Monteiro, M R; Passos, A D; Figueiredo, J F; Gaspar, A M; Yoshida, C F
The objective of this investigation was to study the prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis B and possible risk factors for this disease in a sample of 404 people who attended a Testing and Couseling Center for HIV in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. The overall prevalence of serologic hepatitis B markers was 14.6%, equal to that obtained for anti-HBc. HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM showed prevalences of 1%. After adjustment using logistic regression, hepatitis B markers showed association with the following variables: age, place of residence, use of injectable drugs and positivity to anti-HIV. The overall prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection was 6.9%. Hepatitis B markers were detected in 55.6% among intravenous drug users and in 42.9% among those who tested positive for HIV, confirming literature findings which indicates high levels of infection in these specific population groups.
The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate, in a critical manner, various serological tests with general emphasis on their value in the epidemiological assessment of malaria. Several tests have been employed in the past. However, the present memorandum will deal only with the methods that have been widely used recently—i.e., indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), passive haemagglutination (IHA), and gel-diffusion. The three immunoglobulins most commonly involved in these tests are IgG, IgM, and—to a lesser extent—IgA. PMID:4218506
Moyo, Sikhulile; Wilkinson, Eduan; Novitsky, Vladimir; Vandormael, Alain; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Essex, Max; Engelbrecht, Susan; de Oliveira, Tulio
In this paper, we review serological and molecular based methods to identify HIV infection recency. The accurate identification of recent HIV infection continues to be an important research area and has implications for HIV prevention and treatment interventions. Longitudinal cohorts that follow HIV negative individuals over time are the current gold standard approach, but they are logistically challenging, time consuming and an expensive enterprise. Methods that utilize cross-sectional testing and biomarker information have become an affordable alternative to the longitudinal approach. These methods use well-characterized biological makers to differentiate between recent and established HIV infections. However, recent results have identified a number of limitations in serological based assays that are sensitive to the variability in immune responses modulated by HIV subtypes, viral load and antiretroviral therapy. Molecular methods that explore the dynamics between the timing of infection and viral evolution are now emerging as a promising approach. The combination of serological and molecular methods may provide a good solution to identify recent HIV infection in cross-sectional data. As part of this review, we present the advantages and limitations of serological and molecular based methods and their potential complementary role for the identification of HIV infection recency. PMID:26512688
Tamashiro, H.; Constantine, N. T.
The serological identification of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in blood is the most widely used method to diagnose HIV infection. Recently, however, the use of oral fluid samples for the detection of antibodies to HIV has been suggested as an alternative. This review describes some basic information about oral fluids, the application of these samples for HIV testing, and summarizes results from many of the studies performed using HIV tests with oral fluids. The fluids obtained from the oral cavity include saliva and crevicular fluid, and can be collected directly (by dribbling) or by using commercially available devices. The immunoglobulin content of oral fluids is similar to that of blood, but their levels are less. However, the use of an HIV IgG antibody capture assay (GAC ELISA) designed specifically for testing oral fluids, and certain routine HIV blood tests that have been optimized for use with oral fluids, has produced encouraging results. A number of studies, including several in developing countries, report that the sensitivities and specificities of these optimized tests lie in the range 95-100% and 98-100%, respectively. Also, the performance of the GAC ELISA was consistent and in general, excellent. The article identifies several issues that need to be addressed before a recommendation on the routine use of oral fluid samples for HIV antibody detection can be made. PMID:8131250
... a blood test to look for antibodies to bacteria called campylobacter. ... An abnormal (positive) result means that antibodies against ... with the bacteria. Tests are often repeated during the course of ...
Hallfors, Denise Dion; Cho, Hyunsan; Mbai, Isabella; Millimo, Benson; Atieno, Carolyne; Okumu, David; Luseno, Winnie; Hartman, Shane; Halpern, Carolyn T.; Hobbs, Marcia M.
Objectives HSV-2 biomarkers are often used in adolescent sub-Saharan HIV prevention studies, but evaluations of test performance and disclosure outcomes are rare in the published literature. Therefore, we investigated the proportion of ELISA-positive and indeterminant samples confirmed by Western blot (WB); the psychosocial response to disclosure; and whether reports of sexual behavior and HSV-2 symptoms are consistent with WB confirmatory results among adolescent orphans in Kenya. Methods In 2011, 837 Kenyan orphan youth in grades 7 and 8 enrolled in an HIV prevention clinical trial with HSV-2 biomarker outcomes. We used a modified algorithm for the Kalon HSV-2 ELISA to improve specificity; positive and indeterminate results were WB-tested. We developed culturally sensitive protocols for disclosing positive results and documented psychosocial responses, reports of sexual contact, and HSV-2 symptoms. Results 28 adolescents (3.3%) were identified as HSV-2 seropositive; 6 as indeterminate. Of these, 22 positive and all indeterminants were WB-tested; 20 and 5, respectively, were confirmed positive. Most youth reported moderate brief stress after disclosure; 22% reported longer and more severe distress. Boys were more likely to be in the latter category. Self-reported virginity was highly inconsistent with WB confirmed positives. Conclusions The higher than manufacturer cut-off for Kalon ELISA modestly reduced the rate of false positive test results but also increased false negatives. Investigators should consider the risk-benefit ratio in deciding whether or not to disclose HSV-2 results to adolescent participants under specific field conditions. PMID:26139208
Aggarwal, R K; Chatterjee, R; Chattopadhya, D; Kumari, S
A total of 32 specimens with different categories of reactivity by Du Pont Western Blot kit comprising of specimens showing full spectrum of HIV-I antigen specific bands, 19 specimens showing total absence of bands and four specimens showing non-specific bands (without any interpretative importance) were subjected to Western Blot testing by Organon test. Of the nine specimens showing full spectrum of bands by Du Pont the correlation with Organon kit was 100 per cent based on WHO criteria. Four specimens with non-specific indeterminate band pattern by Du Pont failed to show any band in Organon kit, indicating that latter to be more specific.
... Print This Topic En español Get Tested for HIV Browse Sections The Basics Overview What Is HIV? ... 1 of 7 sections The Basics: What Is HIV? What is HIV? HIV stands for human immunodeficiency ...
Harris, Ad; Olansky, Sidney
The authors first discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the various serological tests now in common use, or coming into use, for the detection and management of syphilis and also compare the different antigens used in those tests. They lay stress on the difficulties caused by the “unit” system of recording results, whereby identical findings with two or more tests may be given different numerical values for each test, and suggest that results should instead be given in dilution reactivity end-points (dils). False positive reactions to serological tests and discrepancies in the results of different tests are then considered; it is pointed out that these discrepancies may be due to causes in the patient himself, in transit, or in the testing laboratory. Finally, the authors consider that in view of the growing number of serological tests for syphilis, and of modifications to those tests, there is now a need for selecting, in different areas of the world, a certain number of procedures which can be standardized for routine testing. Regional serological evaluation studies can be used to this end. A brief outline is given of the United States Public Health Service programme to assist State laboratories to maintain a high level of efficiency in serological testing and thus to exert an influence on other laboratories within each State. PMID:13329847
Ndase, Patrick; Celum, Connie; Kidoguchi, Lara; Ronald, Allan; Fife, Kenneth H.; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Donnell, Deborah; Baeten, Jared M.
Background Rapid HIV assays are the mainstay of HIV testing globally. Delivery of effective biomedical HIV prevention strategies such as antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) requires periodic HIV testing. Because rapid tests have high (>95%) but imperfect specificity, they are expected to generate some false positive results. Methods We assessed the frequency of true and false positive rapid results in the Partners PrEP Study, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of PrEP. HIV testing was performed monthly using 2 rapid tests done in parallel with HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) confirmation following all positive rapid tests. Results A total of 99,009 monthly HIV tests were performed; 98,743 (99.7%) were dual-rapid HIV negative. Of the 266 visits with ≥1 positive rapid result, 99 (37.2%) had confirmatory positive EIA results (true positives), 155 (58.3%) had negative EIA results (false positives), and 12 (4.5%) had discordant EIA results. In the active PrEP arms, over two-thirds of visits with positive rapid test results were false positive results (69.2%, 110 of 159), although false positive results occurred at <1% (110/65,945) of total visits. Conclusions When HIV prevalence or incidence is low due to effective HIV prevention interventions, rapid HIV tests result in a high number of false relative to true positive results, although the absolute number of false results will be low. Program roll-out for effective interventions should plan for quality assurance of HIV testing, mechanisms for confirmatory HIV testing, and counseling strategies for persons with positive rapid test results. PMID:25885664
Tripathy, Srikanth; Pereira, Michael; Tripathy, Sriram Prasad
The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) has initiated programs for HIV/AIDS control in India. Algorithms for HIV testing have been developed for India. NACO programs have resulted in HIV situation improving over the last decade.
... the right way, every day. If you have health insurance, your insurer is required to cover some medicines ... to treat HIV. If you donâ€™t have health insurance, or youâ€™re unable to afford your co- ...
... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability (Biologics) HIV Home Test Kits Testing for HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...
French, Audrey L.; Lin, Michael Y.; Evans, Charlesnika T.; Benning, Lorie; Glesby, Marshall J.; Young, Mary A.; Operskalski, Eva A.; Augenbraun, Michael; Peters, Marion
Background Isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) is a common serologic finding in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the outcome and clinical significance are uncertain. Methods We performed repeated hepatitis B virus (HBV) serologic tests on women who participated in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study and who had isolated anti-HBc at study entry. Results Repeated serologic tests were performed for 322 women (282 HIV-infected and 40 HIV-uninfected) at a median of 7.5 years after study entry. Seventy-one percent of women retained isolated anti-HBc serologic status, 20% acquired antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), and 2% acquired hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). In unadjusted analysis, increasing age, injection drug use, and hepatitis C viremia were negatively associated with acquisition of anti-HBs. For HIV-infected women, predictors of acquisition of anti-HBs were an increase in CD4 cell count and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Receipt of drugs with activity against HBV and self-reported HBV vaccination did not predict anti-HBs acquisition. In the multivariable regression model, HAART use remained a significant predictor of anti-HBs acquisition, whereas women with hepatitis C viremia were more likely to retain isolated anti-HBc serologic status. Conclusions Isolated anti-HBc status remained stable over time for the majority of women, especially women with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Development of anti-HBs was predicted by HAART use and an increase in CD4 cell count. We conclude that a proportion of HIV-infected women with isolated anti-HBc have prior natural HBV infection with anti-HBs that is at an undetectable level because of immune dysfunction. Isolated anti-HBc in the presence of chronic hepatitis C virus infection may be attributable to a different phenomenon, such as dysfunctional antibody production. PMID:19480573
... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Anti-retroviral Drug Resistance Testing; ARV Resistance Testing Formal name: ...
... Beware: Online you can buy several HIV home test kits that are not approved by the FDA. Many ... This publication explains how the FDA-approved home test kit works, and warns consumers about purchasing home tests ...
Tramuto, Fabio; Mazzucco, Walter; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Affronti, Andrea; Affronti, Mario; Montalto, Giuseppe; Vitale, Francesco
The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in a cohort of immigrants living in Palermo, Sicily. The study was carried out in the period May 2006-June 2010 and recruited a total of 393 patients (59.8% males-median age of 32.6 years). All patients were tested for serological markers of HBV, HCV, and HIV infection. One-hundred thirty-eight (35.1%) individuals did not show any HBV/HCV/HIV serological marker, while 186 (47.3%) were indicative of past or current HBV infection. A total of 42 (10.7%) subjects were HBsAg positive, 59 (15.0%) showed the serological profile "anti-HBc alone", and only 40 (10.1%) were anti-HBs alone. Overall, 22/393 (5.6%) immigrants were anti-HCV positive and 13/327 (4.0%) were infected with HIV. Findings from this study suggest that a suitable screening protocol for the viral blood/sexually transmissible diseases is recommended on entering Italy, and the adoption of health control strategies should also be considered to safeguard the health of the local population.
Chen, Min; Ma, Yanling; Yang, Chaojun; Yang, Li; Chen, Huichao; Dong, Lijuan; Dai, Jie; Jia, Manhong; Lu, Lin
Objective To investigate the linkage of HIV transmission from a man to a woman through unprotected sexual contact without disclosing his HIV-positive status. Methods Combined with epidemiological information and serological tests, phylogenetic analysis was used to test the a priori hypothesis of HIV transmission from the man to the woman. Control subjects, infected with HIV through heterosexual intercourse, from the same location were also sampled. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using the consensus gag, pol and env sequences obtained from blood samples of the man, the woman and the local control subjects. The env quasispecies of the man, the woman, and two controls were also obtained using single genome amplification and sequencing (SGA/S) to explore the paraphyletic relationship by phylogenetic analysis. Results Epidemiological information and serological tests indicated that the man was infected with HIV-1 earlier than the woman. Phylogenetic analyses of the consensus sequences showed a monophyletic cluster for the man and woman in all three genomic regions. Furthermore, gag sequences of the man and woman shared a unique recombination pattern from subtype B and C, which was different from those of CRF07_BC or CRF08_BC observed in the local samples. These indicated that the viral sequences from the two subjects display a high level of similarity. Further, viral quasispecies from the man exhibited a paraphyletic relationship with those from the woman in the Bayesian and maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogenetic trees of the env region, which supported the transmission direction from the man to the woman. Conclusions In the context of epidemiological and serological evidence, the results of phylogenetic analyses support the transmission from the man to the woman. PMID:25807147
... despite the fact that the person is infected ( false negative ). If an HIV antibody test is negative ... infection (around 28 days) and may give a false-negative result. ^ Back to top Is there anything ...
Kostant, George H.
The frequency of biologically false positive reactions to serological tests for syphilis depends on a number of factors, including the individual immunological response, the number and type of serological tests performed, and the stage of the disease producing such reactions; the relative importance of such factors is discussed. The author also considers in detail the diseases or conditions giving rise to acute or chronic biologically false positive reactions. A variety of verification tests exists for differentiating the true syphilitic reaction from the biologically false positive reaction, but none is so accurate as the Treponema pallidum immobilization and immune adherence tests, which the author considers should be used when others have proved inconclusive. In the final section of his paper, he indicates the steps to be followed in attempting to distinguish between latent syphilis and biologically false positive reactions in persons with positive serological tests but no anamnestic or clinical evidence of syphilis. PMID:13329848
Bouare, Nouhoum; Vaira, Dolores; Gothot, Andre; Delwaide, Jean; Bontems, Sebastien; Seidel, Laurence; Gerard, Paul; Gerard, Christiane
AIM: To estimate the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in women in Mali and to evaluate the performance of serological assays. METHODS: Two prospective studies were conducted in 2009 and 2010 in Mali. They concerned first, 1000 pregnant women attending six reference health centers in Bamako (Malian capital) between May 26 and June 16, 2009; and secondly, 231 women over 50 years who consulted general practitioners of two hospitals in Bamako between October 25 and December 24, 2010. Blood samples were collected and kept frozen in good condition before analysis. All samples depicted as positive using HIV/HCV enzyme immuno-assay screening assays were submitted to confirmation analysis. Molecular markers of HCV were characterized. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of HIV and HCV in the population of pregnant women was 4.1% and 0.2% respectively. Among older women the seroprevalence was higher and similar for HIV and HCV (6.1% vs 6.5%). The anti-HIV prevalence was not different in young and older women (4.1% vs 6.1%). In contrast, the anti-HCV prevalence was higher in older compared to younger women (6.5% vs 0.2%, P < 0.01). Of 2 pregnant women who were HCV seropositive, only one was polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reactive and infected by genotype 2, with a viral load of 1600 IU/mL. Regarding older women who were HCV seropositive, 13 out of 15 were PCR reactive, infected by genotype 1 or 2. Globally HCV genotype 2 was predominant. The positive predictive value (PPV) measured with VIKIA HIV test in young women was 100% therefore significantly higher than the 87.5% measured in older women (P < 0.05). Conversely, the PPV measured with Monolisa HCV assay in older women was 88.2% and higher than the 14.3% measured in younger women (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Whereas HIV prevalence was similar in both subpopulations HCV was more frequent among older women (P < 0.01). The PPV of screening assays varied with the age of the subjects
... HIV infections. HIV infection is often diagnosed through rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), which detect the presence or absence of ... accuracy. It is important to note that serological tests detect antibodies produced ... pathogens, rather than direct detection of HIV itself. Most ...
Alby, Kevin; Capraro, Gerald A
Although serologic testing remains the gold standard for laboratory diagnosis of Lyme disease, the antibody response may take several weeks to increase greater than the limit of detection. Because of this extended time frame, it is necessary to identify new diagnostic methods for earlier diagnosis and appropriate treatment of Lyme disease. Alternative diagnostic modalities, such as Borrelia culture or nucleic acid amplification testing, may be beneficial in specific clinical scenarios. In early phases of acute infection, before the development of an immune response, detection of Borrelia DNA from clinical specimens may help establish the diagnosis sooner than serologic methods.
Executive Summary Objective of Analysis The objective of this evidence-based evaluation is to assess the accuracy of serologic tests in the diagnosis of celiac disease in subjects with symptoms consistent with this disease. Furthermore the impact of these tests in the diagnostic pathway of the disease and decision making was also evaluated. Celiac Disease Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease that develops in genetically predisposed individuals. The immunological response is triggered by ingestion of gluten, a protein that is present in wheat, rye, and barley. The treatment consists of strict lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD). Patients with celiac disease may present with a myriad of symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, iron deficiency anemia, dermatitis herpetiformis, among others. Serologic Testing in the Diagnosis Celiac Disease There are a number of serologic tests used in the diagnosis of celiac disease. Anti-gliadin antibody (AGA) Anti-endomysial antibody (EMA) Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (tTG) Anti-deamidated gliadin peptides antibodies (DGP) Serologic tests are automated with the exception of the EMA test, which is more time-consuming and operator-dependent than the other tests. For each serologic test, both immunoglobulin A (IgA) or G (IgG) can be measured, however, IgA measurement is the standard antibody measured in celiac disease. Diagnosis of Celiac Disease According to celiac disease guidelines, the diagnosis of celiac disease is established by small bowel biopsy. Serologic tests are used to initially detect and to support the diagnosis of celiac disease. A small bowel biopsy is indicated in individuals with a positive serologic test. In some cases an endoscopy and small bowel biopsy may be required even with a negative serologic test. The diagnosis of celiac disease must be performed on a gluten-containing diet since the small intestine abnormalities and the serologic antibody levels may resolve or improve
Leigler, Teri; Kallas, Esper; Schechter, Mauro; Sharma, Usha; Glidden, David; Grant, Robert M.
HIV-testing algorithms for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) should be optimized to minimize the risk of drug resistance, the time off PrEP required to evaluate false-positive screening results, and costs and to expedite the start of therapy for those confirmed to be infected. HIV rapid tests (RTs) for anti-HIV antibodies provide results in less than 1 h and can be conducted by nonlicensed staff at the point of care. In many regions, Western blot (WB) testing is required to confirm reactive RT results. WB testing, however, causes delays in diagnosis and adds expense. The iPrEx study evaluated the safety and efficacy of daily oral emtricitabine-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate among HIV-seronegative men and transgender women who have sex with men: HIV infection was assessed with two RTs plus WB confirmation, followed by HIV-1 plasma viral load testing. During the iPrEx study, there were 51,260 HIV status evaluations among 2,499 volunteers using RTs: 142 (0.28%) had concordant positive results (100% were eventually confirmed) and 19 (0.04%) had discordant results among 14 participants; 11 were eventually determined to be HIV infected. A streamlined approach using only one RT to screen and a second RT to confirm (without WB) would have had nearly the same accuracy. Discrepant RT results are best evaluated with nucleic acid testing, which would also increase sensitivity. PMID:25378570
Nakamura, Keizo; Ishizaka, Kimishige
A comparative study was undertaken by the authors to determine the most reliable of the serodiagnostic tests for syphilis in current use in Japan. The criteria for the selection of sera, the way in which the standard tests were chosen, and the statistical method used for evaluating the results are described, and some of the detailed results are given. Five tests—the VDRL test, the agglutination test, Ogata's test, the Kahn test (with cardiolipin antigen), and Browning's test modified by Taniguchi (with cardiolipin antigen)—were found to be comparable in reliability to the Kolmer (Lederle) and VDRL (Lederle) tests employed in the USA. PMID:14364183
Ichimura, H; Kliks, S C; Visrutaratna, S; Ou, C Y; Kalish, M L; Levy, J A
Twenty-three HIV-1 isolates were recovered from PBMCs from 26 HIV-1-seropositive individuals in northern Thailand. The viruses grew readily in human PBMCs but only 7 of 17 (41.2%) and 5 of 17 (29.4%) replicated and only at a low level in primary macrophages and in established T cell lines, respectively. By immunoblot assays, sera from Thai subjects were strongly reactive with gp120 from a Thailand isolate, moderately reactive with a Rwandan isolate, and weakly reactive with a North American strain. These three viruses represent, respectively, examples of subtypes E, A, and B as classified by the sequences of the envelope region. Serological assays indicated that broadly reactive rather than type-specific neutralizing activity was detected among these northern Thai sera. The majority of the sera (approximately 75%) neutralized a representative Thailand isolate and the Rwanda isolate but only 55% neutralized the North American strain. However, the difference was not statistically significant. The genetic analyses indicated that nearly all the Thai isolates were highly homogeneous and distinct from the North American/European consensus sequence (subtype B); they belong to subtype E. This is the first report providing biological, serological, and genetic characterization of HIV-1 strains from Thailand. The findings suggest these viruses were recently introduced into the country and that serological evaluation of viral strains needs to be considered along with genetic subtyping when developing an HIV-1 vaccine.
Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; de Sousa, Marcos Roberto; Demarqui, Fábio Nogueira; Rabello, Ana
Background Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a potentially fatal disease, has emerged as an important opportunistic condition in HIV infected patients. In immunocompromised patients, serological investigation is considered not an accurate diagnostic method for VL diagnosis and molecular techniques seem especially promising. Objective This work is a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the accuracy of serologic and molecular tests for VL diagnosis specifically in HIV-infected patients. Methods Two independent reviewers searched PubMed and LILACS databases. The quality of studies was assessed by QUADAS score. Sensitivity and specificity were pooled separately and compared with overall accuracy measures: diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and symmetric summary receiver operating characteristic (sROC). Results Thirty three studies recruiting 1,489 patients were included. The following tests were evaluated: Immunofluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT), Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting (Blot), direct agglutination test (DAT) and polimerase chain reaction (PCR) in whole blood and bone marrow. Most studies were carried out in Europe. Serological tests varied widely in performance, but with overall limited sensitivity. IFAT had poor sensitivity ranging from 11% to 82%. DOR (95% confidence interval) was higher for DAT 36.01 (9.95–130.29) and Blot 27.51 (9.27–81.66) than for IFAT 7.43 (3.08–1791) and ELISA 3.06 (0.71–13.10). PCR in whole blood had the highest DOR: 400.35 (58.47–2741.42). The accuracy of PCR based on Q-point was 0.95; 95%CI 0.92–0.97, which means good overall performance. Conclusion Based mainly on evidence gained by infection with Leishmania infantum chagasi, serological tests should not be used to rule out a diagnosis of VL among the HIV-infected, but a positive test at even low titers has diagnostic value when combined with the clinical case definition. Considering the available evidence, tests based on DNA
MINAMI, Shohei; TERADA, Yutaka; SHIMODA, Hiroshi; TAKIZAWA, Masaki; ONUMA, Mamoru; OTA, Akihiko; OTA, Yuichi; AKABANE, Yoshihito; TAMUKAI, Kenichi; WATANABE, Keiichiro; NAGANUMA, Yumiko; KANAGAWA, Eiichi; NAKAMURA, Kaneichi; OHASHI, Masanari; TAKAMI, Yoshinori; MIWA, Yasutsugu; TANOUE, Tomoaki; OHWAKI, Masao; OHTA, Jouji; UNE, Yumi; MAEDA, Ken
Since there is no available serological methods to detect antibodies to ferret coronavirus (FRCoV), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant partial nucleocapsid (N) proteins of the ferret coronavirus (FRCoV) Yamaguchi-1 strain was developed to establish a serological method for detection of FRCoV infection. Many serum samples collected from ferrets recognized both a.a. 1–179 and a.a. 180–374 of the N protein, but two serum samples did not a.a. 180–374 of the N protein. This different reactivity was also confirmed by immunoblot analysis using the serum from the ferret.Therefore, the a.a. 1–179 of the N protein was used as an ELISA antigen. Serological test was carried out using sera or plasma of ferrets in Japan. Surprisingly, 89% ferrets in Japan had been infected with FRCoV. These results indicated that our established ELISA using a.a. 1–179 of the N protein is useful for detection of antibody to FRCoV for diagnosis and seroepidemiology of FRCoV infection. PMID:26935842
Gönül, Müzeyyen; Çakmak, Seray; Yalçınkaya Iyidal, Ayşegül; Kılıç, Arzu; Gül, Ülker; Doner, Pinar
Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). The incidence of condyloma acuminata (CA) has increased in recent years. Aim To determine demographical features and serological test results of STD in patients with CA. Material and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 94 patients presenting to a dermatology clinic in Ankara, Middle Anatolia, Turkey. Dermatological examinations were made and the patients completed a questionnaire which consisted of questions about their marital status, partners and condom use. In all cases, VDRL/RPR, anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HCV and in 57 cases – HSV type 1–2 IgM and IgG were studied. If the value of VDRL or RPR was positive, TPHA was conducted. Results In our study, 83 men and 11 women had CA. We could not analyze whether our cases had multiple partners and a habit of condom use as some of the patients did not answer questions about their sexual life. We observed VDRL and TPHA positivity in 3 (3.1%) cases, none of those cases had clinical findings of syphilis and they denied using any therapy for syphilis. HBsAg positivity was found in 3 cases. No anti-HIV and anti-HCV antibody positivity was detected. Conclusions The seroprevalence of HBsAg in our study was similar to that of the general population of Turkey. But as we found positive syphilis serology in 3 patients, we suggest that syphilis serology should be investigated in patients with CA. PMID:26366153
Dieste-Pérez, L; Blasco, J M; de Miguel, M J; Moriyón, I; Muñoz, P M
Swine brucellosis caused by Brucella suis biovar 2 is an emerging disease in Europe. Currently used diagnostic tests for swine brucellosis detect antibodies to the O-polysaccharide (O-PS) of Brucella smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS) but their specificity is compromised by false-positive serological reactions (FPSRs) when bacteria carrying cross-reacting O-PS infect pigs. FPSRs occur throughout Europe, and the only tool available for a specific B. suis diagnosis is the intradermal test with Brucella protein extracts free of O-PS or S-LPS. Using sera of 162 sows naturally infected by B. suis biovar 2, 406 brucellosis-free sows, and 218 pigs of brucellosis-free farms affected by FPSR, we assessed the diagnostic performance of an indirect ELISA with rough LPS (thus devoid of O-PS) and of gel immunodiffusion, counterimmunoelectrophoresis, latex agglutination and indirect ELISA with O-PS free proteins in comparison with several S-LPS tests (Rose Bengal, complement fixation, gel immunodiffusion and indirect ELISA). When adjusted to 100% specificity, the sensitivity of the rough LPS ELISA was very low (30%), and adoption of other cut-offs resulted in poor specificity/sensitivity ratios. Although their specificity was 100%, the sensitivity of protein tests (ELISA, latex agglutination, counterimmunoelectrophoresis, and gel immunodiffusion) was only moderate (45, 58, 61 and 63%, respectively). Among S-LPS tests, gel immunodiffusion was the only test showing acceptable sensitivity/specificity (68 and 100%, respectively). Despite these shortcomings, and when the purpose is to screen out FPSR at herd level, gel immunodiffusion tests may offer a technically simple and practical alternative to intradermal testing.
Geser, A; Henderson, B E; Christensen, S
Arbovirus infections are of public health interest in East Africa, where a very widespread epidemic of o'nyong-nyong fever was reported in 1959-60 and where the threat of yellow fever, present in neighbouring areas such as Ethiopia, remains. Sera collected in a serological survey in Kenya were therefore tested for antibodies against 3 group-A arboviruses (chikungunya, o'nyong-nyong and Sindbis), 6 group-B arboviruses (Zika, yellow fever, West Nile, Banzi, Wesselsbron and dengue 1), and Bunyamwera virus. The sera were examined mainly by the haemagglutination-inhibition test but a small proportion were also subjected to virus neutralization tests.The results showed that the prevalence of arbovirus tnfection varies markedly from area to area in Kenya. All types of arbovirus infections were more frequent on the coast than on the dry plateau around Kitui and the Lake Victoria area, The only exceptions were o'nyong-nyong and chikungunya, which were found to be just as prevalent on the coast as in Nyanza, where an epidemic was reported in 1959-60. Yellow fever antibodies were found to be present in about half of the people living on the coast but practically absent from the other two areas. It was concluded that the yellow fever antibodies in the coastal area must be due either to vaccination or to cross-reactions with other group-B arboviruses.
Voisin, Dexter R.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Yarber, William L.; Staples-Horne, Michelle
Published reports have not investigated the issue of voluntary HIV testing among detained youth, a population disproportionately infected with HIV compared to other adolescent groups. Data were collected from 467 sexually active detained adolescents in Georgia on demographic, environmental, and drug and sexual history variables, to explore…
Alavi, Seyed Mohammad; Jamshidian, Ramin; Salmanzadeh, Shokrolah
Background: Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection in human around the world and can cause life-threatening encephalitis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected host. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of toxoplasma infection in illicit drug users (IDUs) with and without HIV infection in Iran. Methods: This study was carried out on 84 IDUs (42 HIV positive as case group and 42 HIV negative subjects as control group) from 2008 to 2009. Serum samples were tested for T. gondii IgG antibodies by Enzym linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Based on the company brochure kit, the test was defined positive if the antibody titer was 3 IU/ml or more. The data from these two groups were collected and analyzed. Results: The mean age of HIV positive cases was 34.4±8.6 and for HIV negative cases was 35.9±9.3 year. The mean age and distribution of sex in both groups were equal. The frequency of toxoplasma-IgG in HIV positive and HIV negative was 73.8% and 81%, respectively (p=0.19). Conclusion: The results show that prevalence of toxoplasmosis infection in the illicit drug users with HIV positive or negative is equal. PMID:24294474
Chopra, Shashi; Arora, Usha
This study was carried out to compare HIV antibody detection by conventional method and serum dried in test tube and to check the stability of dried tube specimen (DTS) at ambient temperature. A total of 50 serum samples were tested for HIV antibodies, which were sent for testing in the state reference laboratory, by conventional method according to NACO guidelines. The same serum samples were dried in test tubes and then after elution with PBS again tested for HIV antibodies by same method and kits at 0 day and after 30 days. DTS eluted by PBS showed linear correlation to the serum samples. The antibodies in DTS were found to be stable at 37 degrees c up to 30 days. This method is simple, sensitive and specific and can be used in resource limited settings embarking on scaling up of HIV testing.
Gomez, Lucía P; Balangero, Marcos C; Castro, Gonzalo; Kademian, Silvia; Mangeaud, Arnaldo; Barbas, María G; Cudolá, Analía; de León, Juan F; Carrizo, Horacio; Gallego, Sandra V
The introduction of nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT) in blood banks was intended to reduce the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. Co-circulation of a great diversity of HIV-1 variants in Argentina portrays the need to assess the sensitivity of serological and molecular assays available for their detection. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity of the COBAS AmpliScreen™ HIV-1 Test, version 1.5 (Roche) for the detection of HIV-1 RNA in plasma samples of infected individuals from Argentina. The results of this study reveal that this technique has high sensitivity for the detection of HIV-1 RNA under assay conditions: using mini-pool testing, pools ≥ 50 RNA copies per ml achieved ≥ 92 % sensitivity, whereas in the standard procedure, samples ≥ 207 RNA copies/ml achieved 100 % sensitivity. Moreover, the COBAS AmpliScreen™ HIV-1 Test, version 1.5 (Roche) is suitable for detecting prevailing HIV-1 variants.
O'Sullivan, Cathal E.; Peng, RongSheng; Cole, Kelly Stefano; Montelaro, Ronald C.; Sturgeon, Timothy; Jenson, Hal B.; Ling, Paul D.; Butel, J. S. (Principal Investigator)
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma is recognized as a complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Little is known regarding the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on the biology of EBV in this population. To characterize the EBV- and HIV-specific serological responses together with EBV DNA levels in a cohort of HIV-infected adults treated with HAART, a study was conducted to compare EBV and HIV serologies and EBV DNA copy number (DNAemia) over a 12-month period after the commencement of HAART. All patients were seropositive for EBV at baseline. Approximately 50% of patients had detectable EBV DNA at baseline, and 27/30 had detectable EBV DNA at some point over the follow-up period of 1 year. Changes in EBV DNA copy number over time for any individual were unpredictable. Significant increases in the levels of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA) and Epstein-Barr early antigen (EA) antibodies were demonstrated in the 17 patients who had a good response to HAART. Of 29 patients with paired samples tested, four-fold or greater increases in titers were detected for EA in 12/29 (41%), for EBNA in 7/29 (24%), for VCA-IgG in 4/29 (14%); four-fold decreases in titers were detected in 2/29 (7%) for EA and 12/29 (41%) for EBNA. A significant decline in the titer of anti-HIV antibodies was also demonstrated. It was concluded that patients with advanced HIV infection who respond to HAART have an increase in their EBV specific antibodies and a decrease in their HIV-specific antibodies. For the cohort overall, there was a transient increase in EBV DNA levels that had declined by 12 months. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Hewlett, I K; Laurian, Y; Epstein, J; Hawthorne, C A; Ruta, M; Allain, J P
The transmission of HIV-1 infection from men with hemophilia A to their female sex partners and secondarily to their children was studied by serological markers including antibody, antigen, and HIV genome as detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Among 27 sex partners of 26 seropositive hemophiliacs, 5 were seropositive-PCR positive (active), 11 were seronegative-PCR positive (latent), and 11 were negative for both. These results were confirmed by testing serial serum samples and paired samples of DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and serum from seronegative women. PCR negativity in exposed women was correlated with the use of condoms (p less than 0.01). Eight children from five couples were seronegative. However, HIV-1 infection as detected by PCR was transmitted to 60% of exposed children, including one from a seronegative-PCR positive mother. PMID:2352123
Meda, N.; Gautier-Charpentier, L.; Soudré, R. B.; Dahourou, H.; Ouedraogo-Traoré, R.; Ouangré, A.; Bambara, A.; Kpozehouen, A.; Sanou, H.; Valéa, D.; Ky, F.; Cartoux, M.; Barin, F.; Van de Perre, P.
Reported are the results of a cross-sectional survey in Burkina Faso to identify reliable, practical strategies for the serological diagnosis of HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infections, using less-expensive commercial test kits in various combinations, as an alternative to the conventional Western blot (WB) test, which costs US$ 60. Serum samples, collected from blood donors, patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and pregnant women, were tested between December 1995 and January 1997. Twelve commercial test kits were available: five Mixt enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), three Mixt rapid tests, and four additional tests including monospecific HIV-1 and HIV-2 ELISA. The reference strategy utilized a combination of one ELISA or one rapid test with WB, and was conducted following WHO criteria. A total of 768 serum samples were tested; 35 were indeterminate and excluded from the analysis. Seroprevalence of HIV in the remaining 733 sera was found to be 37.5% (95% confidence interval: 34.0-41.1). All the ELISA tests showed 100% sensitivity, but their specificities ranged from 81.4% to 100%. GLA (Genelavia Mixt) had the highest positive delta value, while ICE HIV-1.0.2 (ICE) produced the most distinct negative results. Among the rapid tests, COM (CombAIDS-RS) achieved 100% sensitivity and SPO (HIV Spot) 100% specificity. Various combinations of commercial tests, according to recommended WHO strategies I, II, III, gave excellent results when ICE was included in the sequence. The best combination of tests for strategy II, which achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity, was to use ICE and COM, the cost of which was US$ 2.10, compared with US$ 55.60 for the corresponding conventional strategy. For strategy III, the best combination, which achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity, was to use ICE, ZYG (Enzygnost Anti HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus) and COM, the cost of which was US$ 2.90 (19.2 times lower than the corresponding strategy requiring WB). No rapid test
Spagnuolo, Vincenzo; Poli, Andrea; Galli, Laura; Cernuschi, Massimo; Nozza, Silvia; Maillard, Myriam; Gianotti, Nicola; Hasson, Hamid; Bossolasco, Simona; Lazzarin, Adriano; Castagna, Antonella
Introduction The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with lack of serological response (LSR) to treatment of syphilis among HIV-infected subjects. Materials and Methods Retrospective, longitudinal study on HIV-infected subjects diagnosed and treated for syphilis and with an assessable serological response between 1 January 2004 and 15 September 2013. LSR was defined as a <4-fold decline of rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer or a failed reversion to nonreactive (if RPR ≤1:4 at diagnosis) after one year since treatment. Diagnoses of syphilis were staged in early syphilis (primary, secondary and early latent) or late syphilis (tertiary and late latent) according to clinical examination and patient's history. Syphilis was classified in new infections [NI: positive RPR and TPHA (Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination assay) titers in subjects without previous history of syphilis] or re-infections [ReI: a ≥4-fold increase of RPR titer in subjects previously successfully treated for syphilis]. Syphilis treatment was prescribed according to CDC guidelines. The crude incidence rates (IRs) of LSR were calculated per 1000-person months of follow-up (PMFU) as the total number of LSR episodes divided by the cumulative time contributed by all subjects (interval time since each syphilis diagnosis and the date of ascertainment of response). Results are described as median (IQR) or frequency (%). Results 565 diagnoses of syphilis with an assessable serological response in 421 patients; 458 (81%) were early syphilis, 189 (33%) were NI, 376 (67%) were ReI. At first, diagnosis of syphilis median age was 41 (36–47) years, 419 (99.5%) males, 391 (93%) MSM, HIV-infected since 7.7 (3.5–12.9) years, 75 (18%) HCV or HBV co-infected, 56 (13%) with a previous AIDS diagnosis, 82 (19%) antiretroviral treatment naïve, 102 (24%) with HIV-RNA ≥50 cp/mL, CD4+=576 (437–749) cells/mm3, nadir CD4+=308 (194–406) cells/mm3. LSRs were observed in 70/565 (12.4%) treated
Abstract When brucellosis false positive serological reactions happen in cattle, the serial use of pairs of specificity-correlated serological tests (rose bengal, complement fixation, competitive ELISA) results in specificities lower than expected. In this situation, highly specific tests, such as the indirect ELISA used alone, may be more adequate than serial testing. PMID:16454384
Gegić, Merima; Numanović, Fatima; Delibegović, Zineta; Tihić, Nijaz; Nurkić, Mahmut; Hukić, Mirsada
Candidiasis is defined as an infection or disease caused by a fungus of the genus Candida. Rate of disseminated candidiasis increases with the growth of the number of immunocompromised patients. In the the last few decades the incidence of disseminated candidiasis is in growth as well as the mortality rate. The aim of this survey is to show the importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose. This is a prospective study involving 60 patients with malign diseases with and without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis and 30 healthy people who represent the control group. Apart from hemoculture, detection of circulating mannan antigen and adequate antibodies of Candida species applying comercial ELISA test was determined in each patient. This survey deals with relevant factors causing disseminated candidiasis. This survey showed that the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis had more patients with positive hemoculture to Candida species, then the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis. The number of patients being examined and positive to antigens and antibodies was higher (p < 0.01) in the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis (7/30; 23.3%), then in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis (0/30; 0%): Average value of titra antigen was statistically higher (p < 0.001) in patients with Candida spp. positive hemocultures rather then in patients with Candida spp. negative hemocultures. In the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis 6/30 (20%) of patients had Candida spp.positive hemocultures while in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis 1/30 (3.3%) of patients had Candida spp. positive hemocultures, which was considerably higher (p < 0.05). Correlation of results of hemoculture and mannan antigens and antibodies in patients with disseminated
Hema-Strip HIV 1/2 is a rapid HIV antibody immunoassay developed by Saliva Diagnostic Systems, Inc. (SDS) which can be used by anyone who can read the product insert. The test kit is comprised of a small lancet for a finger stick, a cylindrical tube with a capillary tip and a SDS diagnostic strip inside, and a vial of buffer. Once blood is drawn by the lancet, the capillary tip is placed upon the blood droplet and the blood is automatically drawn into the tube. The tube is then inserted tip first into the vial of buffer. The buffer and blood migrate over the diagnostic strip inside, yielding stable results within 15 minutes. Studies have found Hema-Strip HIV 1/2 to have a sensitivity and specificity greater than 99.4%, as accurate as most conventional HIV tests which require the use of laboratory equipment and trained staff, and possibly hours to produce results. Moreover, the test kit requires neither refrigeration nor special storage. Hema-Strip HIV 1/2 has received a certificate of free sale from the Ministry of Health in Singapore and is now being submitted for regulatory approval in Brazil, China, Russia, India, Malaysia, Thailand, and the UK. SDS products in production include Sero-Strip HIV 1/2, a rapid serum-based HIV antibody test; Omni-SAL, a saliva collector which is the principal sample collection device used by British insurance companies for HIV testing with other confirmatory tests; Omni-Swab, a serrated swab which collects body fluids or cells; Saliva-Sampler, a saliva collection device used for general testing purposes; and Saliva Check, a test which checks the composition of saliva samples. SDS is in the final stages of developing Saliva-Strip HIV-1/2, a rapid saliva-based HIV antibody test. The company also intends to complete development in 1996 of a rapid blood-based antibody test for the Helicobacter pylori bacteria, a pathogen linked to 80% of peptic ulcers and gastric cancers. PMID:12290908
Rockstroh, J K; Wasmuth, J-C
In Europe depending on the country 15-80 % of all individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are either not aware of the diagnosis or are diagnosed later. An early HIV diagnosis could, however, considerably improve the prognosis of individuals infected with HIV and decrease the risk of new infections; therefore, in the presence of indicator diseases, such as sexually transmitted diseases, oral thrush, herpes zoster and lymphoma, the performance of a HIV test is of utmost importance. A newly diagnosed HIV infection represents an indication for starting antiretroviral combination therapy independent of the clinical stage or CD4 cell count. A decline of the viral burden to below the limit of detection and subsequent continuous suppression of viral replication can prevent transition from HIV to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and if started early enough a normal life expectancy can be achieved. Challenges which remain in HIV therapy are the lifelong daily intake of medication and the complex long-term adverse effects. PMID:27368530
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents. 866.3390 Section 866.3390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents. 866.3390 Section 866.3390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents. 866.3390 Section 866.3390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents. 866.3390 Section 866.3390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neisseria spp. direct serological test reagents. 866.3390 Section 866.3390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents §...
Johnson, A M; Parry, J V; Best, S J; Smith, A M; de Silva, M; Mortimer, P P
Saliva specimens were tested for HIV antibody (anti-HIV) by an immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody capture radioimmunoassay (GACRIA) and three sensitive commercial assays. In tests on 460 seronegative subjects and 196 seropositive subjects GACRIA was 99.8% specific and 100% sensitive. The Wellcome HIV monoclonal and Abbott recombinant DNA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were also highly specific (99.8%, 100%) but they were less sensitive (90.9%, 82.0%). The Fujirebio particle agglutination assay was sensitive (97.8%) but its specificity was poor (84.1%). In testing saliva specimens from populations with an anti-HIV prevalence greater than 0.5%, sampling by GACRIA alone could provide a good estimate of the true prevalence. For true prevalences less than 0.5% good estimates could only be obtained if positive GACRIA reactions were confirmed by another independent salivary assay. Salivary testing for anti HIV is a convenient and potentially an accurate epidemiological tool.
Huang, Ya-Lin A; Hutchinson, Angela B; Hollis, NaTasha D; Sansom, Stephanie L
Client notification of a new HIV diagnosis is critical for timely access to treatment and reduction in behaviours associated with HIV infection. It is also an important input in HIV transmission and disease progression models. We used national, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded HIV testing events data collected through the National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation system to update estimates of the proportion of newly identified HIV-positives notified of their status. We compared estimates from 2008 to 2010 across test technologies, settings, and HIV risk groups. In 2010, notification following a positive rapid test was 99.6% compared with 99.3% in 2008. Notification following a positive conventional test was 81.5% in 2010 compared with 80.8% in 2008. To realise the full promise of early HIV diagnosis and treatment for the prevention of additional HIV cases, efforts to ensure prompt notification following a new HIV diagnosis will be crucial. PMID:26378191
Noormahomed, Emilia Virginia; Nhacupe, Noémia; Mascaró-Lazcano, Carmen; Mauaie, Manuel Natane; Buene, Titos; Funzamo, Carlos Abel; Benson, Constance Ann
Background Helminthic infections are highly endemic in Mozambique, due to limited access to healthcare and resources for disease prevention. Data on the subclinical prevalence of these diseases are scarce due to the fact that an immunological and imaging diagnosis is not often available in endemic areas. We conducted a cross-sectional study on HIV1+ patients from Beira city in order to determine the seroprevalence of cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, toxocariasis and echinoccocosis and its possible interaction with HIV infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Patients (601) were voluntarily recruited at the Ponta Gea Health Center and their demographic and clinical data were recorded (including CD4+ cell count and antiretroviral regimen). Mean age was 39.7 years, 378 (62.9%) were women and 223 (37.1%) were men. Four hundred seventy-five (475) patients (79%) were already on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 90 started therapy after being enrolled in the study. For serological testing we used a Multiplex Western Blot IgG from LDBIO Diagnostics. The overall seroprevalence was 10.2% for cysticercosis, 23% for schistosomiasis, 7.3% for toxocariasis and 17.3% for echinococcosis. Conclusions/Significance Neither age nor the CD4+ count were significantly associated with the seroprevalence of the helminths studied. However, patients with CD4+ between 200–500/µl had a higher seroprevalence to all helminths than those with less than 200/µl cells/and those with more than 500 cells/µl. Female gender was significantly associated with cysticercosis and schistosomiasis, and being in HAART with toxocariasis. Headache was significantly associated with cysticercosis and toxocariasis. There was no association between epilepsy and seropositivity to any of the parasites. The study concluded that a clear understanding of the prevalence and manifestations of these coinfections, how best to diagnose subclinical cases, and how to manage diseases with concomitant
Araújo-Mariz, Carolline; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa; Ximenes, Ricardo A A; Lacerda, Heloísa R; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito B; Montarroyos, Ulisses R; Barreto, Silvana; Salustiano, Daniela Medeiros; Albuquerque, Maria Fátima Pessoa Militão
Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and C virus (HCV) are common in patients with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB). This is a cross-sectional study with patients infected with HIV/AIDS and active TB in Recife, Brazil, aiming to verify the prevalence of markers for HBV: antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc); and HCV: antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) by chemiluminescence, and to identify the frequency of associated factors. Data were collected through questionnaires, and blood was drawn from patients for analysis. We used the chi-square test and the Fisher exact test when necessary. We conducted a bivariate logistic regression analysis and the magnitude of the associations was expressed as odds ratio (OR) with a confidence interval of 95%. Among 166 patients studied with HIV/AIDS and active TB, anti-HBc was positive in 61 patients [36.7%; 95%CI (29.4-44.6%)] and anti-HCV in 11[6.6%; 95%CI (3.4-11.5%)]. In the logistic regression analysis, male sex, and age ≥40 years were independent factors associated with the occurrence of anti-HBc. In conclusion, we verified a high frequency of HBV contact marker and a low frequency of HCV markers in patients with HIV/AIDS and TB in Recife.
Shannon, Maureen T
Both survival with HIV and rates of perinatal HIV infection have significantly declined during the past decade, due to antiretroviral therapies that interrupt HIV transmission to the fetus and newborn. Although HIV is no longer routinely fatal to mothers or transmitted to fetuses, and the testing of newborns for HIV has been improved, evidence about HIV-infected mothers' experiences during the months of their infants' HIV testing predates these improvements. This qualitative study on 16 mothers was an analysis of interviews conducted several weeks after testing was completed and all infants had been determined to be uninfected. Mothers reported that their experiences evolved during the months of testing. Initial reactions included maternal trauma and guilt associated with infant testing. They then reported learning to cope with the roller coaster ride of repeated testing with the help of information from clinicians. By the end of the testing period, ambiguity began to resolve as they engaged in tentative maternal-infant attachment and expressed desire for a sense of normalcy. Need for support and fear of stigma persisted throughout. These findings expand current knowledge about this experience and suggest clinical strategies to guide HIV-infected women during this stressful period. PMID:25739368
... HIV baseline evaluation. What is an HIV baseline evaluation? An HIV baseline evaluation includes all the information ... lab tests are included in an HIV baseline evaluation? The following lab tests are included in an ...
Bloom, D E; Glied, S
The benefits and costs of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in employment settings are examined from two points of view: that of private employers whose profitability may be affected by their testing policies and that of public policy-makers who may affect social welfare through their design of regulations related to HIV testing. The results reveal that HIV testing is clearly not cost-beneficial for most firms, although the benefits of HIV testing may outweigh the costs for some large firms that offer generous fringe-benefit packages and that recruit workers from populations in which the prevalence of HIV infection is high. The analysis also indicates that the testing decisions of unregulated employers are not likely to yield socially optimal economic outcomes and that existing state and federal legislation related to HIV testing in employment settings has been motivated primarily by concerns over social equity. PMID:1829547
Schwarcz, Sandra; Richards, T Anne; Frank, Heidi; Wenzel, Conrad; Hsu, Ling Chin; Chin, Chi-Sheng Jennie; Murphy, Jessie; Dilley, James
Late diagnosis of HIV is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Despite the availability of HIV testing, persons continue to test late in the course of HIV infection. We used the HIV/AIDS case registry of San Francisco Department of Public Health to identify and recruit 41 persons who developed AIDS within 12 months of their HIV diagnosis to participate in a qualitative and quantitative interview regarding late diagnosis of HIV. Thirty-one of the participants were diagnosed with HIV because of symptomatic disease and 50% of the participants were diagnosed with HIV and AIDS concurrently. Half of the subjects had not been tested for HIV prior to diagnosis. Fear was the most frequently cited barrier to testing. Other barriers included being unaware of improved HIV treatment, free/low cost care, and risk for HIV. Recommendations for health care providers to increase early diagnosis of HIV include routine ascertainment of HIV risk behaviors and testing histories, stronger recommendations for patients to be tested, and incorporating testing into routine medical care. Public health messages to increase testing include publicizing that (1) effective, tolerable, and low cost/free care for HIV is readily available, (2) early diagnosis of HIV improves health outcomes, (3) HIV can be transmitted to persons who engage in unprotected oral and insertive anal sex and unprotected receptive anal intercourse without ejaculation and from HIV-infected persons whose infection is well-controlled with antiretroviral therapy, (4) persons who may be infected based upon these behaviors should be tested following exposure, (5) HIV testing information will be kept private, and (6) encouraging friends and family to get HIV tested is beneficial. PMID:21424942
Knowles, E J; Mair, T S; Butcher, N; Waller, A S; Wood, J L N
Thirty horses with no external signs of strangles were tested for exposure to Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S equi) using a new, commercially available serological test. The horses were also tested for persistent carriage of S equi by endoscopy of the guttural pouches and PCR analysis of lavage samples. The owners were questioned about the recent medical history of the horses. Serology suggested that four horses had been recently exposed to S equi. None of the horses had a known history of strangles but three of the four seropositive horses had recently shown non-specific signs of respiratory disease. One asymptomatic horse was positive for S equi by PCR, but none had both guttural pouch abnormalities and a positive PCR result. Ten additional horses known to have strangles were all seropositive by the serological test.
Zhang, Kuo; Wang, Lunan; Lin, Guigao; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Rui; Xie, Jiehong; Li, Jinming
Background Toxoplasmosis is typically diagnosed by serologic testing. External quality assessment (EQA) of clinical laboratories could ensure the accuracy and reliability of serological tests. We assessed the quality of toxoplasma serological assays in Chinese clinical laboratories by an EQA performed between 2004 and 2013 by the National Center for Clinical Laboratories. Methodology and Findings EQA panels were prepared and shipped at room temperature to participating laboratories that employed toxoplasma IgG and IgM serological detection. By 2013, 5,384 EQA test reports for toxoplasma-specific IgM and 2,666 reports for toxoplasma-specific IgG were collected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and chemical immunofluorescent assays were the most commonly used detection methods. The overall coincidence rates of negative samples were better than those of positive samples. The overall EQA score for toxoplasma-specific IgM detection ranged between 84.3% and 99.6%. The ratio of laboratories that achieved correct IgG detection ranged from 61.1% to 99.3%. However, the inter- and intra-assay variabilities were found to be considerable. The most common problem was failure to detect low titers of antibody. Conclusion The EQA scheme showed an improvement in toxoplasma serological testing in China. However, further optimization of assay sensitivity to detect challenging samples remains a future challenge. PMID:26066047
Klarkowski, Derryck B.; Wazome, Joseph M.; Lokuge, Kamalini M.; Shanks, Leslie; Mills, Clair F.; O'Brien, Daniel P.
Background Concerns about false-positive HIV results led to a review of testing procedures used in a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) HIV programme in Bukavu, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. In addition to the WHO HIV rapid diagnostic test algorithm (RDT) (two positive RDTs alone for HIV diagnosis) used in voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) sites we evaluated in situ a practical field-based confirmation test against western blot WB. In addition, we aimed to determine the false-positive rate of the WHO two-test algorithm compared with our adapted protocol including confirmation testing, and whether weakly reactive compared with strongly reactive rapid test results were more likely to be false positives. Methodology/Principal Findings 2864 clients presenting to MSF VCT centres in Bukavu during January to May 2006 were tested using Determine HIV-1/2® and UniGold HIV® rapid tests in parallel by nurse counsellors. Plasma samples on 229 clients confirmed as double RDT positive by laboratory retesting were further tested using both WB and the Orgenics Immunocomb Combfirm® HIV confirmation test (OIC-HIV). Of these, 24 samples were negative or indeterminate by WB representing a false-positive rate of the WHO two-test algorithm of 10.5% (95%CI 6.6-15.2). 17 of the 229 samples were weakly positive on rapid testing and all were negative or indeterminate by WB. The false-positive rate fell to 3.3% (95%CI 1.3–6.7) when only strong-positive rapid test results were considered. Agreement between OIC-HIV and WB was 99.1% (95%CI 96.9–99.9%) with no false OIC-HIV positives if stringent criteria for positive OIC-HIV diagnoses were used. Conclusions The WHO HIV two-test diagnostic algorithm produced an unacceptably high level of false-positive diagnoses in our setting, especially if results were weakly positive. The most probable causes of the false-positive results were serological cross-reactivity or non-specific immune reactivity. Our findings show that the OIC-HIV
MOYER, L. B.; BROUWER, K. C.; BRODINE, S. K.; RAMOS, R.; LOZADA, R.; CRUZ, M. FIRESTONE; MAGIS-RODRIGUEZ, C.; STRATHDEE, S. A.
Introduction and Aims Despite increasing HIV prevalence in cities along the Mexico – US border, HIV testing among high-risk populations remains low. We sought to identify barriers associated with HIV testing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, the two largest Mexican border cities located across from San Diego, California and El Paso, Texas, respectively. Design and Methods In 2005, 222 IDUs in Tijuana and 205 IDUs in Ciudad Juarez were recruited by respondent-driven sampling and administered a questionnaire to collect socio-demographic, behavioural and HIV testing history data. Blood samples were provided for serological testing of HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis. Results Only 38% and 30% of respondents in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, respectively, had ever had an HIV test. The factors associated independently with never having been tested for HIV differed between the two sites, except for lack of knowledge on HIV transmission, which was associated independently in both locales. Importantly, 65% of those who had never been tested for HIV in both cities experienced at least one missed opportunity for voluntary testing, including medical visits, drug treatment and spending time in jail. Discussion and Conclusions Among this high-risk IDU population we found HIV testing to be low, with voluntary testing in public and private settings utilised inadequately. These findings underscore the need to expand voluntary HIV education and testing and to integrate it into services and locales frequented by IDUs in these Mexico –US border cities. PMID:18034380
Background The application of serological methods in HIV/AIDS routine surveillance systems to identify persons with recently acquired HIV infection has been proposed as a tool which may provide an accurate description of the current transmission patterns of HIV. Using the information about recent infection it is possible to estimate HIV incidence, according to the model proposed by Karon et al. in 2008, that accounts for the effect of testing practices on the number of persons detected as recently infected. Methods We used data from HIV/AIDS surveillance in the period 2004-2008 to identify newly diagnosed persons. These were classified with recent/non-recent infection on the basis of an avidity index result, or laboratory evidence of recently acquired infection (i.e., previous documented negative HIV test within 6 months; or presence of HIV RNA or p24 antigen with simultaneous negative/indeterminate HIV antibody test). Multiple imputation was used to impute missing information. The incidence estimate was obtained as the number of persons detected as recently infected divided by the estimated probability of detection. Estimates were stratified by calendar year, transmission category, gender and nationality. Results During the period considered 3,633 new HIV diagnoses were reported to the regional surveillance system. Applying the model, we estimated that in 2004-2008 there were 5,465 new infections (95%CI: 4,538-6,461); stratifying by transmission category, the estimated number of infections was 2,599 among heterosexual contacts, 2,208 among men-who-have-sex-with-men, and 763 among injecting-drug-users. In 2008 there were 952 (625-1,229) new HIV infections (incidence of 19.9 per 100,000 person-years). In 2008, for men-who-have-sex-with-men (691 per 100,000 person-years) and injecting drug users (577 per 100,000 person-years) the incidence remained comparatively high with respect to the general population, although a decreasing pattern during 2004-2008 was observed
Tamashiro, H; Maskill, W; Emmanuel, J; Fauquex, A; Sato, P; Heymann, D
Available tests to detect antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a range of applications, and injudicious selection and inappropriate use can add a significant financial burden to budgets for AIDS programmes in developing countries. There are several ways by which the cost of HIV antibody testing can be reduced; they include use of tests appropriate for existing laboratory capabilities; adoption of cost-effective testing strategies; pooling of serum samples before testing; and ensuring best possible purchase prices. Each approach can significantly reduce the cost of HIV antibody testing alone or in combination, which increases the potential sustainability of antibody testing programmes, even in settings of limited resources. PMID:8100916
Sack, Joetta L.
This article explores the issue on student HIV testing in Wisconsin. Wisconsin has enacted what appears to be the nation's first law requiring students to be tested for HIV, if teachers or other school employees can prove they were significantly exposed to the students' blood while on the job. The law, which critics view as an unwarranted…
Staat, Mary Allen; Stadler, Laura Patricia; Donauer, Stephanie; Trehan, Indi; Rice, Marilyn; Salisbury, Shelia
Definitive immunization guidelines for internationally adopted children are lacking. We examined whether these children had serologic evidence of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases. For children with ≥3 vaccine doses, overall protection was high for diphtheria (85%), tetanus (95%), polio (93%), hepatitis B (77%), and Hib (67%). For children ≥12 months of age with ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, or rubella vaccines, 95%, 72%, and 94% were immune, respectively. Children without immunization documentation had lower immunity. Serologic testing was useful in verifying the immunization status in internationally adopted children with and without documentation of immunizations. PMID:20937322
... (74 FR 13211), FDA announced the availability of the draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry... Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Use of Serological Tests To... Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Guidance for Industry: Use of Serological Tests To Reduce...
