Robbins, C L; Zapata, L; Kissin, D M; Shevchenko, N; Yorick, R; Skipalska, H; Finnerty, E; Ornstein, T; Marchbanks, P A; Jamieson, D J; Hillis, S D
We conducted the first systematic, community-based, multicity assessment outside the USA of HIV seroprevalence, risk factors and linkage into clinical services among 929 street youth. After city-wide mapping, we used time-location sampling and randomly selected 74 venues in Odesa, Kyiv and Donetsk, Ukraine. Rapid HIV testing with post-test counselling was offered to all eligible youths aged 15-24 years. Overall, 18.4% (95% confidence interval 16.2-20.2) were HIV positive and 85% had previously unknown status. Rates were identical by sex. Subgroups with highest rates included orphans (26%), youths with histories of exchanging sex (35%), sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (37%), injection drug use (IDU) (42%) and needle sharing (49%). Independent predictors, similar across age groups and city, included being orphaned, time on the street, history of anal sex, STIs, exchanging sex, any drug use, IDU and needle sharing. Two-thirds (68%) of HIV-positive youths were linked to services. This high-risk population has many immediate needs.
Nagachinta, T.; Brown, C. P.; Cheng, F.; Temple, W.; Kerndt, P. R.; Janssen, R. S.
In a hospital-based seroprevalence survey for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, a stratified sampling method based on age and gender was used to collect 5429 blood samples at an inner-city hospital. Sentinel Hospital Surveillance System (SHSS) criteria developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to classify patient diagnoses into two categories by the likelihood of being associated with HIV-1 infection. The two categories were those with high likelihood of association with HIV-1 (SHSS-ineligible) and those with low likelihood of association with HIV-1 infection (SHSS-eligible). Of the 5429 blood samples, 4262 were SHSS-eligible and 1167 were SHSS-ineligible. After personal identifies were removed, specimens were tested by ELISA and confirmed by Western blot analysis. The overall prevalence rate of HIV-1 infection was 0.98%. The seroprevalence rate was almost 2.6 times higher in high-association patients compared with low-association patients (1.89% versus 0.73%, P < .001). Results from this study indicate a high unsuspected HIV-1 seroprevalence rate in a subpopulation (SHSS-eligible) considered to have diagnoses with low likelihood of association with HIV-1 infection. These patients may better approximate HIV-1 seroprevalence in the general population of the area served by the hospital than would a sample of all patients. Monitoring HIV-1 seroprevalence in the SHSS-eligible group will be a useful measure for community serosurveillance for HIV-1 infection. PMID:8046762
Singleton, J. A.; Perkins, C. I.; Trachtenberg, A. I.; Hughes, M. J.; Kizer, K. W.; Ascher, M.
A cross-sectional blind study was conducted in the spring of 1988 to estimate the extent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among inmates entering the California correctional system. Of the 6,834 inmates receiving entrance physical examinations during the study period, 6,179 (90.4%) had serum tested for the presence of HIV antibodies after routine blood work was completed and personal identifiers were removed. Seroprevalence was 2.5% (95% confidence interval, 2.1% to 3.0%) among the 5,372 men tested and 3.1% (95% confidence interval, 2.1% to 4.5%) among the 807 women tested. Seroprevalence was more than twice as high among men arrested in the San Francisco Bay Area as in those arrested elsewhere in the state. The regional differences in HIV seroprevalence observed among entering inmates mirror infection rates reported among intravenous drug users from the same regions. PMID:2244374
Rey, D; Frick-Michot, E; Partisani, M; Hess-Kempf, G; Cheneau, C; Priester, M; Bernard-Henry, C; de Mautort, E; Wendling, M J; Meyer, P; Lang, J M
The authors had for aim to prospectively study the hepatitis A seroprevalence of an HIV-infected population, followed-up in an outpatient clinic (CISIH Strasbourg). Blood tests were performed on all patients from September 2003 to March 2004 to screen for hepatitis A (total antibodies with Elisa). The overall seroprevalence was 219/514 (56.6%), similar in male and female patients. It increased with age, especially in European patients (P = 0.003). The seroprevalence was lower in European subjects: 46.3% (while it reached 100% in sub-Saharan Africans), the prevalence was similar whatever the HIV risk group (46% in homosexual as well as in heterosexual patients, 44% in intravenous drug users). Hepatitis B or C co-infection did not increase the seroprevalence of hepatitis A. The hepatitis A seroprevalence was similar in various CD4 T cell count categories. Our results stress the utility of hepatitis A serology in HIV-infected patients (more than 50% of European patients are non immune), and the importance of assessing hepatitis A vaccination.
Mohraz, Minoo; Mehrkhani, Farhad; Jam, Sara; SeyedAlinaghi, SeyedAhmad; Sabzvari, Duman; Fattahi, Fatemeh; Jabbari, Hossain; Hajiabdolbaghi, Mahboubeh
Toxoplasma gondii has arisen as an important opportunistic agent especially in the central nervous system and in advanced HIV disease can cause significant morbidity and mortality. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among HIV-positive patients in Iran. Blood samples were collected from 201 HIV-positive patients and anti-toxoplasma antibodies were detected by using conventional ELISA. An antibody titer of >3 IU/ml was considered positive. The majority of studied patients were male (male to female ratio: 5 to 1) with the mean age of 36 ± 1 yrs. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in HIV-positive patients was 49.75%. The mean CD4 count in HIV patients with positive toxoplasma serology was 332.5 ± 22.4 cells/µl. Only 1% of the patients had IgM anti-toxoplasma antibodies and 10% of the patients had clinical toxoplasma encephalitis. The mean CD4 count in this group was 66.4 ± 15.5 cells/µl and there was a significant association between CD4 count and rate of toxoplasma encephalitis (P<0.001). Previous reports suggested that toxoplasma encephalitis could be prevented by appropriate chemoprophylaxis. In view of the relatively high prevalence of toxoplasma infection found among the HIV-infected patients in our study, we suggest that routine screening for toxoplasma should be undertaken for all HIV-infected patients in Iran.
Bessimbaye, N; Moussa, A M; Mbanga, D; Tidjani, A; Mahamat, S O; Ngawara, M Nahor; Ngarnayal, G; Fissou, H Y; Sangare, L; Ndoutamia, G; Barro, N
This is a prospective study conducted as part of a voluntary testing for HBV, HCV and HIV. The aim of the study is to determine the seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCV antibodies among HIV infected people and a control group of HIV negative people. HIV prevalence among newly diagnosed volunteers is 9.1%. The overall seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCV antibodies is respectively 13.5% and 2.0%. The seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCVantibodies in the control group (HIV-negative) is respectively 12.2% and 2%. The seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCV antibodies among HIV infected people (old and new) is respectively 16.1% and 1%.This study, the first one conducted in Chad, has allowed us to know the seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCV antibodies among HIV infected people.
