of the drug-RNA interaction that perfectly fits with binding data. Our results show the feasibility of targeting the HIV DIS viral RNA dimer and open the way to the rationale design of a new class of antiviral drugs. In addition, due to similarities between the HIV-1 DIS RNA and the bacterial aminoacyl decoding site (A site) RNA, we show that this novel aminoglycoside conjugate also binds the bacterial A site with a similar affinity as natural aminoglycoside antibiotics.

  10. High efficiency of HIV-1 genomic RNA packaging and heterozygote formation revealed by single virion analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianbo; Nikolaitchik, Olga; Singh, Jatinder; Wright, Andrew; Bencsics, Craig E; Coffin, John M; Ni, Na; Lockett, Stephen; Pathak, Vinay K; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2009-08-11

    A long-standing question in retrovirus biology is how RNA genomes are distributed among virions. In the studies presented in this report, we addressed this issue by directly examining HIV-1 RNAs in virions using a modified HIV-1 genome that contained recognition sites for BglG, an antitermination protein in the Escherichia coli bgl operon, which was coexpressed with a fragment of BglG RNA binding protein fused to a fluorescent protein. Our results demonstrate that the majority of virions (>90%) contain viral RNAs. We also coexpressed HIV-1 genomes containing binding sites for BglG or the bacteriophage MS2 coat protein along with 2 fluorescent protein-tagged RNA binding proteins. This method allows simultaneously labeling and discrimination of 2 different RNAs at single-RNA-detection sensitivity. Using this strategy, we obtained physical evidence that virions contain RNAs derived from different parental viruses (heterozygous virion) at ratios expected from a random distribution, and we found that this ratio can be altered by changing the dimerization sequences. Our studies of heterozygous virions also support a generally accepted but unproven assumption that most particles contain 1 dimer. This study provides answers to long-standing questions in HIV-1 biology and illustrates the power and sensitivity of the 2-RNA labeling method, which can also be adapted to analyze various issues of RNA biogenesis including the detection of different RNAs in live cell imaging.

  11. The control of HIV transcription: keeping RNA polymerase II on track.

    PubMed

    Ott, Melanie; Geyer, Matthias; Zhou, Qiang

    2011-11-17

    Thirteen years ago, human cyclin T1 was identified as part of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) and the long-sought host cofactor for the HIV-1 transactivator Tat. Recent years have brought new insights into the intricate regulation of P-TEFb function and its relationship with Tat, revealing novel mechanisms for controlling HIV transcription and fueling new efforts to overcome the barrier of transcriptional latency in eradicating HIV. Moreover, the improved understanding of HIV and Tat forms a basis for studying transcription elongation control in general. Here, we review advances in HIV transcription research with a focus on the growing family of cellular P-TEFb complexes, structural insights into the interactions between Tat, P-TEFb, and TAR RNA, and the multifaceted regulation of these interactions by posttranscriptional modifications of Tat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. RNA-Seq for gene identification and transcript profiling of three Stevia rebaudiana genotypes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junwen; Hou, Kai; Qin, Peng; Liu, Hongchang; Yi, Bin; Yang, Wenting; Wu, Wei

    2014-07-07

    Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is an important medicinal plant that yields diterpenoid steviol glycosides (SGs). SGs are currently used in the preparation of medicines, food products and neutraceuticals because of its sweetening property (zero calories and about 300 times sweeter than sugar). Recently, some progress has been made in understanding the biosynthesis of SGs in Stevia, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this process. Additionally, the genomics of Stevia, a non-model species, remains uncharacterized. The recent advent of RNA-Seq, a next generation sequencing technology, provides an opportunity to expand the identification of Stevia genes through in-depth transcript profiling. We present a comprehensive landscape of the transcriptome profiles of three genotypes of Stevia with divergent SG compositions characterized using RNA-seq. 191,590,282 high-quality reads were generated and then assembled into 171,837 transcripts with an average sequence length of 969 base pairs. A total of 80,160 unigenes were annotated, and 14,211 of the unique sequences were assigned to specific metabolic pathways by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Gene sequences of all enzymes known to be involved in SG synthesis were examined. A total of 143 UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT) unigenes were identified, some of which might be involved in SG biosynthesis. The expression patterns of eight of these genes were further confirmed by RT-QPCR. RNA-seq analysis identified candidate genes encoding enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of SGs in Stevia, a non-model plant without a reference genome. The transcriptome data from this study yielded new insights into the process of SG accumulation in Stevia. Our results demonstrate that RNA-Seq can be successfully used for gene identification and transcript profiling in a non-model species.

  13. Cervical Shedding of HIV-1 RNA Among Women With Low Levels of Viremia While Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Michael N.; Benning, Lorie; Xu, Jiaao; Strickler, Howard D.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Minkoff, Howard; Young, Mary; Bremer, James; Levine, Alexandra M.; Kovacs, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Background Among women with low o r undetectable quantities of HIV-1 RNA in plasma, factors associated with genital HIV-1 RNA shedding, including choice of treatment regimen, are poorly characterized. Methods We measured HIV-1 RNA in cervical swab specimens obtained from participants in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study who had concurrent plasma viral RNA levels <500 copies/mL, and we assessed factors associated with genital HIV shedding. The study was powered to determine the relative effects of antiretroviral protease inhibitors (PIs) versus nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) on viral RNA shedding. Results Overall, 44 (15%) of 290 women had detectable HIV-1 RNA in cervical specimens. In the final multivariate model, shedding was independently associated with NNRTI (vs. PI) use (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24, 1.13 to 4.45) and illicit drug use (OR, 95% CI: 2.41, 0.96 to 5.69). Conclusions This is the largest study to define risks for genital HIV-1 RNA shedding in women with low/undetectable plasma virus. Shedding in this population was common, and NNRTI-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (vs. PI-based HAART) was associated with genital HIV shedding. Further study is required to determine the impact of these findings on transmission of HIV from mother to child or to sexual partners. PMID:17106279

  14. HIV RNA level in early infection is predicted by viral load in the transmission source

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Frederick M.; Hartogensis, Wendy; Bragg, Larry; Bacchetti, Peter; Atchison, Robert; Grant, Robert; Barbour, Jason; Deeks, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective HIV-1 viral load in early infection predicts the risk of subsequent disease progression but the factors responsible for the differences between individuals in viral load during this period have not been fully identified. We sought to determine the relationship between HIV-1 RNA levels in the source partner and recently infected recipient partners within transmission pairs. Methods We recruited donor partners of persons who presented with acute or recent (< 6 months) HIV infection. Transmission was confirmed by phyologenetic comparison of virus sequence in the donor and recipient partners. We compared viral load in the donor partner and the recipient in the first 6 months of HIV infection. Results We identified 24 transmission pairs. The median estimated time from infection to evaluation in acutely/recently infected recipient individuals was 72 days. The viral load in the donor was closely associated with viral load at presentation in the recipient case (r=0.55, P=0.006). Conclusion The strong correlation between HIV-1 RNA levels within HIV transmission pairs indicates that virus characteristics are an important determinant of viral load in early HIV infection. PMID:20168202

  15. Specific Reactivation of Latent HIV-1 by dCas9-SunTag-VP64-mediated Guide RNA Targeting the HIV-1 Promoter.

    PubMed

    Ji, Haiyan; Jiang, Zhengtao; Lu, Panpan; Ma, Li; Li, Chuan; Pan, Hanyu; Fu, Zheng; Qu, Xiying; Wang, Pengfei; Deng, Junxiao; Yang, Xinyi; Wang, Jianhua; Zhu, Huanzhang

    2016-03-01

    HIV-1 escapes antiretroviral agents by integrating into the host DNA and forming a latent transcriptionally silent HIV-1 provirus. Transcriptional activation is prerequisite for reactivation and the eradication of latent HIV-1 proviruses. dCas9-SunTag-VP64 transcriptional system has been reported that it can robustly activate the expression of an endogenous gene using a single guide RNA (sgRNA). Here, we systematically investigated the potential of dCas9-SunTag-VP64 with the designed sgRNAs for reactivating latent HIV-1. We found dCas9-SunTag-VP64 with sgRNA 4 or sgRNA 5 targeted from -164 to -146 or -124 to -106 bp upstream of the transcription start sites of HIV-1 could induce high expression of luciferase reporter gene after screening of sgRNAs targeting different regions of the HIV-1 promoter. Further, we confirmed that dCas9-SunTag-VP64 with sgRNA 4 or sgRNA 5 can effectively reactivate latent HIV-1 transcription in several latently infected human T-cell lines. Moreover, we confirmed that the reactivation of latent HIV-1 by dCas9-SunTag-VP64 with the designed sgRNA occurred through specific binding to the HIV-1 LTR promoter without genotoxicity and global T-cell activation. Taken together, our data demonstrated dCas9-SunTag-VP64 system can effectively and specifically reactivate latent HIV-1 transcription, suggesting that this strategy could offer a novel approach to anti-HIV-1 latency.

  16. Genotypic and Functional Impact of HIV-1 Adaptation to Its Host Population during the North American Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jonathan M.; Chan, Benjamin; Chopera, Denis R.; Brumme, Chanson J.; Markle, Tristan J.; Martin, Eric; Shahid, Aniqa; Anmole, Gursev; Mwimanzi, Philip; Nassab, Pauline; Penney, Kali A.; Rahman, Manal A.; Milloy, M.-J.; Schechter, Martin T.; Markowitz, Martin; Carrington, Mary; Walker, Bruce D.; Wagner, Theresa; Buchbinder, Susan; Fuchs, Jonathan; Koblin, Beryl; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Harrigan, P. Richard; Brockman, Mark A.; Poon, Art F. Y.; Brumme, Zabrina L.

    2014-01-01

    HLA-restricted immune escape mutations that persist following HIV transmission could gradually spread through the viral population, thereby compromising host antiviral immunity as the epidemic progresses. To assess the extent and phenotypic impact of this phenomenon in an immunogenetically diverse population, we genotypically and functionally compared linked HLA and HIV (Gag/Nef) sequences from 358 historic (1979–1989) and 382 modern (2000–2011) specimens from four key cities in the North American epidemic (New York, Boston, San Francisco, Vancouver). Inferred HIV phylogenies were star-like, with approximately two-fold greater mean pairwise distances in modern versus historic sequences. The reconstructed epidemic ancestral (founder) HIV sequence was essentially identical to the North American subtype B consensus. Consistent with gradual diversification of a “consensus-like” founder virus, the median “background” frequencies of individual HLA-associated polymorphisms in HIV (in individuals lacking the restricting HLA[s]) were ∼2-fold higher in modern versus historic HIV sequences, though these remained notably low overall (e.g. in Gag, medians were 3.7% in the 2000s versus 2.0% in the 1980s). HIV polymorphisms exhibiting the greatest relative spread were those restricted by protective HLAs. Despite these increases, when HIV sequences were analyzed as a whole, their total average burden of polymorphisms that were “pre-adapted” to the average host HLA profile was only ∼2% greater in modern versus historic eras. Furthermore, HLA-associated polymorphisms identified in historic HIV sequences were consistent with those detectable today, with none identified that could explain the few HIV codons where the inferred epidemic ancestor differed from the modern consensus. Results are therefore consistent with slow HIV adaptation to HLA, but at a rate unlikely to yield imminent negative implications for cellular immunity, at least in North America

  17. Multivalency in Recognition and Antagonism of HIV TAR RNA – TAT Assembly using an Aminoglycoside Benzimidazole Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Ranjan, Nihar; Kellish, Patrick; Gong, Changjun; Watkins, Derrick; Arya, Dev P.

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of RNA by high-affinity binding small molecules is crucial for expanding existing approaches in RNA recognition, and for the development of novel RNA binding drugs. A novel neomycin dimer benzimidazole conjugate 5 (DPA 83) was synthesized by conjugating a neomycin-dimer with benzimidazole alkyne using click chemistry to target multiple binding sites on HIV TAR RNA. Ligand 5 significantly enhances the thermal stability of HIV TAR RNA and interacts stoichiometrically with HIV TAR RNA with a low nanomolar affinity. 5 displayed enhanced binding than its individual building blocks including neomycin dimer azide and benzimidazole alkyne. In essence, a high affinity multivalent ligand was designed and synthesized to target HIV TAR RNA. PMID:26765486

  18. Multivalency in the recognition and antagonism of a HIV TAR RNA-TAT assembly using an aminoglycoside benzimidazole scaffold.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Ranjan, Nihar; Kellish, Patrick; Gong, Changjun; Watkins, Derrick; Arya, Dev P

    2016-02-14

    Recognition of RNA by high-affinity binding small molecules is crucial for expanding existing approaches in RNA recognition, and for the development of novel RNA binding drugs. A novel neomycin dimer benzimidazole conjugate 5 (DPA 83) was synthesized by conjugating a neomycin-dimer with a benzimidazole alkyne using click chemistry to target multiple binding sites on HIV TAR RNA. Ligand 5 significantly enhances the thermal stability of HIV TAR RNA and interacts stoichiometrically with HIV TAR RNA with a low nanomolar affinity. 5 displayed enhanced binding compared to its individual building blocks including the neomycin dimer azide and benzimidazole alkyne. In essence, a high affinity multivalent ligand was designed and synthesized to target HIV TAR RNA.

  19. The RNA annealing mechanism of the HIV-1 Tat peptide: conversion of the RNA into an annealing-competent conformation

    PubMed Central

    Doetsch, Martina; Fürtig, Boris; Gstrein, Thomas; Stampfl, Sabine; Schroeder, Renée

    2011-01-01

    The annealing of nucleic acids to (partly) complementary RNA or DNA strands is involved in important cellular processes. A variety of proteins have been shown to accelerate RNA/RNA annealing but their mode of action is still mainly uncertain. In order to study the mechanism of protein-facilitated acceleration of annealing we selected a short peptide, HIV-1 Tat(44–61), which accelerates the reaction efficiently. The activity of the peptide is strongly regulated by mono- and divalent cations which hints at the importance of electrostatic interactions between RNA and peptide. Mutagenesis of the peptide illustrated the dominant role of positively charged amino acids in RNA annealing—both the overall charge of the molecule and a precise distribution of basic amino acids within the peptide are important. Additionally, we found that Tat(44–61) drives the RNA annealing reaction via entropic rather than enthalpic terms. One-dimensional-NMR data suggest that the peptide changes the population distribution of possible RNA structures to favor an annealing-prone RNA conformation, thereby increasing the fraction of colliding RNA molecules that successfully anneal. PMID:21297117

  20. Comparative expression profile of miRNA and mRNA in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1).

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ankit; Nagilla, Pruthvi; Le, Hai-Son; Bunney, Coulton; Zych, Courtney; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Mathavan, Sinnakaruppan; Ayyavoo, Velpandi

    2011-01-01

    Host cells respond to exogenous infectious agents such as viruses, including HIV-1. Studies have evaluated the changes associated with virus infection at the transcriptional and translational levels of the cellular genes involved in specific pathways. While this approach is useful, in our view it provides only a partial view of genome-wide changes. Recently, technological advances in the expression profiling at the microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA levels have made it possible to evaluate the changes in the components of multiple pathways. To understand the role of miRNA and its interplay with host cellular gene expression (mRNA) during HIV-1 infection, we performed a comparative global miRNA and mRNA microarray using human PBMCs infected with HIV-1. The PBMCs were derived from multiple donors and were infected with virus generated from the molecular clone pNL4-3. The results showed that HIV-1 infection led to altered regulation of 21 miRNAs and 444 mRNA more than 2-fold, with a statistical significance of p<0.05. Furthermore, the differentially regulated miRNA and mRNA were shown to be associated with host cellular pathways involved in cell cycle/proliferation, apoptosis, T-cell signaling, and immune activation. We also observed a number of inverse correlations of miRNA and mRNA expression in infected PBMCs, further confirming the interrelationship between miRNA and mRNA regulation during HIV-1 infection. These results for the first time provide evidence that the miRNA profile could be an early indicator of host cellular dysfunction induced by HIV-1.

  1. Genotypic heterogeneity based on 18S-rRNA gene sequences among Acanthamoeba isolates from clinical samples in Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Cave, David; D' Alfonso, Rossella; Dussey Comlavi, Kodjo A; D' Orazi, Carlo; Monno, Rosa; Berrilli, Federica

    2014-11-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is an ocular disease caused by members of a genus of free-living amoebae and it is associated predominantly with contact lens (CL) use. This study reports 55 cases of AK diagnosed in Italy. Genotype identification was carried out by PCR assay followed by sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene using the genus specific primers JDP1 and JDP2. Genotype assignment was based on phenetic analysis of the ASA.S1 subset of the small-subunit rRNA gene sequences. The material has been collected at the Polyclinic Tor Vergata of Rome for a total of 19 isolates and at the Polyclinic Hospital of Bari (36 isolates). Thirty-three out of the 55 genetically characterized isolates were assigned to the genotype T4. Ten isolates were identified as belonging to the genotype T15 thus confirming the first association between the genotype T15 and human amoebic keratitis previously described from the same area. We underline the occurrence of the genotype T3 and T11 identified for the first time in the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression of an RNA glycosidase inhibits HIV-1 transactivation of transcription.

    PubMed

    Kutky, Meherzad; Hudak, Katalin A

    2017-10-05

    HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus) transcription is primarily controlled by the virally encoded Tat (transactivator of transcription) protein and its interaction with the viral TAR (transcription response element) RNA element. Specifically, binding of a Tat-containing complex to TAR recruits cellular factors that promote elongation of the host RNA polymerase engaging the viral DNA template. Disruption of this interaction halts viral RNA transcription. In the present study, we investigated the effect of pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), an RNA glycosidase (EC#: 3.2.2.22) synthesized by the pokeweed plant (Phytolacca americana), on transcription of HIV-1 mRNA. We show that co-expression of PAP with a proviral clone in culture cells resulted in a Tat-dependent decrease in viral mRNA levels. PAP reduced HIV-1 transcriptional activity by inhibiting Tat protein synthesis. The effects of PAP expression on host factors AP-1 (activator protein 1), NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells) and specificity protein 1, which modulate HIV-1 transcription by binding to the viral LTR (5'-long terminal repeat), were also investigated. Only AP-1 showed a modest JNK pathway-dependent increase in activity in the presence of PAP; however, this activation was not sufficient to significantly enhance transcription from a partial viral LTR containing AP-1 binding sites. Therefore, the primary effect of PAP on HIV-1 transcription is to reduce viral RNA synthesis by decreasing the abundance of Tat. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the observed decrease in viral RNAs in cells expressing PAP and contribute to our understanding of the antiviral effects of this plant protein. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  3. Clinical and resistance consequences of misquantification of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in samples from an HIV-1 subtype G-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Delaugerre, Constance; Denis, Blandine; Peytavin, Gilles; Palmer, Pierre; Mourez, Thomas; Le Goff, Jerôme; Molina, Jean-Michel; Simon, François

    2009-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load is the main marker used to monitor antiviral treatment efficacy and resistance. We report a case of underquantification of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid from an HIV-1 subtype G-infected woman, leading to delayed diagnosis of HIV encephalitis and to the emergence of drug resistance.

  4. Anogenital HIV RNA in Thai men who have sex with men in Bangkok during acute HIV infection and after randomization to standard vs. intensified antiretroviral regimens

    PubMed Central

    Phanuphak, Nittaya; Teeratakulpisarn, Nipat; van Griensven, Frits; Chomchey, Nitiya; Pinyakorn, Suteeraporn; Fletcher, James LK; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Pattanachaiwit, Supanit; Michael, Nelson; Phanuphak, Praphan; Kim, Jerome H; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction HIV transmission risk is highest during acute HIV infection (AHI). We evaluated HIV RNA in the anogenital compartment in men who have sex with men (MSM) during AHI and compared time to undetectable HIV RNA after three-drug versus five-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) to understand risk for onward HIV transmission. Methods MSM with AHI (n=54) had blood, seminal plasma and anal lavage collected for HIV RNA at baseline, days 3 and 7, and weeks 2, 4, 12 and 24. Data were compared between AHI stages: 1 (fourth-generation antigen-antibody combo immunoassay [IA]–, third-generation IA–, n=15), 2 (fourth-generation IA+, third-generation IA–, n=9) and 3 (fourth-generation IA+, third-generation IA+, western blot–/indeterminate, n=30) by randomization to five-drug (tenofovir+emtricitabine+efavirenz+raltegravir+maraviroc, n=18) versus three-drug (tenofovir+emtricitabine+efavirenz, n=18) regimens. Results Mean age was 29 years and mean duration since HIV exposure was 15.4 days. Mean baseline HIV RNA was 5.5 in blood, 3.9 in seminal plasma and 2.6 log10 copies/ml in anal lavage (p<0.001). Blood and seminal plasma HIV RNA were higher in AHI Stage 3 compared to Stage 1 (p<0.01). Median time from ART initiation to HIV RNA <50 copies/ml was 60 days in blood, 15 days in seminal plasma and three days in anal lavage. Compared with the three-drug ART, the five-drug ART had a shorter time to HIV RNA <1500 copies/ml in blood (15 vs. 29 days, p=0.005) and <50 copies/ml in seminal plasma (13 vs. 24 days, p=0.048). Conclusions Among MSM with AHI, HIV RNA was highest in blood, followed by seminal plasma and anal lavage. ART rapidly reduced HIV RNA in all compartments, with regimen intensified by raltegravir and maraviroc showing faster HIV RNA reductions in blood and seminal plasma. PMID:25956171

  5. Opening of the TAR hairpin in the HIV-1 genome causes aberrant RNA dimerization and packaging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The TAR hairpin is present at both the 5′ and 3′ end of the HIV-1 RNA genome. The 5′ element binds the viral Tat protein and is essential for Tat-mediated activation of transcription. We recently observed that complete TAR deletion is allowed in the context of an HIV-1 variant that does not depend on this Tat-TAR axis for transcription. Mutations that open the 5′ stem-loop structure did however affect the leader RNA conformation and resulted in a severe replication defect. In this study, we set out to analyze which step of the HIV-1 replication cycle is affected by this conformational change of the leader RNA. Results We demonstrate that opening the 5′ TAR structure through a deletion in either side of the stem region caused aberrant dimerization and reduced packaging of the unspliced viral RNA genome. In contrast, truncation of the TAR hairpin through deletions in both sides of the stem did not affect RNA dimer formation and packaging. Conclusions These results demonstrate that, although the TAR hairpin is not essential for RNA dimerization and packaging, mutations in TAR can significantly affect these processes through misfolding of the relevant RNA signals. PMID:22828074

  6. A Comparison of Seminal Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA Levels During Recent and Chronic HCV Infection in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Daniel; Lamoury, Francois; Catlett, Beth; Applegate, Tanya L.; Mcallister, John; Dore, Gregory J.; Matthews, Gail V.; Danta, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background. We aimed to characterize seminal hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA dynamics in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive men with acute HCV infection given its potential role in sexual transmission of HCV. Methods. Men with acute HCV infection (duration, ≤12 months) or chronic HCV infection (duration, >12 months) were prospectively recruited. Paired semen and blood samples were assayed for HCV RNA levels. Results were analyzed using χ2, Fisher exact, Mann–Whitney U, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results. Eighteen men (27.3%) had acute HCV and HIV coinfection, 22 (33.3%) had chronic HCV infection and HIV coinfection, and 26 (39.4%) had chronic HCV monoinfection. HCV RNA was detected in semen specimens from 29 of 66 men (43.9%). The median HCV RNA level in blood was 4.0 log IU/mL higher than that in semen. HCV RNA levels were correlated in semen and blood (r2 = 0.142). Neither HIV positivity nor acute HCV infection was associated with an increased frequency of seminal HCV RNA detection. Among men with acute HCV and HIV coinfection, the median HCV RNA level in blood specimens from those with seminal HCV RNA was higher than that in blood specimens from those without seminal HCV RNA (P = .001). Seminal HCV RNA was detected in ≥1 sample for 26 of 35 men (74.3%) attending follow up. Conclusions. HCV RNA was detected in semen during both acute and chronic HCV infection. This was unaffected by HIV positivity or the phase of HCV infection. Elevated seminal HCV RNA levels could contribute to sexual transmission of HCV, but other factors, including high-risk behaviors, may be the main drivers for HCV transmission in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:25293369

  7. Identification of genetic variation between obligate plant pathogens Psuedoperonospora cubensis and P. humuli using RNA sequencing and genotyping-by-sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) were used for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification from two economically important obligate plant pathogens, Pseudoperonospora cubensis and P. humuli. Twenty isolates of P. cubensis and 19 isolates of P. humuli were genotyped...

  8. In vivo analysis of the effect of panobinostat on cell-associated HIV RNA and DNA levels and latent HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Perry; Wu, Guoxin; Baker, Caroline E; Thayer, William O; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Sanchez, Rosa; Barrett, Stephanie; Howell, Bonnie; Margolis, David; Hazuda, Daria J; Archin, Nancie M; Garcia, J Victor

    2016-05-21

    The latent reservoir in resting CD4(+) T cells presents a major barrier to HIV cure. Latency-reversing agents are therefore being developed with the ultimate goal of disrupting the latent state, resulting in induction of HIV expression and clearance of infected cells. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have received a significant amount of attention for their potential as latency-reversing agents. Here, we have investigated the in vitro and systemic in vivo effect of panobinostat, a clinically relevant HDACi, on HIV latency. We showed that panobinostat induces histone acetylation in human PBMCs. Further, we showed that panobinostat induced HIV RNA expression and allowed the outgrowth of replication-competent virus ex vivo from resting CD4(+) T cells of HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Next, we demonstrated that panobinostat induced systemic histone acetylation in vivo in the tissues of BLT humanized mice. Finally, in HIV-infected, ART-suppressed BLT mice, we evaluated the effect of panobinostat on systemic cell-associated HIV RNA and DNA levels and the total frequency of latently infected resting CD4(+) T cells. Our data indicate that panobinostat treatment resulted in systemic increases in cellular levels of histone acetylation, a key biomarker for in vivo activity. However, panobinostat did not affect the levels of cell-associated HIV RNA, HIV DNA, or latently infected resting CD4(+) T cells. We have demonstrated robust levels of systemic histone acetylation after panobinostat treatment of BLT humanized mice; and we did not observe a detectable change in the levels of cell-associated HIV RNA, HIV DNA, or latently infected resting CD4(+) T cells in HIV-infected, ART-suppressed BLT mice. These results are consistent with the modest effects noted in vitro and suggest that combination therapies may be necessary to reverse latency and enable clearance. Animal models will contribute to the progress towards an HIV cure.

  9. TREAT Asia Quality Assessment Scheme (TAQAS) to standardize the outcome of HIV genotypic resistance testing in a group of Asian laboratories.