Corzo, Cesar A; Friendship, Robert; Dewey, Cate; Blackwell, Tim
The purpose of this study was to compare results from 2 serological assays at the individual- and herd-level for porcine proliferative enteropathy diagnosis. Cohen's kappa coefficient (k) was used to measure agreement. The tests tend to show better agreement when used at the herd level.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare results from 2 serological assays at the individual- and herd-level for porcine proliferative enteropathy diagnosis. Cohen’s kappa coefficient (k) was used to measure agreement. The tests tend to show better agreement when used at the herd level. PMID:16018563
Brunner, C J; Hendrix, C M; Blagburn, B L; Hanrahan, L A
In 30 random-source dogs, we determined sensitivity and specificity of 5 serologic tests for detection of canine heartworm antigens. Seventeen of the dogs were infected naturally with adult Dirofilaria immitis, and 4 of the infected dogs were amicrofilaremic. The ability of the serologic tests to predict whether a dog was infected or uninfected (overall test accuracy) ranged from 73 to 97%. Sensitivity was not affected by circulating D immitis microfilariae, but was markedly influenced by the number of adult D immitis present. False-positive reactions were rare and were not associated with intestinal parasites or Dipetalonema reconditum microfilariae. Modifications of some of the test procedures were necessary to maximize test accuracy and reproducibility. These modifications and other technical details might limit the usefulness of some of the tests in a veterinary practice.
van der Ark, A; van Straaten-van de Kappelle, I; Hendriksen, C; van de Donk, H
The current potency test for pertussis vaccines, the intracerebral protection test (MPT), is still the only mandatory laboratory model available. This test, however, is a valid, but inhumane and imprecise test and therefore a good candidate for replacement. Recently we have developed the Pertussis Serological Potency Test (PSPT) as an alternative for the MPT. The PSPT is based on in vitro assessment of the humoral immune response against the whole range of surface -antigens of B. pertussis in mice after immunisation with Whole Cell Vaccine (WCV). We have demonstrated a relationship between the mean pertussis antibody concentration at the day of challenge and the proportion of surviving mice at each vaccine dose in the MPT (R = 0.91). The PSPT is a model in which mice (20-24 g) are immunised i.p. with graded doses of vaccine and bled after four weeks. Sera are titrated in a whole cell ELISA and potency based on the vaccine dose-dependent antibody response is estimated by means of a parallel line analysis. In an in-house validation study 13 WCVs were tested in the PSPT and MPT. Homogeneity of both tests was proven by means of the chi-square test; potencies were significantly similar (p = 0.95). Compared to the MPT, the PSPT is more reproducible as is indicated by its smaller 95% confidence intervals. Moreover, by using the PSPT the animal distress can be reduced to an acceptable level and the PSPT also results in a reduction of more than 25% in use of mice. Additional experiments showed that estimation of WCV-potency in the PSPT based on specific antibody responses against protective antigens (PT, FHA, 69- and 92-kDa OMPS) was not possible or did not correlate with protection in MPT. Sera obtained from the PSPT showed a correlation between pertussis antibody levels and complement-mediated killing by pertussis antibodies in in vitro assays. In conclusion, the PSPT is a promising substitute for the MPT though further validation and additional studies on functional
Gautheret-Dejean, Agnès; Bocobza, Jonathan; Brunet, Sylvie; Damond, Florence; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Barin, Francis
Major differences exist between HIV-1 and HIV-2 in terms of epidemiology, pathogenicity, sensitivity to antiretrovirals. Determining the type of HIV infecting a patient is essential for management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of simple/rapid tests to differentiate between HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infections. We analyzed 116 samples from patients infected with HIV-1 (n = 61), HIV-2 (n = 47), or HIV-1+HIV-2 (n = 8) at the chronic stage of infection. Each sample was tested with SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0, ImmunoFlow HIV1-HIV2, ImmunoFlow HIV1-HIV2 (WB), Genie III HIV-1/HIV-2, ImmunoComb HIV1&2 BiSpot. HIV-1, or HIV-2 single infection was identified with a sensitivity ranging from 90% to 100%. The ability to detect dual infection was less sensitive (12.5-100%). SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0, ImmunoFlow HIV1-HIV2, and Genie III were unable to detect HIV-1 group O infection in one, one and two cases, respectively. The specificity of detection of HIV-1, HIV-2, or HIV-1+HIV-2 antibodies differed greatly (36-100%). ImmunoComb BiSpot had the highest sensitivity values (99-100% for HIV-1, 98% for HIV-2, and 75-87.5% for dual infection) and specificity values (94-100% for HIV-1, 100% for HIV-2, and 97-100% for dual infection). In conclusion, this study showed that no single rapid test had a perfect sensitivity/specificity ratio, particularly in the case of the double infections.
Bidwell, D E; Turp, P; Joyner, L P; Payne, R C; Purnell, R E
A comparison was made between the microplate enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) and complement fixation (CF) tests for the detection of antibodies in the serum of cattle experimentally infected with Babesia divergens and B major. Antibodies were detected using all three tests but they were detected earlier using the CF test. However CF titres were consistently lower than those obtained using the other tests. Although there was little to choose between the IFA and ELISA tests, it was suggested that the ELISA may be preferable since it is less subject to operator error and operator stress, and can be adapted readily to field use.
Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; de Abreu Ferrari, Teresa Cristina; de Sousa, Marcos Roberto
Minimum accuracy of HIV diagnostic tests is considered the pillar on which testing strategies for all settings must be based. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have shown that performance of the same test in different settings may vary according to several factors, resulting in different confidence intervals for sensitivity and specificity. Prevalence of HIV infection may influence observed test accuracy. The purpose of this article is to use the knowledge from meta-analyses of general diagnostic tests to inform the specific field of HIV diagnostic strategies. We propose the 'Bayesian' thinking: considering the pretest probability (i.e., prevalence, risk factors) and understanding test limitations to estimate a post-test probability of HIV diagnosis. Cost-effectiveness analysis, patient preferences and ethical issues must also be considered in HIV testing strategies.
Background Many HIV voluntary testing and counselling centres in Africa use rapid antibody tests, in parallel or in sequence, to establish same-day HIV status. The interpretation of indeterminate or discrepant results between different rapid tests on one sample poses a challenge. We investigated the use of an algorithm using three serial rapid HIV tests in cohabiting couples to resolve unclear serostatuses. Methods Heterosexual couples visited the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group testing centres in Kigali, Rwanda, and Lusaka, Zambia, to assess HIV infection status. Individuals with unclear HIV rapid antibody test results (indeterminate) or discrepant results were asked to return for repeat testing to resolve HIV status. If either partner of a couple tested positive or indeterminate with the screening test, both partners were tested with a confirmatory test. Individuals with indeterminate or discrepant results were further tested with a tie-breaker and monthly retesting. HIV-RNA viral load was determined when HIV status was not resolved by follow-up rapid testing. Individuals were classified based on two of three initial tests as "Positive", "Negative" or "Other". Follow-up testing and/or HIV-RNA viral load testing determined them as "Infected", "Uninfected" or "Unresolved". Results Of 45,820 individuals tested as couples, 2.3% (4.1% of couples) had at least one discrepant or indeterminate rapid result. A total of 65% of those individuals had follow-up testing and of those individuals initially classified as "Negative" by three initial rapid tests, less than 1% were resolved as "Infected". In contrast, of those individuals with at least one discrepant or indeterminate result who were initially classified as "Positive", only 46% were resolved as "Infected", while the remainder was resolved as "Uninfected" (46%) or "Unresolved" (8%). A positive HIV serostatus of one of the partners was a strong predictor of infection in the other partner as 48% of individuals who
Rountree, Michele A.; Chen Lynn; Brown Adama; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.
The purpose of this study is to report the HIV testing rates among white Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans and to identify the frequency of use of HIV testing locations according to a variety of sociodemographic variables. Data for this study came from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Participants in…
Background Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Results Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold). However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2%) were HIV negative. Conclusion Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals. PMID:22429706
Handel, Ian G.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Hamman, Saidou M.; Nfon, Charles; Bergman, Ingrid E.; Malirat, Viviana; Sorensen, Karl J.; Bronsvoort, Barend M. de C.
Herdsman-reported disease prevalence is widely used in veterinary epidemiologic studies, especially for diseases with visible external lesions; however, the accuracy of such reports is rarely validated. Thus, we used latent class analysis in a Bayesian framework to compare sensitivity and specificity of herdsman reporting with virus neutralization testing and use of 3 nonstructural protein ELISAs for estimates of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) prevalence on the Adamawa plateau of Cameroon in 2000. Herdsman-reported estimates in this FMD-endemic area were comparable to those obtained from serologic testing. To harness to this cost-effective resource of monitoring emerging infectious diseases, we suggest that estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of herdsmen reporting should be done in parallel with serologic surveys of other animal diseases. PMID:25417556
Bigbee, P.D.; Sarin, P.S.; Humphreys, J.C.; Eubanks, W.G.; Sun, D.; Hocken, D.G.; Thornton, A.; Adams, D.E.; Simic, M.G. )
A method to use ionizing radiation to inactivate HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) in human body fluids was studied in an effort to reduce the risk of accidental infection to forensic science laboratory workers. Experiments conducted indicate that an X-ray absorbed dose of 25 krad was required to completely inactivate HIV. This does not alter forensically important constituents such as enzymes and proteins in body fluids. This method of inactivation of HIV cannot be used on body fluids which will be subjected to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) typing.
Loukou, Y G; Cabran, M A; Yessé, Zinzendorf Nanga; Adouko, B M O; Lathro, S J; Agbessi-Kouassi, K B T
Seven rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) of HIV were evaluated by a panel group who collected serum samples from patients in Abidjan (HIV-1 = 203, HIV-2 = 25, HIV-dual = 25, HIV = 305). Kit performances were recorded after the reference techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following RDTs showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity higher than 99%: Determine, Oraquick, SD Bioline, BCP, and Stat-Pak. These kits were used to establish infection screening strategies. The combination with 2 or 3 of these tests in series or parallel algorithms showed that series combinations with 2 tests (Oraquick and Bioline) and 3 tests (Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak) gave the best performances (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%). However, the combination with 2 tests appeared to be more onerous than the combination with 3 tests. The combination with Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak tests serving as a tiebreaker could be an alternative to the HIV/AIDS serological screening in Abidjan.
Jain, Ashish; Kumawat, Vijay; Marwaha, Neelam
A blood requisition for double-volume exchange transfusion was received for a 2-day-old male child born to a 29-year-old multiparous female (P2002) referred to our institute having neonatal jaundice with encephalopathy; no maternal sample was received. the neonatal blood sample was typed as group A, D-, and the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was strongly positive (4+) using the gel method. Mono-specific DAT showed the presence of IgG antibodies on neonatal red blood cells (RBCs). Acid elution and gentle heat elution (at 56°C) confirmed the presence of anti-D on neonatal RBCs. The baby received two exchange transfusions with group O, D-, packed RBCs compatible with his own serum. Later, on day 3, the neonate's mother was typed as group AB, D-, and her serum revealed the presence of alloanti-D, -C, and -S reactive in the anti-human globulin phase. The anti-D titer was 1024. this report highlights the "blocking" phenomenon caused by maternal anti-D in a case of hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn with a positive DAT. PMID:26829177
Fabri, Angélica da Conceição Oliveira Coelho; Carvalho, Ana Paula Mendes; Vieira, Nayara Figueiredo; Bueno, Isabela de Caux; Rodrigues, Rayssa Nogueira; Monteiro, Thayenne Barrozo Mota; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Duthie, Malcolm S; Lana, Francisco Carlos Félix
An integrative literature review was conducted to synthesize available publications regarding the potential use of serological tests in leprosy programs. We searched the databases Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde, Índice Bibliográfico Espanhol em Ciências da Saúde, Acervo da Biblioteca da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Hanseníase, National Library of Medicine, Scopus, Ovid, Cinahl, and Web of Science for articles investigating the use of serological tests for antibodies against phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I), ML0405, ML2331, leprosy IDRI diagnostic-1 (LID-1), and natural disaccharide octyl-leprosy IDRI diagnostic-1 (NDO-LID). From an initial pool of 3.514 articles, 40 full-length articles fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Based on these papers, we concluded that these antibodies can be used to assist in diagnosing leprosy, detecting neuritis, monitoring therapeutic efficacy, and monitoring household contacts or at-risk populations in leprosy-endemic areas. Thus, available data suggest that serological tests could contribute substantially to leprosy management.
Legris, Tristan; Motte, Anne; Vacher-Coponat, Henri; Fages, Lucie; Jourde-Chiche, Noémie; Borentain, Patrick; Jaubert, Dominique; Gerolami, René; Colson, Philippe
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 is endemic in Europe and hyperendemic in southern France. Recent reports of a high prevalence of HEV RNA in blood donations and in culinary specialties from this geographical area confirmed the endemicity of HEV and sources of viral transmission in this geographical area. HEV causes acute and chronic hepatitis in solid organ transplant recipients. Since March 2012, we have implemented systematic HEV serological testing in our cohort of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) in Marseille in southeastern France. The aim of our study was to assess HEV exposure in this cohort between March 2012 and May 2014. During these 27 months, we found that 39% of the patients who underwent kidney transplantation had an anti-HEV IgG response using a sensitive microplate enzyme immunoassay. This seroprevalence was approximately 43% at both 1 and 8 years after, using the same assay. In addition, systematic HEV serological testing detected 6 cases of HEV infection among 578 KTRs (1%) during the 27 months of the study, with 5 at an acute stage and 1 at a chronic stage. In conclusion, continuous HEV monitoring in this population is useful for better understanding the epidemiology of HEV in France, because these patients are a well-monitored population. Moreover, HEV monitoring in KTRs is clinically relevant because HEV represents a clinical threat in these patients. Nevertheless, HEV serological testing may be more fruitful for identifying HEV infections when performed in cases of biological liver abnormalities than when performed systematically. PMID:25694530
O'Byrne, Patrick; Holmes, Dave; Roy, Marie
Recently, focus groups and qualitative interviews with nurses who provide frontline care for persons living with HIV highlighted the contentiousness surrounding the seemingly innocuous activity of counselling clients about HIV-status disclosure, hereafter disclosure counselling. These empirical studies highlighted that while some nurses felt they should instruct clients to disclose their HIV-positive status if HIV transmission were possible, other nurses were equally adamant that such counselling was outside the nursing scope of practice. A review of these opposing perceptions about disclosure counselling, including an examination of the empirical evidence which supports each point, revealed that the dichotomous arguments needed to be nuanced. The empirical evidence about serostatus disclosure neither supported nor refuted either of these assertions; rather, it substantiated parts of each. To create this understanding, both empirical and theoretical works are used. First, the results of empirical studies about serostatus disclosure, or lack thereof and HIV transmission is presented; as part of this, Marks and Crepaz's HIV disclosure and exposure framework is examined. Second, the work of Michel Foucault on disciplinary and pastoral power is drawn from. The outcome is a nuanced understanding about the interrelationships between disclosure counselling and nursing practice and a final interpretation about what this understanding means for public health practice.
Naureen, Abeera; Saqib, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulan; Hussain, Muhammad H; Asi, Muhammad N
The Rose Bengal plate agglutination test (RBT) was evaluated for the diagnosis of equine glanders, and its diagnostic efficiency was compared with that of mallein and other serological tests, including indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), complement fixation test (CFT), and modified counter immunoelectrophoresis test (mCIET). Sera from 70 naturally infected culture-positive, 96 potentially exposed cohorts, and 110 healthy equines were tested. All tests but mCIET showed 100% specificity when testing the sera from glanders-negative equines. The calculated sensitivities of RBT, IHAT, CFT, mCIET, and mallein test when testing culture-positive equines were 90.0, 97.1, 91.4, 81.4, and 75.7%, respectively. The RBT was significantly (P < 0.05) more sensitive than the mallein test and mCIET. The positive and negative predictive values of each test (RBT, IHAT, CFT, mallein test, and mCIET) were as follows: 100 and 94, 100 and 98.2, 100 and 96.7, 100 and 86.6, and 90.5 and 88.6, respectively. On comparing glandered and nonglandered animals, the highest agreement (0.987) was found between RBT and CFT followed by RBT and IHAT (0.940), RBT and mallein test (0.871), and RBT and mCIET (0.852). Because the RBT is simpler and rapid to perform, the inclusion of the test as a supplementary test for the diagnosis of glanders in field conditions is recommended.
Executive Summary Objective The objective of this evidence-based analysis was to evaluate the clinical utility of serologic testing for celiac disease in asymptomatic individuals presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated in this report. The clinical utility was based on the effects of a gluten-free diet (GFD) on outcomes specific to each of these conditions. The prevalence of celiac disease in asymptomatic individuals and one of these non-gastrointestinal conditions was also evaluated. Clinical Need and Target Population Celiac Disease Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease characterized by a chronic inflammatory state of the proximal small bowel mucosa accompanied by structural and functional changes. Technology Under Evaluation Serologic Tests for Celiac Disease There are a number of serologic tests for celiac disease available. Serologic tests are automated with the exception of the anti-endomysial antibody test, which is more time-consuming and operator-dependent than the other tests. Research Questions What is the prevalence of asymptomatic celiac disease in patients presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated? What is the effect of the gluten-free diet on condition-specific outcomes in patients with asymptomatic celiac disease presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated? What is the clinical utility of serologic testing for celiac disease in asymptomatic patients presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated? The clinical utility was defined as the impact of the GFD on disease specific outcomes. What is the risk of all-cause mortality and lymphoma in individuals with asymptomatic celiac disease? What is the budget impact of serologic testing for celiac disease in asymptomatic subjects presenting with one of the non-gastrointestinal conditions evaluated? Research Methods Study Population The study population consisted of individuals with newly diagnosed celiac
Reeves, M W; McGrew, B E; McLaurin, B; Pine, L
A total of 13 egg lecithins, 12 beef heart lecithins, and 15 beef heart cardiolipins were assayed for the ability to function in the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory microflocculation test, as well as for purity, fatty acid composition, free amines, metals, and products of oxidation. We found that the presence of peroxides and oxidation-related ultraviolet-absorbing chromophores showed a close inverse relationship to acceptable serological activity. The degree of purity of the lipids had only a slight influence on serological activity, whereas fatty acid composition, saturation, and configuration had none at all. We did not detect contaminating iron, copper, cobalt, nickel, or free amines in these lipids. We discuss the implications of our findings for improving the chemical standards for these lipids. Images PMID:7263853
DiAngelis, A J; Born, D O; Hill, A J
Public and professional debate over what, if any, action should be taken by state regulatory agencies regarding AIDS and the HIV status of dentists has increased in recent months. To determine if state boards had workable policies in place or were considering such policies, a telephone survey of all state boards was undertaken. All boards participated, although three provided only limited information. As of early 1992, only two boards required evidence of immunity to HVB for relicensure and none require evidence of seronegativity to HIV for relicensure. Twelve percent of the boards anticipate such requirements within two years. None have mandatory HIV testing, but 13 percent anticipate such requirements in the near future. The authors conclude that while few agencies have taken more than tentative steps toward rigorous HIV testing or restrictions, most are aware of much closer public scrutiny. More restrictions seem likely as these agencies attempt to balance public and professional rights and responsibilities. PMID:1337950
Hitchcock, Daryl L.; And Others
An increase of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) throughout the world cuts across age, ethnic, gender, and sexual orientation groups. It is imperative that people find out if they are carrying the disease. Many still continue to engage in high risk behaviors in ignorance, putting themselves and their partners at risk. The relationships among fear…
Mulatu, Mesfin S.
Objectives We assessed if HIV testing and diagnoses increased during the week of National HIV Testing Day (NHTD) and if characteristics of people who were tested varied compared with control weeks. Methods We analyzed HIV testing data from the 2010 National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation system to compare NHTD week (June 24–30, 2010) with two control weeks (January 7–13, 2010, and August 12–18, 2010) for the number of HIV testing events and new HIV-positive diagnoses, by demographics and other HIV-related variables. Characteristics associated with testing during NHTD week compared with control weeks were identified using Chi-square analyses. Results In 2010, an average of 15,000 more testing events were conducted and 100 more new HIV-positive diagnoses were identified during NHTD week than during the control weeks (p<0.001). Compared with control weeks, people tested during NHTD week were significantly less likely to be aged 20–29 years and non-Hispanic white and significantly more likely to be (1) aged ≥50 years, (2) non-Hispanic black or African American, (3) men who have sex with men, (4) low-risk heterosexuals, (5) tested with a rapid HIV test, or (6) tested in a non-health-care setting. Conclusion In 2010, CDC-funded HIV testing events and new HIV-positive diagnoses increased during NHTD week compared with control weeks. HIV testing programs increased the use of rapid tests and returned a high percentage of test results. NHTD campaigns reached populations disproportionately affected by HIV and further expanded testing to people traditionally less likely to be tested. Incorporating strategies used during NHTD in programs conducted throughout the year may assist in increasing HIV testing and the number of HIV-positive diagnoses. PMID:25177056
Hearst, A; Heffner, J
This essay presents the authors' perspective on home test kits for HIV/AIDS diagnosis. The approval and introduction of a private option for initial diagnosis threatens to lessen and/or displace public efforts to diagnose and treat HIV/AIDS. Individual diagnoses should not be a substitute for a concerted public effort to address this national health care concern. Making home test kits available may become an exercise in excluding groups from community concern, thus isolating the high risk groups who are in greatest need of public health services. The home test kits must not replace the concept of social responsibility and a commitment to public health.
Shimanskaya, Iryna; Zhurauskaya, Larisa; Pankratov, Oleg; Unemo, Magnus; Ballard, Ronald C; Domeika, Marius
The performance of three serological tests manufactured in Belarus for the diagnosis of syphilis, i.e. a microprecipitation reaction (MPR) and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were compared with internationally recognized assays, namely the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum passive particle agglutination assay (TPPA). Sera from 392 consecutive patients attending Brest (Belarus) regional dermatovenereological dispensaries were tested. The sensitivity of the MPR test was low (77.3%) compared with the rapid plasma reagin test, while the specificity was high (100%). In contrast, both Belarusian ELISAs performed well when compared with the TPPA (sensitivities of 99.2% and 100%, specificities of 98.7% and 99.0%, respectively). There is a clear need to improve the sensitivity of the existing Belarusian MPR test or to use a more sensitive screening test in order to improve diagnosis of the disease in Belarus.
Muñoz, P. M.; Marín, C. M.; Monreal, D.; González, D.; Garin-Bastuji, B.; Díaz, R.; Mainar-Jaime, R. C.; Moriyón, I.; Blasco, J. M.
Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 bears a smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS) of Brucella sp. O-chain A + C/Y epitopic structure and is a cause of false-positive serological reactions (FPSR) in standard tests for cattle brucellosis. Brucella S-LPS, cross-reacting S-LPSs representing several O-chain epitope combinations, Brucella core lipid A epitopes (rough LPS), Brucella abortus S-LPS-derived polysaccharide, native hapten polysaccharide, rough LPS group 3 outer membrane protein complexes, recombinant BP26, and cytosolic proteins were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and precipitation tests to detect cattle brucellosis (sensitivity) and to differentiate it from FPSR (specificity). No single serological test and antigen combination showed 100% sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. Immunoprecipitation tests with native hapten polysaccharide, counterimmunoelectrophoresis with cytosolic proteins, and a chaotropic ELISA with Brucella S-LPS were 100% specific but less sensitive than the Rose Bengal test, complement fixation, and indirect ELISA with Brucella S-LPSs and native hapten or S-LPS-derived polysaccharides. A competitive ELISA with Brucella S-LPS and M84 C/Y-specific monoclonal antibody was not 100% specific and was less sensitive than other tests. ELISA with Brucella suis bv. 2 S-LPS (deficient in C epitopes), Escherichia hermannii S-LPSs [lacking the contiguous α-(1-2)-linked perosamine residues characteristic of Y. enterocolitica S-LPS], BP26 recombinant protein, and Brucella cytosolic fractions did not provide adequate sensitivity/specificity ratios. Although no serological test and antigen combination fully resolved the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in the presence of FPSR, some are simple and practical alternatives to the brucellin skin test currently recommended for differential diagnosis. PMID:15642999
Chan, R K; Ali, K; Thoe, S Y
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterised by seroconversion after a ¿window¿ period of 2 to 3 months. After this period antibodies are usually detectable by screening tests (enzyme immunoassay or particle agglutination) confirmed by Western blot analysis. We studied 1000 newly enrolled female sex workers who had not been previously tested for HIV to assess the usefulness of HIV antigen testing to improve the efficacy of HIV infection detection. Blood was taken at enrollment for HIV antigen and HIV antibody testing. The Abbott HIVAG-1 test was used to detect antigen; antibody detection was by the Abbott recombinant HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test, the Fujirebio Serodia-HIV particle agglutination (PA) test for screening, and the Diagnostic Biotechnology HIV Blot 2.2 Western blot (WB) test for antibody confirmation. Of the 1000 samples, 26 were positive for HIV antibody testing (26/26 for EIA, 25/25 for PA, 26/26 for WB), giving a prevalence rate of 2.6%, Of these 26 seropositive samples 1 was positive on HIV antigen testing. There were no samples which were antigen-positive and antibody-negative. HIV antigen testing does not add to increased efficacy of HIV detection among female sex workers in Singapore.
A bill requiring some Federal prisoners to be tested for HIV if their bodily fluids come into contact with corrections officers passed through the House and Senate. Test results will be revealed only to the prison administrator and the inmates themselves. President Clinton is expected to sign the measure.
Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett
HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV…
Pondé, Robério Amorim de Almeida
Since serological donor-screening tests for HIV were introduced in 1985, the safety of donated blood components has improved dramatically. However, these tests do not completely prevent the risk of transfusion-associated HIV infection related to the use of blood donated during the pre-seroconversion window period. Testing based on nucleic acid amplification is being implemented to screen for HIV-infected blood donated during this period, which has reduced the probability of transmitting HIV through transfusion by shortening the window period. This article describes a case of acute HIV-1 infection, detected using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) in a repeat blood donor who donated during the pre-seroconversion window period and whose antigen and anti-HIV antibody expression was observed after molecular marker detection. In addition, the possible route of infection is discussed based on the patient's history, and finally, the need for NAT technology for blood donor screening is emphasized.
Lussier, G; Guénette, D; Descôteaux, J P
Three serological tests, i.e. complement fixation test, indirect immunofluorescent assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were compared for sensitivity in the detection and titration of murine cytomegalovirus antibody. The three tests were compared using sera from experimentally inoculated and naturally infected mice bled at intervals from 3 to 140 days postinfection. In the acute infection, complement fixation and indirect immunofluorescent assay tests were of comparable sensitivity for early detection of antibody, whereas the ELISA was less sensitive. In persistent infection, higher titers were recorded with ELISA. Since murine cytomegalovirus has been shown to exert significant effects on the immune response of infected mice, this antigen should be included routinely in viral antibody screening programs.
Luciano, R. L.; Cardoso, A. L. S. P.; Stoppa, G. F. Z.; Kanashiro, A. M. I.; de Castro, A. G. M.; Tessari, E. N. C.
Avian mycoplasmosis causes great economic losses to the poultry industry, and one of the major agents involved is Mycoplasma synovie (MS). Serum from commercial poultry breeders (n = 2781) was tested for MS by serum plate agglutination (SPA), hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). From 2,781 samples tested, 736 (26.46%) were positive in SPA. From 712 SPA-positive sera, 30 samples (4.21%) were positive in HI, and 150 samples (21.06%) were positive in ELISA. Copositivity between ELISA and HI was 90%, and conegativity was 82.0%. Agreement between HI and ELISA was rejected by McNemar's test (P ≤ .001), and Kappa coefficient showed a weak correlation between the two techniques (k = 0.25; 0.21 ≤ k < 0.40). Weak statistical correlation was observed between all serological tests (SPA, HI, and ELISA), and they should only be used for initial screening for MS. PMID:21547263
Sharma, H. K.; Kotwal, S. K.; Singh, D. K.; Malik, M. A.; Kumar, Arvind; Rajagunalan; Singh, M.
Aim: Brucellosis is a disease of zoonotic importance as it affects both human as well as animal’s health, and therefore, directly affects animal productivity and human efficiency. Therefore, a study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in Jammu and surrounding areas. Materials and Methods: A total of 121 sera samples from humans occupied with professional related to animals were collected and tested for anti-Brucella antibodies by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), modified RBPT (mRBPT), standard tube agglutination test (STAT), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA). Sampling was done keeping in view with the occupation, sex, and age. Results: The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded was 4.96%. The test-wise seroprevalence was 9.91% by RBPT, 9.91% by mRBPT, 9.09% by STAT, and 16.52% by I-ELISA. The prevalence of brucellosis was higher in >35-50 years age group compared to >20-35 years and >50-65 years. Sex-wise seroprevalence was higher in males than females. Taking I-ELISA as standard, the relative sensitivities of mRBPT, RBPT, and I-ELISA were in the order of mRBPT=RBPT>STAT. All the tests revealed high specificity values; however, among different serological tests, I-ELISA detected a maximum number of positive sera samples. Conclusions: The prevalence of brucellosis was found to be approximately 5%. The adult (>35-50 years) age male group was most vulnerable. The routine diagnosis of brucellosis involved the conventional serological tests, viz., RBPT and STAT, but each was associated with drawbacks which could give either false-positive or false-negative interpretation. Therefore, it is always recommended to use a battery of tests in the diagnosis of brucellosis. PMID:27536036
Díaz-Aparicio, E; Marín, C; Alonso-Urmeneta, B; Aragón, V; Pérez-Ortiz, S; Pardo, M; Blasco, J M; Díaz, R; Moriyón, I
Five serological assays were evaluated for the diagnosis of brucellosis in goats: the rose bengal test (RBT), complement fixation test (CFT), radial immunodiffusion (RID) with Brucella and Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 polysaccharides, counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) with cytosol, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with polyclonal and protein G conjugates and smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS), native hapten polysaccharide (NH), or cytosol antigens. For optimal sensitivity, RBT had to be used with sera-antigen at a 3:1 dilution. In the RID test, Brucella melitensis biotype 1 NH could not be replaced by Brucella abortus biotype 1 or Y. enterocolitica 0:9 polysaccharides. In the ELISA, S-LPS and NH gave similar results and the protein G conjugate increased the specificity. With the sera from 55 B. melitensis culture-positive goats, the sensitivity was 100% for RBT, CFT (titer > or = 4), and ELISA with S-LPS or NH; 94% for RID; and 93% for CIEP. All tests were negative (100% specific) when testing the sera from 127 brucella-free goats. Larger discrepancies among the results of the serological tests were obtained with sera from goats of areas where brucellosis is endemic. When the sera of 20 young goats vaccinated subcutaneously (10(9) CFU of B. melitensis Rev 1) and bled 6 months later were examined, the specificities were as follows: NH ELISA, 60%; CFT and S-LPS ELISA, 75%; RBT, 80%; CIEP, 90%; and RID, 94%. With the sera from 10 young goats vaccinated conjunctivally (10(9) CFU of B. melitensis Rev 1) all tests were 100% specific 4 months after vaccination. The proportion of goats giving a positive reaction after vaccination decreased faster in RID than in other tests. PMID:8051240
Alvarez-García, Gema; García-Culebras, Alicia; Gutiérrez-Expósito, Daniel; Navarro-Lozano, Vanesa; Pastor-Fernández, Iván; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel
Bovine neosporosis control programs are currently based on herd management and serodiagnosis because effective treatments and vaccines are unavailable. Although a wide variety of serological tools have been developed, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are the most commonly commercialized tests. Partial comparative studies have been performed in the past, and the panel of available ELISAs has notably changed in the last few years. Therefore, diagnostic laboratories are requesting updated information about the performance of these tests. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to compare all of the commercially available ELISAs (n=10) by evaluating their performance and to re-standardize them based on TG-ROC analyses when necessary. For this purpose, a well-characterized serum panel from experimentally and naturally infected bovines and non-infected bovines (n=458) was used. Two different definitions of gold standard were considered: (i) the result of the majority of tests and (ii) pre-test information based on epidemiological, clinical and serological data. Most of the tests displayed high sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) values when both gold standard criteria were considered. Furthermore, all the tests showed near perfect agreement, with the exception of the pair-wise comparisons that included the VMRD and SVANOVIR. The best-adjusted ELISAs were the HIPRA-CIVTEST, IDVET, BIOVET and IDEXX Rum (Se and Sp>95%). After the TG-ROC analyses, higher Se and Sp values were obtained for the BIO-X, LSI Bov, LSI Rum and IDEXX Bov, though the increases were more significant for the SVANOVIR and VMRD. The Kappa values also increased with the new adjusted cut-offs. This is the first study that offers updated performance evaluations of commercially available ELISAs. Such analyses are essential for diagnostic laboratories and are valuable to the companies that develop and distribute these tests.
Díaz, R.; Maravi-Poma, E.; Rivero, A.
Sera from 65 persons with clinical brucellosis were employed in a comparison of standard and rapid serological tests. The results obtained with the Rose Bengal test correlated very well with those of the standard tube agglutination test, whereas results with the rapid plate agglutination test and the Coombs (antiglobulin) test were inferior. Absorption of patients' sera with specific anti-human immunoglobulin sera showed that IgM was active in the Rose Bengal test but not in the Coombs test, whereas IgG and IgA were active in both tests. In addition to the A & M antigen, which plays the most important role in the agglutination, Rose Bengal, and Coombs tests, other antigenic fractions of Brucella were examined in precipitation tests. A protein antigen reacted with 94% of the sera in counter-immunoelectrophoresis. On the basis of the results with both groups of sera, the Rose Bengal test and counter-immunoelectrophoresis appear to be the most promising methods for diagnosing clinical brucellosis. The tests differ qualitatively since different Brucella antigens are employed. PMID:791532
Stevens, M G; Hennager, S G; Olsen, S C; Cheville, N F
Serologic responses in the particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay and the card, complement fixation, and tube agglutination tests were measured for 10 weeks after vaccination of cattle with either Brucella abortus 19 or the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen-deficient mutant, strain RB51. The responses of strain 19-vaccinated cattle were positive, whereas those of strain RB51-vaccinated cattle were negative, in all of the tests. These results indicate that cattle vaccinated with strain RB51 fail to produce antibodies that can be detected by conventional serologic tests that are used to diagnose bovine brucellosis.
Haukoos, Jason S.; Hopkins, Emily; Bucossi, Meggan M.; Lyons, Michael S.; Rothman, Richard E.; White, Douglas A.E.; Al-Tayyib, Alia A.; Bradley-Springer, Lucy; Campbell, Jonathon D.; Sabel, Allison L.; Thrun, Mark W.
Routine screening is recommended for HIV detection. HIV risk estimation remains important. Our goal was to validate the Denver HIV Risk Score (DHRS) using a national cohort from the CDC. Patients ≥13 years of age were included, 4,830,941 HIV tests were performed, and 0.6% newly-diagnosed infections were identified. Of all visits, 9% were very low risk (HIV prevalence = 0.20%); 27% low risk (HIV prevalence = 0.17%); 41% moderate risk (HIV prevalence = 0.39%); 17% high risk (HIV prevalence = 1.19%); and 6% very high risk (HIV prevalence = 3.57%). The DHRS accurately categorized patients into different HIV risk groups. PMID:25585300
Osterholm, M T; Kantor, R J; Bradley, D W; Hall, W N; Francis, D P; Aaron, H C; Washburn, J W; Velde, D
Ninety-seven symptomatic and five asymptomatic infections with viral hepatitis, type A (102 cases) were identified in members, guests and employees of a private country club in an outbreak associated with consuming food and ice prepared or handled by an employee of the club's kitchen pantry. Twenty-three symptomatic persons were tested by differential radioimmunoassay for immunoglobulin M (IgM) (acute-phase) hepatitis A antibody (anti-HAV) and all 23 were documented to be infected with hepatitis A virus (HAV). Forty-one member/guest cases had only a single exposure at the county club. Their incubation periods ranged from 21 to 40 days, with a mean of 30 days. The exposure of these single-day patrons occurred over a 14-day period. The index case was not icteric and only moderately symptomatic and was diagnosed retrospectively to have viral hepatitis, type A by serologic determination of IgM anti-HAV in blood samples. Four items implicated in disease transmission were potato salad, hot dogs, molded salmon and ice handled by the index case. Serologic screening of controls did not appear to alter the conclusions of the food item analysis.
Lizundia, Regina; Picado, Albert; Cordero, Marlen; Calderón, Alejandra; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Montenegro, Victor M.; Urbina, Andrea
Introduction: Chagas disease is a zoonotic disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and dogs are one of the main domestic reservoirs. Materials and Methods: One molecular (OligoC-TesT, Coris Bioconcept) and one serological (T. cruzi-Detect, Inbios) rapid tests were evaluated as infection markers for T. cruzi in 102 dogs living in eight villages endemic for Chagas in Costa Rica. Results: T. cruzi-Detect performed well as screening tool with 23.3% positive samples. The large number of invalid results (66.7%) observed in samples tested with OligoC-TesT precluded assessing the use of this new method as epidemiological tool to detect T. cruzi infection in dogs. PMID:25250232
Leonard, Noelle R.; Rajan, Sonali; Gwadz, Marya V.; Aregbesola, Temi
The heightened level of risk for HIV infection among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is driven by multilevel influences. Using cross-sectional data, we examined HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color in a high-HIV seroprevalence area (ages 16 to 21 years). Self-reported frequency of testing was high, with 42% of…
Despite huge prevention efforts the number of HIV infections worldwide continues to increase dramatically. Among other strategies, the HIV test offers an important chance for targeted prevention, provided quality counselling is offered. Several studies have revealed that HIV testing is often performed in less than optimal conditions and is often…
Han, Larry; Candidate, BSPH; Bien, Cedric H.; Wei, Chongyi; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Yang, Min; Candidate, BSPH; Liu, Fengying; Yang, Ligang; Meng, Gang; Emch, Michael E.; Tucker, Joseph D.
HIV self-testing offers an alternative to facility-based testing that could expand HIV testing among MSM. We organized an online survey of MSM in China to better understand the frequency and correlates of HIV self-testing. A total of 1342 individuals completed the survey. 20.3% of MSM reported prior HIV self-testing. Self-testing was correlated with being married, having six or greater male anal sex partners in the past three months, and having HIV tested within 12 months in the multivariable analysis. Our study suggests that HIV self-testing may be able to reach sub-groups of high-risk MSM and enable more frequent HIV testing. PMID:24991972
Pilcher, Christopher D.; Bisol, Claudia Alquati; Paganella, Machline Paim; Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; da Motta, Leonardo Rapone; Kato, Sergio Kakuta; Sperhacke, Rosa Dea; Kallas, Esper G.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Diaz, Ricardo Sobhie
Objective To examine the feasibility of identifying HIV negative at risk individuals in HIV serodiscordant couples, during voluntary HIV testing in South Brazil. Methods We surveyed HIV testers at 4 public testing sites in Rio Grande do Sul. We obtained information on risk behaviors and sexual partnerships. HIV testing and testing for recent infection were performed; HIV prevalence and risk behaviors were assessed among subjects who reported having a steady partner who was HIV positive (serodiscordant group) and compared with the general testing population. Results Among 3100 patients, 490 (15.8%) reported being in a steady relationship with an HIV positive partner. New HIV infections were diagnosed in 23% of the serodiscordant group (vs. 13% in the general population, p = 0.01); among newly positive subjects, recent HIV infections were more frequent (23/86, 26.7%) among testers with positive partners than among the general testing group (52/334; 15.6%; p = 0.016). Less than half of the serodiscordant testers reported having used a condom during the last sexual intercourse with their HIV-positive partner. Participants with inconsistent condom use with steady partner were four times more likely to test positive for HIV compared to those who reported always using condoms with the steady partner (OR: 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3 to 7.5). Conclusion It is highly feasible to identify large numbers of HIV susceptible individuals who are in HIV serodiscordant relationships in South Brazil testing sites. Condom use within HIV serodiscordant couples is low in this setting, suggesting urgent need for biomedical prevention strategies to reduce HIV transmission. PMID:26562436
Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett
HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV testing behavior of homeless men. This study examined the association between individual (HIV risk) and structural (service access) factors and past year HIV testing. Participants were a representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men interviewed from meal programs in the Skid Row region of Los Angeles. Logistic regression examined the association between past year HIV testing and demographic characteristics, HIV risk behavior, and access to other services in the Skid Row area in the past 30 days. Despite high rates of past year HIV testing, study participants also reported high rates of HIV risk behavior, suggesting there is still significant unmet need for HIV prevention among homeless men. Having recently used medical/dental services in the Skid Row area (OR: 1.91; CI: 1.09, 3.35), and being a military veteran (OR: 2.10; CI: 1.01-4.37) were significantly associated with HIV testing service utilization. HIV testing was not associated with HIV risk behavior, but rather with access to services and veteran status, the latter of which prior research has linked to increased service access. We suggest that programs encouraging general medical service access may be important for disseminating HIV testing services to this high-risk, vulnerable population. PMID:22676465
Wolf, Denis; Failing, Klaus; Taubert, Anja; Pantchev, Nikola
Quantitative serology is an important tool in canine leishmaniosis diagnostics from clinical and epidemiological points of view. Serologic diagnosis in laboratories is traditionally carried out by immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), but enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are being increasingly employed. Two commercially available ELISAs (LEISHMANIA-ELISA DOG® [LED] and INGEZIM LEISHMANIA® [IL]) for the detection of Leishmania infantum infection in dogs were compared with the classical IFAT technique. Ninety-two canine serum samples covering a broad range of IFAT titers were chosen for evaluation. Titers ranged from negative (<1:50) to high (>1:3,200). Statistical analysis showed high correlation between all three assays for both negative and positive IFAT-tested samples as described by respective Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r s), but results varied for samples with inconclusive IFAT titers (1:50-1:100) with IL stating samples predominantly negative. The highest accordance was found between LED and IFAT (percentage of identical results = 83.7%; r(s) = 0.90, p < 0.0001). IL showed higher analogy with LED (accordance = 81.5%; r(s )= 0.88, p < 0.0001) than with IFAT (73.9%; r(s) = 0.80, p < 0.0001). The distribution of the different ELISA scores is discussed and grouped according to correspondent IFAT titers to familiarize practitioners with the range of these tests since antibody levels play an important role in clinical management of canine patients with L. infantum infection.
Sullivan, Patrick S; Wall, Kristin M; O'Hara, Brandon; Jones, Jeb; Barnes, Jasper; DiClemente, Ralph; Hoff, Colleen; Scales, Lamont; Salazar, Laura F; Sanchez, Travis; White, Darcy; Wingood, Gina; Allen, Susan; Stephenson, Rob
In the United States, a substantial proportion of HIV transmissions among men who have sex with men (MSM) arise from main sex partners. Couples voluntary HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) is used in many parts of the world with male-female couples, but CHTC has historically not been available in the U.S. and few data exist about the extent of HIV serodiscordance among U.S. male couples. We tested partners in 95 Atlanta male couples (190 men) for HIV. Eligible men were in a relationship for ≥3 months and were not known to be HIV-positive. We calculated the prevalence of couples that were seroconcordant HIV-negative, seroconcordant HIV-positive, or HIV serodiscordant. We evaluated differences in the prevalence of HIV serodiscordance by several dyadic characteristics (e.g., duration of relationship, sexual agreements, and history of anal intercourse in the relationship). Overall, among 190 men tested for HIV, 11 % (n = 20) were newly identified as HIV-positive. Among the 95 couples, 81 % (n = 77) were concordant HIV-negative, 17 % (n = 16) were HIV serodiscordant, and 2 % (n = 2) were concordant HIV-positive. Serodiscordance was not significantly associated with any evaluated dyadic characteristic. The prevalence of undiagnosed HIV serodiscordance among male couples in Atlanta is high. Offering testing to male couples may attract men with a high HIV seropositivity rate to utilize testing services. Based on the global evidence base for CHTC with heterosexual couples and the current evidence of substantial undiagnosed HIV serodiscordance among U.S. MSM, we recommend scale-up of CHTC services for MSM, with ongoing evaluation of acceptability and couples' serostatus outcomes.
Kurth, Ann E; Lally, Michelle A; Choko, Augustine T; Inwani, Irene W; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Introduction HIV testing is the portal to serostatus knowledge that can empower linkage to care for HIV treatment and HIV prevention. However, young people's access to HIV testing is uneven worldwide. The objective of this paper is to review the context and concerns faced by youth around HIV testing in low- as well as high-income country settings. Discussion HIV testing is a critical entry point for primary and secondary prevention as well as care and treatment for young people including key populations of vulnerable youth. We provide a framework for thinking about the role of testing in the continuum of prevention and care for young people. Brief case study examples from Kenya and the US illustrate some of the common barriers and issues involved for young people. Conclusions Young people worldwide need more routine access to HIV testing services that effectively address the developmental, socio-political and other issues faced by young women and men. PMID:25724506
Abati, Paulo Afonso Martins; Segurado, Aluisio Cotrim
OBJECTIVE To analyze the clinical and laboratory characteristics of HIV-infected individuals upon admission to a reference health care center. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1999 and 2010 on 527 individuals with confirmed serological diagnosis of HIV infection who were enrolled in an outpatient health care service in Santarém, PA, Northern Brazil. Data were collected from medical records and included the reason for HIV testing, clinical status, and count of peripheral CD4+ T lymphocytes upon enrollment. The data were divided into three groups, according to the patient’s year of admission – P1 (1999-2002), P2 (2003-2006), and P3 (2007-2010) – for comparative analysis of the variables of interest. RESULTS In the study group, 62.0% of the patients were assigned to the P3 group. The reason for undergoing HIV testing differed between genders. In the male population, most tests were conducted because of the presence of symptoms suggesting infection. Among women, tests were the result of knowledge of the partner’s seropositive status in groups P1 and P2. Higher proportion of women undergoing testing because of symptoms of HIV/AIDS infection abolished the difference between genders in the most recent period. A higher percentage of patients enrolling at a more advanced stage of the disease was observed in P3. CONCLUSIONS Despite the increased awareness of the number of HIV/AIDS cases, these patients have identified their serological status late and were admitted to health care units with active disease. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Pará presents specificities in its progression that indicate the complex characteristics of the epidemic in the Northern region of Brazil and across the country. PMID:25741647
Corbett, Elizabeth L; Dauya, Ethel; Matambo, Ronnie; Cheung, Yin Bun; Makamure, Beauty; Bassett, Mary T; Chandiwana, Steven; Munyati, Shungu; Mason, Peter R; Butterworth, Anthony E; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Hayes, Richard J
Background HIV counselling and testing is a key component of both HIV care and HIV prevention, but uptake is currently low. We investigated the impact of rapid HIV testing at the workplace on uptake of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT). Methods and Findings The study was a cluster-randomised trial of two VCT strategies, with business occupational health clinics as the unit of randomisation. VCT was directly offered to all employees, followed by 2 y of open access to VCT and basic HIV care. Businesses were randomised to either on-site rapid HIV testing at their occupational clinic (11 businesses) or to vouchers for off-site VCT at a chain of free-standing centres also using rapid tests (11 businesses). Baseline anonymised HIV serology was requested from all employees. HIV prevalence was 19.8% and 18.4%, respectively, at businesses randomised to on-site and off-site VCT. In total, 1,957 of 3,950 employees at clinics randomised to on-site testing had VCT (mean uptake by site 51.1%) compared to 586 of 3,532 employees taking vouchers at clinics randomised to off-site testing (mean uptake by site 19.2%). The risk ratio for on-site VCT compared to voucher uptake was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.8 to 3.8) after adjustment for potential confounders. Only 125 employees (mean uptake by site 4.3%) reported using their voucher, so that the true adjusted risk ratio for on-site compared to off-site VCT may have been as high as 12.5 (95% confidence interval 8.2 to 16.8). Conclusions High-impact VCT strategies are urgently needed to maximise HIV prevention and access to care in Africa. VCT at the workplace offers the potential for high uptake when offered on-site and linked to basic HIV care. Convenience and accessibility appear to have critical roles in the acceptability of community-based VCT. PMID:16796402
Pelosi, J; Meyer, P A; Schluter, W W
Mumps, one of several once common childhood diseases, is targeted for elimination in the United States by 2010. To improve its ability to monitor mumps cases, the Texas Department of Health began requiring investigation and serologic testing of all mumps reports. During 1995-1996, of 500 mumps reports, only 14.4 percent were confirmed cases and they had a different demographic profile than unconfirmed cases. To accurately assess whether the nation achieves the Year 2010 mumps elimination goal, and to effectively direct elimination efforts, states must investigate and serologically confirm all mumps reports and use the case definition for public health surveillance.
Arruda, Mauro Maciel de; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Barbosa, José Ronaldo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra
In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused by Leishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA), decreased sensitivity (83.3%) and increased specificity (92.5%) were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL. PMID:26910354
de Arruda, Mauro Maciel; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Barbosa, José Ronaldo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra
In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused byLeishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA), decreased sensitivity (83.3%) and increased specificity (92.5%) were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL. PMID:26910354
Arruda, Mauro Maciel de; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Barbosa, José Ronaldo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra
In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused by Leishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA), decreased sensitivity (83.3%) and increased specificity (92.5%) were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL.
Beougher, Sean C; Bircher, Anja E; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Darbes, Lynae A; Mandic, Carmen Gómez; Neilands, Torsten B; Garcia, Carla C; Hoff, Colleen C
Previous studies of HIV testing among gay men describe the motivations, facilitators and barriers, behaviors, and demographic characteristics of individuals who test. What little research focuses on HIV testing among gay men in relationships shows that they do not test regularly or, in some cases, at all-their motivations to test have not been investigated. With so little data on HIV testing for this population, and the continued privileging of individually focused approaches, gay men in relationships fall into a blind spot of research and prevention efforts. This study examined motivations to test for HIV using qualitative data from both partners in 20 gay male couples. Analysis revealed that the partners' motivations were either event-related (e.g., participants testing at the beginning of their relationship or HIV-negative participants in an HIV-discordant relationship testing after risky episode with their discordant primary partner) or partner-related (e.g., participants testing in response to a request or suggestion to test from their primary partner or participants testing out of concern for their primary partner's health and well-being). These data provide insight into relationship-oriented motivations to test for HIV for gay men in relationships and, in doing so, evidence their commitment to their primary partner and relationship. These motivations can be leveraged to increase HIV testing among gay men in relationships, a population that tests less often than single gay men, yet, until recently, has been underserved by prevention efforts.
Beougher, Sean C; Bircher, Anja E; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Darbes, Lynae A; Mandic, Carmen Gómez; Neilands, Torsten B; Garcia, Carla C; Hoff, Colleen C
Previous studies of HIV testing among gay men describe the motivations, facilitators and barriers, behaviors, and demographic characteristics of individuals who test. What little research focuses on HIV testing among gay men in relationships shows that they do not test regularly or, in some cases, at all-their motivations to test have not been investigated. With so little data on HIV testing for this population, and the continued privileging of individually focused approaches, gay men in relationships fall into a blind spot of research and prevention efforts. This study examined motivations to test for HIV using qualitative data from both partners in 20 gay male couples. Analysis revealed that the partners' motivations were either event-related (e.g., participants testing at the beginning of their relationship or HIV-negative participants in an HIV-discordant relationship testing after risky episode with their discordant primary partner) or partner-related (e.g., participants testing in response to a request or suggestion to test from their primary partner or participants testing out of concern for their primary partner's health and well-being). These data provide insight into relationship-oriented motivations to test for HIV for gay men in relationships and, in doing so, evidence their commitment to their primary partner and relationship. These motivations can be leveraged to increase HIV testing among gay men in relationships, a population that tests less often than single gay men, yet, until recently, has been underserved by prevention efforts. PMID:25550145
Meyerson, Beth E; Navale, Shalini M; Gillespie, Anthony; Ohmit, Anita
Objectives. We assessed routine HIV testing in Indiana community health centers (CHCs). Methods. CHC medical directors reported HIV services, testing behaviors, barriers, and health center characteristics via survey from April to May 2013. Standard of care testing was measured by the extent to which CHCs complied with national guidelines for routine HIV testing in clinical settings. Results. Most (85.7%) CHCs reported HIV testing, primarily at patient request or if the patient was symptomatic. Routine HIV testing was provided for pregnant women by 60.7% of CHCs. Only 10.7% provided routine testing for adolescents to adults up to age 65 years. Routine testing was reported by 14.3% for gay and bisexual men, although 46.4% of CHCs reported asking patients about sexual orientation. Linkage to care services for HIV-positive patients, counseling for HIV treatment adherence, and partner testing generally was not provided. Conclusions. Most CHCs reported HIV testing, but such testing did not reflect the standard of care, because it depended on patient request or symptoms. One approach in future studies may be to allow respondents to compare current testing with standard of care and then reflect on barriers to and facilitators of adoption and implementation of routine HIV testing.
Stirling, Catrina; Novokova, Viera
Historically in the European Union, all Leptospira vaccines were released using the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) hamster potency assay. Recently, there has been a shift toward alternatives that offer either refinement of testing or replacement of animals for product release. This is being driven by animal welfare concerns but also by a drive to have more consistent, cheaper, and faster batch release tests. This publication discusses one such example of a multicomponent canine vaccine that includes three Leptospira serovars and has recently been registered in the European Union. The potency release test is a refinement because it uses rabbit serology rather than hamster challenge. This publication covers the principles of the test method, challenges faced during its development and registration, and discussion about benefits and limitations of this method. It concludes with a view of how the use of serology testing could fit into an overall strategy to move to fully in vitro testing by adopting a consistency approach.
Stirling, Catrina; Novokova, Viera
Historically in the European Union, all Leptospira vaccines were released using the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) hamster potency assay. Recently, there has been a shift toward alternatives that offer either refinement of testing or replacement of animals for product release. This is being driven by animal welfare concerns but also by a drive to have more consistent, cheaper, and faster batch release tests. This publication discusses one such example of a multicomponent canine vaccine that includes three Leptospira serovars and has recently been registered in the European Union. The potency release test is a refinement because it uses rabbit serology rather than hamster challenge. This publication covers the principles of the test method, challenges faced during its development and registration, and discussion about benefits and limitations of this method. It concludes with a view of how the use of serology testing could fit into an overall strategy to move to fully in vitro testing by adopting a consistency approach. PMID:23849308
Calado, Karla Lucena Sampaio; Magnanini, Mônica Maria Ferreira; de Moura, Rodrigo Scaliante; Gallo, Maria Eugenia Noviski; Bührer-Sékula, Samira; de Oliveira, Maria Leide Wand-Del-Rey
BACKGROUND In highly endemic countries, transmission and sub-clinical infection of leprosy are likely and the disease manifests itself in individuals without any known close contact with a leprosy patient. Health workers are social contacts belonging to the same network (the Health System) and some of them share the same social environment (nursing assistants) as patients with known patients and / or carriers. OBJECTIVE To identify ML Flow seropositivity among health professionals. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study using a serological survey with the ML Flow test in 450 health professionals (doctors, nurses and nursing assistants), in order to detect seropositivity in areas of high and low endemicity in municipalities from three Brazilian states (RJ, MS and RS). RESULTS The results showed general 16% seropositivity, higher in low endemic areas, regardless of whether there was direct care for leprosy patients. Paradoxically, a statistical association was observed between the area studied and seropositivity, as the place with the lowest endemicity (CA) had the highest seropositivity rate (p = 0.033). CONCLUSION The authors suggest these results are associated with a presence of an unspecified link to bovine serum albumin (BSA), carrier of PGL-1 in the ML Flow test, and recommend expanded seroepidemiological research utilizing tests with human and bovine albumin. PMID:24474100
Lazariu, Victoria; Parker, Monica M; Leung, Shu-Yin J; McVoy, Matthew; Gieryic, Susan; Rowe, Kirsten A; Ortega-Peluso, Christina; Anderson, Bridget J; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Smith, Lou C
As of September 2010, New York State (NYS) Public Health Law mandates the offer of HIV testing to all persons aged 13-64 years receiving hospital or primary care services. Changes in the number of HIV tests 13 months before and after law enactment were assessed using HIV test volume data from 166 laboratories holding NYS permits to conduct HIV testing on specimens originating in NYS. Compared with the pre-enactment baseline, overall HIV testing volume increased by 13% following enactment, with the volume of conventional and rapid HIV screening tests increasing by 12.0% and 13.7%, respectively. These data suggest that testing law is having an impact consistent with the legislative intent to increase HIV testing in NYS. Monitoring should be continued to assess testing trends across a variety of health care venues to identify and address additional barriers to HIV testing access.
Knauf, Sascha; Dahlmann, Franziska; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K.; Frischmann, Sieghard; Liu, Hsi
There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium (Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue) may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO) recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti-T. pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs) and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs) were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T. pallidum-infected olive baboons (Papio anubis) from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA) was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T. pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG), however, could be considered as a confirmatory test. PMID:25803295
Feldman, Matthew; Wu, Elwin; Mendoza, Moira; Lowry, Blakely; Ford, Lynnette; Holloway, Ian
This study examined the prevalence and correlates of completing the HIV testing process-specifically receiving a confirmatory HIV test and returning for the results-in a sample of newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals at an HIV testing center in New York City. Of the 213 individuals who received a reactive rapid HIV test result, 82% received a confirmatory HIV test. Of the 236 individuals who received a positive result on a rapid or traditional HIV test that was validated by a positive confirmatory HIV test, 65% returned for the confirmatory test results. Multivariate analyses revealed that being a non-U.S. citizen, homeless/living in transitional housing, being uninsured, and testing off-site were significantly associated with completing the HIV testing process. The findings indicate the need to explore strategies that address obstacles to receiving confirmatory HIV testing and returning for the results, in addition to the feasibility of a rapid confirmatory HIV test. PMID:23016505
Levett, Paul N; Fonseca, Kevin; Tsang, Raymond Sw; Kadkhoda, Kamran; Serhir, Bouchra; Radons, Sandra M; Morshed, Muhammad
Syphilis, caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, is an infection recognized since antiquity. It was first reported at the end of the 15th century in Europe. Infections may be sexually transmitted as well as spread from an infected mother to her fetus or through blood transfusions. The laboratory diagnosis of syphilis infection is complex. Because this organism cannot be cultured, serology is used as the principal diagnostic method. Some of the issues related to serological diagnoses are that antibodies take time to appear after infection, and serology screening tests require several secondary confirmatory tests that can produce complex results needing interpretation by experts in the field. Traditionally, syphilis screening was performed using either rapid plasma reagin or Venereal Disease Research Laboratory tests, and confirmed by treponemal tests such as MHA-TP, TPPA or FTA-Abs. Currently, that trend is reversed, ie, most of the laboratories in Canada now screen for syphilis using treponemal enzyme immunoassays and confirm the status of infection using rapid plasma reagin or Venereal Disease Research Laboratory tests; this approach is often referred to as the reverse algorithm. This chapter reviews guidelines for specimen types and sample collection, treponemal and non-treponemal tests utilized in Canada, the current status of serological tests for syphilis in Canada, the complexity of serological diagnosis of syphilis infection and serological testing algorithms. Both traditional and reverse sequence algorithms are recommended and the algorithm used should be based on a combination of local disease epidemiology, test volumes, performance of the proposed assays and available resources.