Gouse, Hetta; Joska, John A; Lion, Ryan R; Watt, Melissa H; Burnhams, Warren; Carrico, Adam W; Meade, Christina S
Methamphetamine use is highly prevalent in parts of South Africa, and there is concern this will contribute to the country's substantial HIV epidemic. We examined the feasibility of implementing routine HIV testing at a community-based substance abuse treatment centre in Cape Town and determined the HIV sero-prevalence among methamphetamine users seeking treatment at this site. In this cross-sectional study, 293 participants completed measures of demographics, substance use and HIV treatment. HIV sero-prevalence was determined by a rapid finger-prick HIV test, and prior HIV diagnosis was confirmed via clinic records. The majority of participants were male and self-identified as 'Coloured', with a mean age of 28 years. The HIV sero-prevalence was 3.8%. Of the 11 participants who tested HIV positive, four were newly diagnosed. HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants were comparable on demographic and substance use factors. Uptake of HIV testing among all clients at the drug treatment centre increased from <5% prior to study initiation to 89% after study completion. Measures implemented to ensure high rates of HIV testing were regarded as sustainable. Our study suggests that integrating routine HIV testing into substance abuse treatment is feasible in a community-based health centre. The low HIV prevalence among this sample of treatment-seeking methamphetamine users highlights the potential benefits of supporting expanded efforts to optimise HIV prevention with this young adult population. [Gouse H, Joska JA, Lion RR, Watt MH, Burnhams W, Carrico AW, Meade CS. HIV testing and sero-prevalence among methamphetamine users seeking substance abuse treatment in Cape Town. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:580-583]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Sucilla-Pérez, Héctor; Conde-González, Carlos J; Izazola, José Antonio; Romero-Martínez, Martín; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio
To estimate the HIV seroprevalence among Mexicans aged 15 to 49 years old and living in households, and to describe the profile of serorreactive individuals. Cross-sectional study with a national probabilistic sample of individuals aged 15 to 49 years with behavioral data from direct interview (face-to-face) at households and HIV screening using capillary blood collected from the same individuals. A seroprevalence of 0.15% (95%CI 0.09-0.21) was estimated for Mexicans aged 15 to 49; seroprevalence among women was 0.07% (95%CI 0.03-0.11) and 0.24% (95%CI 0.11-0.36) for men. HIV serorreactive population is composed of younger men, with a higher socioeconomic level compared to the general population, and with a higher insurance coverage-social protection on health in general and social security in particular. Only 50% of the serorreactive individuals may be aware of their status as living with HIV. The estimated HIV seroprevalence in the NHNS 2012 suggests a stable pattern since 2000. The estimated prevalence among individuals 15 to 49 years was adjusted both for selection bias correction and to include MSM estimations (under the assumption that MSM is a population hard to reach in a household survey), resulting in a total seroprevalence of 0.23% and an estimated number of people with HIV of 140,000.
Castilla, J.; Pachón, I.; González, M. P.; Amela, C.; Muñoz, L.; Tello, O.; Noguer, I.; de Ory, F.; León, P.; Alonso, M.; Gil, E.; García-Sáiz, A.
HIV and HTLV seroprevalence was determined by means of unlinked anonymous testing of 2144 sera, originally obtained from primary care patients by representative sampling of the Spanish population aged 15-39 years in 1996. HIV-1 seroprevalence was 4.3 per 1000 population in the 15-39 years age group [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-10.7] and 5.6 per 1000 (95% CI, 1.8-15.3) in the 20-39 years age group. Seroprevalence proved higher in males and urban residents. No antibodies to HIV-2 and HTLV-I were detected in any of the sera studied. However, presence of antibodies to HTLV-II was confirmed in one serum sample, while HTLV seroreactivity, though detected in another, could not be typed. The two HTLV-positive results equated to a seroprevalence of 1.9 per 1000 in the 20-39 years age group (95% CI, 0.3-8.6). HIV-I seroprevalence was consistent with previous estimates yielded by back-calculation. The level of HTLV seroprevalence found suggests endemicity. PMID:11057971
Background The prevalence of HIV/hepatitis co-infection in sub-Saharan Africa is not well documented, while both HIV and HBV are endemic in this area. Objective The aim of this study is to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV virus in HIV-infected subjects in the Gambia. Methods Plasma samples from HIV infected patients (190 individuals with clinically defined AIDS and 382 individuals without AIDS) were tested retrospectively for the presence of HBV sero-markers and for serum HBV DNA, screened for HCV infection by testing for anti-HCV antibody and HCV RNA. Results HBsAg prevalence in HIV-positive individuals is 12.2%. HIV/HBV co-infected individuals with CD4 count of <200 cells uL-1 have a higher HBV DNA viral load than patients with higher CD4 count (log 4.0 vs. log 2.0 DNA copies/ml, p < 0.05). Males (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.2) were more likely to be HBsAg positive than female. HCV seroprevalence was 0.9% in HIV-positive individuals. Conclusion The prevalence of HBsAg carriage in HIV- infected Gambians is similar to that obtained in the general population. However co-infected individuals with reduced CD4 levels, indicative of AIDS had higher prevalence of HBeAg retention and elevated HBV DNA levels compared to non-AIDS patients with higher CD4 count. PMID:20843322
Payne, Rebecca; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Mann, Jaclyn; Roberts, Hannah E; Matthews, Philippa; Adland, Emily; Hempenstall, Allison; Huang, Kuan-Hsiang; Brockman, Mark; Brumme, Zabrina; Sinclair, Marc; Miura, Toshiyuki; Frater, John; Essex, Myron; Shapiro, Roger; Walker, Bruce D; Ndung'u, Thumbi; McLean, Angela R; Carlson, Jonathan M; Goulder, Philip J R
It is widely believed that epidemics in new hosts diminish in virulence over time, with natural selection favoring pathogens that cause minimal disease. However, a tradeoff frequently exists between high virulence shortening host survival on the one hand but allowing faster transmission on the other. This is the case in HIV infection, where high viral loads increase transmission risk per coital act but reduce host longevity. We here investigate the impact on HIV virulence of HIV adaptation to HLA molecules that protect against disease progression, such as HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*58:01. We analyzed cohorts in Botswana and South Africa, two countries severely affected by the HIV epidemic. In Botswana, where the epidemic started earlier and adult seroprevalence has been higher, HIV adaptation to HLA including HLA-B*57/58:01 is greater compared with South Africa (P = 7 × 10(-82)), the protective effect of HLA-B*57/58:01 is absent (P = 0.0002), and population viral replicative capacity is lower (P = 0.03). These data suggest that viral evolution is occurring relatively rapidly, and that adaptation of HIV to the most protective HLA alleles may contribute to a lowering of viral replication capacity at the population level, and a consequent reduction in HIV virulence over time. The potential role in this process played by increasing antiretroviral therapy (ART) access is also explored. Models developed here suggest distinct benefits of ART, in addition to reducing HIV disease and transmission, in driving declines in HIV virulence over the course of the epidemic, thereby accelerating the effects of HLA-mediated viral adaptation.