    PubMed

    Land, Sally; Cunningham, Philip; Zhou, Jialun; Frost, Kevin; Katzenstein, David; Kantor, Rami; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur; Oka, Shinichi; DeLong, Allison; Sayer, David; Smith, Jeffery; Dax, Elizabeth M; Law, Matthew

    2009-08-01

    The TREAT Asia (Therapeutics, Research, Education, and AIDS Training in Asia) Network is building capacity for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) drug resistance testing in the region. The objective of the TREAT Asia Quality Assessment Scheme - designated TAQAS - is to standardize HIV-1 genotypic resistance testing (HIV genotyping) among laboratories to permit rigorous comparison of results from different clinics and testing centres. TAQAS has evaluated three panels of HIV-1-positive plasma from clinical material or low-passage, culture supernatant for up to 10 Asian laboratories. Laboratory participants used their standard protocols to perform HIV genotyping. Assessment was in comparison to a target genotype derived from all participants and the reference laboratory's result. Agreement between most participants at the edited nucleotide sequence level was high (>98%). Most participants performed to the reference laboratory standard in detection of drug resistance mutations (DRMs). However, there was variation in the detection of nucleotide mixtures (0-83%) and a significant correlation with the detection of DRMs (p<0.01). Interpretation of antiretroviral resistance showed approximately 70% agreement among participants when different interpretation systems were used but >90% agreement with a common interpretation system, within the Stanford University Drug Resistance Database. Using the principles of external quality assessment and a reference laboratory, TAQAS has demonstrated high quality HIV genotyping results from Asian laboratories.

  10. Influence of IL28B polymorphisms on response to a lower-than-standard dose peg-IFN-α 2a for genotype 3 chronic hepatitis C in HIV-coinfected patients.

    PubMed

    López-Cortés, Luis F; Ruiz-Valderas, Rosa; Jimenez-Jimenez, Luis; González-Escribano, María F; Torres-Cornejo, Almudena; Mata, Rosario; Rivero, Antonio; Pineda, Juan A; Marquez-Solero, Manuel; Viciana, Pompeyo

    2012-01-01

    Data on which to base definitive recommendations on the doses and duration of therapy for genotype 3 HCV/HIV-coinfected patients are scarce. We evaluated the efficacy of a lower peginterferon-α 2a dose and a shorter duration of therapy than the current standard of care in genotype 3 HCV/HIV-coinfected patients. Pilot, open-label, single arm clinical trial which involved 58 Caucasian HCV/HIV-coinfected patients who received weekly 135 µg peginterferon-α 2a plus ribavirin 400 mg twice daily during 20 weeks after attaining undetectable viremia. The relationships between baseline patient-related variables, including IL28B genotype, plasma HCV-RNA, ribavirin dose/kg, peginterferon-α 2a and ribavirin levels with virological responses were analyzed. Only 4 patients showed lack of response and 5 patients dropped out due to adverse events related to the study medication. Overall, sustained virologic response (SVR) rates were 58.3% by intention-to-treat and 71.4% by per protocol analysis, respectively. Among patients with rapid virologic response (RVR), SVR and relapses rates were 92.6% and 7.4%, respectively. No relationships were observed between viral responses and ribavirin dose/kg, peginterferon-α 2a concentrations, ribavirin levels or rs129679860 genotype. Weekly 135 µg pegIFN-α 2a could be as effective as the standard 180 µg dose, with a very low incidence of severe adverse events. A 24-week treatment duration appears to be appropriate in patients achieving RVR, but extending treatment up to just 20 weeks beyond negativization of viremia is associated with a high relapse rate in those patients not achieving RVR. There was no influence of IL28B genotype on the virological responses. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00553930.

  11. Influence of IL28B Polymorphisms on Response to a Lower-Than-Standard Dose peg-IFN-α 2a for Genotype 3 Chronic Hepatitis C in HIV-Coinfected Patients

    PubMed Central

    López-Cortés, Luis F.; Ruiz-Valderas, Rosa; Jimenez-Jimenez, Luis; González-Escribano, María F.; Torres-Cornejo, Almudena; Mata, Rosario; Rivero, Antonio; Pineda, Juan A.; Marquez-Solero, Manuel; Viciana, Pompeyo

    2012-01-01

    Background Data on which to base definitive recommendations on the doses and duration of therapy for genotype 3 HCV/HIV-coinfected patients are scarce. We evaluated the efficacy of a lower peginterferon-α 2a dose and a shorter duration of therapy than the current standard of care in genotype 3 HCV/HIV-coinfected patients. Methods and Findings Pilot, open-label, single arm clinical trial which involved 58 Caucasian HCV/HIV-coinfected patients who received weekly 135 µg peginterferon-α 2a plus ribavirin 400 mg twice daily during 20 weeks after attaining undetectable viremia. The relationships between baseline patient-related variables, including IL28B genotype, plasma HCV-RNA, ribavirin dose/kg, peginterferon-α 2a and ribavirin levels with virological responses were analyzed. Only 4 patients showed lack of response and 5 patients dropped out due to adverse events related to the study medication. Overall, sustained virologic response (SVR) rates were 58.3% by intention-to-treat and 71.4% by per protocol analysis, respectively. Among patients with rapid virologic response (RVR), SVR and relapses rates were 92.6% and 7.4%, respectively. No relationships were observed between viral responses and ribavirin dose/kg, peginterferon-α 2a concentrations, ribavirin levels or rs129679860 genotype. Conclusions Weekly 135 µg pegIFN-α 2a could be as effective as the standard 180 µg dose, with a very low incidence of severe adverse events. A 24-week treatment duration appears to be appropriate in patients achieving RVR, but extending treatment up to just 20 weeks beyond negativization of viremia is associated with a high relapse rate in those patients not achieving RVR. There was no influence of IL28B genotype on the virological responses. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00553930 PMID:22235243

  12. Design and validation of new genotypic tools for easy and reliable estimation of HIV tropism before using CCR5 antagonists.

    PubMed

    Poveda, Eva; Seclén, Eduardo; González, María del Mar; García, Federico; Chueca, Natalia; Aguilera, Antonio; Rodríguez, Jose Javier; González-Lahoz, Juan; Soriano, Vincent

    2009-05-01

    Genotypic tools may allow easier and less expensive estimation of HIV tropism before prescription of CCR5 antagonists compared with the Trofile assay (Monogram Biosciences, South San Francisco, CA, USA). Paired genotypic and Trofile results were compared in plasma samples derived from the maraviroc expanded access programme (EAP) in Europe. A new genotypic approach was built to improve the sensitivity to detect X4 variants based on an optimization of the webPSSM algorithm. Then, the new tool was validated in specimens from patients included in the ALLEGRO trial, a multicentre study conducted in Spain to assess the prevalence of R5 variants in treatment-experienced HIV patients. A total of 266 specimens from the maraviroc EAP were tested. Overall geno/pheno concordance was above 72%. A high specificity was generally seen for the detection of X4 variants using genotypic tools (ranging from 58% to 95%), while sensitivity was low (ranging from 31% to 76%). The PSSM score was then optimized to enhance the sensitivity to detect X4 variants changing the original threshold for R5 categorization. The new PSSM algorithms, PSSM(X4R5-8) and PSSM(SINSI-6.4), considered as X4 all V3 scoring values above -8 or -6.4, respectively, increasing the sensitivity to detect X4 variants up to 80%. The new algorithms were then validated in 148 specimens derived from patients included in the ALLEGRO trial. The sensitivity/specificity to detect X4 variants was 93%/69% for PSSM(X4R5-8) and 93%/70% for PSSM(SINSI-6.4). PSSM(X4R5-8) and PSSM(SINSI-6.4) may confidently assist therapeutic decisions for using CCR5 antagonists in HIV patients, providing an easier and rapid estimation of tropism in clinical samples.

  13. HIV infection and hepatitis C virus genotype 1a are associated with phylogenetic clustering among people with recently acquired hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Sofia R; Jacka, Brendan; Bull, Rowena A; Luciani, Fabio; Matthews, Gail V; Lamoury, Francois M J; Hellard, Margaret E; Hajarizadeh, Behzad; Teutsch, Suzy; White, Bethany; Maher, Lisa; Dore, Gregory J; Lloyd, Andrew R; Grebely, Jason; Applegate, Tanya L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with phylogenetic clustering among people with recently acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Participants with available sample at time of HCV detection were selected from three studies; the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C, the Hepatitis C Incidence and Transmission Study - Prison and Community. HCV RNA was extracted and Core to E2 region of HCV sequenced. Clusters were identified from maximum likelihood trees with 1000 bootstrap replicates using 90% bootstrap and 5% genetic distance threshold. Among 225 participants with available Core-E2 sequence (ATAHC, n=113; HITS-p, n=90; and HITS-c, n=22), HCV genotype prevalence was: G1a: 38% (n=86), G1b: 5% (n=12), G2a: 1% (n=2), G2b: 5% (n=11), G3a: 48% (n=109), G6a: 1% (n=2) and G6l 1% (n=3). Of participants included in phylogenetic trees, 22% of participants were in a pair/cluster (G1a-35%, 30/85, mean maximum genetic distance=0.031; G3a-11%, 12/106, mean maximum genetic distance=0.021; other genotypes-21%, 6/28, mean maximum genetic distance=0.023). Among HCV/HIV co-infected participants, 50% (18/36) were in a pair/cluster, compared to 16% (30/183) with HCV mono-infection (P=<0.001). Factors independently associated with phylogenetic clustering were HIV co-infection [vs. HCV mono-infection; adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.24; 95%CI 1.91, 9.39], and HCV G1a infection (vs. other HCV genotypes; AOR 3.33, 95%CI 0.14, 0.61).HCV treatment and prevention strategies, including enhanced antiviral therapy, should be optimised. The impact of targeting of HCV treatment as prevention to populations with higher phylogenetic clustering, such as those with HIV co-infection, could be explored through mathematical modelling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. VS411 reduced immune activation and HIV-1 RNA levels in 28 days: randomized proof-of-concept study for antiviral-hyperactivation limiting therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Lori, Franco; De Forni, Davide; Katabira, Elly; Baev, Denis; Maserati, Renato; Calarota, Sandra A; Cahn, Pedro; Testori, Marco; Rakhmanova, Aza; Stevens, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    A new class of antiretrovirals, AntiViral-HyperActivation Limiting Therapeutics (AV-HALTs), has been proposed as a disease-modifying therapy to both reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) RNA levels and the excessive immune activation now recognized as the major driver of not only the continual loss of CD4(+) T cells and progression to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), but also of the emergence of both AIDS-defining and non-AIDS events that negatively impact upon morbidity and mortality despite successful (ie, fully suppressive) therapy. VS411, the first-in-class AV-HALT, combined low-dose, slow-release didanosine with low-dose hydroxycarbamide to accomplish both objectives with a favorable toxicity profile during short-term administration. Five dose combinations were administered as VS411 to test the AV-HALT Proof-of-Concept in HIV-1-infected subjects. Multinational, double-blind, 28-day Phase 2a dose-ranging Proof-of-Concept study of antiviral activity, immunological parameters, safety, and genotypic resistance in 58 evaluable antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected adults. Randomization and allocation to study arms were carried out by a central computer system. Results were analyzed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, ANCOVA, and two-tailed paired t tests. VS411 was well-tolerated, produced significant reductions of HIV-1 RNA levels, increased CD4(+) T cell counts, and led to significant, rapid, unprecedented reductions of immune activation markers after 28 days despite incomplete viral suppression and without inhibiting HIV-1-specific immune responses. The didanosine 200 mg/HC 900 mg once-daily formulation demonstrated the greatest antiviral efficacy (HIV-1 RNA: -1.47 log(10) copies/mL; CD4(+) T cell count: +135 cells/mm(3)) and fewest adverse events. VS411 successfully established the Proof-of-Concept that AV-HALTs can combine antiviral efficacy with rapid, potentially beneficial reductions in the excessive immune system activation associated with HIV

  15. VS411 Reduced Immune Activation and HIV-1 RNA Levels in 28 Days: Randomized Proof-of-Concept Study for AntiViral-HyperActivation Limiting Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lori, Franco; De Forni, Davide; Katabira, Elly; Baev, Denis; Maserati, Renato; Calarota, Sandra A.; Cahn, Pedro; Testori, Marco; Rakhmanova, Aza; Stevens, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Background A new class of antiretrovirals, AntiViral-HyperActivation Limiting Therapeutics (AV-HALTs), has been proposed as a disease-modifying therapy to both reduce Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) RNA levels and the excessive immune activation now recognized as the major driver of not only the continual loss of CD4+ T cells and progression to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), but also of the emergence of both AIDS-defining and non-AIDS events that negatively impact upon morbidity and mortality despite successful (ie, fully suppressive) therapy. VS411, the first-in-class AV-HALT, combined low-dose, slow-release didanosine with low-dose hydroxycarbamide to accomplish both objectives with a favorable toxicity profile during short-term administration. Five dose combinations were administered as VS411 to test the AV-HALT Proof-of-Concept in HIV-1-infected subjects. Methods Multinational, double-blind, 28-day Phase 2a dose-ranging Proof-of-Concept study of antiviral activity, immunological parameters, safety, and genotypic resistance in 58 evaluable antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected adults. Randomization and allocation to study arms were carried out by a central computer system. Results were analyzed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, ANCOVA, and two-tailed paired t tests. Results VS411 was well-tolerated, produced significant reductions of HIV-1 RNA levels, increased CD4+ T cell counts, and led to significant, rapid, unprecedented reductions of immune activation markers after 28 days despite incomplete viral suppression and without inhibiting HIV-1-specific immune responses. The didanosine 200 mg/HC 900 mg once-daily formulation demonstrated the greatest antiviral efficacy (HIV-1 RNA: −1.47 log10 copies/mL; CD4+ T cell count: +135 cells/mm3) and fewest adverse events. Conclusions VS411 successfully established the Proof-of-Concept that AV-HALTs can combine antiviral efficacy with rapid, potentially beneficial reductions in the excessive immune system

  16. The Life-Cycle of the HIV-1 Gag–RNA Complex

    PubMed Central

    Mailler, Elodie; Bernacchi, Serena; Marquet, Roland; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Vivet-Boudou, Valérie; Smyth, Redmond P.

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication is a highly regulated process requiring the recruitment of viral and cellular components to the plasma membrane for assembly into infectious particles. This review highlights the recent process of understanding the selection of the genomic RNA (gRNA) by the viral Pr55Gag precursor polyprotein, and the processes leading to its incorporation into viral particles. PMID:27626439

  17. A Re-Examination of Global Suppression of RNA Interference by HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi, Viraj R.; Steel, Laura F.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of the interaction between replicating HIV-1 and the cellular RNAi pathway has been controversial, but it is clear that it can be complex and multifaceted. It has been proposed that the interaction is bi-directional, whereby cellular silencing pathways can restrict HIV-1 replication, and in turn, HIV-1 can suppress silencing pathways. Overall suppression of RNAi has been suggested to occur via direct binding and inhibition of Dicer by the HIV-1 Tat protein or through sequestration of TRBP, a Dicer co-factor, by the structured TAR element of HIV-1 transcripts. The role of Tat as an inhibitor of Dicer has been questioned and our results support and extend the conclusion that Tat does not inhibit RNAi that is mediated by either exogenous or endogenous miRNAs. Similarly, we find no suppression of silencing pathways in cells with replicating virus, suggesting that viral products such as the TAR RNA elements also do not reduce the efficacy of cellular RNA silencing. However, knockdown of Dicer does allow increased viral replication and this occurs at a post-transcriptional level. These results support the idea that although individual miRNAs can act to restrict HIV-1 replication, the virus does not counter these effects through a global suppression of RNAi synthesis or processing. PMID:21386885

  18. Controlling HIV-1: Non-Coding RNA Gene Therapy Approaches to a Functional Cure.

    PubMed

    Ahlenstiel, Chantelle L; Suzuki, Kazuo; Marks, Katherine; Symonds, Geoff P; Kelleher, Anthony D

    2015-01-01

    The current treatment strategy for HIV-1 involves prolonged and intensive combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), which successfully suppresses plasma viremia. It has transformed HIV-1 infection into a chronic disease. However, despite the success of cART, a latent form of HIV-1 infection persists as integrated provirus in resting memory CD4(+) T cells. Virus can reactivate from this reservoir upon cessation of treatment, and hence HIV requires lifelong therapy. The reservoir represents a major barrier to eradication. Understanding molecular mechanisms regulating HIV-1 transcription and latency are crucial to develop alternate treatment strategies, which impact upon the reservoir and provide a path toward a "functional cure" in which there is no detectable viremia in the absence of cART. Numerous reports have suggested ncRNAs are involved in regulating viral transcription and latency. This review will discuss the latest developments in ncRNAs, specifically short interfering (si)RNA and short hairpin (sh)RNA, targeting molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 transcription, which may represent potential future therapeutics. It will also briefly address animal models for testing potential therapeutics and current gene therapy clinical trials.

  19. RNA interference-based therapeutics for human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 treatment: synthetic siRNA or vector-based shRNA?

    PubMed Central

    Subramanya, Sandesh; Kim, Sang-Soo; Manjunath, N; Shankar, Premlata

    2013-01-01

    Importance of the field Despite the extraordinary clinical benefits of HAART, the prospect of life-long antiretroviral regimen poses significant practical problems, which has spurred an interest in developing new drugs and strategies to treat HIV infection and to eliminate persistent viral reservoirs. RNAi is a highly potent natural gene silencing mechanism that has emerged as a novel therapeutic possibility for HIV. Areas covered in this review Our aim is to discuss the recent progress in overcoming the hurdles for translating transient and stable RNAi enabling technologies towards clinical applications in HIV infection and the review covers literature from the past 2–3 years. What the reader will gain HIV inhibition can be achieved by transfection of chemically or enzymatically synthesized siRNAs or by DNA-based vector systems to express short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) that are processed intracellularly into siRNA. This review compares the merits and shortcomings of the two approaches, focusing on technical and safety issues that will guide the choice of the appropriate strategy for clinical use. Take home message Introduction of synthetic siRNA into cells or its stable endogenous production using vector-driven shRNA have both been shown to effectively suppress HIV replication in vitro and in some instances in vivo. Each method has its own advantages and limitations in terms of ease of delivery, duration of silencing, emergence of escape mutants and potential toxicity. Thus, both methods appear to have potential as future therapeutics for HIV, once the technical and safety issues unique to each of the approaches are overcome. PMID:20088715

  20. Association of DC-SIGNR Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells with DC-SIGNR Genotypes in HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Omkar; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bala, Manju; Singh, Jasbir; Hazarika, Anjali; Luthra, Kalpana

    2015-10-01

    Dendritic cell-specific intracellular adhesion molecule 3 grabbing nonintegrin related molecule (DC-SIGNR) is a C-type lectin, calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding protein, which can act as a cell-adhesion and pathogen recognition receptor. DC-SIGNR is known to be highly expressed on liver sinusoidal cells and in the lymph nodes. However, its expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in HIV-1 infection has not been addressed. Therefore, this study determined the expression of DC-SIGNR in PBMCs of HIV-1-infected patients and healthy seronegative individuals by real-time polymerase chain reaction and assessed its correlation with CD4+ T cell counts and DC-SIGNR genotypes. A significantly higher expression of DC-SIGNR was observed in the PBMCs of HIV-1-infected patients compared with healthy seronegative individuals. Further, there was a negative correlation between DC-SIGNR expression and CD4+ T cell counts and positive with viral load, with higher DC-SIGNR expression in the PBMCs of HIV-1-infected patients with a CD4+ T cell count <200 cells/μL than those with >200 cells/μL. This is the first study to report the expression of DC-SIGNR in PBMCs of HIV-1-infected patients. A salient finding of this study is that the DC-SIGNR expression was higher in HIV-1-infected patients, and its positive correlation with viral load and negative with CD4+ T cells counts suggesting a potential role of DC-SIGNR in HIV-1 infection.

  1. Apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype status is not associated with neuroimaging outcomes in a large cohort of HIV+ individuals.

    PubMed

    Cooley, Sarah A; Paul, Robert H; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Morgan, Erin E; Vaida, Florin; Deng, Qianqian; Chen, Jie Ashley; Letendre, Scott; Ellis, Ronald; Clifford, David B; Marra, Christina M; Collier, Ann C; Gelman, Benjamin B; McArthur, Justin C; McCutchan, J Allen; Simpson, David M; Morgello, Susan; Grant, Igor; Ances, Beau M

    2016-10-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies suggest a negative relationship between the apolipoprotein (ApoE) ε4 allele and brain integrity in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected (HIV+) individuals, although the presence of this relationship across adulthood remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to clarify the discrepancies using a large, diverse group of HIV+ individuals and multiple imaging modalities sensitive to HIV. The association of ApoE ε4 with structural neuroimaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was examined in 237 HIV+ individuals in the CNS HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study. Cortical and subcortical gray matter, abnormal and total white matter, ventricles, sulcal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and cerebellar gray matter, white matter, and CSF volumes, and MRS concentrations of myo-inositol, creatine, N-acetyl-aspartate, and choline in the frontal white matter (FWM), frontal gray matter (FGM), and basal ganglia were examined. Secondary analyses explored this relationship separately in individuals ≥50 years old (n = 173) and <50 years old (n = 63). No significant differences were observed between ApoE ε4+ (ApoE ε3/ε4 and ApoE ε4/ε4) individuals (n = 69) and ApoE ε4- (ApoE ε2/ε3 and ApoE ε3/ε3) individuals (n = 167). When individuals were further divided by age, no significant genotype group differences were identified in individuals <50 or ≥50 years of age on any neuroimaging outcome. The ApoE ε4 allele did not affect brain integrity in this large, diverse sample of HIV+ individuals. The effects of ApoE ε4 may not be apparent until more advanced ages and may be more prominent when present along with other risk factors for neuronal damage.

  2. Extensive Genetic Diversity of HIV-1 in Incident and Prevalent Infections among Malaysian Blood Donors: Multiple Introductions of HIV-1 Genotypes from Highly Prevalent Countries

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Wei Zhen; Bon, Abdul Hamid; Keating, Sheila; Anderios, Fread; Halim, Hazwan Abdul; Takebe, Yutaka; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Busch, Michael P.; Tee, Kok Keng

    2016-01-01

    Transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV-1 continue to pose major risks for unsafe blood transfusions due to both window phase infections and divergent viruses that may not be detected by donor screening assays. Given the recent emergence of several HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) in high-risk populations in the Southeast Asia region, we investigated the genetic diversity of HIV-1 among the blood donors in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 211 HIV-positive plasma samples detected among 730,188 donations to the National Blood Centre between 2013 and 2014 were provided (90.5% male, median age: 27.0 years old). Recent or long-term infection status at the time of donation was determined using a limiting antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay (LAg-Avidity EIA). HIV-1 gag-pol genes were amplified and sequenced from residual plasma for 149 cases followed by genotype determination using phylogenetic and recombination analyses. Transmitted antiretroviral resistance mutations were not observed among the blood donors, among which 22.7% were classified as recent or incident infections. Major circulating HIV-1 genotypes determined by neighbour-joining phylogenetic inference included CRF01_AE at 40.9% (61/149), CRF33_01B at 21.5% (32/149), and subtype B at 10.1% (15/149). Newly-described CRFs including CRF54_01B circulated at 4.0%, CRF74_01B at 2.0%, and CRF53_01B and CRF48_01B at 0.7% each. Interestingly, unique HIV-1 genotypes including African subtype G (8.7%), CRF45_cpx (1.3%), CRF02_AG (0.7%) and CRF07_BC (0.7%) from China were detected for the first time in the country. A cluster of subtype G sequences formed a distinct founder sub-lineage within the African strains. In addition, 8.7% (13/149) of HIV-infected donors had unique recombinant forms (URFs) including CRF01_AE/B' (4.7%), B'/C (2.7%) and B'/G (1.3%) recombinants. Detailed analysis identified similar recombinant structures with shared parental strains among the B'/C and B'/G URFs, some of which

  3. In Vivo SELEX of Single-Stranded Domains in the HIV-1 Leader RNA

    PubMed Central

    van Bel, Nikki; Das, Atze T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The 5′ untranslated leader region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA genome is a strongly conserved sequence that encodes several regulatory motifs important for viral replication. Most of these motifs are exposed as hairpin structures, including the dimerization initiation signal (DIS), the major splice donor site (SD), and the packaging signal (Ψ), which are connected by short single-stranded regions. Mutational analysis revealed many functions of these hairpins, but only a few studies have focused on the single-stranded purine-rich sequences. Using the in vivo SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) approach, we probed the sequence space in these regions that is compatible with efficient HIV-1 replication and analyzed the impact on the RNA secondary structure of the leader RNA. Our results show a strong sequence requirement for the DIS hairpin flanking regions. We postulate that these sequences are important for the binding of specific protein factors that support leader RNA-mediated functions. The sequence between the SD and Ψ hairpins seems to have a less prominent role, despite the strong conservation of the stretch of 5 A residues in natural isolates. We hypothesize that this may reflect the subtle evolutionary pressure on HIV-1 to acquire an A-rich RNA genome. In silico analyses indicate that sequences are avoided in all 3 single-stranded domains that affect the local or overall leader RNA folding. IMPORTANCE in vivo PMID:24335293

  4. Changes in the Plasticity of HIV-1 Nef RNA during the Evolution of the North American Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Manzourolajdad, Amirhossein; Gonzalez, Mileidy; Spouge, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Because of a high mutation rate, HIV exists as a viral swarm of many sequence variants evolving under various selective pressures from the human immune system. Although the Nef gene codes for the most immunogenic of HIV accessory proteins, which alone makes it of great interest to HIV research, it also encodes an RNA structure, whose contribution to HIV virulence has been largely unexplored. Nef RNA helps HIV escape RNA interference (RNAi) through nucleotide changes and alternative folding. This study examines Historic and Modern Datasets of patient HIV-1 Nef sequences during the evolution of the North American epidemic for local changes in RNA plasticity. By definition, RNA plasticity refers to an RNA molecule’s ability to take alternative folds (i.e., alternative conformations). Our most important finding is that an evolutionarily conserved region of the HIV-1 Nef gene, which we denote by R2, recently underwent a statistically significant increase in its RNA plasticity. Thus, our results indicate that Modern Nef R2 typically accommodates an alternative fold more readily than Historic Nef R2. Moreover, the increase in RNA plasticity resides mostly in synonymous nucleotide changes, which cannot be a response to selective pressures on the Nef protein. R2 may therefore be of interest in the development of antiviral RNAi therapies. PMID:27685447