Population-based disease prevalence surveys raise ethical questions, including whether participants should be routinely told their test results. Ethical guidelines call for informing survey participants of any clinically relevant finding to enable appropriate management. However, in anonymous surveys of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, participants can "opt out" of being given their test results or are offered the chance to undergo voluntary HIV testing in local counselling and testing services. This is aimed at minimizing survey participation bias. Those who opt out of being given their HIV test results and who do not seek their results miss the opportunity to receive life-saving antiretroviral therapy. The justification for HIV surveys without routine feedback of results to participants is based on a public health utility argument: that the benefits of more rigorous survey methods - reduced participation bias - outweigh the benefits to individuals of knowing their HIV status. However, people with HIV infection have a strong immediate interest in knowing their HIV status. In consideration of the ethical value of showing respect for people and thereby alleviating suffering, an argument based on public health utility is not an appropriate justification. In anonymous HIV surveys as well as other prevalence surveys of treatable conditions in any setting, participation should be on the basis of routine individual feedback of results as an integral part of fully informed participation. Ensuring that surveys are ethically sound may stimulate participation, increase a broader uptake of HIV testing and reduce stigmatization of people who are HIV-positive.
Freitas, Aline Araújo; Hungria, Emerith Mayra; Costa, Maurício Barcelos; Sousa, Ana Lúcia Osório Maroccolo; Castilho, Mirian Lane Oliveira; Gonçalves, Heitor Sá; Pontes, Maria Araci Andrade; Duthie, Malcolm S; Stefani, Mariane Martins Araújo
Mycobacterium leprae-specific serological and cell-mediated-immunity/CMI test were evaluated for the differential diagnosis of multibacillary/MB, and paucibacillary/PB leprosy from other dermatoses. Whole-blood assay/WBA/IFNγ stimulated with LID-1 antigen and ELISA tests for IgG to LID-1 and IgM to PGL-I were performed. WBA/LID-1/IFNγ production was observed in 72% PB, 11% MB leprosy, 38% dermatoses, 40% healthy endemic controls/EC. The receiver operating curve/ROC for WBA/LID-1 in PB versus other dermatoses showed 72.5% sensitivity, 61.5% specificity and an area-under-the-curve/AUC=0.75; 74% positive predictive value/PPV, 59% negative predictive value/NPV. Anti PGL-I serology was positive in 67% MB, 8% PB leprosy, 6% of other dermatoses; its sensitivity for MB=66%, specificity=93%, AUC=0.89; PPV=91%, NPV=72%. Anti-LID-1 serology was positive in 87% MB, 7% PB leprosy, all other participants were seronegative; 87.5% sensitivity for MB, 100% specificity, AUC=0.97; PPV=100%, NPV=88%. In highly endemic areas anti-LID-1/PGL-I serology and WBA/LID-1-represent useful tools for the differential diagnosis of leprosy from other confounding dermatoses.
Clifton, Soazig; Nardone, Anthony; Field, Nigel; Mercer, Catherine H.; Tanton, Clare; Macdowall, Wendy; Johnson, Anne M.; Sonnenberg, Pam
Objective: To examine the relationship between HIV risk behaviour, risk perception and testing in Britain. Design: A probability sample survey of the British population. Methods: We analyzed data on sexual behaviour, self-perceived HIV risk and HIV testing (excluding testing because of blood donation) from 13 751 sexually experienced men and women aged 16–74, interviewed between 2010 and 2012 using computer-assisted face-to-face and self-interviewing. Results: Altogether, 3.5% of men and 5.4% of women reported having an HIV test in the past year. Higher perceived risk of HIV was associated with sexual risk behaviours and with HIV testing. However, the majority of those rating themselves as ‘greatly’ or ‘quite a lot’ at risk of HIV (3.4% of men, 2.5% of women) had not tested in the past year. This was also found among the groups most affected by HIV: MSM and black Africans. Within these groups, the majority reporting sexual risk behaviours did not perceive themselves as at risk and had not tested for HIV. Overall, 29.6% of men and 39.9% of women who tested for HIV in the past year could be classified as low risk across a range of measures. Conclusion: Most people who perceive themselves as at risk of HIV have not recently tested, including among MSM and black Africans. Many people tested in Britain are at low risk, reflecting current policy that aims to normalize testing. Strategies to further improve uptake of testing are needed, particularly in those at greatest risk, to further reduce undiagnosed HIV infection at late diagnoses. PMID:26963528
The results of this study indicate that individuals who voluntarily undergo an HIV test in PVTCCs of the Douala district hospitals in Cameroon perceived real advantages and very few disadvantages and barriers to know their HIV status. Particular attention should be given to organizational factors that may be responsible for failure to return for HIV test results and post-test counselling.. PMID:27531439
Emmerzaal, A; de Wit, J J; Dijkstra, Th; Bakker, D; van Zijderveld, F G
The Dutch national Brucella abortus eradication programme for cattle started in 1959. Sporadic cases occurred yearly until 1995; the last infected herd was culled in 1996. In August 1999 the Netherlands was declared officially free of bovine brucellosis by the European Union. Before 1999, the programme to monitor the official Brucella-free status of bovine herds was primarily based on periodical testing of dairy herds with the milk ring test (MRT) and serological testing of all animals older than 1 year of age from non-dairy herds, using the micro-agglutination test (MAT) as screening test. In addition, serum samples of cattle that aborted were tested with the MAT. The high number of false positive reactions in both tests and the serum agglutination test (SAT) and complement fixation test (CFT) used for confirmation seemed to result in unnecessary blockade of herds, subsequent testing and slaughter of animals. For this reason, a validation study was performed in which three indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the CFT and the SAT were compared using a panel of sera from brucellosis-free cattle, sera from experimentally infected cattle, and sera from cattle experimentally infected with bacteria which are known to induce cross-reactive antibodies (Pasteurella, Salmonella, Yersinia, and Escherichia). Moreover, four ELISAs and the MRT were compared using a panel of 1000 bulk milk samples from Brucella-free herds and 12 milk samples from Brucella abortus- infected cattle. It is concluded that the ELISA obtained from ID-Lelystad is the most suitable test to monitor the brucelosis free status of herds because it gives rise to fewer false-positive reactions than the SAT.
Kurth, Ann E.; Severynen, Anneleen; Spielberg, Freya
HIV testing in emergency departments (EDs) remains underutilized. We evaluated a computer tool to facilitate rapid HIV testing in an urban ED. Randomly assigned non-acute adult ED patients to computer tool (‘CARE’) and rapid HIV testing before standard visit (n=258) or to standard visit (n=259) with chart access. Assessed intervention acceptability and compared noted HIV risks. Participants were 56% non-white, 58% male; median age 37 years. In the CARE arm nearly all (251/258) completed the session and received HIV results; 4 declined test consent. HIV risks were reported by 54% of users and there was one confirmed HIV-positive and 2 false-positives (seroprevalence 0.4%, 95% CI 0.01–2.2%). Half (55%) preferred computerized, over face-to-face, counseling for future HIV testing. In standard arm, one HIV test and 2 referrals for testing occurred. Computer-facilitated HIV testing appears acceptable to ED patients. Future research should assess cost-effectiveness compared with staff-delivered approaches. PMID:23837807
Knapp, Jenny; Sako, Yasuhito; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Richou, Carine; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Ito, Akira; Millon, Laurence
Serological diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a key element for efficient patient treatment management. A rapid immunochromatography test kit (ICT) using the recombinant Em18 antigen (rEm18) was recently developed. The aim of our study was to assess this test on a panel of sera from French patients with alveolar echinococcosis and control patients. In a blind test, a total of 112 serum samples were tested including samples of AE (n = 30), cystic echinococcosis [CE] (n = 15), and polycystic echinococcosis [PE] (n = 1). For the comparison, 66 sera from patients with hepatocarcinoma, fascioliasis, toxocariasis, Caroli’s disease, or autoimmune chronic active hepatitis were used. The diagnostic test sets we used were the rEm18-ICT and two validated ELISAs with rEm18 and Em2-Em18 antigens, respectively. For the ICT, 27/30 sera from AE patients, 4/15 sera from CE patients and the PE patient serum were positive. One serum from the control panel (toxocariasis) was positive for the ICT. The rEm18-ICT sensitivity (90.0%) and specificity (92.7%) for detection of Em18-specific antibodies confirmed it as a relevant tool for AE diagnosis. The rEm18-ELISA had a sensitivity of 86.7% and specificity of 91.5%, and the Em2-Em18-ELISA had a sensitivity of 96.7% and specificity of 87.8%. However, when AE patient sera are recorded as weak in intensity with the ICT, we recommend a double reading and use of a reference sample if the ICT is used for patient follow-up. PMID:25058754
Background The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to increase among certain populations including young men who have sex with men (MSM). College campuses represent a potential setting to engage young adults and institute prevention interventions including HIV testing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate testing practices for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on college campuses. Methods Medical directors at four-year residential baccalaureate college health centers in New England were surveyed from June, 2011 to September, 2011. Thirty-one interviews were completed regarding experiences with HIV testing, acute HIV infection, other STI testing, and outreach efforts targeting specific at-risk groups such as MSM. Results Among schools that responded to the survey, less than five percent of students were tested for HIV at their local college health center in the past academic year (2010–2011). Significant barriers to HIV testing included cost and availability of rapid antibody testing. One-third of college health medical directors reported that their practitioners may not feel comfortable recognizing acute HIV infection. Conclusions Improved HIV testing practices are needed on college campuses. Programs should focus on outreach efforts targeting MSM and other at-risk populations. PMID:23496891
Pichon, Latrice Crystal; Powell, Terrinieka Williams
This paper aims to critically assess the state of HIV testing in African American churches. A comprehensive review of peer-reviewed publications on HIV testing in church-based settings was conducted by two independent coders. Twenty-six papers published between 1991 and 2015, representing 24 unique projects, were identified addressing at least one dimension of HIV testing. Thirteen faith-based projects have implemented HIV testing events or had clergy promote the importance of testing and knowing one’s HIV status, but empirical data and rigorous study designs were limited. Only eight papers reported onsite HIV testing in churches. Less than 5% of the studies reported the percentage of congregants who returned for their test results. Finally, no study has examined at baseline or post-intervention behavioral intentions to be screened for HIV. Future research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of HIV testing in churches and to explore the possibilities of the role of the church and leadership structure in the promotion of HIV treatment and care. PMID:26030470
Salehi, Hassan; Salehi, Marziyeh; Roghanian, Rasoul; Bozari, Majid; Taleifard, Shirin; Salehi, Mohamad Mahdi; Salehi, Maryam
Background: Epstein-Bar virus (EBV) is the main etiology of infectious mononucleosis (IM) syndrome that is characterized by fever, sore throat, and lymph adenopathy. Since, this virus could be associated with a number of malignancies, some hematologic disorders, and chronic fatigue syndrome, identification of IM is very important. The aim of study was to evaluate the specificity, as well as sensitivity of the two different methods that is, serology versus molecular diagnosis that are currently used for diagnosis of IM. Materials and Methods: In this study, during a period of 3.5 years, 100 suspected patients as case group and 100 healthy individuals as a control group were studied. Fifty samples in each group were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and all the samples including case group and control group were carried out by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: In 76% of patients and in 20% of the healthy individuals, samples were detected EBV DNA by PCR. On the other hand, 68.5% of the samples belong to the case group and 46% in the control group showed positivity by ELISA. Conclusion: By comparing the two methods, since PCR is very expensive and time consuming, and the percentages of difference ranges are narrow, ELISA could be applied as a first, easiest, and preliminary diagnostic test for IM. In addition, this test could be applied in various phases of the disease with a higher sensitivity comparing to PCR. Although PCR is routinely used for diagnosis of various infectious agents, it is considered as an expensive test and merely could be used after 1-2 weeks from the onset of the illness. PMID:27308267
Taylor, Tory M.; Hembling, John; Bertrand, Jane T.
Objectives. To describe levels of risky sexual behaviour, HIV testing and HIV knowledge among men and women in Guatemala by ethnic group and to identify adjusted associations between ethnicity and these outcomes. Design. Data on 16,205 women aged 15–49 and 6822 men aged 15–59 from the 2008–2009 Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil were used to describe ethnic group differences in sexual behaviour, HIV knowledge and testing. We then controlled for age, education, wealth and other socio-demographic factors in a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the effects of ethnicity on outcomes related to age at sexual debut, number of lifetime sex partners, comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing and lifetime sex worker patronage (men only). Results. The data show low levels of risky sexual behaviour and low levels of HIV knowledge among indigenous women and men, compared to other respondents. Controlling for demographic factors, indigenous women were more likely than other women never to have been tested for HIV and to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge. They were less likely to report early sexual debut and three or more lifetime sexual partners. Indigenous men were more likely than other men to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge and demonstrated lower odds of early sexual debut, 10 or more lifetime sexual partners and sex worker patronage. Conclusions. The Mayan indigenous population in Guatemala, while broadly socially vulnerable, does not appear to be at elevated risk for HIV based on this analysis of selected risk factors. Nonetheless, low rates of HIV knowledge and testing may be cause for concern. Programmes working in indigenous communities should focus on HIV education and reducing barriers to testing. Further research into the factors that underlie ethnic self-identity and perceived ethnicity could help clarify the relative significance of these measures for HIV risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24834462
Tularemia test; Serology for Francisella tularensis ... This blood test is done when tularemia is suspected. ... Saunders; 2011:chap 44. Penn RL. Francisella tularensis (Tularemia). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. ...
Park, Sang-Hee; Lee, Yoo-Hoon; Chu, Hyuk; Hwang, Seon-Do; Hwang, Kyu-Jam; Choi, Hee-Yeol; Park, Mi-Yeoun
Objectives Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonoses in the world, and occurs mainly in farmers, slaughterhouse workers, and veterinarians via direct or indirect contact with infected animals or their products. The clinical symptoms of human brucellosis are nonspecific, such as fever, headache, chills, and sweating. Diagnosis and treatment of brucellosis requires laboratory tests. Although the serum tube agglutination test (SAT) is the standardized gold method, it is laborious, time consuming, and requires a number of reagents. A microagglutination test (MAT) variant of the SAT or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is recommended for serological diagnoses. For the simple and rapid diagnosis of brucellosis, the MAT was standardized using samples for the SAT to define positive and negative categories, and we then compared the sensitivity and specificity of the MAT and ELISA. Methods Thirty SAT-positive sera and 60 SAT-negative sera were used in this study. Antibody titers of ≥1:160 were considered positive readings in both the SAT and MAT. Brucella abortus antigens and Brucella-positive control antiserum were used in the SAT and MAT. ELISAs of IgM and IgG were performed according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Results The titers of the MAT differed according to antigen concentration. The optimal concentration of B abortus antigen was determined to compare the sensitivity and specificity between the MAT and SAT. The sensitivity and specificity of the MAT were 93.3% and 96.7%, respectively, for IgG with reference to ELISA, and 96.7% and 98.3%, respectively, for IgM. Conclusions The optimal concentration of antigen for the MAT was 1:10. The MAT is less time consuming and requires less antigen and serum than the SAT. The results of the MAT showed good agreement with those of ELISA. The results of this study suggest that the MAT could be useful for diagnosis of brucellosis. PMID:24159482
DiCarlo, Abby L.; Mantell, Joanne E.; Remien, Robert H.; Zerbe, Allison; Morris, Danielle; Pitt, Blanche; Abrams, Elaine J.; El-Sadr, Wafaa
In Lesotho, men have lower HIV testing rates, less contact with HIV clinical settings, and less knowledge of HIV prevention than women. However, women’s HIV prevalence has consistently remained higher than men’s. This paper explores gender norms, sexual decision-making, and perceptions of HIV among a sample of Basotho men and women in order to understand how these factors influence HIV testing and prevention. Two hundred women and 30 men were interviewed in Lesotho between April–July 2011. Participants reported reluctance among women to share information about HIV prevention and testing with men, and resistance of men to engage with testing and/or prevention services. Findings demonstrate a critical need for educational initiatives for men, among other strategies to engage men with HIV testing and prevention. This study highlights how gender issues shape perceptions of HIV and sexual decision-making and underlines the importance of engaging men along with women in HIV prevention efforts. More studies are needed to determine the most effective strategies to inform and engage men. PMID:24854495
Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Bjarnason Obinah, Magnús Pétur; Jespersen, Sanne; Medina, Candida; Té, David da Silva; da Silva, Zacarias José; Østergaard, Lars; Laursen, Alex Lund; Wejse, Christian; Erikstrup, Christian
As HIV-2 is intrinsically resistant to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, it is mandatory to discriminate between HIV types before initiating antiretroviral treatment. Guinea-Bissau has the world's highest prevalence of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected individuals. We evaluated 3 rapid tests for discrimination between HIV-1, HIV-2, and dual infections among 219 patients from Guinea-Bissau by comparing with the gold standard (INNO-LIA). Genie III HIV-1/HIV-2 was the best performer with regard to discriminatory capacity (agreement 91.8%), followed by Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 (agreement 90.9%) and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0 (agreement 84.5%). Our results underscore the need for evaluation of tests in relevant populations before implementation.
Tuuminen, Tamara; Lounamo, Kari; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta
On a population-based level, the incidence of reactive arthritis (ReA) is 0.6–27/100,000. The definition of ReA varies and its pathogenesis is not yet clear. Attempts in basic immunology to suggest hypotheses for proliferation of forbidden B cell clones, molecular mimicry, and involvement of cross-reactive antibodies are helpful but not sufficient. Importantly, for the clinical diagnosis of the preceding infection, serology is widely used. Unfortunately, the accuracy of associations between serologic findings and clinical conclusions is plagued by poor standardization of methods. So far, few attempts have been done to examine the pitfalls of different approaches. Here, we review several serologic techniques, their performance and limitations. We will focus on serology for Yersinia, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, and Chlamydia trachomatis because these bacteria have a longer history of being associated with ReA. We also address controversies regarding the role of serology for some other bacteria linked to autoimmune disorders. PMID:24363655
Ferreira, S. C.; de Almeida-Neto, C.; Nishiya, A. S.; Oliveira, C. D. L.; Ferreira, J. E.; Alencar, C. S.; Levi, J. E.; Salles, N. A.; Mendrone, A.; Sabino, E. C.
SUMMARY Objective To identify the demographic characteristics, risk factors and motivations for donating among blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis. Background Post-donation interviews with syphilis seropositive blood donors improve recruitment and screening strategies. Methods This case–control study compares 75 Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL)> 8, EIA+ (enzyme immunoassay) and FTA-ABS+ (fluorescent treponemal antibody); 80 VDRL−, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+; and 34 VDRL− and EIA− donors between 2004 and 2009. Donors were assessed by their demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, history of alcohol and illicit drugs use, and motivations to donate. Results Donors with VDRL> 8weremore likely to be divorced [AOR = 12·53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·30–120·81], to have had more than six sexual partners (AOR = 7·1; 95% CI 1·12–44·62) and to report male–male-sex in the past 12 months (AOR = 8·18; 95% CI 1·78–37·60). Donors with VDRL−, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ were less likely to be female (AOR = 0·26; 95% CI 0·07–0·96), more likely to be older (AOR = 10·2; 95% CI 2·45–42·58≥39 and <60 years old) and to have had more than six sexual partners in the past 12 months (AOR = 8·37; 95% CI 1·49–46·91). There was no significant difference among groups regarding illicit drugs use; 30·7% (VDRL> 8) and 12·5% (VDRL−, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+) of donors reported that they had been at risk for HIV infection (P =0·004). One-third of donors came to the blood bank to help a friend or a relative who needed blood. Conclusion Although donors exposed to syphilis reported and recognised some high risk behaviour, most were motivated by direct appeal to donate blood. Monitoring the risk profile of blood donors can benefit public health and improve blood safety. PMID:24779667
Bajani, Mary D.; Ashford, David A.; Bragg, Sandra L.; Woods, Christopher W.; Aye, Tin; Spiegel, Richard A.; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Perkins, Bradley A.; Phelan, Maureen; Levett, Paul N.; Weyant, Robbin S.
Four rapid tests for the serologic diagnosis of leptospirosis were evaluated, and the performance of each was compared with that of the current standard, the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). The four rapid tests were a microplate immunoglobulin M (IgM)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), an IgM dipstick assay (LDS), and an IgM dot-ELISA dipstick test (DST). A panel of 276 sera from 133 cases of leptospirosis from four different geographic locations was tested as well as 642 sera from normal individuals or individuals with other infectious or autoimmune diseases. Acute-phase sera from cases (n = 148) were collected ≤14 days (median = 6.0) after the onset of symptoms, and convalescent-phase sera (n = 128) were collected ≥15 days after onset (median = 29.1). By a traditional method (two-by-two contingency table), the sensitivities for detection of leptospirosis cases were 93.2% by LDS, 92.5% by DST, 86.5% by ELISA, and 79.0% by IHA. Specificity was 98.8% by DST, 97% by ELISA and MAT, 95.8% by IHA, and 89.6% by LDS. With a latent class analysis (LCA) model that included all the rapid tests and the clinical case definition, sensitivity was 95.5% by DST, 94.5% by LDS, 89.9% by ELISA, and 81.1% by IHA. The sensitivity and specificity estimated by the traditional methods were quite close to the LCA estimates. However, LCA allowed estimation of the sensitivity of the MAT (98.2%), which traditional methods do not allow. For acute-phase sera, sensitivity was 52.7% by LDS, 50.0% by DST, 48.7% by MAT and ELISA, and 38.5% by IHA. The sensitivity for convalescent-phase sera was 93.8% by MAT, 84.4% by DST, 83.6% by LDS, 75.0% by ELISA, and 67.2% by IHA. A good overall correlation with the MAT was obtained for each of the assays, with the highest concordance being with the DST (kappa value, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8 to 0.90). The best correlation was between ELISA and DST (kappa value, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0
Laanani, Moussa; Dozol, Adrien; Meyer, Laurence; David, Stéphane; Camara, Sékou; Segouin, Christophe; Troude, Pénélope
Free and anonymous screening centres (CDAG: Centres de Depistage Anononyme et Gratuit) are public facilities set up for HIV infection diagnosis in France. Some people visiting CDAG fail to return for test results and are not informed of their serology. This study aimed to assess factors associated with failure to return for HIV test results. Patients visiting the Fernand-Widal CDAG (Paris) for an HIV test in January-February 2011 were eligible to take part in the study. Data were collected with an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Factors associated with failure to return were assessed using logistic regression models. Of the 710 participants (participation rate 88%), 46 patients failed to return. Not specifying birthplace and not living in the region of Paris were associated with failure to return. Those who perceived no risk of HIV infection and those who felt they were more at risk than other people were both statistically associated with failure to return. Self-perceived risk seemed to be of chief concern for failure to return for HIV test results and should be considered during pre-test counselling.
Jacobsen, Paul B.; And Others
Considers effects of informing individuals of their antibody status as determined by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing. Reviews research examining changes in psychological distress and in behaviors associated with HIV infections among individuals who have undergone antibody testing. Identifies methodological issues in studying…
Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Singer, Barbara J.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.
Prevalence and correlates of HIV testing were examined in a sample of 957 unmarried recent college students in the United States. Participants were asked about HIV testing, past-six-months sexual activities, lifetime treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STI), past-year health service utilization, and DSM-IV criteria for alcohol and other…
Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Davis, Kevin C.; Rupert, Doug; Fraze, Jami
Objective: To examine whether there is an association between knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, reported intentions to get an HIV test, and reported HIV testing behaviour at a later date among a sample of African American women. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected from October 2007 through March 2008 for a randomized controlled experiment…
Tossas-Milligan, Katherine Y.; Hunter-Mellado, Robert F.; Mayor, Angel M.; Fernandez-Santos, Diana M.; Dworkin, Mark S.
Objective Late HIV testing (LT) defined as an AIDS diagnosis within a year of first positive HIV test is associated with higher HIV transmission, lower HAART effectiveness, and worse outcomes. Latinos represent 36% of LT in the US, yet research concerning LT among HIV cases in Puerto Rico is scarce. Methods Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with LT and Cochran-Armitage test to describe LT trends in an HIV infected cohort followed at a specialized HIV clinic in Puerto Rico. Results From 2000 to 2011, 47% of eligible patients were LT, with lower median CD4 count (54 vs. 420 cells/mm3) and higher median HIV viral load counts (253,680 vs. 23,700 copies/mL), when compared to non-LT patients. LT prevalence decreased significantly, from 47% in 2000 to 37% in 2011. In a mutually adjusted logistic regression model, males, older age at enrolment and past history of IDU significantly increased LT odds whereas history of amphetamine use decreased LT odds. Stratified by mode of transmission, only men who have sex with men (MSM), had a significant reduction in the proportion of LT, from 67% in 2000 to 33% in 2011. Conclusion These results suggest a gap in early HIV detection in Puerto Rico that decreased only among MSM. A closer evaluation of HIV testing guideline implementation among non MSM in the Island is needed. PMID:26356739
Lai, Dejian; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Beasley, R Palmer
In 2007 the Chinese government issued regulations requiring HIV/AIDS testing for Chinese citizens returning at ports of entry if they had resided outside China for 1 year or longer. Three years after publication and partial implementation of the regulations, the Chinese government decided to eliminate compulsory HIV/AIDS testing of returning Chinese. We examine the history of China's HIV/AIDS testing regulations on entry-exit populations, showing how China has gradually altered its policy. As of December 2010, the policy of compulsory HIV/AIDS testing of returning Chinese has been abandoned; however, the regulations still compel HIV/AIDS testing for other groups inside China. Our review sheds new light on the dynamics of regulatory changes in the last 3 years. The Chinese experience that we observed may provide useful insights for policymakers in other parts of the world. PMID:21368848
Ransome, Yusuf; Terzian, Arpi; Addison, Diane; Braunstein, Sarah; Myers, Julie; Abraham, Bisrat; Nash, Denis
Objective Expanded HIV testing coverage could result in earlier diagnosis of HIV, along with reduced morbidity, mortality, and onward HIV transmission. Design Longitudinal analysis of aggregate, population-based surveillance data within New York City (NYC) ZIP codes. Methods We examined new HIV diagnoses and recent HIV testing to examine whether changes in recent HIV testing coverage (last 12 months) were associated with changes in late HIV diagnosis rates within NYC ZIP codes during 2003–2010, a period of expansion of HIV testing in NYC. Results Overall, recent HIV testing coverage increased from 23% to 31% during 2003–2010, while the rate of late HIV diagnoses decreased from 14.9 per 100,000 to 10.6 per 100,000 population. Within ZIP codes, each 10% absolute increase in recent HIV testing coverage was associated with a 2.5 per 100,000 absolute decrease in the late HIV diagnosis rate. ZIP codes with the largest changes in HIV testing coverage among men were more likely to have the largest (top quartile) declines in late HIV diagnosis rates among men (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]men=4.0; 95%CI=1.5–10.8), as compared with ZIP codes with no or small changes in HIV testing coverage. However, this association was not significant for women (aORwomen=1.4 95% CI=0.50–4.3). Significant geographic disparities in late HIV diagnosis rates persisted in 2009/10. Conclusions Increases in recent HIV testing coverage may have reduced late HIV diagnoses among men. Persistent geographic disparities underscore the need for continued expansion of HIV testing to promote earlier HIV diagnosis. PMID:26091296
Kenya, Sonjia; Okoro, Ikenna; Wallace, Kiera; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Prado, Guillermo
Only 17% of Miami-Dade County residents are African American, yet this population accounts for 59% of the county’s HIV-related mortality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend annual testing for persons at increased risk for HIV, but 40% of African Americans have never been tested. OraQuick®, the first FDA-approved home-based HIV rapid test (HBHRT), has the potential to increase testing rates; however, there are concerns about HBHRT in vulnerable populations. We conducted focus groups in an underserved Miami neighborhood to obtain community input regarding HBHRT as a potential mechanism to increase HIV testing in African Americans. We queried HIV knowledge, attitudes toward research, and preferred intervention methods. Several HIV misconceptions were identified and participants expressed support for HIV research and introducing HBHRT into the community by culturally appropriate individuals trained to provide support. We concluded that community health workers paired with HBHRT were a promising strategy to increase HIV testing in this population. PMID:26066691
Kenya, Sonjia; Okoro, Ikenna; Wallace, Kiera; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Prado, Guillermo
Only 17% of Miami-Dade County residents are African American, yet this population accounts for 59% of the county's HIV-related mortality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend annual testing for persons at increased risk for HIV, but 40% of African Americans have never been tested. OraQuick® (OraSure Technologies, Inc., Bethlehem, PA), the first US Food and Drug Administration-approved home-based HIV rapid test (HBHRT), has the potential to increase testing rates; however, there are concerns about HBHRT in vulnerable populations. We conducted focus groups in an underserved Miami neighborhood to obtain community input regarding HBHRT as a potential mechanism to increase HIV testing in African Americans. We queried HIV knowledge, attitudes toward research, and preferred intervention methods. Several HIV misconceptions were identified, and participants expressed support for HIV research and introducing HBHRT into the community by culturally appropriate individuals trained to provide support. We concluded that community health workers paired with HBHRT were a promising strategy to increase HIV testing in this population. PMID:26066691
Golden, Allison; Stevens, Eric J.; Yokobe, Lindsay; Faulx, Dunia; Kalnoky, Michael; Peck, Roger; Valdez, Melissa; Steel, Cathy; Karabou, Potochoziou; Banla, Méba; Soboslay, Peter T.; Adade, Kangi; Tekle, Afework H.; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Fischer, Peter U.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Unnasch, Thomas R.; de los Santos, Tala; Domingo, Gonzalo J.
Background Serological assays for human IgG4 to the Onchocerca volvulus antigen Ov16 have been used to confirm elimination of onchocerciasis in much of the Americas and parts of Africa. A standardized source of positive control antibody (human anti-Ov16 IgG4) will ensure the quality of surveillance data using these tests. Methodology/Principal Findings A recombinant human IgG4 antibody to Ov16 was identified by screening against a synthetic human Fab phage display library and converted into human IgG4. This antibody was developed into different positive control formulations for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) platforms. Variation in ELISA results and utility as a positive control of the antibody were assessed from multiple laboratories. Temperature and humidity conditions were collected across seven surveillance activities from 2011–2014 to inform stability requirements for RDTs and positive controls. The feasibility of the dried positive control for RDT was evaluated during onchocerciasis surveillance activity in Togo, in 2014. When the anti-Ov16 IgG4 antibody was used as a standard dilution in horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) ELISAs, the detection limits were approximately 1ng/mL by HRP ELISA and 10ng/mL by AP ELISA. Positive control dilutions and spiked dried blood spots (DBS) produced similar ELISA results. Used as a simple plate normalization control, the positive control antibody may improve ELISA data comparison in the context of inter-laboratory variation. The aggregate temperature and humidity monitor data informed temperature parameters under which the dried positive control was tested and are applicable inputs for testing of diagnostics tools intended for sub-Saharan Africa. As a packaged positive control for Ov16 RDTs, stability of the antibody was demonstrated for over six months at relevant temperatures in the laboratory and for over 15 weeks under field conditions. Conclusions The
Liu, Zhaoxiu; Shen, Bo
Crohn's disease (CD) represents a heterogeneous group of chronic inflammatory disorders with various phenotypes. Establishing a definite diagnosis of CD should be based upon a combined assessment of clinical, endoscopic, radiological and pathological features. Although segmental disease distribution, transmural inflammation and non-caseating epithelioid granulomas have been considered as a 'hallmarks' for CD, clear diagnosis of CD in some patients has been challenging, due to overlapping endoscopic, radiographic and histologic features with other inflammatory bowel disease-like conditions. Laboratory markers (serological and genetic tests) may provide additional clues for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of CD. This review focuses on the application of the currently available serological and genomic markers and in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of CD.
Wood, Brian R; Ballenger, Carl; Stekler, Joanne D
Approximately 60% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are unaware of their infection, and stigma and discrimination continue to threaten acceptance of HIV testing services worldwide. Self-testing for HIV has garnered controversy for years and the debate reignited with the approval of a point-of-care test for over-the-counter sale in the US in 2012. Here, we present arguments for and against HIV self-testing. The case in support of HIV self-testing contends that: the modality is highly acceptable, especially among the most at-risk individuals; self-testing empowers users, thus helping to normalize testing; and mutual partner testing has the potential to increase awareness of risk and avert condomless sex between discordant partners. Arguments against HIV self-testing include: cost limits access to those who need testing most; false-negative results, especially during the window period, may lead to false reassurance and could promote sex between discordant partners at the time of highest infectivity; opportunities for counseling, linkage to care, and diagnosis of other sexually transmitted infections may be missed; and self-testing leads to potential for coercion between partners. Research is needed to better define the risks of self-testing, especially as performance of the assays improves, and to delineate the benefits of programs designed to improve access to self-test kits, because this testing modality has numerous potential advantages and drawbacks. PMID:25114592
Craig, Donald H.; And Others
Describes some developmental foundations for HIV counseling. Asserts that, in both formal sessions and moments of opportunity, educators, clinicians, and counselors can use the counseling relationship to promote healthy behavior change. This clinical process depends on careful self-appraisal, good counseling skills, and responsiveness to the…
Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Wang, Ying; Jones, Nicolette; Levermore, Kandasi; Neil, Ava; Ellis, Tyrone; Bryan, Nicolette; Harker, Sheldon; Marshall, Annecka; Newman, Peter A
Transgender women are overrepresented in the Caribbean HIV epidemic. The study objective was to examine correlates of HIV infection and HIV testing among transgender women in Jamaica. We implemented a cross-sectional survey with transgender women in Kingston and Ocho Rios, Jamaica. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with HIV testing and HIV infection. Among 137 transgender women [mean age 24.0; standard deviation (SD) 5.5], three-quarters (n = 103, 75.7%) had received an HIV test. Of these, one-quarter (n = 26, 25.2%) were HIV positive. In multivariable analyses, HIV testing was associated with: perceived HIV risk [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.42, confidence interval (CI) 1.36-4.28], depression (AOR 1.34, CI 1.01-1.77), forced sex (AOR 3.83, CI 1.42-10.35), physical abuse (AOR 4.11, CI 1.44-11.72), perceived transgender stigma (AOR 1.23, 1.06-1.42), having a healthcare provider (AOR 5.89, CI 1.46-23.77), and lower HIV-related stigma (AOR 0.96, CI 0.92-0.99), incarceration (AOR 0.28, CI 0.10-0.78), and drug use (AOR 0.74, CI 0.58-0.95). HIV infection was associated with the following: homelessness (AOR 5.94, CI 1.27-27.74), perceived HIV risk (AOR 1.67, CI 1.02-2.72), depression (AOR 1.39, CI 1.06-1.82), STI history (AOR 56.79, CI 5.12-630.33), perceived (AOR 1.26, CI 1.06-1.51) and enacted (AOR 1.16, CI 1.04-1.29) transgender stigma, forced sex (AOR 4.14, CI 1.49-11.51), physical abuse (AOR 3.75, CI 1.39-10.12), and lower self-rated health (AOR 0.55, CI 0.30-0.98) and social support (AOR 0.79, CI 0.64-0.97). Transgender women in Jamaica experience high HIV infection rates and suboptimal HIV testing. Combination HIV prevention approaches should address transgender women's social and structural vulnerabilities. PMID:27610463
Easterbrook, Philippa; Johnson, Cheryl; Figueroa, Carmen; Baggaley, Rachel
HIV infection and viral hepatitis due to HBV and HCV infection are major causes of chronic disease worldwide, and share some common routes of transmission, epidemiology, initial barriers faced in treatment access, and in strategies for a global public health response. Testing and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, and HCV infection is the gateway for access to both care and treatment and prevention services, and crucial for an effective HIV and hepatitis epidemic response. In this review article, we first summarize the common goals and guiding principles in a public health approach to HIV and hepatitis testing. We summarize the impressive global progress in HIV testing scale-up and evolution of approaches, with expansion of provider-initiated testing and counseling in clinical settings (particularly antenatal and tuberculosis clinics), the introduction of more community based testing services, and use of rapid diagnostic tests enabling provision of same-day test results. However, 46% of all people living with HIV are still unaware of their serostatus, and many continue to be diagnosed and start antiretroviral therapy late. As testing and treatment scale-up accelerates for an "treat all" approach, other challenges to address include how to better focus testing and reach those yet undiagnosed and most at risk, especially key populations, men, adolescents, and children. We summarize future directions in HIV testing to speed scale-up and close gaps that are addressed in the WHO 2015 consolidated HIV testing guidelines. In contrast to HIV, action in hepatitis testing and treatment has been fragmented and limited to a few countries, and there remains a large burden of undiagnosed cases globally. We summarize key challenges in the hepatitis testing response, including lack of simple, reliable, and low-cost diagnostic tests, laboratory capacity, and testing facilities; inadequate data to guide country specific hepatitis testing approaches and who to screen; stigmatization and social
Zbinden, Andrea; Dürig, Roland; Shah, Cyril; Böni, Jürg; Schüpbach, Jörg
Background HIV-2 is primarily endemic in West Africa and India, however, in time of global migration, a possible HIV-2 infection or co-infection with HIV-1 should be recognized right at the time of HIV diagnosis, in order to enable optimized antiretroviral treatment. Laboratory HIV testing consists of a combined HIV1/2/O antibody + antigen screening test and subsequent confirmation and type differentiation by a serological test formatted as a multi-line or multi-spot assay. CDC has proposed a revised alternative HIV diagnostic strategy which, in case of a reactive result in a combined HIV1/2/O antibody + antigen screening test, comprises an HIV-1 nucleic acid test (NAT) for HIV confirmation instead of an antibody differentiation immunoassay (ADI). Only a negative NAT must be further investigated by an ADI, thus saving expenses for ADI in most instances. We have investigated this alternative strategy with respect to its recognition of dual HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. Methods and Results Anonymized data of HIV notifications of patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Switzerland between 2007 and 2014 were analysed retrospectively. In a total of 4'679 notifications, we found 35 HIV-2 infections, 9 (25.7%) of which were dually infected with HIV-1. In 7 of the 9 dual HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections, HIV-1 RNA testing at the time of HIV diagnosis was positive with concentrations from 102 to 94'300 copies/mL plasma. HIV-1 RNA data were not available for the other two cases. Conclusions The alternative CDC strategy would have missed the concomitant HIV-2 infection in at least 7, but probably even more, of the 9 dually infected patients, as the detectable HIV-1 RNA would have precluded a supplemental ADI. Early ADI is mandatory for diagnosis of dual HIV-1/HIV-2 infection and guidance of appropriate therapy. PMID:27310138
Carrizosa, Claudia M.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Garcia-Gonzalez, Gregorio; Lozada, Remedios; Kelley, Norma J.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Sipan, Carol L.
Abstract Timely diagnosis of HIV is essential to improve survival rates and reduce transmission of the virus. Insufficient progress has been made in effecting earlier HIV diagnoses. The Mexican border city of Tijuana has one of the highest AIDS incidence and mortality rates in all of Mexico. This study examined the prevalence and potential correlates of late HIV testing in Tijuana, Mexico. Late testers were defined as participants who had at least one of: (1) an AIDS-defining illness within 1 year of first positive HIV test; (2) a date of AIDS diagnosis within 1 year of first positive HIV test; or (3) an initial CD4 cell count below 200 cells per microliter within 1 year of first positive HIV test. Medical charts of 670 HIV-positive patients from two HIV/AIDS public clinics in Tijuana were reviewed and abstracted; 362 of these patients were interviewed using a cross-sectional survey. Using multivariate logistic regression, we explored potential correlates of late HIV testing based on the Behavioral Ecological Model. From 342 participants for whom late testing could be determined, the prevalence of late testing was 43.2%. Multivariate logistic regression results (n = 275) revealed five significant correlates of late testing: “I preferred not to know I had HIV” (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.78, 1.46–5.31); clinic (AOR = 1.90, 1.06–3.41); exposure to peers engaging in high-risk sexual behavior (AOR = 1.14, 1.02–1.27); stigma regarding HIV-infected individuals (AOR = 0.65, 0.47–0.92); and stigma regarding HIV testing (AOR = 0.66, 0.45–0.97). These findings may inform the design of interventions to increase timely HIV testing and help reduce HIV transmission in the community at large. PMID:20438374
Tesoriero, J M; Sorin, M D; Burrows, K A; LaChance-McCullough, M L
This article investigates the impact NBA basketball star Earvin ("Magic") Johnson's HIV disclosure had on changes in demand for HIV counseling and testing services in New York State's 61 Anonymous HIV Counseling and Testing sites. Interrupted time-series analyses were conducted on weekly data from over 34,000 clients seeking anonymous HIV counseling and testing services from January 1991 to June 1992, to determine whether demand for these services changed as a result of the disclosure. Results indicated that immediately following the HIV disclosure, there was a substantial increase in service demand, which transcended all sex, race, age, and most HIV risk-related boundaries. Seven months later, demand had not returned to pre-disclosure levels. The strong impact on females, coupled with additional data analyses in obstetrical settings, suggests that previous research has been too narrow in focus, and that the effect of Johnson's HIV disclosure has been enhanced, in part, by the publicity surrounding his wife and baby. The importance of harnessing the heightened public awareness of celebrity HIV disclosures is discussed.
In recent years, many states in the United States have passed legislation requiring laboratories to report the names of patients with low CD4 cell counts to their state Departments of Health. This name reporting is an integral part of the growing number of "HIV Reporting and Partner Notification Laws" which have emerged in response to recently revised guidelines suggested by the National Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Name reporting for patients with low CD4 cell counts allows for a more accurate tracking of the natural history of HIV disease. However, given that this test is now considered to be an "indicator" of HIV, should it be subject to the same strict consent required for HIV testing? While the CDC has recommended that each state develop its own consent requirements for CD4 cell testing, most states have continued to rely on the presumed consent standards for CD4 cell testing that were in place before the passage of name reporting statutes. This allows physicians who treat patients who refuse HIV testing to order a CD4 cell blood analysis to gather information that is indicative of their patient's HIV status. This paper examines the ethical and legal issues associated with the practice of "conscientious subversion" as it arises when clinicians use CD4 cell counts as a surrogate for HIV testing. PMID:15923478
Heard, Anna C.; Brown, Annette N.
ABSTRACT High interest and a growing body of evidence suggest that HIV self-testing could help fill the HIV testing gap for populations who have been hesitant to access testing services through current mechanisms. Evidence from five of six studies funded by 3ie answers questions posed by the Kenyan government to understand the readiness of Kenyans for HIV self-testing. The findings suggest that Kenyans are generally ready for HIV self-testing. Most people would not only like to obtain self-test kits through public health facilities but also expect to be able to obtain them from pharmacies – easy access being a key factor for a distribution outlet. Respondents across the studies seem to understand the importance of counseling and confirmatory testing, although the decision to access services after an HIV self-test will certainly be influenced by the results of the test. Respondents do have some concerns about potential harms and abuses from HIV self-tests. These concerns are focused on what they expect others would do, rather than reflections of what they say they would do themselves. Additionally, most people believe that such concerns were mostly unwarranted and/or could be addressed. PMID:27256543
It is a common practice in resource-constrained countries to accept two positive rapid HIV antibody test results as diagnostic for HIV infection. Because these tests are inexpensive and results are obtained quickly, they are recommended by the WHO to "scale-up" HIV testing to increase the number of people tested. The negative predictive value of rapid HIV tests is so high that negative results are considered conclusive despite the fact that false-negative results can occur in several situations. While the specificity and sensitivity of rapid HIV tests in resource-rich countries is acceptable, there are only limited data about their performance in resource-constrained countries. The challenges of rapid HIV testing in these situations will be discussed.
Shanks, Leslie; Ritmeijer, Koert; Piriou, Erwan; Siddiqui, M. Ruby; Kliescikova, Jarmila; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Muluneh, Libsework; Masiga, Johnson; Abebe, Almaz
Background Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL) infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367) in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526) in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively). Conclusion The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study. PMID:26161864
Blair, CaraLee R; Gill, Chandler E; Taylor, Henry M; McGowan, Catherine C; Charles, P David
The discovery of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection in an individual who recently moved from a developmental center prompted the center to offer HIV testing to current and former residents. The guardians of 199 (93 percent) of the Center's current residents consented to testing. The remaining 14 current residents (seven percent) were not tested because informed consent for testing was not received. Consent for testing of 41 former residents was also obtained. All people who underwent testing were seronegative. Whether former residents who were not included in the present analysis received testing from other sources is not known. PMID:19791542
Blair, CaraLee R; Gill, Chandler E; Taylor, Henry M; McGowan, Catherine C; Charles, P David
The discovery of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection in an individual who recently moved from a developmental center prompted the center to offer HIV testing to current and former residents. The guardians of 199 (93 percent) of the Center's current residents consented to testing. The remaining 14 current residents (seven percent) were not tested because informed consent for testing was not received. Consent for testing of 41 former residents was also obtained. All people who underwent testing were seronegative. Whether former residents who were not included in the present analysis received testing from other sources is not known.
In the District of Columbia (DC), the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) case rate is nearly 10 times the U.S. rate and higher than comparable U.S. cities, such as Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York City, Detroit, and Chicago. In June 2006, the DC Department of Health (DCDOH) began implementing CDC's 2006 recommendations for routine, voluntary HIV screening in health-care settings. To describe recent trends in HIV disease and testing, CDC and DCDOH analyzed DC HIV case surveillance data, HIV testing data, and data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that the rate of newly diagnosed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases decreased consistently, from 164 cases per 100,000 in 2004 to 137 in 2007 and 107 in 2008. Among newly diagnosed AIDS cases, the number and rate were higher among blacks/African Americans compared with whites and Hispanics/Latinos. During 2005-2007, BRFSS results showed a significant increase in the proportion of the population that had been tested for HIV within the past 12 months, from 15% to 19%. Although the causes of the improvement in these indicators are unknown and cannot be linked to any specific intervention, they suggest improvements in the delivery of HIV testing and linkage to care services in DC. To address continuing racial disparities, DCDOH has increased HIV education and prevention efforts through enhanced collaborations, working with DC residents as spokespersons for local marketing campaigns and creating toolkits for health-care providers to expand HIV testing and linkage to care.
Magnusson, R S
The practice of testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) without the specific knowledge and consent of the patient raises ethical and legal issues. This report argues that diagnostic HIV testing of specific patients, without their consent, is unethical and may also be illegal. Testing for HIV prevalence on an anonymous, unlinked basis, however, is an important aspect of public health surveillance, and the ethics of clinical intervention should not be confused with the ethics of epidemiological research. Specific consent is usually desirable in view of privacy concerns, the importance of patient autonomy, and the potential for conflict of interest. However, where otherwise appropriate, the law should be clarified to permit nonconsensual HIV testing to proceed legally, possibly following scrutiny by an institutional ethics committee.
Taveras, Janelle; Trepka, Mary Jo; Khan, Hafiz; Madhivanan, Purnima; Gollub, Erica L; Devieux, Jessy
Latina women in the United States (US) are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Data are limited on the risk differences in HIV among Latinas by country of birth. This paper describes the risk behaviors among Latina women tested for HIV at public sites in Florida. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the demographic characteristics associated with the report of specific risk behaviors. Results indicate that foreign-born Latina women were 54 % less likely to report partner risk [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.40, 0.54] than US-born Latina women. Reported risk behaviors varied by race/ethnicity, US-born versus foreign-born status, and by Latina country of origin. Knowledge of these differences can aid in targeting HIV prevention messaging, program decision-making, and allocation of resources, corresponding to the central approach of High Impact Prevention and the National HIV/AIDS Strategy.
Emusu, Donath; Ivankova, Nataliya; Jolly, Pauline; Kirby, Russell; Foushee, Herman; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Katongole, Drake; Ehiri, John
HIV-serodiscordant relationships are those in which one partner is infected with HIV while the other is not. We investigated experiences of sexual violence among women in HIV discordant unions attending HIV post-test club services in Uganda. A volunteer sample of 26 women from three AIDS Information Centres in Uganda who reported having experienced sexual violence in a larger epidemiological study were interviewed, using the qualitative critical incident technique. Data were analysed using TEXTPACK, a software application for computer-assisted content analysis. Incidents of sexual violence narrated by the women included use of physical force and verbal threats. Overall, four themes that characterise the women’s experience of sexual violence emerged from the analysis: knowledge of HIV test results, prevalence of sexual violence, vulnerability and proprietary views and reactions to sexual violence. Alcohol abuse by the male partners was an important factor in the experience of sexual violence among the women. Their experiences evoked different reactions and feelings, including concern over the need to have children, fear of infection, desire to separate from their spouses/partners, helplessness, anger and suicidal tendencies. HIV counselling and testing centres should be supported with the capacity to address issues related to sexual violence for couples who are HIV discordant. PMID:20024712
Meadowbrooke, Chrysta C; Veinot, Tiffany C; Loveluck, Jimena; Hickok, Andrew; Bauermeister, José A
Health research shows that knowing about health risks may not translate into behavior change. However, such research typically operationalizes health information acquisition with knowledge tests. Information scientists who investigate socially embedded information behaviors could help improve understanding of potential associations between information behavior-as opposed to knowledge-and health behavior formation, thus providing new opportunities to investigate the effects of health information. We examine the associations between information behavior and HIV testing intentions among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), a group with high rates of unrecognized HIV infection. We used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict intentions to seek HIV testing in an online sample of 163 YMSM. Multiple regression and recursive path analysis were used to test two models: (a) the basic TPB model and (b) an adapted model that added the direct effects of three information behaviors (information exposure, use of information to make HIV-testing decisions, prior experience obtaining an HIV test) plus self-rated HIV knowledge. As hypothesized, our adapted model improved predictions, explaining more than twice as much variance as the original TPB model. The results suggest that information behaviors may be more important predictors of health behavior intentions than previously acknowledged.
Meadowbrooke, Chrysta C.; Veinot, Tiffany C.; Loveluck, Jimena; Hickok, Andrew; Bauermeister, José A.
Health research shows that knowing about health risks may not translate into behavior change. However, such research typically operationalizes health information acquisition with knowledge tests. Information scientists who investigate socially embedded information behaviors could help improve understanding of potential associations between information behavior—as opposed to knowledge—and health behavior formation, thus providing new opportunities to investigate the effects of health information. We examine the associations between information behavior and HIV testing intentions among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), a group with high rates of unrecognized HIV infection. We used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict intentions to seek HIV testing in an online sample of 163 YMSM. Multiple regression and recursive path analysis were used to test two models: (a) the basic TPB model and (b) an adapted model that added the direct effects of three information behaviors (information exposure, use of information to make HIV-testing decisions, prior experience obtaining an HIV test) plus self-rated HIV knowledge. As hypothesized, our adapted model improved predictions, explaining more than twice as much variance as the original TPB model. The results suggest that information behaviors may be more important predictors of health behavior intentions than previously acknowledged. PMID:25346934
An HIV testing kit called OraScreen can detect HIV in oral fluids, costs less than a blood test, and can give results in fifteen minutes, but is only commercially available in Aruba. The manufacturer, Beacon Diagnostics, is not optimistic about getting the necessary approvals to market the drug for home use in the United States because patients would not need to consult a health care professional to get the results. Initial tests show that results with the test are virtually identical to blood tests. The test will probably be available for use in clinical settings within 2 years.
Best, John; Tang, Weiming; Zhang, Ye; Han, Larry; Liu, Fengying; Huang, Shujie; Yang, Bin; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D.
Background HIV and syphilis are disproportionately common among transgender individuals globally, yet few studies have investigated transgender HIV/syphilis risk and testing in low and middle-income nations. We conducted an online survey of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender individuals to examine sexual behaviors, and HIV/syphilis testing in China. Methods We recruited MSM and transgender individuals from two-major Chinese lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) web platforms. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to compare risk behaviors, HIV and syphilis testing history, and prevalence between transgender individuals and other MSM. Results Among the 1320 participants, 52 (3·9%) self-identified as transgender. Demographics, including education, employment, and marital status were similar between both groups, while transgender individuals were older. Condomless anal intercourse rate was comparable between the groups. Transgender individuals were less likely to report ever testing for HIV (34·6% VS 62·0%) and syphilis (15·7% VS 31·2%) with adjusted ORs of 0·36 (95% CI 0·20–0·65) and 0·42 (95% CI 0·20–0·91), respectively. We found a trend towards higher HIV prevalence among transgender individuals (11·1% VS5·7%, P=0·12). Conclusion Transgender individuals have suboptimal HIV and syphilis testing rates in China. Given the substantial risk behaviors and burden of HIV/STI in the general Chinese MSM population and lack of knowledge about transgender individuals, enhanced HIV/syphilis testing programs for transgender individuals in China are needed. PMID:25868142
Aroussi, Abdelkrim; Vignoles, Philippe; Dalmay, François; Wimel, Laurence; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Mercier, Aurélien; Ajzenberg, Daniel
In France, some cases of severe toxoplasmosis have been linked to the consumption of horse meat that had been imported from the American continent where atypical strains of Toxoplasma gondii are more common than in Europe. Many seroprevalence studies are presented in the literature but risk assessment of T. gondii infection after horse meat consumption is not possible in the absence of validated serological tests and the unknown correlation between detection of antibodies against T. gondii and presence of tissue cysts. We performed magnetic-capture polymerase chain reaction (MC-PCR) to detect T. gondii DNA in 231 horse meat samples purchased in supermarkets in France and evaluated the performance and level of agreement of the modified agglutination test (MAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the meat juices. The serological tests lacked sensitivity, specificity, and agreement between them, and there was no correlation with the presence of T. gondii DNA in horse meat, raising concerns about the reliability of T. gondii seroprevalence data in horses from the literature. T. gondii DNA was detected in 43% of horse meat samples but the absence of strain isolation in mice following inoculation of more than 100 horse meat samples suggests a low distribution of cysts in skeletal muscles and a low risk of T. gondii infection associated with horse meat consumption. However, to avoid any risk of toxoplasmosis, thorough cooking of horse meat is recommended.
Olds, June E; Sun, Yaxuan; Baum, David H; Gauger, Phillip
Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease occurring clinically and subclinically in humans and a wide variety of mammal species worldwide. Often, rodents and wild animals are identified as important reservoirs for the disease. Twenty-two captive black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) housed within a zoo were examined as part of a routine census and preventive medicine program. During examinations, blood and urine were collected to screen for exposure to, or infection with, leptospirosis. All animals were apparently healthy at the time of examination. Leptospira microscopic agglutination test identified 12 of 22 (54.5%) prairie dogs with antibody titers ≥1 : 100 against Leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava on initial serologic examination. All prairie dogs within this collection were serologically negative for L. interrogans serovars canicola, hardjo, icterohaemorrhagiae, and pomona and Leptospira kirschneri serovar grippotyphosa. Leptospira polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of urine was negative in all animals tested. This report describes evidence that captive prairie dogs may be exposed to leptospirosis, most likely from wild rodent reservoirs; however, serum titers are low, and lack of leptospiral DNA detected by PCR indicates that these captive animals are unlikely to be important reservoirs for the disease. PMID:26667541
de Souza, Eduardo Pernambuco; Teixeira, Marcelo de Souza
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the hepatitis B vaccination coverage among medical students at a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and their compliance with the postvaccination serologic testing recommendations. Of the total of 858 students, 675 (78.7%) participated in the study. Among the participants, 48.9% (95% CI: 45.1% to 52.7%) were vaccinated against hepatitis B (received ≥ 3 doses of the vaccine), 31.6% were not (received 0, 1 or 2 doses), and 19.6% did not know their vaccination status. Hepatitis B vaccination coverage increased from 26.0% among first-year students to 70.6% among sixth-year students while the prevalence of unknown vaccination status decreased from 39.7% among first-year students to 2.4% among sixth-year students. The frequency of unvaccinated students ranged from 23.7% among fifth-year students to 34.4% among first-year students. Only 34.8% of the vaccinated students performed the anti-HBs testing after vaccination. Among these medical students, we found a low adherence to the hepatitis B vaccination and to the postvaccination serologic testing. A comprehensive hepatitis B immunization program should be offered to students at this medical school. PMID:25076431
Choi, Kyung-Hee; Lui, Hui; Guo, Yaqi; Han, Lei; Mandel, Jeffrey S.
In China, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. However, little is known about their HIV testing behavior. From September 2001 to January 2002, we recruited 482 men through social networks and MSM venues. We conducted HIV testing and counseling, and anonymous, standardized face-to-face interviews. Eighty-two percent of…
Ma, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yanming; He, Xiong; Li, Chunmei; Raymond, H. F.; McFarland, Willi; Sun, Jiangping; Pan, Stephen W.; Shao, Yiming; Vermund, Sten H.; Xiao, Yan; Ruan, Yuhua; Jia, Yujiang
The study was to assess the correlates for recent HIV testing and HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China. A cross-sectional study probed demographics, sexual and drug use behaviors, HIV testing, and prevention services. Of 500 participants, 39.3% recently received a test for HIV. Recent testing was independently associated with expressing lower levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes, more male sex partners, no female sexual partners and knowing HIV status of their last male partner. Expressing lower levels of HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes was independently associated with recent testing, younger age, and knowing HIV status of their last male partner. This study revealed that HIV/AIDS-related stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes were common and inversely associated with recent HIV testing. Low levels of testing highlighted the urgent needs to reduce HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination and expand HIV testing among Beijing MSM. PMID:22350831
Rosen, David L; Golin, Carol E; Grodensky, Catherine A; May, Jeanine; Bowling, J Michael; DeVellis, Robert F; White, Becky L; Wohl, David A
HIV testing in prison settings has been identified as an important mechanism to detect cases among high-risk, underserved populations. Several public health organizations recommend that testing across health-care settings, including prisons, be delivered in an opt-out manner. However, implementation of opt-out testing within prisons may pose challenges in delivering testing that is informed and understood to be voluntary. In a large state prison system with a policy of voluntary opt-out HIV testing, we randomly sampled adult prisoners in each of seven intake prisons within two weeks after their opportunity to be HIV tested. We surveyed prisoners' perception of HIV testing as voluntary or mandatory and used multivariable statistical models to identify factors associated with their perception. We also linked survey responses to lab records to determine if prisoners' test status (tested or not) matched their desired and perceived test status. Thirty-eight percent (359/936) perceived testing as voluntary. The perception that testing was mandatory was positively associated with age less than 25 years (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24, 1.71) and preference that testing be mandatory (aRR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.41, 2.31) but negatively associated with entry into one of the intake prisons (aRR: 0.41 95% CI: 0.27, 0.63). Eighty-nine percent of prisoners wanted to be tested, 85% were tested according to their wishes, and 82% correctly understood whether or not they were tested. Most prisoners wanted to be HIV tested and were aware that they had been tested, but less than 40% understood testing to be voluntary. Prisoners' understanding of the voluntary nature of testing varied by intake prison and by a few individual-level factors. Testing procedures should ensure that opt-out testing is informed and understood to be voluntary by prisoners and other vulnerable populations.