Uneke, C J; Duhlinska, D D; Njoku, M O; Ngwu, B A F
Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody seroprevalence was studied in two different populations of 219 HIV-infected patients and 144 apparently healthy individuals (AHIs). Clinical toxoplasmosis was assessed among the HIV-infected patients. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 85 (38.8%, 95% CI: 32.36%-45.26%) of the HIV-infected patients and in 30 (20.8%, 95% CI: 14.20%-27.46%) of the AHIs. Among the AIHs, males represented 22.0% of infections compared to females (20.0%) and individuals within age group 21-30 years accounted for the highest prevalence of 33.3% (95% CI: 11.56%-55.10%). There was no significant difference in the trend (Chi-square, P < or = 0.05). Assessment of epidemiological factors showed higher seroprevalence of Toxoplasma antibodies among those who eat rodents (29.6%) and those who constantly have contact with the soil (21.2%). Among the HIV-infected, individuals 31-40-years-old had the highest T. gondii seroprevalence (36.5%). Evaluation of the clinical findings of patients with concomitant toxoplasmosis and HIV infection greatly implicated fever (63.5%), headache (44.7%), rashes (41.2%) and anorexia (34.1%). This study contributes to the development of guidelines for the prevention and management of toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients and in apparently healthy individuals in a resource scarce setting.
Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Flynn, Neil M.; Anderson, Rachel L.; Kral, Alex H.
Latinos in the United States are an ethnically diverse group disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. We describe HIV seroprevalence, HIV risk behaviors and utilization of health services among Mexican American injection drug users (IDUs) in California (n = 286) and compare them to White (n = 830) and African American (n = 314) IDUs. Study participants were recruited from syringe exchange programs (n = 24) in California. HIV seroprevalence among Mexican Americans (0.5%) was dramatically lower than Whites (5%) and African Americans (8%). Mexican Americans reported fewer sex-related risks than Whites and African Americans though injection-related risks remained high. Compared to Whites, Mexican Americans were more likely to participate in drug treatment during a 6 month period (AOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1, 2.0) but less likely to receive any health care (AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5, 0.8). Exploring cultural and structural factors among Mexican American IDUs may offer new insights into how to maintain low rates of HIV seroprevalence and reduce barriers to health care utilization. PMID:20020194
Rezanezhad, Hassan; Sayadi, Fateme; Shadmand, Enayatollah; Nasab, Seyed Dawood Mousavi; Yazdi, Hadi Rezaei; Solhjoo, Kavous; Kazemi, Akbar; Maleki, Monireh; Vasmehjani, Abbas Ahmadi
Toxoplasma gondii is an important opportunistic agent especially in immunocompromised hosts and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, detection and monitoring of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies are of a great interest in HIV-infected patients. A study on the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and associated risk factors was carried out among HIV-infected patients in Jahrom, southern Iran. The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was 21.1% in HIV-infected patients by ELISA. PCR was performed on all of the samples, and 1 of the blood samples was positively detected. Among the HIV patients, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were significantly higher in age group of 30-39 years old (P=0.05). The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in patients with CD4(+)<100 cells/μl was 33.3% that was significantly higher than the other groups (P=0.042) with or without IgG antibodies. The CD4(+) count mean of seropositive patients was lower than that of seronegative patients. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy was significantly less than patients without therapy (P=0.02). In conclusion, this study showed low seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis among HIV-infected patients in the region and confirmed the need for intensifying prevention efforts among this high-risk population and also the risk of toxoplasmosis reactivation which could be important among this population.
Rezanezhad, Hassan; Sayadi, Fateme; Shadmand, Enayatollah; Nasab, Seyed Dawood Mousavi; Yazdi, Hadi Rezaei; Solhjoo, Kavous; Kazemi, Akbar; Maleki, Monireh; Vasmehjani, Abbas Ahmadi
Toxoplasma gondii is an important opportunistic agent especially in immunocompromised hosts and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Hence, detection and monitoring of anti-Toxoplasma antibodies are of a great interest in HIV-infected patients. A study on the prevalence of toxoplasmosis and associated risk factors was carried out among HIV-infected patients in Jahrom, southern Iran. The prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies was 21.1% in HIV-infected patients by ELISA. PCR was performed on all of the samples, and 1 of the blood samples was positively detected. Among the HIV patients, anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were significantly higher in age group of 30–39 years old (P=0.05). The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in patients with CD4+<100 cells/μl was 33.3% that was significantly higher than the other groups (P=0.042) with or without IgG antibodies. The CD4+ count mean of seropositive patients was lower than that of seronegative patients. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy was significantly less than patients without therapy (P=0.02). In conclusion, this study showed low seroprevalence of latent toxoplasmosis among HIV-infected patients in the region and confirmed the need for intensifying prevention efforts among this high-risk population and also the risk of toxoplasmosis reactivation which could be important among this population. PMID:28285515
Shen, Guoqiang; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Hui; Gao, Yaying
Toxoplasmosis, a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, occurs throughout the world. Human T. gondii infection is asymptomatic in 80% of the population; however, the infection is life-threatening and causes substantial neurologic damage in immunocompromised patients such as HIV-infected persons. The major purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in subjects infected with HIV/AIDS in eastern China. Our findings showed 9.7% prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody in HIV/AIDS patients, which was higher than in intravenous drug users (2.2%) and healthy controls (4.7%), while no significant difference was observed in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibody among all participants (P>0.05). Among all HIV/AIDS patients, 15 men (7.7%) and 10 women (15.9%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibody; however, no significant difference was detected in the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody between males and females. The frequency of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody was 8.0%, 13.2%, 5.5%, and 0% in patients with normal immune function (CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count ≥500 cells/ml), immunocompromised patients (cell count ≥200 and <500 cells/ml), severely immunocompromised patients (cell count ≥50 and <200 cells/ml), and advanced AIDS patients, respectively (cell count <50 cells/ml), while only 3 immunocompromised patients were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibody. The results indicate a high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in HIV/AIDS patients in eastern China, and a preventive therapy for toxoplasmosis may be given to HIV/AIDS patients based on CD4(+) T lymphocyte count.
Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J.; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E.; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K.; Tih, Pius M.; Tita, Alan T. N.
Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1–9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0–10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3–3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6–5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9–6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0–8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4–2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3–4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5–2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:27578957
Li, Ying; Baker, Joseph J; Korostyshevskiy, Valeriy R; Slack, Rebecca S; Plankey, Michael W
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been significantly associated with HIV among heterosexual individuals. Yet a similar relationship has not been so clearly described among men who have sex with men (MSM). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of IPV with HIV seroprevalence among MSM. Participants consisted of 7,844 MSM clients who visited the Whitman Walker Clinic in Washington DC from 2000 through 2007, the majority of whom were Caucasian with a median age of 30. The univariate analysis showed that self-reported IPV was significantly associated with HIV (OR: 1.67, CI: 1.14-2.45) among the sampled MSM clients. However, when adjusting for sexually transmitted infection (STI) status and self-reported risk behaviors including recreational drug use, condom use, number of male sex partners, and having sex with a positive HIV partner, the association of IPV with HIV was not statistically significant. Results indicated that the strong independent association of recreational drug use with HIV seroprevalence decreased the association of IPV with HIV significantly (with recreational drug use, OR: 1.36, CI: 0.93-2.00 vs. without recreational drug use, OR: 1.51, CI: 1.03-2.22).
Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Searle, Kelly; Matakala, Hellen K; Greenman, Michelle P; Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Thuma, Philip E; Moss, William J
Measles and congenital rubella syndrome remain significant causes of morbidity and mortality despite available vaccines. HIV-infected youth may be at increased risk of measles because of greater waning immunity after vaccination. At a population level, they constitute a potentially large pool of susceptibles to measles and rubella. More data among HIV-infected youth in sub-Saharan Africa are needed to guide vaccination policy and control strategies. This cross-sectional study was nested within 2 ongoing studies of malaria and HIV in Zambia. Dried blood spot cards from youth (5-15 years) in these studies from 2009 to 2013 were tested for IgG antibodies to measles and rubella viruses. HIV-uninfected youth, HIV-infected treatment-naive youth and HIV-infected youth receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) were compared. A total of 617 HIV-uninfected, 144 HIV-infected treatment-naive and 128 HIV-infected youth receiving ART were included in this study. The proportion seropositive for measles virus was significantly higher among HIV-uninfected youth (92.5%) compared with HIV-infected treatment-naive youth (74.1%) and HIV-infected youth receiving ART (71.9%). No differences by age were observed. The proportion seropositive for rubella virus was significantly higher among HIV-uninfected youth (54.7%) compared with HIV-infected treatment-naive youth (41.7%) and HIV-infected youth receiving ART (49.6%), with increases observed by age for all groups. Measles seroprevalence was lower among HIV-infected than uninfected youth, consistent with waning immunity after measles vaccination. HIV-infected youth would benefit from revaccination. Half of all youth in rural Zambia were susceptible to rubella and may need targeting for catch-up rubella campaigns when measles-rubella vaccine is introduced.
Nicol, A F; Grinsztejn, B; Friedman, R K; Veloso, V G; Cunha, C B; Georg, I; Pilotto, J H; Moreira, R I; Castro, C A V; Silver, B; Viscidi, R P
Information on vaccine-type HPV seroprevalence is essential for vaccine strategies; however, limited data are available on past exposure to HPV-quadrivalent vaccine types in HIV-infected woman in Brazil. To assess the seroprevalence for HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18 in HIV-infected and uninfected women, from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and to investigate potential associations with age and pregnancy status. 1100-sera were tested by virus-like particle (VLPs)-based ELISA for antibodies to HPV types 16, 18, 6 and 11. Statistical analysis was carried out by STATA/SE 10.1 and comparisons among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women were assessed by Poisson regression models with robust variance. HPV-6, 11, 16 and 18 seroprevalence was significantly higher among HIV-positive women (29.9%, 8.5%, 56.2% and 38.0%, respectively) compared to HIV-negative women (10.9%, 3.5%, 30.8% and 21.7%, respectively), when adjusted by age and pregnancy status. Overall, 69.4% of HIV-infected and 41.5% of HIV-uninfected women tested positive for any HPV quadrivalent vaccine type. However 4.7% and 1.1%, respectively, tested positive for all HPV vaccine type. In HIV-uninfected women who were pregnant, we found a higher HPV-11 seroprevalence (8.5% vs. 1.5%; P < 0.001) and a lower HPV 16 seroprevalence (22.6% vs. 34.2%; P = 0.010) compared to not pregnant women. HIV-uninfected women, aged 40 or more years old had a higher HPV 16 seroprevalence compared to women aged less than 40 years old. We did not observe a strong association between age and positive HPV antibodies nor an association between pregnancy and HPV seroprevalence. HPV seroprevalence was significantly higher among HIV-infected women compared to HIV negative women. In both populations the seroprevalence to all four HPV vaccine types was low suggesting that women may potentially benefit from the HPV vaccines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pappaioanou, Marguerite; George, J. Richard; Hannon, W. Harry; Gwinn, Marta; Dondero, Timothy J.; Grady, George F.; Hoff, Rodney; Willoughby, Anne D.; Wright, Audrey; Novello, Antonia C.; Curran, James W.
A seroprevalence survey of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among childbearing women is being conducted in 43 States and Territories as one of the family of HIV seroprevalence surveys. This blinded survey, in which serologic test results are not linked to identifiable persons, uses neonatal dried blood specimens on filter paper to test for maternal antibodies to HIV. This survey provides relatively unbiased estimates of prevalence of HIV infection in the population of women delivering live children during given survey periods, by month or quarter of delivery, geographic area, and demographic subgroup. This objective will be met while protecting the integrity and efficient conduct of neonatal screening programs and ensuring patient anonymity. Information from this survey will be used to (a) assess the levels and trends of HIV infection in women and infants, (b) help develop and evaluate prevention programs, and (c) project the number of women and children who will develop HIV infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and will require health care and social services in the future. PMID:2108460
Ghazaryan, L; Smith, L; Parker, M; Flanigan, C; Pulver, W; Sullivan, T; Carrascal, A
To identify factors associated with maternal hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence and transmission of HCV as identified by qualitative HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the infants of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women delivering in New York State (NYS) in 2006. In this retrospective cohort study of HIV-exposed infants born in NYS, leftover infant plasma from HIV diagnostic testing was de-identified and tested for HCV. If HCV antibodies were detected, a second specimen collected when the infant was >2 months old was tested for HCV qualitative RNA. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with HCV seropositivity. In a final sample of 553 live birth events with perinatal HIV exposure, 21 (3.8 %) of tested infant specimens had HCV antibodies indicative of maternal HCV seropositivity. Maternal age at delivery of >35 years, Hispanic ethnicity, white race and injection drug use (IDU) were significantly associated with HCV seropositivity in multivariate analysis. No cases of HCV vertical transmission were identified among HCV exposed infant specimens. This statewide population-based study of HIV-infected childbearing women shows HCV seroprevalence of 3.8 %. Maternal age of >35 years and IDU are the strongest predictors of HCV seropositivity. Although no viral transmission was documented, more comprehensive longitudinal testing would be required to conclude that HCV transmission did not occur.
Tafesse, Tadesse Bekele; Gebru, Addis Adera; Gobalee, Semgne; Belay, Gosaye Degu; Belew, Molla Teferi; Ataro, Demelash; Ebrahim, Belay Ali; Shebeshi, Getachew Mekonnon; Yimam, Yonas
Blood transfusion is one of the most important therapeutic options of life-saving intervention for recipients who are in diseased or non-diseased conditions with severe blood loss. However, it is associated with certain risks which can lead to adverse consequences that may cause acute or delayed complications and bring the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV, Hepatitis B & C and Syphilis. So, there might be a fatal risk instead of life saving. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and reliable tabulation of available data on seroprevalence and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis infections among blood donors. We searched studies reporting the prevalence rate of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis infections among blood donors that were published between October 2009 and June 2016, using databases of PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, Elsevier, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Web of Science with keywords: ``Hepatitis C Virus'', ``Hepatitis B Virus'', ``HIV'', ``Syphilis'', ``Seroprevalence'', and ``blood donor''. The seroprevalence of HBV and HCV was highest in African countries as compared to others continents, predominantly the West African region with a range of 10.0% to 14.96% and 1.5% to 8.69%, respectively, while the overall seropositivity of HIV and syphilis infection show a significant declining pattern through successive years globally, even though relatively higher prevalence rate was observed among older age and those with low level of education. There is a problem during selection, diagnoses and screening process in developing nations primarily due to shortage of sensitive screening test kits, highly qualified human resource and lack of proper standard operating procedures and hence, the safety of blood and blood products are the primary threats in the region. Proper clinical diagnosis and screening method should be applied during blood donation and therefore, all the donated blood should be screened properly for
Plitt, Sabrina S; Gratrix, Jennifer; Hewitt, Sharyn; Conroy, Patsy; Parnell, Tracy; Lucki, Beverly; Pilling, Vicki; Anderson, Barbara; Choudri, Yogesh; Archibald, Chris P; Singh, Ameeta E
Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for acquiring human immunodefiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) via parenteral and sexual transmission. We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of HIV and HCV for IDUs recruited in Edmonton, Alberta. Edmonton was one site of a multi-site, national survey (I-Track Study). From April to June 2005, IDUs were recruited and administered a questionnaire collecting information on demographics, drug use, sexual behaviours, and HIV/HCV testing behaviours. Finger-prick blood samples were collected for serology testing. Seroprevalence of HIV and HCV was determined and correlates of infection were assessed using logistic regression. Of 275 IDUs, 68% were male, the median age was 38 years and 70.6% were Aboriginal. HIV prevalence was 23.9%, HCV prevalence was 66.1% and HIV/HCV co-infection was 22.8%. Cocaine (36.9%) was reported to be the drug injected most often in the previous six months. Correlates for HIV were sex trade (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.0-8.3) for women, and older age (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2) and needle exchange program (NEP) use (OR 5.7, 95% CI 1.3-23.7) for men. For women, having a casual sex partner was protective for HCV (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.10-0.78). Independent correlates for HCV among males included age (AOR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3) and younger age of first injection (AOR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.96). The high HIV and HCV prevalence found in this study among IDUs in Edmonton highlights the complex needs of the IDU community and the continued need for targeted programming.