  5. Efficient Methodologies for Sensitive HIV-1 RNA Quantitation from Plasma and Vaginal Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Tara C.; Lacour, Nedra; Amedee, Angela Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantifying HIV levels in mucosal secretions is essential to study compartmentalized expression of HIV and facilitate development of intervention strategies to prevent disease progression and transmission. Objectives To develop a sensitive, reliable, and cost-effective technique to quantify HIV from blood and vaginal secretions that is compatible with efficient implementation in clinical research environments. Study Design A sensitive, reliable, internally-controlled real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR assay, which uses the HIV-1 pol gene as a target (Hpol assay) was developed to quantify HIV levels in plasma and genital secretions, and compared to the widely-used Roche Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor assay. In addition, a simplified method of sample collection and processing of genital secretions (self-collection and use of RNAlater with batch processing) was compared to provider collection of samples and immediate processing. Results The sensitivity and reliability of HIV levels detected by the assay described herein correlate well with measurements from Roche Amplicor™ HIV-1 Monitor assay for both plasma and vaginal secretions (R2= 0.9179 and R2=0.942, respectively). The Hpol assay reproducibly quantifies a lower limit of 5 HIV-1 RNA copies per reaction, with low-levels of inter-assay and intra-assay variation. Additionally, vaginal viral levels and detection frequency did not differ significantly between the two the collection and processing methods. Conclusions The methodologies developed here provide sensitive, reliable, and cost-effective quantification of HIV levels in plasma and mucosal secretions, and are compatible with efficient use in clinical research studies. PMID:19783472

  6. HIV-1-RNA Decay and Dolutegravir Concentrations in Semen of Patients Starting a First Antiretroviral Regimen.

    PubMed

    Imaz, Arkaitz; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Niubó, Jordi; Kashuba, Angela D M; Ferrer, Elena; Ouchi, Dan; Sykes, Craig; Rozas, Nerea; Acerete, Laura; Curto, Jordi; Vila, Antonia; Podzamczer, Daniel

    2016-11-15

     The objective of this study was to quantify human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 RNA decay and dolutegravir (DTG) concentrations in the semen of HIV-infected patients receiving DTG-based first-line therapy.  This was a prospective, single-arm, open-label study including 15 HIV-1-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naive men starting once-daily treatment with DTG (50 mg) plus abacavir-lamivudine (600/300 mg). HIV-1 RNA was measured in seminal plasma (SP) and blood plasma (BP) at baseline, on days 3, 7, and 14, and at weeks 4, 12, and 24. The HIV-1 RNA decay rate was assessed using nonlinear mixed-effects models. Total and free DTG concentrations were quantified 24 hours after the dose at weeks 4 and 24 by means of a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method.  Viral decay was faster in BP than in SP in the first decay phase (half-life, 4.5 vs 8.6 days; P = .001) with no statistically significant differences in the second phase. HIV-1 RNA suppression (<40 copies/mL) was reached earlier in SP (4 vs 12 weeks; P = .008) due to lower baseline HIV-1 RNA levels. The median total DTG 24 hours after the dose in SP was 119.1 ng/mL (range, 27.2-377 ng/mL), which represents 7.8% of BP exposure. The median DTG free-fraction in SP was 48% of the total drug. Seminal protein-unbound DTG concentrations exceeded the in vitro 50% inhibitory concentration (0.21 ng/mL) by a median of 214-fold.  DTG concentrations in SP are sufficient to contribute to rapid seminal HIV-1 RNA suppression. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Possible involvement of distinct phylogenetic clusters of HIV-1 variants in the discrepancies between coreceptor tropism predictions based on viral RNA and proviral DNA.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Hiroshi; Sudo, Koji; Hasegawa, Naoki; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Tomohisa; Iketani, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Mochizuki, Mayumi; Iwata, Satoshi; Kato, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    The coreceptor tropism testing should be conducted prior to commencing a regimen containing a CCR5 antagonist for treatment of HIV-1 infection. For aviremic patients on long antiretroviral therapy, proviral DNA is often used instead of viral RNA in genotypic tropism testing. However, the tropism predictions from RNA and DNA are sometimes different. We examined the cause of the discrepancies between HIV-1 tropism predictions based on viral RNA and proviral DNA. The nucleotide sequence of the env C2V3C3 region was determined using pair samples of plasma RNA and peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA from 50 HIV-1 subtype B-infected individuals using population-based sequencing. The samples with discrepant tropism assessments between RNA and DNA were further analyzed using deep sequencing, followed by phylogenetic analysis. The tropism was assessed using the algorithm geno2pheno with a false-positive rate cutoff of 10 %. In population-based sequencing, five of 50 subjects showed discrepant tropism predictions between their RNA and DNA samples: four exhibited R5 tropism in RNA and X4 tropism in DNA, while one exhibited the opposite pattern. In the deep sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, three subjects had single clusters comprising of RNA- and DNA-derived sequences that were a mixture of R5 and X4 sequences. The other two subjects had two and three distinct phylogenetic clusters of sequences, respectively, each of which was dominated by R5 or X4 sequences; sequences of the R5-dominated cluster were mostly found in RNA, while sequences of the X4-dominated cluster were mostly in DNA. Some of HIV-1 tropism discrepancies between viral RNA and proviral DNA seem to be caused by phylogenetically distinct clusters which resides in plasma and cells in different frequencies. Our findings suggest that the tropism testing using PBMC DNA or deep sequencing may be required when the viral load is not suppressed or rebounds in the course of a CCR5 antagonist-containing regimen.

  8. Cooperative and specific binding of Vif to the 5' region of HIV-1 genomic RNA.

    PubMed

    Henriet, Simon; Richer, Delphine; Bernacchi, Serena; Decroly, Etienne; Vigne, Robert; Ehresmann, Bernard; Ehresmann, Chantal; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland

    2005-11-18

    The viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is essential for viral replication in vivo. Packaging of Vif into viral particles is mediated by an interaction with viral genomic RNA and association with viral nucleoprotein complexes. Despite recent findings on the RNA-binding properties of Vif suggesting that Vif could be involved in retroviral assembly, no RNA sequence or structure specificity has been determined so far. To gain further insight into the mechanisms by which Vif might regulate viral replication, we studied the interactions of Vif with HIV-1 genomic RNA in vitro. Using extensive biochemical analysis, we have measured the affinity of recombinant Vif proteins for synthetic RNAs corresponding to various regions of the HIV-1 genome. We found that recombinant Vif proteins bind specifically to HIV-1 viral RNA fragments corresponding to the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), gag and the 5' part of pol (K(d) between 45 nM and 65 nM). RNA encompassing nucleotides 1-497 or 499-996 of the HIV-1 genomic RNA bind 9+/-2 and 21+/-3 Vif molecules, respectively, and at least some of these proteins bind in a cooperative manner (Hill constant alpha(H) = 2.3). In contrast, RNAs corresponding to other parts of the HIV-1 genome or heterologous RNAs showed poor binding capacity and weak cooperativity (K(d) > 200 nM). Moreover, RNase T1 footprinting revealed a hierarchical binding of Vif, pointing to TAR and the poly(A) stem-loop structures as primary strong affinity targets, and downstream structures as secondary sites with moderate affinity. Taken together, our findings suggest that Vif may assist other proteins to maintain a correct folding of the genomic RNA in order to facilitate its packaging and further steps such as reverse transcription. Interestingly, our results suggest also that Vif could bind the viral RNA in order to protect it from the action of the antiviral factor APOBEC-3G/3F.

  9. Detection of HIV-1 Drug Resistance in Women Following Administration of a Single Dose of Nevirapine: Comparison of Plasma RNA to Cellular DNA by Consensus Sequencing and by Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay▿

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Thor A.; Kress, Catherine M.; Beck, Ingrid; Techapornroong, Malee; Wittayapraparat, Pakorn; Tansuphasawasdikul, Somboon; Jourdain, Gonzague; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Lallemant, Marc; Frenkel, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    A single dose of nevirapine (sdNVP) to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 increases the risk of failure of subsequent NVP-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART), especially when initiated within 6 months of sdNVP administration, emphasizing the importance of understanding the decay of nevirapine-resistant mutants. Nevirapine-resistant HIV-1 genotypes (with the mutations K103N, Y181C, and/or G190A) from 21 women were evaluated 10 days and 6 weeks after sdNVP administration and at the initiation of ART. Resistance was assayed by consensus sequencing and by a more sensitive assay (oligonucleotide ligation assay [OLA]) using plasma-derived HIV-1 RNA and cell-associated HIV-1 DNA. OLA detected nevirapine resistance in more specimens than consensus sequencing did (63% versus 33%, P < 0.01). When resistance was detected only by OLA (n = 45), the median mutant concentration was 18%, compared to 61% when detected by both sequencing and OLA (n = 51) (P < 0.0001). The proportion of women whose nevirapine resistance was detected by OLA 10 days after sdNVP administration was higher when we tested their HIV-1 RNA (95%) than when we tested their HIV-1 DNA (88%), whereas at 6 weeks after sdNVP therapy, the proportion was greater with DNA (85%) than with RNA (67%) and remained higher with DNA (33%) than with RNA (11%) at the initiation of antiretroviral treatment (median, 45 weeks after sdNVP therapy). Fourteen women started NVP-ART more than 6 months after sdNVP therapy; resistance was detected by OLA in 14% of the women but only in their DNA. HIV-1 resistance to NVP following sdNVP therapy persists longer in cellular DNA than in plasma RNA, as determined by a sensitive assay using sufficient copies of virus, suggesting that DNA may be superior to RNA for detecting resistance at the initiation of ART. PMID:20181911

  10. Ebola Virus RNA in Semen from an HIV-Positive Survivor of Ebola

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Emerson; Baller, April; White, Stephen; Soka, Moses; Choi, Mary J.; Mahmoud, Nuha; Wasunna, Christine; Massaquoi, Moses; Kollie, Jomah; Dweh, Straker; Bemah, Philip; Ladele, Victor; Kpaka, Jonathan; Jawara, Mary; Mugisha, Margaret; Subah, Onyekachi; Faikai, Mylene; Bailey, Jeff A.; Rollin, Pierre; Marston, Barbara; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Gasasira, Alex; Knust, Barbara; Nichol, Stuart; Williams, Desmond

    2017-01-01

    Ebola virus is known to persist in semen of male survivors of Ebola virus disease (EVD). However, maximum duration of, or risk factors for, virus persistence are unknown. We report an EVD survivor with preexisting HIV infection, whose semen was positive for Ebola virus RNA 565 days after recovery from EVD. PMID:28287374

  11. RNA-directed gene editing specifically eradicates latent and prevents new HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenhui; Kaminski, Rafal; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yonggang; Cosentino, Laura; Li, Fang; Luo, Biao; Alvarez-Carbonell, David; Garcia-Mesa, Yoelvis; Karn, Jonathan; Mo, Xianming; Khalili, Kamel

    2014-08-05

    AIDS remains incurable due to the permanent integration of HIV-1 into the host genome, imparting risk of viral reactivation even after antiretroviral therapy. New strategies are needed to ablate the viral genome from latently infected cells, because current methods are too inefficient and prone to adverse off-target effects. To eliminate the integrated HIV-1 genome, we used the Cas9/guide RNA (gRNA) system, in single and multiplex configurations. We identified highly specific targets within the HIV-1 LTR U3 region that were efficiently edited by Cas9/gRNA, inactivating viral gene expression and replication in latently infected microglial, promonocytic, and T cells. Cas9/gRNAs caused neither genotoxicity nor off-target editing to the host cells, and completely excised a 9,709-bp fragment of integrated proviral DNA that spanned from its 5' to 3' LTRs. Furthermore, the presence of multiplex gRNAs within Cas9-expressing cells prevented HIV-1 infection. Our results suggest that Cas9/gRNA can be engineered to provide a specific, efficacious prophylactic and therapeutic approach against AIDS.

  12. A small circular TAR RNA decoy specifically inhibits Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Bohjanen, P R; Colvin, R A; Puttaraju, M; Been, M D; Garcia-Blanco, M A

    1996-01-01

    Linear TAR RNA has previously been used as a decoy to inhibit HIV-1 transcription in vitro and HIV-1 replication in vivo. A 48 nucleotide circular RNA containing the stem, bulge and loop of the HIV-1 TAR element was synthesized using the self-splicing activity of a group I permuted intron-exon and was tested for its ability to function as a TAR decoy in vitro. This small circular TAR molecule was exceptionally stable in HeLa nuclear extracts, whereas a similar linear TAR molecule was rapidly degraded. The TAR circle bound specifically to Tfr38, a peptide containing the TAR-binding region of Tat. The ability of Tat to trans-activate transcription from the HIV-1 promoter in vitro was efficiently inhibited by circular TAR RNA but not by TAR circles that contained either bulge or loop mutations. TAR circles did not inhibit transactivation exclusively by binding to Tat since this inhibition was not reversed by adding excess Tat to the transcription reaction. Together, these data suggest that TAR circles act as decoys that inhibit transactivation by binding to Tat and at least one cellular factor. These data also demonstrate the utility of small circular RNA molecules as tools for biochemical studies. PMID:8871552

  13. Ebola Virus RNA in Semen from an HIV-Positive Survivor of Ebola.

    PubMed

    Purpura, Lawrence J; Rogers, Emerson; Baller, April; White, Stephen; Soka, Moses; Choi, Mary J; Mahmoud, Nuha; Wasunna, Christine; Massaquoi, Moses; Kollie, Jomah; Dweh, Straker; Bemah, Philip; Ladele, Victor; Kpaka, Jonathan; Jawara, Mary; Mugisha, Margaret; Subah, Onyekachi; Faikai, Mylene; Bailey, Jeff A; Rollin, Pierre; Marston, Barbara; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Gasasira, Alex; Knust, Barbara; Nichol, Stuart; Williams, Desmond

    2017-04-01

    Ebola virus is known to persist in semen of male survivors of Ebola virus disease (EVD). However, maximum duration of, or risk factors for, virus persistence are unknown. We report an EVD survivor with preexisting HIV infection, whose semen was positive for Ebola virus RNA 565 days after recovery from EVD.

  14. Sensitivity of HIV rapid tests compared with fourth-generation enzyme immunoassays or HIV RNA tests.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Sheng; Chow, Eric P F; Fairley, Christopher K; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Read, Tim R H

    2016-07-31

    Determine the sensitivity of HIV rapid tests compared with fourth-generation enzyme immunoassays (EIA) or nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) in clinical settings. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane reviews and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched until 14 July 2015 for studies of adults comparing point-of-care HIV rapid tests to fourth-generation HIV EIA antibody/p24 antigen or HIV NAAT. From 953 titles, 18 studies were included, involving 110 122 HIV rapid test results. Compared with EIA, the estimated sensitivity (random effects) of HIV rapid tests was 94.5% [95% confidence interval (CI): 87.4-97.7]. Compared with NAAT, the sensitivity of HIV rapid tests was 93.7% (95% CI: 88.7-96.5). The sensitivity of HIV rapid tests in high-income countries was 85.7% (95% CI: 81.9-88.9) and in low-income countries was 97.7% (95% CI: 95.2-98.9) compared with either EIA or NAAT (P < 0.01 for difference between settings). Proportions of antibody negative acute infections were 13.6 (95% CI: 10.1-18.0) and 4.7% (95% CI: 2.8-7.7) in studies from high-income and low-income countries, respectively (P < 0.01). In clinical settings, HIV rapid tests were less sensitive in high-income countries compared with low-income countries, missing about one in seven infections, possibly because of the larger proportion of acute infections in targeted populations. This suggests that in high-income countries, HIV rapid tests should be used in combination with fourth-generation EIA or NAAT tests, except in special circumstances. Prospective Registration of Systematic Reviews registration number CRD42015020154.Supplementary video link: http://links.lww.com/QAD/A924.

  15. Imaging HIV-1 RNA dimerization in cells by multicolor super-resolution and fluctuation microscopies

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Mireia; Clerté, Caroline; Chamontin, Célia; Basyuk, Eugenia; Lainé, Sébastien; Hottin, Jérome; Bertrand, Edouard; Margeat, Emmanuel; Mougel, Marylène

    2016-01-01

    Dimerization is a unique and vital characteristic of retroviral genomes. It is commonly accepted that genomic RNA (gRNA) must be dimeric at the plasma membrane of the infected cells to be packaged during virus assembly. However, where, when and how HIV-1 gRNA find each other and dimerize in the cell are long-standing questions that cannot be answered using conventional approaches. Here, we combine two state-of-the-art, multicolor RNA labeling strategies with two single-molecule microscopy technologies to address these questions. We used 3D-super-resolution structured illumination microscopy to analyze and quantify the spatial gRNA association throughout the cell and monitored the dynamics of RNA-RNA complexes in living-cells by cross-correlation fluctuation analysis. These sensitive and complementary approaches, combined with trans-complementation experiments, reveal for the first time the presence of interacting gRNA in the cytosol, a challenging observation due to the low frequency of these events and their dilution among the bulk of other RNAs, and allow the determination of the subcellular orchestration of the HIV-1 dimerization process. PMID:27280976

  16. Nucleic acid amplification of HIV-1 integrase sequence subtypes CRF01_AE and B for development of HIV anti-integrase drug resistance genotyping assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlar, F. R.; Bela, B.

    2017-08-01

    To anticipate the potential use of anti-integrase drugs in Indonesia for treatment of HIV-1 infection, the development of a drug resistance genotyping assay for anti-integrase is crucial in identifying the genetic drug resistance profile of Indonesian HIV-1 strains. This experiment aimed to amplify a target region in the integrase gene of Indonesian HIV-1 subtypes CRF01_AE and B that contain genetic mutations known to confer resistance to anti-integrase drug. Eleven archived plasma samples from individuals living with HIV-1 were obtained from the Virology and Cancer Pathobiology Research Center for Health Service (VCPRC FKUI-RSCM) laboratory. One of the plasma samples contained HIV-1 subtype B, and the remaining plasma samples contained subtype CRF01_AE. The target regions for all samples were amplified through RT-PCR, with an annealing temperature of 55 °C, using the primer pair AE_POL 4086F and AE_POL 5232R that were designed by VCPRC FKUI-RSCM. The results of this experiment show that 18.2% (2/11) of the samples were successfully amplified using the one-step RT-PCR. While the primer pair was effective in amplifying the target region in the integrase gene sequence for subtype B (100%; 1/1), it had a low efficacy (10%, 1/10) for subtype CRF01_AE. In conclusion, the primer pair can be used to amplify the target region in Indonesian HIV-1 strain subtypes CRF01_AE and B. However, optimization of the PCR condition and an increased number of samples would help to determine an accurate representation of the efficacy of the primer pair.

  17. HIV-1 Integrase Binds the Viral RNA Genome and Is Essential during Virion Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kessl, Jacques J; Kutluay, Sebla B; Townsend, Dana; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Slaughter, Alison; Larue, Ross C; Shkriabai, Nikoloz; Bakouche, Nordine; Fuchs, James R; Bieniasz, Paul D; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2016-08-25

    While an essential role of HIV-1 integrase (IN) for integration of viral cDNA into human chromosome is established, studies with IN mutants and allosteric IN inhibitors (ALLINIs) have suggested that IN can also influence viral particle maturation. However, it has remained enigmatic as to how IN contributes to virion morphogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that IN directly binds the viral RNA genome in virions. These interactions have specificity, as IN exhibits distinct preference for select viral RNA structural elements. We show that IN substitutions that selectively impair its binding to viral RNA result in eccentric, non-infectious virions without affecting nucleocapsid-RNA interactions. Likewise, ALLINIs impair IN binding to viral RNA in virions of wild-type, but not escape mutant, virus. These results reveal an unexpected biological role of IN binding to the viral RNA genome during virion morphogenesis and elucidate the mode of action of ALLINIs.

  18. HIV-1 Tat induces DNMT over-expression through microRNA dysregulation in HIV-related non Hodgkin lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Luzzi, Anna; Morettini, Federica; Gazaneo, Sara; Mundo, Lucia; Onnis, Anna; Mannucci, Susanna; Rogena, Emily A; Bellan, Cristiana; Leoncini, Lorenzo; De Falco, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    A close association between HIV infection and the development of cancer exists. Although the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy has changed the epidemiology of AIDS-associated malignancies, a better understanding on how HIV can induce malignant transformation will help the development of novel therapeutic agents. HIV has been reported to induce the expression of DNMT1 in vitro, but still no information is available about the mechanisms regulating DNMT expression in HIV-related B-cell lymphomas. In this paper, we investigated the expression of DNMT family members (DNMT1, DNMT3a/b) in primary cases of aggressive B-cell lymphomas of HIV-positive subjects. Our results confirmed the activation of DNMT1 by HIV in vivo, and reported for the first time a marked up-regulation of DNMT3a and DNMT3b in HIV-positive aggressive B-cell lymphomas. DNMT up-regulation in HIV-positive tumors correlated with down-regulation of specific microRNAs, as the miR29 family, the miR148-152 cluster, known to regulate their expression. Literature reports the activation of DNMTs by the human polyomavirus BKV large T-antigen and adenovirus E1a, through the pRb/E2F pathway. We have previously demonstrated that the HIV Tat protein is able to bind to the pocket proteins and to inactivate their oncosuppressive properties, resulting in uncontrolled cell proliferation. Therefore, we focused on the role of Tat, due to its capability to be released from infected cells and to dysregulate uninfected ones, using an in vitro model in which Tat was ectopically expressed in B-cells. Our findings demonstrated that the ectopic expression of Tat was per se sufficient to determine DNMT up-regulation, based on microRNA down-regulation, and that this results in aberrant hypermethylation of target genes and microRNAs. These results point at a direct role for Tat in participating in uninfected B-cell lymphomagenesis, through dysregulation of the epigenetical control of gene expression.

  19. Blood and seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA levels among HIV-1-infected injecting drug users participating in the AIDSVAX B/E efficacy trial in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kittikraisak, Wanitchaya; van Griensven, Frits; Martin, Michael; McNicholl, Janet; Gilbert, Peter B; Chuachoowong, Rutt; Vanichseni, Suphak; Sutthent, Ruengpung; Tappero, Jordan W; Mastro, Timothy D; Hu, Dale J; Gurwith, Marc; Kitayaporn, Dwip; Sangkum, Udomsak; Choopanya, Kachit

    2009-08-15

    We investigated effects of vaccination with AIDSVAX B/E HIV-1 candidate vaccine on blood and seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA viral loads (BVL and SVL, respectively) in vaccine recipients (VRs) and placebo recipients (PRs) who acquired infection. Linear mixed models were fitted for repeated measurements of BVL. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the difference in SVL detectability between VRs and PRs. A total of 196 participants became HIV-1 infected during the trial. Thirty-two (16%) became infected with HIV-1 subtype B and 164 (84%) with HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE. Per protocol-specified analysis, there were no differences in BVL levels between VRs and PRs. When stratified by HIV-1-infecting subtype, vaccination with AIDSVAX B/E was initially associated with higher BVL among HIV-1 CRF01_AE-infected VRs compared with HIV-1 CRF01_AE-infected PRs; however, this difference did not persist over time. HIV-1 subtype B-infected VRs had slightly higher BVL levels and were more likely to have detectable SVL during the follow-up period than HIV-1 subtype B-infected PRs. Subtle differences in BVL and SVL were detected between VRs and PRs. These results may help to further understand the dynamics between HIV-1 vaccination, HIV-1-infecting subtypes, and subsequent viral expression in different body compartments.

  20. Stability of HIV Frameshift Site RNA Correlates with Frameshift Efficiency and Decreased Virus Infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Miranda, Pablo; Becker, Jordan T.; Benner, Bayleigh E.; Blume, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication is strongly dependent upon a programmed ribosomal frameshift. Here we investigate the relationships between the thermodynamic stability of the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA frameshift site stem-loop, frameshift efficiency, and infectivity, using pseudotyped HIV-1 and HEK293T cells. The data reveal a strong correlation between frameshift efficiency and local, but not overall, RNA thermodynamic stability. Mutations that modestly increase the local stability of the frameshift site RNA stem-loop structure increase frameshift efficiency 2-fold to 3-fold in cells. Thus, frameshift efficiency is determined by the strength of the thermodynamic barrier encountered by the ribosome. These data agree with previous in vitro measurements, suggesting that there are no virus- or host-specific factors that modulate frameshifting. The data also indicate that there are no sequence-specific requirements for the frameshift site stem-loop. A linear correlation between Gag-polymerase (Gag-Pol) levels in cells and levels in virions supports the idea of a stochastic virion assembly mechanism. We further demonstrate that the surrounding genomic RNA secondary structure influences frameshift efficiency and that a mutation that commonly arises in response to protease inhibitor therapy creates a functional but inefficient secondary slippery site. Finally, HIV-1 mutants with enhanced frameshift efficiencies are significantly less infectious, suggesting that compounds that increase frameshift efficiency by as little as 2-fold may be effective at suppressing HIV-1 replication. IMPORTANCE HIV, like many retroviruses, utilizes a −1 programmed ribosomal frameshift to generate viral enzymes in the form of a Gag-Pol polyprotein precursor. Thus, frameshifting is essential for viral replication. Here, we utilized a panel of mutant HIV strains to demonstrate that in cells, frameshifting efficiency is correlated with the stability of the local

  1. Bivariate longitudinal model for the analysis of the evolution of HIV RNA and CD4 cell count in HIV infection taking into account left censoring of HIV RNA measures.

    PubMed

    Thiébaut, Rodolphe; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Leport, Catherine; Katlama, Christine; Costagliola, Dominique; Le Moing, Vincent; Morlat, Philippe; Chêne, Geneviève

    2003-05-01

    We present a bivariate linear mixed model taking into account censored measures of the response variable due to lower quantification limit of the assays. It allows an estimate of the correlation between the two response variables and takes into account this correlation for the estimation of other model parameters. This model was applied in a large cohort study (APROCO Cohort) to study the evolution under antiretroviral treatment of the two major biomarkers of the progression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection: plasma HIV RNA and CD4+ T lymphocytes cell count. In a sample of 929 patients who started an highly active antiretroviral therapy, we illustrate the superiority in terms of likelihood of a bivariate model compared to two univariate models and the impact of taking into account the left-censoring of HIV-RNA. Moreover, interpretation of the model parameters allows confirmation of correlation between these two markers throughout the whole follow-up and the continuous decrease of plasma HIV RNA on average. Despite some limitations (distribution assumption, ignorance of missingness process), such a model appeared to be very useful to correctly describe the current evolution of important biomarkers in HIV infection.