An African-American mother is suing an Illinois clinic and a community center, alleging that they pressured her into having her son tested for HIV and strep throat because he shared a snorkel with a white boy at a public swimming pool. The mother contends that the community center pressured her because the white boy's mother insisted on the tests and threatened to sue the community center. The American Civil Liberties Union of Illinois has accused the community center and the clinic that performed the tests of racially motivated discrimination and violations of the state HIV testing and confidentiality laws. Also named in the suit is the doctor who performed the tests.
Nanín, José; Osubu, Tokes; Walker, Ja'Nina; Powell, Borris; Powell, Donald; Parsons, Jeffrey
Rising HIV infection rates have been recently occurring among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States. As a result, promoting HIV testing among members of this population is now considered a priority among local and federal health officials. A study was conducted to explore concerns about HIV testing among BMSM in New York City. In early 2006, data were gathered from focus groups with 29 BMSM. Discussions revealed factors affecting HIV testing, including stigma, sexuality, religion, race, and class, emphasizing responsibility, testing concerns, and media influences, among others. Recommendations were submitted to New York City health officials to inform HIV testing and prevention efforts.
The aim was to determine the performances of four Helicobacter pylori serological detection kits in different target groups, using Amplified IDEIA™ Hp StAR™ as gold standard. Kits studied were Rapid Immunochromatoghraphic Hexagon, Helicoblot 2.1, an EIA IgG kit and EIA IgA kit. Methods: Stool and blood samples were collected from 162 apparently healthy participants (control) and 60 Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Results: The performances of the four serological detection kits were found to be affected by gender, age, health status and ethnicity of the participants. In the control group, the Helicoblot 2.1 kit had the best performance (AUC = 0.85; p<0.05, accuracy = 86.4%), followed by EIA IgG (AUC = 0.75; p<0.05, accuracy = 75.2%). The Rapid Hexagon and EIA IgA kits had relatively poor performances. In the T2DM subgroup, the kits H2.1 and EIA IgG had best performances, with accuracies of 96.5% and 93.1% respectively. The performance of EIA IgG improved with adjustment of its cut-off value. Conclusion: The performances of the detection kits were affected by various factors which should be taken into consideration. PMID:27736910
Brima, Nataliya; Burns, Fiona; Fakoya, Ibidun; Kargbo, Brima; Conteh, Suleiman; Copas, Andrew
Background The Sierra Leone Demographic Health Survey 2008 found an HIV prevalence of 1.5%. This study investigates associations with HIV infection and HIV testing. Methods Households were selected using stratified multi-stage sampling. In all selected households women aged 15–49 were eligible. In every second household men aged 15–59 were also eligible. Participants were asked to consent for anonymous HIV testing. All participants interviewed and tested were analysed. Multiple logistic regression identified associations with HIV infection, undiagnosed infection and with ever having a voluntary HIV test among sexually active participants. Results Of 7495 invited 86% (6,475) agreed to an interview and HIV test. Among 96 HIV positive participants, 78% had never taken a voluntary HIV test so were unaware of their serostatus, and 86% were sexually active in the last 12 months among whom 96% did not use a condom at last intercourse. 11% of all participants had previously voluntarily tested. Among women who had tested, 60% did so in antenatal care. We found that those living in an urban area, and those previously married, were more likely to be HIV infected. Voluntary HIV testing was more common in those aged 25–44, living in an urban area, females, having secondary or higher education, having first sexual intercourse at age 17 years or older, and using condoms at last sex. Although 82% of men and 69% of women had heard of HIV, only 35% and 29% respectively had heard of antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions The HIV prevalence in Sierra Leone has been stable. HIV testing, however, is uncommon and most infected individuals are unaware of their serostatus. This could allow the epidemic to escalate as individuals with undiagnosed infection are unlikely to change their behaviour or access treatment. Improving knowledge and increasing testing need to remain central to HIV prevention interventions in Sierra Leone. PMID:26452051
Polo Rodríguez, Rosa; Muñoz Galligo, Eloy; Iribarren, José Antonio; Domingo Pedrol, Pere; Leyes García, María; Maiques Montesinos, Vicente; Miralles Martín, Pilar; Noguera Julian, Antoni; Ocampo Hernandez, Antonio; Peres Bares, María Lourdes; López Rojano, Marta; Suy Franch, Anna; Viñuela Beneitez, M Carmen; González Tomé, María Isabel
The main objective in the management of HIV-infected pregnant women is prevention of mother-to-child transmission; therefore, it is essential to provide universal antiretroviral treatment, regardless of CD4 count. All pregnant women must receive adequate information and undergo HIV serology testing at the first visit. If the serological status is unknown at the time of delivery, or in the immediate postpartum, HIV serology testing has to be performed as soon as possible. In this document, recommendations are made regarding the health of the mother and from the perspective of minimizing mother-to-child transmission. PMID:24582834
Grabbe, Kristina L; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Baughman, Andrew L; Djomand, Gaston; Pedersen, Brian; Lerotholi, Mankhala; Nkonyana, John; Ramphalla-Phatela, Puleng; Marum, Elizabeth
HIV testing and counseling (HTC) is an essential component of comprehensive HIV programs. Retrospective HTC program data from 2006 to 2010 were examined to determine patterns of re-testing and seroconversion in Lesotho. Among 104,662 initially negative clients, 6,777 (6.5%) were re-testers. Predictors of re-testing included being male, age ≥ 25 years, divorced/separated, having more than a high school education, being tested as a couple, testing in the year 2006, testing in the capital city, and awareness of partner's recent testing behavior. Among re-testers who seroconverted (N = 259), predictors included being female and having less than a high school education. There is a critical need for more effectively targeting HIV retesting messages to align with WHO (2010) guidelines and identify persons at highest risk for HIV, to increase timely diagnoses and link persons to appropriate HIV prevention, care, and treatment services.
Meade, Christina S.; Towe, Sheri L.; Watt, Melissa H.; Hobkirk, Andrea; Skinner, Donald; Myers, Bronwyn; Kimani, Stephen M.; Pieterse, Desiree
Background Methamphetamine users in South Africa are at high risk for HIV infection and transmission, but little is known about HIV testing in this population. Methods We examined HIV testing behaviors and attitudes in 362 methamphetamine users recruited using chain referral sampling from one peri-urban community. Results Many (44%) had not been HIV tested in the past year. HIV testing was associated with positive testing attitudes, less AIDS stigma, and greater methamphetamine stigma. Among participants who reported HIV infection (8%), less than half were linked to care. Conclusions Findings highlight the need to identify barriers to HIV service uptake for methamphetamine users. PMID:24858393
Msellati, P; Ateba Ndongo, F; Hejoaka, F; Nacro, B
A huge number of HIV-infected children and teenagers have no access to care or receive it very late. Of the 3.2 million infected children, 2.8 million should be receiving highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) but only around 700,000 actually are. The first reason for this failure is the lack of HIV testing among HIV-exposed infants and thus early diagnosis or, even more frequently, the lack of testing among older children and teenagers. The objectives of this article are twofold: to review the current situation and to advocate routine offers of HIV testing to HIV-exposed children and teenagers (exposed either through mother-to-child transmission or repeated transfusions) and those suspected to be HIV-infected (because of malnutrition, tuberculosis, or other associated diseases). Finally, adults living with HIV should be made aware of the need for routine HIV screening of their children, even when asymptomatic.
The Association to Benefit Children (ABC), a New York advocacy group, has sued to force the state to inform mothers of the HIV test results of their newborn infants. The suit, filed in March, 1995, in the Supreme Court for New York County, asked the court to declare unconstitutional the state's policy of testing newborns without disclosing the test results to their mothers. Since 1987, the New York Health Department has been routinely testing all newborns for evidence of HIV antibodies. However, results are not divulged because the testing is intended to assess the extent of HIV infection in a given area or demographic group. The suit alleged that the blind HIV testing procedure denies babies their right to equal protection under the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and Article 1, Section 11 of the state constitution. According to the suit, early diagnosis is essential as HIV infection generally develops faster in infants than in adults. The suit also sought testing, counseling and treatment of all at-risk children in the foster care system. PMID:11362392
Inguane, Celso Azarias; Gloyd, Stephen; Manuel, João Luis; Brown, Charlene; Wong, Vincent; Augusto, Orvalho; Hassan, Wisal Mustafa; Vieira, Lúcia; Afonso, Pires; Jamnadás, Mehol; Bernard, Jama Joy; Cowan, James; Kalibala, Samuel; Pfeiffer, James
Introduction Effectiveness of the rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) throughout sub-Saharan Africa is highly dependent on adequate enrolment and retention in HIV care. However, the measurement of both has been challenging in these settings. This study aimed to assess enrolment and retention in HIV care (pre-ART and ART) among HIV-positive adults in Central Mozambique, including identification of barriers and facilitators. Methods We assessed linkages to and retention in HIV care using a mixed quantitative and qualitative approach in six districts of Manica and Sofala provinces. We analyzed routine district and health facility monthly reports and HIV care registries from April 2012 to March 2013 and used single imputation and trimmed means to adjust for missing values. In eight health facilities in the same districts and period, we assessed retention in HIV care among 795 randomly selected adult patient charts (15 years and older). We also conducted 25 focus group discussions and 53 in-depth interviews with HIV-positive adults, healthcare providers and community members to identify facilitators and barriers to enrolment and retention in HIV care. Results Overall, 46% of the monthly HIV testing reports expected at the district level were missing, compared to 6.4% of the pre-ART registry reports. After adjustment for missing values, we estimated that the aggregate numbers of adults registered in pre-ART was 75% of the number of persons tested HIV-positive in the six districts. In the eight health facilities, 40% of the patient charts for adults enrolled in pre-ART and 44% in ART were missing. Of those on ART for whom charts were found, retention in treatment within 90 and 60 days prior to the study team visit was 34 and 25%, respectively. Combining these multiple data sources, the overall estimated retention was 18% in our sample. Individual-level factors were perceived to be key influences to enrolment in HIV care, while health facility and structural
van Dyk, Alta C
With better health care and greater access to antiretrovirals (ARVs) it has become important to increase the uptake of HIV testing. Major testing campaigns have been launched in South Africa, but no official provision exists for clients who prefer self-testing for HIV. The purpose of this study was to investigate which HIV-testing model (client-initiated, provider-initiated or self-testing) a sample of South Africans preferred and why. A semi-structured questionnaire was completed by 466 participants and 9 provinces were represented by the sample. The results indicated that 22.3% of the participants preferred self-testing for HIV (while 66.1% preferred client-initiated and 11.6% provider-initiated counselling and testing). Participants who preferred self-testing for HIV were predominantly (p < 0.05) male, white, lived in cities or towns, did not know their HIV status, and had no intention of being tested at a medical facility in future. The underlying themes of why participants preferred self-testing for HIV above testing in a medical facility were the need for privacy and confidentiality; the need to keep testing as well as the results secret; fear of discrimination and stigma; distrust in the health care system to keep results confidential; and an aversion to face-to-face counselling. Participants indicated that they would consider testing if self-testing for HIV with telephone counselling becomes readily available in their communities. HIV testing models in South Africa should be revisited and revised to offer people who would otherwise not be tested, with an alternative method of testing. PMID:25871310
Guimarães Nebenzahl, H; Lopes, A; Castro, R; Pereira, F
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis remain major infections around the world. In Angola there are about 166 000 individuals living with HIV, representing a prevalence of 1.98% in adults between 15 and 49 years of age. In a 2003 study in Luanda, 4.5% of pregnant women had antibodies to HIV and 8.1% to HBV, and 5.4% were infected with Treponema pallidum. Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 and 2, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum serological markers, and hence the prevalence of these infections, in individuals attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Luanda, Angola, and the burden of these infections in the Angolan population. Methods. Individuals attending a centre for anonymous testing for HIV were randomly included in the study. All samples were tested for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV and anti-HIV-1 and 2 antibodies and antibodies to T. pallidum. Results. A total of 431 individuals (262 women and 169 men) were studied, of whom 10.0% (43/431) were seropositive for T. pallidum and 4.6% had active syphilis; 8.8% (38/431) were seropositive for HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 (of these, 78.9% were HIV-1-positive, 2.6% HIV-2-positive and 18.4% co-infected); 9.3% (40/431) were HBsAg-positive, while 8.1% (35/431) had antibodies to HCV. Of 102 patients with positive results, 26 (25.5%, or 6.0% of the total of 431 patients) were positive for more than one of the organisms studied. Rates of co-infection were as follows: 2.3% (10/431) for HIV/HBV, 0.9% (4/431) for HIV/HCV, and 0.9% (4/431) for HCV/HBV. Three individuals with active syphilis had viral co-infection, hepatitis B in 1 case and HIV in 2. Five individuals (1.2% of the total) were seropositive for three infections, HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in 3 cases and HIV, hepatitis C and syphilis in 2. Conclusions. A high prevalence of co-infection with the infections studied was found in this population, including HIV
Fernandez, M. Isabel; Collazo, Jose B.; Bowen, G. Stephen; Varga, Leah M.; Hernandez, Nilda; Perrino, Tatiana
Context and Purpose: This study examined the predictors of HIV testing and factors associated with intention to accept a free HIV test among 244 Hispanic migrant/seasonal farmworkers in South Florida. Methods: Time and space sampling procedures were used to recruit participants in public venues. Bilingual staff interviewed eligible respondents in…
Căruntu, F; Dogaru, D; Stefan, D; Căruntu, V; Angelescu, C; Streinu-Cercel, A; Colţan, G; Petrescu, A L; Tarţă, D; Bârnaure, F
The dynamics of the antibody response to influenza viruses A (H1N1), A (H3N2) and B, to parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, to adenoviruses and respiratory syncytial virus was studied in paired serum samples collected from 110 patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections (ARI) and in 40 patients suffering from other diseases. Rises in serum antibody titers to 1--5 of the above mentioned antigens were detected in many of the patients of both groups. The fact is most likely due to the presence of some epidemiologically and clinically uncharacteristic viral ARI (influenza included); simultaneous or successive infections with influenza virus and different other viruses were very frequent. A greater efficiency of the etiological diagnosis of viral ARI can be achieved only by the association of epidemiological and clinical criteria with serological data, the visualization of viral antigens and virus isolation. PMID:3727398
Ross, Andrew J.; Ocholla, Peter O.
Abstract Background With millions of South Africans infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and less than 10% of the population aware of their HIV status, HIV counselling and testing (HCT) is the first step in any attempt to reduce the number of new infections. For those who test negative, HCT personalises the risks and reinforces preventative messages whilst for those who are positive, it is the gateway to accessing counselling and care. The Health Belief Model postulates that knowledge and attitude influence behaviour. The aim of this study was to determine whether knowledge of HIV and the attitude of patients referred for HCT correlated with a willingness to test for HIV. Methods One hundred and seventy two patients referred for HCT were randomly selected over a three month period. Data were collected by a research assistant using the modified standardised World Health Organization (WHO)–Global AIDS Project (GAP) questionnaire. Results Ninety per cent of the participants demonstrated sound knowledge of HIV, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and HCT. Despite the 90% of the participants with sound knowledge only 71.5% of the participants tested for HIV. There was no statistically significant difference in knowledge between those who tested and those who did not test for HIV. Twenty five per cent of those who refused to test stated that they had already made up their mind not to test for HIV before the counselling session. Conclusions Despite excellent knowledge of HIV, a significant number of patients referred for HCT do not test for HIV.
Kenya, Sonjia; Okoro, Ikenna S; Wallace, Kiera; Ricciardi, Michael; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Prado, Guillermo
Sixty percent of African Americans have had an HIV test, yet this population disproportionately contributes to AIDS mortality, suggesting that testing is not occurring early enough to achieve optimal outcomes. OraQuick, the first Food and Drug Administration-approved home-based HIV rapid test (HBHRT) could potentially increase testing rates. We assessed whether community health workers (CHWs) paired with HBRHT could improve HIV screening and health care access among African Americans in Miami, Florida. In October-November 2013, 60 African Americans were enrolled and randomized to the experimental condition, which received CHW assistance to complete HBHRT, or the control condition, which were instructed to complete HBHRT independently. Intervention participants were significantly (p ≤ .05) more likely than control participants to complete HBHRT and, if positive, get linked to HIV care (100% vs. 83%) χ(2) (1, N = 60) = 5.46, p ≤ .02. We concluded that CHW-assisted HBHRT may be a promising strategy to improve HIV testing and care among African Americans. PMID:27091604
This paper compares policies on named HIV testing in the context of HIV prevention in Britain, Hungary and Sweden, and considers the extent to which these policies are based on evidence of effectiveness or on other, more contextual, factors. In Britain, testing has not featured significantly as a prevention strategy, and named testing has generally been carried out only with the voluntary, informed consent of individuals. In Hungary, testing is central to HIV prevention, and is required by law of certain groups. HIV testing is carried out mainly on a voluntary basis in Sweden, but, unlike in Britain, it has been actively promoted by public health authorities. The paper contrasts the 'right not to know' one's HIV status which is widely respected in Britain, with the 'responsibility to find out' which is more pervasive in Hungary and Sweden. Although policy makers in all three countries appear convinced that their's is the right approach, there appears to be as yet a dearth of convincing evidence to support their arguments. PMID:9828953
Galea, Robert P.; And Others
Describes voluntary testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a residential substance abuse treatment program; highlights discussion group involving 5 clients who tested positive for HIV. Notes that clients in HIV groups dropped out of treatment at significantly lower percentages than clients in general, indicating HIV identification…
Winsnes, R; Sesardic, D; Daas, A; Behr-Gross, M-E
A collaborative study on the evaluation of an alternative functional assay, the Vero cell method, to the Ph. Eur. in vivo challenge procedures for potency determination of diphtheria toxoid in 6 different combined vaccines was initiated in January 2001. The study was an extension of a previous study for the validation of serological methods for potency testing of tetanus toxoid vaccines for human use. To allow interim evaluation of test results and to monitor study progress, the project was divided into three consecutive phases. The results of Phase I and II studies are presented in this report. Pre-validation (Phase I) study, performed in two laboratories, indicated that comparable diphtheria potency estimates were obtained in the Ph. Eur. direct intradermal challenge assay in guinea pigs, in Vero cell assay and in indirect ELISA for five vaccines of different potencies (range of estimates: ca. 20-200 IU/ml). The correlation coefficients between the challenge assay and the Vero cell assay corresponded to those between the challenge assay and ELISA, confirming that the antibodies play an important role in protection and that predominantly protective/neutralising antibodies are present in guinea pigs, at the time point investigated. It was observed, for Vero cell assays, that about 16-35 (9-28 in Phase II study) fold lower titre of individual serum samples were obtained when using equine, rather than guinea pig reference serum. The study also provided preliminary information that sera from the same guinea pigs may be used for potency determination of both diphtheria and tetanus toxoid components of vaccines. In Phase II, another five laboratories analysed a subset of the vaccines included in Phase I study plus an additional vaccine. Four laboratories performed the lethal challenge assay and one laboratory carried out the intradermal challenge assay. All laboratories also performed the Vero cell assay and both ELISA for diphtheria antitoxin and ELISA for tetanus
de Almeida, J. Oliveira
A critical survey of the literature on serology in leprosy has shown that sera taken from lepromatous patients display some striking differences in comparison with sera from tuberculoid patients. The tests most frequently employed were complement-fixation, haemagglutination, electrophoresis, precipitation and immunofluorescence, together with a variety of antigens not only from lepromas but also from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other actinomycetales. With the exception of the Rubino test, all these serological tests are lacking in specificity for leprosy since leprous sera have a broad range of reactivity with different antigens, including those employed in the serological diagnosis of syphilis. Some features of the leprous sera could be related to a hypersensitivity state involving circulating immune complexes, low levels of complement and the presence of antibodies similar to those found in sera from patients with autoimmune diseases. PMID:20604357
Dutra de Barros, Clarissa Habckost; Lobo, Tainah Dourado de Miranda; Pasini, Elisiane Nelcina; Comparini, Regina Aparecida; Caldas de Mesquita, Fábio
Abstract Problem Early diagnosis of infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is needed – especially among key populations such as sex workers, transgender people, men who have sex with men and people who use drugs. Approach The Brazilian Ministry of Health developed a strategy called Viva Melhor Sabendo (“live better knowing”) to increase HIV testing among key populations. In partnership with nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), a peer point-of-care testing intervention, using an oral fluid rapid test, was introduced at social venues for key populations at different times of the day. Local setting Key populations in Brazil can have 40 times higher HIV prevalence than the general population (14.8% versus 0.4%). Relevant changes Legislation was reinterpreted, so that oral fluid rapid tests could be administered by any person trained in rapid testing by the health ministry. Between January 2014 and March 2015, 29 723 oral fluid tests were administered; 791 (2.7%) were positive. Among the key populations, transgender people had the greatest proportion of positive results (10.7%; 172/1612), followed by men who declared themselves as commercial sex workers (8.7%; 165/1889) and men who have sex with men (4.8%; 292/6055). Lessons learnt The strategy improved access to HIV testing. Testing done by peers at times and locations suitable for key populations increased acceptance of testing. Working with relevant NGOs is a useful approach when reaching out to these key populations. PMID:27516641
Mantell, J. E.; DiCarlo, A. L.; Remien, R. H.; Zerbe, A.; Morris, D.; Pitt, B.; Nkonyana, J. P.; Abrams, E. J.; El-Sadr, W.
HIV testing has the potential to reduce HIV transmission by identifying and counseling individuals with HIV, reducing risk behaviors, linking persons with HIV to care and earlier treatment, and reducing perinatal transmission. In Lesotho, a high HIV prevalence country in which a large proportion of the population has never tested for HIV,…
Wallace, Scyatta A.; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Harris, Muriel J.; Townsend, Tiffany G.; Miller, Kim S.
A qualitative study examined perceptions of HIV testing and strategies to enhance HIV testing among HIV-negative African American heterosexual young adults (ages 18-25 years). Twenty-six focus groups (13 male groups, 13 female groups) were conducted in two low-income communities (urban and rural). All sessions were audio-recorded and transcribed.…
Flori, P; Hafid, J; Raberin, H; Patural, H; Varlet, M N; Tran Manh Sung, R
The detection of specific IgM is an important element in the diagnosis of seroconversion. In this study, we compared the new test Access Toxo IgM (II) versus the previous test Access Toxo IgM (I). This comparative study was done with 507 random sera and 89 selected sera (seroconversion, residual IgM, non specific IgM). The sensitivity and the specificity are higher with the new test (100% & 100% versus 97% & 98,6% respectively). Then, the high sensitivity of Access Toxo IgM (II) is more convenient for the earlier diagnosis of primary Toxoplasma infection. Moreover, the Access Toxo IgM (II) test was evaluated with our first results in routine laboratory (11,000 serology results between June 2000 and June 2001). With these results, we can confirm the specificity of the new test, and also determine the relevance of anti-toxoplasmic IgM. Moreover, an increase of sensitivity leads to an increase of residual IgM detection: 64% (37/58) of positive IgM is residual (> 4 months) as compared to 35% (27/78) with the previous test. In these case, the initiation of other tests such as the avidity test is necessary to validate or invalidate a seroconversion during pregnancy.
Weidle, Paul J.; Lecher, Shirley; Botts, Linda W.; Jones, LaDawna; Spach, David H.; Alvarez, Jorge; Jones, Rhondette; Thomas, Vasavi
Objective To test the feasibility of offering rapid, point-of-care human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing at community pharmacies and retail clinics. Design Pilot program to determine how to implement confidential HIV testing services in community pharmacies and retail clinics. Setting 21 community pharmacies and retail clinics serving urban and rural patients in the United States, from August 2011 to July 2013. Participants 106 community pharmacy and retail clinic staff members. Intervention A model was developed to implement confidential HIV counseling and testing services using community pharmacy and retail clinic staff as certified testing providers, or through collaborations with organizations that provide HIV testing. Training materials were developed and sites selected that serve patients from urban and rural areas to pilot test the model. Each site established a relationship with its local health department for HIV testing policies, developed referral lists for confirmatory HIV testing/care, secured a CLIA Certificate of Waiver, and advertised the service. Staff were trained to perform a rapid point-of-care HIV test on oral fluid, and provide patients with confidential test results and information on HIV. Patients with a preliminary positive result were referred to a physician or health department for confirmatory testing and, if needed, HIV clinical care. Main outcome measures Number of HIV tests completed and amount of time required to conduct testing. Results The 21 participating sites administered 1,540 HIV tests, with 1,087 conducted onsite by staff during regular working hours and 453 conducted at 37 different HIV testing events (e.g., local health fairs). The median amount of time required for pretest counseling/consent, waiting for test results, and posttest counseling was 4, 23, and 3 minutes, respectively. A majority of the sites (17) said they planned to continue HIV testing after the project period ended and would seek assistance or support
Chambers, Mark A; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; James, Eurig; Barker, Leslie; Jones, Jeff; Watkins, Gavin; Rolfe, Simon
Between October 2005 and May 2006, a total of 727 badgers found dead in Wales were reported, and 550 were delivered to the Regional Laboratories of the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA). Of the 459 carcasses suitable for examination, 55 were deemed to be infected with Mycobacterium bovis on the basis of culture, spoligotyping, and variable-number tandem repeat typing. Acid-fast bacteria were observed histologically in a further six badgers, but these bacteria were not confirmed as M. bovis by culture. A rapid serological test (BrockTB Stat-Pak) performed on thoracic blood showed a sensitivity of 35% and a specificity of 99%. Presence of M. bovis infection was 45 times more likely to be confirmed postmortem by culture in BrockTB Stat-Pak-reactive animals than in seronegative ones. Using visible carcass lesions as a marker of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) infection had a similar sensitivity (38%) but was significantly less specific (84%) than serology. The overall accuracy of the antibody detection was 93% (346 correct results from 374 tests), whereas the accuracy of regarding visible lesions as a marker for bTB infection was 78% (354 correct from 453 carcasses examined). Culture remains the gold standard method for detecting M. bovis infection in badgers. However, where resources are limited and/or an instant result is preferred, the BrockTB Stat-Pak could be used in field surveillance efforts to identify animals which should be examined further by only submitting test-negative animals to more detailed postmortem examination and culture.
Bradley, H; Tsui, A; Kidanu, A; Gillespie, D
Despite political endorsement of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT), and family planning integration in Ethiopia, little is known about the reproductive health needs of VCT clients. We estimated contraceptive prevalence and need among 646 Ethiopian female VCT clients. We compared socio-demographic characteristics of contracepting VCT clients to those with unmet need and examined how these characteristics are associated with having unmet contraceptive need and being HIV-positive using multinomial logistic regression. We also assessed the quality of VCT services from clients' reports of reproductive health topics discussed in VCT sessions. Nearly 34% of female VCT clients have unmet contraceptive need. Three socio-demographic characteristics are consistently associated with both risk for unintended pregnancy and HIV: older age, marriage, and lower education. In the multivariate analysis, older age, marriage, and belonging to a minority ethnic group are significantly associated with being both HIV-positive and having unmet contraceptive need. Conversely, higher education, larger families, and frequent sexual activity are associated with reduced likelihood of experiencing these two adverse health outcomes. VCT clients report infrequent reproductive health counseling, although HIV-positive women are more likely than HIV-negative women to have discussions about contraception with VCT counselors. At the time of this study, family planning was not offered as part of VCT programs, although VCT clients demonstrate considerable need for contraceptive services. PMID:20665282
... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a...
... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a...
... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a...
... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a...
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Syphilis serology. 493.923 Section 493.923 Public... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.923 Syphilis serology. (a) Program content and frequency of challenge. To be approved for proficiency testing in syphilis serology, a...
da Motta, Leonardo Rapone; Vanni, Andréa Cristina; Kato, Sérgio Kakuta; Borges, Luiz Gustavo dos Anjos; Sperhacke, Rosa Dea; Ribeiro, Rosangela Maria M; Inocêncio, Lilian Amaral
Since 2005, the Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Viral Hepatitis under the Health Surveillance Secretariat in Brazil's Ministry of Health has approved a testing algorithm for using rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) tests in the country. Given the constant emergence of new rapid HIV tests in the market, it is necessary to maintain an evaluation program for them. Conscious of this need, this multicenter study was conducted to evaluate five commercially available rapid HIV tests used to detect anti-HIV antibodies in Brazil. The five commercial rapid tests under assessment were the VIKIA HIV-1/2 (bioMérieux, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), the Rapid Check HIV 1 & 2 (Center of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, Brazil), the HIV-1/2 3.0 Strip Test Bioeasy (S.D., Kyonggi-do, South Korea), the Labtest HIV (Labtest Diagnóstica, Lagoa Santa, Brazil) and the HIV-1/2 Rapid Test Bio-Manguinhos (Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). A total of 972 whole-blood samples were collected from HIV-infected patients, pregnant women and individuals seeking voluntary counselling and testing who were recruited from five centers in different regions of the country. Informed consent was obtained from the study participants. The results were compared with those obtained using the HIV algorithm used currently in Brazil, which includes two enzyme immunoassays and one Western blot test. The operational performance of each assay was also compared to the defined criteria. A total of 972 samples were tested using reference assays, and the results indicated 143 (14.7%) reactive samples and 829 (85.3%) nonreactive samples. Sensitivity values ranged from 99.3 to 100%, and specificity was 100% for all five rapid tests. All of the rapid tests performed well, were easy to perform and yielded high scores in the operational performance analysis. Three tests, however, fulfilled all of the
da Motta, Leonardo Rapone; Vanni, Andréa Cristina; Kato, Sérgio Kakuta; Borges, Luiz Gustavo dos Anjos; Sperhacke, Rosa Dea; Ribeiro, Rosangela Maria M; Inocêncio, Lilian Amaral
Since 2005, the Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Viral Hepatitis under the Health Surveillance Secretariat in Brazil's Ministry of Health has approved a testing algorithm for using rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) tests in the country. Given the constant emergence of new rapid HIV tests in the market, it is necessary to maintain an evaluation program for them. Conscious of this need, this multicenter study was conducted to evaluate five commercially available rapid HIV tests used to detect anti-HIV antibodies in Brazil. The five commercial rapid tests under assessment were the VIKIA HIV-1/2 (bioMérieux, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), the Rapid Check HIV 1 & 2 (Center of Infectious Diseases, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Vitória, Brazil), the HIV-1/2 3.0 Strip Test Bioeasy (S.D., Kyonggi-do, South Korea), the Labtest HIV (Labtest Diagnóstica, Lagoa Santa, Brazil) and the HIV-1/2 Rapid Test Bio-Manguinhos (Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). A total of 972 whole-blood samples were collected from HIV-infected patients, pregnant women and individuals seeking voluntary counselling and testing who were recruited from five centers in different regions of the country. Informed consent was obtained from the study participants. The results were compared with those obtained using the HIV algorithm used currently in Brazil, which includes two enzyme immunoassays and one Western blot test. The operational performance of each assay was also compared to the defined criteria. A total of 972 samples were tested using reference assays, and the results indicated 143 (14.7%) reactive samples and 829 (85.3%) nonreactive samples. Sensitivity values ranged from 99.3 to 100%, and specificity was 100% for all five rapid tests. All of the rapid tests performed well, were easy to perform and yielded high scores in the operational performance analysis. Three tests, however, fulfilled all of the
Sagna, Marguerite L; Schopflocher, Donald
HIV counseling and voluntary testing during antenatal care have been proven to reduce the risk of HIV transmission from mother to child, through increasing knowledge about safe behaviors, ascertaining HIV status and increasing coverage of effective antiretroviral regimens. However, it remains that, in developing countries where 95 % of mother-to-child HIV transmissions (MTCT) take place, such interventions are not widely accessible or available. Using a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey, the present study aimed to examine individual- and contextual-level influences on the receipt of HIV pre-test counseling and uptake of HIV testing during the antenatal care period in Swaziland, a country highly burdened by HIV/AIDS. The study sample was restricted to women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the past five years preceding the survey and who received antenatal care for the most recent birth. The findings of this study indicated that only 62 % of women received pre-test counseling for the prevention of MTCT and no more than 56 % of women consented to be tested for HIV during antenatal care. The multilevel regression analysis revealed that the likelihood of receiving HIV pre-test counseling increases significantly with higher parity, education level, household wealth and antenatal visits while it is lower in areas where poverty is pervasive (OR = 0.474) and in rural regions (OR = 0.598) as well. Beyond all the significant predictors, undergoing pre-test counseling has emerged as an important determinant of HIV testing. Receiving pre-test counseling increases the odds of accepting an HIV test by 77 %. Evidence from this analysis underscores bottlenecks and challenges that persist in increasing the need for and uptake of HIV preventive and treatment services to stop new HIV infections among children. PMID:24810361
Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Frasca, Timothy; Giguere, Rebecca; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex
The recent approval in the United States of the first rapid home test to diagnose HIV raises questions about its potential use and impact. We reviewed the existing literature on the unassisted use of home tests involving self-collection and testing of biological samples by untrained users-including existing HIV self-testing studies-to shed some light on what can be expected from the availability of the HIV home test. The studies reviewed showed that most participants could properly perform home tests, obtain accurate results, and interpret them-yielding high correlations with laboratory and health-professional performed tests. Users often had trouble performing blood-based tests. Participants generally understood the need to confirm positive test results. Materials accompanying HIV home tests should emphasize symptoms of acute infection and the need for additional testing when recent infection is suspected. Different home-test-based screening modalities, personalized HIV-counseling resources and HIV home test impact evaluation methods should be studied.
McNaghten, A. D.; Mneimneh, Allison Schilsky; Farirai, Thato; Wamai, Nafuna; Ntiro, Marylad; Sabatier, Jennifer; Makhunga-Ramfolo, Nondumiso; Mwanasalli, Salli; Awor, Anna; Moore, Jan
Objective To determine which of 3 HIV testing and counseling (HTC) models in outpatient departments (OPDs) increases HIV testing and entry of newly identified HIV-infected patients into care. Design Randomized trial of HTC interventions. Methods Thirty-six OPDs in South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda were randomly assigned to 3 different HTC models: (A) health care providers referred eligible patients (aged 18–49, not tested in the past year, not known HIV positive) to on-site voluntary counseling and testing for HTC offered and provided by voluntary counseling and testing counselors after clinical consultation; (B) health care providers offered and provided HTC to eligible patients during clinical consultation; and (C) nurse or lay counselors offered and provided HTC to eligible patients before clinical consultation. Data were collected from October 2011 to September 2012. We describe testing eligibility and acceptance, HIV prevalence, and referral and entry into care. Chi-square analyses were conducted to examine differences by model. Results Of 79,910 patients, 45% were age eligible and 16,099 (45%) age eligibles were tested. Ten percent tested HIV positive. Significant differences were found in percent tested by model. The proportion of age eligible patients tested by Project STATUS was highest for model C (54.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 42.4 to 65.9), followed by model A (41.7%, 95% CI: 30.7 to 52.8), and then model B (33.9%, 95% CI: 25.7 to 42.1). Of the 1596 newly identified HIV positive patients, 94% were referred to care (96.1% in model A, 94.7% in model B, and 94.9% in model C), and 58% entered on-site care (74.4% in model A, 54.8% in model B, and 55.6% in model C) with no significant differences in referrals or care entry by model. Conclusions Model C resulted in the highest proportion of all age-eligible patients receiving a test. Although 94% of STATUS patients with a positive test result were referred to care, only 58% entered care. We found no
The U.S. Navy's seizure of a civilian's HIV lab report was upheld by the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals. The Navy's actions were ruled to be key elements of a criminal investigation of an HIV-positive naval officer who engaged in unprotected sex. The civilian [name removed], and the officer, [name removed] [name removed], engaged in unprotected sexual acts on a number of occasions after [name removed] assured [name removed] he was HIV-negative. When [name removed] learned that [name removed] was HIV-positive, he reported [name removed] to his commanding officer. [Name removed] was under orders not to engage in sex without a condom. If [name removed]'s claims were correct, [name removed] could face court martial and discharge from the Navy. The Navy obtained a search warrant for [name removed]'s apartment and discovered a lab report showing [name removed] tested positive for HIV antibodies. The report was seized as evidence against [name removed] sued the Navy investigators claiming violation of his Fourth Amendment protection. A U.S. District Judge and the 9th Circuit Court found in favor of the defendants. The Navy's interest in collecting evidence of a serious crime outweighed [name removed]'s interest in protecting the confidentiality of his HIV status. PMID:11363864
Wigfall, Lisa; Duffus, Wayne A.; Annang, Lucy; Richter, Donna L.; Torres, Myriam E.; Williams, Edith M.; Glover, Saundra
Background Pap tests are used to detect abnormal cell growth in the cervix. Early detection of precancerous cells increases the likelihood of treatment success. In fact, the Pap test is one of only a few cancer screening procedures that can prevent cancer by virtue of identifying and intervening upon abnormal precancerous cells in the early stages. There has been a growing prevalence of cervical cancer among HIV-positive women. Early diagnosis is essential to improving survival outcomes of women living with HIV/AIDS. The purpose of this study was to describe Pap test behaviors among women in South Carolina and examine its relationship with HIV testing. Methods Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2008 were analyzed. Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were performed to describe Pap test behaviors among our sample (n=3,404) of non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black women (18–64 years old). Results The majority of participants (97%) reported ever having a Pap test. Participants who reported never having a Pap test were 50% less likely to have ever been tested for HIV. Conclusions The participants in our study met the Healthy People 2010 target of ever having a Pap test. However, less than half of participants (42%) had ever been tested for HIV. A larger proportion of women who have had a Pap test had also been tested for HIV. Practice Implications Our findings suggest that offering women an HIV test during routine Pap tests may present an opportunity to increase the number of women in South Carolina who know their HIV serostatus. PMID:20108718
Shin, Hyun-Guk; Lee, Sang-Eun; Hong, Sung-Hee; Kim, Se-Mi; Choi, Young-Ki; Park, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Kyoung-Won; Song, Kun-Ho
This study surveyed the Toxoplasma (T.) gondii infection prevalence in the Korean rabbit population. Rabbits (n=142) were obtained from two breeding farms in the Gongju area, Chungnam Province, and in the Kochang area, Junbuk Province, Korea. Of 142 sera samples analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 15 (10.6%) exhibited T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies, and 1 (0.7%) rabbit harbored T. gondii-specific IgM. Female rabbits (9/84; 10.7%) had a similar T. gondii prevalence to males (6/58; 10.3%). When stratified by age, rabbits aged >1 year had a similar prevalence of T. gondii infection (7/66; 10.6%) to rabbits aged <1 year (8/76; 10.5%). Immunoblotting detected 6 major antigenic bands corresponding to T. gondii-positive sera at 20, 28, 30, 35, 63 and 77 kDa. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of whole-blood samples detected the T. gondii B1 gene in 23 rabbits (16.2%). All PCR-positive samples corresponded to partial T. gondii B1 gene sequences with 99% homology to a T. gondii sequence deposited in GenBank (accession number EU340874). Female rabbits (13/84; 15.5%) harbored a similar prevalence of T. gondii DNA to males (10/58; 17.2%). Rabbits aged >1 year had a similar prevalence (12/66; 18.2%) of T. gondii infection to rabbits aged <1 year (11/76; 14.5%). No statistically significant differences were observed regarding the prevalences of infection according to sex or age using molecular or serological tests. This study is the first survey using serological tests and nested PCR to analyze the T. gondii prevalence in rabbits in Korea.
Swenson, Rebecca R; Houck, Christopher; Sarfati, David; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri; Brown, Larry K
Being informed and using positive coping strategies are associated with engaging in health-promoting behaviors. We assessed whether the type of information source about HIV (personal or impersonal) and coping strategies (optimism, avoidance, or emotion-focused) are associated with HIV testing among adolescents attending therapeutic schools. Participants were 417 adolescents, ages 13-19, who attended one of 20 therapeutic day schools for emotionally/behaviorally disordered youth in two US cities (Providence, RI and Chicago, IL) and completed a baseline assessment for an HIV prevention study. Among adolescents in the study, 29% reported having been tested for HIV. Adolescents were more likely to have been tested if they were older, female, Hispanic, identified as non-heterosexual, came from lower SES households, and had recently had unprotected sex. Additionally, youth who endorsed greater use of optimistic thinking and emotion-focused coping, and who reported having been informed about HIV by more personal sources, were also more likely to have been tested for HIV. In a multivariate analysis, having had recent unprotected sex and having more personal sources of information about HIV/AIDS were independently associated with HIV testing. Study findings suggest that, controlling for sociodemographic background, sexual risk behavior, and coping strategy, HIV testing among adolescents with emotional and behavioral problems may be increased when adolescents learn about HIV/AIDS from personal sources such as their healthcare providers, family, and friends.
Swenson, Rebecca R.; Houck, Christopher; Sarfati, David; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri; Brown, Larry K.
Being informed and using positive coping strategies are associated with engaging in health-promoting behaviors. We assessed whether the type of information source about HIV (personal or impersonal) and coping strategies (optimism, avoidance, or emotion-focused) are associated with HIV testing among adolescents attending therapeutic schools. Participants were 417 adolescents, ages 13 to 19, who attended one of 20 therapeutic day schools for emotionally/behaviorally disordered youth in two U.S. cities (Providence, RI and Chicago, IL) and completed a baseline assessment for an HIV prevention study. Among adolescents in the study, 29% reported having been tested for HIV. Adolescents were more likely to have been tested if they were older, female, Hispanic, identified as non-heterosexual, came from lower SES households, and had recently had unprotected sex. Additionally, youth who endorsed greater use of optimistic thinking and emotion-focused coping, and who reported having been informed about HIV by more personal sources, were also more likely to have been tested for HIV. In a multivariate analysis, having had recent unprotected sex and having more personal sources of information about HIV/AIDS were independently associated with HIV testing. Study findings suggest that, controlling for sociodemographic background, sexual risk behavior, and coping strategy, HIV testing among adolescents with emotional and behavioral problems may be increased when adolescents learn about HIV/AIDS from personal sources such as their healthcare providers, family, and friends. PMID:25656380
Muessig, Kathryn E; Rosen, David L; Farel, Claire E; White, Becky L; Filene, Eliza J; Wohl, David A
Correctional facilities offer opportunities to provide comprehensive HIV services including education, testing, treatment, and coordination of post- release care. However, these services may be undermined by unaddressed HIV stigma. As part of a prison-based HIV testing study, we interviewed 76 incarcerated men and women from the North Carolina State prison system. The sample was 72% men, median age 31.5 years (range: 19 to 60). Thematic analysis revealed high levels of HIV-related fear and stigma, homophobia, incomplete HIV transmission knowledge, beliefs that HIV is highly contagious within prisons ("HIV miasma"), and the View of HIV testing as protective. Interviewees described social distancing behaviors and coping mechanisms they perceived to be protective, including knowing their HIV status and avoiding contact with others and shared objects. Interviewees endorsed universal testing, public HIV status disclosure, and segregation of HIV-positive inmates. Intensified education and counseling efforts are needed to ameliorate entrenched HIV-transmission fears and stigmatizing beliefs. PMID:27459162
Bond, Keosha T; Frye, Victoria; Taylor, Raekiela; Williams, Kim; Bonner, Sebastian; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Koblin, Beryl A
Despite having higher rates of HIV testing than all other racial groups, African-Americans continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States. Knowing one's status is the key step to maintaining behavioral changes that could stop the spread of the virus, yet little is known about the individual- and socio-structural-level barriers associated with HIV testing and communication among heterosexual African-American men. To address this and inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention for heterosexual African-American men, we conducted computerized, structured interviews with 61 men, focus group interviews with 25 men in 5 different groups, and in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 men living in high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City. Results revealed that HIV testing was frequent among the participants. Even with high rates of testing, the men in the study had low levels of HIV knowledge; perceived little risk of HIV; and misused HIV testing as a prevention method. Factors affecting HIV testing, included stigma, relationship dynamics and communication, and societal influences, suggesting that fear, low perception of risk, and HIV stigma may be the biggest barriers to HIV testing. These results also suggest that interventions directed toward African-American heterosexual men must address the use of "testing as prevention" as well as correct misunderstandings of the window period and the meaning of HIV test results, and interventions should focus on communicating about HIV. PMID:25298014
Bond, Keosha T.; Frye, Victoria; Taylor, Raekiela; Williams, Kim; Bonner, Sebastian; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Koblin, Beryl A.
Despite having higher rates of HIV testing than all other racial groups, African-Americans continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States. Knowing one’s status is the key step to maintaining behavioral changes that could stop the spread of the virus, yet little is known about the individual- and socio-structural-level barriers associated with HIV testing and communication among heterosexual African-American men. To address this and inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention for heterosexual African-American men, we conducted computerized, structured interviews with 61 men, focus group interviews with 25 men in 5 different groups, and in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 men living in high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City. Results revealed that HIV testing was frequent among the participants. Even with high rates of testing, the men in the study had low levels of HIV knowledge; perceived little risk of HIV; and misused HIV testing as a prevention method. Factors affecting HIV testing, included stigma, relationship dynamics and communication, and societal influences, suggesting that fear, low perception of risk, and HIV stigma may be the biggest barriers to HIV testing. These results also suggest that interventions directed toward African-American heterosexual men must address the use of “testing as prevention” as well as correct misunderstandings of the window period and the meaning of HIV test results, and interventions should focus on communicating about HIV. PMID:25298014
Bond, Keosha T; Frye, Victoria; Taylor, Raekiela; Williams, Kim; Bonner, Sebastian; Lucy, Debbie; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Koblin, Beryl A
Despite having higher rates of HIV testing than all other racial groups, African-Americans continue to be disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States. Knowing one's status is the key step to maintaining behavioral changes that could stop the spread of the virus, yet little is known about the individual- and socio-structural-level barriers associated with HIV testing and communication among heterosexual African-American men. To address this and inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention for heterosexual African-American men, we conducted computerized, structured interviews with 61 men, focus group interviews with 25 men in 5 different groups, and in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 men living in high HIV prevalence neighborhoods in New York City. Results revealed that HIV testing was frequent among the participants. Even with high rates of testing, the men in the study had low levels of HIV knowledge; perceived little risk of HIV; and misused HIV testing as a prevention method. Factors affecting HIV testing, included stigma, relationship dynamics and communication, and societal influences, suggesting that fear, low perception of risk, and HIV stigma may be the biggest barriers to HIV testing. These results also suggest that interventions directed toward African-American heterosexual men must address the use of "testing as prevention" as well as correct misunderstandings of the window period and the meaning of HIV test results, and interventions should focus on communicating about HIV.
Schulden, Jeffrey D; Painter, Thomas M; Song, Binwei; Valverde, Eduardo; Borman, Mary Ann; Monroe-Spencer, Kyle; Bautista, Greg; Saleheen, Hassan; Voetsch, Andrew C; Heffelfinger, James D
Migrants and recent immigrants in the US constitute a large population that is vulnerable to HIV. From March 2005 to February 2007, three community-based organizations conducted rapid HIV testing among migrants in five states. Participants were asked to complete a survey on sociodemographics, HIV-risk behaviors, and HIV-testing histories with the aim of understanding factors associated with HIV testing. Among 5,247 persons tested, 6 (0.1 %) were HIV-positive. Among 3,135 persons who completed surveys, more than half had never been tested for HIV previously (59 %). Participants reported high levels of HIV-risk behaviors in the past year, including 2 or more sex partners (45 %), sex while high/drunk (30 %), and transactional sex (29 %). Multivariate analysis identified several factors independently associated with decreased likelihood of prior HIV testing, including poor spoken English. Continued efforts are needed to ensure that migrant populations have improved access to HIV testing and prevention services. Understanding factors associated with migrants' lack of previous HIV testing may help focus these efforts.
Lecher, Shirley Lee; Hollis, NaTasha; Lehmann, Christopher; Hoover, Karen W; Jones, Avatar; Belcher, Lisa
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is the first step in the continuum of HIV prevention, care, and treatment services, without which, gaps in HIV diagnosis cannot be addressed. National HIV testing campaigns are useful for promoting HIV testing among large numbers of persons. However, the impact of such campaigns on identification of new HIV-positive diagnoses is unclear. To assess whether National HIV Testing Day (NHTD, June 27) was effective in identifying new HIV-positive diagnoses, National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation (NHM&E) data for CDC-funded testing events conducted during 2011-2014 were analyzed. The number of HIV testing events and new HIV-positive diagnoses during June of each year were compared with those in other months by demographics and target populations. The number of HIV testing events and new HIV-positive diagnoses were also compared for each day leading up to and after NHTD in June and July of each year. New HIV-positive diagnoses peaked in June relative to other months and specifically on NHTD. During 2011-2014, NHTD had a substantial impact on increasing the number of persons who knew their HIV status and in diagnosing new HIV infections. NHTD also proved effective in reaching persons at high risk disproportionately affected by HIV, including African American (black) men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and transgender persons. Promoting NHTD can successfully increase the number of new HIV-positive diagnoses, including HIV infections among target populations at high risk for HIV infection. PMID:27336946
Assefa, Yibeltal; Van Damme, Wim; Mariam, Damen Haile; Kloos, Helmut
Expanding access to HIV counseling and testing (HCT) and antiretroviral treatment (ART) has reduced morbidity and mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS. As a result, many countries are scaling up HIV/AIDS services. In this paper we discuss challenges experienced during the move toward universal access to HCT and ART services in Ethiopia. We reviewed routine reports from the Ministry of Health and implementing partners. We also had interviews, about linkage to and retention in care of patients, with 10 HIV/AIDS program managers, as well as 2 to 7 health care providers and 5 to 15 patients in each of 23 health centers and 32 hospitals in all regions of the country. We found that the number of people tested for HIV increased 10-fold from 435,854 in 2005 to 4,559,954 in 2008. Only 61% of the HIV-positive patients were linked to chronic care immediately after tested for HIV. The number of patients initiated on ART annually increased from 26,021 in 2005 to 53,696 in 2008. Attrition of patients increased from 18% in 2005 to 26% in 2008. Our interviews indicated that fear of stigma, transport cost, feeling healthy and opting for traditional medicines were the main reasons for poor linkage to and retention in care. Lack of nutrition and feeling better were also reasons for poor retention. In conclusion, in spite of the rapid scale-up of HCT and ART services in Ethiopia, linkage and retention were not adequate. Therefore, strategies should be developed and implemented to improve linkage and retention.
Cheng, Weibin; Tang, Weiming; Han, Zhigang; Tangthanasup, Thitikarn May; Zhong, Fei; Qin, Faju
Background. The prevalence, trends, and the role of different HIV testing strategies in late presentation of HIV infection in China were unknown. Methods. Data of newly reported HIV cases in Guangzhou between 2008 and 2013 was analyzed to examine the prevalence, trends, and characteristics of late presentation of HIV infection by three types of HIV testing strategies. Results. Overall, 53.2% (1412/2653) and 27.3% (724/2653) met the criteria of late presentation and presentation with advanced HIV disease. The overall trend of late presentation of HIV infection within the study period was declining. Late presentation was 62.9% in 2008 and dropped to 43.3% in 2013 (P < 0.001); presentation with advanced HIV disease was 40.3% in 2008 and dropped to 15.2% in 2013 (P < 0.001). Of the three testing strategies, PITC presented higher odds of both late presentation [AOR (95% CI): PITC versus VCT: 1.37 (1.09, 1.73); PITC versus MHT: 3.09 (2.16, 4.42)] and presentation with advanced HIV disease [AOR (95% CI): PITC versus VCT: 1.65 (1.29, 2.11); PITC versus MHT: 13.14 (8.47, 20.39)]. Conclusions. Although the late presentation of HIV infection was declining, it was still high in Guangzhou. The worse situation among PITC cases urges the policy adjustment in medical settings to increase early HIV diagnosis. PMID:27761466
April, Michael D
Opt-out testing for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incorporates testing as a routine part of health care for all patients unless they refuse. The ethics of this approach to testing in sub-Saharan Africa is a source of controversy. Opt-out HIV testing is expected to improve survival by increasing case detection and thus linking more HIV-infected people to earlier treatment, provided there is effective patient follow-up and programme sustainability. At the population level, these benefits will likely outweigh the potential negative consequences of individuals experiencing HIV-related stigma. These justifications appeal to consequentialist moral theories that the acceptability of an action depends upon its outcomes. On the other hand, liberal moral theories state that the autonomy of individuals should always be protected unless restricting autonomy is necessary to protect the welfare of others. Opt-out consent may restrict autonomy and it is unclear whether it would benefit people other than those being tested. Yet, the doctrine of libertarian paternalism proposes that it is justifiable and desirable to use unobtrusive mechanisms to help individuals make choices to maximize their own welfare. Central to this idea are the premises featured by supporters of opt-out consent that individuals will not always make the best choices for their own welfare but they may be influenced to do so in ways that will not compromise their freedom of choice. Also important is the premise that all policies inevitably exert some such influence: opt-in consent encourages test refusal just as opt-out consent encourages acceptance. Based on these premises, opt-out testing may be an effective and ethically acceptable policy response to Africa's HIV epidemic.
Johnston, Lisa G; Steinhaus, Mara C; Sass, Justine; Sirinirund, Petchsri; Lee, Catherine; Benjarattanaporn, Patchara; Gass, Robert
HIV infection among men who have sex with men, particularly in Thai urban settings and among younger cohorts, is escalating. HIV testing and counseling (HTC) are important for prevention and obtaining treatment and care. We examine data from a 2013 survey of males, 15-24 years, reporting past-year sex with a male and living in Bangkok or Chiang Mai. Almost three quarters of young MSM (YMSM) in Bangkok and only 27 % in Chiang Mai had an HIV test in the previous year. Associations for HIV testing varied between cities, although having employment increased the odds of HIV testing for both cities. In Bangkok, family knowledge of same sex attraction and talking to parents/guardians about HIV/AIDS had higher odds of HIV testing. Expanded HTC coverage is needed for YMSM in Chiang Mai. All health centers providing HTC, including those targeting MSM, need to address the specific needs of younger cohorts.
Johnston, Lisa G; Steinhaus, Mara C; Sass, Justine; Sirinirund, Petchsri; Lee, Catherine; Benjarattanaporn, Patchara; Gass, Robert
HIV infection among men who have sex with men, particularly in Thai urban settings and among younger cohorts, is escalating. HIV testing and counseling (HTC) are important for prevention and obtaining treatment and care. We examine data from a 2013 survey of males, 15-24 years, reporting past-year sex with a male and living in Bangkok or Chiang Mai. Almost three quarters of young MSM (YMSM) in Bangkok and only 27 % in Chiang Mai had an HIV test in the previous year. Associations for HIV testing varied between cities, although having employment increased the odds of HIV testing for both cities. In Bangkok, family knowledge of same sex attraction and talking to parents/guardians about HIV/AIDS had higher odds of HIV testing. Expanded HTC coverage is needed for YMSM in Chiang Mai. All health centers providing HTC, including those targeting MSM, need to address the specific needs of younger cohorts. PMID:26884309
Li, Li; Wu, Zunyou; Wu, Sheng; Lee, Sung-Jae; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Detels, Roger; Jia, Manhong; Sun, Stephanie
Health-care providers in China are facing an exponential increase in HIV testing and HIV-positive patients. A total of 1101 service providers were recruited to examine attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China. Logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with providers' attitudes toward mandatory HIV testing. Providers were most likely to endorse mandatory HIV testing for patients with high-risk behaviour and for all patients before surgery. Over 43% of providers endorsed mandatory testing for anyone admitted to hospital. Controlling for demographics, multivariate analyses indicated that providers with higher perceived risk of HIV infection at work, higher general prejudicial attitudes toward PLWHA, and previous contact with HIV patients were more likely to endorse mandatory HIV testing for anyone admitted to hospital. Results underscore the importance of implementing universal precautions in health-care settings and call attention to social and ethical issues associated with HIV/AIDS control and treatment in China.
Miller, Michele; Buss, Peter; de Klerk-Lorist, Lin-Mari; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Hausler, Guy; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lane, Emily P; Botha, Louise; Parsons, Sven; van Helden, Paul
Warthogs (Phacochoerus africanus) have been implicated as potential maintenance hosts of Mycobacterium bovis. Our preliminary investigation of bovine tuberculosis in three warthogs describes pathologic findings and associated positive serologic results in two infected animals. This demonstrates the potential use of serodiagnostic tests for M. bovis infection in this species.
Parent, Mike C.; Torrey, Carrie; Michaels, Matthew S.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for more than half of all new cases of HIV infection in the United States. Yet, many MSM are unaware of their HIV serostatus. Consistent with research indicating that gender role conformity impacts health behaviors, this study examined how masculine norms may influence HIV testing among MSM in the United…
Smolak, Alex; El-Bassel, Nabila
Central Asia is experiencing one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in the world, with some areas' infection rates doubling yearly since 2000. This study examines the impact of multilevel stigma (individual, family, and community) on uptake of HIV testing and receipt of HIV testing results among women in Central Asia. The sample consists of 38,884 ever-married, Central Asian women between the ages of 15 and 49. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), HIV stigma variables at the individual, family, and community levels were used to assess the significance of differences in HIV testing and receipt of HIV test results among participants while adjusting for possible confounding factors, such as age, wealth, and education. MLM results indicate that HIV stigma is significantly associated with decreased HIV testing uptake at the individual, family, and community levels and with a decrease in receipt at the community level. A one standard deviation increase in individual, family, and community level composite stigma score was associated with a respective 49 %, 59 %, and 94 % (p < 0.001) decrease in the odds of having been tested for HIV. A one standard deviation increase in community composite stigma score was associated with a 99 % (p < 0.001) decrease in the odds of test receipt. HIV stigma operates on the individual, family, and community levels to hinder HIV testing uptake and at the community level to hinder receipt. These findings have important interventions implications to improve uptake of HIV testing and receipt of HIV test results.
Toft, Nils; Akerstedt, Johan; Tharaldsen, Jorun; Hopp, Petter
Maedi-Visna virus (MVV) infection in sheep is present in several European countries, including Norway. The current Norwegian surveillance and control programme for MVV infection uses three serological tests: an agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) and two commercially available indirect ELISAs (Institut Pourquier, P-ELISA and HYPHEN BioMed, H-ELISA). From 18 flocks with suspected or confirmed MVV infection, sera from naturally infected sheep were obtained, and sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of the three tests were estimated in absence of a perfect reference test using latent class models in a Bayesian analysis. The AGID had higher Sp (95% posterior credibility interval (PCI) [98.4; 99.9]) than either ELISA (95% PCI: P-ELISA, [95.1; 99.0]; H-ELISA, [91.4; 96.6]), but much lower Se (95% PCI: AGID, [41.4; 59.8]; P-ELISA, [92.7; 100.0]; H-ELISA, [90.9; 99.4]). Currently the P-ELISA is used for screening and positive samples are subsequently confirmed by a setup using all three tests in a serial reading. The Se and Sp of the serial interpretations with and without the H-ELISA were estimated. The results suggested that the H-ELISA could be dropped as a confirmatory test as the Se of the three test serial reading was reduced significantly without adding a significant improvement of the Sp compared to the serial reading of the P-ELISA and AGID alone. However, the perceived cost of false positives versus false negatives will influence this decision. Estimates of the predictive values for the tests and combinations suggested that the P-ELISA is a good choice of screening, but confirmatory tests are needed to achieve acceptable levels of positive predictive values.