Cannon, R O; Schmid, G P; Moore, P S; Pappaioanou, M
We reviewed published and unpublished studies on seroprevalence of HIV antibody in persons attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in the United States from 1985 through 1987. We identified 23 studies from 16 states; nine studies determined risk factors for HIV. Overall, 899 (4.2%) of the 21,352 clinic attendees were seropositive; the seroprevalence rate was higher for men (5.9%) than for women (1.7%). Clinic seroprevalence ranged from 0.5% to 15.2% (median, 3.5%), reflecting in part the proportion of all attendees who were homosexual or bisexual, intravenous-drug users (IVDUs), or heterosexual partners of bisexual men or IVDUs (median proportion, 21.8% for the nine sites with this information). Most HIV-seropositive persons were at recognized risk (median for the same nine studies, 85.3%). Homosexual/bisexual men had the highest seroprevalence (median, 32.2%), followed by heterosexual IVDUs (median, 3.6%). Heterosexuals who denied intravenous-drug use had a median rate of 0.9%, which strongly correlated with rates in IVDUs in the same clinics (r = 0.88). We conclude many STD clinic attendees are infected with HIV. Because AIDS is an STD and seroprevalence has been associated with other STDs, STD clinics are important sites for HIV surveillance and risk-reduction education.
Kuo, Irene; ul-Hasan, Salman; Galai, Noya; Thomas, David L; Zafar, Tariq; Ahmed, Mohammad A; Strathdee, Steffanie A
Introduction HIV and HCV risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs) in two urban areas in Pakistan were identified. Methods From May to June 2003, 351 IDUs recruited in harm-reduction drop-in centers operated by a national non-governmental organization in Lahore (Punjab province) and Quetta (Balochistan province) completed an interviewer-administered survey and were tested for HIV and HCV. Multivariable logistic regression identified correlates of seropositivity, stratifying by site. All study participants provided written, informed consent. Results All but two were male; median age was 35 and <50% had any formal education. None were HIV-positive; HCV seroprevalence was 88%. HIV awareness was relatively high, but HCV awareness was low (19%). Injection behaviors and percutaneous exposures such as drawing blood into a syringe while injecting ('jerking'), longer duration of injection, and receiving a street barber shave were significantly associated with HCV seropositivity. Discussion Despite no HIV cases, overall HCV prevalence was very high, signaling the potential for a future HIV epidemic among IDUs across Pakistan. Programs to increase needle exchange, drug treatment and HIV and HCV awareness should be implemented immediately. PMID:16914042
Wang, T T; Xu, Y; Li, Z Z; Chen, L Z
Objective: To estimate HIV seroprevalence among pregnant women with syphilis and evaluate the influence of syphilis infection on mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV by meta-analysis. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search for 1 678 articles related to maternal syphilis and HIV infection published until October 1(st) 2015 using the PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, Weipu, and SinoMed databases and evaluated the quality of each papers using the STROBE checklist, and the keywords were " pregnant women/maternal/pregnancy" , "syphilis/AIDS" , "HIV/human immunodeficiency virus" , "mother- to-child transimission/vertical transmission" . Excluding studies with the special subgroups of HIV-positive pregnant women as the research objects, review or meeting abstract, impossibility of full-text acquisition, sample size <50, duplication or impossibility of data extraction, finally, 16 studies were included. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate HIV seroprevalence among pregnant women with syphilis and the RR of MTCT for women infected with both syphilis and HIV. Subgroup analyses were undertaken by study location, sample size, use of anti-retroviral therapy and study quality. Results: Sixteen studies with a combined sample of 110 573 pregnant women were included in the analysis. Of these, ten reported HIV seroprevalences among pregnant women with syphilis and six studies evaluated the influence of syphilis infection on MTCT of HIV. Pooled estimates yielded a HIV seroprevalence of 11.6% (95% CI: 6.7%-19.5%) among pregnant women with syphilis. We estimated that the risk of MTCT of HIV was 1.86 times (RR=1.86, 95% CI: 0.89%-3.89%) higher among pregnant women with syphilis compared with those only infected with HIV-although this effect was not statistically significant. Cochran's Q test showed a high degree of heterogeneity in estimates of HIV seroprevalence and the effect of syphilis infection on MTCT of HIV across studies
Benjamin, A I; Singh, Shavinder; Sengupta, Paramita; Dhanoa, Jasbir
To assess HIV serostatus, knowledge, behaviour and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among blood donors, pregnant women and the general population in Ludhiana and to find out any association between these factors. The descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among blood donors attending the blood bank, pregnant women attending the antenatal clinics of the peripheral health centres of the department of Community Medicine, Christian Medical College Ludhiana, and the general population of the field practice areas of the Department, aged 15 years or more and willing to join the investigation. The study subjects were interviewed through a self-administered questionnaire and screened for HIV using ELISA technique. Seropositivity rates in the population groups and possible risk factors were compared, using EpiInfo 6.04d software. Prevalence of HIV infection was found to be 0.30 % (95 % CI 0.10 - 0.70) in the general population studied, 0.12 % (95 % CI 0.05 - 0.28) in the blood donors, and nil in the pregnant women. The respondents were deficient in knowledge about the modes of spread of HIV/AIDS. No significant association was established between HIV sero-positivity and gender, age group, education, occupation, HbsAg status, or knowledge about the modes of spread of HIV/AIDS. Sexually active unmarried young people 15-24 years old, those indulging in extra-marital sex, and those addicted to opium/poppy-husk were observed to be at higher risk of HIV infection. The studied population groups have very low HIV seroprevalence. Misconceptions and lack of knowledge need to be corrected through education and awareness to avoid high-risk behaviour and prevent HIV infection.