  2. Knowledge discovery in RNA sequence families of HIV using scalable computers

    SciTech Connect

    Hofacker, I.L.; Huynen, M.A.; Stadler, P.F.; Stolorz, P.E.

    1996-12-31

    The prediction of RNA secondary structure on the basis of sequence information is an important tool in biosequence analysis. However, it has typically been restricted to molecules containing no more than 4000 nucleotides due to the computational complexity of the underlying dynamic programming algorithm used. We describe here an approach to RNA sequence analysis based upon scalable computers, which enables molecules containing up to 20,000 nucleotides to be analyzed. We apply the approach to investigation of the entire HIV genome, illustrating the power of these methods to perform knowledge discovery by identification of important secondary structure motifs within RNA sequence families.

  3. Analysis of Small Molecule Ligands Targeting the HIV-1 Matrix Protein-RNA Binding Site*

    PubMed Central

    Alfadhli, Ayna; McNett, Henry; Eccles, Jacob; Tsagli, Seyram; Noviello, Colleen; Sloan, Rachel; López, Claudia S.; Peyton, David H.; Barklis, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The matrix domain (MA) of the HIV-1 precursor Gag (PrGag) protein directs PrGag proteins to assembly sites at the plasma membrane by virtue of its affinity to the phospholipid, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2). MA also binds to RNA at a site that overlaps its PI(4,5)P2 site, suggesting that RNA binding may protect MA from associating with inappropriate cellular membranes prior to PrGag delivery to the PM. Based on this, we have developed an assay in which small molecule competitors to MA-RNA binding can be characterized, with the assumption that such compounds might interfere with essential MA functions and help elucidate additional features of MA binding. Following this approach, we have identified four compounds, including three thiadiazolanes, that compete with RNA for MA binding. We also have identified MA residues involved in thiadiazolane binding and found that they overlap the MA PI(4,5)P2 and RNA sites. Cell culture studies demonstrated that thiadiazolanes inhibit HIV-1 replication but are associated with significant levels of toxicity. Nevertheless, these observations provide new insights into MA binding and pave the way for the development of antivirals that target the HIV-1 matrix domain. PMID:23135280

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and -gamma mRNA levels are reduced in chronic hepatitis C with steatosis and genotype 3 infection.

    PubMed

    de Gottardi, A; Pazienza, V; Pugnale, P; Bruttin, F; Rubbia-Brandt, L; Juge-Aubry, C E; Meier, C A; Hadengue, A; Negro, F

    2006-01-01

    Steatosis in chronic hepatitis C is associated with inflammation and accelerated fibrogenesis. To assess the contribution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and -gamma to the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus associated steatosis is unknown. We measured peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and -gamma mRNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in liver biopsies of 35 genotype 1 and 22 genotype 3 infected patients and in Huh7 cells expressing hepatitis C virus 1b or 3a core protein. PPAR-alpha mRNA was significantly reduced in livers of patients with genotype 3 compared with genotype 1. Steatosis was associated to a decreased expression of PPAR-alpha in genotype 1, but not in genotype 3. PPAR-gamma expression was significantly lower in genotype 3 compared with genotype 1 and steatosis was associated to decreased levels of PPAR-gamma, but only in genotype 1. There was no significant relationship between PPARs mRNA levels and liver activity or fibrosis. Expression of the hepatitis C virus 3a core protein was associated with an increase in triglyceride accumulation and with a significant reduction of PPAR-gamma mRNA compared with hepatitis C virus 1b. The presence of steatosis and hepatitis C virus genotype 3 are both associated with a significant down-regulation of PPARs. These receptors, and also additional factors, seem to play a role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus-associated steatosis.

  5. The Clinical and Economic Impact of Genotype Testing at First-line Antiretroviral Therapy Failure for HIV-Infected Patients in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Levison, Julie H.; Wood, Robin; Scott, Callie A.; Ciaranello, Andrea L.; Martinson, Neil A.; Rusu, Corina; Losina, Elena; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. In resource-limited settings, genotype testing at virologic failure on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) may identify patients with wild-type (WT) virus. After adherence counseling, these patients may safely and effectively continue first-line ART, thereby delaying more expensive second-line ART. Methods. We used the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications International model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease to simulate a South African cohort of HIV-infected adults at first-line ART failure. Two strategies were examined: no genotype vs genotype, assuming availability of protease inhibitor–based second-line ART. Model inputs at first-line ART failure were mean age 38 years, mean CD4 173/µL, and WT virus prevalence 20%; genotype cost was $300 per test and delay to results, 3 months. Outcomes included life expectancy, per-person costs (2010 US dollars), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (dollars per years of life saved [YLS]). Results. No genotype had a projected life expectancy of 106.1 months, which with genotype increased to 108.3 months. Per-person discounted lifetime costs were $16 360 and $16 540, respectively. Compared to no genotype, genotype was very cost-effective, by international guidance, at $900/YLS. The cost-effectiveness of genotype was sensitive to prevalence of WT virus (very cost-effective when prevalence ≥12%), CD4 at first-line ART failure, and ART efficacy. Genotype-associated delays in care ≥5 months decreased survival and made no genotype the preferred strategy. When the test cost was <$100, genotype became cost-saving. Conclusions. Genotype resistance testing at first-line ART failure is very cost-effective in South Africa. The cost-effectiveness of this strategy will depend on prevalence of WT virus and timely response to genotype results. PMID:23087386

  6. Use of Dried Plasma Spots for HIV-1 Viral Load Determination and Drug Resistance Genotyping in Mexican Patients.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Auad, Juan Pablo; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Angelica; Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma Teresa; Muñoz, Onofre; Torres-Ibarra, Rocio; Vazquez-Rosales, Guillermo; Lira, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring antiretroviral therapy using measurements of viral load (VL) and the genotyping of resistance mutations is not routinely performed in low- to middle-income countries because of the high costs of the commercial assays that are used. The analysis of dried plasma spot (DPS) samples on filter paper may represent an alternative for resource-limited settings. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of analyzing DPS samples to determine VL and identify drug resistance mutations (DRM) in a group of HIV-1 patients. The VL was measured from 22 paired plasma and DPS samples. In these samples, the average VL was 4.7 log10 copies/mL in liquid plasma and 4.1 log10 copies/mL in DPS, with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.83. A 1.1 kb fragment of HIV pol could be amplified in 14/22 (63.6%) of the DPS samples and the same value was amplified in plasma samples. A collection of ten paired DPS and liquid plasma samples was evaluated for the presence of DRM; an excellent correlation was found in the identification of DRM between the paired samples. All HIV-1 pol sequences that were obtained corresponded to HIV subtype B. The analysis of DPS samples offers an attractive alternative for monitoring ARV therapy in resource-limited settings.

  7. Use of Dried Plasma Spots for HIV-1 Viral Load Determination and Drug Resistance Genotyping in Mexican Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Auad, Juan Pablo; Rojas-Montes, Othon; Maldonado-Rodriguez, Angelica; Alvarez-Muñoz, Ma. Teresa; Muñoz, Onofre; Torres-Ibarra, Rocio; Vazquez-Rosales, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring antiretroviral therapy using measurements of viral load (VL) and the genotyping of resistance mutations is not routinely performed in low- to middle-income countries because of the high costs of the commercial assays that are used. The analysis of dried plasma spot (DPS) samples on filter paper may represent an alternative for resource-limited settings. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of analyzing DPS samples to determine VL and identify drug resistance mutations (DRM) in a group of HIV-1 patients. The VL was measured from 22 paired plasma and DPS samples. In these samples, the average VL was 4.7 log10 copies/mL in liquid plasma and 4.1 log10 copies/mL in DPS, with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.83. A 1.1 kb fragment of HIV pol could be amplified in 14/22 (63.6%) of the DPS samples and the same value was amplified in plasma samples. A collection of ten paired DPS and liquid plasma samples was evaluated for the presence of DRM; an excellent correlation was found in the identification of DRM between the paired samples. All HIV-1 pol sequences that were obtained corresponded to HIV subtype B. The analysis of DPS samples offers an attractive alternative for monitoring ARV therapy in resource-limited settings. PMID:26779533

  8. Analytical Performances of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA-Based Amplix® Real-Time PCR Platform for HIV-1 RNA Quantification

    PubMed Central

    Mboumba Bouassa, Ralph-Sydney; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Wolyec, Serge Tonen; Robin, Leman; Matta, Mathieu; Longo, Jean de Dieu; Grésenguet, Gérard; Andreoletti, Laurent; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the performances of Amplix real-time PCR platform developed by Biosynex (Strasbourg, France), combining automated station extraction (Amplix station 16 Dx) and real-time PCR (Amplix NG), for quantifying plasma HIV-1 RNA by lyophilized HIV-1 RNA-based Amplix reagents targeting gag and LTR, using samples from HIV-1-infected adults from Central African Republic. Results. Amplix real-time PCR assay showed low limit of detection (28 copies/mL), across wide dynamic range (1.4–10 log copies/mL), 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity, high reproducibility, and accuracy with mean bias < 5%. The assay showed excellent correlations and concordance of 95.3% with the reference HIV-1 RNA load assay (Roche), with mean absolute bias of +0.097 log copies/mL by Bland-Altman analysis. The assay was able to detect and quantify the most prevalent HIV-1 subtype strains and the majority of non-B subtypes, CRFs of HIV-1 group M, and HIV-1 groups N and O circulating in Central Africa. The Amplix assay showed 100% sensitivity and 99.6% specificity to diagnose virological failure in clinical samples from antiretroviral drug-experienced patients. Conclusions. The HIV-1 RNA-based Amplix real-time PCR platform constitutes sensitive and reliable system for clinical monitoring of HIV-1 RNA load in HIV-1-infected children and adults, particularly adapted to intermediate laboratory facilities in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:28050283

  9. HIV-1 Disease Progression in Breast-Feeding and Formula-Feeding Mothers: A Prospective 2-Year Comparison of T Cell Subsets, HIV-1 RNA Levels, and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Phelgona A.; Brown, Elizabeth R.; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy A.; Nduati, Ruth W.; Farquhar, Carey; Obimbo, Elizabeth M.; Bosire, Rose K.; Emery, Sandy; Overbaugh, Julie; Richardson, Barbra A.; John-Stewart, Grace C.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is conflicting evidence regarding the effects of breast-feeding on maternal mortality from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and little is known about the effects of breast-feeding on markers of HIV-1 disease progression. Methods HIV-1–seropositive women were enrolled during pregnancy and received short-course zidovudine. HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4 cell counts were determined at baseline and at months 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 postpartum and were compared between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers. Results Of 296 women, 98 formula fed and 198 breast-fed. At baseline, formula-feeding women had a higher education level and prevalence of HIV-1–related illness than did breast-feeding women; however, the groups did not differ with respect to CD4 cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels. Between months 1 and 24 postpartum, CD4 cell counts decreased 3.9 cells/µL/month (P< .001), HIV-1 RNA levels increased 0.005 log10 copies/mL/month (P = .03), and body mass index (BMI) decreased 0.03 kg/m2/month (P< .001). The rate of CD4 cell count decline was higher in breast-feeding mothers (7.2 cells/µL/month) than in mothers who never breast-fed (4.0 cells/µL/month) (P = .01). BMI decreased more rapidly in breast-feeding women (P = .04), whereas HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality did not differ significantly between breast-feeding and formula-feeding women. Conclusions Breast-feeding was associated with significant decreases in CD4 cell counts and BMI. HIV-1 RNA levels and mortality were not increased, suggesting a limited adverse impact of breast-feeding in mothers receiving extended care for HIV-1 infection. PMID:17191167

  10. Anti-HIV microRNA expression in a novel Indian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Rakesh; Soni, Kartik; Saravanan, Shanmugam; Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu; Kumar, Vikram; Boobalan, Jayaseelan; Solomon, Sunil Suhas; Scaria, Vinod; Solomon, Suniti; Brahmachari, Samir K.; Pillai, Beena

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 replication inside host cells is known to be regulated by various host factors. Host miRNAs, by virtue of its normal functioning, also regulate HIV-1 RNA expression by either directly targeting virus mRNAs or indirectly by regulating host proteins that HIV-1 uses for own replication. Therefore, it is highly possible that with differential miRNA expression, rate of disease progression will vary in HIV-1 infected individuals. In this study we have compared expression of a panel of 13 reported anti-HIV miRNAs in human PBMCs from long term non progressors (LTNPs), regular progressors and rapid progressors. We found that LTNPs have substantial lower expression of miR-382-5p that positively correlates with viral loads. Combinatorial regulation is highly probable in dictating differential disease progression as average expression of miR-382-5p and miR-155-5p can substantially distinguish LTNP individuals from regular progressors. PMID:27320691

  11. Favourable IFNL3 Genotypes Are Associated with Spontaneous Clearance and Are Differentially Distributed in Aboriginals in Canadian HIV-Hepatitis C Co-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Moqueet, Nasheed; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Platt, Robert W.; Young, Jim; Cooper, Curtis; Hull, Mark; Walmsley, Sharon; Klein, Marina B.

    2015-01-01

    Canadian Aboriginals are reported to clear Hepatitis C (HCV) more frequently. We tested the association of spontaneous clearance and three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the Interferon-lambda 3 (IFNL3) gene (rs12979860, rs8099917, functional variant rs8103142) and compared the SNP frequencies between HIV-HCV co-infected whites and Aboriginals from the Canadian Co-infection Cohort. HCV treatment-naïve individuals with at least two HCV RNA tests were included (n = 538). A spontaneous clearance case was defined as someone with two consecutive HCV RNA-negative tests, at least six months apart. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards adjusted for sex and ethnicity. Advantageous variants and haplotypes were more common in Aboriginals than Caucasians: 57% vs. 46% had the rs12979860 CC genotype, respectively; 58% vs. 48%, rs8103142 TT; 74% vs. 67%, the rs12979860 C allele; and 67% vs. 64% the TCT haplotype with three favourable alleles. The adjusted Hazard Ratios (95% CI) for spontaneous clearance were: rs12979860: 3.80 (2.20, 6.54); rs8099917: 5.14 (2.46, 10.72); and rs8103142: 4.36 (2.49, 7.62). Even after adjusting for rs12979860, Aboriginals and females cleared HCV more often, HR (95% CI) = 1.53 (0.89, 2.61) and 1.42 (0.79, 2.53), respectively. Our results suggest that favourable IFNL3 genotypes are more common among Aboriginals than Caucasians, and may partly explain the higher HCV clearance rates seen among Aboriginals. PMID:25803108

  12. Favourable IFNL3 genotypes are associated with spontaneous clearance and are differentially distributed in Aboriginals in Canadian HIV-hepatitis C co-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Moqueet, Nasheed; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Platt, Robert W; Young, Jim; Cooper, Curtis; Hull, Mark; Walmsley, Sharon; Klein, Marina B

    2015-03-20

    Canadian Aboriginals are reported to clear Hepatitis C (HCV) more frequently. We tested the association of spontaneous clearance and three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the Interferon-lambda 3 (IFNL3) gene (rs12979860, rs8099917, functional variant rs8103142) and compared the SNP frequencies between HIV-HCV co-infected whites and Aboriginals from the Canadian Co-infection Cohort. HCV treatment-naïve individuals with at least two HCV RNA tests were included (n = 538). A spontaneous clearance case was defined as someone with two consecutive HCV RNA-negative tests, at least six months apart. Data were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards adjusted for sex and ethnicity. Advantageous variants and haplotypes were more common in Aboriginals than Caucasians: 57% vs. 46% had the rs12979860 CC genotype, respectively; 58% vs. 48%, rs8103142 TT; 74% vs. 67%, the rs12979860 C allele; and 67% vs. 64% the TCT haplotype with three favourable alleles. The adjusted Hazard Ratios (95% CI) for spontaneous clearance were: rs12979860: 3.80 (2.20, 6.54); rs8099917: 5.14 (2.46, 10.72); and rs8103142: 4.36 (2.49, 7.62). Even after adjusting for rs12979860, Aboriginals and females cleared HCV more often, HR (95% CI) = 1.53 (0.89, 2.61) and 1.42 (0.79, 2.53), respectively. Our results suggest that favourable IFNL3 genotypes are more common among Aboriginals than Caucasians, and may partly explain the higher HCV clearance rates seen among Aboriginals.

  13. Prevalence of genotypic and phenotypic resistance to anti-retroviral drugs in a cohort of therapy-naïve HIV-1 infected US military personnel.

    PubMed

    Wegner, S A; Brodine, S K; Mascola, J R; Tasker, S A; Shaffer, R A; Starkey, M J; Barile, A; Martin, G J; Aronson, N; Emmons, W W; Stephan, K; Bloor, S; Vingerhoets, J; Hertogs, K; Larder, B

    2000-05-26

    While transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 has been reported, estimates of prevalence of resistance in drug-naïve populations are incomplete. We investigated the prevalence of genotypic mutations and phenotypic antiretroviral resistance in a cohort of HIV-1 infected U.S. military personnel prior to the institution of antiretroviral therapy. Cross-sectional cohort study. Plasma was obtained from 114 recently HIV-1 infected subjects enrolled in an epidemiological study. Genotypic resistance was determined by consensus sequencing of a PCR product from the HIV-1 pol gene. Sequences were interpreted by a phenotypic-genotypic correlative database. Resistance phenotypes were determined by a recombinant virus cell culture assay. Genotypic mutations and phenotypic resistance were found at a higher than expected frequency. Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was most common, with a prevalence of 15% of 95 subjects by genotype and 26% of 91 subjects by phenotype. Genotypic and phenotypic resistance respectively were found in 4% and 8% of subjects for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and in 10% and 1% for protease inhibitors. One subject harbored virus with resistance to all three drug classes. A substantial frequency of resistance to antiretroviral drugs was identified in a therapy-naïve U.S. cohort. In most cases, the genotypic and phenotypic assays yielded similar results, although the genotypic assay could detect some protease inhibitor resistance-associated mutations in the absence of phenotypic resistance. These data suggest the need for optimization of treatment guidelines based on current estimates of the prevalence of drug resistance in HIV-1 seroconverters.

  14. Full-length RNA structure prediction of the HIV-1 genome reveals a conserved core domain

    PubMed Central

    Sükösd, Zsuzsanna; Andersen, Ebbe S.; Seemann, Stefan E.; Jensen, Mads Krogh; Hansen, Mathias; Gorodkin, Jan; Kjems, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    A distance constrained secondary structural model of the ≈10 kb RNA genome of the HIV-1 has been predicted but higher-order structures, involving long distance interactions, are currently unknown. We present the first global RNA secondary structure model for the HIV-1 genome, which integrates both comparative structure analysis and information from experimental data in a full-length prediction without distance constraints. Besides recovering known structural elements, we predict several novel structural elements that are conserved in HIV-1 evolution. Our results also indicate that the structure of the HIV-1 genome is highly variable in most regions, with a limited number of stable and conserved RNA secondary structures. Most interesting, a set of long distance interactions form a core organizing structure (COS) that organize the genome into three major structural domains. Despite overlapping protein-coding regions the COS is supported by a particular high frequency of compensatory base changes, suggesting functional importance for this element. This new structural element potentially organizes the whole genome into three major domains protruding from a conserved core structure with potential roles in replication and evolution for the virus. PMID:26476446

  15. Bioavailable inhibitors of HIV-1 RNA biogenesis identified through a Rev-based screen.

    PubMed

    Prado, Silvia; Beltrán, Manuela; Coiras, Mayte; Bedoya, Luis M; Alcamí, José; Gallego, José

    2016-05-01

    New antiretroviral agents with alternative mechanisms are needed to complement the combination therapies used to treat HIV-1 infections. Here we report the identification of bioavailable molecules that interfere with the gene expression processes of HIV-1. The compounds were detected by screening a small library of FDA-approved drugs with an assay based on measuring the displacement of Rev, and essential virus-encoded protein, from its high-affinity RNA binding site. The antiretroviral activity of two hits was based on interference with post-integration steps of the HIV-1 cycle. Both hits inhibited RRE-Rev complex formation in vitro, and blocked LTR-dependent gene expression and viral transcription in cellular assays. The best compound altered the splicing pattern of HIV-1 transcripts in a manner consistent with Rev inhibition. This mechanism of action is different from those used by current antiretroviral agents. The screening hits recognized the Rev binding site in the viral RNA, and the best compound did so with substantial selectivity, allowing the identification of a new RNA-binding scaffold. These results may be used for developing novel antiretroviral drugs.

  16. Full-length RNA structure prediction of the HIV-1 genome reveals a conserved core domain.

    PubMed

    Sükösd, Zsuzsanna; Andersen, Ebbe S; Seemann, Stefan E; Jensen, Mads Krogh; Hansen, Mathias; Gorodkin, Jan; Kjems, Jørgen

    2015-12-02

    A distance constrained secondary structural model of the ≈10 kb RNA genome of the HIV-1 has been predicted but higher-order structures, involving long distance interactions, are currently unknown. We present the first global RNA secondary structure model for the HIV-1 genome, which integrates both comparative structure analysis and information from experimental data in a full-length prediction without distance constraints. Besides recovering known structural elements, we predict several novel structural elements that are conserved in HIV-1 evolution. Our results also indicate that the structure of the HIV-1 genome is highly variable in most regions, with a limited number of stable and conserved RNA secondary structures. Most interesting, a set of long distance interactions form a core organizing structure (COS) that organize the genome into three major structural domains. Despite overlapping protein-coding regions the COS is supported by a particular high frequency of compensatory base changes, suggesting functional importance for this element. This new structural element potentially organizes the whole genome into three major domains protruding from a conserved core structure with potential roles in replication and evolution for the virus.

  17. The Major Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) Packaging Signal Is Present on All HIV-2 RNA Species: Cotranslational RNA Encapsidation and Limitation of Gag Protein Confer Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Stephen D. C.; Allen, Jane F.; Lever, Andrew M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Deletion of a region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) 5′ leader RNA reduces genomic RNA encapsidation to about 5% that of wild-type virus with no defect in viral protein production but severely limits virus spread in Jurkat T cells, indicating that this region contains a major cis-acting encapsidation signal, or psi (Ψ). Being upstream of the major splice donor, it is present on all viral transcripts. We have shown that HIV-2 selects its genomic RNA for encapsidation cotranslationally, rendering wild-type HIV-2 unable to encapsidate vector RNAs in trans . Virus with Ψ deleted, however, encapsidates an HIV-2 vector, demonstrating competition for Gag protein. HIV-2 overcomes the lack of packaging signal location specificity by two novel mechanisms, cotranslational packaging and competition for limiting Gag polyprotein. PMID:11711596

  18. A Pragmatic Approach to HIV-1 Drug Resistance Determination in Resource-Limited Settings by Use of a Novel Genotyping Assay Targeting the Reverse Transcriptase-Encoding Region Only

    PubMed Central

    Bronze, Michelle; Wallis, Carole L.; Stuyver, Lieven; Steegen, Kim; Balinda, Sheila; Kityo, Cissy; Stevens, Wendy; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Schuurman, Rob

    2013-01-01

    In resource-limited settings (RLS), reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors form the backbone of first-line treatment regimens. We have developed a simplified HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping assay targeting the region of RT harboring all major RT inhibitor resistance mutation positions, thus providing all relevant susceptibility data for first-line failures, coupled with minimal cost and labor. The assay comprises a one-step RT-PCR amplification reaction, followed by sequencing using one forward and one reverse primer, generating double-stranded coverage of RT amino acids (aa) 41 to 238. The assay was optimized for all major HIV-1 group M subtypes in plasma and dried blood spot (DBS) samples using a panel of reference viruses for HIV-1 subtypes A to D, F to H, and circulating recombinant form 01_AE (CRF01_AE) and applied to 212 clinical plasma samples and 25 DBS samples from HIV-1-infected individuals from Africa and Europe. The assay was subsequently transferred to Uganda and applied locally on clinical plasma samples. All major HIV-1 subtypes could be detected with an analytical sensitivity of 5.00E+3 RNA copies/ml for plasma and DBS. Application of the assay on 212 clinical samples from African subjects comprising subtypes A to D, F to H (rare), CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG at a viral load (VL) range of 6.71E+2 to 1.00E+7 (median, 1.48E+5) RNA copies/ml was 94.8% (n = 201) successful. Application on clinical samples in Uganda demonstrated a comparable success rate. Genotyping of clinical DBS samples, all subtype C with a VL range of 1.02E+3 to 4.49E+5 (median, 1.42E+4) RNA copies/ml, was 84.0% successful. The described assay greatly reduces hands-on time and the costs required for genotyping and is ideal for use in RLS, as demonstrated in a reference laboratory in Uganda and its successful application on DBS samples. PMID:23536405

  19. Dendritic cell-mediated HIV-1 infection of T-cells demonstrates a direct relationship to plasma viral RNA levels

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Reetakshi; Bull, Lara; Siwak, Edward B.; Thippeshappa, Rajesh; Arduino, Roberto C.; Kimata, Jason T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between infectivity of HIV-1 variants in dendritic cell-mediated in trans infection of T-cells and plasma viral RNA levels in infected subjects. Methods HIV-1 was isolated from PBMCs of chronically infected individuals, typed for coreceptor usage, and viral replication was examined in monocyte derived-dendritic cells-peripheral blood lymphocytes (DC-PBL) co-cultures. The rate of p24 antigen production during the logarithmic phase of viral replication was determined by ELISA. Additionally, nef variants were cloned and expressed in trans with a HIV-luciferase vector and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 envelope, and infectivity was measured in DC-mediated capture-transfer assays. Results Replication capacity of HIV-1 viral CCR5-tropic isolates in DC-PBL co-cultures was linearly associated with the plasma viral RNA levels in a cohort of HIV-1 infected individuals exhibiting an inverse relationship between plasma viral RNA and CD4 cell count. Furthermore, infectivity activity of Nef variants in context of DC-mediated enhanced infection of T-cells also showed a linear relationship to plasma viral RNA levels. Conclusion These results illustrate that replication capacity of HIV-1 in DC-T-cell cultures is a significant predictor of plasma viral RNA level. The data suggest that adaptation of HIV-1 to DC interactions with T-cells influences the level of viral replication in the host. PMID:20386455

  20. HPV genotypes detected in the oropharyngeal mucosa of HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Mazza, F; Frati, E R; Fasolo, M M; Colzani, D; Bianchi, S; Fasoli, E; Amendola, A; Orlando, G; Tanzi, E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological profile of HPV oropharyngeal infections in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. A total of 135 subjects were enrolled at the L. Sacco University Hospital (Milan, Italy) to evaluate their HPV oropharyngeal infection status at baseline and at a follow-up visit at least 12 months later. HPV DNA was detected from oropharyngeal swabs using an in-house nested PCR that amplifies a segment of the L1 gene. The PCR products were then sequenced and genotyped. A greater percentage of high-risk genotypes was identified compared to low-risk genotypes (13·7% vs. 6·9%, P < 0·05), and two uncommon alpha-HPV genotypes were detected, i.e. HPV-102 and HPV-114. HPV infection prevalence was 24·4% and the cumulative incidence was 24·1%. During the follow-up period, one case of HPV infection (HPV-33) persisted, while the overall rate of infection clearance was 58·3%. HPV oropharyngeal infection was widespread in the cohort examined, and most of the infections were transient and cleared within 12 months. These results may help to clarify the role of HPV in the oropharynx and may also improve our understanding of the need to implement preventive strategies in at-risk populations.