Martínez Pérez, G; Metcalf, C; Garone, D; Coulborn, R; Harries, A D; Hedt-Gauthier, B; Murowa, M; Mwenelupembe, G S; Van den Bergh, R; Triviño Durán, L
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission 'Option B+' originated in Malawi in 2011 to prevent new infections in infants exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We assessed 12-month programme retention and HIV testing uptake among infants born to HIV-infected mothers from September 2011 to June 2012 in Thyolo District Hospital. Of 513 infants, 368 (71.7%) remained in care at 12 months. Altogether, 412 (80.3%) underwent HIV DNA polymerase chain reaction testing, with 267 (52.0%) tested at 6-12 weeks, and 255 (49.7%) underwent rapid HIV testing, with 144 (28.1%) tested at 12 months. Eighty-eight (17.2%) infants had both tests as scheduled. Measures are needed to improve adherence to national testing protocols.
Ryoo, Hyeon-Ju; Nazareth, Kristina; Chan, Philip A; Reinert, Steven E; Koster, Michael
Early detection of HIV has great potential to reduce transmission, especially when newly diagnosed individuals are treated early. Early treatment and suppression of viral loads is known to effectively attenuate HIV transmission. However, little is known about whether persons at high risk for HIV are being appropriately tested during healthcare encounters according to national guidelines. Specifically, the at-risk adolescent population may be under tested and are not routinely monitored by state-level surveillance system. This study reviewed HIV testing rates for at-risk adolescents from 2005-2012 at the main tertiary care and pediatric center in Rhode Island. While the absolute number of HIV tests for at-risk adolescents continued to increase, the HIV testing rates for this population decreased during the seven year period. Increasing awareness of HIV testing for patients, their families, and physicians may improve the HIV testing rate among at-risk adolescents in Rhode Island. PMID:26230109
Examines the persuasive communication of HIV test counselors as cues to action in clients' decisions to practice safer sex. Indicates hypothesized relationships inherent in the Health Belief Model were not supported for the pre-HIV test survey, but the post-HIV test survey reported compliance with safer-sex recommendations. Finds use of certain…
Medley, Amy; Ackers, Marta; Amolloh, Manase; Owuor, Patrick; Muttai, Helen; Audi, Beryl; Sewe, Manquins; Laserson, Kayla
Home-based HIV testing and counseling (HBTC) has the potential to increase access to HIV testing. However, the extent to which HBTC programs successfully link HIV-positive individuals into clinical care remains unclear. To determine factors associated with early enrollment in HIV clinical care, adult residents (aged ≥13 years) in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Kisumu, Kenya were offered HBTC. All HIV-positive residents were referred to nearby HIV clinical care centers. Two to four months after HBTC, peer educators conducted home visits to consenting HIV-positive residents. Overall, 9,895 (82 %) of 12,035 residents accepted HBTC; 1,087 (11 %) were HIV-positive; and 737 (68 %) received home visits. Of those receiving home visits, 42 % reported HIV care attendance. Factors associated with care attendance included: having disclosed, living with someone attending HIV care, and wanting to seek care after diagnosis. Residents who reported their current health as excellent or who doubted their HBTC result were less likely to report care attendance. While findings indicate that HBTC was well-received in this setting, less than half of HIV-positive individuals reported current care attendance. Identification of effective strategies to increase early enrollment and retention in HIV clinical care is critical and will require coordination between testing and treatment program staff and systems.
Medley, Amy; Ackers, Marta; Amolloh, Manase; Owuor, Patrick; Muttai, Helen; Audi, Beryl; Sewe, Manquins; Laserson, Kayla
Home-based HIV testing and counseling (HBTC) has the potential to increase access to HIV testing. However, the extent to which HBTC programs successfully link HIV-positive individuals into clinical care remains unclear. To determine factors associated with early enrollment in HIV clinical care, adult residents (aged ≥13 years) in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Kisumu, Kenya were offered HBTC. All HIV-positive residents were referred to nearby HIV clinical care centers. Two to four months after HBTC, peer educators conducted home visits to consenting HIV-positive residents. Overall, 9,895 (82 %) of 12,035 residents accepted HBTC; 1,087 (11 %) were HIV-positive; and 737 (68 %) received home visits. Of those receiving home visits, 42 % reported HIV care attendance. Factors associated with care attendance included: having disclosed, living with someone attending HIV care, and wanting to seek care after diagnosis. Residents who reported their current health as excellent or who doubted their HBTC result were less likely to report care attendance. While findings indicate that HBTC was well-received in this setting, less than half of HIV-positive individuals reported current care attendance. Identification of effective strategies to increase early enrollment and retention in HIV clinical care is critical and will require coordination between testing and treatment program staff and systems. PMID:23076720
Visser, Maretha; Mabota, Princess
The HIV testing, treatment and care programme of the South African public healthcare system depends on HIV counselling and testing (HCT) that is primarily delivered by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors are expected to educate clients about HIV/AIDS, advocate behaviour change, convey test results and support those infected and affected to cope with the emotional and social challenges associated with HIV/AIDS. This research focuses on the emotional wellbeing of lay HCT counsellors because this influences the quality of services they provide. A mixed methods approach was used. The emotional wellbeing, level of burnout, depression and coping style of 50 lay HCT counsellors working at the City of Tshwane clinics were assessed. Additionally, five focus group discussions were conducted. The results showed that HCT counsellors reported average emotional wellbeing, high levels of emotional exhaustion and depression. They had a sense of personal accomplishment and positive coping skills. The results revealed that they may have difficulty dealing with clients' emotional distress without adequate training and supervision. This creates a dilemma for service delivery. In the light of the important role they play in service delivery, the role of the lay HCT counsellor needs to be reconsidered. HCT should develop as a profession with specific training and supervision to develop their emotional competencies to conduct effective counselling sessions.
Rodríguez-Cortés, Alhelí; Ojeda, Ana; Todolí, Felicitat; Alberola, Jordi
Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi) is the etiological agent of a widespread serious zoonotic disease that affects both humans and dogs. Prevalence and incidence of the canine infection are important parameters to determine the risk and the ways to control this reemergent zoonosis. Unfortunately, there is not a gold standard test for Leishmania infection. Our aim was to assess the operative validity of commercial tests used to detect antibodies to Leishmania in serum samples from experimental infections. Three ELISA tests (LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test, INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA, and INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET), three immunochromatographic tests (INGEZIM(®) LEISHMACROM, SNAP(®) Leishmania, and WITNESS(®) Leishmania), and one IFAT were evaluated. LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA test achieved the highest sensitivity and accuracy (both 0.98). Specificity was 1 for all tests except for IFAT. All tests but IFAT obtained a positive predictive value of 1, while the maximum negative predictive value was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.93). The best positive likelihood ratio was obtained by INGEZIM(®) LEISHMANIA VET (30.26), while the best negative likelihood ratio was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.02). The highest diagnostic odds ratio was achieved by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (729.00). The largest area under the ROC curve was obtained by LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test (0.981). Quantitative ELISA based tests performmed better than qualitative tests ("Rapid Tests"), and the test best suited to detect Leishmania in infected dogs and to provide clinically useful information was LEISCAN(®) Leishmania ELISA Test. This and other results point also to the need of revising the status of IFAT as a gold standard for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis.
Page, I; Phillips, M; Flegg, P; Palmer, R
The latest UK national human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing guidelines, released in September 2008, state that HIV testing should be offered to all patients with indicator conditions and considered in all general medical admissions in high-prevalence areas. We audited testing rates at Blackpool Victoria Hospital, a high-prevalence area, one year before and one year after the publication of the new guidelines. In the year after publication the rate of HIV testing in patients with indicator diseases was as follows: hepatitis B 6%, hepatitis C 28%, tuberculosis 9% and lymphoma 14%. The overall rate of HIV testing in acute medical admissions was 0.5%. Our results demonstrate that traditional methods of guideline dissemination did not lead to implementation. We are now assessing alternative methods such as marking all positive laboratory results for indicator diseases with the phrase 'HIV testing should be considered' and implementing universal opt-out screening in our Clinical Decisions Unit.
Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Greenwald, Reena; Esfandiari, Javan; Jaroso, Raquel; Carta, Tania; Garrido, Joseba M; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian
New tools to detect exposure of free-range Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) to pathogenic mycobacteria would be valuable for improved disease surveillance and wildlife management. Two hundred sera from wild boar of known Mycobacterium bovis infection status were used to evaluate test suitability for the detection of antibodies against M. bovis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (or cross-reacting members of the M. avium complex). Two traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were evaluated using M. bovis purified protein derivative (bPPD) and paratuberculosis protoplasmatic antigen 3 (PPA3) as antigens, respectively, and a new point-of-care test format for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) that uses the innovative dual-path platform (DPP TB) test. The effect of individual factors (sex, age, lesions) on the diagnostic performance of the serologic tests was also determined. Although the DPP had a sensitivity of 89.6% and a specificity of 90.4%, for bPPD, the sensitivity was 79.2% and the specificity 100%. Both tests had a kappa agreement of 0.80. Sixty-five of 68 (95.6%) wild boar sera with antibodies against the PPA3 antigen corresponded to known M. bovis-infected wild boar. Significant differences were not observed in the bPPD and DPP readings among lesion categories or between age classes. A slight sex-related difference in sensitivity toward males in the DPP was found, but it was not detected in the bPPD enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results support the use of antibody-based diagnostic tests for both large-scale and individual bTB testing of Eurasian wild boar and suggest that wild boar cannot be used as sentinels for infections caused by M. avium complex members.
Do, Tri D.; Chen, Sanny; McFarland, Willi; Secura, Gina M.; Behel, Stephanie K.; MacKellar, Duncan A.; Valleroy, Linda A.; Cho, Kyung-Hee
The HIV epidemic is rising in Asian and Pacific Islander men who have sex with men (API MSM), who are often first diagnosed with HIV at a late stage of disease. We investigated the HIV testing patterns, correlates of prior testing, and awareness of HIV infection of 495 API MSM aged 18-29 years recruited from venues in San Francisco, using…
Leblanc, Natalie M; Andes, Karen L
We explored men's HIV knowledge, perceptions of HIV risk, and willingness to test for HIV in preparation for the initiation of formalized voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) services at Yendi Hospital in Yendi District, Ghana. A multi-method approach was used, including surveys of 129 male hospital patrons, three men-only focus group discussions, and eight interviews with clinical staff at the hospital. History of condom use, perception of risk, paying for an HIV test, and age were all significantly associated (p < .05) with willingness to test. An aversion to the hospital was the most prominent theme among participants. Aversion was due to perceived lack of confidentiality, preference for traditional healers, perceived costs, and fear of testing. Our participants (a) expressed the need for VCT services, (b) recommended that VCT target men for HIV prevention and VCT patronage, and (c) thought locations outside of hospitals should provide testing services. PMID:25456835
Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; McKenzie, Michelle; Wilson, Monique E; Rich, Josiah D
Many probationers and parolees do not receive HIV testing despite being at increased risk for obtaining and transmitting HIV. A two-group randomized controlled trial was conducted between April, 2011 and May, 2012 at probation/parole offices in Baltimore, Maryland and Providence/Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Male and female probationers/parolees were interviewed (n = 1,263) and then offered HIV testing based on random assignment to one of two conditions: (1) On-site rapid HIV testing conducted at the probation/parole office; or (2) Referral for rapid HIV testing off site at a community HIV testing clinic. Outcomes were: (1) undergoing HIV testing; and (2) receipt of HIV testing results. Participants were significantly more likely to be tested on-site at a probation/parole office versus off-site at a HIV testing clinic (p < 0.001). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of receiving HIV testing results. Findings indicate that probationers/parolees are willing to be tested on-site and, independent of testing location, are equally willing to receive their results. Implications for expanding rapid HIV testing to more criminal justice related locations and populations are discussed.
Blasco, J M; Marín, C; Jiménez de Bagués, M; Barberán, M; Hernández, A; Molina, L; Velasco, J; Díaz, R; Moriyón, I
A total of 291 unvaccinated sheep from Brucella melitenesis-infected flocks were examined for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses with Brucellergene commercial allergen and with cold saline extract and cytosol from rough B. melitensis 115, and their sera were tested in the rose bengal test (RBT), complement fixation test (CFT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with lipopolysaccharide. DTH reactions were maximal after 72 h, with no intensity differences among allergens, inoculation sites (eyelid and tail), and doses tested. There were no differences in the results recorded by visual inspection and palpation of inoculation sites, by measuring skin thickness with a caliper, or by microscopic examination of samples taken at necropsy. Six days after DTH testing, energy was observed in 100% of the animals, and 100% reactivity was recovered only after 24 days. All animals were necropsied, and thorough bacteriological searches were performed. The sensitivities found with the 140 animals from which B. melitensis was isolated were ELISA, 100%; DTH, 97.1%; RBT, 92.1%; and CFT, 88.6%. Those results put into question the value of RBT and CFT as screening and confirmatory tests for sheep brucellosis and at least indicate that their standardization should be modified. For 151 tested sheep from which B. melitensis was not isolated, the percentages of positive animals were ELISA, 100%; DTH, 94.0%; RBT, 57.6%; and CFT, 53.6%. All tests were negative for 100 tested sheep from Brucella-free flocks. The different results of bacteriological and immunological tests suggest the usefulness of developing indirect tests able to distinguish truly infected animals from those that have developed an immunological response. PMID:7989528
Bassett, Ingrid V.; Regan, Susan; Mbonambi, Hlengiwe; Blossom, Jeffrey; Bogan, Stacy; Bearnot, Benjamin; Robine, Marion; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Mhlongo, Bright; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Thulare, Hilary; Losina, Elena
Mobile, community-based HIV testing may help achieve universal HIV testing in South Africa. We compared the yield, geographic distribution, and demographic characteristics of populations tested by mobile- and clinic-based HIV testing programs deployed by iThembalabantu Clinic in Durban, South Africa. From July–November 2011, 4,701 subjects were tested; HIV prevalence was 35% among IPHC testers and 10% among mobile testers (p<0.001). Mobile testers varied in mean age (22–37 years) and % males (26–67%). HIV prevalence at mobile sites ranged from 0% to 26%. Testers traveled further than the clinic closest to their home; mobile testers were more likely to test ≥ 5 km away from home. Mobile HIV testing can improve testing access and identify testing sites with high HIV prevalence. Individuals often access mobile testing sites farther from home than their nearest clinic. Geospatial techniques can help optimize deployment of mobile units to maximize yield in hard-to-reach populations. PMID:25874754
Raben, D; Mocroft, A; Rayment, M; Mitsura, V M; Hadziosmanovic, V; Sthoeger, Z M; Palfreeman, A; Morris, S; Kutsyna, G; Vassilenko, A; Minton, J; Necsoi, C; Estrada, V P; Grzeszczuk, A; Johansson, V Svedhem; Begovac, J; Ong, E L C; Cabié, A; Ajana, F; Celesia, B M; Maltez, F; Kitchen, M; Comi, L; Dragsted, U B; Clumeck, N; Gatell, J; Gazzard, B; d'Arminio Monforte, A; Rockstroh, J; Yazdanpanah, Y; Champenois, K; Jakobsen, M L; Sullivan, A; Lundgren, J D
European guidelines recommend the routine offer of an HIV test in patients with a number of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS conditions believed to share an association with HIV; so called indicator conditions (IC). Adherence with this guidance across Europe is not known. We audited HIV testing behaviour in patients accessing care for a number of ICs. Participating centres reviewed the case notes of either 100 patients or of all consecutive patients in one year, presenting for each of the following ICs: tuberculosis, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, anal and cervical cancer, hepatitis B and C and oesophageal candidiasis. Observed HIV-positive rates were applied by region and IC to estimate the number of HIV diagnoses potentially missed. Outcomes examined were: HIV test rate (% of total patients with IC), HIV test accepted (% of tests performed/% of tests offered) and new HIV diagnosis rate (%). There were 49 audits from 23 centres, representing 7037 patients. The median test rate across audits was 72% (IQR 32-97), lowest in Northern Europe (median 44%, IQR 22-68%) and highest in Eastern Europe (median 99%, IQR 86-100). Uptake of testing was close to 100% in all regions. The median HIV+ rate was 0.9% (IQR 0.0-4.9), with 29 audits (60.4%) having an HIV+ rate >0.1%. After adjustment, there were no differences between regions of Europe in the proportion with >0.1% testing positive (global p = 0.14). A total of 113 patients tested HIV+. Applying the observed rates of testing HIV+ within individual ICs and regions to all persons presenting with an IC suggested that 105 diagnoses were potentially missed. Testing rates in well-established HIV ICs remained low across Europe, despite high prevalence rates, reflecting missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis and care. Significant numbers may have had an opportunity for HIV diagnosis if all persons included in IC audits had been tested.
Wanke, M M; Cairó, F; Rossano, M; Laiño, M; Baldi, P C; Monachesi, N E; Comercio, E A; Vivot, M M
The most widely used screening test for the diagnosis of brucellosis in the dog is the rapid slide agglutination test in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME-RSAT). The diagnosis is partially confirmed by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) and definitively confirmed by bacteriological isolation. Some chronic cases not detected by these tests may be detected by ELISA tests. The use of 2ME-RSAT in routine clinical practice requires a microscope and an experienced operator. An immunochromatographic diagnostic test for canine brucellosis (FASTest(®) Brucella c., Megacor, Hörbranz, Austria) has been recently released. In this study, we compared the diagnostic performance of the FASTest with those of 2ME-RSAT, AGID and ELISAs. Sera from 17 healthy dogs used as negative controls yielded negative results by FASTest, indicating a 100% specificity in this sample. Among 27 sera of dogs with acute or subacute brucellosis confirmed by B. canis isolation, all of which were positive by RSAT and ELISAs, the FASTest was positive in 24 cases and AGID in 23. In acute and subacute cases, the sensitivity of FASTest was 89%. Sera from six dogs with bacteriologically confirmed chronic brucellosis, which were positive by ELISAs but negative by 2ME-RSAT, were also tested; 1 was positive by FASTest and 4 were positive by AGID. These preliminary results indicate a good specificity of the FASTest (100% in this sample) but an unacceptable sensitivity as a screening test. In cases with chronic brucellosis, the sensitivity of the FASTest was lower than that of ELISAs but this assay could make a good intermediate test to be run after a positive RSAT and before running an AGID.
Wanke, M M; Cairó, F; Rossano, M; Laiño, M; Baldi, P C; Monachesi, N E; Comercio, E A; Vivot, M M
The most widely used screening test for the diagnosis of brucellosis in the dog is the rapid slide agglutination test in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME-RSAT). The diagnosis is partially confirmed by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) and definitively confirmed by bacteriological isolation. Some chronic cases not detected by these tests may be detected by ELISA tests. The use of 2ME-RSAT in routine clinical practice requires a microscope and an experienced operator. An immunochromatographic diagnostic test for canine brucellosis (FASTest(®) Brucella c., Megacor, Hörbranz, Austria) has been recently released. In this study, we compared the diagnostic performance of the FASTest with those of 2ME-RSAT, AGID and ELISAs. Sera from 17 healthy dogs used as negative controls yielded negative results by FASTest, indicating a 100% specificity in this sample. Among 27 sera of dogs with acute or subacute brucellosis confirmed by B. canis isolation, all of which were positive by RSAT and ELISAs, the FASTest was positive in 24 cases and AGID in 23. In acute and subacute cases, the sensitivity of FASTest was 89%. Sera from six dogs with bacteriologically confirmed chronic brucellosis, which were positive by ELISAs but negative by 2ME-RSAT, were also tested; 1 was positive by FASTest and 4 were positive by AGID. These preliminary results indicate a good specificity of the FASTest (100% in this sample) but an unacceptable sensitivity as a screening test. In cases with chronic brucellosis, the sensitivity of the FASTest was lower than that of ELISAs but this assay could make a good intermediate test to be run after a positive RSAT and before running an AGID. PMID:23279541
Kayingo, Gerald; Bruce, Robert Douglas
This study analyzed the quality of HIV screening at one of the largest community health centers in Connecticut. The data indicated that implementing universal HIV screening increased the proportion of underrepresented minorities and women tested, reducing the HIV testing disparities that previously existed at this center. PMID:27467298
Banerjee, A; Moyo, S; Salaniponi, F; Harries, A
Unusually high mortality rates have been recorded among HIV-infected tuberculosis patients in urban Africa 6 and 12 months after initiation of tuberculosis treatment--a trend that impedes efforts to achieve the 85% cure rate target set by the World Health Organization. This study investigated tuberculosis treatment outcomes in relation to HIV serostatus in a rural district of Malawi (Ntcheu). All 205 smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients newly diagnosed in the district in 1995 received 2 months of daily supervised streptomycin, rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide in the hospital followed by 6 months of isoniazid and thiacetazone at home. HIV testing, offered to all tuberculosis patients, was accepted by 110 (54%), 73 (66%) of whom were HIV-positive. By the end of treatment, 126 patients (61%) had been cured and 56 (27%) had died. Significantly fewer HIV-positive patients or patients who declined HIV testing were cured (59% and 55%, respectively) than those who agreed to testing and were HIV-negative (84%). The mortality rate was 29% among patients who tested HIV-positive, 8% among those with a negative test result, and 34% among patients who declined HIV testing. Acceptance of HIV testing improved over the course of the study period in response to changes in counseling techniques, especially clarification that blood taken for HIV testing would not be used for transfusions. Overall, these findings suggest that, in areas where HIV infection is prevalent, an 85% tuberculosis cure rate may be unrealistic.
Wisconsin enacted a law requiring HIV testing of defendants who cannot be convicted of sex offenses by reason of insanity or mental incompetence. Assembly Bill 284 seeks to close a loophole that allowed some defendants to escape testing. If a district attorney failed to request a court order for the testing prior to the person being found incompetent, they could no longer be tested under previous law. A.B. 284 allows district attorneys to apply for a court order on the request of the victim or the victim's legal guardian regardless of the adjudication of insanity or mental incompetence.
Hayek, Samah; Heitgerd, Janet L; Williams, Weston O; Krueger, Amy L; Dietz, Patricia M
HIV prevalence and socio-demographic data were analyzed to assess the alignment of CDC-funded HIV testing activity in 2012 with its high-impact prevention approach. CDC-funded HIV-testing was conducted in counties with high HIV prevalence and in places potentially more affected by HIV as measured by urbanicity, percent black, percent poverty, and percent uninsured. The percent Hispanic/Latino was associated with a lower probability of HIV testing activity. Higher percentages of black and Hispanic/Latino in the population was positively associated with new HIV diagnoses. Analyzing county-level data confirmed the appropriateness of CDC-funded HIV testing activities under a high-impact prevention approach but also suggested areas for possible improvement.
Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A
We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.
Monge, Susana; Azcoaga, Amaya; Rio, Isabel; Hernando, Victoria; Gonzalez, Cristina; Alejos, Belen; Caro, Ana Maria; Perez-Cachafeiro, Santiago; Ramirez-Rubio, Oriana; Bolumar, Francisco; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia
Background: The barriers to HIV testing and counselling that migrants encounter can jeopardize proactive HIV testing that relies on the fact that HIV testing must be linked to care. We analyse available evidence on HIV testing and counselling strategies targeting migrants and ethnic minorities in high-income countries. Methods: Systematic literature review of the five main databases of articles in English from Europe, North America and Australia between 2005 and 2009. Results: Of 1034 abstracts, 37 articles were selected. Migrants, mainly from HIV-endemic countries, are at risk of HIV infection and its consequences. The HIV prevalence among migrants is higher than the general population’s, and migrants have higher frequency of delayed HIV diagnosis. For migrants from countries with low HIV prevalence and for ethnic minorities, socio-economic vulnerability puts them at risk of acquiring HIV. Migrants have specific legal and administrative impediments to accessing HIV testing—in some countries, undocumented migrants are not entitled to health care—as well as cultural and linguistic barriers, racism and xenophobia. Migrants and ethnic minorities fear stigma from their communities, yet community acceptance is key for well-being. Conclusions: Migrants and ethnic minorities should be offered HIV testing, but the barriers highlighted in this review may deter programs from achieving the final goal, which is linking migrants and ethnic minorities to HIV clinical care under the public health perspective. PMID:23002238
Abu-Madi, Marawan A; Al-Molawi, Naema; Behnke, Jerzy M
Background The city of Doha in Qatar has a high density of feral cats and there is a high risk of toxoplasmosis for the resident human population. No data currently exist for the prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in the city. Methods We analysed the serological response to Toxoplasma gondii of 1625 subjects referred for routine hospital based serological tests in Doha, Qatar. Prevalence of current/recent infection was assessed through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of specific anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies, and previous history of infection through IgG. Results Overall prevalence of IgG responses was 29.8% and this did not differ between the sexes nor between the three years of the study although there was a marked age effect. Among children less than 1 year old prevalence was 22.9%, but then dropped to <4% in the 1 year old group, indicating that these antibodies were most likely acquired in utero from immune mothers. Prevalence then increased steadily to peak at 41.2% among the oldest age class (>45 years). The prevalence of IgG antibody also varied significantly with region of origin, with higher rates for subjects from Africa, followed by those from the Eastern Mediterranean or Asia and lowest rates for subjects from the Arabian Peninsula. No IgM antibodies were detected in any subjects younger than 19 years, but prevalence increased to plateau at 7 – 9% in subjects aged over 20 years, and also varied with region of origin. In this case prevalence was highest among subjects from the Arabian Peninsula and least among those from Asia. Prevalence of IgM was higher among male subjects but did not vary between the three years of the study. Conclusion Although these data are based on a selected subset of the population, they nevertheless provide the first evidence that toxoplasmosis is endemic in Qatar in the human population, and that both age and region of origin play a role in the epidemiology of the infection
Verloo, D; Holland, W; My, L N; Thanh, N G; Tam, P T; Goddeeris, B; Vercruysse, J; Büscher, P
In the present study, a collection of 415 water buffalo serum samples originating from the north of Vietnam was used for evaluation of different diagnostic antibody detection methods available to detect infections with Trypanosoma evansi. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a direct card agglutination test (CATT/T. evansi), an indirect card agglutination test (LATEX/T. evansi) and a newly developed antibody detection ELISA (ELISA/T. evansi) was calculated on the basis of parasitological results, obtained by mouse inoculation, and compared for all assays. The immume trypanolysis assay with the predominant T. evansi RoTat 1.2 variable antigen type was used as reference test for antibody presence. All parasitologically confirmed animals (n=8) were positive in all tests. Diagnostic specificity was highest in CATT/T. evansi (98%) followed by the ELISA/T. evansi (95%) and the LATEX/T. evansi (82%). Concordance of the variant specific immune trypanolysis test with the other tests was calculated and revealed that few (1-8%) false positive results were actually due to a specific reactions, and that LATEX/T. evansi and ELISA/T. evansi detected more immune trypanolysis positives than the CATT/T. evansi. It was concluded that, apart from the immune trypanolysis test, which is not generally applicable, ELISA/T. evansi with a 30% positivity cut-off and LATEX/T. evansi, thanks to their superior capacity of detecting T. evansi specific antibodies, would be suitable as epidemiological tools detecting both active infections and persisting T. evansi specific antibodies. The ELISA/T. evansi with a 50% positivity cut-off and the CATT/T. evansi on the other hand, seem more appropriate to detect true infected water buffaloes.
Lorenz, Rick; Grant, Eisha; Muyindike, Winnie; Maling, Samuel; Card, Claire; Henry, Carol; Nazarali, Adil J
Caregivers of HIV-positive children were interviewed in the Mbarara and Isingiro districts of Uganda to identify current trends in practices related to HIV testing and the disclosure of HIV status to the child. A total of 28 caregivers of at least one HIV-positive child participated in semi-structured interviews exploring when and why they tested the child for HIV, when the child was informed of their positive status, and what the caregiver did to prepare themselves and the child for status disclosure. For a majority (96%) of respondents, the decision to test the child for HIV was due to existing illness in either the child or a relative. Other common themes identified included the existence of stigma in the caregivers' communities and doubt that the children truly understood what was being explained to them when their status was disclosed. Most (65%) children were informed of their HIV status between the ages of 5 and 9, with the mean age of disclosure occurring at the age of 7. General provision of HIV information typically began at the same age as disclosure, and as many as two thirds (64%) of the caregivers sought advice from an HIV counsellor prior to disclosure. How a caregiver chose to prepare themselves and the child did not affect the caregiver's perception of whether the disclosure experience was beneficial or not. These findings suggest that the HIV disclosure experience in Mbarara and Isingiro districts differs from current guidelines, especially with respect to age of disclosure, how caregivers prepare themselves and the child, and approaching disclosure as an ongoing process. The doubts expressed by caregivers regarding the child's level of HIV understanding following the disclosure experience suggest the children may be insufficiently prepared at the time of the initial disclosure event. The findings also suggest that examining the content of pre-disclosure counselling and HIV education, and how health care professionals are trained to facilitate the
Cervantes-Landín, Alejandra Yunuen; Martínez, Ignacio; Schabib, Muslim; Espinoza, Bertha
Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Because of its distribution throughout Latin America, sometimes it can overlap with other parasitic diseases, such as leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania spp. This might represent a problem when performing serological diagnosis, because both parasites share antigens, resulting in cross-reactions. In the present work we evaluated Mexican sera samples: 83.8% of chagasic patients recognized at least one antigen of high molecular weight (>95 kDa) when evaluated by Western blot. Proteins of 130 kDa and 160 kDa are predominantly being recognized by asymptomatic chagasic patients. When the proteins were extracted using Triton X-100 detergent, a larger number of specific T. cruzi proteins were obtained. This protein fraction can be used to increase specificity to 100% in Western blot assays without losing sensitivity of the test. High molecular weight proteins of T. cruzi include glycoproteins with a great amount of αMan (α-mannose), αGlc (α-glucose), GlcNAc (N-acetylglucosamine), and αGal (α-galactose) content and these structures play an essential role in antigens recognition by antibodies present in patients' sera. PMID:25136581
Klein, Pamela W.; Messer, Lynne C.; Myers, Evan R.; Weber, David J.; Leone, Peter A.; Miller, William C.
The impact of routine, opt-out HIV testing programs in clinical settings is inconclusive. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of an expanded, routine HIV testing program in North Carolina sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics on HIV testing and case detection. Adults aged 18–64 who received an HIV test in a North Carolina STD clinic July 1, 2005 through June 30, 2011 were included in this analysis, dichotomized at the date of implementation on November 1, 2007. HIV testing and case detection counts and rates were analyzed using interrupted time series analysis, and Poisson and multilevel logistic regression. Pre-intervention, 426 new HIV-infected cases were identified from 128,029 tests (0.33%), whereas 816 new HIV-infected cases were found from 274,745 tests post-intervention (0.30%). Pre-intervention, HIV testing increased by 55 tests per month (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41, 72), but only 34 tests per month (95% CI: 26, 42) post-intervention. Increases in HIV testing rates were most pronounced in females and non-Hispanic whites. A slight pre-intervention decline in case detection was mitigated by the intervention (mean difference [MD]=0.01; 95% CI: −0.02, 0.05). Increases in case detection rates were observed among females and non-Hispanic blacks. The impact of a routine HIV screening in North Carolina STD clinics was marginal, with the greatest benefit among persons not traditionally targeted for HIV testing. The use of a pre-intervention comparison period identified important temporal trends that otherwise would have been ignored. PMID:24825338
Kasatiya, S. S.; Lambert, N. G.; Laurence, R. A.
A pulsed dye laser was used as an excitation source in a fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test. A high precision in quantitative fluorescence was obtained with this high-power excitation source coupled to an electronic detection system and a storage oscilloscope by standardization of fluorescence evaluation and through elimination of human error. One 0.4-μs pulse exposure was sufficient to record fluorescence intensity data on the oscilloscope. Absence of fading of fluorescence after repeated excitation permitted multiple readings of the same microscope field. Almost 100% reproducible results were obtained for the FTA-ABS test with 40 samples. Electronic detection of fluorescence and the high sensitivity obtained with laser excitation raise doubts about the relative value of quantitative immunofluorescence in the FTA-ABS test. PMID:4598221
Schnall, Rebecca; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Larson, Elaine
Adolescents and young adults are the fastest growing age group of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals in the US, and many who are infected do not know their HIV status. The HIV home test has the potential to help curb the HIV epidemic by improving detection of persons living with HIV and enabling them to seek follow-up care but it has not yet been evaluated in adolescents. Analogous to the home pregnancy test, which was met with much resistance and only successfully marketed during a time of social change, the HIV home test has been met with resistance since its FDA approval. This commentary summarizes the need to systematically evaluate positive and untoward/unanticipated effects of HIV home testing, particularly in young adults. The overall incidence of HIV has been declining in the US, yet it continues to grow at alarming rates for adolescents and young adults . Almost 40 % of new HIV infections in the US are in this age group . Further, many HIV infected adolescents and young adults are unaware of their infection. Nationwide, only 22.6 % of sexually active high school students have ever been tested for HIV . While advances in drug regimens have transformed HIV into a chronic disease, infected individuals need to be identified and subsequently engaged in care .
Silver, Ellen J.; Coupey, Susan M.; Bauman, Laurie J.
Abstract Early identification of HIV by increasing testing is a national priority; however, little is known about HIV testing behaviors in high school age adolescents. We examined the association of individual, partner, and relationship factors with HIV testing using a computer-assisted survey administered from 2003 to 2006 in a community sample of 980 sexually active 14- to 17-year-olds (56% female, 55% Latino, 25% African American) living in a jurisdiction with a high AIDS burden. Twenty percent reported their first sexual encounter as having occurred when they were <13 years of age, 33% had had four or more lifetime sexual partners, 21% reported high partner HIV-risk behavior, and 428 (44%) had been tested for HIV. In our final regression model, independent associations with HIV testing included being female (OR=1.68 [1.23–2.30]), older (OR=1.41 [1.21–1.65]), and having had four or more lifetime sexual partners (OR=2.24 [1.64–3.05]). The strongest independent predictor of HIV testing was having high HIV-related partner communication (OR=3.70 [2.77–4.94]). Being in a serious committed relationship (OR=1.39 [1.02–1.87]) was also independently associated with HIV testing, whereas reporting high worry about HIV/AIDS (OR=0.53 [0.40–0.71]) was independently negatively associated with HIV testing. High HIV/AIDS knowledge, high partner HIV risk behavior, and young age at first sexual encounter were not associated with testing. These findings suggest that, for high school aged adolescents, optimal strategies to promote HIV testing should look beyond increasing HIV/AIDS knowledge and identifying individual risk behaviors to also considering the role of partners and relationships and their influence on testing behavior. PMID:24134644
Pyun, Thomas; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Arreola, Sonya; Do, Tri; Hebert, Pato; Beck, Jack; Makofane, Keletso; Wilson, Patrick A; Ayala, George
Although previous research has examined barriers and facilitators of HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, few studies have focused on social factors, including homophobia and internalized homophobia. This study utilized data from a global online survey to determine correlates of HIV testing as part of a subanalysis focused on Chinese MSM. Controlling for age, HIV knowledge, number of sexual partners, and other covariates, ever having tested for HIV was significantly correlated with lower internalized homophobia. This study suggests that stigma associated with sexual orientation may serve as a barrier to participation in HIV testing and other health-promoting behaviors.
Hensen, Bernadette; Taoka, Sachiko; Lewis, James J.; Weiss, Helen A.; Hargreaves, James
Objective: This systematic review summarizes evidence on the effectiveness of strategies to increase men's HIV-testing in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: Medline, EmBase, Africa-Wide Information and Global Health were searched. Cluster and individually randomized trials evaluating interventions to increase the proportion of adults (≥15 years) testing for HIV were eligible if they were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, included men in the study population, and reported HIV-testing data by sex. References were independently screened. Results: Of the 1852 references, 15 papers including 16 trials were eligible. Trials were judged too heterogeneous to combine in meta-analysis. Three interventions invited men to attend antenatal care-based HIV-testing via pregnant partners, of which two showed a significant effect on partner-testing. One intervention invited men to HIV-test through pregnant partners and showed an increase in HIV-testing when it was offered in bars compared with health facilities. A trial of notification to partners of newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients showed an increase in testing where notification was by healthcare providers compared with notification by the patient. Three interventions reached men already at health facilities and eight reported the effects of community-based HIV-testing. Mobile-testing had a significant effect on HIV-testing compared with standard voluntary counselling and testing. Home-based testing also had a significant effect, but reached smaller numbers of men than mobile-testing. Discussion: Interventions to encourage HIV-testing can increase men's levels of HIV-testing. Community-based programmes in particular had a large effect on population levels of HIV-testing. More data on costs and potential population impact of these approaches over different time-horizons would aid policy-makers in planning resource allocation to increase male HIV-testing. PMID:25062091
The Florida Supreme Court ruled that a Florida man cannot recover damages for the mental anguish he suffered for nineteen months after being misdiagnosed as HIV-positive. The court refused to drop the state's impact rule, which limits awards for mental anguish in negligence lawsuits to cases with underlying physical injuries or willful misconduct. The plaintiff, known as [name removed], filed suit against Humana Hospital-Lucerne in [name removed], where he received the test; [name removed] Clinical Laboratories, which performed the test and analysis; and the doctor, [name removed]. Although the court rejected [name removed]'s arguments, they gave him leave to file an amended complaint if he could demonstrate that the medical treatment he underwent as a result of his HIV diagnosis caused him physical injury.
Aghemo, Alessio; Fraquelli, Mirella; Lampertico, Pietro; Rumi, Maria Grazia; Facchetti, Floriana; Grassi, Eleonora; Casazza, Giovanni; Rosenberg, William; Bedossa, Pierre; Colombo, Massimo
Background and Aim Liver biopsy (LB) has lost popularity to stage liver fibrosis in the era of highly effective anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy, yet diagnosis of persistent cirrhosis may have important implications following HCV eradication. As performance of serological non-invasive tests (NITs) to predict residual fibrosis in non-viremic HCV patients is unknown, we investigated accuracy of NITs to predict residual fibrosis in cirrhotics after a sustained virological response (SVR) to interferon (IFN). Methods Thirty-eight patients with a pre-treatment histological diagnosis of cirrhosis and a 48–104 months post-SVR LB were tested with APRI, CDS, FIB-4, FibroQ, Forns Score, GUCI Index, King Score, Lok Index, PLF, ELF. In 23 (61%) patients, cirrhosis had histologically regressed. Results All NITs values declined after SVR without any significant difference between regressors and non-regressors (AUROC 0.52–0.75). Using viremic cut-offs, PPV ranged from 34% to 100%, with lower NPV (63% - 68%). NITs performance did not improve using derived cut-offs (PPV: 40% - 80%; NPV: 66% - 100%). PLF, which combines several NITs with transient elastography, had the best diagnostic performance (AUROC 0.75, Sn 61%, Sp 90%, PPV 80%, NPV 78%). After treatment, none of the NITs resulted significantly associated with any of the histological features (activity grade, fibrosis stage, area of fibrosis). Conclusions The diagnostic estimates obtained using both viremic and derived cut-off values of NITs were suboptimal, indicating that none of these tests helps predicting residual fibrosis and that LB remains the gold standard for this purpose. PMID:27304619
Bergenstrom, A; Sherr, L
The prevalence of HIV infection in London is nearly threefold in women who seek terminations compared to women who carry to term. Despite the higher prevalence, HIV testing is not systematically offered to women attending termination of pregnancy assessment clinics (TOPCs). The Department of Health has given clear guidance on HIV testing in antenatal clinics and most London antenatal clinics have implemented policies on HIV testing. No similar guidance exists for TOP clinics. This paper describes the results from a study examining HIV testing and prevention issues for women attending five TOPCs in North London. Data on risk disclosure, HIV testing intentions and awareness of HIV infection and testing were analysed for 141 women who completed a self-administered questionnaire. Women who expressed an intention to have an HIV test were more likely to be from ethnic minority origin, to report that their partner intends to have an HIV test and to perceive it as easier to talk to their partner about HIV testing, compared to women who did not report an intention to test for HIV The former group also were more likely to have had a previous HIV test and perceived their personal control for staying HIV negative as greater compared to others. Fifty six (39.8 per cent) women disclosed one or more potential risk factors for HIV Women with risks were more knowledgeable about HIV infection, perceived their personal chances of being HIV positive as greater and experienced greater worry about past risks, compared to women who disclosed no risks. However, women who disclosed risk factors were no more likely to intend to have an HIV test. Knowledge on HIV infection, testing and potential interventions to reduce mother-to-baby transmission was low, with fewer than one in four women being aware that transmission may be reduced by AZT, Caesarean section and bottle feeding. Given the findings about the level of risk disclosed and women's positive attitude towards information on HIV
Casaletto, K. B.; Cattie, J.; Franklin, D. R.; Moore, D. J.; Woods, S. P.; Grant, I.; Heaton, R. K.
Background In order to detect HIV-associated neurocognitive decline, it is important to accurately estimate individuals’ premorbid levels of cognitive functioning. Although previous studies have operated under the assumption that word reading tests are valid and stable indicators of premorbid abilities in HIV infection, studies of other populations have found this is not always the case. Therefore, it is important to empirically examine the validity of word reading tests as estimates of premorbid functioning specifically within the HIV population. Methods The Wide Range Achievement Test-4 Reading subtest (WRAT-4 Reading) was administered along with comprehensive neurocognitive assessments to 150 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 76 HIV seronegative (HIV-) age-, education-, and sex-matched participants at baseline; a subset of 48 HIV+ individuals completed a second study visit (M=14.4 months), in which the alternate version of the WRAT-4 was administered. Results Although HIV+ individuals evidenced worse current neurocognitive functioning than HIV- participants, WRAT-4 Reading performance was comparable between groups. Longitudinally, HIV+ participants evidenced improved disease and neuropsychological functioning, yet WRAT-4 Reading demonstrated strong test-retest reliability, no practice effect, and did not differ between the initial and follow-up assessments. Test-retest differences in reading performance were minor and not associated with changes in neurocognitive performance or changes in HIV disease. Conclusions We found no evidence of WRAT-4 Reading performance decline in HIV infection, despite HIV+/HIV- group differences in neurocognitive functioning. Additionally, reading performances among HIV+ individuals demonstrated consistency across study visits. These results begin to support the validity of the WRAT-4 Reading subtest as an indicator of premorbid cognitive functioning in HIV+ individuals. PMID:25283135
Tucker, Joseph D; Walensky, Rochelle P; Yang, Li-Gang; Yang, Bin; Bangsberg, David R; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Cohen, Myron S
Despite expanding sexually transmitted epidemics in South China, the majority of patients presenting to sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics are not routinely screened for HIV infection. Identifying barriers to offering HIV testing among STI care providers is an important public health priority. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of offering HIV testing among STI care providers in South China and reported physician barriers to offering HIV testing. More detailed operational data regarding HIV test offer frequency and barriers to testing may enhance routine HIV testing at STI clinics. A sample of 62 STI care providers within the Pearl River Delta Region of South China completed a survey including socio-demographic and training background information (including sex, age, medical education, year of terminal medical degree, and HIV-specific training), reasons for not offering HIV testing routinely, and physical examination and sexual history taking practices. Frequency of offering HIV testing was calculated based on reports from research assistants and operational data. STI care providers offered HIV testing to 3011/10,592 (28.4%) of their patients. There was substantial variability across providers in the frequency of offering testing, ranging from 3 to 100%. None of the identified physician factors were associated with offering HIV testing 100% of the time in the multivariate model. The most commonly physician reported barriers to HIV testing included: (1) low perceived prevalence of disease and (2) not recommended by current guidelines. Forty-seven providers (76%) reported asking about same sex behaviors rarely or never. Further research on HIV screening practices of STI care providers may help scale up HIV provider-initiated testing and counseling programs.
Leibowitz, Arleen A.; Brynes, Karen; Wynn, Adriane; Farrell, Kevin
Historically, California supplemented federal funding of HIV prevention and testing so that Californians with HIV could become aware of their infection and access lifesaving treatment. However, budget deficits in 2009 led the state to eliminate its supplemental funding for HIV prevention. We analyzed the impact of California’s HIV resource allocation change between 2009 and 2011 (state fiscal years). We found that HIV tests declined from 66,629 to 53,760 (19 percent) in local health jurisdictions with high HIV burden. In low-burden jurisdictions, HIV tests declined from 20,302 to 2,116 (90 percent). New HIV/AIDS diagnoses fell from 2,434 in 2009 to 2,235 in 2011 (calendar years) in high-burden jurisdictions and from 346 to 327 in low-burden ones. California’s budget crunch prompted state and local programs to redirect remaining HIV funds from risk reduction education to testing activities. Thus, the impact of the budget cuts on HIV tests and new HIV diagnoses was smaller than might have been expected given the size of the cuts. As California’s fiscal outlook improves, we recommend that the state restore supplemental funding for HIV prevention and testing. PMID:24590939
Feia, Andrea; Novroski, Nicole
For almost 40 years, detergent companies have been adding enzymes such as amylases to their products as an effective method of breaking down tough stains created by polysaccharides and proteins. The possibility that α-amylases present in common household laundry detergents may contribute to the positive detection of α-amylase on evidentiary samples during forensic presumptive screening procedures is a potential problem that has not yet been investigated. To determine whether α-amylase detection is possible following routine laundering, five different fabrics were laundered in a variety of detergents, and presumptive testing using RSID(™)-Saliva and Phadebas(®) Amylase Test was conducted. Our results demonstrate that clothing laundered in detergents known to contain enzymes does not retain any detectable levels of α-amylase following a typical wash cycle. We also show that, unlike laundered clothing, undiluted detergents do contain detectable levels of α-amylase; however, these findings were only observed using the Phadebas(®) Amylase Test.
Sutton, Madeline; Anthony, Monique-Nicole; Vila, Christie; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Weidle, Paul J.
Context: Forty percent of AIDS cases are reported in the southern United States, the region with the largest proportion of HIV/AIDS cases from rural areas. Data are limited regarding provider perspectives of the accessibility and availability of HIV testing and treatment services in southern rural counties. Purpose: We surveyed providers in the…
Sabogal, Fabio; Catania, Joseph A.
Among 4,390 heterosexual urban Hispanics in 1990-91 national surveys, 16.4% reported an HIV risk factor. Those at highest risk tended to be male, young, more educated, low-income, and highly acculturated; half of those at highest risk had not been tested for HIV infection and did not use condoms for protection. Contains 55 references. (Author/SV)
Pappagianis, D; Zimmer, B L
Serologic tests have assisted in the diagnosis and prognosis of coccidioidomycosis for a half-century. The causative agent, Coccidioides immitis, is a dimorphic fungus existing in a hyphal form with arthroconidia in nature and in the usual culture. The arthroconidia represent the inhaled infective forms which in vivo and under special laboratory conditions form spherules which endosporulate. The culture filtrate/autolysate (coccidioidin) from the hyphal phase has provided antigens of suitable reliability for currently used serologic tests. These tests are primarily to determine the two major antibody responses: the early immunoglobulin M (IgM) response is useful in the diagnosis of acute primary coccidioidomycosis. Later, IgG is produced and usually outlasts the IgM, persisting in chronic coccidioidomycosis. The IgM is detectable by tube precipitin, a corresponding immunodiffusion, or latex particle agglutination tests. The pertinent antigen(s) is heat stable and pronase resistant and appears to be largely carbohydrate, mainly mannose with some 3-O-methyl mannose. The IgG detectable in the serum and other body fluids by complement fixation and a corresponding immuno-diffusion is useful in diagnosis, and its quantitation provides an indicator of progression of disease (increasing titer) or regression (decreasing titer). The pertinent antigen appears to be a heat-labile, pronase-sensitive protein which in an unreduced form has a molecular weight of 110,000. A third very useful serologic procedure is the exoantigen test for identification of putative cultures of C. immitis. Images PMID:2200605
Peltzer, Karl; Tabane, Cily; Matseke, Gladys; Simbayi, Leickness
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, fidelity, and effect of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention delivered to HIV-infected patients by lay counsellors during routine HIV counselling and testing (HCT) public service in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Methods: A total of 488 HIV-infected patients, aged 18 years and older,…
Schnall, Rebecca; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Larson, Elaine
Adolescents and young adults are the fastest growing age group of HIV+ individuals in the US and many who are infected do not know their HIV status. The HIV home test has the potential to help curb the HIV epidemic by improving detection of persons living with HIV and enabling them to seek follow-up care, but, it has not yet been evaluated in adolescents. Analogous to the home pregnancy test, which was met with much resistance and only successfully marketed during a time of social change, the HIV home test has been met with resistance since its FDA approval. This commentary summarizes the need to systematically evaluate positive and untoward/unanticipated effects of HIV home testing, particularly in young adults. PMID:24849622
Bezos, Javier; Casal, Carmen; Alvarez, Julio; Díez-Guerrier, Alberto; Rodríguez-Bertos, Antonio; Romero, Beatriz; Rueda, Paloma; López, Lissette; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía
Tuberculosis (TB) in llamas and alpacas has gained importance in recent years since they are imported into the European Union mainly for serving as pets and for production of natural fibre. The intradermal tuberculin test has been widely used for diagnosis of TB in these species showing lack of sensitivity (Se) although little information has been previously reported evaluating the effect on its performance of different PPD inoculation sites and time of readings. Moreover, different cost-effective serological assays have been developed in the recent years for TB diagnosis in camelids obtaining a variety of results and, for this reason, new assays still being developed. The main objectives of this study were: (1) to evaluate the performance of the intradermal tuberculin test using different inoculation sites (axillary, prescapular and cervical) and times of reading (72 and 120 h) and (2) to test a novel serological assay based on MPB83 antigen in a Mycobacterium bovis naturally infected alpaca herd in Spain. In regards to skin test, single intradermal tuberculin (SIT) test at the prescapular site and reading at 72 h showed the highest proportion of test-positive-culture positive animals among all culture positive animals (T+/C+), ranging from 53.8% (95% CI, 37.2-69.9) to 80% (95% CI, 44.4-97.5) using a more stringent interpretation than typically prescribed although, in general, low T+/C+ was achieved using both SIT and single comparative intradermal tuberculin (SCIT) tests alone. T+/C+ of the serological assay increased using samples collected 15-30 days after PPD injection [76.9% (95% CI, 60.7-88.9) - 100% (95% CI, 69.2-100)]. The best results of T+/C+ were obtained applying in parallel the most sensitive SIT test and serology using samples collected 15-30 days after PPD inoculation [90% (95% CI, 55.5-99.7)-100% (95% CI, 69.2-100)]. Therefore implementation of serology in parallel with the most sensitive skin test could maximize the detection of infected animals.
Philip, R N; Casper, E A; Ormsbee, R A; Peacock, M G; Burgdorfer, W
A microimmunofluorescence test was used to study antibody responses to various spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae during Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) and epidemic typhus (ET). Patients with RMSF reacted most strongly to Rickettsia rickettsii; those with ET reacted predominantly to R. prowazekii. The degree of cross-reaction to other rickettsial strains varied from patient to patient, but a particular pattern of cross-reaction was consistently observed in serial sera from the same patient. Fresh isolates from three Montana RMSF cases were indistinguishable from each other and from strain R of R. rickettsii used as a standard antigen in all tests. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were usually present in high titer in early-convalescent-phase sera from RMSF, as well as ET, patients. After RMSF, IgM antibodies persisted for a few months and, in one instance, for as long as 10 months. IgM responses to laboratory-acquired infections were infrequent in persons previously vaccinated with antigens related to the infecting strain. Previous antigenic conditioning from infection or vaccination may have accounted partly for the apparent lack of IgM response in a few study participants. Images PMID:815267
Chiang, Laura F; Chen, Jieru; Gladden, Matthew R; Mercy, James A; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Mrisho, Fatma; Dahlberg, Linda L; Nyunt, Myo Zin; Brookmeyer, Kate A; Vagi, Kevin
Prior research has established an association between sexual violence and HIV. Exposure to sexual violence during childhood can profoundly impact brain architecture and stress regulatory response. As a result, individuals who have experienced such trauma may engage in sexual risk-taking behavior and could benefit from targeted interventions. In 2009, nationally representative data were collected on violence against children in Tanzania from 13-24 year old respondents (n=3,739). Analyses show that females aged 19-24 (n=579) who experienced childhood sexual violence, were more likely to report no/infrequent condom use in the past 12 months (AOR=3.0, CI [1.5, 6.1], p=0.0017) and multiple sex partners in the past 12 months (AOR=2.3, CI [1.0, 5.1], p=0.0491), but no more likely to know where to get HIV testing or to have ever been tested. Victims of childhood sexual violence could benefit from targeted interventions to mitigate impacts of violence and prevent HIV.
Gwadz, Marya; Cleland, Charles M.; Jenness, Samuel M.; Silverman, Elizabeth; Hagan, Holly; Ritchie, Amanda S.; Leonard, Noelle R.; McCright-Gill, Talaya; Martinez, Belkis; Swain, Quentin; Kutnick, Alexandra; Sherpa, Dawa
Annual HIV testing is recommended for high-risk populations in the United States, to identify HIV infections early and provide timely linkage to treatment. However, heterosexuals at high risk for HIV, due to their residence in urban areas of high poverty and elevated HIV prevalence, test for HIV less frequently than other risk groups, and late diagnosis of HIV is common. Yet the factors impeding HIV testing in this group, which is predominantly African American/Black and Latino/Hispanic, are poorly understood. The present study addresses this gap. Using a systematic community-based sampling method, venue-based sampling (VBS), we estimate rates of lifetime and recent (past year) HIV testing among high-risk heterosexuals (HRH), and explore a set of putative multi-level barriers to and facilitators of recent testing, by gender. Participants were 338 HRH African American/Black and Latino/Hispanic adults recruited using VBS, who completed a computerized structured assessment battery guided by the Theory of Triadic Influence, comprised of reliable/valid measures on socio-demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, and multi-level barriers to HIV testing. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with HIV testing within the past year. Most HRH had tested at least once (94%), and more than half had tested within the past year (58%), but only 37% tested annually. In both men and women, the odds of recent testing were similar and associated with structural factors (better access to testing) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and diagnosis. Thus VBS identified serious gaps in rates of annual HIV testing among HRH. Improvements in access to high-quality HIV testing and leveraging of STI testing are needed to increase the proportion of HRH testing annually for HIV. Such improvements could increase early detection of HIV, improve the long-term health of individuals, and reduce HIV transmission by increasing rates of viral
Comer, James A.; Nicholson, William L.; Olson, James G.; Childs, James E.
An indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) was used to identify patients with antibodies reactive to the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent. Serum samples collected from clinically ill individuals were submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by physicians via state health departments from throughout the United States and tested against a panel of ehrlichial and rickettsial pathogens. Antibodies reactive to the HGE agent were detected in 142 (8.9%) of 1,602 individuals tested. There were 19 confirmed and 59 probable (n = 78) cases of HGE as defined by seroconversion or a fourfold or higher titer to the HGE agent than to the Ehrlichia chaffeensis antigens. The average age of patients with HGE was 57 years, and males accounted for 53 (68%) of the patients. Cases of HGE occurred in 21 states; 47 (60%) of the cases occurred in Connecticut (n = 14), New York (n = 18), and Wisconsin (n = 15). Onset of HGE was identified from April through December, with cases peaking in June and July. The earliest confirmed cases of HGE occurred in 1987 in Wisconsin and 1988 in Florida. No fatalities were reported among the 78 patients with confirmed or probable HGE. Reactivity to the HGE agent and to either Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia rickettsii, or Rickettsia typhi was infrequent; however, 74 (52%) of the 142 individuals who were positive for HGE had at least one serum sample that also reacted to the E. chaffeensis antigen. Thirty-four persons with confirmed or probable human monocytic ehrlichiosis due to E. chaffeensis also had antibodies to the HGE agent in at least one serum sample. The specific etiologic agent for 30 patients was not ascribed because of similarity of titers to both ehrlichial antigens. The use of both antigens may be required to correctly diagnose most cases of human ehrlichiosis, especially in geographic regions where both the HGE agent and E. chaffeensis occur. PMID:9986812
Aarnio, Pauliina; Olsson, Pia; Chimbiri, Agnes; Kulmala, Teija
Antenatal care can act as an excellent tool to improve access to HIV counseling and testing services. This paper investigates an issue that may weaken its potential, namely lack of male involvement. We explored married men's perceptions of HIV in pregnancy and male involvement in antenatal HIV testing and counseling in Southern Malawi through 11 focus group discussions and a cross-sectional survey (n=388). The main findings were that men were largely unaware of available antenatal HIV testing and counseling services, and perceived it overall problematic to attend female-oriented health care. Most men supported provision of antenatal HIV testing. They perceived husbands to participate in the process indirectly through spousal communication, being faithful during pregnancy, and supporting the wife if found HIV-positive. Involvement of husbands was compromised by men's reluctance to learn their HIV status and the threat that HIV poses on marriage. Men stressed the importance of prior spousal agreement of antenatal HIV testing and considered HIV testing without their consent a valid reason for divorce. We suggest that male involvement in antenatal HIV testing requires refocusing of information and health services to include men. To avoid negative social outcomes for women, comprehensive and early involvement of men is essential.
Fraune, Johanna; Gerlach, Stefan; Rentzsch, Kristin; Teegen, Bianca; Lederer, Sabine; Affeldt, Kai; Fechner, Kai; Danckwardt, Maick; Voigt, Jörn; Probst, Christian; Komorowski, Lars; Stöcker, Winfried
Autoantibodies against neuronal cell surface antigens are tightly associated with immunotherapy-responsive autoimmune encephalitis, and a considerable number of corresponding autoantigens has been identified in recent years. Most patients initially present with overlapping symptoms, and a broad range of autoantibodies has to be considered to establish the correct diagnosis and initiate treatment as soon as possible to prevent irreversible and sometimes even life-threatening damage to the brain. Recombinant cell-based immunofluorescence allows to authentically present fragile membrane-associated surface antigens and, in combination with multiparametric analysis in the form of biochip mosaics, has turned out to be highly beneficial for parallel and prompt determination of anti-neuronal autoantibodies and comprehensive differential diagnostics. For the evaluation of recombinant cell-based IIFT, a semi-automated novel function was introduced into an established platform for computer-aided immunofluorescence microscopy. The system facilitates the microscopic analysis of the tests and supports the laboratory personnel in the rapid issuance of diagnostic findings, which is of major importance for autoimmune encephalitis patients since timely initiation of treatment may lead to their full recovery.
Bassett, Ingrid V.; Giddy, Janet; Nkera, Jacques; Wang, Bingxia; Losina, Elena; Lu, Zhigang; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.