Jablonka, A; Solbach, P; Nothdorft, S; Hampel, A; Schmidt, R E; Behrens, G M N
Background | Currently only estimates exist of seroprevalence of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in refugees arriving in Germany during the current refugee crisis. Objectives | To assess the prevalence of syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in refugees arriving in northern Germany in 2015. Materials and methods | In a cross-sectional study in 790 patients from all age groups tests for serological markers of treponema pallidum and in 789 patients for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were performed in August 2015 in reception centers in northern Germany. Results | The overall prevalence of treponema pallidum antibodies was 0.13 % (1/790; [95 % CI: 0 - 0.4]). HIV antibodies were positive in two refugees from sub-Saharan Africa (2/789; 0.25 %, [95 % CI: 0 - 0.6]). Conclusions | This study showed a low prevalence of treponema pallidum antibodies and human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in a German refugee cohort, not significantly different from German controls. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Bautista, C T; Sanchez, J L; Montano, S M; Laguna-Torres, A; Suarez, L; Sanchez, J; Campos, P; Gallardo, C; Mosquera, C; Villafane, M; Aguayo, N; Avila, M M; Weissenbacher, M; Ramirez, E; Child, R; Serra, M; Aponte, C; Mejia, A; Velazques, N; Gianella, A; Perez, J; Olson, J G; Carr, J K
Assessment of HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviours among female commercial sex workers (FCSW) across major cities in South America. Seroepidemiological, cross sectional studies of 13 600 FCSW were conducted in nine countries of South America during the years 1999-2002. Participants were recruited in brothels, massage parlours, hotels, and streets where anonymous questionnaires and blood samples were collected. HIV infection was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening and western blot confirmatory tests. The overall HIV seroprevalence was 1.2% (range 0.0%-4.5%). The highest HIV seroprevalences were reported in Argentina (4.5%) and Paraguay (2.6%); no HIV infected FCSW were detected in Venezuela and Chile. Consistent predictors of HIV seropositivity were: (1) a previous history of sexually transmitted infections (STI, AORs = 3.8-8.3), and (2) 10 years or more in commercial sex work (AORs = 2.2-24.8). In addition, multiple (> or =3) sexual contacts (AOR = 5.0), sex with foreigners (AOR = 6.9), use of illegal drugs (AOR = 3.2), and marijuana use (AOR = 8.2) were associated with HIV seropositivity in Southern Cone countries. Consistently low HIV seroprevalences were detected among FCSW in South America, particularly in the Andean region. Predictors of HIV infection across the continent were STI and length of commercial sex work; however, use of illegal drugs, especially marijuana, and sexual contacts with foreigners were also found to be associated risk factors in the Southern Cone region. Interventions for the control of HIV and other STI need to be region and country specific; drug use appears to have an ever increasing role in the spread of HIV among heterosexually active populations.
Sobrino-Vegas, Paz; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Geskus, Ronald; Padilla, Belén; Segura, Ferrán; Rubio, Rafael; del Romero, Jorge; Santos, Jesus; Moreno, Santiago; del Amo, Julia
Objectives. Since subjects may have been diagnosed before cohort entry, analysis of late HIV diagnosis (LD) is usually restricted to the newly diagnosed. We estimate the magnitude and risk factors of LD in a cohort of seroprevalent individuals by imputing seroconversion dates. Methods. Multicenter cohort of HIV-positive subjects who were treatment naive at entry, in Spain, 2004–2008. Multiple-imputation techniques were used. Subjects with times to HIV diagnosis longer than 4.19 years were considered LD. Results. Median time to HIV diagnosis was 2.8 years in the whole cohort of 3,667 subjects. Factors significantly associated with LD were: male sex; Sub-Saharan African, Latin-American origin compared to Spaniards; and older age. In 2,928 newly diagnosed subjects, median time to diagnosis was 3.3 years, and LD was more common in injecting drug users. Conclusions. Estimates of the magnitude and risk factors of LD for the whole cohort differ from those obtained for new HIV diagnoses. PMID:22013517
KOZLOWSKI, Aline Garcia; de MATOS, Márcia Alves Dias; CARNEIRO, Megmar Aparecida dos Santos; LOPES, Carmen Luci Rodrigues; TELES, Sheila Araújo; VICENTE, Carolina Paulo; MARTINS, Regina Maria Bringel
SUMMARY Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) may affect the clinical course of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV1). Both infections are common in endemic areas because these viruses share similar routes of transmission. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV1/2 in a population of HIV1-infected patients in the state of Goiás, Midwestern Brazil. Of the 505 studied patients, four (0.79%) were positive for anti-HTLV1/2 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with HTLV1 infection confirmed by line immunoassay (LIA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in all of the ELISA-positive samples. No cases of HTLV2 infection were observed. The prevalence of HTLV1/HIV1 coinfection was 0.79% (4/505; 95% CI: 0.25-2.16). All the coinfected patients reported sexual risk behaviors and only one reported intravenous drug use. Sequencing of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR) region and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the four HTLV1 isolates belonged to the Transcontinental a subgroup of the Cosmopolitan (1a) subtype, the most frequent subgroup detected in Brazil. This study shows a low prevalence of HTLV1/2 in HIV1-infected patients in Midwestern Brazil. PMID:27828621
Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Grandadam, Marc; Flandre, Philippe; Nicand, Elisabeth; Milliancourt, Catherine; Koeck, Jean-Louis; Philippon, Michel; Teyssou, Remy; Agut, Henri; Dupin, Nicolas; Calvez, Vincent
Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is linked causally to Kaposi's sarcoma. Epidemiological studies have shown that KSHV transmission can occur during sex among homosexual men, but heterosexual transmission seems to be very rare in KSHV low prevalence countries. A seroepidemiological study was conducted to determine whether KSHV is transmitted sexually between heterosexuals in an endemic country. Sera from 282 subjects of African origin living in Djibouti were tested for antibodies to KSHV and HIV-1. Among the 282 individuals, 43 were female prostitutes working in the streets (group 1), 123 were female prostitutes working in luxury bars (group 2), 41 were non-prostitute females (group 3), and 75 were non-prostitute males (group 4). KSHV seroprevalence was 26, 20, 17, and 36% in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The seroprevalence of KSHV is not different between street or bar prostitutes and non-prostitute females (OR = 1.67; P = 0.34 and OR = 1.18; P = 0.73). These results suggest that in this endemic country commercial sex work does not seem to be a risk factor for KSHV infection and provides evidence against heterosexual transmission of KSHV in the female population studied.