  1. Coordination of Genomic RNA Packaging with Viral Assembly in HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Hellmund, Chris; Lever, Andrew M. L.

    2016-01-01

    The tremendous progress made in unraveling the complexities of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication has resulted in a library of drugs to target key aspects of the replication cycle of the virus. Yet, despite this accumulated wealth of knowledge, we still have much to learn about certain viral processes. One of these is virus assembly, where the viral genome and proteins come together to form infectious progeny. Here we review this topic from the perspective of how the route to production of an infectious virion is orchestrated by the viral genome, and we compare and contrast aspects of the assembly mechanisms employed by HIV-1 with those of other RNA viruses. PMID:27428992

  2. Coordination of Genomic RNA Packaging with Viral Assembly in HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Hellmund, Chris; Lever, Andrew M L

    2016-07-14

    The tremendous progress made in unraveling the complexities of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication has resulted in a library of drugs to target key aspects of the replication cycle of the virus. Yet, despite this accumulated wealth of knowledge, we still have much to learn about certain viral processes. One of these is virus assembly, where the viral genome and proteins come together to form infectious progeny. Here we review this topic from the perspective of how the route to production of an infectious virion is orchestrated by the viral genome, and we compare and contrast aspects of the assembly mechanisms employed by HIV-1 with those of other RNA viruses.

  3. Inhibition of HIV-1 Viral Infection by an Engineered CRISPR Csy4 RNA Endoribonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Wang, Hong; Cui, Jiuwei; Wang, Guanjun; Li, Wei; Hu, Ji-Fan

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial defense system CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) has been explored as a powerful tool to edit genomic elements. In this study, we test the potential of CRISPR Csy4 RNA endoribonuclease for targeting HIV-1. We fused human codon-optimized Csy4 endoribonuclease with VPR, a HIV-1 viral preintegration complex protein. An HIV-1 cell model was modified to allow quantitative detection of active virus production. We found that the trans-expressing VPR-Csy4 almost completely blocked viral infection in two target cell lines (SupT1, Ghost). In the MAGI cell assay, where the HIV-1 LTR β-galactosidase is expressed under the control of the tat gene from an integrated provirus, VPR-Csy4 significantly blocked the activity of the provirus-activated HIV-1 reporter. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that Csy4 endoribonuclease is a promising tool that could be tailored further to target HIV-1. PMID:26495836

  4. Inhibition of HIV-1 Viral Infection by an Engineered CRISPR Csy4 RNA Endoribonuclease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Wang, Hong; Cui, Jiuwei; Wang, Guanjun; Li, Wei; Hu, Ji-Fan

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial defense system CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) has been explored as a powerful tool to edit genomic elements. In this study, we test the potential of CRISPR Csy4 RNA endoribonuclease for targeting HIV-1. We fused human codon-optimized Csy4 endoribonuclease with VPR, a HIV-1 viral preintegration complex protein. An HIV-1 cell model was modified to allow quantitative detection of active virus production. We found that the trans-expressing VPR-Csy4 almost completely blocked viral infection in two target cell lines (SupT1, Ghost). In the MAGI cell assay, where the HIV-1 LTR β-galactosidase is expressed under the control of the tat gene from an integrated provirus, VPR-Csy4 significantly blocked the activity of the provirus-activated HIV-1 reporter. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that Csy4 endoribonuclease is a promising tool that could be tailored further to target HIV-1.

  5. HIV-1 pre-mRNA commitment to Rev mediated export through PSF and Matrin 3

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, Anna; Gharu, Lavina; Marcello, Alessandro

    2013-01-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus gene expression and replication are regulated at several levels. Incompletely spliced viral RNAs and full-length genomic RNA contain the RRE element and are bound by the viral trans-acting protein Rev to be transported out of the nucleus. Previously we found that the nuclear matrix protein MATR3 was a cofactor of Rev-mediated RNA export. Here we show that the pleiotropic protein PSF binds viral RNA and is associated with MATR3. PSF is involved in the maintenance of a pool of RNA available for Rev activity. However, while Rev and PSF bind the viral pre-mRNA at the site of viral transcription, MATR3 interacts at a subsequent step. We propose that PSF and MATR3 define a novel pathway for RRE-containing HIV-1 RNAs that is hijacked by the viral Rev protein.

  6. HIV-Infected Ugandan Women on Antiretroviral Therapy Maintain HIV-1 RNA Suppression Across Periconception, Pregnancy, and Postpartum Periods.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Lynn T; Ribaudo, Heather B; Kaida, Angela; Bennett, Kara; Musinguzi, Nicholas; Siedner, Mark J; Kabakyenga, Jerome; Hunt, Peter W; Martin, Jeffrey N; Boum, Yap; Haberer, Jessica E; Bangsberg, David R

    2016-04-01

    HIV-infected women risk sexual and perinatal HIV transmission during conception, pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding. We compared HIV-1 RNA suppression and medication adherence across periconception, pregnancy, and postpartum periods, among women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Uganda. We analyzed data from women in a prospective cohort study, aged 18-49 years, enrolled at ART initiation and with ≥1 pregnancy between 2005 and 2011. Participants were seen quarterly. The primary exposure of interest was pregnancy period, including periconception (3 quarters before pregnancy), pregnancy, postpartum (6 months after pregnancy outcome), or nonpregnancy related. Regression models using generalized estimating equations compared the likelihood of HIV-1 RNA ≤400 copies per milliliter, <80% average adherence based on electronic pill caps (medication event monitoring system), and likelihood of 72-hour medication gaps across each period. One hundred eleven women contributed 486 person-years of follow-up. Viral suppression was present at 89% of nonpregnancy, 97% of periconception, 93% of pregnancy, and 89% of postpartum visits, and was more likely during periconception (adjusted odds ratio, 2.15) compared with nonpregnant periods. Average ART adherence was 90% [interquartile range (IQR), 70%-98%], 93% (IQR, 82%-98%), 92% (IQR, 72%-98%), and 88% (IQR, 63%-97%) during nonpregnant, periconception, pregnant, and postpartum periods, respectively. Average adherence <80% was less likely during periconception (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68), and 72-hour gaps per 90 days were less frequent during periconception (adjusted relative risk, 0.72) and more frequent during postpartum (adjusted relative risk, 1.40). Women with pregnancy were virologically suppressed at most visits, with an increased likelihood of suppression and high adherence during periconception follow-up. Increased frequency of 72-hour gaps suggests a need for increased adherence support during postpartum periods.

  7. A CRISPR/Cas9 guidance RNA screen platform for HIV provirus disruption and HIV/AIDS gene therapy in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zaohua; Nair, Madahavan

    2017-07-20

    HIV/AIDS remains a major health threat despite significant advances in the prevention and treatment of HIV infection. The major reason is the inability of existing treatments to eradicate the multiple HIV reservoirs in the human body, including astrocytes in the human brain. CRISPR/Cas9 system is an emerging gene-editing technique with the potential to eliminate or disrupt HIV provirus in HIV reservoir cells, which may lead to a complete cure of HIV/AIDS. The key components of CRISPR/Cas9 are guide RNAs (gRNAs) which determine specific sequence targeting of DNAs. This study established a novel, simple and quick screening method to identify gRNA candidates for targeting HIV provirus in astrocytes. Briefly, stable astrocytes clones with an integrated fluorescent HIV reporter and Cas9 expression gene were generated. Various gRNAs were screened for their efficiencies against HIV provirus in these cells. Moreover, these gRNAs and Cas9 protein were successfully tested on HIV latent astrocytes without Cas9 expression to mimic clinical conditions. HIV provirus gene-editing were confirmed by cell genomic DNA PCR and fluorescent marker expression analysis. In the future, the established transgenic cells can be used for other gene-editing studies and is well-suited for high-throughput screen application.

  8. Development of a reverse genetics system based on RNA polymerase II for Newcastle disease virus genotype VII.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianzhong; Wang, Chunfeng; Feng, Na; Wang, Hualei; Zheng, Xuexing; Yang, Songtao; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu; Yin, Renfu; Liu, Xiufan; Hu, Shunlin; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing; Cong, Yanlong; Ding, Zhuang

    2015-02-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has only a single serotype but diversified genotypes. Genotype VII strains are the prevalent currently circulating genotype worldwide, and in particular, these strains cause outbreaks in waterfowl. In this study, a reverse genetics system for highly virulent NDV isolated from goose flocks was developed independent of conventional T7 RNA polymerase. Infectious virus was successfully generated by an RNA polymerase II promoter to drive transcription of the full-length virus antigenome. A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing virus was generated by inserting an additional transcription cassette coding for the enhanced GFP between the P and M genes of the genome. The expression of GFP was confirmed by western blotting and fluorescence microscopy. The replication kinetics and pathogenicity of the recombinant viruses are indistinguishable from the parental wild-type virus. This reverse genetics system will provide a powerful tool for the analysis of goose-origin NDV dissemination and pathogenesis, as well as preparation for genotype-matched NDV attenuated vaccines.

  9. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (p<0.0001) was most strongly associated with seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  10. Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration is strongly associated with altered levels of seminal plasma interferon-γ, interleukin-17, and interleukin-5.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jennifer C; Anton, Peter A; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O; Hoffman, Risa M

    2014-11-01

    Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (p<0.0001) was most strongly associated with seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission.

  11. Prevalence of non-confounded HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment in the context of plasma HIV RNA suppression.

    PubMed

    Cysique, Lucette A; Brew, Bruce J

    2011-04-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder is known to occur in the context of successful combination antiretroviral therapy (cART; plasma HIV RNA <50 copies/ml). Here, we newly provide an analysis of its prevalence and nature in the absence of medical or psychiatric confounds that may otherwise inflate the prevalence rate. We enrolled a cohort of 116 advanced HIV + individuals on cART (51% virally suppressed (VS)). They were screened for active Hepatitis C, current substance use disorder and were assessed with standard neuropsychological (NP) testing. Our results showed that out of the entire sample, NP impairment occurred in 18.1% (21/116) in VS individuals which was not statistically different from the 24.1% (28/116) that were found to be NP-impaired and not VS. In comparison with NP-normal-VS persons, NP impairment in VS individuals was associated with shorter duration of current cART and lower pre-morbid ability. Higher cART CNS penetration effectiveness tended to be associated with lesser cognitive severity in NP-impaired VS individuals. Current CD4 cell count, depression symptoms and past CNS HIV-related diseases did not specifically account for persistent NP impairment in VS individuals. In conclusion, despite suppression of systemic viral load, non-confounded HIV-related NP-impairment prevalence reached 18.1%. Of the potential explanations for this persistent deficit, a "burnt-out" form of the disease and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome were the less likely explanations, while a shorter current cART duration and lower pre-morbid intellectual capacity were significant. Nonetheless, predictive modelling with these last two factors misclassified 27% and had low sensitivity (43%) emphasising that other yet-to-be-defined factors were operative.

  12. RNA and DNA binding properties of HIV-1 Vif protein: a fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Bernacchi, Serena; Henriet, Simon; Dumas, Philippe; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland

    2007-09-07

    The HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) is a small basic protein essential for viral fitness and pathogenicity. Some "non-permissive" cell lines cannot sustain replication of Vif(-) HIV-1 virions. In these cells, Vif counteracts the natural antiretroviral activity of the DNA-editing enzymes APOBEC3G/3F. Moreover, Vif is packaged into viral particles through a strong interaction with genomic RNA in viral nucleoprotein complexes. To gain insights into determinants of this binding process, we performed the first characterization of Vif/nucleic acid interactions using Vif intrinsic fluorescence. We determined the affinity of Vif for RNA fragments corresponding to various regions of the HIV-1 genome. Our results demonstrated preferential and moderately cooperative binding for RNAs corresponding to the 5'-untranslated region of HIV-1 (5'-untranslated region) and gag (cooperativity parameter omega approximately 65-80, and K(d) = 45-55 nM). In addition, fluorescence spectroscopy allowed us to point out the TAR apical loop and a short region in gag as primary strong affinity binding sites (K(d) = 9.5-14 nM). Interestingly, beside its RNA binding properties, the Vif protein can also bind the corresponding DNA oligonucleotides and their complementary counterparts with an affinity similar to the one observed for the RNA sequences, while other DNA sequences displayed reduced affinity. Taken together, our results suggest that Vif binding to RNA and DNA offers several non-exclusive ways to counteract APOBEC3G/3F factors, in addition to the well documented Vif-induced degradation by the proteasome and to the Vif-mediated repression of translation of these antiviral factors.

  13. Emergence of a complex relationship between HIV-1 and the microRNA pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Dominique L.; Plante, Isabelle; Barat, Corinne; Tremblay, Michel J.; Provost, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recent experimental evidences support the existence of an increasingly complex and multifaceted interaction between viruses and the microRNA-guided RNA silencing machinery of human cells. The discovery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which are designed to mediate cleavage of specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs), prompted virologists to establish therapeutic strategies based on siRNAs with the aim to suppress replication of several viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). It has been appreciated only recently that viral RNAs can also be processed endogenously by the microRNA-generating enzyme Dicer or recognized by cellular miRNAs, in processes that could be viewed as an adapted antiviral defense mechanism. Known to repress mRNA translation through recognition of specific binding sites usually located in their 3′ untranslated region, miRNAs of host or viral origin may exert regulatory effects towards host and/or viral genes and influence viral replication and/or the host response to viral infection. This article summarizes our current state of knowledge on the relationship between HIV-1 and miRNA-guided RNA silencing, and discusses the different aspects of their interaction. PMID:19301659

  14. The major 5' end of HIV type 1 RNA corresponds to G456.

    PubMed

    Menees, Thomas M; Müller, Barbara; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg

    2007-08-01

    In the course of studies on HIV-1 RNA structure, we determined that the main 5' end of viral RNA from virions and virus producer cells corresponds to G456 in the proviral DNA sequence, one or two nucleotides down-stream from the reported ends that correspond to G454 and G455. We mapped 5' ends using the highly accurate RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE) method. The reactivity of the 5' ends indicates that they are mainly capped, although the presence of some uncapped (5'-triphosphorylated) RNA cannot formally be excluded. When we used a 5' mapping method susceptible to incorporating a cytosine at the 3' end of cDNA first strands, at a position templated by the 7-methylguanosine cap, 50% of clones derived from virion RNA had incorporated the additional cytosine. Reassignment of the 5' end has consequences for the design of short RNAs used to study HIV-1 RNA structural dynamics.

  15. Dissection of specific binding of HIV-1 Gag to the 'packaging signal' in viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Comas-Garcia, Mauricio; Datta, Siddhartha Ak; Baker, Laura; Varma, Rajat; Gudla, Prabhakar R; Rein, Alan

    2017-07-20

    Selective packaging of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) requires the presence of a cis-acting RNA element called the 'packaging signal' (Ψ). However, the mechanism by which Ψ promotes selective packaging of the gRNA is not well understood. We used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and quenching data to monitor the binding of recombinant HIV-1 Gag protein to Cy5-tagged 190-base RNAs. At physiological ionic strength, Gag binds with very similar, nanomolar affinities to both Ψ-containing and control RNAs. We challenged these interactions by adding excess competing tRNA; introducing mutations in Gag; or raising the ionic strength. These modifications all revealed high specificity for Ψ. This specificity is evidently obscured in physiological salt by non-specific, predominantly electrostatic interactions. This nonspecific activity was attenuated by mutations in the MA, CA, and NC domains, including CA mutations disrupting Gag-Gag interaction. We propose that gRNA is selectively packaged because binding to Ψ nucleates virion assembly with particular efficiency.

  16. Molecular mimicry of human tRNALys anti-codon domain by HIV-1 RNA genome facilitates tRNA primer annealing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher P; Saadatmand, Jenan; Kleiman, Lawrence; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2013-02-01

    The primer for initiating reverse transcription in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is tRNA(Lys3). Host cell tRNA(Lys) is selectively packaged into HIV-1 through a specific interaction between the major tRNA(Lys)-binding protein, human lysyl-tRNA synthetase (hLysRS), and the viral proteins Gag and GagPol. Annealing of the tRNA primer onto the complementary primer-binding site (PBS) in viral RNA is mediated by the nucleocapsid domain of Gag. The mechanism by which tRNA(Lys3) is targeted to the PBS and released from hLysRS prior to annealing is unknown. Here, we show that hLysRS specifically binds to a tRNA anti-codon-like element (TLE) in the HIV-1 genome, which mimics the anti-codon loop of tRNA(Lys) and is located proximal to the PBS. Mutation of the U-rich sequence within the TLE attenuates binding of hLysRS in vitro and reduces the amount of annealed tRNA(Lys3) in virions. Thus, LysRS binds specifically to the TLE, which is part of a larger LysRS binding domain in the viral RNA that includes elements of the Psi packaging signal. Our results suggest that HIV-1 uses molecular mimicry of the anti-codon of tRNA(Lys) to increase the efficiency of tRNA(Lys3) annealing to viral RNA.

  17. HIV-1 Tropism Testing in Subjects Achieving Undetectable HIV-1 RNA: Diagnostic Accuracy, Viral Evolution and Compartmentalization

    PubMed Central

    Pou, Christian; Codoñer, Francisco M.; Thielen, Alexander; Bellido, Rocío; Pérez-Álvarez, Susana; Cabrera, Cecilia; Dalmau, Judith; Curriu, Marta; Lie, Yolanda; Noguera-Julian, Marc; Puig, Jordi; Martínez-Picado, Javier; Blanco, Julià; Coakley, Eoin; Däumer, Martin; Clotet, Bonaventura; Paredes, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Background Technically, HIV-1 tropism can be evaluated in plasma or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). However, only tropism testing of plasma HIV-1 has been validated as a tool to predict virological response to CCR5 antagonists in clinical trials. The preferable tropism testing strategy in subjects with undetectable HIV-1 viremia, in whom plasma tropism testing is not feasible, remains uncertain. Methods & Results We designed a proof-of-concept study including 30 chronically HIV-1-infected individuals who achieved HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL during at least 2 years after first-line ART initiation. First, we determined the diagnostic accuracy of 454 and population sequencing of gp120 V3-loops in plasma and PBMCs, as well as of MT-2 assays before ART initiation. The Enhanced Sensitivity Trofile Assay (ESTA) was used as the technical reference standard. 454 sequencing of plasma viruses provided the highest agreement with ESTA. The accuracy of 454 sequencing decreased in PBMCs due to reduced specificity. Population sequencing in plasma and PBMCs was slightly less accurate than plasma 454 sequencing, being less sensitive but more specific. MT-2 assays had low sensitivity but 100% specificity. Then, we used optimized 454 sequence data to investigate viral evolution in PBMCs during viremia suppression and only found evolution of R5 viruses in one subject. No de novo CXCR4-using HIV-1 production was observed over time. Finally, Slatkin-Maddison tests suggested that plasma and cell-associated V3 forms were sometimes compartmentalized. Conclusions The absence of tropism shifts during viremia suppression suggests that, when available, testing of stored plasma samples is generally safe and informative, provided that HIV-1 suppression is maintained. Tropism testing in PBMCs may not necessarily produce equivalent biological results to plasma, because the structure of viral populations and the diagnostic performance of tropism assays may sometimes vary between compartments

  18. HIV-1 Group O Genotypes and Phenotypes: Relationship to Fitness and Susceptibility to Antiretroviral Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hamish; Ratcliff, Annette; Alessandri, Elodie; Liu, Joseph; Carpenter, Crystal; Plantier, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite only 30,000 group O HIV-1 infections, a similar genetic diversity is observed among the O subgroups H (head) and T (tail) (previously described as subtypes A, B) as in the 9 group M subtypes (A–K). Group O isolates bearing a cysteine at reverse transcriptase (RT) position 181, predominantly the H strains are intrinsically resistant to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). However, their susceptibility to newer antiretroviral drugs such as etravirine, maraviroc, raltegravir (RAL), and elvitegravir (EVG) remains relatively unknown. We tested a large collection of HIV-1 group O strains for their susceptibility to four classes of antiretroviral drugs namely nucleoside RT, non-nucleoside RT, integrase, and entry inhibitors knowing in advance the intrinsic resistance to NNRTIs. Drug target regions were sequenced to determine various polymorphisms and were phylogenetically analyzed. Replication kinetics and fitness assays were performed in U87-CD4+CCR5 and CXCR4 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. With all antiretroviral drugs, group O HIV-1 showed higher variability in IC50 values than group M HIV-1. The mean IC50 values for entry and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) were similar for group O and M HIV-1 isolates. Despite similar susceptibility to maraviroc, the various phenotypic algorithms failed to predict CXCR4 usage based on the V3 Env sequences of group O HIV-1 isolates. Decreased sensitivity of group O HIV-1 to integrase or NNRTIs had no relation to replicative fitness. Group O HIV-1 isolates were 10-fold less sensitive to EVG inhibition than group M HIV-1. These findings suggest that in regions where HIV-1 group O is endemic, first line treatment regimens combining two NRTIs with RAL may provide more sustained virologic responses than the standard regimens involving an NNRTI or protease inhibitors. PMID:26861573

  19. HIV-1 RRE RNA acts as an RNA silencing suppressor by competing with TRBP-bound siRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Sylvanne M; Sinck, Lucile; Ward, Natalie J; Melendez-Peña, Carlos E; Scarborough, Robert J; Azar, Ibrahim; Rance, Elodie; Daher, Aïcha; Pang, Ka-Ming; Rossi, John J; Gatignol, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Several proteins and RNAs expressed by mammalian viruses have been reported to interfere with RNA interference (RNAi) activity. We investigated the ability of the HIV-1-encoded RNA elements Trans-Activation Response (TAR) and Rev-Response Element (RRE) to alter RNAi. MicroRNA let7-based assays showed that RRE is a potent suppressor of RNAi activity, while TAR displayed moderate RNAi suppression. We demonstrate that RRE binds to TAR-RNA Binding Protein (TRBP), an essential component of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC). The binding of TAR and RRE to TRBP displaces small interfering (si)RNAs from binding to TRBP. Several stem-deleted RRE mutants lost their ability to suppress RNAi activity, which correlated with a reduced ability to compete with siRNA-TRBP binding. A lentiviral vector expressing TAR and RRE restricted RNAi, but RNAi was restored when Rev or GagPol were coexpressed. Adenoviruses are restricted by RNAi and encode their own suppressors of RNAi, the Virus-Associated (VA) RNA elements. RRE enhanced the replication of wild-type and VA-deficient adenovirus. Our work describes RRE as a novel suppressor of RNAi that acts by competing with siRNAs rather than by disrupting the RISC. This function is masked in lentiviral vectors co-expressed with viral proteins and thus will not affect their use in gene therapy. The potent RNAi suppressive effects of RRE identified in this study could be used to enhance the expression of RNAi restricted viruses used in oncolysis such as adenoviruses. PMID:25668122

  20. Comparative evaluation of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay and COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 v2.0 assay using the Roche High Pure System for the quantification of HIV-1 RNA in plasma.

    PubMed

    Schalasta, Gunnar; Börner, Anna; Speicher, Andrea; Enders, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in plasma has become the standard of care in the management of HIV-infected patients. There are several commercially available assays that have been implemented for the detection of HIV-1 RNA in plasma. Here, the new Hologic Aptima® HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Aptima HIV) was compared to the Roche COBAS® TaqMan® HIV-1 Test v2.0 for use with the High Pure System (HPS/CTM). The performance characteristics of the assays were assessed using commercially available HIV reference panels, dilution of the WHO 3rd International HIV-1 RNA International Standard (WHO-IS) and plasma from clinical specimens. Assay performance was determined by linear regression, Deming correlation analysis and Bland-Altman analysis. Testing of HIV-1 reference panels revealed excellent agreement. The 61 clinical specimens quantified in both assays were linearly associated and strongly correlated. The Aptima HIV assay offers performance comparable to that of the HPS/CTM assay and, as it is run on a fully automated platform, a significantly improved workflow.

  1. Dynamics of HIV-1 mRNA expression in patients with long-term nonprogressive HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed Central

    Comar, M; Simonelli, C; Zanussi, S; Paoli, P; Vaccher, E; Tirelli, U; Giacca, M

    1997-01-01

    A large number of evidences indicate that progression of HIV disease is driven by an increase in viral burden. It is still unclear, however, to what extent this is contributed by the dysregulation of the molecular mechanisms governing virus gene expression at the transcriptional or posttranscriptional levels. To address this issue, several quantitative virologic parameters (including provirus transcriptional activity and splicing pattern) were analyzed in individuals with nonprogressive HIV infection and compared with those of a matched group of progressor patients. Exact quantification was achieved by a competitive PCR procedure using a multicompetitor template. Nonprogressors were characterized by striking differences in the levels of viremia, provirus copy number, and overall levels of all viral mRNA classes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Additionally, the transcriptional activity of the proviral DNA in these patients was mainly engaged in the production of multiprocessed transcripts, with a pattern resembling the early phases of the experimental infection. Taken together, these results show that both viral load and provirus transcription pattern are remarkably different in infected individuals nonprogressing toward overt disease, and further support the notion that disease progression is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of HIV gene expression. PMID:9259589

  2. Impact of HIV-1 Subtype and Antiretroviral Therapy on Protease and Reverse Transcriptase Genotype: Results of a Global Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, Rami; Katzenstein, David A; Efron, Brad; Carvalho, Ana Patricia; Wynhoven, Brian; Cane, Patricia; Clarke, John; Sirivichayakul, Sunee; Soares, Marcelo A; Snoeck, Joke; Pillay, Candice; Rudich, Hagit; Rodrigues, Rosangela; Holguin, Africa; Ariyoshi, Koya; Bouzas, Maria Belen; Cahn, Pedro; Sugiura, Wataru; Soriano, Vincent; Brigido, Luis F; Grossman, Zehava; Morris, Lynn; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Tanuri, Amilcar; Phanuphak, Praphan; Weber, Jonathan N; Pillay, Deenan; Harrigan, P. Richard; Camacho, Ricardo; Schapiro, Jonathan M; Shafer, Robert W

    2005-01-01

    Background The genetic differences among HIV-1 subtypes may be critical to clinical management and drug resistance surveillance as antiretroviral treatment is expanded to regions of the world where diverse non-subtype-B viruses predominate. Methods and Findings To assess the impact of HIV-1 subtype and antiretroviral treatment on the distribution of mutations in protease and reverse transcriptase, a binomial response model using subtype and treatment as explanatory variables was used to analyze a large compiled dataset of non-subtype-B HIV-1 sequences. Non-subtype-B sequences from 3,686 persons with well characterized antiretroviral treatment histories were analyzed in comparison to subtype B sequences from 4,769 persons. The non-subtype-B sequences included 461 with subtype A, 1,185 with C, 331 with D, 245 with F, 293 with G, 513 with CRF01_AE, and 618 with CRF02_AG. Each of the 55 known subtype B drug-resistance mutations occurred in at least one non-B isolate, and 44 (80%) of these mutations were significantly associated with antiretroviral treatment in at least one non-B subtype. Conversely, of 67 mutations found to be associated with antiretroviral therapy in at least one non-B subtype, 61 were also associated with antiretroviral therapy in subtype B isolates. Conclusion Global surveillance and genotypic assessment of drug resistance should focus primarily on the known subtype B drug-resistance mutations. PMID:15839752

  3. Human papillomavirus DNA and mRNA prevalence and association with cervical cytological abnormalities in the Irish HIV population.