Objective To evaluate the yield of a routine voluntary HIV testing program compared with traditional provider-referred voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) in a hospital-affiliated outpatient department (OPD) in Durban, South Africa. Design and Methods In a prospective 14-week “standard of care” period, we compared OPD physician logs documenting patient referrals to the hospital VCT site with HIV test registers to measure patient completion of HIV test referral. The standard of care period was followed by a 12-week intervention during which all patients who registered at the OPD were given an educational intervention and offered a rapid HIV test at no charge as part of routine care. Results During the standard of care period, OPD physicians referred 435 patients aged ≥18 years for HIV testing; 137 (31.5%) of the referred patients completed testing at the VCT site within 4 weeks. Among those tested, 102 (74.5%) were HIV infected. During the intervention period, 1414 adults accepted HIV testing and 1498 declined. Of those tested, 463 (32.7%, 95% confidence interval: 30.3 to 35.3) were HIV infected. Routine HIV testing in the OPD identified 39 new HIV cases per week compared with 8 new cases per week with standard of care testing based on physician referral to a VCT site (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Routine voluntary HIV testing in an OPD in South Africa leads to significantly higher rates of detection of HIV disease. This strategy should be implemented more widely in high HIV prevalence areas where treatment is available. PMID:17667332
Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna
In Africa, a large proportion of HIV infections occur within stable relationships, either because of prior infection of one of the partners or because of infidelity. In five African countries at least two-thirds of couples with at least one HIV-positive partner were HIV serodiscordant; in half of them, the woman was the HIV-positive partner. Hence, there is an urgent need to define strategies to prevent HIV transmission within couple relationships. HIV counselling and testing have largely been organised on an individual and sex-specific basis, for pregnant women in programmes for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and in STI consultations and recently male circumcision for men. A couple-centred approach to HIV counselling and testing would facilitate communication about HIV status and adoption of preventive behaviours within couples. This paper reviews what is known about HIV serodiscordance in heterosexual couples in sub-Saharan Africa and what has been published about couple-centred initiatives for HIV counselling and testing since the early 1990s. Despite positive outcomes, couple-oriented programmes have not been implemented on a large scale. In order to stimulate and strengthen HIV prevention efforts, increased attention is required to promote prevention and testing and counselling for couples in stable relationships.
Hoonakker, M E; Verhagen, L M; van der Maas, L; Metz, B; Uittenbogaard, J P; van de Waterbeemd, B; van Els, C A C M; van Eden, W; Hendriksen, C F M; Sloots, A; Han, W G H
Whole cell Bordetella pertussis (wP) vaccines are still used in many countries to protect against the respiratory disease pertussis. The potency of whole-cell pertussis vaccine lots is determined by an intracerebral challenge test (the Kendrick test). This test is criticized due to lack of immunological relevance of the read-out after an intracerebral challenge with B. pertussis. The alternative in vivo test, which assesses specific antibody levels in serum after wP vaccination, is the Pertussis Serological Potency test (PSPT). Although the PSPT focuses on a parameter that contributes to protection, the protective immune mechanisms after wP vaccination includes more elements than specific antibody responses only. In this study, additional parameters were investigated, i.e. circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, antibody specificity and T helper cell responses and it was evaluated whether they can be used as complementary readout parameters in the PSPT to assess wP lot quality. By deliberate manipulation of the vaccine preparation procedure, a panel of high, intermediate and low quality wP vaccines were made. The results revealed that these vaccines induced similar IL-6 and IP10 levels in serum 4h after vaccination (innate responses) and similar antibody levels directed against the entire bacterium. In contrast, the induced antibody specificity to distinct wP antigens differed after vaccination with high, intermediate and low quality wP vaccines. In addition, the magnitude of wP-induced Th cell responses (Th17, Th1 and Th2) was reduced after vaccination with a wP vaccine of low quality. T cell responses and antibody specificity are therefore correlates of qualitative differences in the investigated vaccines, while the current parameter of the PSPT alone was not sensitive enough to distinguish between vaccines of different qualities. This study demonstrates that assessment of the magnitude of Th cell responses and the antigen specificity of antibodies induced by w
Hoonakker, M E; Verhagen, L M; van der Maas, L; Metz, B; Uittenbogaard, J P; van de Waterbeemd, B; van Els, C A C M; van Eden, W; Hendriksen, C F M; Sloots, A; Han, W G H
Whole cell Bordetella pertussis (wP) vaccines are still used in many countries to protect against the respiratory disease pertussis. The potency of whole-cell pertussis vaccine lots is determined by an intracerebral challenge test (the Kendrick test). This test is criticized due to lack of immunological relevance of the read-out after an intracerebral challenge with B. pertussis. The alternative in vivo test, which assesses specific antibody levels in serum after wP vaccination, is the Pertussis Serological Potency test (PSPT). Although the PSPT focuses on a parameter that contributes to protection, the protective immune mechanisms after wP vaccination includes more elements than specific antibody responses only. In this study, additional parameters were investigated, i.e. circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines, antibody specificity and T helper cell responses and it was evaluated whether they can be used as complementary readout parameters in the PSPT to assess wP lot quality. By deliberate manipulation of the vaccine preparation procedure, a panel of high, intermediate and low quality wP vaccines were made. The results revealed that these vaccines induced similar IL-6 and IP10 levels in serum 4h after vaccination (innate responses) and similar antibody levels directed against the entire bacterium. In contrast, the induced antibody specificity to distinct wP antigens differed after vaccination with high, intermediate and low quality wP vaccines. In addition, the magnitude of wP-induced Th cell responses (Th17, Th1 and Th2) was reduced after vaccination with a wP vaccine of low quality. T cell responses and antibody specificity are therefore correlates of qualitative differences in the investigated vaccines, while the current parameter of the PSPT alone was not sensitive enough to distinguish between vaccines of different qualities. This study demonstrates that assessment of the magnitude of Th cell responses and the antigen specificity of antibodies induced by w
Basta, Tania B.; Stambaugh, Teena; Fisher, Celia B.
This study sought to assess barriers and enhance readiness to consent to home and Planned Parenthood HIV testing among 60 out-patients from a mental health and substance abuse clinic in rural Appalachia. Testing barriers included not knowing where to get tested, lack of confidentiality, and loss of partners if one tested sero-positive. The intervention yielded lowered HIV stigma, increase in HIV knowledge, and agreement to take the HIV home test. These results are encouraging because they suggest that a brief educational intervention is a critical pathway to the success of the National Institutes on Drug Abuse’s Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain initiative in poor rural counties.
Reif, Lindsey K; Rivera, Vanessa; Louis, Bianca; Bertrand, Rachel; Peck, Mireille; Anglade, Benedict; Seo, Grace; Abrams, Elaine J; Pape, Jean W; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; McNairy, Margaret L
Adolescents account for 40% of new HIV infections, and HIV testing strategies to increase uptake of testing are needed. A community-based adolescent and youth HIV and health testing campaign was conducted in seven slum neighborhoods of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, from December 2014 to September 2015. Community health workers provided community sensitization and recruited 10- to 24-year-olds to test for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea/chlamydia, and to screen for tuberculosis (TB) and pregnancy. HIV-infected individuals were escorted to the GHESKIO HIV clinic for same-day enrollment in care. Among 3425 individuals eligible for testing, 3348 (98%) accepted an HIV test. HIV prevalence was 2.65% (n = 89). Median age was 19 [interquartile range (IQR) 17-20]; 73% were female. HIV prevalence was 0.6-7.4% across slum neighborhoods. All HIV-infected individuals enrolled in care the same day as testing; median CD4 was 529 cells/μL [IQR 363-761]. Syphilis prevalence was 2.60% (65/2536) and gonorrhea/chlamydia prevalence was 6.25% (96/1536). Among 168 (5%) individuals who reported TB symptoms, 7.7% (13/168) had microbiologically confirmed disease. One hundred twenty-nine females (5% of all females) were pregnant. This community-based testing campaign identified an adolescent and youth population with an HIV prevalence six times higher than the estimated national adolescent HIV prevalence (0.4%) in Haiti, including perinatally infected adolescents. This type of community-based campaign for HIV testing within a package of services can serve as a model for other resource-poor settings to identify high-risk adolescents and youth, and curb the global HIV epidemic among adolescents. PMID:27509237
Leibowitz, Arleen A; Byrnes, Karen; Wynn, Adriane; Farrell, Kevin
Historically, California supplemented federal funding of HIV prevention and testing so that Californians with HIV could become aware of their infection and obtain lifesaving treatment. However, budget deficits in 2009 led the state to eliminate its supplemental funding for HIV prevention. We analyzed the impact of California's HIV resource allocation change between state fiscal years 2009 and 2011. We found that the number of HIV tests declined 19 percent, from 66,629 to 53,760, in local health jurisdictions with high HIV burden. In low-burden jurisdictions, the number of HIV tests declined 90 percent, from 20,302 to 2,116. New diagnoses fell from 2,434 in 2009 to 2,235 in 2011 (calendar years) in high-burden jurisdictions and from 346 to 327 in low-burden ones. California's budget crunch prompted state and local programs to redirect remaining HIV funds from risk reduction education to testing activities. Thus, the impact of the budget cuts on HIV tests and new HIV diagnoses was smaller than might have been expected given the size of the cuts. As California's fiscal outlook improves, we recommend that the state restore supplemental funding for HIV prevention and testing.
Leibowitz, Arleen A; Byrnes, Karen; Wynn, Adriane; Farrell, Kevin
Historically, California supplemented federal funding of HIV prevention and testing so that Californians with HIV could become aware of their infection and obtain lifesaving treatment. However, budget deficits in 2009 led the state to eliminate its supplemental funding for HIV prevention. We analyzed the impact of California's HIV resource allocation change between state fiscal years 2009 and 2011. We found that the number of HIV tests declined 19 percent, from 66,629 to 53,760, in local health jurisdictions with high HIV burden. In low-burden jurisdictions, the number of HIV tests declined 90 percent, from 20,302 to 2,116. New diagnoses fell from 2,434 in 2009 to 2,235 in 2011 (calendar years) in high-burden jurisdictions and from 346 to 327 in low-burden ones. California's budget crunch prompted state and local programs to redirect remaining HIV funds from risk reduction education to testing activities. Thus, the impact of the budget cuts on HIV tests and new HIV diagnoses was smaller than might have been expected given the size of the cuts. As California's fiscal outlook improves, we recommend that the state restore supplemental funding for HIV prevention and testing. PMID:24590939
HIV testing is a critical component in the response to HIV. Human rights law requires that it include informed consent, pre- and post-test counselling, and guaranteed confidentiality of test results. In this article, based on her presentation at AIDS 2010, Priti Patel discusses a precedent-setting case in Zambia in which two former members of the Zambian Air Force were subjected to HIV testing without their consent.
Ivers, Louise C; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Mukherjee, Joia S
As HIV treatment is scaled-up in resource-poor settings, the timely identification of persons with HIV infection remains an important challenge. Most people with HIV are unaware of their status, and those who are often present late in the course of their illness. Free-standing voluntary counseling and testing sites often have poor uptake of testing. We aimed to evaluate a 'provider-initiated' HIV testing strategy in a primary care clinic in rural resource-poor Haiti by reviewing the number of visits made to clinic before an HIV test was performed in those who were ultimately found to have HIV infection. In collaboration with the Haitian Ministry of Health, a non-governmental organization (Partners In Health) scaled up HIV care in central Haiti by reinforcing primary care clinics, instituting provider-initiated HIV testing and by providing HIV treatment in the context of primary medical care, free of charge to patients. Among a cohort of people with HIV infection, we assessed retrospectively for delays in or 'missed opportunities' for diagnosis of HIV by the providers in one clinic. Of the first 117 patients diagnosed with HIV in one clinic, 100 (85%) were diagnosed at the first medical encounter. Median delay in diagnosis for the remaining 17 was only 62 days (IQR 19 – 122; range 1 – 272). There was no statistical difference in CD4 cell count between those with and without a delay. 3787 HIV tests were performed in the period reviewed. Provider-initiated testing was associated with high volume uptake of HIV testing and minimal delay between first medical encounter and diagnosis of HIV infection. In scale up of HIV care, provider-initiated HIV testing at primary care clinics can be a successful strategy to identify patients with HIV infection. PMID:18047639
Amesty, Silvia; Crawford, Natalie D; Nandi, Vijay; Perez-Figueroa, Rafael; Rivera, Alexis; Sutton, Madeline; Weidle, Paul J; Willis, Leigh; Smith, Dawn K; Hernandez, Carolyn; Harripersaud, Katherine; Fuller Lewis, Crystal
Blacks/Hispanics face limited access to HIV testing. We examined in-pharmacy HIV testing among customers in pharmacies participating in a nonprescription syringe program in New York City. Participants were recruited in two pharmacies to complete a survey and receive an optional HIV test. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to examine associations of demographics and risk behaviors with receiving in-pharmacy HIV testing. Most participants were male (55%), black (80%), had used hard drugs (88%), and 39.5% received in-pharmacy HIV testing. Being female (AOR=2.24; 95%CI 1.24-4.05), having multiple sex partners (AOR=1.20; 95% CI 1.06-1.35), having an HIV test more than 12 months ago (AOS=4.06; CI 1.85-8.91), injecting drugs in last 3 months (AOR=2.73; 95% CI 1.31-5.69) and having continuous care (AOR=0.32; 95% CI 0.17-0.58) were associated with receiving in-pharmacy HIV test. These data provide evidence of in-pharmacy HIV testing reaching persons at risk of HIV. HIV testing in pharmacies may complement existing strategies.
Sennott, Christie; Yeatman, Sara
This study uses eight waves of data from the population-based Tsogolo la Thanzi study (2009–2011) in rural Malawi to examine changes in young women’s contraceptive practices, including the use of condoms, non-barrier contraceptive methods, and abstinence, following positive and negative HIV tests. The analysis factors in women’s prior perceptions of their HIV status that may already be shaping their behaviour and separates surprise HIV test results from those that merely confirm what was already believed. Fixed effects logistic regression models show that HIV testing frequently affects the contraceptive practices of young Malawian women, particularly when the test yields an unexpected result. Specifically, women who are surprised to test HIV positive increase their condom use and are more likely to use condoms consistently. Following an HIV negative test (whether a surprise or expected), women increase their use of condoms and decrease their use of non-barrier contraceptives; the latter may be due to an increase in abstinence following a surprise negative result. Changes in condom use following HIV testing are robust to the inclusion of potential explanatory mechanisms including fertility preferences, relationship status, and the perception that a partner is HIV positive. The results demonstrate that both positive and negative tests can influence women’s sexual and reproductive behaviours, and emphasise the importance of conceptualizing of HIV testing as offering new information only insofar as results deviate from prior perceptions of HIV status. PMID:26160156
Tiwari, Aseem K.; Pandey, Prashant K.; Dara, Ravi C.; Rawat, Ganesh S.; Raina, Vimarsh; Bhargava, Richa
Context: Syphilis is a transfusion transmissible infections and it is mandatory to do serological test for syphilis (STS) on all donor blood samples. STS is usually based on detection of antibodies against the cardiolipin-lecithin antigen or against the Treponema-specific antigen. STS with good sensitivity and specificity helps enhance blood safety and consolidation of STS along with other transfusion transmittable infections such as human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis-C virus, and hepatitis-B virus helps in reducing the errors and enhances efficiency. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the performance of newly introduced VITROS® syphilis Treponema pallidum agglutination (TPA) assay based on enhanced chemiluminescence principle for its analytical performance for use as a STS on donor blood samples at a tertiary care health center in National Capital Region, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 random blood units collected from the donors (both voluntary and replacement donors) and 28 known syphilis sero-reactive samples stored at −20°C, were used to evaluate the performance of VITROS® syphilis TPA assay based on enhanced chemiluminescence assay on VITROS® ECiQ immunodiagnostics system along with its analytical performance in terms of its sensitivity, precision, cross-reactivity and interference studies. Results: VITROS® syphilis TPA showed 100% sensitivity and specificity with precision (20 days study) of <10% co-efficient of variation. There was no cross-reactivity with other viral and auto-immune antibodies. No interference was observed from endogenous interfering substances like free hemoglobin or fats. Conclusions: Performance of the VITROS® syphilis TPA assay meets the requirements for its use as STS in blood bank, thus allowing consolidation with other transfusion transmittable infections screening assay on chemiluminescence platform, which is highly valuable for optimizing workflow and efficiency. PMID:25722576
Socías, María Eugenia; Hermida, Laura; Singman, Mariana; Kulgis, Gisela; Díaz Armas, Andrés; Cando, Osvaldo; Sued, Omar; Pérez, Héctor; Hermes, Ricardo; Presas, José Luis; Cahn, Pedro
Introduction The Argentinean AIDS Program estimates that 110,000 persons are living with HIV/AIDS in Argentina. Of those, approximately 40% are unaware of their status, and 30% are diagnosed in advanced stages of immunosuppression. Though studies show that universal HIV screening is cost-effective in settings with HIV prevalence greater than 0.1%, in Argentina, with the exception of antenatal care, HIV testing is always client-initiated. Objective We performed a pilot study to assess the acceptability of a universal HIV screening program among inpatients of an urban public hospital in Buenos Aires. Methods Over a six-month period, all eligible adult patients admitted to the internal medicine ward were offered HIV testing. Demographics, uptake rates, reasons for refusal and new HIV diagnoses were analyzed. Results Of the 350 admissions during this period, 249 were eligible and subsequently enrolled. The enrolled population was relatively old compared to the general population, was balanced on gender, and did not report traditional high risk factors for HIV infection. Only 88 (39%) reported prior HIV testing. One hundred and ninety (76%) patients accepted HIV testing. In multivariable analysis only younger age (OR 1.02; 95%CI 1.003-1.05) was independently associated with test uptake. Three new HIV diagnoses were made (undiagnosed HIV prevalence: 1.58%); none belonged to a most-at-risk population. Conclusions Our findings suggest that universal HIV screening in this setting is acceptable and potentially effective in identifying undiagnosed HIV-infected individuals. If confirmed in a larger study, our findings may inform changes in the Argentinean HIV testing policy. PMID:23936034
Liver biopsy has classically been considered the gold standard to evaluate the degree of fibrosis, since it allows direct measurement of this entity. However, this technique carries an inherent risk of complications and observer variability and technical limitations can provoke sampling errors, all of which has prompted the search for alternative, noninvasive methods. The use of routine clinical laboratory tests has been investigated and various indexes that combine indirect serological markers have been developed and validated. These indexes are useful, low-cost, noninvasive tests to detect significant fibrosis or cirrhosis. Direct serological markers are those that reflect changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix. Several studies have analyzed the utility of these markers (either individually or combined with other direct and indirect markers) in the detection of the severity and progression of liver fibrosis and in the follow-up of changes related to antiviral therapy. In the last few years, imaging tests based on the measurement of liver stiffness, such as FibroScan or acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI), have been found to be rapid and reproducible methods to evaluate liver fibrosis. Recently, the results obtained by combining distinct serological markers and imaging techniques have shown a higher diagnostic yield and this strategy seems promising. The present article reviews the most widely discussed noninvasive markers, the most recent alternatives, and the perspectives for their use in clinical practice. PMID:23298654
Poljak, M; Zener, N; Seme, K; Kristancic, L
Enzyme immunoassays are most widely used screening tests for antibodies to human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). Nevertheless, the need of simpler, noninstrumented tests is evident in many parts of the world, where laboratory facilities and trained personnel are limited, and HIV incidence is high. A recently developed variant of gelatin-particle agglutination tests, Serodia HIV-1/2 (Fujirebio Inc., Tokyo, Japan), is one of such simple and noninstrumented tests. To evaluate its utility, 3311 serum samples (281 anti-HIV-1 positive, 8 anti-HIV-2 positive and 3022 anti-HIV-1/2 negative) obtained from 2632 individuals from Slovenia, other parts of former Yugoslavia and Senegal were investigated. No false-negative results and only one false-positive result were obtained during the procedures, giving overall sensitivity and specificity of the particle agglutination test of 100% and 99.97%, respectively. We have concluded that Serodia HIV-1/2 test is highly specific and sensitive for detection of anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies, suitable for small blood banks and for epidemiological surveys.
O'Grady, Don; Kenny, Kevin; Power, Seamus; Egan, John; Ryan, Fergus
Intestinal infection by Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 (YeO9) in cattle has been linked to false positive serological reactivity (FPSR) in diagnostic tests for brucellosis. Although eradicated in Ireland, brucellosis monitoring still identifies seropositive animals, usually one or two (termed singletons) per herd, which are classed as FPSR. To investigate a link between FPSR and YeO9, faeces and blood were collected from singleton FPSR cattle, and from companion animals, in eight selected herds with more than one FPSR animal, for YeO9 culture and Brucella serology. YeO9 was isolated from 76/474 (16%) FPSR singletons in 309 herds, but not from any of 621 animals in 122 control non-FPSR herds. In the FPSR herds 52/187 (27.8%) animals were culture positive, and 17% of the isolates were from seronegative animals. Seropositive animals were more likely to have a rising antibody titre when culture positive.
O'Grady, Don; Kenny, Kevin; Power, Seamus; Egan, John; Ryan, Fergus
Intestinal infection by Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 (YeO9) in cattle has been linked to false positive serological reactivity (FPSR) in diagnostic tests for brucellosis. Although eradicated in Ireland, brucellosis monitoring still identifies seropositive animals, usually one or two (termed singletons) per herd, which are classed as FPSR. To investigate a link between FPSR and YeO9, faeces and blood were collected from singleton FPSR cattle, and from companion animals, in eight selected herds with more than one FPSR animal, for YeO9 culture and Brucella serology. YeO9 was isolated from 76/474 (16%) FPSR singletons in 309 herds, but not from any of 621 animals in 122 control non-FPSR herds. In the FPSR herds 52/187 (27.8%) animals were culture positive, and 17% of the isolates were from seronegative animals. Seropositive animals were more likely to have a rising antibody titre when culture positive. PMID:27687940
Ferreira, S C; de Almeida-Neto, C; Nishiya, A S; Di-Lorenzo-Oliveira, C; Ferreira, J E; Alencar, C S; Levi, J E; Salles, N A; Mendrone-Junior, A; Sabino, E C
The presence of Treponema pallidum DNA was assessed by real-time PCR in samples of blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis. Treponema pallidum DNA was detected in two (1·02%) of 197 samples of VDRL>8, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ donors, and in no sample from 80 VDRL−, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ donors. Donors VDRL−, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ lack demonstrable T. pallidum DNA in their blood and are unlike to transmit syphilis. Donors VDRL>8, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ carry the risk of syphilis infectivity even in concomitance to antibodies detection. Serologic screening for syphilis may still play a role to prevent its transfusion transmission. PMID:24877236
Weihs, Martin; Meyer-Weitz, Anna
Low workplace HIV testing uptake makes effective management of HIV and AIDS difficult for South African organisations. Identifying barriers to workplace HIV testing is therefore crucial to inform urgently needed interventions aimed at increasing workplace HIV testing. This study reviewed literature on workplace HIV testing barriers in South Africa. Pubmed, ScienceDirect, PsycInfo and SA Publications were systematically researched. Studies needed to include measures to assess perceived or real barriers to participate in HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) at the workplace or discuss perceived or real barriers of HIV testing at the workplace based on collected data, provide qualitative or quantitative evidence related to the research topic and needed to refer to workplaces in South Africa. Barriers were defined as any factor on economic, social, personal, environmental or organisational level preventing employees from participating in workplace HIV testing. Four peer-reviewed studies were included, two with quantitative and two with qualitative study designs. The overarching barriers across the studies were fear of compromised confidentiality, being stigmatised or discriminated in the event of testing HIV positive or being observed participating in HIV testing, and a low personal risk perception. Furthermore, it appeared that an awareness of an HIV-positive status hindered HIV testing at the workplace. Further research evidence of South African workplace barriers to HIV testing will enhance related interventions. This systematic review only found very little and contextualised evidence about workplace HCT barriers in South Africa, making it difficult to generalise, and not really sufficient to inform new interventions aimed at increasing workplace HCT uptake. PMID:26560013
Weihs, Martin; Meyer-Weitz, Anna
Low workplace HIV testing uptake makes effective management of HIV and AIDS difficult for South African organisations. Identifying barriers to workplace HIV testing is therefore crucial to inform urgently needed interventions aimed at increasing workplace HIV testing. This study reviewed literature on workplace HIV testing barriers in South Africa. Pubmed, ScienceDirect, PsycInfo and SA Publications were systematically researched. Studies needed to include measures to assess perceived or real barriers to participate in HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) at the workplace or discuss perceived or real barriers of HIV testing at the workplace based on collected data, provide qualitative or quantitative evidence related to the research topic and needed to refer to workplaces in South Africa. Barriers were defined as any factor on economic, social, personal, environmental or organisational level preventing employees from participating in workplace HIV testing. Four peer-reviewed studies were included, two with quantitative and two with qualitative study designs. The overarching barriers across the studies were fear of compromised confidentiality, being stigmatised or discriminated in the event of testing HIV positive or being observed participating in HIV testing, and a low personal risk perception. Furthermore, it appeared that an awareness of an HIV-positive status hindered HIV testing at the workplace. Further research evidence of South African workplace barriers to HIV testing will enhance related interventions. This systematic review only found very little and contextualised evidence about workplace HCT barriers in South Africa, making it difficult to generalise, and not really sufficient to inform new interventions aimed at increasing workplace HCT uptake.
Wall, Kristin M.; Canary, Lauren; Workowski, Kimberly; Lockard, Annie; Jones, Jeb; Sullivan, Patrick; Hills, Katherine; Fofana, Kadija; Stephenson, Rob; Allen, Susan
Introduction: Couples’ voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CHTC) is an HIV risk reduction strategy not widely available in the US. Methods: We assessed willingness to participate in CHTC among US HIV-infected clinic patients via tablet-based survey and among HIV-negative persons with HIV-infected partners in care via mixed-method phone interviews. Results: Most of the N=64 HIV-infected partners surveyed were men (89%), on antiretroviral treatment (ART) (92%), and many self-identified homosexual (62%). We observed high levels of willingness to participate in CHTC (64%) among HIV-infected partners. Reasons for not wanting to participate included perceived lack of need (26%), desire to self-disclose their status (26%), and fear of being asked sensitive questions with their partner present (17%). HIV-infected partners were interested in discussing ART (48%), other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (44%), and relationship agreements like monogamy (31%) during CHTC sessions. All N=15 HIV-negative partners interviewed were men, most identified as homosexual (73%), and about half (54%) reported consistent condom use with HIV-infected partners. We observed high levels of willingness to participate in CHTC (87%) among HIV-negative partners, who were also interested in discussing ART (47%), other STIs (47%), mental health services (40%), and relationship agreements (33%). Most negative partners (93%) indicated that they believed their HIV-infected partner was virally suppressed, but in the event that they were not, many (73%) were willing to take pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Conclusion: These results indicate that CHTC for serodiscordant couples is acceptable and should emphasize aspects most pertinent to these couples, such as discussion of ART/PrEP, STIs, and relationship agreements. PMID:27014393
Sguassero, Yanina; Cuesta, Cristina B.; Roberts, Karen N.; Hicks, Elizabeth; Comandé, Daniel; Ciapponi, Agustín; Sosa-Estani, Sergio
Background Chagas disease is caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). It is endemic in Latin American countries outside the Caribbean. The current criterion for cure in the chronic phase of the disease is the negativization of at least two serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF) and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The serological evolution of treated subjects with chronic T. cruzi infection is variable. Treatment failure is indicated by a positive parasitological and/or molecular test (persistence of parasitemia). Objectives To summarize the pattern of response to treatment of parasitological, molecular and serological tests performed during the follow-up of subjects with chronic T. cruzi infection. Methods Electronic searches in relevant databases and screening of citations of potentially eligible articles were accomplished. Organizations focusing on neglected infectious diseases were asked for help in identifying relevant studies. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs, and cohort studies involving adults and children with chronic infection who received trypanocidal treatment (benznidazole or nifurtimox) and were followed over time. The assessment of risk of bias was performed separately for each study design. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool and the guidelines developed by Hayden et al. were used. Two reviewers extracted all data independently. A third review author was consulted in case of discordant opinion. Additional analyses were defined in ad-hoc basis. Scatter plots for percentage of positive parasitological and molecular tests and for negative serological tests were developed by using the lowess curve technique. Heterogeneity was measured by I2. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO, an international prospective register of systematic review protocols (Registration Number CRD42012002162). Results Out of 2,136 citations
Gellert, George A.; And Others
Discusses identifying children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through sexual abuse. Reviews testing guidelines. Sees social workers contributing to test decision making when perinatal HIV transmissions is possibility, when assailant may be tested, and when parents/legal guardians insist on testing child. Discusses family…
Glew, Simon; Pollard, Alex; Hughes, Leila; Llewellyn, Carrie
Background The rate of new HIV infections in the UK continues to rise, with one-quarter of cases undiagnosed. Opt-out HIV testing — in which tests are routinely offered to all patients, with the offer to decline — have proved effective in antenatal care. Pilot studies of HIV opt-out testing at GP registration and acute medical admission to hospital have described service-level issues and the clinician’s perspective, but not the views of the general public. Aim To further understand the public’s perspective on opt-out testing for HIV in England. Design and setting Focus groups (n = 9) with a total of 54 participants in Brighton, England, where HIV prevalence is high. Method Quota sampling on sexual orientation, age, sex, and testing experience was applied to groups with high and low HIV prevalences, and analysed using framework analysis. Results Opt-out testing for HIV was acceptable. Testing on GP registration was regarded as a more appropriate setting than acute medical admission. Participants from groups in which HIV has a higher prevalence felt HIV testing required consideration that may not be possible during acute hospital admission. However, there was concern that screening would still be targeted at groups in which HIV prevalence is higher, based on clinicians’ judgement of patients’ behaviours, sexuality, or ethnicity. Conclusion The opt-out method of testing for HIV must be routinely offered to all who are eligible, to increase test uptake and to prevent communities feeling targeted. Any pressure to test is likely to be poorly received. Inaccurate concerns about medical records being shared with financial services are a disincentive to test. Primary care should be an active setting for opt-out HIV testing. PMID:24567618
Tabana, Hanani; Jackson, Debra; Naik, Reshma; Zembe, Wanga; Lombard, Carl; Swanevelder, Sonja; Fox, Matthew P; Thorson, Anna; Ekström, Anna Mia; Chopra, Mickey
Objective To assess the effect of home based HIV counselling and testing on the prevalence of HIV testing and reported behavioural changes in a rural subdistrict of South Africa. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting 16 communities (clusters) in uMzimkhulu subdistrict, KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Participants 4154 people aged 14 years or more who participated in a community survey. Intervention Lay counsellors conducted door to door outreach and offered home based HIV counselling and testing to all consenting adults and adolescents aged 14-17 years with guardian consent. Control clusters received standard care, which consisted of HIV counselling and testing services at local clinics. Main outcome measures Primary outcome measure was prevalence of testing for HIV. Other outcomes were HIV awareness, stigma, sexual behaviour, vulnerability to violence, and access to care. Results Overall, 69% of participants in the home based HIV counselling and testing arm versus 47% in the control arm were tested for HIV during the study period (prevalence ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.32 to 1.81). More couples in the intervention arm had counselling and testing together than in the control arm (2.24, 1.49 to 3.03). The intervention had broader effects beyond HIV testing, with a 55% reduction in multiple partners (0.45, 0.33 to 0.62) and a stronger effect among those who had an HIV test (0.37, 0.24 to 0.58) and a 45% reduction in casual sexual partners (0.55, 0.42 to 0.73). Conclusions Home based HIV counselling and testing increased the prevalence of HIV testing in a rural setting with high levels of stigma. Benefits also included higher uptake of couple counselling and testing and reduced sexual risk behaviour. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31271935. PMID:23766483
Beougher, Sean C.; Bircher, Anja E.; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Darbes, Lynae A.; Gómez Mandic, Carmen; Neilands, Torsten B.; Garcia, Carla C.; Hoff, Colleen C.
Previous studies of HIV testing among gay men describe the motivations, facilitators and barriers, behaviors, and demographic characteristics of individuals who test. What little research focuses on HIV testing among gay men in relationships shows that they do not test regularly or, in some cases, at all – their motivations to test have not been investigated. With so little data on HIV testing for this population, and the continued privileging of individually-focused approaches, gay men in relationships fall into a blind spot of research and prevention efforts. This study examined motivations to test for HIV using qualitative data from both partners in 20 gay male couples. Analysis revealed that the partners’ motivations were either event-related (e.g., participants testing the beginning of their relationship or HIV-negative participants in an HIV-discordant relationship testing after risky episode with their discordant primary partner) or partner-related (e.g., participants testing in response to a request or suggestion to test from their primary partner or participants testing out of concern for their primary partner’s health and wellbeing). These data provide insight into relationship-oriented motivations to test for HIV for gay men in relationships and, in doing so, demonstrates their commitment to their primary partner and relationship. These motivations can be leveraged to increase HIV testing among gay men in relationships, a population that tests less often than single gay men, yet, until recently, has been underserved by prevention efforts. PMID:25550145
Emadi-Koochak, Hamid; Yazdi, Farhad; Haji Abdolbaghi, Mahboubeh; Salehi, Mohammad Reza; Shadloo, Behrang; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin
Breaking bad news is one of the most burdensome tasks physicians face in their everyday practice. It becomes even more challenging in the context of HIV+ patients because of stigma and discrimination. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the quality of giving HIV seroconversion news according to SPIKES protocol. Numbers of 154 consecutive HIV+ patients from Imam Khomeini Hospital testing and counseling center were enrolled in this study. Patients were inquired about how they were given the HIV news and whether or not they received pre- and post-test counseling sessions. Around 51% of them were men, 80% had high school education, and 56% were employed. Regarding marital status, 32% were single, and 52% were married at the time of the interview. Among them, 31% had received the HIV news in a counseling center, and only 29% had pre-test counseling. SPIKES criteria were significantly met when the HIV news was given in an HIV counseling and testing center (P.value<0.05). Low coverage of HIV counseling services was observed in the study. SPIKES criteria were significantly met when the HIV seroconversion news was given in a counseling center. The need to further train staff to deliver HIV news seems a priority in the field of HIV care and treatment.
Viani, Rolando M; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Spector, Stephen A
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of parallel rapid HIV testing and the presence of HIV-associated risk factors in pregnant women with unknown HIV status in Baja California, Mexico. Pregnant women attending the delivery unit or the prenatal clinic at Tijuana General Hospital had blood drawn for parallel rapid HIV testing with Determine™ HIV-1/2 and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen(®) HIV. The parallel rapid HIV test performance was compared to the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and western blot. From September 2007 to July 2008, 1,383 (94%) of 1,464 women in labor and 1,992 (96%) of 2,075 women in prenatal care were enrolled. The HIV seroprevalence among women screened during labor (19/1,383, 1.37%, 95% CI: 0.85-2.18%) was significantly higher compared to those seeking prenatal care (5/1,992, 0.25%, 95% CI: 0.09-0.62%; p<0.001). Of 25 pregnant women testing positive by parallel rapid HIV testing 24 had a positive confirmatory western blot and one (0.03%) was confirmed as false positive. Additionally, two (0.06%) women had parallel rapid HIV discordant testing results; both tested negative by western blot. All women who tested negative by rapid testing had negative results on pooled EIA antibody testing. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parallel rapid HIV testing were 100%, 99.9%, 96%, and 100%, respectively. These findings document a very high acceptance rate and an excellent performance of the parallel rapid HIV testing strategy during pregnancy.
Holt, M; Rawstorne, P; Wilkinson, J; Worth, H; Bittman, M; Kippax, S
A significant minority of Australian men who have sex with men (MSM) have never been tested for HIV and many men do not test as often as recommended. Using data from 1770 HIV-negative and untested MSM collected in a national, online survey, we compared men who had never tested for HIV with those who had tested over 12 months ago and men who had tested over 12 months ago with those that had tested in the past year. Two multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. Compared with men tested over 12 months ago, untested men were younger, less educated, less likely to have unprotected anal intercourse with a regular male partner, less likely to have sought advice from a doctor, nurse or community organisation, more likely to expect HIV-negative disclosure, had fewer gay friends and spent more time using social networking websites. Compared with men who had tested over 12 months ago, men who had tested within the last year were younger, more likely to expect HIV-negative disclosure and disclose to casual partners, more likely to have sought advice from a doctor or nurse, had attended gay pools, gyms or beaches and had more gay friends and more male sex partners. Our findings suggest that the Internet and sex education in schools are important ways to promote HIV testing to untested MSM. Testing reinforcement messages delivered through gay community outreach and primary care will reach previously tested MSM. PMID:21213035
Nyaku, Amesika N; Williams, Lisa M; Galvin, Shannon R
Despite 2006 recommendations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for opt-out HIV testing in all healthcare settings, Emergency Department (ED) testing has been limited. We conducted an observational cohort study to assess the impact of two workflow interventions on the proportion of HIV tests ordered in an urban academic ED. First, a 4(th)-generation HIV antigen/antibody combination test replaced the existing assay, and ED staff continued to notify patients of their reactive tests. Six months later, the HIV Rapid Diagnosis Team, composed of an Infectious Diseases (ID) physician and the HIV Advanced Practice Nurse, immediately assisted with disclosure of positive results to the patients and facilitated linkage to outpatient care. The new assay did not change the proportion of HIV tests ordered (0.14-0.11%, χ2, p = 0.2). However, ID support was associated with a statistically significant increase in the proportion of HIV tests ordered (0.14-0.43%, χ2, p < 0.00010) and a nonstatistically significant increase in the proportion of new HIV diagnoses (1.6-6.8%, Fisher exact test = 0.113). Male gender and lack of insurance were associated with a reactive HIV test. Reduction of barriers to linkage to outpatient HIV care through a collaborative relationship between the ED and ID team increased HIV testing and diagnosis. The role of this model as a component of a universal HIV screening program will need to be further assessed. PMID:26982908
Korukluoğlu, Gülay; Yalçinkaya, Tülay; Ozkaya, Etem; Kurtoğlu, Demet; Gözalan, Ayşegül; Miyamura, Kikuko
The aim of the present study was the detection and comparison of measles antibody titers with particle agglutination (PA) and neutralization (Nt) methods, in the sera samples of 364 subjects from different age groups. PA method was performed with a commercial test kit (Serodiameasles, Fujirebio Com. Japan), and Nt test which was standardized in this study, by using COBL (cord blood) cell lines, has been started to use in our laboratory as a reference method. As a result, antibody titers detected by PA were in parallel to the titers which detected by Nt test, and it was concluded that the differences in antibody titers would arise from the differences of test principles and viral antigens.
Kim, Lena H.; Cohan, Deborah L.; Sparks, Teresa N.; Pilliod, Rachel A.; Arinaitwe, Emmanuel; Caughey, Aaron B.
OBJECTIVE To estimate the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening strategies for the prevention of perinatal transmission in Uganda, a resource-limited country with high HIV prevalence and incidence. STUDY DESIGN We designed a decision-analytic model from a health care system perspective to assess the vertical transmission rates and cost-effectiveness of four different HIV screening strategies in pregnancy: 1) Rapid HIV antibody (Ab) test at initial visit (current standard of care); 2) Strategy 1 + HIV RNA at initial visit (adds detection of acute HIV); 3) Strategy 1 + repeat HIV Ab at delivery (adds detection of incident HIV); 4) Strategy 3 + HIV RNA at delivery (adds detection of acute HIV at delivery). Model estimates were derived from the literature and local sources, and life years saved were discounted at a rate of 3% per year. Based on World Health Organization guidelines, we defined our cost-effectiveness threshold as ≤3 times the gross domestic product per capita, which for Uganda was US$3300 in 2008. RESULTS Using base case estimates of 10% HIV prevalence among women entering prenatal care and 3% incidence during pregnancy, strategy 3 was incrementally the cost-effective option that led to the greatest total life years. CONCLUSION Repeat rapid HIV Ab testing at the time of labor is a cost-effective strategy even in a resource-limited setting such as Uganda. PMID:23392461
Noland, Carey M; Vaughn, Nicole A; Sun, Sirena; Schlecht, Hans P
Background Currently, widespread HIV testing is the best preventive action against further spread of the HIV epidemic. However, over 40% of the U.S. population has never been tested for HIV and 25% of those with HIV have never been tested. To increase testing rates, in 2006 the CDC advised healthcare settings to conduct testing on an opt-out basis. Methods Qualitative, semi-structured interviews with ten seropositive patients and ten seronegative were conducted to address the lack of studies investigating patients’ acceptance of and attitude towards this and more novel testing models, e.g. incentivized or anonymous mandatory testing. Participants were asked about their HIV testing history and attitudes towards opt-out, incentivized, and mandatory anonymous HIV testing. Results Major themes were identified using grounded theory data analysis. All participants were receptive to opt-out testing, and saw the removal of separate written consent as beneficial as long as patients were given the opportunity to consent in some form. Conclusion Ultimately, both mandatory and opt-out testing were equally indicated by participants as being the most effective testing model at increasing testing rates. A firm understanding of patients’ perspectives allows for development of effective HIV testing initiatives that are patient-sensitive and can substantially reduce HIV infection rates. PMID:26609294
Wang, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Lu, Wenli
Rapid HIV voluntary counselling and testing (RVCT) is an alternative method of standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing (SVCT). Less is known about whether RVCT improves the receipt rate of HIV test results among clients who seek HIV counselling and testing. We aimed to evaluate effectiveness of RVCT on result receipt rate. We conducted a comprehensive search of databases containing Medline, EBSCO, Web of science, and Cochrane library to identify studies published up to August 2012. Reviewers extracted information independently. Risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing study quality. Five randomised controlled trials were included and analysed for the result receipt rate using a random-effects model. The pooled receipt rate of HIV test results in the RVCT was significantly higher than in the SVCT (RR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.47-2.07). Our results suggest RVCT as a favourable method to increase the receipt of HIV test results. Only two included studies assessed the modification of risk behaviour after HIV-CT in a different manner; also, the sample size was small in the current meta-analysis. In future research, it is necessary to confirm the effect of RVCT on disinhibition of post-test risk behaviour.
Weller, Jennifer; Levitt, Gwen; Myers, Robert; Riley, Aaron; Gesmundo, Celsius-Kit
Even in health care professions, a stigma remains for patients with co-occurring HIV and serious mental illness. Researchers at a large, urban medical center encountered this stigma when they attempted to initiate a study of cognition in psychiatric inpatients with and without HIV who were seen as vulnerable in the context of research. Education efforts and advocacy on the part of the research team was instrumental and resulted in system-wide changes in the hospital, including the addition of HIV testing to the psychiatric admission laboratory panel. Within the first year that routine laboratory orders included an HIV test, the rate of testing ordered by inpatient-attending psychiatrists reached 60% of admissions. As of 2014, 13 HIV tests were found to be HIV seropositive in inpatients, with four of those cases classified as new-onset, as opposed to two positive tests in the year prior to our study. PMID:27426407
Stewart, Jennifer M
The African American church is a community-based organization that is integral to the lives, beliefs, and behaviors of the African American community. Engaging this vital institution as a primary setting for HIV testing and referral would significantly impact the epidemic. The disproportionately high HIV incidence rate among African Americans dictates the national priority for promotion of early and routine HIV testing, and suggests engaging community-based organizations in this endeavor. However, few multilevel HIV testing frameworks have been developed, tested, and evaluated within the African American church. This article proposes one such framework for promoting HIV testing and referral within African American churches. A qualitative study was employed to examine the perceptions, beliefs, knowledge, and behaviors related to understanding involvement in church-based HIV testing. A total of four focus groups with church leaders and four in-depth interviews with pastors, were conducted between November 2012 and June 2013 to identify the constructs most important to supporting Philadelphia churches' involvement in HIV testing, referral, and linkage to care. The data generated from this study were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and used to develop and refine a multilevel framework for identifying factors impacting church-based HIV testing and referral and to ultimately support capacity building among African American churches to promote HIV testing and linkage to care.
Mays, Rose M.; Sturm, Lynne A.; Rasche, Julie C.; Cox, Dena S.; Cox, Anthony D.; Zimet, Gregory D.
The purpose of this research is to explore women's perspectives about reasons why persons might decline HIV testing through drawings and verbal descriptions. We asked 30 participants to draw a person that would NOT get tested for HIV and then explain drawings. Using qualitative content analysis, we extracted seven themes. We found apprehension about knowing the result of a HIV test to be the most commonly identified theme in women's explanations of those who would not get tested. This technique was well received and its use is extended to HIV issues. PMID:21409665
Aronson, Ian David; Marsch, Lisa A.; Rajan, Sonali; Koken, Juline; Bania, Theodore C.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend routine HIV screening in clinical settings, including emergency departments (EDs), because earlier diagnosis enables treatment before symptoms develop and delivery of interventions to reduce continued transmission. However, patients frequently decline testing. This study delivered a 16-minute video-based intervention to 160 patients who declined HIV tests in a high volume, urban ED. One third of participants (N=53) accepted an HIV test post-intervention. Interviews with a subset of participants (n=40) show that before the video, many were unaware HIV testing could be conducted without drawing blood, or that results could be delivered in 20 minutes. PMID:25064047
Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Kumaranayake, Lilani; Ginwalla, Rokaya; Ayles, Helen; Kayawe, Ignatius; Hillery, Mary; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter
Background In the face of the dual TB/HIV epidemic, the ProTEST Initiative was one of the first to demonstrate the feasibility of providing collaborative TB/HIV care for people living with HIV (PLWH) in poor settings. The ProTEST Initiative facilitated collaboration between service providers. Voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) acted as the entry point for services including TB screening and preventive therapy, clinical treatment for HIV-related disease, and home-based care (HBC), and a hospice. This paper estimates the costs of the ProTEST Initiative in two sites in urban Zambia, prior to the introduction of anti-retroviral therapy. Methods Annual financial and economic providers costs and output measures were collected in 2000–2001. Estimates are made of total costs for each component and average costs per: person reached by ProTEST; VCT pre-test counselled, tested and completed; isoniazid preventive therapy started and completed; clinic visit; HBC patient; and hospice admission and bednight. Results Annual core ProTEST costs were (in 2007 US dollars) $84,213 in Chawama and $31,053 in Matero. The cost of coordination was 4%–5% of total site costs ($1–$6 per person reached). The largest cost component in Chawama was voluntary counselling and testing (56%) and the clinic in Matero (50%), where VCT clients had higher HIV-prevalences and more advanced HIV. Average costs were lower for all components in the larger site. The cost per HBC patient was $149, and per hospice bednight was $24. Conclusion This study shows that coordinating an integrated and comprehensive package of services for PLWH is relatively inexpensive. The lessons learnt in this study are still applicable today in the era of ART, as these services must still be provided as part of the continuum of care for people living with HIV. PMID:18215255
Malebranche, David; Bowleg, Lisa; Sangaramoorthy, Thurka
Abstract Few studies have explored how overall general health care and HIV/STI testing experiences may influence receipt of “Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain” (STTR) HIV prevention approaches among Black men in the southern United States. Using in-depth qualitative interviews with 78 HIV-negative/unknown Black men in Georgia, we explored factors influencing their general health care and HIV/STI testing experiences. The Andersen behavioral model of health care utilization (Andersen model) offers a useful framework through which to examine the general health care experiences and HIV testing practices of Black men. It has four primary domains: Environment, Population characteristics, Health behavior, and Outcomes. Within the Andersen model framework, participants described four main themes that influenced HIV testing: access to insurance, patient–provider communication, quality of services, and personal belief systems. If STTR is to be successful among Black men, improving access and quality of general health care, integrating HIV testing into general health care, promoting health empowerment, and consumer satisfaction should be addressed. PMID:23268586
Kinney, Samantha; Lea, C. Suzanne; Kearney, Greg; Kinsey, Anna; Amaya, Carlos
Background: Approximately, two million migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSF) work in the United States annually. Several factors, such as lack of access to healthcare services and health behaviors, contribute to risk of HIV transmission. Relatively few studies have explored MSF knowledge of HIV transmission and testing options. Methods: A 12-question, self-administered survey of farmworkers (n = 178) from 19 migrant camps was conducted. The survey assessed knowledge of factors related to HIV transmission, testing, and intention to use a HIV home-test kit. Results: Participants with knowledge of treatment for HIV (p = 0.03) and that condom use protects against HIV (p = 0.04) were more willing to express intent to use a home test kit than those with less knowledge. Concern among farmworkers that HIV was a very or somewhat serious problem in their community was associated with expressing intent to use a home test kit (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 0.92–5.5). Respondents with less knowledge were less likely to use a home test kit. Conclusions: MSF were concerned about HIV in their community and would be willing to use to a home test kit. This pilot study provides a basis for additional research related to HIV testing within the MSF community. PMID:26193299
Sanchez-Sousa, A; Torres, C; Campello, M G; Garcia, C; Parras, F; Cercenado, E; Baquero, F
The presence of antibodies was determined in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid in six patients with neurobrucellosis using the Rose Bengal test, the microdilution agglutination test, and the Coombs' test. Four of the patients were followed up for more than three months. The Rose Bengal test and the microagglutination test were positive in cerebrospinal fluid in five of the six cases at some stage. The Coombs' test was positive in cerebrospinal fluid in every patient and in one was the only positive serological test. Cerebrospinal fluid positivity is not excluded by low titres or negative results of antibodies in the serum for any of the three methods. A Coombs' test or some equivalent must always be made on the cerebrospinal fluid to diagnose neurobrucellosis. PMID:2312754
Simmons, Ruth; Malyuta, Ruslan; Medoeva, Antonia; Kruglov, Yuri; Yurchenko, Alexander; Copas, Andrew; Porter, Kholoud
Objective Data from Ukraine on risk factors for HIV acquisition are limited. We describe the characteristics of individuals testing for HIV in the main testing centres of the Ukrainian capital Kiev, including HIV risk factors, testing rates, and positivity rates. Methods As part of a larger study to estimate HIV incidence within Kiev City, we included questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history to existing systems in 4 infectious disease clinics. Data were provided by the person requesting an HIV test using a handheld electronic tablet. All persons (≥16yrs) presenting for an HIV test April 2013–March 2014 were included. Rates per 100,000 were calculated using region-specific denominators for Kiev. Results During the study period 6370 individuals tested for HIV, equivalent to a testing rate of 293.2 per 100,000. Of these, 467 (7.8%) were HIV-positive, with the highest proportion positive among 31–35 year olds (11.2%), males (9.4%), people who inject drugs (PWID) (17.9%) and men who have sex with men (MSM) (24.1%). Using published population size estimates of MSM, diagnosis rates for MSM ranged from 490.6to 1548.3/100,000. A higher proportion of heterosexual women compared to heterosexual men reported contact with PWID, (16% vs. 4.7%) suggesting a bridging in risk between PWID and their sexual partners. Conclusion Collection of HIV risk factor information in Kiev, essential for the purposes of developing effective HIV prevention and response tools, is feasible. The high percentage of MSM among those testing positive for HIV, may indicate a significant level of undisclosed sex between men in national figures. PMID:26322977
Walensky, Rochelle P.; Paltiel, A. David; Losina, Elena; Morris, Bethany L.; Scott, Callie A.; Rhode, Erin R.; Seage, George R.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.
Background US and international agencies have signaled their commitment to containing the HIV epidemic via early case identification and linkage to antiretroviral therapy (ART) immediately upon diagnosis. We forecast outcomes of this approach if implemented in Washington DC. Methods Using a mathematical model of HIV case detection and treatment, we evaluate combinations of HIV screening and ART initiation strategies. We define current practice as no regular screening program and ART at ≤350/μl, and test and treat as annual screening and ART upon diagnosis. Outcomes include life expectancy of HIV-infected persons and changes in the population time with transmissible HIV RNA. Data, largely from DC, include undiagnosed HIV prevalence 0.6%, annual incidence 0.13%, 31% test offer, 60% acceptance, and 50% linkage to care. Input parameters, including optimized ART efficacy, are varied in sensitivity analyses. Results Projected life expectancies, from an initial mean age 41 years, for current practice, test and treat, and test and treat with optimized ART are 23.9, 25.0, and 25.6 years. Compared to current practice, test and treat leads to a 14.7% reduction in time spent with transmissible HIV RNA in the next 5 years; test and treat with optimized ART results in a 27.2% reduction. Conclusions An expanded HIV test and treat program in Washington DC will increase life expectancy of HIV-infected patients but will have a modest impact on HIV transmission over the next five years and is unlikely to halt the HIV epidemic. Summary The CEPAC model shows a test and treat strategy in Washington DC would result in a substantial clinical impact to HIV-infected individuals. Results suggest a need to temper expectations regarding the extent to which test and treat will control the epidemic. PMID:20617921
Laperche, S; Maniez-Montreuil, M; Couroucé, A M
The five available p24 Ag/anti-HIV combined tests were compared to the six third-generation anti-HIV assays mainly used in blood transfusion centers. Among 70 selected HIV-1 positive samples (12 samples from early infected blood donors and 58 from ten commercial panels), 59 were positive with at least one assay. False negative results were observed for zero to six samples with p24 Ag/Ab assays versus seven to 19 with antibody (Ab) tests. In five cases, one or more combined assays gave a positive signal later than the most sensitive Ab screening test. One sample with a high p24 Ag titer was missed by one combined test. The mean time delay between the most sensitive test and the second one was 0.3 to 2 days. The p24 Ag limit of detection was investigated with seven dilutions of the HIV Ag reference. The threshold of the p24 Ag detection was found to be between 65 and 250 pg/mL of HIV Ag. For four of the five combined assays, p24 Ag detectability was assessed with dilutions of infected culture cell supernatants from 13 HIV-1 different genotype strains exhibiting HIV Ag titers from 300 to 450 pg/mL. One of the four combined assays gave negative results but close to the cut-off for three supernatant dilutions (1 B, 1 F, 1 HIV-1/O) and one missed the HIV-1/O dilution. The p24 Ag/Ab combined assays permit an earlier diagnosis of HIV infection than third generation assays even if the yield in terms of reduction of the window period is moderate. They are less sensitive than p24 Ag screening assays for the detection of this marker. Consequently, the p24 Ag/Ab assays have not been used for the diagnosis of a primary infection instead of p24 Ag screening tests. They must be considered only as good tools for the detection of HIV infection.
Pollack, Lance M.; Woods, William J.; Blair, Johnny; Binson, Diane
This study sought to determine whether the presence of HIV testing inside a gay bathhouse reduced sexual risk behavior among patrons. A two-stage, time probability, cluster sample design recruited men exiting a northern California bathhouse in the last 5 weeks of 2001 (N=440), when no HIV testing was offered inside the bathhouse, and again in the last 5 weeks of 2002 (N=412) when HIV testing was offered 5 days a week. Separate logistic regression analyses compared a 2002 HIV testing exposure subgroup to both a 2001 non-exposure subgroup and a 2002 non-exposure subgroup for differences in sexual risk behavior during the bathhouse visit. Prevalence of unprotected insertive anal intercourse was significantly lower in the 2002 exposure subgroup than in the 2002 non-exposure subgroup. Similar results obtained when HIV-positive respondents were excluded. These results indicate on-site HIV testing has a preventive effect on some sexual risk behavior inside the bathhouse. PMID:25383057
Sato, P. A.; Maskill, W. J.; Tamashiro, H.; Heymann, D. L.
Advances in laboratory tests for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have permitted the development of alternative HIV testing strategies that do not require use of the Western blot approach. Three strategies are proposed. In strategy I, sera are tested for HIV antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)/rapid/simple (ERS) test; in strategy II, sera reactive in an initial ERS test are retested using a second ERS test; strategy III involves retesting with a third ERS test all sera reactive in two previous ERS tests. Where the objective is identification of asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals, strategy III is proposed where HIV prevalences in the study population are < or = 10%, and strategy II at prevalences > 10%. Strategy II is recommended where the diagnosis of HIV-related disease requires HIV testing. For serosurveillance, strategy II is recommended if the prevalence is < or = 10%, and strategy I if the prevalences are > 10%. Use of strategy I is recommended for transfusion and transplantation safety, at any prevalence. Lower-cost laboratory HIV testing will permit such testing to become more widely available. PMID:8131248
Monge, Susana; Caro-Murillo, Ana M.; Ramírez-Rubio, Oriana; Azcoaga-Lorenzo, Amaya; Belza, Maria J.; Rivero-Montesdeoca, Yaiza; Noori, Teymur; Del Amo, Julia
Background: In the context of an European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) research project, our objective was to describe current recommendations regarding HIV testing and counselling targeting migrants and ethnic minorities in the European Union/European Economic Area/European Free Trade Association (EU/EEA/EFTA) Member States. Methods: An on-line survey was conducted among 31 EU/EEA/EFTA Member States. The survey inquired on the existence of specific HIV testing and counselling recommendations or policies for migrants and/or ethnic minorities and the year of their publication. Additionally, we performed a review of national recommendations, guidelines or any other policy documents retrieved from an Internet search through the different countries’ competent bodies. Results: Twenty-nine (94%) country representatives responded the survey, and 28 documents from 27 countries were identified. National guidelines on HIV testing are heterogeneous and tailored, according to the epidemiological situation. Twenty-two countries identify migrants and four countries identify ethnic minorities as particularly vulnerable to HIV. Sixteen countries explicitly recommend offering an HIV test to migrants/ethnic minorities. Guidelines especially target people originating from HIV endemic countries, and benefits of HIV early detection are highlighted. HIV testing is not mandatory in any country, but some countries overtly facilitate this practice. Conclusion: Benefits of HIV testing in migrants and ethnic minorities, at both individual and community levels are recognized by many countries. In spite of this, not all countries identify the need to test these groups. PMID:23921295
Farnham, Paul G.; Sansom, Stephanie L.; Yaylali, Emine; Mermin, Jonathan H.
Purpose: Data showing a high incidence of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) who had annual testing suggest that more frequent HIV testing may be warranted. Testing technology is also a consideration given the availability of sensitive testing modalities and the increased use of less-sensitive rapid, point-of-care antibody tests. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of HIV testing of MSM and injection drug users (IDUs) at 3- and 6-month intervals using fourth-generation and rapid tests. Methods: We used a published mathematical model of HIV transmission to evaluate testing intervals for each population using cohorts of 10,000 MSM and IDU. We incorporated HIV transmissions averted due to serostatus awareness and viral suppression. We included costs for HIV testing and treatment initiation, and also treatment costs saved from averted transmissions. Results: For MSM, HIV testing was cost saving or cost effective over a 1-year period for both 6-month compared with annual testing and quarterly compared with 6-month testing using either test. Testing IDU every 6 months compared with annually was moderately cost effective over a 1-year period with a fourth-generation test, while testing with rapid, point-of-care tests or quarterly was not cost effective. MSM results remained robust in sensitivity analysis, whereas IDU results were sensitive to changes in HIV incidence and continuum-of-care parameters. Threshold analyses on costs suggested that additional implementation costs could be incurred for more frequent testing for MSM while remaining cost effective. Conclusions: HIV testing of MSM as frequently as quarterly is cost effective compared with annual testing, but testing IDU more frequently than annually is generally not cost effective. PMID:26361172
Moncla, B.J.; Pryke, K.; Rohan, L. C.; Yang, H.