Pons, Immaculada; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Nogueras, María Mercedes; Sala, Montserrat; Cervantes, Manuel; Amengual, M José; Segura, Ferran
Background Although the first clinical descriptions of Bartonella infection were associated with immunocompromised patient with bacillary angiomatosis, we currently know that this organism is directly involved in diseases affecting a large number of patients, regardless of their immune status. Cat scratch disease, hepatic peliosis, and some cases of bacteraemia and endocarditis, are directly caused by some species of the genus Bartonella. The purpose of this study was to determinate the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Bartonella henselae and B. quintana in HIV patients and to identify the epidemiological factors involved. Methods Serum samples were collected from HIV patients treated at Hospital de Sabadell. Antibodies to B. henselae and B. quintana from 340 patients were examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Significance levels for univariate statistical test were determined by the Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 test. Results Of 340 patients, 82 were women and 258 men, with a median age of 42.21 ± 10.35 years (range 16–86 years). Seventy-six (22.3%) patients reacted with one or more Bartonella antigens. Of all the factors concerning the seroprevalence rate being studied (age, sex, intravenous drugs use, alcohol consumption, CD4 levels, AIDS, HCV, HBV, residential area), only age was statistically significant. Conclusion A high percentage of HIV patients presents antibodies to Bartonella and is increasing with age. PMID:18452613
Rao, V Bhargavi; Johari, Nur; du Cros, Philipp; Messina, Janey; Ford, Nathan; Cooke, Graham S
An estimated 150 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). HIV co-infection accelerates the progression of HCV and represents a major public health challenge. We aimed to determine the epidemiology of HCV and the prevalence of HIV co-infection in sub-Saharan Africa. We searched Medline and Embase (Ovid) from Jan 1, 2002, to Dec 31, 2014, for studies containing data for HCV seroprevalence in different population groups in WHO-defined regions of sub-Saharan Africa. We estimated pooled regional prevalence estimates with a DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. Data were further stratified by risk factor and HIV status. We included 213 studies from 33 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, comprising 287 separate cohorts with 1 198 167 individuals. The pooled HCV seroprevalence from all cohorts was 2·98% (95% CI 2·86-3·10). The pooled HCV seroprevalence was 2·65% (95% CI 2·53-2·78) across all 185 low-risk cohorts, 3·04% (2·23-3·84) in antenatal clinic groups, 1·99% (1·86-2·12) in blood donors, but 6·9% (6·1-7·5) in other general population cohorts. The pooled seroprevalence of HCV was 11·87% (95% CI 7·05-16·70) across all high-risk groups and 9·95% (6·79-13·11) in patients with liver disease. 101 cohorts included HIV-positive samples tested for HCV (42 648 individuals), with a pooled seroprevalence of 5·73% (95% CI 4·90-6·56). We recorded a high seroprevalence of HCV across populations of sub-Saharan Africa, including in HIV-positive adults, with evidence of regional variation in the general population. Monitoring of antenatal HCV prevalence might be a helpful indicator of population trends in HCV infection; however, larger population surveys are needed to monitor these trends. Access to prevention and treatment needs to be improved for both monoinfected and co-infected individuals. None. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Inagaki, Ana Dorcas de Melo; Oliveira, Lívia Albuquerque Resende de; Oliveira, Maria Fabiana Batista de; Santos, Ricardo Cley Silvestre; Araújo, Raquel Melo; Alves, José Antonio Barreto; Pinheiro, Kariny Souza; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa Márcia
The seroprevalence of antibodies for HIV, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirosis and rubella and its association with age and origin was investigated among pregnant women in Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. A total of 9,550 pregnant women (2,112 from the state capital and 7,438 from other municipalities) were enrolled in the study and consecutively tested during their first antenatal care visit in 2007. The following serum prevalences were found: syphilis (0.9%; 95% CI 0.7%-1.6%), HIV (0.14%; 95% CI 0.08%-0.2%), toxoplasmosis (IgG 69.3%; 95% CI 68.3%-70.2%; IgM 0.4%, 95% CI 0.3%-0.6%), cytomegalovirosis (IgG 76.6%, 95% CI 75.7%-77.5%; IgM 0.2%, 95% CI 0.09%-0.3%) and rubella (IgG 71.6%, 95% CI 70.7%-72.6%; IgM 0.1%, 95% CI 0.04%-0.2%). Toxoplasmosis seropositivity increased with age. The prevalences of IgG antibodies for toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus and rubella were higher in Aracaju (state capital) than in other municipalities in the State of Sergipe. The results showed that a large proportion of the pregnant women, particularly in municipalities other than the state capital, were susceptible to toxoplasmosis, rubella and cytomegalovirus, with a risk for their infants.
Brabin, L.; Gogate, A.; Gogate, S.; Karande, A.; Khanna, R.; Dollimore, N.; de Koning, K.; Nicholas, S.; Hart, C. A.
Reported are the prevalence of reproductive tract infections and their contribution to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), as well as the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), among women living in three inner city wards of Mumbai, India. Women aged < or = 35 years were recruited and screened as cases if they had been admitted to hospital for gynaecological investigation for suspected PID (n = 151) or infertility (n = 295); controls were healthy fertile women attending for laparoscopic tubal ligation (n = 2433). The women were mainly of low socioeconomic status. A total of 59.4% were migrants and 14.9% of these came to Mumbai to seek treatment. Cases reported a history of adverse pregnancy outcomes significantly more often than controls, and 30.5% of suspected PID cases had previously undergone laparoscopic tubal ligation. At examination 24.2% of cases and 8.4% of controls had a vaginal discharge. Pelvic infection was confirmed in 42.0% of suspected PID cases and 14.6% of infertile cases for whom diagnostic laparoscopy was performed. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases was low: Chlamydia trachomatis was found in 0.2%; and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was cultured from the cervix in only four cases. Neither of these infections was detected in laparoscopic aspirates. The prevalence of HIV1/2 infections in unlinked samples was 1.9%. Sexually transmitted diseases were not major factors leading to gynaecological morbidity. Heterosexual spread of HIV infection to this population of married women is still relatively low but needs to be carefully monitored. The gynaecological morbidity detected may be a consequence of widespread use of invasive methods of fertility regulation. PMID:9744248
Watanabe, Dai; Yamamoto, Yudai; Suzuki, Sachiko; Ashida, Misa; Matsumoto, Erina; Yukawa, Satomi; Hirota, Kazuyuki; Ikuma, Motoko; Ueji, Takashi; Kasai, Daisuke; Nishida, Yasuharu; Uehira, Tomoko; Shirasaka, Takuma
High human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) seroprevalence has been reported in men who have sex with men (MSM) and are infected with HIV-1. However, it is unclear when they become infected with HHV-8. Thus, we conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations of HHV-8 seroprevalence in HIV-1-infected individuals in Osaka, Japan. Plasma was collected from 121 individuals infected with HIV-1 and the anti-HHV-8 antibody titer was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with whole virus lysate. Subjects were classified into those with and without a past medical history of HHV-8-associated disease; the latter group was then classified into 3 subgroups based on the assumed route of HIV-1 infection: blood products, homosexual contact, and other routes. HHV-8 seroprevalence was compared among the groups and measured again approximately 3 years after the baseline measurement. The relationship between HHV-8 seropositivity and possible associated factors was also investigated. All 15 subjects with HHV-8-associated disease were seropositive, and all 11 subjects in the blood product group were seronegative. In the MSM group, 25 (30%) of 79 subjects were HHV-8 seropositive and, in the non-MSM group, 1 (6%) of 16 subjects was (p < 0.0001). In the longitudinal investigation, seroconversion was observed in 10 (19%) of 52 subjects in the MSM group who were seronegative at baseline. A correlation was observed between seroconversion and symptomatic syphilis (p = 0.0432). HHV-8 seropositivity and seroconversion rates were high in HIV-1-infected MSM, suggesting that, currently, HHV-8 is an epidemic pathogen in this population. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abdalla, E; Ekanem, E; Said, D; Arube, P; Gboun, M; Mohammed, F
The prolonged civil strife in the North-West Zone of Somalia (Somaliland) has hampered the development of social infrastructure and public health services. There are limited data on HIV/AIDS. In 2004, a sentinel HIV seroprevalence survey was conducted. Blood samples were collected from 1561 women attending antenatal care clinics, 249 tuberculosis (TB) patients and 243 people attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Samples were tested for syphilis and HIV. Overall HIV prevalence was 1.4%, significantly higher than that observed in many other countries in the Region. Prevalence was 1.2% among pregnant women 15-24 years, 12.3% among patients with STD and 5.6% among TB patients. The prevalence of syphilis was 1.3% in the pregnant women.