    PubMed

    Loy, Aisling; McInerney, Jamie; Pilkington, Loretto; Keegan, Helen; Delamere, Sandra; Martin, Cara M; Sheils, Orla; O'Leary, John J; Mulcahy, Fiona

    2015-10-01

    The complex interplay between HIV and human papillomavirus and its link to cervical dysplasia is poorly understood. This is the first study to assess the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus mRNA in HIV-positive women, its relationship to HIV and its potential use in the triage of cervical cancer screening in HIV-positive women. In this cross-sectional study, we included 321 HIV-positive women. In all, 28.7% had abnormal cervical cytology, 51.1% were human papillomavirus DNA-positive and 21.8% tested positive for human papillomavirus mRNA. Women with a CD4 count of <200 × 10(6)/L were more likely to test positive for human papillomavirus DNA and mRNA. Virally suppressed women were less likely to be human papillomavirus DNA-positive; however, the same did not hold true for human papillomavirus mRNA. We found the human papillomavirus mRNA screening to be more specific when screening for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion than human papillomavirus DNA at 84.53% compared to 57.36%. However, the sensitivity was less at 51.59% versus 91.07% for human papillomavirus DNA. It may be possible in the future to use human papillomavirus mRNA/DNA testing within a triage algorithm for the screening and management of cervical cancer in the HIV-positive patient. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Characterization of novel inhibitors of HIV-1 replication that function via alteration of viral RNA processing and rev function.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raymond W; Balachandran, Ahalya; Haaland, Matthew; Stoilov, Peter; Cochrane, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Expression of the complete HIV-1 genome depends on the appropriate processing of viral RNA. Altering the balance of viral RNA processing impairs replication of the virus. In this report, we characterize two small molecule modulators of HIV-1 RNA processing, 8-azaguanine and 2-(2-(5-nitro-2-thienyl)vinyl)quinoline (5350150), which function by distinct mechanisms to suppress viral gene expression. Although only 8-Azaguanine dramatically decreased accumulation of HIV-1 unspliced and singly spliced RNAs and altered splice site usage, both compounds blocked Gag and Env expression without affecting production of Tat (p16) and Rev regulatory proteins. Subsequent analyses suggest that these compounds affect Rev-mediated RNA transport by different mechanisms. Both compounds induced cytoplasmic accumulation of Rev, suggesting that they function, in part, by impairing Rev function. This conclusion is supported by the determination that both drugs block the nuclear export of genomic HIV-1 RNA to the cytoplasm. Testing confirmed that these compounds suppress HIV-1 expression in T cells at doses below those previously used in humans for tumour chemotherapy. Together, our observations demonstrate that small molecules can be used to inhibit HIV-1 replication by altering another avenue of viral RNA processing, offering the potential for the development of novel therapeutics for controlling this disease.

  5. Estimation of two real-time RT-PCR assays for quantitation of hepatitis C virus RNA during PEG-IFN plus ribavirin therapy by HCV genotypes and IL28B genotype.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Yugo; Nomura, Hideyuki; Yamashita, Nobuyuki; Tanimoto, Hironori; Ito, Kiyoaki; Masaki, Naohiko; Mizokami, Masashi; Shibuya, Tsunefumi

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA values measured with two real-time PCR methods (Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan, CAP/CTM, and the Abbott real-time PCR test, ART) vary among patients with genotype 1. We investigated HCV RNA values measured by two real-time PCR assays during pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) therapy. We evaluated 185 cases of chronic hepatitis C patients, among which 97 patients received the PEG-IFN/RBV therapy. HCV RNA values of CAP/CTM for genotype 1 were significantly higher than those of ART (p < 0.05) The difference in HCV RNA values (CAP/CTM minus ART) of genotype 1 was significantly higher than those in genotype 2 (p < 0.0001). The positive rate (>0) of the difference of HCV RNA values in genotype 1 was 100 % (55/55), which was significantly higher than the 78.6 % (33/42) of genotype 2 (p < 0.001). There was no difference between TT and TG/GG genotype groups in terms of difference of HCV RNA values (CAP/CTM minus ART). After PEG-IFN/RBV therapy was administered, reduction of HCV measurements was observed from day 1 for both assays regardless of genotype. The HCV value of CAP/CTM during PEG-IFN/RBV therapy was consistently higher than the value of ART, although the difference in these two values gradually became smaller during the course of therapy, and eventually no significant difference was observed near the detection level. No correlation was observed between the sustained virological response (SVR) rate and the difference between the CAP/CTM HCV values and the ART HCV value before treatment.

  6. Relationship between hunger, adherence to antiretroviral therapy and plasma HIV RNA suppression among HIV-positive illicit drug users in a Canadian setting.

    PubMed

    Anema, Aranka; Kerr, Thomas; Milloy, M-J; Feng, Cindy; Montaner, Julio S G; Wood, Evan

    2014-04-01

    Food insecurity may be a barrier to achieving optimal HIV treatment-related outcomes among illicit drug users. This study therefore, aimed to assess the impact of severe food insecurity, or hunger, on plasma HIV RNA suppression among illicit drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). A cross-sectional Multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the potential relationship between hunger and plasma HIV RNA suppression. A sample of n = 406 adults was derived from a community-recruited open prospective cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users, in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. A total of 235 (63.7%) reported "being hungry and unable to afford enough food," and 241 (59.4%) had plasma HIV RNA < 50 copies/ml. In unadjusted analyses, self-reported hunger was associated with lower odds of plasma HIV RNA suppression (Odds Ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.90, p = 0.015). In multivariate analyses, this association was no longer significant after controlling for socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics, including 95% adherence (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.37-1.10, p = 0.105). Multivariate models stratified by 95% adherence found that the direction and magnitude of this association was not significantly altered by the adherence level. Hunger was common among illicit drug users in this setting. Although, there was an association between hunger and lower likelihood of plasma HIV RNA suppression, this did not persist in adjusted analyses. Further research is warranted to understand the social-structural, policy, and physical factors shaping the HIV outcomes of illicit drug users.

  7. High Cure Rate With 24 Weeks of Daclatasvir-Based Quadruple Therapy in Treatment-Experienced, Null-Responder Patients With HIV/Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1/4 Coinfection: The ANRS HC30 QUADRIH Study.

    PubMed

    Piroth, Lionel; Paniez, Hubert; Taburet, Anne Marie; Vincent, Corine; Rosenthal, Eric; Lacombe, Karine; Billaud, Eric; Rey, David; Zucman, David; Bailly, François; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Simony, Mélanie; Diallo, Alpha; Izopet, Jacques; Aboulker, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2015-09-01

    Few direct anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents have been studied in difficult-to-treat null responder and cirrhotic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfected patients. Daclatasvir and asunaprevir combined with pegylated interferon/ribavirin (peg-IFN/RBV) have shown promising results in HCV-monoinfected patients. An open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study was conducted in HIV/HCV genotype 1/4-coinfected patients who were null responders to prior peg-IFN/RBV standard therapy and on a raltegravir-based regimen with HIV RNA <400 copies/mL. They received a 4-week lead-in phase with peg-IFN/RBV, followed by 24 weeks of asunaprevir (100 mg twice daily), daclatasvir (60 mg once daily), and peg-IFN/RBV. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12) using intent-to-treat analysis. Seventy-five patients were included, of whom 27 (36%) had cirrhosis. The median baseline CD4 count was 748 (interquartile range, 481-930) cells/µL. The global SVR12 rate was 96.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.8%-99.2%; n = 72/75), 92.6% (95% CI, 75.7%-99.1%; n = 25/27) in cirrhotic patients, 94.6% (95% CI, 81.8%-99.3%; n = 35/37) in genotype 1 patients, and 97.4% (95% CI, 86.2%-99.9%; n = 37/38) in genotype 4 patients. Six patients (8%) stopped HCV therapy prematurely: 2 due to HCV breakthrough, 4 to adverse events (1 lung cancer, 3 infections). One patient with cirrhosis (with baseline platelet count <150 000 platelets/µL and albuminemia <35 g/L) died from multiorgan failure. Overall, 36 serious adverse events occurred in 21 (28%) patients. No HIV breakthrough was observed. In HIV/HCV genotype 1/4-coinfected null responders, a 24-week regimen combining daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and peg-IFN/RBV was associated with a very high cure rate. The safety profile was acceptable, even though cirrhotic patients with low albuminemia and platelets should be monitored closely. This combination is a new option in this difficult-to-treat population. NCT

  8. A Conserved Target Site in HIV-1 Gag RNA is Accessible to Inhibition by Both an HDV Ribozyme and a Short Hairpin RNA

    PubMed Central

    Scarborough, Robert J; Lévesque, Michel V; Boudrias-Dalle, Etienne; Chute, Ian C; Daniels, Sylvanne M; Ouellette, Rodney J; Perreault, Jean-Pierre; Gatignol, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Antisense-based molecules targeting HIV-1 RNA have the potential to be used as part of gene or drug therapy to treat HIV-1 infection. In this study, HIV-1 RNA was screened to identify more conserved and accessible target sites for ribozymes based on the hepatitis delta virus motif. Using a quantitative screen for effects on HIV-1 production, we identified a ribozyme targeting a highly conserved site in the Gag coding sequence with improved inhibitory potential compared to our previously described candidates targeting the overlapping Tat/Rev coding sequence. We also demonstrate that this target site is highly accessible to short hairpin directed RNA interference, suggesting that it may be available for the binding of antisense RNAs with different modes of action. We provide evidence that this target site is structurally conserved in diverse viral strains and that it is sufficiently different from the human transcriptome to limit off-target effects from antisense therapies. We also show that the modified hepatitis delta virus ribozyme is more sensitive to a mismatch in its target site compared to the short hairpin RNA. Overall, our results validate the potential of a new target site in HIV-1 RNA to be used for the development of antisense therapies. PMID:25072692

  9. HIV-1 Subtype C Reverse Transcriptase and Protease Genotypes in Zimbabwean Patients Failing Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    KANTOR, RAMI; ZIJENAH, LYNN S.; SHAFER, ROBERT W.; MUTETWA, SOLOMON; JOHNSTON, ELIZABETH; LLOYD, ROBERT; VON LIEVEN, ANDREA; ISRAELSKI, DENNIS; KATZENSTEIN, DAVID A.

    2008-01-01

    HIV-1 drug resistance mutations have been identified and characterized mostly in subtype B HIV-1 infection. The extent to which antiretroviral drugs select for drug resistance mutations in non-subtype B HIV-1 is not known. We obtained HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease sequences from 21 Zimbabwean patients failing antiretroviral drug therapy. We compared these sequences with 56 published RT and protease subtype C sequences from untreated patients, 990 RT and 1140 protease subtype B sequences from treated patients, and 340 RT and 907 protease subtype B sequences from untreated patients and identified four mutation categories of subtype C HIV-1. Seventeen of the 21 patients (81%) had known drug resistance mutations. Mutations at 15 RT and 11 protease positions were more common in subtype C isolates than in subtype B isolates. HIV-1 subtype C-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy develop many of the known subtype B drug resistance mutations. Comparison of subtype C RT and protease sequences with a large database of subtype B sequences identified subtype C-specific polymorphisms and candidate drug resistance mutations. PMID:12512512

  10. An RNAi in silico approach to find an optimal shRNA cocktail against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Ortega, María C; Restrepo, Silvia; Rodríguez-R, Luis M; Pérez, Iván; Mendoza, Juan C; Martínez, Andrés P; Sierra, Roberto; Rey-Benito, Gloria J

    2010-12-20

    HIV-1 can be inhibited by RNA interference in vitro through the expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) that target conserved genome sequences. In silico shRNA design for HIV has lacked a detailed study of virus variability constituting a possible breaking point in a clinical setting. We designed shRNAs against HIV-1 considering the variability observed in naïve and drug-resistant isolates available at public databases. A Bioperl-based algorithm was developed to automatically scan multiple sequence alignments of HIV, while evaluating the possibility of identifying dominant and subdominant viral variants that could be used as efficient silencing molecules. Student t-test and Bonferroni Dunn correction test were used to assess statistical significance of our findings. Our in silico approach identified the most common viral variants within highly conserved genome regions, with a calculated free energy of ≥ -6.6 kcal/mol. This is crucial for strand loading to RISC complex and for a predicted silencing efficiency score, which could be used in combination for achieving over 90% silencing. Resistant and naïve isolate variability revealed that the most frequent shRNA per region targets a maximum of 85% of viral sequences. Adding more divergent sequences maintained this percentage. Specific sequence features that have been found to be related with higher silencing efficiency were hardly accomplished in conserved regions, even when lower entropy values correlated with better scores. We identified a conserved region among most HIV-1 genomes, which meets as many sequence features for efficient silencing. HIV-1 variability is an obstacle to achieving absolute silencing using shRNAs designed against a consensus sequence, mainly because there are many functional viral variants. Our shRNA cocktail could be truly effective at silencing dominant and subdominant naïve viral variants. Additionally, resistant isolates might be targeted under specific antiretroviral selective

  11. An RNAi in silico approach to find an optimal shRNA cocktail against HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV-1 can be inhibited by RNA interference in vitro through the expression of short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) that target conserved genome sequences. In silico shRNA design for HIV has lacked a detailed study of virus variability constituting a possible breaking point in a clinical setting. We designed shRNAs against HIV-1 considering the variability observed in naïve and drug-resistant isolates available at public databases. Methods A Bioperl-based algorithm was developed to automatically scan multiple sequence alignments of HIV, while evaluating the possibility of identifying dominant and subdominant viral variants that could be used as efficient silencing molecules. Student t-test and Bonferroni Dunn correction test were used to assess statistical significance of our findings. Results Our in silico approach identified the most common viral variants within highly conserved genome regions, with a calculated free energy of ≥ -6.6 kcal/mol. This is crucial for strand loading to RISC complex and for a predicted silencing efficiency score, which could be used in combination for achieving over 90% silencing. Resistant and naïve isolate variability revealed that the most frequent shRNA per region targets a maximum of 85% of viral sequences. Adding more divergent sequences maintained this percentage. Specific sequence features that have been found to be related with higher silencing efficiency were hardly accomplished in conserved regions, even when lower entropy values correlated with better scores. We identified a conserved region among most HIV-1 genomes, which meets as many sequence features for efficient silencing. Conclusions HIV-1 variability is an obstacle to achieving absolute silencing using shRNAs designed against a consensus sequence, mainly because there are many functional viral variants. Our shRNA cocktail could be truly effective at silencing dominant and subdominant naïve viral variants. Additionally, resistant isolates might be targeted

  12. Trans-Activation Response Element RNA is Detectable in the Plasma of a Subset of Aviremic HIV-1-Infected Patients.

    PubMed

    Hladnik, Anžej; Ferdin, Jana; Goričar, Katja; Deeks, G Steven; Peterlin, M Boris; Plemenitaš, Ana; Vita, Dolžan; Metka, Lenassi

    2017-09-01

    Determining the HIV-1 reservoir size in infected individuals is of great importance for improvement of their treatment. Plasma trans-activation response element (TAR) RNA has been suggested as one of the possible biomarkers. TAR RNA is produced during non-processive transcription in HIV-1 productively infected and latent T cells. Here, plasma samples and paired exosome samples of 55 subjects from the observational SCOPE cohort were analysed for the presence of TAR RNA. First, a PCR-based assay was optimized, which provided 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity in differentiating HIV-1 infected non-controllers from uninfected individuals. Next, TAR RNA was detected in the plasma of 63% of aviremic HIV-1-infected patients, who were either treated with antiretroviral therapy or were elite controllers. Although TAR RNA levels did not correlate with patient gender, age, CD4 levels, CD8 levels, they tended to correlate with CD4/CD8 ratio (P = 0.047). This study is the first to investigate plasma TAR RNA in a relatively large cohort of HIV-1-infected patients. We additionally show that the TAR RNA molecules in the plasma of aviremic patients are not limited to exosomes.

  13. Isolation of Cognate Cellular and Viral Ribonucleoprotein Complexes of HIV-1 RNA Applicable to Proteomic Discovery and Molecular Investigations.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deepali; Boeras, Ioana; Singh, Gatikrushna; Boris-Lawrie, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    All decisions affecting the life cycle of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) RNA are executed by ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs). HIV-1 RNA cycles through a progression of host RNPs composed of RNA-binding proteins regulating all stages of synthesis, processing, nuclear transport, translation, decay, and co-localization with assembling virions. RNA affinity chromatography is a versatile method to identify RNA-binding proteins to investigate the molecular basis of viral and cellular posttranscriptional control of gene expression. The bait is a HIV-1 RNA motif immobilized on a solid support, typically magnetic or Sepharose beads. The prey is pre-formed RNPs admixed in lysate from cells or concentrated virus particles. The methodology distinguishes high-affinity RNA-protein interactions from low-affinity complexes by increases in ionic strength during progressive elution cycles. Here, we describe RNA affinity chromatography of the 5' untranslated region of HIV-1, obtaining mixtures of high-affinity RNA binding proteins suitable for mass spectrometry and proteome identification.

  14. Comparative RNA-seq analysis of the Tritrichomonas foetus PIG30/1 isolate from pigs reveals close association with Tritrichomonas foetus BP-4 isolate 'bovine genotype'.

    PubMed

    Morin-Adeline, Victoria; Mueller, Kai; Conesa, Ana; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-09-15

    Tritrichomonas foetus was described as a commensal of the stomach, caecum and nasal cavity of pigs before it was recognised as the cause of reproductive tract disease of cattle. T. foetus also causes chronic large bowel diarrhoea in domestic cats. Multi-locus genotyping and comparative transcriptome analysis has previously revealed that T. foetus isolated from cat and cattle hosts are genetically distinct, referred to as the 'feline genotype' and 'bovine genotype', respectively. Conversely, multi-locus genotyping has grouped porcine T. foetus with the 'bovine genotype'. To compare the extent of the similarity between porcine T. foetus and cattle 'bovine genotype' isolates, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to produce the first cell-wide transcriptome library of porcine T. foetus PIG30/1. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the PIG30/1 with the published bovine (BP-4) and feline (G10/1) transcriptomes revealed that the porcine T. foetus shares a 4.7 fold greater number of orthologous genes with the bovine T. foetus than with the feline T. foetus. Comparing transcription of the virulence factors, cysteine proteases (CP) between the three isolates, the porcine T. foetus was found to preferentially transcribe CP8 like the 'bovine genotype' T. foetus, compared to thehigh transcription of CP7 seen for 'feline genotype' T. foetus. At the cell-wide transcriptome level, the porcine T. foetus isolate (PIG30/1) groups closer with the 'bovine genotype' T. foetus rather than the 'feline genotype' T. foetus.

  15. G3BP1 restricts HIV-1 replication in macrophages and T-cells by sequestering viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Cobos Jiménez, Viviana; Martinez, Fernando O; Booiman, Thijs; van Dort, Karel A; van de Klundert, Maarten A A; Gordon, Siamon; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B H; Kootstra, Neeltje A

    2015-12-01

    HIV-1 exploits the cellular machinery for replication and therefore several interactions with cellular factors take place, some of which are yet unknown. We identified GTPase-activating protein-(SH3 domain)-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) as a cellular factor that restricts HIV-1, by analyzing transcriptome profiles of in vitro-cytokine-activated macrophages that are non-permissive to HIV-1 replication. Silencing of G3BP1 by RNA interference resulted in increased HIV-1 replication in primary T-cells and macrophages, but did not affect replication of other retroviruses. G3BP1 specifically interacted with HIV-1 RNA in the cytoplasm, suggesting that it sequesters viral transcripts, thus preventing translation or packaging. G3BP1 was highly expressed in resting naïve or memory T-cells from healthy donors and HIV-1 infected patients, but significantly lower in IL-2-activated T-cells. These results strongly suggest that G3BP1 captures HIV-1 RNA transcripts and thereby restricts mRNA translation, viral protein production and virus particle formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CCL3L1-CCR5 Genotype Improves the Assessment of AIDS Risk in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Hemant; Agan, Brian K.; Marconi, Vincent C.; O'Connell, Robert J.; Camargo, Jose F.; He, Weijing; Delmar, Judith; Phelps, Kenneth R.; Crawford, George; Clark, Robert A.; Dolan, Matthew J.; Ahuja, Sunil K.

    2008-01-01

    Background Whether vexing clinical decision-making dilemmas can be partly addressed by recent advances in genomics is unclear. For example, when to initiate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during HIV-1 infection remains a clinical dilemma. This decision relies heavily on assessing AIDS risk based on the CD4+ T cell count and plasma viral load. However, the trajectories of these two laboratory markers are influenced, in part, by polymorphisms in CCR5, the major HIV coreceptor, and the gene copy number of CCL3L1, a potent CCR5 ligand and HIV-suppressive chemokine. Therefore, we determined whether accounting for both genetic and laboratory markers provided an improved means of assessing AIDS risk. Methods and Findings In a prospective, single-site, ethnically-mixed cohort of 1,132 HIV-positive subjects, we determined the AIDS risk conveyed by the laboratory and genetic markers separately and in combination. Subjects were assigned to a low, moderate or high genetic risk group (GRG) based on variations in CCL3L1 and CCR5. The predictive value of the CCL3L1-CCR5 GRGs, as estimated by likelihood ratios, was equivalent to that of the laboratory markers. GRG status also predicted AIDS development when the laboratory markers conveyed a contrary risk. Additionally, in two separate and large groups of HIV+ subjects from a natural history cohort, the results from additive risk-scoring systems and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis revealed that the laboratory and CCL3L1-CCR5 genetic markers together provided more prognostic information than either marker alone. Furthermore, GRGs independently predicted the time interval from seroconversion to CD4+ cell count thresholds used to guide HAART initiation. Conclusions The combination of the laboratory and genetic markers captures a broader spectrum of AIDS risk than either marker alone. By tracking a unique aspect of AIDS risk distinct from that captured by the laboratory parameters, CCL3L1-CCR5 genotypes

  17. Time to seroconversion in HIV-exposed subjects carrying protective versus non protective KIR3DS1/L1 and HLA-B genotypes.

    PubMed

    Tallon, Benjamin J M; Bruneau, Julie; Tsoukas, Christos M; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Kiani, Zahra; Tan, Xianming; Bernard, Nicole F

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a role in the clearance of viral infections. Combinations of alleles at the polymorphic HLA-B locus and the NK cell surface killer immunoglobulin-like receptor locus KIR3DL1/S1 have been shown to influence time to AIDS in HIV-infected individuals and risk of seroconversion in HIV exposed seronegative (HESN) subjects. Here, we assessed time to seroconversion or duration of seronegative status in a group of 168 HIV exposed individuals, including 74 seroconverters and 94 HESN based on carriage or not of KIR3DL1/S1/HLA-B genotypes previously shown to be associated with protection from infection and/or slow time to AIDS. KIR3DL1/S1 genotyping was performed by sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction using two pairs of specific primers for each locus. The MHC class IB locus was typed to four-position resolution to resolve Bw4 and Bw6 alleles and the amino acid present at position 80. KIR3DL1/S1 heterozygotes became HIV infected significantly faster than KIR3DS1 homozygotes. Individuals who carried both KIR3DS1 and Bw4*80I did not remain HIV seronegative longer than those from a control group who were homozygous for HLA-Bw6 and carried no HLA-A locus Bw4 alleles Subjects who were *h/*y+B*57 showed a trend towards slower time to serconversion than those with other KIR3DL1 homozygous and KIR3DL1/S1 heterozygous genotypes. Thus, KIR3DS1 homozygosity is associated with protection from HIV infection while co-carriage of KIR3DS1 and Bw4*80I is not. The requirements for protection from HIV infection can differ from those that influence time to AIDS in HIV infected individuals.

  18. Time to Seroconversion in HIV-Exposed Subjects Carrying Protective versus Non Protective KIR3DS1/L1 and HLA-B Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Tallon, Benjamin J. M.; Bruneau, Julie; Tsoukas, Christos M.; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Kiani, Zahra; Tan, Xianming; Bernard, Nicole F.