The development of topical microbicides for intravaginal use to prevent HIV infection requires that the drugs and formulated products be nontoxic to the endogenous vaginal Lactobacillus. In 30 min exposure tests we found dapivirine, tenofovir and UC781 (reverse transcriptase inhibitor anti-HIV drugs) as pure drugs or formulated as film or gel products were not deleterious to Lactobacillus species; however, PSC-RANTES (a synthetic CCR5 antagonist) killed 2 strains of Lactobacillus jensenii. To demonstrate the toxicity of formulated products a new assay was developed for use with viscous and non-viscous samples that we have termed the Lactobacillus toxicity test. We found that the vortex mixing of vaginal Lactobacillus species can lead to reductions in bacterial viability. Lactobacillus can survive brief, about 2 sec, but viability declines with increased vortex mixing. The addition of heat inactivated serum or bovine serum albumin, but not glycerol, prevented the decrease in bacterial viability. Bacillus atrophaeus spores also demonstrated loss of viability upon extended mixing. We observed that many of the excipients used in film formulation and the films themselves also afford protection from the killing during vortex mixing. This method is of relevance for toxicity for cidal activities of viscous products. PMID:22226641
Tran, Jennifer M; Li, Alan; Owino, Maureen; English, Ken; Mascarenhas, Lyndon; Tan, Darrell H S
HIV testing is mandatory for individuals wishing to immigrate to Canada. Since the Designated Medical Practitioners (DMPs) who perform these tests may have varying experience in HIV and time constraints in their clinical practices, there may be variability in the quality of pre- and posttest counseling provided. We surveyed DMPs regarding HIV testing, counseling, and immigration inadmissibility. A 16-item survey was mailed to all DMPs across Canada (N = 203). The survey inquired about DMP characteristics, knowledge of HIV, attitudes and practices regarding inadmissibility and counseling, and interest in continuing medical education. There were a total of 83 respondents (41%). Participants frequently rated their knowledge of HIV diagnostics, cultural competency, and HIV/AIDS service organizations as "fair" (40%, 43%, and 44%, respectively). About 25%, 46%, and 11% of the respondents agreed/strongly agreed with the statements "HIV infected individuals pose a danger to public health and safety," "HIV-positive immigrants cause excessive demand on the healthcare system," and "HIV seropositivity is a reasonable ground for denial into Canada," respectively. Language was cited as a barrier to counseling, which focused on transmission risks (46% discussed this as "always" or "often") more than coping and social support (37%). There was a high level of interest (47%) in continuing medical education in this area. There are areas for improvement regarding DMPs' knowledge, attitudes, and practices about HIV infection, counseling, and immigration criteria. Continuing medical education and support for DMPs to facilitate practice changes could benefit newcomers who test positive through the immigration process. PMID:25029636
Tran, Jennifer M; Li, Alan; Owino, Maureen; English, Ken; Mascarenhas, Lyndon; Tan, Darrell H S
HIV testing is mandatory for individuals wishing to immigrate to Canada. Since the Designated Medical Practitioners (DMPs) who perform these tests may have varying experience in HIV and time constraints in their clinical practices, there may be variability in the quality of pre- and posttest counseling provided. We surveyed DMPs regarding HIV testing, counseling, and immigration inadmissibility. A 16-item survey was mailed to all DMPs across Canada (N = 203). The survey inquired about DMP characteristics, knowledge of HIV, attitudes and practices regarding inadmissibility and counseling, and interest in continuing medical education. There were a total of 83 respondents (41%). Participants frequently rated their knowledge of HIV diagnostics, cultural competency, and HIV/AIDS service organizations as "fair" (40%, 43%, and 44%, respectively). About 25%, 46%, and 11% of the respondents agreed/strongly agreed with the statements "HIV infected individuals pose a danger to public health and safety," "HIV-positive immigrants cause excessive demand on the healthcare system," and "HIV seropositivity is a reasonable ground for denial into Canada," respectively. Language was cited as a barrier to counseling, which focused on transmission risks (46% discussed this as "always" or "often") more than coping and social support (37%). There was a high level of interest (47%) in continuing medical education in this area. There are areas for improvement regarding DMPs' knowledge, attitudes, and practices about HIV infection, counseling, and immigration criteria. Continuing medical education and support for DMPs to facilitate practice changes could benefit newcomers who test positive through the immigration process.
Becker, Davida; Espinoza, Lilia; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena; Diaz, Gaby; Carricchi, Ana; Galvez, Gino; Garcia, Melawhy
Objectives Latinos are at an elevated risk for HIV infection. Continued HIV/AIDS stigma presents barriers to HIV testing and affects the quality of life of HIV-positive individuals, yet few interventions addressing HIV/AIDS stigma have been developed for Latinos. Methods An intervention led by community health workers (promotores de salud, or promotores) targeting underserved Latinos in three southwestern U.S. communities was developed to decrease HIV/AIDS stigma and increase HIV knowledge and perception of risk. The intervention was led by HIV-positive and HIV-affected (i.e., those who have, or have had, a close family member or friend with HIV/AIDS) promotores, who delivered interactive group-based educational sessions to groups of Latinos in Spanish and English. To decrease stigma and motivate behavioral and attitudinal change, the educational sessions emphasized positive Latino cultural values and community assets. The participant pool comprised 579 Latino adults recruited in El Paso, Texas (n=204); San Ysidro, California (n=175); and Los Angeles, California (n=200). Results From pretest to posttest, HIV/AIDS stigma scores decreased significantly (p<0.001). Significant increases were observed in HIV/AIDS knowledge (p<0.001), willingness to discuss HIV/AIDS with one's sexual partner (p<0.001), and HIV risk perception (p=0.006). Willingness to test for HIV in the three months following the intervention did not increase. Women demonstrated a greater reduction in HIV/AIDS stigma scores when compared with their male counterparts, which may have been related to a greater increase in HIV/AIDS knowledge scores (p=0.016 and p=0.007, respectively). Conclusion Promotores interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma and increase HIV-related knowledge, perception of risk, and willingness to discuss sexual risk with partners show promise in reaching underserved Latino communities. PMID:26327724
Background Despite the introduction of free antiretroviral therapy (ART), the use of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services remains persistently low in many African countries. This study investigates how prior experience of HIV and VCT, and knowledge about HIV and ART influence VCT use in rural Tanzania. Methods In 2006–7, VCT was offered to study participants during the fifth survey round of an HIV community cohort study that includes HIV testing for research purposes without results disclosure, and a questionnaire covering knowledge, attitudes and practices around HIV infection and HIV services. Categorical variables were created for HIV knowledge and ART knowledge, with “good” HIV and ART knowledge defined as correctly answering at least 4/6 and 5/7 questions about HIV and ART respectively. Experience of HIV was defined as knowing people living with HIV, or having died from AIDS. Logistic regression methods were used to assess how HIV and ART knowledge, and prior experiences of HIV and VCT were associated with VCT uptake, with adjustment for HIV status and socio-demographic confounders. Results 2,695/3,886 (69%) men and 2,708/5,575 women (49%) had “good” HIV knowledge, while 613/3,886 (16%) men and 585/5575 (10%) women had “good” ART knowledge. Misconceptions about HIV transmission were common, including through kissing (55% of women, 43% of men), or mosquito bites (42% of women, 34% of men). 19% of men and 16% of women used VCT during the survey. After controlling for HIV status and socio-demographic factors, the odds of VCT use were lower among those with poor HIV knowledge (aOR = 0.5; p = 0.01 for men and aOR = 0.6; p < 0.01 for women) and poor ART knowledge (aOR = 0.8; p = 0.06 for men, aOR = 0.8; p < 0.01 for women), and higher among those with HIV experience (aOR = 1.3 for men and aOR = 1.6 for women, p < 0.01) and positive prior VCT experience (aOR = 2.0 for all men and aOR = 2
Lorenz, Rick; Grant, Eisha; Muyindike, Winnie; Maling, Samuel; Card, Claire; Henry, Carol; Nazarali, Adil J.
Caregivers of HIV-positive children were interviewed in the Mbarara and Isingiro districts of Uganda to identify current trends in practices related to HIV testing and the disclosure of HIV status to the child. A total of 28 caregivers of at least one HIV-positive child participated in semi-structured interviews exploring when and why they tested the child for HIV, when the child was informed of their positive status, and what the caregiver did to prepare themselves and the child for status disclosure. For a majority (96%) of respondents, the decision to test the child for HIV was due to existing illness in either the child or a relative. Other common themes identified included the existence of stigma in the caregivers’ communities and doubt that the children truly understood what was being explained to them when their status was disclosed. Most (65%) children were informed of their HIV status between the ages of 5 and 9, with the mean age of disclosure occurring at the age of 7. General provision of HIV information typically began at the same age as disclosure, and as many as two thirds (64%) of the caregivers sought advice from an HIV counsellor prior to disclosure. How a caregiver chose to prepare themselves and the child did not affect the caregiver’s perception of whether the disclosure experience was beneficial or not. These findings suggest that the HIV disclosure experience in Mbarara and Isingiro districts differs from current guidelines, especially with respect to age of disclosure, how caregivers prepare themselves and the child, and approaching disclosure as an ongoing process. The doubts expressed by caregivers regarding the child’s level of HIV understanding following the disclosure experience suggest the children may be insufficiently prepared at the time of the initial disclosure event. The findings also suggest that examining the content of pre-disclosure counselling and HIV education, and how health care professionals are trained to
Pettifor, Audrey E.; Phiri, Sam; Kamanga, Gift; Hoffman, Irving F.; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Rosenberg, Nora E.; Nsona, Dominic; Pasquale, Dana; Tegha, Gerald; Powers, Kimberly A.; Phiri, Mcleod; Tembo, Bisweck; Chege, Wairimu; Miller, William C.
Background and Objectives: Integrating acute HIV-infection (AHI) testing into clinical settings is critical to prevent transmission, and realize potential treatment-as-prevention benefits. We evaluated acceptability of AHI testing and compared AHI prevalence at sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and HIV testing and counseling (HTC) clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods: We conducted HIV RNA testing for HIV-seronegative patients visiting STI and HTC clinics. AHI was defined as positive RNA and negative/discordant rapid antibody tests. We evaluated demographic, behavioral, and transmission-risk differences between STI and HTC patients and assessed performance of a risk-score for targeted screening. Results: Nearly two-thirds (62.8%, 9280/14,755) of eligible patients consented to AHI testing. We identified 59 persons with AHI (prevalence = 0.64%)–a 0.9% case-identification increase. Prevalence was higher at STI [1.03% (44/4255)] than at HTC clinics [0.3% (15/5025), P < 0.01], accounting for 2.3% of new diagnoses vs 0.3% at HTC clinic. Median viral load (VL) was 758,050 copies per milliliter; 25% (15/59) had VL ≥10,000,000 copies per milliliter. Median VL was higher at STI (1,000,000 copies/mL) compared with HTC (153,125 copies/mL, P = 0.2). Among persons with AHI, those tested at STI clinics were more likely to report genital sores compared with those tested at HTC clinics (54.6% vs 6.7%, P < 0.01). The risk score algorithm performed well in identifying persons with AHI at HTC clinics (sensitivity = 73%, specificity = 89%). Conclusions: The majority of patients consented to AHI testing. AHI prevalence was substantially higher in STI clinics than HTC clinics. Remarkably high VLs and concomitant genital scores demonstrate the potential for transmission. Universal AHI screening at STI clinics, and targeted screening at HTC centers, should be considered. PMID:26428231
Stevens, Robin; Hornik, Robert C
This study examined the effect of newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS on HIV testing behavior in a U.S. population. HIV testing data were taken from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's National Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 1993 to 2007 (N = 265,557). The authors content-analyzed news stories from 24 daily newspapers and 1 wire service during the same time period. The authors used distributed lagged regression models to estimate how well HIV/AIDS newspaper coverage predicted later HIV testing behavior. Increases in HIV/AIDS newspaper coverage were associated with declines in population-level HIV testing. Each additional 100 HIV/AIDS-related newspaper stories published each month was associated with a 1.7% decline in HIV testing levels in the subsequent month. This effect differed by race, with African Americans exhibiting greater declines in HIV testing subsequent to increased news coverage than did Whites. These results suggest that mainstream newspaper coverage of HIV/AIDS may have a particularly deleterious effect on African Americans, one of the groups most affected by the disease. The mechanisms driving the negative effect deserve further investigation to improve reporting on HIV/AIDS in the media.
Glasman, Laura R; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Lechuga, Julia; Tarima, Sergey; Bodnar, Gloria; de Mendoza, Lorena Rivas
In El Salvador, crack users are at high risk for HIV but they are not targeted by efforts to promote early HIV diagnosis. We evaluated the promise of peer-referral chains with incentives to increase HIV testing and identify undiagnosed HIV infections among networks of crack users in San Salvador. For 14 months, we offered HIV testing in communities with a high prevalence of crack use. For the following 14 months, we promoted chains in which crack users from these communities referred their peers to HIV testing and received a small monetary incentive. We recorded the monthly numbers of HIV testers, and their crack use, sexual risk behaviors and test results. After launching the referral chains, the monthly numbers of HIV testers increased significantly (Z = 6.90, p < .001) and decayed more slowly (Z = 5.93, p < .001), and the total number of crack-using testers increased nearly fourfold. Testers in the peer-referral period reported fewer HIV risk behaviors, but a similar percentage (~5 %) tested HIV positive in both periods. More women than men received an HIV-positive diagnosis throughout the study (χ(2)(1, N = 799) = 4.23, p = .040). Peer-referral chains with incentives can potentially increase HIV testing among networks of crack users while retaining a focus on high-risk individuals.
Fleming, Paul J; Barrington, Clare; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna
Male steady partners of female sex workers (FSW) living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent a key population for treatment as prevention and/or pre-exposure prophylaxis interventions. This study uses data collected from male steady partners who were referred by FSW living with HIV participating in a multi-level HIV prevention and care intervention in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. We conducted a socio-behavioral survey and HIV testing with all men (n = 64) and 16 in-depth interviews with a sub-sample to obtain more depth. Thirty-five of the 64 participants were living with HIV; 27 were previously diagnosed and 8 were diagnosed during our study. As a result, 45% of men were members of sero-discordant sexual partnerships. Of men with no previous HIV diagnosis (n = 37), 15 had never been tested for HIV and nine had not been tested in the past two years. Ninety-three percent of men previously diagnosed with HIV reported receiving HIV care in the past 6 months and 78% were taking anti-retrovirals. Low HIV testing was partly due to men not feeling at risk for HIV, despite having an HIV-infected partner. Additionally, a lack of tailored care inhibited engagement in anti-retroviral treatment for those infected. HIV testing was low, highlighting a need for test-and-treat strategies. Men not living with HIV would benefit from regular testing and would be good candidates for pre-exposure prophylaxis. While almost all men who had been diagnosed with HIV were engaged in care and adherent to anti-retroviral therapy, future research should assess whether they are achieving optimal HIV outcomes for their health and prevention of ongoing transmission.
Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E
Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p < 0.01), sterilization of delivery equipment (p < 0.01), participation in blood safety training (p < 0.01), and disposal of sharps (p < 0.01). As long as a high percent of births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health.
Osuji, Alice; Pharr, Jennifer R.; Nwokoro, Uche; Ike, Anulika; Ali, Christiana; Ejiro, Ogheneaga; Osuyali, John; Obiefune, Michael; Fiscella, Kevin; Ezeanolue, Echezona E.
Nigeria is second in the world for the number of people with HIV and has a high rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Over 60% of births in Nigeria occur outside of health care facilities, and because of this, Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) play a significant role in maternal and child health. It is important that TBAs be knowledgeable about HIV prevention. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) knowledge on the HIV prevention practices among TBAs in Nigeria. Five hundred TBAs were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to assess differences in HIV prevention practices between TBAs with and without HTC knowledge. TBAs with HTC knowledge are significantly more likely to engage in HIV prevention practices than TBAs without HTC. Prevention practices included: wearing gloves during delivery (p < 0.01), sterilization of delivery equipment (p < 0.01), participation in blood safety training (p < 0.01), and disposal of sharps (p < 0.01). As long as a high percent of births occur outside health care facilities in Nigeria, there will be a need for TBAs. Providing TBAs with HTC training increases HIV prevention practices and can be a key to improve maternal and child health. PMID:25674783
Background Despite Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) being the epicenter of the HIV epidemic, uptake of HIV testing is not optimal. While qualitative studies have been undertaken to investigate factors influencing uptake of HIV testing, systematic reviews to provide a more comprehensive understanding are lacking. Methods Using Noblit and Hare’s meta-ethnography method, we synthesised published qualitative research to understand factors enabling and deterring uptake of HIV testing in SSA. We identified 5,686 citations out of which 56 were selected for full text review and synthesised 42 papers from 13 countries using Malpass’ notion of first-, second-, and third-order constructs. Results The predominant factors enabling uptake of HIV testing are deterioration of physical health and/or death of sexual partner or child. The roll-out of various HIV testing initiatives such as ‘opt-out’ provider-initiated HIV testing and mobile HIV testing has improved uptake of HIV testing by being conveniently available and attenuating fear of HIV-related stigma and financial costs. Other enabling factors are availability of treatment and social network influence and support. Major barriers to uptake of HIV testing comprise perceived low risk of HIV infection, perceived health workers’ inability to maintain confidentiality and fear of HIV-related stigma. While the increasingly wider availability of life-saving treatment in SSA is an incentive to test, the perceived psychological burden of living with HIV inhibits uptake of HIV testing. Other barriers are direct and indirect financial costs of accessing HIV testing, and gender inequality which undermines women’s decision making autonomy about HIV testing. Despite differences across SSA, the findings suggest comparable factors influencing HIV testing. Conclusions Improving uptake of HIV testing requires addressing perception of low risk of HIV infection and perceived inability to live with HIV. There is also a need to continue
Cowan, Ethan; Macklin, Ruth
Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) has substantially reduced the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) after an occupational exposure; nevertheless, exposure to HIV remains a concern for emergency department providers. According to published guidelines, PEP should be taken only when source patients are HIV positive or have risk factors for HIV. Initiating PEP when source patients are uninfected puts exposed persons at risk from taking toxic drugs with no compensating benefit. Forgoing PEP if the source is infected results in increased risk of acquiring HIV. What should be done if source patients refuse HIV testing? Is it justifiable to test the blood of these patients over their autonomous objection? The authors review current law and policy and perform an ethical analysis to determine if laws permitting unconsented testing in cases of occupational exposure can be ethically justified. PMID:22994417
Snyder, Hannah; Yeldandi, Vijay V.; Kumar, G. Prem; Liao, Chuanhong; Lakshmi, Vemu; Gandham, Sabitha R.; Muppudi, Uma; Oruganti, Ganesh; Schneider, John A.
In India, men who have sex with men (MSM) and truck drivers are high-risk groups that often do not access HIV testing due to stigma and high mobility. This study evaluated a field testing package (FTP) that identified HIV positive participants through video pre-test counseling, OraQuick oral fluid HIV testing, and telephonic post-test counseling…
Matemo, D; Kinuthia, J; John, F; Chung, M; Farquhar, C; John-Stewart, G; Kiarie, J
Summary The sensitivity and specificity of rapid HIV-1 tests may be altered during pregnancy and postpartum. We conducted a study to determine the prevalence and correlates of false-positive Abbott Determine™ and false-negative Uni-Gold™ rapid HIV-1 test results among antenatal and postnatal mothers attending a primary care clinic in Nairobi, Kenya. Mothers were tested for HIV-1 using Abbott Determine™ and non-reactive results were considered HIV-1 antibody negative. Reactive samples by Determine were re-tested by Uni-Gold™. Vironostika HIV-1 and Uni-FORM II Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to confirm samples that had positive Abbott Determine™ and negative Uni-Gold™. Among 2311 women who accepted HIV-1 testing, 1238 (54%) were tested antenatally and 1073 (46%) were tested postnatally. Of tested women, 274 (12%) women were reactive by Abbott Determine™ and on retesting with Uni-Gold™ 30 (11%) had indeterminate results. The prevalence of indeterminate results was significantly higher in antenatal women than in postnatal women (2% versus 1%, P = 0.03). In conclusion, indeterminate rapid HIV-1 test results are more common in the antenatal period and appropriate safeguards to confirm HIV-1 infection status should be implemented in antenatal programmes. PMID:19875832
Shahid, Salman; Majeed, Mohammad Faisal; Awaan, Ahmad Bakhsh; Mirza, Humayun; Sarfraz, Nasir; Veronese, Vanessa
Objectives To explore the utility of home and community-based HIV testing and counseling (HTC) to increase detection of undiagnosed HIV among female spouses and children of HIV-positive PWID in Punjab province, Pakistan. Design Between March 2014 and March 2015, home-based HTC was provided by a local NGO to spouses of HIV-positive PWID in Lahore, Faisalabad, and Sargodha. Convenience sampling was used to identify 2400 married, HIV-positive men who inject drugs and who were currently registered and receiving harm reduction services from the NGO ‘Roshan Rasta’ and seek consent to approach their wives. Method Trained outreach teams conducted HTC and administered a short sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaire to consenting spouses in their homes. HIV-exposed children were also tested with parental consent. Results of the 2400 married HIV positive male-injecting drug users, only 1959 spouses were approached and 1896 agreed to HTC (96.8%). HIV prevalence was 5.3% (n = 101) among spouses and they had very low level of HIV-related knowledge and protective behaviors Conclusion Home and community-based HTC was effective in identifying undiagnosed HIV among spouses of PWID, the majority of whom reported low rates of prior HIV testing and low HIV-related knowledge. Expansion of HIV prevention services and linkages to treatment and care including PMTCT are urgently needed for this group. PMID:26945140
Alemnji, George; Nkengasong, John N; Parekh, Bharat S
HIV diagnostic and follow up testing are usually done in laboratory settings. However, in developing countries there is a need to decentralize testing as the majority of the population lives in rural settings. In developing countries stringent quality assurance (QA) practices, which include appropriate training, development of standard operating procedures, maintenance of operator proficiency, routine use of quality control (QC) specimens, standardized data management, equipment calibration and maintenance, and biohazard safety with proper disinfection/disposal procedures are not routinely followed to ensure reliability of results and a safe work environment. The introduction of point-of-care testing technologies involving the use of non-laboratorians in routine testing has further increased the complexity of QA. Therefore, a careful approach towards improvement of laboratories that encourages best practices, coupled with incentives, and review of government policies in point-of-care testing is needed to improve quality of testing as decentralization takes place. Development of a functional laboratory tiered network that facilitates communication, referral, training and problem solving could further enhance confidence in laboratory testing. There is also a need for special considerations in implementing a step-wise approach towards quality improvement, strengthening of the supply chain management, human capacity development, infrastructure upgrade, and strong public private partnerships to ensure long term sustainability of these efforts. PMID:22310813
Alemnji, George; Nkengasong, John N; Parekh, Bharat S
HIV diagnostic and follow up testing are usually done in laboratory settings. However, in developing countries there is a need to decentralize testing as the majority of the population lives in rural settings. In developing countries stringent quality assurance (QA) practices, which include appropriate training, development of standard operating procedures, maintenance of operator proficiency, routine use of quality control (QC) specimens, standardized data management, equipment calibration and maintenance, and biohazard safety with proper disinfection/disposal procedures are not routinely followed to ensure reliability of results and a safe work environment. The introduction of point-of-care testing technologies involving the use of non-laboratorians in routine testing has further increased the complexity of QA. Therefore, a careful approach towards improvement of laboratories that encourages best practices, coupled with incentives, and review of government policies in point-of-care testing is needed to improve quality of testing as decentralization takes place. Development of a functional laboratory tiered network that facilitates communication, referral, training and problem solving could further enhance confidence in laboratory testing. There is also a need for special considerations in implementing a step-wise approach towards quality improvement, strengthening of the supply chain management, human capacity development, infrastructure upgrade, and strong public private partnerships to ensure long term sustainability of these efforts.
Yeatman, Sara E
HIV counseling and testing is broadly considered a critical component of HIV transmission-prevention and treatment efforts. Given the severity of the AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa, the potential societal benefit of testing is invoked to call for its massive expansion and to justify a shift from voluntary to routine testing. Surprisingly little evidence has demonstrated, however, that such a shift will result in the intended benefits to communities, particularly that of reducing the horizontal transmission of HIV. This analysis addresses and critiques the assumptions underlying a serostatus-based approach to behavior change and discusses the ethical consequences of transferring control of the decision to be tested from the individual to the provider. It concludes with a discussion of the implications for HIV counseling and testing policies and proposes alternatives to routine testing that have the potential to be effective while preserving the right to know one's HIV status. PMID:18284041
Gardner, Aaron T; Napier, Rachaline; Brown, Brandon
Patients diagnosed late in the course of HIV infection are at an increased risk of negative health outcomes and are more likely to transmit HIV to others. Using the CDC's definition for AIDS, we analyzed case report data from persons diagnosed with AIDS within 12 months of an HIV diagnosis ("late-to-test") in Riverside County, CA, between 2009 and 2014. Of 1385 HIV cases, 422 (30.5%) were late-to-test. Factors associated with late-to-test were: having no insurance (P = 0.005), being Hispanic (P = 0.002) and being between 45 and 64 years of age (P < 0.001). Females (P = 0.013) and those in the eastern region of Riverside County (P = 0.002) were less likely to be late-to-test. In the absence of universal HIV testing, interventions to decrease late testing are needed. PMID:27684873
Kingston, Hugh W F; Blacksell, Stuart D; Tanganuchitcharnchai, Ampai; Laongnualpanich, Achara; Basnyat, Buddha; Day, Nicholas P J; Paris, Daniel H
This study investigated the comparative accuracy of a recombinant 56-kDa type-specific antigen-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for scrub typhus for the detection of IgM antibodies by using conventional serology in well-characterized serum samples from undifferentiated febrile illness patients. The RDT showed high specificity and promising comparative accuracy, with 82% sensitivity and 98% specificity for samples defined positive at an IgM indirect immunofluorescence assay positivity cutoff titer of ≥1:1,600 versus 92% and 95% at ≥1:6,400, respectively.
Fleming, Paul J; Colvin, Chris; Peacock, Dean; Dworkin, Shari L
Men are less likely than women to test for HIV and engage in HIV care and treatment. We conducted in-depth interviews with men participating in One Man Can (OMC) - a rights-based gender equality and health programme intervention conducted in rural Limpopo and Eastern Cape, South Africa - to explore masculinity-related barriers to HIV testing/care/treatment and how participation in OMC impacted on these. Men who participated in OMC reported an increased capability to overcome masculinity-related barriers to testing/care/treatment. They also reported increased ability to express vulnerability and discuss HIV openly with others, which led to greater willingness to be tested for HIV and receive HIV care and treatment for those who were living with HIV. Interventions that challenge masculine norms and promote gender equality (i.e. gender-transformative interventions) represent a promising new approach to address men's barriers to testing, care and treatment. PMID:27267890
Fleming, Paul J; Colvin, Chris; Peacock, Dean; Dworkin, Shari L
Men are less likely than women to test for HIV and engage in HIV care and treatment. We conducted in-depth interviews with men participating in One Man Can (OMC) - a rights-based gender equality and health programme intervention conducted in rural Limpopo and Eastern Cape, South Africa - to explore masculinity-related barriers to HIV testing/care/treatment and how participation in OMC impacted on these. Men who participated in OMC reported an increased capability to overcome masculinity-related barriers to testing/care/treatment. They also reported increased ability to express vulnerability and discuss HIV openly with others, which led to greater willingness to be tested for HIV and receive HIV care and treatment for those who were living with HIV. Interventions that challenge masculine norms and promote gender equality (i.e. gender-transformative interventions) represent a promising new approach to address men's barriers to testing, care and treatment.
Goosen, Simone; Waldhober, Quita
Objectives Asylum seekers are considered to be a particularly vulnerable group with respect to HIV. Data on the HIV prevalence among asylum seekers, however, are scarce. The aim of this study is to map the HIV prevalence among asylum seekers who gave birth in The Netherlands. Methods We used a nationwide electronic medical records database from the community health services for asylum seekers (MOA). The study population consisted of 4,854 women and girls who delivered in asylum reception between 2000 and 2008. A unique electronic health data base was used and case allocation was based on ICPC-codes. Results The number of women and girls that was HIV positive during their last pregnancy was 80, of which 79 originated from sub-Saharan Africa. The prevalence for women from this region of origin (3.4%) was high compared to women from all other regions of origin (0.04%; OR = 90.2; 95%CI 12.5–648.8). The highest HIV prevalence rates were found for women from Rwanda (17.0%) and Cameroon (13.2%). HIV prevalence rates were higher among women who arrived in reception without partner (OR = 1.82; 95%CI 0.75–4.44) and unaccompanied minors (OR = 2.59; 95%CI 0.79–8.49), compared to women who arrived in reception with partner. Conclusions We conclude that, among asylum-seeking women from sub-Saharan Africa giving birth in The Netherlands, the HIV prevalence is high compared to the host population. For women from other regions of origin, the prevalence is at the same level as in the host population. The high HIV prevalence underlines the importance of preventive interventions and voluntary HIV testing for sub-Saharan African asylum seekers as from shortly after arrival. PMID:26296093
Anastasi, Marie-Christine; Sawyer, Robin G.; Pinciaro, Paul J.
Investigated characteristics of students voluntarily seeking human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody testing at a university health center. Data from student surveys indicated that: 59% were women; reported rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases were low; nearly one-third had had previous HIV testing; 40% reported…
Manirankunda, Lazare; Loos, Jasna; Debackaere, Pieterjan; Nostlinger, Christiana
This study identified physicians' HIV testing practices and their barriers toward implementing provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) for Sub-Saharan African migrants (SAM) in Flanders, Belgium. In-depth interviews were conducted on a purposive sample of 20 physicians (ten GPs and ten internists). GPs performed mainly…
Compared health beliefs and risky sexual behaviors among college students who did and did not seek HIV testing. Data from student surveys and testing/intervention sessions indicated no significant differences in health beliefs. Students considered themselves invulnerable to HIV. Counseling sessions were influential in persuading students to…
Wu, Zunyou; Rou, Keming; Xu, Chen; Lou, Wei; Detels, Roger
Premarital counseling is required for couples wishing to be married in China. The counseling primarily provides information about contraception. We evaluated adding premarital HIV/AIDS counseling and voluntary HIV testing to the standard counseling. The test was offered free to one group and at the standard cost to the other. The proportion of…
Aronson, Ian David; Rajan, Sonali; Marsch, Lisa A.; Bania, Theodore C.
The current study examines predictors of HIV test acceptance among emergency department patients who received an educational video intervention designed to increase HIV testing. A total of 202 patients in the main treatment areas of a high-volume, urban hospital emergency department used inexpensive netbook computers to watch brief educational…
Haynes, L. F.; Korte, J. E.; Holmes, B. E.; Gooden, L.; Matheson, T.; Feaster, D. J.; Leff, J. A.; Wilson, L.; Metsch, L. R.; Schackman, B. R.
The Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration has promoted HIV testing and counseling as an evidence-based practice. Nevertheless, adoption of HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs has been slow. This article describes the experience of a substance abuse treatment agency where, following participation in a clinical trial,…
Schuklenk, Udo; Kleinsmidt, Anita
We analyzed the ethical and policy issues surrounding mandatory HIV testing of pregnant women in areas with high HIV prevalence rates. Through this analysis, we seek to demonstrate that a mandatory approach to testing and treatment has the potential to significantly reduce perinatal transmission of HIV and defend the view that mandatory testing is morally required if a number of conditions can be met. If such programs are to be introduced, continuing medical care, including highly active antiretroviral therapy, must be provided and pregnant women must have reasonable alternatives to compulsory testing and treatment. We propose that a liberal regime entailing abortion rights up to the point of fetal viability would satisfy these requirements. Pilot studies in the high-prevalence region of southern African countries should investigate the feasibility of this approach. PMID:17538051
Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Chunloy, Krongtip; Smith, Kimberly
An HIV transmission prevention program incorporating universal voluntary counseling and testing (UVCT) was conducted in a general practice (GP) clinic of a Thai hospital. Of the 494 participating patients, 356 (72%) accepted HIV-UVCT. Independent factors associated with HIV-UVCT acceptance included participating in the program after office hours (4-8 pm; P < .001), living with domestic partner with no marriage (P = .01), and having primary school education or less (P = .02). The main reasons for declining HIV-UVCT were time constraint (38%) and perceiving self as no risk (35%). Among the 356 patients undergoing HIV-UVCT, having moderate to high HIV risk (P < .001) and male sex (P = .01) were independently associated with low HIV risk perception. By HIV-UVCT, the rate of new HIV infection was 4 (1.1%) of 356 patients. Of these 4 newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients, 3 (75%) were homosexual men. The findings suggest feasibility of HIV-UVCT in our GP clinic and factors to be considered for improving the program.
Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Chunloy, Krongtip; Smith, Kimberly
An HIV transmission prevention program incorporating universal voluntary counseling and testing (UVCT) was conducted in a general practice (GP) clinic of a Thai hospital. Of the 494 participating patients, 356 (72%) accepted HIV-UVCT. Independent factors associated with HIV-UVCT acceptance included participating in the program after office hours (4-8 pm; P < .001), living with domestic partner with no marriage (P = .01), and having primary school education or less (P = .02). The main reasons for declining HIV-UVCT were time constraint (38%) and perceiving self as no risk (35%). Among the 356 patients undergoing HIV-UVCT, having moderate to high HIV risk (P < .001) and male sex (P = .01) were independently associated with low HIV risk perception. By HIV-UVCT, the rate of new HIV infection was 4 (1.1%) of 356 patients. Of these 4 newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients, 3 (75%) were homosexual men. The findings suggest feasibility of HIV-UVCT in our GP clinic and factors to be considered for improving the program. PMID:24759448
DiFranceisco, W; Holtgrave, D R; Hoxie, N; Reiser, W J; Resenhoeft, R; Pinkerton, S D; Vergeront, J
A common assumption is that outreach-based HIV counseling and testing services reach a clientele with a higher HIV seroprevalence than clinic-based counseling and testing. To examine this assumption, we analyzed Wisconsin's anonymous counseling and testing client records for 62,299 contacts (testing episodes) from 1992 to 1995. Bivariate analysis of counseling and testing service setting (outreach-based or clinic-based) and HIV test results suggested that outreach contacts were 23% (odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.0-1.5) more likely to test HIV-seropositive than clinic-based contacts. Relations between HIV test outcome and variables for client age, race, gender, previous testing history, mode of risk exposure, and region, as well as service setting, were examined by logistic regression. An inverted relation between service setting and seropositivity (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.5-0.8) indicated that, within some subpopulations, outreach contacts were significantly less likely to test HIV-positive than clinic-based contacts. Analysis of interactions among the covariates identified race as a critical codeterminant in the relation between service setting and test outcome. These results support retargeting outreach services to enhance their overall effectiveness. Specific recommendations include the need for aggressive strategies to better "market" HIV counseling and testing to nonwhite populations, and to focus resources more selectively on gay/bisexual men of all races.
Hussen, Sophia A.; Stephenson, Robert; del Rio, Carlos; Wilton, Leo; Wallace, Jermel; Wheeler, Darrell
Background Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Southeastern United States are disproportionately affected by HIV. Black MSM are more likely to have unrecognized HIV infection, suggesting that testing may occur later and/or infrequently relative to current recommendations. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the HIV testing behaviors of Black MSM in Atlanta, Georgia, who were participants in the HIV Prevention Trials Network Brothers Study (HPTN 061). Methods and Findings We conducted 29 in-depth interviews and four focus groups with a community-recruited sample. Modified grounded theory methodologies were used to guide our inductive analysis, which yielded a typology comprised of four distinct HIV testing patterns. Participants could be categorized as: (1) Maintenance Testers, who tested regularly as part of routine self-care; (2) Risk-Based Testers, whose testing depended on relationship status or sexual behavior; (3) Convenience Testers, who tested irregularly depending on what testing opportunities arose; or (4) Test Avoiders, who tested infrequently and/or failed to follow up on results. We further characterized these groups with respect to age, socioeconomic factors, identity, stigma and healthcare access. Conclusions Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of HIV testing patterns among Black MSM, and offer a framework for conceptualizing HIV testing in this group. Public health messaging must account for the diversity of Black MSM's experiences, and multiple testing approaches should be developed and utilized to maximize outreach to different types of testers. PMID:24069408
O’Laughlin, Kelli N.; Kasozi, Julius; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Parker, Robert A.; Faustin, Zikama M.; Doraiswamy, Sathyanarayanan; Owino, Chris Omara; Bassett, Ingrid V.
We implemented and evaluated a clinic-based routine voluntary HIV testing intervention in Nakivale Refugee Settlement in Uganda. Comparing the SOC period (40 days) to the Intervention period (168 days), the mean HIV-infected clients identified per week increased from 0.9 to 5.6, and there was no significant difference between the HIV prevalence in the two periods (standard of care: 3.3%, intervention: 4.5%; p > 0.5). Clinic-based routine HIV testing in a refugee settlement is effective and should be considered for implementation in refugee settlements in other high prevalence regions in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25162817
Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Lloyd, Neil; Bor, Jacob; Venkataramani, Atheendar S
Objectives HIV counselling and testing is critical to HIV prevention and treatment efforts. Mass campaigns may be an effective strategy to increase HIV testing in countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We assessed the self-reported uptake of HIV testing among individuals who had never previously tested for HIV, particularly those in high-risk populations, during the period of a national, multisector testing campaign in South Africa (April 2010 and June 2011). Design This study was a prospective cohort study. Methods We analyzed data from two waves (2010/2011, n=16,893; 2012, n=18,707) of the National Income Dynamics Study, a nationally representative cohort that enabled prospective identification of first-time testers. We quantified the number of adults (15 years and older) testing for the first time nationally. To assess whether the campaign reached previously underserved populations, we examined changes in HIV testing coverage by age, gender, race and province sub-groups. We also estimated multivariable logistic regression models to identify socio-economic and demographic predictors of first-time testing. Results Overall, the proportion of adults ever tested for HIV increased from 43.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 41.48, 45.96) to 65.2% (95% CI: 63.28, 67.10) over the study period, with approximately 7.6 million (95% CI: 6,387,910; 8,782,986) first-time testers. Among black South Africans, the country's highest HIV prevalence sub-group, HIV testing coverage improved among poorer and healthier individuals, thus reducing gradients in testing by wealth and health. In contrast, HIV testing coverage remained lower for men, younger individuals and the less educated, indicating persistent if not widening disparities by gender, age and education. Large geographic disparities in coverage also remained as of 2012. Conclusions Mass provision of HIV testing services can be effective in increasing population coverage of HIV testing. The geographic and socio
Gunn, Jayleen K. L.; Asaolu, Ibitola O.; Gibson, Steven J.; Ehiri, John E.
Despite improved availability of simple, relatively inexpensive, and highly effective antiretroviral treatment for HIV/AIDS, the disease remains a major public health challenge for women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Given the numerous barriers in access to care for women in this region, every health issue that brings them into contact with the health system should be optimized as an opportunity to integrate HIV/AIDS prevention. Because most non-condom forms of modern contraception require a clinical appointment for use, contraception appointments could provide a confidential opportunity for access to HIV counseling, testing, and referral to care. This study sought to investigate the relationship between contraceptive methods and HIV testing among women in SSA. Data from the Demographic and Health Survey from four African countries—Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, and Uganda—was used to examine whether modern (e.g., pills, condom) or traditional (e.g., periodic abstinence, withdrawal) forms of contraception were associated with uptake of HIV testing. Data for the current analyses were restricted to 35,748 women with complete information on the variables of interest. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between uptake of HIV testing and respondents' baseline characteristics and contraceptive methods. In the total sample and in Mozambique, women who used modern forms of contraception were more likely to be tested for HIV compared to those who did not use contraception. This positive association was not demonstrated in Congo, Nigeria, or Uganda. That many women who access modern contraception are not tested for HIV in high HIV burden areas highlights a missed opportunity to deliver an important intervention to promote maternal and child health. Given the increasing popularity of hormonal contraception methods in low-income countries, there is an urgent need to integrate HIV counseling, testing, and treatment into family
Kawahata, Takuya; Nagashima, Mami; Sadamasu, Kenji; Kojima, Yoko; Mori, Haruyo
The early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is important to provide effective antiviral treatment and to prevent transmission of HIV. One of the key issues to achieve this goal is to shorten the so-called "diagnostic window period" when the humoral immune response toward the virus is not fully developed during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. In 2008, the Espline HIV Ag/Ab test kit (E4G, Fujirebio Inc. Japan) was marketed in Japan belonging to the fourth generation of HIV test kits characterized by its ability to detect both viral antigens (Ag) and anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies (Ab). E4G is the first and only fourth generation immunochromatographic HIV test kit approved in Japan at present. To evaluate its performance to diagnose acute HIV infection (AHI), E4G was compared with fourth generation Ag/Ab ELISA test kits, a third generation PA test kit, WB and real-time PCR for the testing of 25 AHI clinical specimens. E4G detected HIV infection in 18/25 specimens (sensitivity : 72.0%), of which the viral Ag was detected in only 2 specimens (8.0%) bearing a viral load > 10 million copies/mL. No spesimens were simultaneously reactive to both Ag and Ab against HIV. The third generation PA achieved a positive score of 17/ 25 specimens (68.0%), which was almost the same as the E4G figure. In contrast the fourth generation Ag/ Ab ELISA scored all the 25 AHI specimens positive (sensitivity : 100%). Overall, although having the merit of offering a rapid diagnostic test for HIV infection, E4G does not provide a sensitivity in AHI diagnosis superior to test kits currently available.
Makusha, Tawanda; Knight, Lucia; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Tulloch, Olivia; Davids, Adlai; Lim, Jeanette; Peck, Roger; van Rooyen, Heidi
South Africa bears the world's largest burden of HIV with over 6.4 million people living with the virus. The South African government's response to HIV has yielded remarkable results in recent years; over 13 million South Africans tested in a 2012 campaign and over 2 million people are on antiretroviral treatment. However, with an HIV & AIDS and STI National Strategic Plan aiming to get 80 percent of the population to know their HIV status by 2016, activists and public health policy makers argue that non-invasive HIV self-testing should be incorporated into the country HIV Counseling and Testing [HCT] portfolios. In-depth qualitative interviews (N = 12) with key stakeholders were conducted from June to July 2013 in South Africa. These included two government officials, four non-governmental stakeholders, two donors, three academic researchers, and one international stakeholder. All stakeholders were involved in HIV prevention and treatment and influenced HCT policy and research in South Africa and beyond. The interviews explored: interest in HIV self-testing; potential distribution channels for HIV self-tests to target groups; perception of requirements for diagnostic technologies that would be most amenable to HIV self-testing and opinions on barriers and opportunities for HIV-linkage to care after receiving positive test results. While there is currently no HIV self-testing policy in South Africa, and several barriers exist, participants in the study expressed enthusiasm and willingness for scale-up and urgent need for further research, planning, establishment of HIV Self-testing policy and programming to complement existing facility-based and community-based HIV testing systems. Introduction of HIV self-testing could have far-reaching positive effects on holistic HIV testing uptake, giving people autonomy to decide which approach they want to use for HIV testing, early diagnosis, treatment and care for HIV particularly among hard-to reach groups, including men.
Bogowicz, Paul; Moore, David; Kanters, Steve; Michelow, Warren; Robert, Wayne; Hogg, Robert; Gustafson, Réka; Gilbert, Mark
We carried out an analysis of a serobehavioural study of men who have sex with men >19 years of age in Vancouver, Canada to examine HIV testing behaviour and use of risk reduction strategies by HIV risk category, as defined by routinely gathered clinical data. We restricted our analysis to those who self-identified as HIV-negative, completed a questionnaire, and provided a dried blood spot sample. Of 842 participants, 365 (43.3%) were categorised as lower-risk, 245 (29.1%) as medium-risk and 232 (27.6%) as higher-risk. The prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection was low (lower 0.8%, medium 3.3%, higher 3.9%; p = 0.032). Participants differed by risk category in terms of having had an HIV test in the previous year (lower 46.5%, medium 54.6%, higher 67.0%; p < 0.001) and in their use of serosorting (lower 23.3%, medium 48.3%, higher 43.1%; p < 0.001) and only having sex with HIV-positive men if those men had low viral loads or were taking HIV medication (lower 5.1%, medium 4.8%, higher 10.9%; p = 0.021) as risk reduction strategies. These findings speak to the need to consider segmented health promotion services for men who have sex with men with differing risk profiles. Risk stratification could be used to determine who might benefit from tailored multiple health promotion interventions, including HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.
Muessig, Kathryn E.; Rosen, David L.; Farel, Claire E.; White, Becky L.; Filene, Eliza J.; Wohl, David A.
Correctional facilities offer opportunities to provide comprehensive HIV services including education, testing, treatment, and coordination of post-release care. However, these services may be undermined by unaddressed HIV stigma. As part of a prison-based HIV testing study, we interviewed 76 incarcerated men and women from the North Carolina State prison system. The sample was 72% men, median age 31.5 years (range: 19 to 60). Thematic analysis revealed high levels of HIV-related fear and stigma, homophobia, incomplete HIV transmission knowledge, beliefs that HIV is highly contagious within prisons (“HIV miasma”), and the view of HIV testing as protective. Interviewees described social distancing behaviors and coping mechanisms they perceived to be protective, including knowing their HIV status and avoiding contact with others and shared objects. Interviewees endorsed universal testing, public HIV status disclosure, and segregation of HIV-positive inmates. Intensified education and counseling efforts are needed to ameliorate entrenched HIV-transmission fears and stigmatizing beliefs. PMID:27459162
Aronson, Ian David; Cleland, Charles M; Perlman, David C; Rajan, Sonali; Sun, Wendy; Bania, Theodore C
Young people face greatly increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk and high rates of undiagnosed HIV, yet are unlikely to test. Many also have limited or inconsistent access to health care, including HIV testing and prevention education, and prior research has documented that youth lack knowledge necessary to understand the HIV test process and to interpret test results. Computer-based interventions have been used to increase HIV test rates and knowledge among emergency department (ED) patients, including those who decline tests offered at triage. However, patients aged 18-24 years have been less likely to test, even after completing an intervention, compared to older patients in the same ED setting. The current pilot study sought to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a new tablet-based video intervention designed to address established barriers to testing among ED patients aged 18-24 years. In particular, we examined whether young ED patients would: agree to receive the intervention; complete it quickly enough to avoid disrupting clinical workflows; accept HIV tests offered by the intervention; demonstrate increased postintervention knowledge; and report they found the intervention acceptable. Over 4 weeks, we recruited 100 patients aged 18-24 in a high-volume urban ED; all of them declined HIV tests offered at triage. Almost all (98%) completed the intervention (mean time <9 mins), 30% accepted HIV tests offered by the tablets. Knowledge was significantly higher after than before the intervention (t = -6.67, p < .001) and patients reported generally high acceptability. Additional research appears warranted to increase postintervention HIV testing. PMID:27565191
Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T.; Poppen, Paul J.; del Río González, Ana Maria; Romero, Rodrigo A. Aguayo; Pérez, Carolin
This study used mixed methods to examine characteristics related to HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bogotá, Colombia. A sample of 890 MSM responded to a computerized quantitative survey. Follow-up qualitative data included 20 in-depth interviews with MSM and 12 key informant interviews. Hierarchical logistic set regression indicated that sequential sets of variables reflecting demographic characteristics, insurance coverage, risk appraisal, and social context each added to the explanation of HIV testing. Follow-up logistic regression showed that individuals who were older, had higher income, paid for their own insurance, had had a sexually transmitted infection, knew more people living with HIV, and had greater social support were more likely to have been tested for HIV at least once. Qualitative findings provided details of personal and structural barriers to testing, as well as interrelationships among these factors. Recommendations to increase HIV testing among Colombian MSM are offered. PMID:25068180
Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T; Poppen, Paul J; del Río González, Ana Maria; Romero, Rodrigo A Aguayo; Pérez, Carolin
This study used mixed methods to examine characteristics related to HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bogotá, Colombia. A sample of 890 MSM responded to a computerized quantitative survey. Follow-up qualitative data included 20 in-depth interviews with MSM and 12 key informant interviews. Hierarchical logistic set regression indicated that sequential sets of variables reflecting demographic characteristics, insurance coverage, risk appraisal, and social context each added to the explanation of HIV testing. Follow-up logistic regression showed that individuals who were older, had higher income, paid for their own insurance, had had a sexually transmitted infection, knew more people living with HIV, and had greater social support were more likely to have been tested for HIV at least once. Qualitative findings provided details of personal and structural barriers to testing, as well as inter-relationships among these factors. Recommendations to increase HIV testing among Colombian MSM are offered. PMID:25068180
Asaolu, Ibitola O.; Gunn, Jayleen K.; Center, Katherine E.; Koss, Mary P.; Iwelunmor, Juliet I.; Ehiri, John E.
Introduction In spite of a high prevalence of HIV infection among adolescents and young adults in sub-Saharan Africa, uptake of HIV testing and counseling among youth in the region remains sub-optimal. The objective of this study was to assess factors that influence uptake of HIV testing and counseling among youth aged 15–24 years in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods This study used the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from countries that represent four geographic regions of sub-Saharan Africa: Congo (Brazzaville), representing central Africa (DHS 2011–2012); Mozambique, representing southern Africa (DHS 2011); Nigeria, representing western Africa (DHS 2013); and Uganda, representing eastern Africa (DHS 2011). Analyses were restricted to 23,367 male and female respondents aged 15–24 years with complete data on the variables of interest. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used to assess predictors of HIV testing. Statistical significance was set at p< 0.01. Results The analysis revealed that a majority of the respondents were female (78.1%) and aged 20-24-years (60.7%). Only a limited proportion of respondents (36.5%) had ever tested for HIV and even fewer (25.7%) demonstrated comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS. There was a significant association between HIV testing and respondents’ gender, age, age at sexual debut, and comprehensive knowledge of HIV in the pooled sample. Older youth (adjusted OR (aOR) = 2.19; 99% CI = 1.99–2.40) and those with comprehensive knowledge of HIV (aOR = 1.98; 1.76–2.22) had significantly higher odds of ever being tested for HIV than younger respondents and those with limited HIV/AIDS knowledge respectively. Furthermore, men had lower odds of HIV testing than women (aOR = 0.32; 0.28–0.37). Conclusions Reaching youth in sub-Saharan Africa for HIV testing continues to be a challenge. Public health programs that seek to increase HIV counseling and testing among youth should pay particular attention to
Kiene, Susan M; Sileo, Katelyn; Wanyenze, Rhoda K; Lule, Haruna; Bateganya, Moses H; Jasperse, Joseph; Nantaba, Harriet; Jayaratne, Kia
In Uganda, a nationwide scale-up of provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling presents an opportunity to deliver HIV-prevention services to large numbers of people. In a rural Ugandan hospital, focus group discussions and key informant interviews were conducted with outpatients receiving provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling and staff to explore the HIV-prevention information, motivation and behavioural skills strengths and weaknesses, and community-level and structural barriers to provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling acceptability and HIV prevention among this population. Strengths and weakness occurred at all levels, and results suggest brief client-centred interventions during provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling may be an effective approach to increase prevention behaviours in outpatient settings.
Mulatu, Mesfin S.; Godette, Dionne C.; Gaines, Tommi L.
Objective This study examined temporal trends in HIV testing among U.S. older adults (50–64 years of age) before and after the release of CDC's routine HIV testing recommendations in 2006. Methods The sample (n=872,797; 51.4% female) comprised 2003–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System respondents in the oldest categories to which the recommendations apply: 50–54 years (34.5%, n=301,519), 55–59 years (34.1%, n=297,865), and 60–64 years (31.3%, n=273,413). We calculated (1) four-year pooled prevalences of past-year HIV testing before and after 2006, when the recommendations were released; and (2) annual prevalences of HIV testing overall and by age category from 2003–2010. Using weighted, multivariable logistic regression analyses, we examined binary (pre- vs. post-recommendations) and annual changes in testing, controlling for covariates. We stratified the data by recent doctor visits, examined racial/ethnic differences, and tested for linear and quadratic temporal trends. Results Overall and within age categories, the pooled prevalence of past-year HIV testing decreased following release of the recommendations (p<0.001). The annual prevalence decreased monotonically from 2003 (5.5%) to 2006 (3.6%) (b=–0.16, p<0.001) and then increased immediately after release of the recommendations, but decreased to 3.7% after 2009 (b=0.01, p<0.001). By race/ethnicity, testing increased over time among non-Hispanic black people only. Annual prevalence also increased among respondents with recent doctor visits. Conclusion CDC's HIV testing recommendations were associated with a reversal in the downward trend in past-year HIV testing among older adults; however, the gains were neither universal nor sustained over time. PMID:26327729
Background In India, approximately 49,000 women living with HIV become pregnant and deliver each year. While the government of India has made progress increasing the availability of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services, only about one quarter of pregnant women received an HIV test in 2010, and about one-in-five that were found positive for HIV received interventions to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Methods Between February 2012 to March 2013, 14 HIV-positive women who had recently delivered a baby were recruited from HIV positive women support groups, Government of India Integrated Counseling and Testing Centers, and nongovernmental organizations in Mysore and Pune, India. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine their general experiences with antenatal healthcare; specific experiences around HIV counseling and testing; and perceptions about their care and follow-up treatment. Data were analyzed thematically using the human rights framework for HIV testing adopted by the United Nations and India’s National AIDS Control Organization. Results While all of the HIV-positive women in the study received HIV and PMTCT services at a government hospital or antiretroviral therapy center, almost all reported attending a private clinic or hospital at some point in their pregnancy. According to the participants, HIV testing often occurred without consent; there was little privacy; breaches of confidentiality were commonplace; and denial of medical treatment occurred routinely. Among women living with HIV in this study, violations of their human rights occurred more commonly in private rather than public healthcare settings. Conclusions There is an urgent need for capacity building among private healthcare providers to improve standards of practice with regard to informed consent process, HIV testing, patient confidentiality, treatment, and referral of pregnant women living with HIV. PMID:24656059
Tai, Miao; Merchant, Roland C
In 1993, 2001, and 2006, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released revised recommendations aimed to expand HIV screening in health-care settings, increase the number of people who are aware of their infection, improve the health of those who are infected, and reduce HIV transmission. It is unclear how responsive health-care settings have been on a national level to these three successively revised sets of CDC recommendations. This study estimated the extent of HIV testing in US emergency departments (EDs), outpatient ambulatory medical care departments (OPDs), and physician offices among 13- to 64-year-olds from 1992 to 2010 to determine their responsiveness to CDC recommendations to expand HIV testing. The report includes data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS), which are national probability sample surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) for CDC. Over the entire study period, HIV testing was significantly greater in OPDs than in EDs (p < 0.01) and physician offices (p < 0.01). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that Hispanic and Black patients and those receiving Medicaid were more likely to be tested for HIV. Logistic regression tests of trend for the entire study period did not demonstrate significant increases in testing at EDs (Odds ratios [OR] 1.00 [0.97-1.03]) or OPDs (OR 1.01 [0.98-1.04]). For physician offices, there was no change in HIV testing for 1993-1999 (OR 1.03 [0.99-1.06]), but there was a relative increase for the entire study period (OR 1.04 [1.02-1.06]) because of more HIV testing in 2009 and 2010 in this setting. However, there were no differences in HIV testing for each setting for the interval years after revised CDC HIV testing recommendations were released for 1993-2001, 2002-2006, and 2007-2010.
Przybyla, Sarahmona M
The purpose of this study was to compare rapid HIV testing services on a college campus between a clinic-based testing group and an outreach-based testing group. Study participants were 1,233 individuals who underwent HIV counseling and testing. Questionnaires assessed demographics and HIV transmission risk behaviors. Results indicate that outreach-based testers were more likely to be younger, female, and African American relative to clinic-based testers. Overall, 100% of clinic-based testers and 99.5% of outreach-based testers receiving their test results. All individuals with positive rapid test results received confirmatory blood testing and entered medical care within one week of preliminary diagnosis. College campuses may provide a unique setting to deliver HIV testing and may help increase the percentage of young people who are aware of their serostatus, particularly younger, female, and African American students who may be less likely to undergo testing in traditional clinic settings. PMID:24416620
Background In Gambella region, inhabitants owe socio-cultural factors that might favor refusal for HIV testing service utilization among Antenatal Care attendees. Objective To assess determinants for refusal of HIV testing service utilization among ANC attendees in Gambella Region. Methods A comparative cross sectional study was conducted among ANC attendees from March 2008 to May 2008 in four selected health facilities of Gambella region. Sample size of 332 participants (83 who refused HIV testing and 249 who accepted HIV testing) were taken for the study. The study was supplemented with four focus group discussions. Multivariate binary logistic regression was employed to control for confounding factors. Results When adjusted with other factors pregnant women with 2–3 live births in the past; who claimed divorce as a perceived response of their husband following HIV positive test result; who had not sought agreement from their husband for testing; disclosure of test for husband and being from certain ethnic group (E.g. Mejenger) were independent predictors for refusal of HIV testing among ANC attendees. Conclusion and recommendation Based on the findings, the following recommendations were forwarded: Provision of innovative information and education on the pre-test session for those pregnant women having two or more children; community involvement to tackle stigma; women empowerment; designing couple friendly counseling service; and fighting harmful traditional practices related with decision of HIV testing. PMID:22834566
Tamhane, M.; Gautney, B.; Shiu, C.; Segaren, N.; Jeannis, L.; Eustache, C.; Simeon-Fadois, Y.; Chen, Y. H.; De, D.; Irivinti, S.; Tamma, P.; Thompson, C. B.; Khamadi, S.; Siberry, G.K.; Persaud, D.
Background Nucleic-acid-testing (NAT) to diagnose HIV infection in children under age 18 months provides a barrier to HIV-testing in exposed children from resource-constrained settings. The ultrasensitive HIV- p24- antigen (Up24) assay is cheaper and easier to perform and is sensitive (84–98%) and specific (98–100%). The cut-point optical density (OD) selected for discriminating between positive and negative samples may need assessment due to regional differences in mother-to-child HIV-transmission rates. Objectives We used receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curves and logistic regression analyses to assess the effect of various cut-points on the diagnostic performance of Up24 for HIV-infection status among HIV-exposed children. Positive and negative predictive values at different rates of disease prevalence were also estimated. Study design A study of Up24 testing on dried blood spot (DBS) samples collected from 278 HIV-exposed Haitian children, 3–24-months of age, in whom HIV-infection status was determined by NAT on the same DBS card. Results The sensitivity and specificity of Up24 varied by the cut-point-OD value selected. At a cut-point-OD of 8-fold the standard deviation of the negative control (NCSD), sensitivity and specificity of Up24 were maximized [87.8% (95% CI, 83.9–91.6) and 92% (95% CI, 88.8–95.2), respectively]. In lower prevalence settings (5%), positive and negative predictive values of Up24 were maximal (75.9% and 98.8%, respectively) at a cut-point-OD that was 15-fold the NCSD. Conclusions In low prevalence settings, a high degree of specificity can be achieved with Up24 testing of HIV-exposed children when a higher cut-point OD is used; a feature that may facilitate more frequent use of Up24 antigen testing for HIV-exposed children. PMID:21330193
Seal, David Wyatt; Eldridge, Gloria D; Zack, Barry; Sosman, James
Institutional policies, practices, and norms can impede the delivery of ethical standard-of-care treatment for people with HIV in correctional settings. In this commentary, we focus on the fundamental issues that must be addressed to create an ethical environment in which best medical practices can be implemented when working with correctional populations. Thus, we consider ethical issues related to access to services, patient privacy, confidentiality, informed consent for testing and treatment, and issues related to the provision of services in an institutional setting in which maintenance of security is the primary mission. Medical providers must understand and navigate the dehumanization inherent in most correctional settings, competing life demands for incarcerated individuals, power dynamics within the correctional system, and the needs of family and significant others who remain in the community.