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a role in the clearance of viral infections. Combinations of alleles at the polymorphic HLA-B locus and the NK cell surface killer immunoglobulin-like receptor locus KIR3DL1/S1 have been shown to influence time to AIDS in HIV-infected individuals and risk of seroconversion in HIV exposed seronegative (HESN) subjects. Here, we assessed time to seroconversion or duration of seronegative status in a group of 168 HIV exposed individuals, including 74 seroconverters and 94 HESN based on carriage or not of KIR3DL1/S1/HLA-B genotypes previously shown to be associated with protection from infection and/or slow time to AIDS. KIR3DL1/S1 genotyping was performed by sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction using two pairs of specific primers for each locus. The MHC class IB locus was typed to four-position resolution to resolve Bw4 and Bw6 alleles and the amino acid present at position 80. KIR3DL1/S1 heterozygotes became HIV infected significantly faster than KIR3DS1 homozygotes. Individuals who carried both KIR3DS1 and Bw4*80I did not remain HIV seronegative longer than those from a control group who were homozygous for HLA-Bw6 and carried no HLA-A locus Bw4 alleles Subjects who were *h/*y+B*57 showed a trend towards slower time to serconversion than those with other KIR3DL1 homozygous and KIR3DL1/S1 heterozygous genotypes. Thus, KIR3DS1 homozygosity is associated with protection from HIV infection while co-carriage of KIR3DS1 and Bw4*80I is not. The requirements for protection from HIV infection can differ from those that influence time to AIDS in HIV infected individuals. PMID:25330014

  19. MicroRNA-29 family expression and its relation to antiviral immune response and viro-immunological markers in HIV-1-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Katia; Selvaggi, Carla; Cacciotti, Giulia; Falasca, Francesca; Mezzaroma, Ivano; D'Ettorre, Gabriella; Turriziani, Ombretta; Vullo, Vincenzo; Antonelli, Guido; Scagnolari, Carolina

    2015-02-12

    Several in vitro studies suggested the microRNA-29 (miRNA-29) family is involved in regulating HIV-1 and modulating the expression of interleukin (IL)-32, an anti-HIV-1 cytokine. To investigate the contribution of the miRNA-29 family to HIV-1 infection in vivo, we compared miRNA-29 expression in PBMC collected from 58 HIV-1-infected patients, naïve for antiretroviral therapy, and 21 gender- and age-matched HIV-1 seronegative healthy donors, using RT-Taqman assays. The relation between miRNA-29 levels and HIV-1 viro-immunological markers and the activation rate of antiviral immune response were also evaluated. In addition, we profiled miRNA-29 expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD14+ monocytes collected from 5 antiretroviral treated HIV-1 infected patients. miRNA-29b levels were higher in HIV-1-infected patients than in the control group (p < 0.001). There were no correlations with either HIV-1 RNA levels or CD4+ T count, whereas a significant correlation was found between miRNA-29-a/c levels and integrated HIV-1 DNA (miRNA-29a: p = 0.009, r = -0.448; miRNA-29c: p = 0.029; r = -0.381). When the HIV-1-infected patients were grouped on the basis of their plasma HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ T cell count, we also found that patients expressing the lowest levels of miRNA-29c showed high viraemia, low CD4+ T cell count and high levels of integrated HIV-1 DNA. Moreover, miRNA-29b levels were correlated with those of IL-32nonα (p = 0.028; r = -0.298). Patients expressing higher levels of miRNA-29b showed lower levels of MxA, an interferon-stimulated gene, also induced by IL-32 (p = 0.006 r = -0.397). Lastly, we found that CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD14+ monocytes shared similar miRNA-29a/b/c expression patterns but the amount of miRNA-29a/b/c, IL-32 isoforms and MxA were highly variable in these two cellular subsets. The miRNA-29 family could influence the clinical progression of HIV-1 infection, the HIV-1 proviral load and the innate immune

  20. Sequence-specific interaction between HIV-1 matrix protein and viral genomic RNA revealed by in vitro genetic selection.

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, P; Dupont, S; Stevenson, M; Green, M R

    2001-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 matrix protein (HIV-1 MA) is a multifunctional structural protein synthesized as part of the Pr55 gag polyprotein. We have used in vitro genetic selection to identify an RNA consensus sequence that specifically interacts with MA (Kd = 5 x 10(-7) M). This 13-nt MA binding consensus sequence bears a high degree of homology (77%) to a region (nt 1433-1446) within the POL open reading frame of the HIV-1 genome (consensus sequence from 38 HIV-1 strains). Chemical interference experiments identified the nucleotides within the MA binding consensus sequence involved in direct contact with MA. We further demonstrate that this RNA-protein interaction is mediated through a stretch of basic amino acids within MA. Mutations that disrupt the interaction between MA and its RNA binding site within the HIV-1 genome resulted in a measurable decrease in viral replication. PMID:11345436

  1. Suppression of HIV-1 Nef translation by Sam68 mutant-induced stress granules and nef mRNA sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Liu, Ying; Park, In-Woo; Zhang, Jizhong; Sanford, Jeremy; He, Johnny J.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY HIV-1 Nef plays important roles in HIV-1 replication and pathogenesis. It is translated from completely spliced HIV-1 RNA, its expression is inherently regulated at the levels of viral DNA transcription and RNA splicing. Here we show that Sam68 cytoplasmic mutants potently suppress Nef expression. The suppression requires Sam68 domain aa269-321 and is correlated with its ability to induce stress granules. In addition, the suppression is specific to Nef, and direct binding to nef mRNA 3′UTR confers the suppression specificity. Furthermore, nef mRNA is targeted to and enriched in these induced stress granules. Importantly, Nef suppression occurs in the context of HIV-1 infection of CD4+ T lymphocytes with little MHC I and CD4 down-regulation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that stress granule induction and nef mRNA sequestration account for this translational suppression of Nef expression and offers a new strategy for development of anti-HIV therapeutics to buttress our fight against HIV/AIDS. PMID:19150430

  2. Molecular mimicry of human tRNALys anti-codon domain by HIV-1 RNA genome facilitates tRNA primer annealing

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher P.; Saadatmand, Jenan; Kleiman, Lawrence; Musier-Forsyth, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The primer for initiating reverse transcription in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is tRNALys3. Host cell tRNALys is selectively packaged into HIV-1 through a specific interaction between the major tRNALys-binding protein, human lysyl-tRNA synthetase (hLysRS), and the viral proteins Gag and GagPol. Annealing of the tRNA primer onto the complementary primer-binding site (PBS) in viral RNA is mediated by the nucleocapsid domain of Gag. The mechanism by which tRNALys3 is targeted to the PBS and released from hLysRS prior to annealing is unknown. Here, we show that hLysRS specifically binds to a tRNA anti-codon-like element (TLE) in the HIV-1 genome, which mimics the anti-codon loop of tRNALys and is located proximal to the PBS. Mutation of the U-rich sequence within the TLE attenuates binding of hLysRS in vitro and reduces the amount of annealed tRNALys3 in virions. Thus, LysRS binds specifically to the TLE, which is part of a larger LysRS binding domain in the viral RNA that includes elements of the Psi packaging signal. Our results suggest that HIV-1 uses molecular mimicry of the anti-codon of tRNALys to increase the efficiency of tRNALys3 annealing to viral RNA. PMID:23264568

  3. Engineering and Validation of a Vector for Concomitant Expression of Rare Transfer RNA (tRNA) and HIV-1 nef Genes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mualif, Siti Aisyah; Teow, Sin-Yeang; Omar, Tasyriq Che; Chew, Yik Wei; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd; Ali, Syed A

    2015-01-01

    Relative ease in handling and manipulation of Escherichia coli strains make them primary candidate to express proteins heterologously. Overexpression of heterologous genes that contain codons infrequently used by E. coli is related with difficulties such as mRNA instability, early termination of transcription and/or translation, deletions and/or misincorporation, and cell growth inhibition. These codon bias -associated problems are addressed by co-expressing ColE1-compatible, rare tRNA expressing helper plasmids. However, this approach has inadequacies, which we have addressed by engineering an expression vector that concomitantly expresses the heterologous protein of interest, and rare tRNA genes in E. coli. The expression vector contains three (argU, ileY, leuW) rare tRNA genes and a useful multiple cloning site for easy in-frame cloning. To maintain the overall size of the parental plasmid vector, the rare tRNA genes replaced the non-essential DNA segments in the vector. The cloned gene is expressed under the control of T7 promoter and resulting recombinant protein has a C-terminal 6His tag for IMAC-mediated purification. We have evaluated the usefulness of this expression vector by expressing three HIV-1 genes namely HIV-1 p27 (nef), HIV-1 p24 (ca), and HIV-1 vif in NiCo21(DE3) E.coli and demonstrated the advantages of using expression vector that concomitantly expresses rare tRNA and heterologous genes.

  4. Targeted cleavage of HIV RRE RNA by Rev-coupled transition metal chelates.

    PubMed

    Joyner, Jeff C; Cowan, J A

    2011-06-29

    A series of compounds that target reactive metal chelates to the HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) mRNA have been synthesized. Dissociation constants and chemical reactivity toward HIV RRE RNA have been determined and evaluated in terms of reduction potential, coordination unsaturation, and overall charge associated with the metal-chelate-Rev complex. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) were linked to a lysine side chain of a Rev-derived peptide by either EDC/NHS or isothiocyanate coupling. The resulting chelate-Rev (EDTA-Rev, DTPA-Rev, NTA-Rev, and DOTA-Rev) conjugates were used to form coordination complexes with Fe(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), and Cu(2+) such that the arginine-rich Rev peptide could mediate localization of the metal chelates to the Rev peptide's high-affinity mRNA binding partner, RRE stem loop IIB. Metal complexes of the extended peptides GGH-Rev and KGHK-Rev, which also contain N-terminal peptidic chelators (ATCUN motifs), were studied for comparison. A fluorescence titration assay revealed high-affinity RRE RNA binding by all 22 metal-chelate-Rev species, with K(D) values ranging from ~0.2 to 16 nM, indicating little to no loss of RNA affinity due to the coupling of the metal chelates to the Rev peptide. Dissociation constants for binding at a previously unobserved low-affinity site are also reported. Rates of RNA modification by each metal-chelate-Rev species were determined and varied from ~0.28 to 4.9 nM/min but were optimal for Cu(2+)-NTA-Rev. Metal-chelate reduction potentials were determined and varied from -228 to +1111 mV vs NHE under similar solution conditions, allowing direct comparison of reactivity with redox thermodynamics. Optimal activity was observed when the reduction potential for the metal center was poised between those of the two principal co-reagents for metal-promoted formation of

  5. Iron(II) supramolecular helicates interfere with the HIV-1 Tat–TAR RNA interaction critical for viral replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malina, Jaroslav; Hannon, Michael J.; Brabec, Viktor

    2016-07-01

    The interaction between the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat and TAR (transactivation responsive region) RNA, plays a critical role in HIV-1 transcription. Iron(II) supramolecular helicates were evaluated for their in vitro activity to inhibit Tat–TAR RNA interaction using UV melting studies, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and RNase A footprinting. The results demonstrate that iron(II) supramolecular helicates inhibit Tat-TAR interaction at nanomolar concentrations by binding to TAR RNA. These studies provide a new insight into the biological potential of metallosupramolecular helicates.

  6. Fatal Cryptococcus gattii genotype VGI infection in an HIV-positive patient in Barranquilla, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Noguera, María Clara; Escandón, Patricia; Castañeda, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcosis is a major invasive fungal disease related worldwide with the AIDS population. New reports of HIV/AIDS cases to the national public health surveillance system (SIVIGILA) in Colombia have shown that there is a growing community at risk of contracting cryptococcosis throughout the country who do not have access to ART. Even though the most prevalent species Cryptococcus neoformans is mainly associated with the HIV population, we report a fatal case of cryptococcosis in an AIDS patient in Barranquilla, associated with Cryptococcus gattii VGI, isolated from blood culture. PMID:28591262

  7. Fatal Cryptococcus gattii genotype VGI infection in an HIV-positive patient in Barranquilla, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Noguera, María Clara; Escandón, Patricia; Castañeda, Elizabeth

    2017-06-01

    Cryptococcosis is a major invasive fungal disease related worldwide with the AIDS population. New reports of HIV/AIDS cases to the national public health surveillance system (SIVIGILA) in Colombia have shown that there is a growing community at risk of contracting cryptococcosis throughout the country who do not have access to ART. Even though the most prevalent species Cryptococcus neoformans is mainly associated with the HIV population, we report a fatal case of cryptococcosis in an AIDS patient in Barranquilla, associated with Cryptococcus gattii VGI, isolated from blood culture.

  8. Attacking HIV-1 RNA versus DNA by sequence-specific approaches: RNAi versus CRISPR-Cas.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Carrillo, Elena; Berkhout, Ben

    2016-10-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection can be effectively controlled by potent antiviral drugs, but this never results in a cure. The patient should therefore take these drugs for the rest of his/her life, which can cause drug-resistance and adverse effects. Therefore, more durable therapeutic strategies should be considered, such as a stable gene therapy to protect the target T cells against HIV-1 infection. The development of potent therapeutic regimens based on the RNA interference (RNAi) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR-Cas) mechanisms will be described, which can be delivered by lentiviral vectors. These mechanisms attack different forms of the viral genome, the RNA and DNA, respectively, but both mechanisms act in a strictly sequence-specific manner. Early RNAi experiments demonstrated profound virus inhibition, but also indicated that viral escape is possible. Such therapy failure can be prevented by the design of a combinatorial RNAi attack on the virus and this gene therapy is currently being tested in a preclinical humanized mouse model. Recent CRISPR-Cas studies also document robust virus inhibition, but suggest a novel viral escape route that is induced by the cellular nonhomologous end joining DNA repair pathway, which is activated by CRISPR-Cas-induced DNA breaks. We will compare these two approaches for durable HIV-1 suppression and discuss the respective advantages and disadvantages. The potential for future clinical applications will be described.

  9. Widespread hepatitis B virus genotype G (HBV-G) infection during the early years of the HIV epidemic in the Netherlands among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Marion; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Bakker, Margreet; Berkhout, Ben; van der Kuyl, Antoinette C

    2016-06-10

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants belong to different genotypes, A-J, whose worldwide distribution is linked with geography, probably because viral spread was associated with ancient human migrations. HBV genotype G (HBV-G) is an aberrant genotype with little sequence divergence, suggesting a recent origin. HBV-G is strongly associated with certain risk groups such as intravenous drug users (IDUs) and men who have sex with men (MSM), but hardly with geography. The origin and epidemiology of HBV-G remain unresolved, as is the disease association. To estimate the prevalence and possible time of introduction of HBV-G into the MSM community in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, we have retrospectively analysed 226 blood serum samples from HBsAg positive MSM enrolled in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies (ACS) on HIV infection and AIDS dating from 1984 to 1999 using genotype-specific PCR assays. Of the 226 HBsAg-positive samples, 149 were HBV DNA positive. Of those, 104 were positive for HBV genotype A (HBV-A) and five for HBV-G, and 40 showed a dual infection with both HBV-A and HBV-G. Being HIV-infected was significantly associated with a reduced HBV DNA viral load in blood, but not with the prevalence of HBV-G. Early virus already contained stop codons in the precore region and a 36 bp insertion in the core gene which are the characteristics of HBV-G. HBV-G was introduced before 1985 into the Amsterdam MSM community. Early isolates show very limited sequence variation, confirming a low evolutionary rate. HBV-G acquisition was independent of HIV infection, but being HIV-infected was significantly associated with a reduced HBV viral load in blood, indicating a beneficial effect of early HIV infection in controlling HBV replication.

  10. Single genome amplification and standard bulk PCR yield HIV-1 envelope products with similar genotypic and phenotypic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Etemad, Behzad; Ghulam-Smith, Melissa; Gonzalez, Oscar; White, Laura F; Sagar, Manish

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that single genome amplification (SGA) as compared to standard bulk PCR and virus stocks from 293T transfection versus short term passage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) yield a less biased representation of HIV-1 envelope characteristics. In 9 different subjects, genetic diversity, divergence, and population structure were not significantly different among SGA or bulk PCR amplified envelope V1-V3 segments. In these subjects, 293T transfection derived virus stocks with SGA or bulk PCR amplified envelopes have similar infectivity, replication kinetics, co-receptor usage, and neutralization susceptibility. While PBMC passage as compared to the 293T derived virus stocks had similar co-receptor usage, PBMC viruses were less neutralization susceptible to some specific antibodies. Our results suggest that the method of envelope sequence amplification, either SGA or bulk PCR, does not have a significant impact on the genotypic and phenotypic properties of the virus envelope quasispecies.

  11. Probing the HIV-1 genomic RNA trafficking pathway and dimerization by genetic recombination and single virion analyses.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michael D; Nikolaitchik, Olga A; Chen, Jianbo; Hammarskjöld, Marie-Louise; Rekosh, David; Hu, Wei-Shau

    2009-10-01

    Once transcribed, the nascent full-length RNA of HIV-1 must travel to the appropriate host cell sites to be translated or to find a partner RNA for copackaging to form newly generated viruses. In this report, we sought to delineate the location where HIV-1 RNA initiates dimerization and the influence of the RNA transport pathway used by the virus on downstream events essential to viral replication. Using a cell-fusion-dependent recombination assay, we demonstrate that the two RNAs destined for copackaging into the same virion select each other mostly within the cytoplasm. Moreover, by manipulating the RNA export element in the viral genome, we show that the export pathway taken is important for the ability of RNA molecules derived from two viruses to interact and be copackaged. These results further illustrate that at the point of dimerization the two main cellular export pathways are partially distinct. Lastly, by providing Gag in trans, we have demonstrated that Gag is able to package RNA from either export pathway, irrespective of the transport pathway used by the gag mRNA. These findings provide unique insights into the process of RNA export in general, and more specifically, of HIV-1 genomic RNA trafficking.

  12. HIV Viral Load

    MedlinePlus

    ... Count ; HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) ; HIV Drug Resistance ( Genotypic and Phenotypic ) All content on Lab Tests ... have their therapy changed. They should undergo HIV drug resistance testing to help in the selection of an ...

  13. PCR-based identification of eight Lactobacillus species and 18 hr-HPV genotypes in fixed cervical samples of South African women at risk of HIV and BV.

    PubMed

    Dols, Joke A M; Reid, Gregor; Kort, Remco; Schuren, Frank H J; Tempelman, Hugo; Bontekoe, Tj Romke; Korporaal, Hans; Van der Veer, E M; Smit, Pieter W; Boon, Mathilde E

    2012-06-01

    Vaginal lactobacilli assessed by PCR-based microarray and PCR-based genotyping of HPV in South African women at risk for HIV and BV. Vaginal lactobacilli can be defined by microarray techniques in fixed cervical samples of South African women. Cervical brush samples suspended in the coagulant fixative BoonFix of one hundred women attending a health centre for HIV testing in South Africa were available for this study. In the Ndlovu Medical Centre in Elandsdoorn, South Africa, identification of 18 hr-HPV genotypes was done using the INNO-LiPA method. An inventory of lactobacilli organisms was performed using microarray technology. On the basis of the Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus biofilm scoring, the cases were identified as Leiden bacterial vaginosis (BV) negative (BV-; n = 41), Leiden BV intermediate (BV±; n = 25), and Leiden BV positive (BV+; n = 34). Fifty-one women were HIV positive and 49 HIV negative. Out of the 51 HIV positive women, 35 were HPV infected. These 51 HIV positive women were frequently infected with HPV16 and HPV18. In addition, HPV35, HPV52, HPV33, and HPV66 were often detected in these samples. Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus iners were the most prevalent lactobacilli as established by the microarray technique. In women with HPV infection, the prevalence of Lactobacillus crispatus was significantly reduced. In both HIV and HPV infection, a similar (but not identical) shift in the composition of the lactobacillus flora was observed. We conclude that there is a shift in the composition of vaginal lactobacilli in HIV-infected women. Because of the prominence of HPV35, HPV52, HPV33, and HPV66, vaccination for exclusively HPV16 and HPV18 might be insufficient in South African HIV+ women.

  14. Identification of Novel Recombinant Forms of Hepatitis B Virus Generated from Genotypes Ae and G in HIV-1-Positive Japanese Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Kawahata, Takuya; Mori, Haruyo; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Taniguchi, Yasushi; Itoda, Ichiro; Komano, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The rare hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype G (HBV/G) coinfects HIV-1-positive individuals along with HBV/A and generates recombinants. However, the circulation of HBV A/G recombinants remains poorly understood. This molecular epidemiologic study examined HBV A/G recombinants in Japanese HIV-1-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Initially, blood specimens submitted for confirmatory tests of HIV infection in Osaka and Tokyo, Japan, from 2006 to 2013 were examined for HIV-1, and HIV-1-positive specimens were screened for HBV. Among 817 specimens from HIV-1-positive individuals, HBsAg was detected in 59 specimens; of these, HBV/Ae (alternatively A2), a subgenotype of HBV/A prevalent in Europe and North America, was identified in 70.2%, HBV/C in 17.5%, and HBV/G in 10.5%, and HBV/E in 1.8% according to the core gene sequence. The full-length genome analysis of HBV was performed on HBV/G-positive specimens because some HBV A/G recombinants were historically overlooked by genotyping based on a partial genome analysis. It revealed that five of the specimens contained novel Ae/G recombinants, the core gene of which had a high sequence similarity to HBV/G. Detailed analyses showed that novel recombinants were coinfected with HBV/Ae in a recombinant-dominant fashion. No major drug-resistant mutations were found in the newly identified HBV Ae/G recombinants. Some of the individuals asymptomatically coinfected with HIV/HBV suffered mild liver injury. This study demonstrated that novel Ae/G HBV recombinants were identified in Japanese HIV-1-positive MSM. The pathogenicity of novel HBV Ae/G recombinants should be examined in a future longitudinal study. Surveillance of such viruses in HIV-1-positive individuals should be emphasized. PMID:25825936

  15. Identification of Novel Recombinant Forms of Hepatitis B Virus Generated from Genotypes Ae and G in HIV-1-Positive Japanese Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yoko; Kawahata, Takuya; Mori, Haruyo; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Taniguchi, Yasushi; Itoda, Ichiro; Komano, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The rare hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype G (HBV/G) coinfects HIV-1-positive individuals along with HBV/A and generates recombinants. However, the circulation of HBV A/G recombinants remains poorly understood. This molecular epidemiologic study examined HBV A/G recombinants in Japanese HIV-1-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Initially, blood specimens submitted for confirmatory tests of HIV infection in Osaka and Tokyo, Japan, from 2006 to 2013 were examined for HIV-1, and HIV-1-positive specimens were screened for HBV. Among 817 specimens from HIV-1-positive individuals, HBsAg was detected in 59 specimens; of these, HBV/Ae (alternatively A2), a subgenotype of HBV/A prevalent in Europe and North America, was identified in 70.2%, HBV/C in 17.5%, and HBV/G in 10.5%, and HBV/E in 1.8% according to the core gene sequence. The full-length genome analysis of HBV was performed on HBV/G-positive specimens because some HBV A/G recombinants were historically overlooked by genotyping based on a partial genome analysis. It revealed that five of the specimens contained novel Ae/G recombinants, the core gene of which had a high sequence similarity to HBV/G. Detailed analyses showed that novel recombinants were coinfected with HBV/Ae in a recombinant-dominant fashion. No major drug-resistant mutations were found in the newly identified HBV Ae/G recombinants. Some of the individuals asymptomatically coinfected with HIV/HBV suffered mild liver injury. This study demonstrated that novel Ae/G HBV recombinants were identified in Japanese HIV-1-positive MSM. The pathogenicity of novel HBV Ae/G recombinants should be examined in a future longitudinal study. Surveillance of such viruses in HIV-1-positive individuals should be emphasized.

  16. Evaluations of an in-house drug resistance method for HIV-1 drug resistance using ViroSeq™ 2.0 genotyping system as a gold standard.

    PubMed

    Chaturbhuj, Devidas N; Deshmukh, Pravin S; Hingankar, Nitin K; Siddhaarth, K; Deshpande, Sohan N; Sen, Sourav; Kabra, Sandhya; Paranjape, Ramesh S; Tripathy, Srikanth P

    2013-04-01

    An in-house method was evaluated for its efficiency to detect the HIV-1 drug resistance mutations. This method was compared with the ViroSeq™ Genotyping System 2.0 (Celera Diagnostics, US) a gold standard. Sixty-five stored plasma samples, previously tested for HIV-1 drug resistance using the ViroSeq™ method were used to evaluate the in-house method. Out of the sixty five plasma samples, sixty were HIV-1 positive clinical samples; four samples from the Virology Quality Assessment (VQA) program and one positive control from the ViroSeq™ kit were used in this study. The sequences generated by the ViroSeq™ and an in-house method showed 99.5±0.5% and 99.7±0.4% (mean±SD) nucleotide and amino acid identity, respectively. Out of 214 Stanford HIVdb listed HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in the protease and reverse transcriptase regions, concordance was observed in 203 (94.9%), partial discordance in 11 (5.1%) and complete discordance was absent. The in-house primers are broadly sensitive in genotyping multiple HIV-1 group M subtypes. The amplification sensitivity of the in-house method was 1000 copies/ml. The evaluation of the in-house method provides results comparable with that of ViroSeq™ method thus, making the in-house method suitable for HIV-1 drug resistance testing in the developing countries.

  17. The unique HCV genotype distribution and the discovery of a novel subtype 6u among IDUs co-infected with HIV-1 in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xueshan; Lu, Ling; Tee, Kok Keng; Zhao, Wenhua; Wu, Jianguo; Yu, Jing; Li, Xiaojie; Lin, Yixiong; Mukhtar, Muhammad Mahmood; Hagedorn, Curt H; Takebe, Yutaka

    2008-07-01

    The Yunnan province is the epicenter of HIV-1 epidemics in China and a center for drug trafficking to the other parts of the world. In six prefectures of this province, a total of 132 IDUs were recruited to determine the sero-prevalence of HCV and HIV-1 and the positive rates were 93.94% and 68.18%, respectively (P<0.001). Co-infection with HCV and HIV-1 was found among 89 IDUs, of whom several HCV fragments were amplified and sequenced. Sequences of the HCV 5'NCR-C and NS5B region were determined from 82 IDUs. Phylogenetic analyses showed consistent genotyping among 80 IDUs. Among them HCV genotypes 1a, 1b, 3a, 3b, 6a, 6n, and a tentatively assigned novel 6u subtype were found in 1 (1.25%), 16 (20%), 19 (23.75%), 24 (30%), 4 (5%), 9 (11.25%) and 7 (8.75%) individuals, respectively. In two IDUs, genotyping results were discordant, suggesting mixed HCV infections or recombination. The proportion of patients with HCV 1b tended to decrease from the north to south and from the east to west in this province. Genotype 3 and 6 strains were more frequent in the southern prefectures. The novel subtype 6u strains were only detected in Dehong which borders Myanmar. Our findings showed a unique pattern of HCV genotype distribution, which is similar to that in the southeastern Asian countries but distinct from that among the general population in China. Routes of drug trafficking and the resulting high prevalence of HIV-1 infection may have contributed to this pattern of HCV genotype distribution.

  18. HIV-1 matrix protein p17 resides in cell nuclei in association with genomic RNA.

    PubMed

    Bukrinskaya, A G; Vorkunova, G K; Tentsov YYu

    1992-10-01

    We have shown previously that HIV-1 matrix protein p17 is transported to the nucleus of Jurkat-tat and H9 cells soon after infection. As shown in this combination, gag polyprotein p55 synthesized 48 h after cell infection is cleaved in cytosol rapidly after its synthesis, and nascent p17 enters the nuclei and gradually accumulates there. Uncleaved p55 molecules and intermediate precursors are rapidly transported to the membranes and are also found in nuclei. Mature gag proteins are seen in membranes only after prolonged period of labelling or chase (4 or more hours later). To determine whether the nascent p17 is associated with viral genomic RNA in the nuclei, the cells were fractionated, the viral complexes were immunoprecipitated by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against gag proteins, and RNA was extracted and analyzed by slot and blot hybridization. MAb against p17 precipitated all the viral RNA from the nuclei including full-size genomic RNA and essential parts from membranes while MAb against p24 did not precipitate any viral RNA from the nuclei. These data suggest that matrix protein is linked to genomic RNA in the nuclei and raise the possibility that p17 may transfer viral nucleocapsids from the nuclei to plasma membranes, the site of virus assembly.

  19. Exosomes from HIV-1-infected Cells Stimulate Production of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines through Trans-activating Response (TAR) RNA.

    PubMed

    Sampey, Gavin C; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Schwab, Angela; Barclay, Robert; Punya, Shreya; Chung, Myung-Chul; Hakami, Ramin M; Zadeh, Mohammad Asad; Lepene, Benjamin; Klase, Zachary A; El-Hage, Nazira; Young, Mary; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2016-01-15

    HIV-1 infection results in a chronic illness because long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy can lower viral titers to an undetectable level. However, discontinuation of therapy rapidly increases virus burden. Moreover, patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy frequently develop various metabolic disorders, neurocognitive abnormalities, and cardiovascular diseases. We have previously shown that exosomes containing trans-activating response (TAR) element RNA enhance susceptibility of undifferentiated naive cells to HIV-1 infection. This study indicates that exosomes from HIV-1-infected primary cells are highly abundant with TAR RNA as detected by RT-real time PCR. Interestingly, up to a million copies of TAR RNA/μl were also detected in the serum from HIV-1-infected humanized mice suggesting that TAR RNA may be stable in vivo. Incubation of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells with primary macrophages resulted in a dramatic increase of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-β, indicating that exosomes containing TAR RNA could play a direct role in control of cytokine gene expression. The intact TAR molecule was able to bind to PKR and TLR3 effectively, whereas the 5' and 3' stems (TAR microRNAs) bound best to TLR7 and -8 and none to PKR. Binding of TAR to PKR did not result in its phosphorylation, and therefore, TAR may be a dominant negative decoy molecule in cells. The TLR binding through either TAR RNA or TAR microRNA potentially can activate the NF-κB pathway and regulate cytokine expression. Collectively, these results imply that exosomes containing TAR RNA could directly affect the proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and may explain a possible mechanism of inflammation observed in HIV-1-infected patients under cART. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Exosomes from HIV-1-infected Cells Stimulate Production of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines through Trans-activating Response (TAR) RNA*

    PubMed Central

    Sampey, Gavin C.; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Schwab, Angela; Barclay, Robert; Punya, Shreya; Chung, Myung-Chul; Hakami, Ramin M.; Asad Zadeh, Mohammad; Lepene, Benjamin; Klase, Zachary A.; El-Hage, Nazira; Young, Mary; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 infection results in a chronic illness because long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy can lower viral titers to an undetectable level. However, discontinuation of therapy rapidly increases virus burden. Moreover, patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy frequently develop various metabolic disorders, neurocognitive abnormalities, and cardiovascular diseases. We have previously shown that exosomes containing trans-activating response (TAR) element RNA enhance susceptibility of undifferentiated naive cells to HIV-1 infection. This study indicates that exosomes from HIV-1-infected primary cells are highly abundant with TAR RNA as detected by RT-real time PCR. Interestingly, up to a million copies of TAR RNA/μl were also detected in the serum from HIV-1-infected humanized mice suggesting that TAR RNA may be stable in vivo. Incubation of exosomes from HIV-1-infected cells with primary macrophages resulted in a dramatic increase of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-β, indicating that exosomes containing TAR RNA could play a direct role in control of cytokine gene expression. The intact TAR molecule was able to bind to PKR and TLR3 effectively, whereas the 5′ and 3′ stems (TAR microRNAs) bound best to TLR7 and -8 and none to PKR. Binding of TAR to PKR did not result in its phosphorylation, and therefore, TAR may be a dominant negative decoy molecule in cells. The TLR binding through either TAR RNA or TAR microRNA potentially can activate the NF-κB pathway and regulate cytokine expression. Collectively, these results imply that exosomes containing TAR RNA could directly affect the proinflammatory cytokine gene expression and may explain a possible mechanism of inflammation observed in HIV-1-infected patients under cART. PMID:26553869

  1. Genotypic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Greece. Multicentre Study on HIV-1 Heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Nasioulas, G; Paraskevis, D; Paparizos, V; Lazanas, M; Karafoulidou, A; Hatzakis, A

    1998-05-20

    The HIV-1 subtype distribution in 83 HIV-1-seropositive individuals living in Greece was investigated by using the heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA), DNA sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that partial HIV-1 gp120 sequences from 71 (86%) patients were subtype B, 5 (6%) were subtype A, 4 were subtype D (5%), 2 (2%) were subtype C, and 1 (1%) was subtype I. The subtype I isolate was documented in an intravenous drug user. A high prevalence (90-100%) of B isolates among intravenous drug users, hemophiliacs, and homosexual men was observed, in contrast to heterosexuals, among whom non-B subtypes seemed to be common (42.9%, p < 0.001). Among the Greek population subtype B is the most frequent (94%), in contrast to the high prevalence (57%) of non-B isolates found in emigrants living in Greece (p < 0.001). A heterosexual transmission case of subtype D in a Greek individual not traveling abroad was also documented. The broad HIV-1 diversity in Greece may be explained by population movements, such as migration and traveling.

  2. Genetic Variation of HIV: Viral Load and Genotypic Diversity in Relation to Viral Pathogenesis and Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-20

    Replication; Viral Pathogenesis; Viral Quantitation; Vaccines; Genetic Variation; 16. PRICE CODE Zoonosis ; PCR; RAD I 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18...sooty mangabey and that HIV-2 infection of man represents a zoonosis (88). First, SIVm is a pathogenic in sooty mangabeys (89,90) but is pathogenic in

  3. Rev-Free HIV-1 Gene Delivery System for Targeting Rev-RRE-Crm1 Nucleocytoplasmic RNA Transport Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasakumar, Narasimhachar

    2011-01-01

    The use of RNA transport elements from different viruses can provide novel attributes to HIV-1-based gene delivery systems such as improved safety or Rev independence. We previously described an HIV-1 based gene delivery system that utilized the simian immunodeficiency virus Rev-response element (RRE) in place of the HIV-1 RRE. Despite the use of Rev for the production of vector stocks, we showed the utility of this system for delivery of Rev M10, a dominant-negative mutant of HIV-1 Rev, into T-cells. Here, we investigated the use of RNA transport elements from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus or MPMV for the creation of high-titered Rev-free HIV-1-based packaging systems. The HIV-1 gag/pol expression constructs containing one or more copies of MPMV constitutive RNA transport element (CTE) were used to package similarly modified gene-transfer vectors in the presence or absence of Rev. An inverse correlation between the number of CTE modules and Rev dependency was noted for vector stock production. While packaging systems containing multiple CTEs were resistant to exogenously expressed Rev M10, the titers of vectors encoding Rev M10 were nevertheless reduced in comparison to vectors encoding only green fluorescent protein (GFP). In contrast, a gene transfer vector encoding the Rev M10 transgene and containing both RNA transport elements exhibited almost no loss in titer in comparison to a corresponding vector encoding only GFP. The optimized Rev-independent gene delivery system was used for delivery of Rev M10 transgene into T-lymphocytes. Upon challenge in single round infection assays with HIV-1, the modified T-cells produced fewer virus particles than control cells expressing GFP. This Rev-free packaging system may prove useful for targeting the Rev-RRE-Crm1 nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport pathway for inhibiting HIV replication. PMID:22164294

  4. Rev-free HIV-1 gene delivery system for targeting Rev-RRE-Crm1 nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport pathway.

    PubMed

    Srinivasakumar, Narasimhachar

    2011-01-01

    The use of RNA transport elements from different viruses can provide novel attributes to HIV-1-based gene delivery systems such as improved safety or Rev independence. We previously described an HIV-1 based gene delivery system that utilized the simian immunodeficiency virus Rev-response element (RRE) in place of the HIV-1 RRE. Despite the use of Rev for the production of vector stocks, we showed the utility of this system for delivery of Rev M10, a dominant-negative mutant of HIV-1 Rev, into T-cells. Here, we investigated the use of RNA transport elements from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus or MPMV for the creation of high-titered Rev-free HIV-1-based packaging systems. The HIV-1 gag/pol expression constructs containing one or more copies of MPMV constitutive RNA transport element (CTE) were used to package similarly modified gene-transfer vectors in the presence or absence of Rev. An inverse correlation between the number of CTE modules and Rev dependency was noted for vector stock production. While packaging systems containing multiple CTEs were resistant to exogenously expressed Rev M10, the titers of vectors encoding Rev M10 were nevertheless reduced in comparison to vectors encoding only green fluorescent protein (GFP). In contrast, a gene transfer vector encoding the Rev M10 transgene and containing both RNA transport elements exhibited almost no loss in titer in comparison to a corresponding vector encoding only GFP. The optimized Rev-independent gene delivery system was used for delivery of Rev M10 transgene into T-lymphocytes. Upon challenge in single round infection assays with HIV-1, the modified T-cells produced fewer virus particles than control cells expressing GFP. This Rev-free packaging system may prove useful for targeting the Rev-RRE-Crm1 nucleocytoplasmic RNA transport pathway for inhibiting HIV replication.

  5. Residential Eviction and Risk of Detectable Plasma HIV-1 RNA Viral Load Among HIV-Positive People Who Use Drugs.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Mary Clare; Kerr, Thomas; McNeil, Ryan; Parashar, Surita; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan; Milloy, M-J

    2017-03-01

    We examined the relationship between residential eviction and exhibiting detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) among a prospective cohort of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-exposed HIV-seropositive people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) in Vancouver, Canada. We used multivariable generalized estimating equations to estimate the effect of residential eviction on detectable VL and examine ART adherence as a mediating variable. Between June 2007 and May 2014, 705 ART-exposed participants were included in the study, among whom 500 (70.9 %) experienced at least one period of detectable VL. In a time-updated multivariable model, eviction independently increased the odds of detectable VL among those who were homeless [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.25; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.18-4.29] as well as not homeless (AOR = 1.76; 95 % CI 1.17-2.63) post eviction. The results of mediation analyses suggest that this association was mediated by incomplete ART adherence. These findings suggest the need for further development and evaluation of interventions to prevent evictions and promote ART adherence among PWUD facing eviction.

  6. Plasma mitochondrial DNA levels are inversely associated with HIV-RNA levels and directly with CD4 counts: potential role as a biomarker of HIV replication.

    PubMed

    Pernas, Berta; Rego-Pérez, Ignacio; Tabernilla, Andrés; Balboa, Vanesa; Relaño, Sara; Grandal, Marta; Crespo, Manuel; Mena, Álvaro; Castro-Iglesias, Ángeles; Blanco, Francisco J; Poveda, Eva

    2017-08-31

    To evaluate plasma mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels among HIV-infected patients and its potential role as a biomarker of residual viral replication. HIV-infected patients on follow-up at a reference hospital in north-west Spain were selected. DNA was isolated from plasma samples and mtDNA levels were assessed using a quantitative real-time PCR assay. HIV-RNA levels and CD4+ cell counts were evaluated in the same blood samples used for plasma mtDNA quantification. Epidemiological and clinical variables were included for the analysis. A total of 235 HIV-infected patients were included. Mean plasma mtDNA levels were 217 ± 656 copies/μL for naive (31.9%) and 364 ± 939 copies/μL for HIV-infected patients receiving ART and with suppressed viraemia ( P  =   0.043). Among the latter, mean plasma mtDNA levels were 149 ± 440 copies/μL for those with low-level viraemia (LLV; HIV-RNA 20-200 copies/mL), 265 ± 723 copies/μL for those with detected-not-quantified (DNQ) viraemia (HIV-RNA <20 copies/mL) and 644 ± 1310 copies/μL for those with not-detected (ND) viraemia. Of note, a linear trend ( P  =   0.006) was observed among virologically suppressed (LLV, DNQ and ND) patients. ND patients had higher mtDNA levels compared with LLV patients ( P  =   0.057). Moreover, mtDNA levels were inversely associated with HIV-RNA levels (Spearman's rho -0.191, P  =   0.003) and directly associated with CD4+ counts (Spearman's rho 0.131, P  =   0.046). Increased plasma mtDNA levels are associated with lower HIV-RNA levels and higher CD4+ cell counts. Among ART-suppressed patients, mtDNA levels were significantly higher in those with complete virological suppression (ND) than in those with LLV. These data suggest that plasma mtDNA levels might serve as a biomarker of residual HIV replication.

  7. Impact of aciclovir on genital and plasma HIV-1 RNA in HSV-2/HIV-1 co-infected women: a randomised placebo-controlled trial in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Delany, Sinéad; Mlaba, Nonkululeko; Clayton, Tim; Akpomiemie, Godspower; Capovilla, Alexio; Legoff, Jerome; Belec, Laurent; Stevens, Wendy; Rees, Helen; Mayaud, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background Several studies suggest that herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) may enhance HIV-1 transmission and disease progression. Methods We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of aciclovir 400mg BD for 3 months in 300 HSV-2/HIV-1 co-infected women not yet on HAART. Participants were evaluated pre-randomisation and at monthly visits for 3 months. Primary outcomes were the detection and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA at the month 3 (M3) visit. Analyses were also undertaken using data from all visits. The treatment effects on plasma HIV-1 RNA, CD4+ count and genital HSV-2 DNA were also assessed. Results At M3 fewer women has detectable genital HIV in the aciclovir group compared to placebo, but this was not significant (61/132 [46%] vs.71/137 [52%], risk ratio [RR] 0.89, 95%CI 0.70 to 1.14, p=0.36). There was also little difference in quantity of HIV-1 RNA among shedders (+0.13 log10 copies/mL, 95%CI −0.14 to 0.39) at M3. However, aciclovir significantly decreased the frequency of HIV-1 shedding over all visits (adjusted odds-ratio 0.57, 95%CI 0.36 to 0.89). Significant reductions in M3 plasma HIV-1 RNA (−0.34 log10 copies/mL 95%CI 0.15 to 0.54), genital HSV-2 DNA (8% vs. 20%, RR 0.37, 95%CI 0.19 to 0.73) and genital ulceration (8% vs. 18%, RR 0.43, 95%CI 0.22 to 0.84) were observed in the aciclovir group. Conclusion HSV-2 suppressive therapy, by reducing HIV-1 plasma viral load and altering the pattern of genital HIV-1 shedding, may contribute to the reduction in sexual transmission of HIV-1 and may delay the requirement for HAART initiation. PMID:19155993

  8. Circulating microRNA signature of genotype-by-age interactions in the long-lived Ames dwarf mouse.

    PubMed

    Victoria, Berta; Dhahbi, Joseph M; Nunez Lopez, Yury O; Spinel, Lina; Atamna, Hani; Spindler, Stephen R; Masternak, Michal M

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that serum levels of specific miRNAs significantly change with age. The ability of circulating sncRNAs to act as signaling molecules and regulate a broad spectrum of cellular functions implicates them as key players in the aging process. To discover circulating sncRNAs that impact aging in the long-lived Ames dwarf mice, we conducted deep sequencing of small RNAs extracted from serum of young and old mice. Our analysis showed genotype-specific changes in the circulating levels of 21 miRNAs during aging [genotype-by-age interaction (GbA)]. Genotype-by-age miRNAs showed four distinct expression patterns and significant overtargeting of transcripts involved in age-related processes. Functional enrichment analysis of putative and validated miRNA targets highlighted cellular processes such as tumor suppression, anti-inflammatory response, and modulation of Wnt, insulin, mTOR, and MAPK signaling pathways, among others. The comparative analysis of circulating GbA miRNAs in Ames mice with circulating miRNAs modulated by calorie restriction (CR) in another long-lived mouse suggests CR-like and CR-independent mechanisms contributing to longevity in the Ames mouse. In conclusion, we showed for the first time a signature of circulating miRNAs modulated by age in the long-lived Ames mouse.

  9. HIV-1 Nef-associated Factor 1 Enhances Viral Production by Interacting with CRM1 to Promote Nuclear Export of Unspliced HIV-1 gag mRNA.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao-Xin; Wang, Hai-Bo; Li, Chuan; Jiang, Jin-Feng; Xiong, Si-Dong; Jin, Xia; Wu, Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-02-26

    HIV-1 depends on host-cell-encoded factors to complete its life cycle. A comprehensive understanding of how HIV-1 manipulates host machineries during viral infection can facilitate the identification of host targets for antiviral drugs or gene therapy. The cellular protein Naf1 (HIV-1 Nef-associated factor 1) is a CRM1-dependent nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein, and has been identified to regulate multiple receptor-mediated signal pathways in inflammation. The cytoplasm-located Naf1 can inhibit NF-κB activation through binding to A20, and the loss of Naf1 controlled NF-κB activation is associated with multiple autoimmune diseases. However, the effect of Naf1 on HIV-1 mRNA expression has not been characterized. In this study we found that the nucleus-located Naf1 could promote nuclear export of unspliced HIV-1 gag mRNA. We demonstrated that the association between Naf1 and CRM1 was required for this function as the inhibition or knockdown of CRM1 expression significantly impaired Naf1-promoted HIV-1 production. The mutation of Naf1 nuclear export signals (NESs) that account for CRM1 recruitment for nuclear export decreased Naf1 function. Additionally, the mutation of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of Naf1 diminished its ability to promote HIV-1 production, demonstrating that the shuttling property of Naf1 is required for this function. Our results reveal a novel role of Naf1 in enhancing HIV-1 production, and provide a potential therapeutic target for controlling HIV-1 infection. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Distribution of CCR5 genotypes and HLA Class I B alleles in HIV-1 infected and uninfected injecting drug users from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Sylvia Lopes Maia; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Hacker, Mariana A; Morgado, Mariza Gonçalves

    2009-07-01

    Host genetic factors play an important role in the HIV epidemic dynamics, and have been considered in studies assessing susceptibility/resistance to HIV-1 infection as well as clinical evolution. Class I and Class II HLA alleles have been associated with the heterogeneity of HIV-1 infection susceptibility, as protective or risk factors for HIV-1 transmission. Moreover, a 32-base pair deletion in the HIV-1 CCR5 gene-coding region confers resistance to HIV-1 infection in homozygous individuals for the deleted allele. In this study, DNA samples from HIV-1 infected and uninfected injecting drug users (IDUs) from Rio de Janeiro were PCR amplified to determine CCR5 genotypes based on the presence of the CCR5Delta32 mutation and typed for the HLA-B locus, in an attempt to assess possible associations between these genetic factors and susceptibility/resistance to HIV-1 infection. The distribution of CCR5 genotypes between the two IDU groups did not differ. The homozygous mutant genotype Delta32/Delta32 was not found in this study. Except for HLA-B*45 (4.0% vs. 3.0%; p=0.04) and for B*51 (12.1% vs. 4.4%; p=0.002), no statistically significant differences were made evident when analyzing the frequencies of each HLA-B allele between Caucasian and non-Caucasian IDUs. The most frequent HLA-B alleles were B*15; B*35; B*44 and B*51. Although some differences in the allele frequencies could be observed between the two IDU groups, none of these was statistically significant. Therefore, no putative association between these genetic markers and susceptibility/resistance to HIV-1 infection could be made evident in the present study. So far, the assessment of genetic markers among the IDU population has been restricted to North American, European, and Asian studies and this report represents a pioneer descriptive study of the distribution of CCR5 genotypes and HLA-B alleles in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  11. Effect of hard-drug use on CD4 cell percentage, HIV RNA level, and progression to AIDS-defining class C events among HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Lorna E; Frederick, Margaret; Pitt, Jane; Cheng, Irene; Watts, D Heather; Buschur, Shelley; Green, Karen; Zorrilla, Carmen; Landesman, Sheldon H; Hershow, Ronald C

    2004-11-01

    In vitro and animal studies suggest that cocaine and heroin increase HIV replication and suppress immune function, whereas epidemiologic studies are inconclusive regarding their effect on HIV infection progression. The authors prospectively examined the association between illicit-drug use and 4 outcome measures (CD4 cell percentage, HIV RNA level, survival to class C diagnosis of HIV infection, and death) in a national cohort of HIV-infected women. Women enrolled between 1989 and 1995 were followed for 5 years and repeatedly interviewed about illicit ("hard")--drug use. Up to 3 periodic urine screens validated self-reported use. Outcomes were compared between hard-drug users (women using cocaine, heroin, methadone, or injecting drugs) and nonusers, adjusting for age, antiretroviral therapy, number of pregnancies, smoking, and baseline CD4 cell percentage. Of 1148 women, 40% reported baseline hard-drug use during pregnancy. In multivariate analyses, hard-drug use was not associated with change in CD4 cell percentage (P = 0.84), HIV RNA level (P = 0.48), or all-cause mortality (relative hazard = 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-1.98). Hard-drug users did, however, exhibit a higher risk of developing class C diagnoses (relative hazard = 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.72), especially herpes, pulmonary tuberculosis, and recurrent pneumonia. Hard-drug-using women may have a higher risk for nonfatal opportunistic infections.

  12. The A-nucleotide preference of HIV-1 in the context of its structured RNA genome

    PubMed Central

    van Hemert, Formijn J.; van der Kuyl, Antoinette C.; Berkhout, Ben

    2013-01-01

    A bipartition of HIV-1 RNA genome sequences into single- and double-stranded nucleotides is possible based on the secondary structure model of a complete 9 kb genome. Subsequent analysis revealed that the well-known lentiviral property of A-accumulation is profoundly present in single-stranded domains, yet absent in double-stranded domains. Mutational rate analysis by means of an unrestricted model of nucleotide substitution suggests the presence of an evolutionary equilibrium to preserve this biased nucleotide distribution. PMID:23235488

  13. HIV-1 RNA May Decline More Slowly in Semen than in Blood following Initiation of Efavirenz-Based Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Susan M.; Holte, Sarah E.; Dragavon, Joan A.; Ramko, Kelly M.; Mandaliya, Kishor N.; McClelland, R. Scott; Peshu, Norbert M.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Krieger, John N.; Coombs, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Antiretroviral therapy (ART) decreases HIV-1 RNA levels in semen and reduces sexual transmission from HIV-1-infected men. Our objective was to study the time course and magnitude of seminal HIV-1 RNA decay after initiation of efavirenz-based ART among 13 antiretroviral-naïve Kenyan men. Methods HIV-1 RNA was quantified (lower limit of detection, 120 copies/mL) in blood and semen at baseline and over the first month of ART. Median log10 HIV-1 RNA was compared at each time-point using Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests. Perelson’s two-phase viral decay model and nonlinear random effects were used to compare decay rates in blood and semen. Results Median baseline HIV-1 RNA was 4.40 log10 copies/mL in blood (range, 3.20–5.08 log10 copies/mL) and 3.69 log10 copies/mL in semen (range, <2.08–4.90 log10 copies/mL). The median reduction in HIV-1 RNA by day 28 was 1.90 log10 copies/mL in blood (range, 0.56–2.68 log10 copies/mL) and 1.36 log10 copies/mL in semen (range, 0–2.66 log10 copies/mL). ART led to a decrease from baseline by day 7 in blood and day 14 in semen (p = 0.005 and p = 0.006, respectively). The initial modeled decay rate was slower in semen than in blood (p = 0.06). There was no difference in second-phase decay rates between blood and semen. Conclusions Efavirenz-based ART reduced HIV-1 RNA levels more slowly in semen than in blood. Although this difference was of borderline significance in this small study, our observations suggest that there is suboptimal suppression of seminal HIV-1 RNA for some men in the early weeks of treatment. PMID:22912795

  14. Targeted binding of nucleocapsid protein transforms the folding landscape of HIV-1 TAR RNA

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Micah J.; Rouzina, Ioulia; Manthei, Kelly A.; Gorelick, Robert J.; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Williams, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    Retroviral nucleocapsid (NC) proteins are nucleic acid chaperones that play a key role in the viral life cycle. During reverse transcription, HIV-1 NC facilitates the rearrangement of nucleic acid secondary structure, allowing the transactivation response (TAR) RNA hairpin to be transiently destabilized and annealed to a cDNA hairpin. It is not clear how NC specifically destabilizes TAR RNA but does not strongly destabilize the resulting annealed RNA–DNA hybrid structure, which must be formed for reverse transcription to continue. By combining single-molecule optical tweezers measurements with a quantitative mfold-based model, we characterize the equilibrium TAR stability and unfolding barrier for TAR RNA. Experiments show that adding NC lowers the transition state barrier height while also dramatically shifting the barrier location. Incorporating TAR destabilization by NC into the mfold-based model reveals that a subset of preferential protein binding sites is responsible for the observed changes in the unfolding landscape, including the unusual shift in the transition state. We measure the destabilization induced at these NC binding sites and find that NC preferentially targets TAR RNA by binding to specific sequence contexts that are not present on the final annealed RNA–DNA hybrid structure. Thus, specific binding alters the entire RNA unfolding landscape, resulting in the dramatic destabilization of this specific structure that is required for reverse transcription. PMID:26483503

  15. Selective isotopic enrichment of synthetic RNA: application to the HIV-1 TAR element.

    PubMed

    Michnicka, M J; Harper, J W; King, G C

    1993-01-19

    The introduction of isotopically enriched nucleotides into NMR quantities of a synthetic 29-mer RNA derived from the HIV-1 TAR element is described. RNA enriched in 13C and/or 15N is produced by a procedure which involves isolation of whole cellular RNA from Escherichia coli, nucleolysis, separation of mononucleotides, chemical or enzymatic pyrophosphorylation, and in vitro transcription by T7 RNA polymerase. Spectral characteristics of each residue type are examined in isolation. 13C chemical shifts provide an alternative method to determine ribose puckers for larger RNAs. Nonprotonated sites such as purine N7 groups can now be monitored through the use of multiple-bond 1H-15N coupling. When applied conservatively, coordinate analysis of chemical shift values should prove valuable for NMR studies of RNA structure and recognition. 1H, 13C, and 15N chemical shift data suggest that TAR residue A35 has an unusual local environment, consistent with extrusion of its base from the terminal loop.

  16. Genotype-specific fluorogenic RT-PCR assays for the detection and quantitation of canine coronavirus type I and