Wong, Li Ping
The objective of this study was to identify demographic characteristics and correlates of the uptake of HIV testing, willingness to be tested and perceived HIV-related stigma of Malaysian lay public. A cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interview survey of a representative sample of multiracial Malaysians aged 18 years and above was conducted between December and July 2011. The survey collected information on demographics, knowledge about HIV transmission and religious beliefs on attitudes to HIV/AIDS. A total of 2271 households were successfully interviewed. The response rate was 48.65%. The HIV transmission knowledge score ranged from 0 to 15 (mean =10.56; SD±2.42). Three of the most common misconceptions about HIV transmission were mosquito bite (42.8%), eating in a restaurant where the cook is HIV positive (20.4%) and using a public toilet (20.1%). Only 20.6% reported ever having been tested for HIV, 49.1% reported a willingness to be tested for HIV and 30.3% had no intention of getting an HIV test. Low-risk perception (63.7%) constitutes a major barrier to HIV testing. Being Malay and Chinese (relative to Indian) were the strongest predictors of low-risk perception. Other significant predictors of low-risk perception were being male, being married and living in an urban locality. Perceived self-stigma if tested positive for HIV was prevalent (78.8%). Multivariate findings showed that being female, Malay, low income, living in rural localities and public stigma were significant correlates of self-stigma. These findings warrant interventions to reduce the disproportionate HIV transmission misconception, barriers to HIV testing and stigma and discriminative attitudes to involve considerations of sociocultural economic and demographic characteristics. PMID:23406514
Beckwith, Curt; Bazerman, Lauri; Gillani, Fizza; Tran, Liem; Larson, Brita; Rivard, Saul; Flanigan, Timothy; Rich, Josiah
To successfully implement the Seek, Test, and Treat (STT) strategy to curb the HIV epidemic, the criminal justice system must be a key partner. Increasing HIV testing and treatment among incarcerated persons has the potential to decrease HIV transmission in the broader community, but whether it is feasible to consider the implementation of the STT within jail facilities is not known. We conducted a retrospective review of Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RIDOC) medical records to assess whether persons newly diagnosed in the jail were able to start ART and be linked to community HIV care after release. From 2001 to 2007, 64 RIDOC detainees were newly diagnosed with HIV. During their index incarcerations, 64% were informed of positive confirmatory HIV test results, 50% completed baseline evaluations, and 9% began ART. Linkage to community care was confirmed for 58% of subjects. Subjects incarcerated for >14 days were significantly more likely to receive HIV test results and complete baseline evaluation (p<0.001). A similar association was not observed for ART initiation until incarceration length reached 60 days (p<0.001). There was no association between incarceration length and linkage to care. This comprehensive analysis demonstrates that length of incarceration impacts HIV test result delivery, baseline evaluation, and ART initiation in the RIDOC. Jails are an important venue to "Seek" and "Test"; however, completing the "Treat" part of the STT strategy is hindered by the transient nature of this criminal justice population and may require new strategies to improve linkage to care. PMID:24617960
Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Thompson, Carole Bowe; Moore, Erin; Hawes, Starlyn; Simon, Stephen; Goggin, Kathy; Martinez, David; Berman, Marcie; Booker, Alexandria
Background African Americans are disproportionately burdened by HIV. The African American church is an influential institution with potential to increase reach of HIV prevention interventions in Black communities. Purpose This study examined HIV testing rates in African American churches in the Taking It to the Pews pilot project. Using a community-engaged approach, church leaders delivered religiously-tailored HIV education and testing materials/activities (e.g., sermons, brochures/bulletins, testimonials) to church and community members. Methods Four African American churches (N=543 participants) located in the Kansas City metropolitan area were randomized to intervention and comparison groups. Receipt of an HIV test was assessed at baseline and 6 months. Results Findings indicated intervention participants were 2.2 times more likely to receive an HIV test than comparisons at 6 months. Church leaders delivered about 2 tools per month. Conclusions Church-based HIV testing interventions are feasible and have potential to increase HIV testing rates in African American communities. PMID:26821712
Ruge, H. G. S.; Fromm, G.; Fühner, F.; Guinto, R. S.
In serological tests for syphilis, leprosy sera often give biologically false positive reactions. These may be due to the presence of non-specific elements—for example, the ubiquitous lipid antibodies—in the leprosy sera; or they may be the result of errors in technique or unfavourable working conditions in the laboratory. This paper presents the results of an investigation in which several hundred sera from lepers were submitted to four of the so-called ”standard” serological tests for syphilis (STS), using either cardiolipin or crude lipid antigens; to a complement-fixation test using as antigen a suspension of Reiter treponemes (PR test); and to the Treponema pallidum immobilization (TPI) test. The investigation was carried out in a moderate climate and in technically well-equipped laboratories. It was found that the number of biologically false positive reactions was not as high as had been expected in the light of previous investigations. It was discovered, moreover, that it was the lipid antigens that were mainly responsible for the non-specific reactions, since both the PR and the TPI test showed a far greater specificity than any of the STS. But the TPI test, though highly specific, is also technically very complicated and therefore not suitable for use in regions where technical facilities are lacking. The authors consider that, in such regions, the simpler PR test will give sufficiently accurate results in the serodiagnosis of treponematoses. It must, however, be recognized that even the treponemal tests are not capable of differentiating between syphilis and yaws infections. PMID:13744600
Mishra, Vinod; Vaessen, Martin; Boerma, J. Ties; Arnold, Fred; Way, Ann; Barrere, Bernard; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth; Sangha, Jasbir
OBJECTIVES: To describe the methods used in the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to collect nationally representative data on the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and assess the value of such data to country HIV surveillance systems. METHODS: During 2001-04, national samples of adult women and men in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Dominican Republic, Ghana, Mali, Kenya, United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia were tested for HIV. Dried blood spot samples were collected for HIV testing, following internationally accepted ethical standards. The results for each country are presented by age, sex, and urban versus rural residence. To estimate the effects of non-response, HIV prevalence among non-responding males and females was predicted using multivariate statistical models for those who were tested, with a common set of predictor variables. RESULTS: Rates of HIV testing varied from 70% among Kenyan men to 92% among women in Burkina Faso and Cameroon. Despite large differences in HIV prevalence between the surveys (1-16%), fairly consistent patterns of HIV infection were observed by age, sex and urban versus rural residence, with considerably higher rates in urban areas and in women, especially at younger ages. Analysis of non-response bias indicates that although predicted HIV prevalence tended to be higher in non-tested males and females than in those tested, the overall effects of non-response on the observed national estimates of HIV prevalence are insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Population-based surveys can provide reliable, direct estimates of national and regional HIV seroprevalence among men and women irrespective of pregnancy status. Survey data greatly enhance surveillance systems and the accuracy of national estimates in generalized epidemics. PMID:16878227
Wagner, Glenn J; Tohme, Johnny; Hoover, Matthew; Frost, Simon; Ober, Allison; Khouri, Danielle; Iguchi, Martin; Mokhbat, Jacques
The limited epidemiological data in Lebanon suggest that HIV incident cases are predominantly among men who have sex with men (MSM). We assessed the prevalence of HIV and demographic correlates of condom use and HIV testing among MSM in Beirut. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 213 participants for completion of a behavioral survey and an optional free rapid HIV test. Multivariate regression analysis was used to examine demographic correlates of unprotected anal sex and any history of HIV testing. Nearly half (47 %) were under age 25 years and 67 % self-identified as gay. Nearly two-thirds (64 %) reported any unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with men in the prior 3 months, including 23 % who had unprotected anal intercourse with men whose HIV status was positive or unknown (UAIPU) to the participant. Three men (1.5 % of 198 participants tested) were HIV-positive; 62 % had any history of HIV testing prior to the study and testing was less common among those engaging in UAIPU compared to others (33 % vs. 71 %). In regression analysis, men in a relationship had higher odds of having UAI but lower odds of UAIPU and any university education was associated with having UAI; those with any prior history of HIV testing were more likely to be in a relationship and have any university education. HIV prevention efforts for MSM need to account for the influence of relationship dynamics and promotion of testing needs to target high-risk MSM. PMID:24752791
Wagner, Glenn J.; Tohme, Johnny; Hoover, Matthew; Frost, Simon; Ober, Allison; Khouri, Danielle; Iguchi, Martin; Mokhbat, Jacques
The limited epidemiological data in Lebanon suggest that HIV incident cases are predominantly among men who have sex with men (MSM). We assessed the prevalence of HIV and demographic correlates of condom use and HIV testing among MSM in Beirut. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 213 participants for completion of a behavioral survey and an optional free rapid HIV test. Multivariate regression analysis was used to examine demographic correlates of unprotected anal sex and any history of HIV testing. Nearly half (47%) were under age 25 years and 67% self-identified as gay. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported any unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with men in the prior 3 months, including 23% who had unprotected anal intercourse with men whose HIV status was positive or unknown (UAIPU) to the participant. Three men (1.5% of 198 participants tested) were HIV-positive; 62% had any history of HIV testing prior to the study and testing was less common among those engaging in UAIPU compared to others (33% vs. 71%). In regression analysis, men in a relationship had higher odds of having UAI but lower odds of UAIPU and any university education was associated with having UAI; those with any prior history of HIV testing were more likely to be in a relationship and have any university education. HIV prevention efforts for MSM need to account for the influence of relationship dynamics and promotion of testing needs to target high-risk MSM. PMID:24752791
Li, Xuefeng; Wu, Guohui; Lu, Rongrong; Feng, Liangui; Fan, Wensheng; Xiao, Yan; Sun, Zheya; Zhang, Heng; Xing, Hui; Shao, Yiming; Ruan, Yuhua
Abstract The high and climbing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) rates among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) bring huge pressure and challenge to acquired immune deficiency syndrome response work in China. This study examined HIV-testing behavior and describes the characteristics of recently tested MSM in Chongqing to address targeting HIV prevention interventions. Two consecutive cross-sectional surveys were conducted among Chongqing MSM using respondent-driven sampling in 2009 and 2010. Information was collected regarding details on demographic characteristics, sexual practices with male and female partners, and HIV-testing experiences. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors independently associated with recent HIV testing. The final sample size included in our analyses was 992. The overall HIV prevalence was 13.4%, and HIV prevalence increased significantly from 11.6% in 2009 to 15.4% in 2010 (P = 0.08). The overall rate of HIV testing in the past 12 months was 44.6%, and the self-reported rates decreased significantly from 47.8% in 2009 to 41.1% in 2010 (P = 0.03). Factors independently associated with recent HIV testing included living in Chongqing >1 year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–2.9), the age of most recent male partner ≤25 (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.1), not having unprotected insertive anal sex with most recent male partner in the past 6 months (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.0), disclosing HIV status to most recent male partner (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 2.0–3.8), and holding lower level of HIV-related stigma (AOR 1.1 per scale point, 95% CI 1.0–1.1). The extremely high HIV prevalence and low annual testing level put MSM at high risk of HIV infection and transmission, and it is a priority to promote regular HIV testing among this group in order to control the spread of HIV in Chongqing, China. PMID:25501047
Hoang, Tuyen; Bowman, Candice; Knapp, Herschel; Rossman, Barbara; Smith, Robert; Anaya, Henry; Osborn, Teresa; Gifford, Allen L.; Asch, Steven M.
Background Although the benefits of identifying and treating asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals are firmly established, health care providers often miss opportunities to offer HIV-testing. Objective To evaluate whether a multi-component intervention increases the rate of HIV diagnostic testing. Design Pre- to post-quasi-experiment in 5 Veterans Health Administration facilities. Two facilities received the intervention; the other three facilities were controls. The intervention included a real-time electronic clinical reminder that encourages HIV testing, and feedback reports and a provider activation program. Patients Persons receiving health care between August 2004 and September 2006 who were at risk but had not been previously tested for HIV infection Measurements Pre- to post-changes in the rates of HIV testing at the intervention and control facilities Results At the two intervention sites, the adjusted rate of testing increased from 4.8% to 10.8% and from 5.5% to 12.8% (both comparisons, p < .001). In addition, there were 15 new diagnoses of HIV in the pre-intervention year (0.46% of all tests) versus 30 new diagnoses in the post-intervention year (0.45% of all tests). No changes were observed at the control facilities. Conclusions Use of clinical reminders and provider feedback, activation, and social marketing increased the frequency of HIV testing and the number of new HIV diagnoses. These findings support a multimodal approach toward achieving the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s goal of having every American know their HIV status as a matter of routine clinical practice. PMID:18452045
Background Methamphetamine (MA) use has a strong correlation with risky sexual behaviors, and thus may be triggering the growing HIV epidemic in Myanmar. Although methamphetamine use is a serious public health concern, only a few studies have examined HIV testing among young drug users. This study aimed to examine how predisposing, enabling and need factors affect HIV testing among young MA users. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2013 in Muse city in the Northern Shan State of Myanmar. Using a respondent-driven sampling method, 776 MA users aged 18-24 years were recruited. The main outcome of interest was whether participants had ever been tested for HIV. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were applied in this study. Results Approximately 14.7% of young MA users had ever been tested for HIV. Significant positive predictors of HIV testing included predisposing factors such as being a female MA user, having had higher education, and currently living with one’s spouse/sexual partner. Significant enabling factors included being employed and having ever visited NGO clinics or met NGO workers. Significant need factors were having ever been diagnosed with an STI and having ever wanted to receive help to stop drug use. Conclusions Predisposing, enabling and need factors were significant contributors affecting uptake of HIV testing among young MA users. Integrating HIV testing into STI treatment programs, alongside general expansion of HIV testing services may be effective in increasing HIV testing uptake among young MA users. PMID:25042697
den Daas, Chantal; Doppen, Martine; Schmidt, Axel J; Op de Coul, Eline
Objectives Men who have sex with men (MSM) who are unaware of their HIV infection are more likely to infect others, and unable to receive treatment. Therefore, we aimed to identify the proportion and characteristics of Dutch MSM who never tested for HIV. Methods In 2010, the European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS) recruited 174 209 men from 38 countries through an anonymous online questionnaire in 25 languages. We analysed data from participants living in the Netherlands (N=3787). The outcome we investigated was having never (lifetime) been tested for HIV. Results A total of 770 MSM (20.4%) had never been tested for HIV. In multivariate regression analyses, not being from Amsterdam (adjusted OR, aOR 1.54, CI 1.17 to 2.03), with low education (aOR 1.28, CI 1.04 to 1.57) and low knowledge on HIV-testing (aOR 2.23, CI 1.37 to 3.64) were significantly associated with never having tested. Lower sexual risk (including having fewer sexual partners (aOR 2.19, CI 1.57 to 3.04) and no anal intercourse (aOR 5.99, CI 3.04 to 11.77)), and less social engagement (including being less out (aOR 1.93, CI 1.55 to 2.40)) were also associated with having never been tested. Additionally, 36.1% of MSM who never tested for HIV reported high-risk sexual behaviour that may have put them at HIV risk. Conclusions MSM make their own risk assessments that inform their choices about HIV-testing. Nevertheless, MSM who were never tested may have been at risk for HIV, and remain important to target for HIV interventions. PMID:26758261
Derose, Kathryn P; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kanouse, David E; Bogart, Laura M; Williams, Malcolm V; Haas, Ann C; Flórez, Karen R; Collins, Deborah Owens; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael A; Oden, Clyde W; Stucky, Brian D
HIV-related stigma and mistrust contribute to HIV disparities. Addressing stigma with faith partners may be effective, but few church-based stigma reduction interventions have been tested. We implemented a pilot intervention with 3 Latino and 2 African American churches (4 in matched pairs) in high HIV prevalence areas of Los Angeles County to reduce HIV stigma and mistrust and increase HIV testing. The intervention included HIV education and peer leader workshops, pastor-delivered sermons on HIV with imagined contact scenarios, and HIV testing events. We surveyed congregants at baseline and 6 month follow-up (n = 1235) and found statistically significant (p < 0.05) reductions in HIV stigma and mistrust in the Latino intervention churches but not in the African American intervention church nor overall across matched African American and Latino pairs. However, within matched pairs, intervention churches had much higher rates of HIV testing (p < 0.001). Stigma reduction and HIV testing may have synergistic effects in community settings.
Matovu, Joseph K. B.; Todd, Jim; Wanyenze, Rhoda K.; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Serwadda, David
Background Studies show that uptake of couples’ HIV counseling and testing (couples’ HCT) can be affected by individual, relationship, and socioeconomic factors. However, while couples’ HCT uptake can also be affected by background HIV prevalence and awareness of the existence of couples’ HCT services, this is yet to be documented. We explored the correlates of previous couples’ HCT uptake among married individuals in a rural Ugandan district with differing HIV prevalence levels. Design This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 2,135 married individuals resident in the three HIV prevalence strata (low HIV prevalence: 9.7–11.2%; middle HIV prevalence: 11.4–16.4%; and high HIV prevalence: 20.5–43%) in Rakai district, southwestern Uganda, between November 2013 and February 2014. Data were collected on sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, including previous receipt of couples’ HCT. HIV testing data were obtained from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify correlates that are independently associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. Data analysis was conducted using STATA (statistical software, version 11.2). Results Of the 2,135 married individuals enrolled, the majority (n=1,783, 83.5%) had been married for five or more years while (n=1,460, 66%) were in the first-order of marriage. Ever receipt of HCT was almost universal (n=2,020, 95%); of those ever tested, (n=846, 41.9%) reported that they had ever received couples’ HCT. There was no significant difference in previous receipt of couples’ HCT between low (n=309, 43.9%), middle (n=295, 41.7%), and high (n=242, 39.7%) HIV prevalence settings (p=0.61). Marital order was not significantly associated with previous receipt of couples’ HCT. However, marital duration [five or more years vis-à-vis 1–2 years: adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.06; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.04–1.08] and awareness about
Surratt, Hilary L.; O’Grady, Catherine; Kurtz, Steven P.; Buttram, Mance E.; Levi-Minzi, Maria A.
Background Although emerging Treatment as Prevention models can be effective in reducing HIV incidence among high-risk populations, many HIV infected individuals remain undiagnosed or fail to engage in HIV care. Methods This study examined the factors associated with HIV testing and care among a population of substance using female sex workers. Results Recent HIV testing was associated with higher education level, having a regular health care provider or clinic, recent crack use, and higher sexual risk behaviors; HIV treatment utilization was associated with higher levels of social support, having a regular health care provider or clinic, housing stability and insurance coverage. Qualitative data revealed HIV-related stigma, denial, social isolation, and substance use as barriers to HIV testing and treatment; social support and accessibility of services were key enablers. Conclusions Improving HIV testing and linkage to treatment among female sex workers will require structural initiatives to reduce stigma and increase service seeking support. PMID:25130245
Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Mejia, Carolina; Clark, Daniel E.; Choi, Jeong; Reimer-McAtee, Melissa J.; Castro, Rosario; Valencia-Ayala, Edward; Flores, Jorge; Bowman, Natalie; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Torrico, Faustino; Liotta, Lance; Bern, Caryn; Luchini, Alessandra
Background Early diagnosis of reactivated Chagas disease in HIV patients could be lifesaving. In Latin America, the diagnosis is made by microscopical detection of the T. cruzi parasite in the blood; a diagnostic test that lacks sensitivity. This study evaluates if levels of T. cruzi antigens in urine, determined by Chunap (Chagas urine nanoparticle test), are correlated with parasitemia levels in T. cruzi/HIV co-infected patients. Methodology/Principal Findings T. cruzi antigens in urine of HIV patients (N = 55: 31 T. cruzi infected and 24 T. cruzi serology negative) were concentrated using hydrogel particles and quantified by Western Blot and a calibration curve. Reactivation of Chagas disease was defined by the observation of parasites in blood by microscopy. Parasitemia levels in patients with serology positive for Chagas disease were classified as follows: High parasitemia or reactivation of Chagas disease (detectable parasitemia by microscopy), moderate parasitemia (undetectable by microscopy but detectable by qPCR), and negative parasitemia (undetectable by microscopy and qPCR). The percentage of positive results detected by Chunap was: 100% (7/7) in cases of reactivation, 91.7% (11/12) in cases of moderate parasitemia, and 41.7% (5/12) in cases of negative parasitemia. Chunap specificity was found to be 91.7%. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a direct relationship between parasitemia levels and urine T. cruzi antigen concentrations (p<0.001). A cut-off of > 105 pg was chosen to determine patients with reactivation of Chagas disease (7/7). Antigenuria levels were 36.08 times (95% CI: 7.28 to 64.88) higher in patients with CD4+ lymphocyte counts below 200/mL (p = 0.016). No significant differences were found in HIV loads and CD8+ lymphocyte counts. Conclusion Chunap shows potential for early detection of Chagas reactivation. With appropriate adaptation, this diagnostic test can be used to monitor Chagas disease status in T. cruzi/HIV co
Blondell, Sarah J; Kitter, Bryony; Griffin, Mark P; Durham, Jo
Migrants, particularly from low- and middle-income countries, are at a heightened risk of adverse HIV outcomes. HIV testing may improve these outcomes. We reviewed and synthesised studies into migrants and HIV testing (outcome variable), published between January 1997 and April 2014. Papers using quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods designs, and samples with adult (≥18 years) migrants from low- and middle-income countries in high-income countries were included in the paper. Of 3155 papers retrieved, 31 met the inclusion criteria and are included in the review. A large number of barriers and facilitators to HIV testing were identified across the individual, social and structural levels. A number of study design and methodological issues, however, inhibited a comprehensive synthesis. There is no doubt that addressing HIV testing in migrants in high-income countries is complex; however, it has important implications for individual, community and population health, and a strong, empirically based response is warranted.
Sandfort, Theo G M; Knox, Justin; Collier, Kate L; Lane, Tim; Reddy, Vasu
While men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa are at high risk for HIV infection, few of those already infected know their status. Effectively promoting frequent HIV testing-of increasing importance with the expanding accessibility of antiretroviral treatment-requires an understanding of the testing practices in this population. To understand men's HIV testing practices, including their behavior, experiences, and perceptions, we conducted in-depth interviews with 81 black South African MSM (ages 20-39), purposively recruited from four townships. Many men in the sample had tested for HIV. While ever having tested seemed to facilitate repeat testing, men still expressed a high level of discomfort with testing. It was common to test after having engaged in risky behavior, thus increasing anxiety about testing that was already present. Fear that they might test HIV positive caused some men to avoid testing until they were clearly sick, and others to avoid testing completely. HIV testing may increase in this population if it becomes a routine practice, instead of being driven by anxiety-inducing incidents. Mobilization through social support might facilitate frequent testing while education about current treatment options is needed.
... test? Information on the OraQuick In-Home HIV Test can be found on FDA’s website . Additionally, information can be obtained from the manufacturer, OraSure Technologies. back to top More in Premarket Approvals (PMAs) ...
Cooley, Laura A.; Oster, Alexandra M.; Rose, Charles E.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Le, Binh C.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela
In 2011, 62% of estimated new HIV diagnoses in the United States were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact (men who have sex with men, MSM); 39% of these MSM were black or African American. HIV testing, recommended at least annually by CDC for sexually active MSM, is an essential first step in HIV care and treatment for HIV-positive individuals. A variety of HIV testing initiatives, designed to reach populations disproportionately affected by HIV, have been developed at both national and local levels. We assessed changes in HIV testing behavior among MSM participating in the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in 2008 and 2011. We compared the percentages tested in the previous 12 months in 2008 and 2011, overall and by race/ethnicity and age group. In unadjusted analyses, recent HIV testing increased from 63% in 2008 to 67% in 2011 overall (P<0.001), from 63% to 71% among black MSM (P<0.001), and from 63% to 75% among MSM of other/multiple races (P<0.001); testing did not increase significantly for white or Hispanic/Latino MSM. Multivariable model results indicated an overall increase in recent HIV testing (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.07, P<0.001). Increases were largest for black MSM (aPR = 1.12, P<0.001) and MSM of other/multiple races (aPR = 1.20, P<0.001). Among MSM aged 18–19 years, recent HIV testing was shown to increase significantly among black MSM (aPR = 1.20, P = 0.007), but not among MSM of other racial/ethnic groups. Increases in recent HIV testing among populations most affected by HIV are encouraging, but despite these increases, improved testing coverage is needed to meet CDC recommendations. PMID:25180514
Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Balán, Iván C; Dolezal, Curtis; Pando, María A; Marone, Rubén; Barreda, Victoria; Avila, María Mercedes
The objective of the study was to explore HIV-testing practices among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in light of current international health guidelines that recommend frequent HIV testing for MSM who engage in high-risk behavior. Participants, who were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS), were 500 mostly young, nongay-identified MSM of low socioeconomic status, high levels of unemployment, living mainly in the less-affluent areas surrounding Buenos Aires, and lacking health insurance. They provided blood samples for HIV testing and responded to a Computer Assisted Self Interview. Fifty-two percent had never been tested for HIV, and 20% had been tested only once; 17% were found to be HIV infected, of whom almost half were unaware of their status. Main reasons for never having tested previously were: not feeling at risk, fear of finding out results, and not knowing where to get tested. Among those previously tested, men had been tested a median of 2 times with their most recent test having occurred a median of 2.7 years prior to study enrollment. Of those who had not tested positive before entering the study, only 41% returned for their results. HIV testing was infrequent and insufficient for early detection of infection, entry into treatment, and protection of sexual partners. This was particularly the case among nongay-identified MSM. Testing campaigns should aim to help MSM become aware of their risk behavior, decrease fear of testing by explaining available treatment resources and decreasing the stigma associated with HIV, and by publicizing information about free and confidential testing locations. Rapid HIV testing should be made available to eliminate the need for a return visit and make results immediately available to individuals who are tested. PMID:23659314
RENNIE, STUART; MUPENDA, BAVON
Despite decades of prevention efforts, millions of persons worldwide continue to become infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) every year. This urgent problem of global epidemic control has recently lead to significant changes in HIV testing policies. Provider-initiated approaches to HIV testing have been embraced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, such as those that routinely inform persons that they will be tested for HIV unless they explicitly refuse (‘opt out’). While these policies appear to increase uptake of testing, they raise a number of ethical concerns that have been debated in journals and at international AIDS conferences. However, one special form of ‘provider-initiated’ testing is being practiced and promoted in various parts of the world, and has advocates within international health agencies, but has received little attention in the bioethical literature: mandatory premarital HIV testing. This article analyses some of the key ethical issues related to mandatory premarital HIV testing in resource-poor settings with generalized HIV epidemics. We will first briefly mention some mandatory HIV premarital testing proposals, policies and practices worldwide, and offer a number of conceptual and factual distinctions to help distinguish different types of mandatory testing policies. Using premarital testing in Goma (Democratic Republic of Congo) as a point of departure, we will use influential public health ethics principles to evaluate different forms of mandatory testing. We conclude by making concrete recommendations concerning the place of mandatory premarital testing in the struggle against HIV/AIDS. PMID:19143089
Gu, Yisu; Hunter, Terrence; Offer, Mark
Serological screening tests for multiple myeloma are commonly requested by physicians in both primary and secondary care to investigate patients presenting with anaemia or renal impairment of unknown cause. This article reviews the interpretation of these tests.
Chung, Adrienne H; Rimal, Rajiv N
Improvements spearheaded by the World Health Organization in antenatal HIV counseling in sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2011 have seen a parallel increase in HIV testing. We sought to determine the extent to which the use of choice architecture principles (one that introduces an opt-out option as the default) affect uptake of HIV testing, above and beyond individual-level attitudes and cognitions. Demographic and Health Survey data collected between 2004 and 2011 from Zimbabwe (N = 1,330) and Malawi (N = 4,043)--countries where over 10% of adults have HIV--were analyzed. We explored the influence of demographic variables, modes of knowledge about HIV, stigma against people living with HIV, attitudes about spousal abuse, and whether or not HIV testing had been offered during antenatal visits. Results demonstrated that, taking into account secular trends in higher testing rates, structural-level support was the strongest predictor of HIV testing above and beyond individual-level attitudes and cognitions. PMID:26241385
Hu, Yifei; Wu, Guohui; Jia, Yujiang; Lu, Rongrong; Xiao, Yan; Raymond, H. F.; Ruan, Yuhua; Sun, Jiangping
Objective. To investigate barriers and correlates of the use of HIV prevention services and HIV testing behaviors among men who have sex with men in Chongqing. Methods. Three consecutive cross-sectional surveys provided demographic, sexual behavior, HIV/syphilis infection, HIV prevention service, and testing behavior data. Results. Of 1239 participants, 15.4% were infected with HIV, incidence was 12.3 per 100 persons/year (95% CI: 9.2–15.3), 38% of the participants reported ever having unprotected insertive anal sex, 40% ever received free condom/lubricants in the past year, and 27.7% ever obtained free sexually transmitted infection examination/treatment in the past year. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that lower levels of HIV/AIDS related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes, full-time jobs, and sex debut with men at a younger age were independently associated with use of free condom/lubricants. Large social networks, higher incomes, and sexual debut with men at a younger age were associated with use of any HIV prevention and HIV testing services. Lower levels of stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes were also associated with HIV testing. Fearing needles and being unaware of the venues for testing were top barriers for testing service utilization. Conclusion. It is imperative to address HIV/AIDS related stigmatizing/discriminatory attitudes and other barriers while delivering intervention and testing services. PMID:24783195
Sandfort, Theo G. M.; Knox, Justin; Collier, Kate L.; Lane, Tim; Reddy, Vasu
While men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa are at high risk for HIV infection, few of those already infected know their status. Effectively promoting frequent HIV testing—of increasing importance with the expanding accessibility of antiretroviral treatment—requires an understanding of the testing practices in this population. To understand men’s HIV testing practices, including their behavior, experiences, and perceptions, we conducted in-depth interviews with 81 black South African MSM (ages 20–39), purposively recruited from four townships. Many men in the sample had tested for HIV. While ever having tested seemed to facilitate repeat testing, men still expressed a high level of discomfort with testing. It was common to test after having engaged in risky behavior, thus increasing anxiety about testing that was already present. Fear that they might test HIV positive caused some men to avoid testing until they were clearly sick, and others to avoid testing completely. HIV testing may increase in this population if it becomes a routine practice, instead of being driven by anxiety-inducing incidents. Mobilization through social support might facilitate frequent testing while education about current treatment options is needed. PMID:25103866
Sano, Yujiro; Sedziafa, Alice P; Amoyaw, Jonathan A; Boateng, Godfred O; Kuuire, Vincent Z; Boamah, Sheila; Kwon, Eugena
Although HIV testing is critical to the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, utilization rate of HIV testing services among married women and men remains low in Ghana. Mass media, as a tool to increase overall HIV testing turnouts, has been considered one of the important strategies in promoting and enhancing behavioural changes related to HIV/AIDS prevention. Using the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, the current study examines the relationship between levels of exposure to print media, radio, and television and the uptake of HIV testing among married women and men in Ghana. Results show that HIV testing is more prevalent among married women than their male counterparts. We also find that higher levels of exposure to radio is associated with HIV testing among women, while higher levels of exposure to print media and television are associated with HIV testing among men. Implications of these findings are discussed for Ghana's HIV/AIDS strategic framework, which aims to expanding efforts at dealing with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Specifically, it is important for health educators and programme planners to deliver HIV-related messages through television, radio, and print media to increase the uptake of HIV testing particularly among married women and men in Ghana.
Umar, Sambo Adamu; Oche, Oche Mansur
Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, an estimated 1.8 million became infected with the HIV in 2009 and Nigeria currently has about 3.4 million people living with HIV. Measures put in place by religious organizations to combat HIV/AIDS in Nigeria include mandatory premarital HIV testing. The knowledge of HIV/AIDS amongst religious leaders in Nigeria has not been sufficiently explored . In this study, we assessed the knowledge of HIV/AIDS amongst religious leaders in Sokoto and if they routinely demand for mandatory premarital HIV testing for all intending couples. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 158 religious leaders (30 Christians and 128 Muslims) who officiate or assist during marriages. Data was collected using interviewer and self administered questionnaire which sought such information as biodata, knowledge of HIV/AIDS , speaking to congregation about AIDS and using Premarital HIV status as a pre-requisite for contracting marriages. Data was entered into and analysed using Epi-info computer soft ware program. Level of statistical significance was put at P=0.05. Results The ages of the respondents ranged from 35 to 78 years with a mean age of 26.3 ± 20.3years. Forty nine percent of the respondents had adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS with more Christian clerics compared to Muslim Clerics having better knowledge of HIV/AIDS (P<0.0001). All the Christian clerics opined that they would insist on mandatory premarital HIV testing for their subjects before joining them in marriages. Conclusion The results of the study have shown that most of the religious leaders lacked adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the use of mandatory premarital HIV testing is yet to be adopted by the Muslim clerics. Awareness campaigns should be intensified for the religious leaders to improve their knowledge of HIV/AIDS. PMID:22514761
Cooley, Laura A.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Rose, Charles E.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Taussig, Jennifer; Gern, Robert; Hoyte, Tamika; Salazar, Laura; White, Jianglan; Todd, Jeff; Bautista, Greg; Flynn, Colin; Sifakis, Frangiscos; German, Danielle; Isenberg, Debbie; Driscoll, Maura; Hurwitz, Elizabeth; Doherty, Rose; Wittke, Chris; Prachand, Nikhil; Benbow, Nanette; Melville, Sharon; Pannala, Praveen; Yeager, Richard; Sayegh, Aaron; Dyer, Jim; Sheu, Shane; Novoa, Alicia; Thrun, Mark; Al-Tayyib, Alia; Wilmoth, Ralph; Higgins, Emily; Griffin, Vivian; Mokotoff, Eve; MacMaster, Karen; Wolverton, Marcia; Risser, Jan; Rehman, Hafeez; Padgett, Paige; Bingham, Trista; Sey, Ekow Kwa; LaLota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa; Forrest, David; Beck, Dano; Cardenas, Gabriel; Nemeth, Chris; Anderson, Bridget J.; Watson, Carol-Ann; Smith, Lou; Robinson, William T.; Gruber, DeAnn; Barak, Narquis; Murrill, Chris; Neaigus, Alan; Jenness, Samuel; Hagan, Holly; Reilly, Kathleen H.; Wendel, Travis; Cross, Helene; Bolden, Barbara; D'Errico, Sally; Wogayehu, Afework; Godette, Henry; Brady, Kathleen A.; Kirkland, Althea; Sifferman, Andrea; Miguelino-Keasling, Vanessa; Velasco, Al; Tovar, Veronica; Raymond, H. Fisher; De León, Sandra Miranda; Rolón-Colón, Yadira; Marzan, Melissa; Courogen, Maria; Jaenicke, Tom; Thiede, Hanne; Burt, Richard; Jia, Yujiang; Opoku, Jenevieve; Sansone, Marie; West, Tiffany; Magnus, Manya; Kuo, Irene
According to National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system data, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing increased among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men from 2008 to 2011 in cities funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Expanded Testing Initiative, suggesting that focused HIV testing initiatives might have positive effects. PMID:25352589
Rüütel, Kristi; Parker, R David; Lõhmus, Liilia; Valk, Anti; Aavik, Toivo
HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia are low. We collected data from 265 MSM in a national, online survey. Lifetime HIV testing was related to risky sexual behaviors and contacts with health care services, while lifetime STI testing was related only to contacts with health care services. In addition, some personal values were significant predictors of testing. For example, high achievement (personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards) had a negative impact on lifetime HIV testing, and high interpersonal conformity (avoiding upsetting others) had a negative impact on lifetime STI testing. The results demonstrate the need to develop gay-friendly health services and to recognize the role of personal values and individual differences in values when designing attractive interventions to increase HIV/STI testing rates among MSM.
Rüütel, Kristi; Parker, R David; Lõhmus, Liilia; Valk, Anti; Aavik, Toivo
HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) testing rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Estonia are low. We collected data from 265 MSM in a national, online survey. Lifetime HIV testing was related to risky sexual behaviors and contacts with health care services, while lifetime STI testing was related only to contacts with health care services. In addition, some personal values were significant predictors of testing. For example, high achievement (personal success through demonstrating competence according to social standards) had a negative impact on lifetime HIV testing, and high interpersonal conformity (avoiding upsetting others) had a negative impact on lifetime STI testing. The results demonstrate the need to develop gay-friendly health services and to recognize the role of personal values and individual differences in values when designing attractive interventions to increase HIV/STI testing rates among MSM. PMID:26852032
Mitchell, Jason W.; Sullivan, Patrick S.
Background Many MSM acquire HIV while in a same-sex relationship. Studies with gay male couples have demonstrated that relationship characteristics and testing behaviors are important to examine for HIV prevention. Recently, an in-home rapid HIV test (HT) has become available for purchase in the US. However, HIV-negative partnered men’s attitudes toward using an HT, and whether characteristics of their relationship affect their use of HTs remain largely unknown. This information is relevant for development of HIV prevention interventions targeting at-risk HIV-negative and discordant male couples. Methods To assess HIV-negative partnered men’s attitudes and associated factors toward using an HT, a cross-sectional Internet-based survey was used to collect dyadic data from a national sample of 275 HIV-negative and 58 HIV-discordant gay male couples. Multivariate multilevel modeling was used to identify behavioral and relationship factors associated with 631 HIV-negative partnered men’s attitudes toward using an HT. Results HIV-negative partnered men were “very likely” to use an HT. More positive attitudes toward using an HT were associated with being in a relationship of mixed or nonwhite race and with one or both men recently having had sex with a casual male partner. Less positive attitudes toward using an HT were associated with both partners being well educated, with greater resources (investment size) in the relationship, and with one or both men having a primary care provider. Conclusions These findings may be used to help improve testing rates via promotion of HTs among gay male couples. PMID:25668643
Verani, Andre R; Orago, Alloys S S; Kariuki, Charles N; Muraguri, Nicholas; Koros, Dan; Marston, Barbara; De Cock, Kevin M
Realization of the right to health occurs along a continuum including national ratification of international treaties such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child, passage of domestic laws and policies that may specify modes of implementation and enforcement such as Kenya's Constitution and HIV and AIDS Prevention and Control Act, and actual implementation of domestic laws and policies such as through the regulation and delivery of health services. The stages heuristic theoretical framework describes the public policy continuum as consisting of marked stages: agenda setting, policy formulation, policy implementation, and evaluation. This case study illustrates the continuum in Kenya with regard to pediatric HIV testing. Kenya has made progress applying law, policy, and science to reduce vertical transmission of HIV and increase HIV testing of infants, although several challenges remain. Progress in policy implementation may reduce mother-to-child transmission and increase pediatric HIV testing. PMID:25513037
Singh, Lavanya; Parboosing, Raveen; Manasa, Justen; Moodley, Pravi; de Oliveira, Tulio
Human immunodeficiency virus 2 (HIV-2) is found predominantly in West Africa. It is not unlikely, however, that HIV-2 may also be found in South Africa, due to the influx of immigrants into this country. It is important to distinguish between HIV-1 and HIV-2 since the clinical courses and treatment responses of these viruses are different. Routine serological methods for diagnosing HIV do not differentiate between HIV-1 and -2 infections, while rapid tests, viral load quantification and PCR are HIV-type--specific. The objective of this study was to describe the seroprevalence and molecular epidemiology of HIV-2 in KwaZulu-Natal, one of the regions with the highest HIV prevalence in the world and home of the two largest harbors in South Africa. HIV-1 positive samples were screened for antibodies against HIV-2, using a rapid test. The confirmation of HIV-2 positive samples was done by PCR. Of the 2,123 samples screened, 319 (15%) were identified as positive by the rapid test. None of these samples were confirmed positive by PCR. To explore this discrepancy in the results, a subset (n = 52) of the rapid HIV-2 positive samples was subjected to Western blotting. Thirty-seven (71%) of these were positive, yielding an overall HIV-2 seroprevalence of 10.6%. Three out of 28 (10.7%) Western blot positive samples were positive by a Pepti-LAV assay. This discrepancy between serological and molecular confirmation may be attributed to non-specific or cross-reacting antibodies. The use of rapid tests and Western blots for HIV-2 diagnosis in South Africa should be interpreted with caution.
Ojikutu, Bisola O; Mazzola, Emanuele; Fullem, Andrew; Vega, Rodolfo; Landers, Stewart; Gelman, Rebecca S; Bogart, Laura M
Late presentation is common among black and Hispanic US immigrants living with HIV. Little is known about HIV testing in this population because data are aggregated into racial and ethnic categories without regard to nativity. This study was undertaken to determine HIV testing patterns in these populations. We used data from the National Health Interview Survey (2007-2010), a nationally representative source of HIV testing data disaggregated by nativity. The sample consisted of 10,397 immigrants (83.9% Hispanic white, 13.1% non-Hispanic black, and 3.0% Hispanic black). The majority of participants were from the Caribbean, Central America, and Mexico (81.5%). Hispanic white immigrants were least likely to have undergone testing compared with non-Hispanic and Hispanic black immigrants (46.7% vs. 70.5% and 65.8%). Among immigrants with known risk factors or prior STDs, 59.2% and 74.8% reported previous HIV testing. Immigrants who had not recently talked to a healthcare provider were less likely to report testing: Hispanic white (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.58-0.72), non-Hispanic black (AOR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48-0.85), and Hispanic black (AOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.14-0.48). Only 17.2% of all immigrants intended to undergo HIV testing in the 12 months following participation in the survey. Among all three racial and ethnic groups, immigrants who reported a history of prior STDs were more likely to intend to test for HIV in the future. Many black and Hispanic immigrants to the United States have not undergone HIV testing. Interventions to increase access to HIV testing and awareness of transmission risk should be developed. PMID:27410494
Denison, Julie A.; McCauley, Ann P.; Dunnett-Dagg, Wendy A.; Lungu, Nalakwanji; Sweat, Michael D.
This study examined how individual, relational and environmental factors related to adolescent demand for HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). A cross-sectional survey among randomly selected 16-19-year-olds in Ndola, Zambia, covered individual (e.g., HIV knowledge), environmental (e.g., distance), and relational factors (e.g., discussed…
Ethical issues in screening of victims of sexual abuse for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are raised in response to Gellert (EC 222 881). It is concluded that widescale HIV testing of child victims of sexual abuse is not justified by the available information. (DB)
Dukers-Muijrers, N H T; Dukers-Muijrers, H T M; Heijman, R L J; van Leent, E J M; Coutinho, R A; Thiesbrummel, H F J; Fennema, J S A
--Despite the current active HIV test policy, the effects of the former policy are still visible, i.e. a relatively low number of individuals that have ever been tested for HIV. --The number of HIV tests and knowledge of current HIV status has increased among visitors to the STI clinic in Amsterdam. --Nevertheless, anonymous HIV surveillance among visitors to the STI clinic shows that a considerable proportion of HIV-infected individuals (24% of men who have sex with men (MSM) and 80% of heterosexuals) are unaware of the infection. --A new opting-out strategy for HIV testing in STI clinics is recommended. --The opting-out strategy may also be applicable to other medical settings, especially those that treat target populations such as MSM, heterosexuals with STI-related symptoms, and persons originating from AIDS-endemic regions. --The opting-out system was initiated in the Amsterdam STI clinic in 2007 in order to further reduce the number of undiagnosed HIV infections.
VAN WAGONER, NICHOLAS J; MORROW, RHODA; LEE, JEANNETTE; DIXON, PAULA; HOOK, EDWARD W.
Screening for subclinical HSV-2 may be a useful adjunct in HIV care. However, HSV-2 serologic tests have been suggested to perform less well in HIV-infected populations. We compared HerpeSelect® HSV-2 ELISA to the Sure-Vue® Rapid HSV-2 Test for HSV-2 screening of sera from 310 HIV-infected persons receiving care at an HIV-dedicated clinic in the Southeastern United States. We determined assay agreement and whether performance of both tests, rather than 1 test alone, would improve screening accuracy. Overall percent test agreement was 96%. Negative percent agreement was best at a HerpeSelect® index value < 0.90 and positive percent agreement was best at a HerpeSelect® index value ≥ 3.0 (97% and 100%, respectively). Using the manufacturer’s established cutoffs for a HerpeSelect® positive versus negative test result discordant results between assays occurred in 4% of cases and the majority of these occurred when the HerpeSelect® index value was between 0.9 and 2.9. These data suggest good correlation between HerpeSelect® and the Sure-Vue® HSV-2 Rapid Test in a U.S. HIV-infected population and suggest that confirmatory testing may not help in HSV-2 diagnosis except in cases where HerpeSelect® index values are between 0.9–3.0. PMID:23154653
Cui, Wanjun; Thompson, William W.; Zack, Matthew M.; McKnight-Eily, Lela; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Rose, Charles E.; Blank, Michael B.
Abstract Nationally representative data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to compare HIV testing prevalence among US adults with mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and/or anxiety) to those without, providing an update of prior work using 1999 and 2002 NHIS data. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the probability of ever being tested for HIV by mental illness status, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, substance abuse, excessive alcohol or tobacco use, and HIV risk factors. Based on data from 21,785 respondents, 15% of adults had a psychiatric disorder and 37% ever had an HIV test. Persons with schizophrenia (64%), bipolar disorder (63%), and depression and/or anxiety (47%) were more likely to report ever being tested for HIV than those without mental illness (35%). In multivariable models, individuals reporting schizophrenia (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.68, 95% confidence interval=1.33–2.13), bipolar disease (1.58, 1.39–1.81), and depression and/or anxiety (1.31, 1.25–1.38) were more likely to be tested for HIV than persons without these diagnoses. Similar to previous analyses, persons with mental illness were more likely to have been tested than those without mental illness. However, the elevated prevalence of HIV in populations with mental illness suggests that high levels of testing along with other prevention efforts are needed. PMID:25459230
Yehia, Baligh R; Cui, Wanjun; Thompson, William W; Zack, Matthew M; McKnight-Eily, Lela; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Rose, Charles E; Blank, Michael B
Nationally representative data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to compare HIV testing prevalence among US adults with mental illness (schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, depression, and/or anxiety) to those without, providing an update of prior work using 1999 and 2002 NHIS data. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the probability of ever being tested for HIV by mental illness status, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, substance abuse, excessive alcohol or tobacco use, and HIV risk factors. Based on data from 21,785 respondents, 15% of adults had a psychiatric disorder and 37% ever had an HIV test. Persons with schizophrenia (64%), bipolar disorder (63%), and depression and/or anxiety (47%) were more likely to report ever being tested for HIV than those without mental illness (35%). In multivariable models, individuals reporting schizophrenia (adjusted prevalence ratio=1.68, 95% confidence interval=1.33-2.13), bipolar disease (1.58, 1.39-1.81), and depression and/or anxiety (1.31, 1.25-1.38) were more likely to be tested for HIV than persons without these diagnoses. Similar to previous analyses, persons with mental illness were more likely to have been tested than those without mental illness. However, the elevated prevalence of HIV in populations with mental illness suggests that high levels of testing along with other prevention efforts are needed.
Bannan, Ciaran L; Lynch, Pamela A; Conroy, Emmett P; O'Dea, Siobhan; Surah, Saloni; Betts-Symonds, Graham; Lyons, Fiona E
HIV is more prevalent in the prison population compared to the general population. Prison inmates are at an increased risk of blood-borne infections. Considerable stigma has been documented amongst inmates with HIV infection. In collaboration with the schools, healthcare facilities, prison authorities and inmate Irish Red Cross groups in Wheatfield, Cloverhill and Mountjoy prisons in Dublin, Ireland, the Department of Genito Urinary Medicine and Infectious Diseases at St James' Hospital in Dublin developed a campaign for raising awareness of HIV, educating inmates about HIV and tackling HIV stigma. Following this campaign, large-scale point-of-care testing for HIV was offered over a short period. In total, 741 inmates were screened for HIV. One inmate tested positive for HIV. We experienced a large number of invalid test results, requiring formal laboratory serum testing, and a small number of false positive results. Large-scale point-of-care testing in the Irish prison setting is acceptable and achievable.
Meade, Christina S; Wang, Jianping; Lin, Xiuyun; Wu, Hao; Poppen, Paul J
Throughout the 1990s, many villagers in rural China were infected with HIV through commercial plasma/blood donation. These former plasma/blood donors (FPDs) experienced many HIV-related stressors. This study tested a cognitive appraisal model of stress and coping in a sample of HIV-positive adult FPDs. Participants (N = 207) from multiple villages completed a battery of questionnaires assessing HIV-related stress, HIV symptoms, cognitive appraisal, coping behaviors, and psychological distress. Participants reported high levels of HIV-related stress, depression, and anxiety. In a structural equation model, greater HIV-related stress, HIV symptoms, and threat appraisal were directly associated with psychological distress. HIV-related stress was also indirectly associated with psychological distress through threat appraisal. In a second model, coping was found to mediate the relationship between challenge appraisal and psychological distress. Results support the utility of cognitive appraisal theory. Stress management interventions targeting HIV-positive FPDs in China are indicated.
Camlin, Carol S; Ssemmondo, Emmanuel; Chamie, Gabriel; El Ayadi, Alison M; Kwarisiima, Dalsone; Sang, Norton; Kabami, Jane; Charlebois, Edwin; Petersen, Maya; Clark, Tamara D; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; R Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane
Men's uptake of HIV testing is critical to the success of "test and treat" strategies in generalized epidemics. This study sought to identify cultural factors and community processes that influence men's HIV testing uptake in the baseline year of an ongoing test-and-treat trial among 334,479 persons in eastern Africa (SEARCH, NCT#01864603). Data were collected using participant observation at mobile community health campaigns (CHCs) (n = 28); focus group discussions (n = 8 groups) with CHC participants; and in-depth interviews with care providers (n = 50), leaders (n = 32), and members (n = 112) of eight communities in Kenya and Uganda. An 8-person research team defined analytical codes and iteratively refined them during data collection using grounded theoretical approaches, and textual data were coded using Atlas.ti software. Structural and cultural barriers, including men's mobility and gender norms valorizing risk-taking and discouraging health-seeking behavior, were observed, and contributed to men's lower participation in HIV testing relative to women. Men's labor opportunities often require extended absences from households: during planting season, men guarded fields from monkeys from dawn until nightfall; lake fishermen traveled long distances and circulated between beaches. Men often tested "by proxy", believing their wives' HIV test results to be their status. Debates about HIV risks were vigorous, with many men questioning "traditional" masculine gender norms that enhanced risks. The promise of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prolong health was a motivating factor for many men to participate in testing. Flexibility in operating hours of HIV testing including late evening and weekend times along with multiple convenient locations that moved were cited as facilitating factors enhancing male participating in HIV testing. Mobile testing reduced but did not eliminate barriers to men's participation in a large-scale "test & treat" effort
Hanf, Matthieu; Bousser, Veronique; Parriault, Marie Claire; Van-Melle, Astrid; Nouvellet, Marie-Louise; Adriouch, Leila; Sebillotte, Claire Goddard; Couppie, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu
In Cayenne, French Guiana, 80% of HIV-positive patients followed at the hospital are migrants. Behavioural information is crucial for optimising HIV testing for this vulnerable group. Predictors of ignorance of the existence of free voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) centre and willingness to get tested were investigated in 2006 among 398 migrants from Haiti, Guyana, Suriname and Brazil using a structured questionnaire. Only 27% of migrants knew simultaneously about the existence of free VCT, its localisation and its operating hours. Factors associated with ignorance of the existence of free VCT centre were birthplace in Haiti, being in French Guiana for less than three years, not thinking one's birth country as strongly affected by HIV and not thinking to be personally at risk for HIV. Factors independently associated with willingness to get tested were thinking to be at risk for HIV, birthplace in Brazil and Haiti, having a high-integration level and fear of suffering if HIV test was positive. In order to improve testing among migrants, the accessibility of testing facilities and the knowledge of their whereabouts and operating hours must be improved to promote the desired behaviour among the majority of migrants which is often willing to do the test.
Wouters, Kristien; Fransen, Katrien; Beelaert, Greet; Kenyon, Chris; Platteau, Tom; Van Ghyseghem, Chris; Collier, Ilse; Buyze, Jozefien; Florence, Eric
The Antwerp Helpcenter is a low threshold screening centre for HIV and STI testing focused on high-risk groups. The aim of this work is to describe our experience with the use of rapid HIV tests including the analysis of the characteristics of new cases of HIV infection. We performed a retrospective analysis of all rapid tests routinely performed at the Helpcenter in the period June 2007 to December 2012. The Determine(®)HIV-1/2 (3rd generation) was used until May 2009 and thereafter the Determine Combo(®)HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab (Alere) test (4th generation) on venous blood. All reactive tests were confirmed using a standard confirmation algorithm with ELISAs and a confirmation test (INNO-LIA HIVI/II Score(®)). In all, 5025 rapid tests were performed on blood specimens of 3881 clients including 1173 men having sex with men and 454 migrants from sub-Sahara Africa. The overall prevalence of HIV infection was 1.5% and higher among the risk groups: 4.0% of men having sex with men and 2.2% of migrants from sub-Sahara Africa. The availability of a rapid test was an important reason to present at the Helpcenter. The rapid test was successfully introduced into an outpatient testing centre. Client satisfaction with RT was high and most clients were successfully linked to care.
Nyanzi-Wakholi, Barbara; Lara, Antonieta Medina; Watera, Christine; Munderi, Paula; Gilks, Charles; Grosskurth, Heiner
HIV/AIDS has had a devastating impact at individual, household and community levels. This qualitative research investigates the role of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) and treatment in enabling HIV-positive Ugandans to cope with this disease. Twelve predetermined focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted; six with men and six with women. Half of the men and women's groups were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and half were not. An FGD was held with the health care providers administering ART. Testing for HIV was perceived as soliciting a death warrant. Participants affirmed that the incentive for testing was the possibility of accessing free ART. They described experiencing gender-variant stigma and depression on confirming their HIV status and commended the role of counselling in supporting them to adopt positive living. For those receiving ART, counselling reinforced treatment adherence. The findings also revealed gender differences in treatment adherence strategies. ART was described to reduce disease symptoms and restore physical health allowing them to resume their daily activities. Additionally, ART was preferred over traditional herbal treatment because it had clear dosages, expiry dates and was scientifically manufactured. Those that were not receiving ART bore myths and misconceptions about the effectiveness and side effects of ART, delaying the decision to seek treatment. Stigma and the attached concern of HIV/AIDS-related swift death, is a major barrier for VCT. Based on this study's findings, ensuring the provision of quality assured and gender conscious VCT and ART delivery services will enhance positive living and enforce compliance to ART programmes. PMID:20024747
de Walque, Damien; Gertler, Paul J; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Kwan, Ada; Vermeersch, Christel; de Dieu Bizimana, Jean; Binagwaho, Agnès; Condo, Jeanine
Paying for performance provides financial rewards to medical care providers for improvements in performance measured by utilization and quality of care indicators. In 2006, Rwanda began a pay for performance scheme to improve health services delivery, including HIV/AIDS services. Using a prospective quasi-experimental design, this study examines the scheme's impact on individual and couples HIV testing. We find a positive impact of pay for performance on HIV testing among married individuals (10.2 percentage points increase). Paying for performance also increased testing by both partners by 14.7 percentage point among discordant couples in which only one of the partners is an AIDS patient.
van Zyl, Michiel Adriaan; Brown, Leslie Lauren; Pahl, Kathryn
Engaging newly diagnosed HIV+ individuals in treatment is a significant global challenge. As South Africa expands HIV counseling and testing (HCT) services, the growing numbers of people diagnosed with HIV will need innovative links to care approaches in order for treatment to be most effective. While definitions vary, we have defined "linkage to care" as connecting an HIV+ individual to medical care, so that CD4 cell test results are obtained and antiretroviral therapy (ART) eligibility assessed. The study is of HIV+ participants (n = 1096), from either Limpopo or Gauteng provinces from a "Links to Care" program. A two-pronged expanded HCT service was used, which included a community outreach approach to address HIV testing and a call center to encourage and track each patient's linkage to care post-HIV diagnosis. The majority of individuals (51%) were linked to care with a mean time to linkage of 31 days (with most individuals linked in less than 14 days). More females (54%) were linked to care than males (47%) and had higher CD4 cell counts than males; females had a mean CD4 cell count of 440, while males took longer to link to care and had a lower mean CD4 cell count of 331. Females of 23 years or younger had the lowest linkage rate of all females. Findings suggest that expanding HCT services to include innovative links to care approaches can improve linkage to care and subsequently impact HIV prevention.
Shokoohi, Mostafa; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Khajekazemi, Razieh; Osooli, Mehdi; Sharifi, Hamid; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Kamali, Kianoush; Mirzazadeh, Ali
Introduction Female sex workers (FSWs) are the second most affected population by HIV in Iran. However, their HIV testing practices are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate testing and its associated factors among HIV negative FSWs. Materials and Methods Using facility based sampling, 1005 FSWs were recruited in 14 cities of Iran in 2010. Biological and survey data were collected through dried blood spot testing and standardized risk assessment questionnaire, respectively. In this paper, the prevalence of HIV testing and its correlates were explored among 714 HIV-negative FSWs using descriptive statistics and logistic regression models. Results Overall 65.4% had not tested in the past year. Only 27.5% had tested in the past year and received their results. FSWs who perceived themselves at risk of HIV (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 8.35, 95% CI: 1.46, 47.6), had received free condom during past year (AOR = 3.90, 95% CI: 1.67, 9.14), started sex work at an older age (AOR18–24 = 2.83, 95% CI: 1.14, 7.0; AOR >24 = 2.76, 95% CI: 1.11, 6.84), and knew an HIV testing site (AOR = 5.67, 95% CI: 2.60, 12.4) had a significantly higher chance of having a recent HIV test result. Conclusions Less than one third of FSWs in Iran knew their recent HIV status. Interventions to help FSWs evaluate their potential risk for HIV and integrate HIV testing services in condom distribution programs, could be viable strategies in increasing HIV testing uptake among FSWs. Health policy makers should also try to de-stigmatize HIV testing, identify the barriers to HIV testing, and make HIV testing sites more visible to FSWs. PMID:26807584
Pantin, Marlene; Leonard, Noelle R; Hagan, Holly
Undiagnosed and untreated sexually transmitted infections are highly prevalent among users of heroin, crack, cocaine, and amphetamines. Between 2008 and 2009, 58 heroin, cocaine, and crack users in New York City who reported unprot