Memish, Ziad A; Almasri, Malak; Chentoufi, Aziz A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Al-Shangiti, Ali M; Al-Kabbani, Kenan M; Otaibi, Badriah; Assirri, Abdullah; Yezli, Saber
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common viral infections worldwide. Genital herpes is associated with other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. Data on prevalence of HSV infections and other STIs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are limited. We conducted the first national seroprevalence survey to determine the prevalence and epidemiology of HSV infection among adult Saudis and coinfection with other STIs. Serology was used to detect HSV-1, HSV-2, HIV, and syphilis infections among 4985 participants recruited from across the Kingdom. The overall prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in the enrolled population was 88.8% and 1.26%, respectively. Although not significant for HSV-2, HSV infection was more prevalent among females, those working, and those who were married (married, divorced, or widowed), especially those married at a younger age. Prevalence of both viruses was statistically significantly higher among those with low education and increased with age. Prevalence of Treponema pallidum antibodies and HIV in the sampled population was very low (0.55% and 0.06%, respectively), as was their prevalence among HSV-2-positive participants (1.6% for both). The correlation between HSV-2 infection and other STIs was significant for HIV (P < 0.0001) but not for T. pallidum antibodies (P = 0.25). Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection is highly prevalent in Saudi Arabia and mostly acquired before adulthood. Herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence is very low, acquired in adulthood, and increased with age. Monitoring the prevalence of HSV infection can help inform targeted strategies to prevent new infections, neonatal transmission, and the spread of other STIs in the Kingdom.
Maslow, Carey B.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Perlis, Theresa E.; Rockwell, Russell; Des Jarlais, Don C.
Objectives. This study examined HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among male injection drug users (IDUs) who have sex with men and among other male IDUs. Methods. Male IDUs were interviewed and tested for HIV at a detoxification clinic during 1990 to 1994 and 1995 to 1999. Analyses compared male IDUs who do and do not have sex with men within and between periods. Results. Initially, HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors were higher among IDUs who have sex with men. Seroprevalence (initially 60.5% vs 48.3%) declined approximately 15% in both groups, remaining higher among those who have sex with men. Generally, injection prevalence, but not sexual risk behaviors, declined. Conclusions. Male IDUs who have sex with men are more likely to engage in higher-risk behaviors and to be HIV infected. Improved intervention approaches for male IDUs who have sex with men are needed. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:382–384) PMID:11867315
Debes, José D.; Martínez Wassaf, Maribel; Pisano, María Belén; Isa, María Beatriz; Lotto, Martin; Marianelli, Leonardo G.; Frassone, Natalia; Ballari, Estefania; Bohjanen, Paul R.; Hansen, Bettina E.; Ré, Viviana
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that can cause hepatitis in an epidemic fashion. HEV usually causes asymptomatic or limited acute infections in immunocompetent individuals, whereas in immunosuppressed individuals such as transplant recipients, HEV can cause chronic infections. The risks and outcomes of HEV co-infection in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are poorly characterized. We used a third generation immunoassay to measure serum IgG antibodies specific for HEV in 204 HIV-infected individuals from Argentina and a control group of 433 HIV-negative individuals. We found 15 of 204 (7.3%, 95%CI 3.74–10.96%) individuals in the HIV-positive group to have positive HEV IgG levels suggestive of previous infection, compared to 19 of 433 (4.4%, 95% CI 2.5–6.3%) individuals in the HIV-negative control group (p = 0.12). Among HIV-positive individuals, those with HEV seropositivity had lower CD4 counts compared to those that were HEV seronegative (average CD4 count of 234 vs 422 mm3, p = 0.01), indicating that patients with lower CD4 counts were more likely to be HEV IgG positive. Moreover, HEV seropositivity in patients with CD4 counts <200 mm3 was 16%, compared to 4.5% in those with CD4 counts >200 mm3 (p = 0.012). We found a positive PCR result for HEV in one individual. Our study found that increased seroprevalence of HEV IgG correlated with lower CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients in Argentina. PMID:27467394
Debes, José D; Martínez Wassaf, Maribel; Pisano, María Belén; Isa, María Beatriz; Lotto, Martin; Marianelli, Leonardo G; Frassone, Natalia; Ballari, Estefania; Bohjanen, Paul R; Hansen, Bettina E; Ré, Viviana
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that can cause hepatitis in an epidemic fashion. HEV usually causes asymptomatic or limited acute infections in immunocompetent individuals, whereas in immunosuppressed individuals such as transplant recipients, HEV can cause chronic infections. The risks and outcomes of HEV co-infection in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are poorly characterized. We used a third generation immunoassay to measure serum IgG antibodies specific for HEV in 204 HIV-infected individuals from Argentina and a control group of 433 HIV-negative individuals. We found 15 of 204 (7.3%, 95%CI 3.74-10.96%) individuals in the HIV-positive group to have positive HEV IgG levels suggestive of previous infection, compared to 19 of 433 (4.4%, 95% CI 2.5-6.3%) individuals in the HIV-negative control group (p = 0.12). Among HIV-positive individuals, those with HEV seropositivity had lower CD4 counts compared to those that were HEV seronegative (average CD4 count of 234 vs 422 mm3, p = 0.01), indicating that patients with lower CD4 counts were more likely to be HEV IgG positive. Moreover, HEV seropositivity in patients with CD4 counts <200 mm3 was 16%, compared to 4.5% in those with CD4 counts >200 mm3 (p = 0.012). We found a positive PCR result for HEV in one individual. Our study found that increased seroprevalence of HEV IgG correlated with lower CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients in Argentina.
Mann, J.M.; Francis, H.; Quinn, T.C.; Bila, K.; Asila, P.K.; Bosenge, N.; Nzilambi, N.; Jansegers, L.; Piot, P.; Ruti, K.; Curran, J.W.
A study of seroprevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus involving 2384 (96%) of Mama Yemo Hospital's (Kinshasa, Zaire) 2492 personnel found 152 (6.4%) to be seropositive. Prevalence was higher among women than among men (8.1% vs 5.2%); in women peak seroprevalence (13.9%) occurred in 20 to 29-year-olds. Workers most likely to be seropositive were those who were relatively young, those who were unmarried, those reporting a blood transfusion or hospitalization during the previous ten years, and those receiving medical injections during the previous three years. Medical, administrative, and manual workers had similar seroprevalence (6.5%, 6.4%, and 6.0%, respectively), and seropositivity was not associated with any measure of patient, blood, or needle contact. These findings are consistent with other hospital-based studies indicating low risks for occupational transmission of human immunodeficiency virus.
Bamba, S; Sourabié, Y; Guiguemdé, T R; Karou, D S; Simporé, J; Bambara, M; Villena, I
The deficit of cellular immunity, as found in HIV infected individuals, may lead to the reactivation of latent Toxoplasma gondii cysts, with as consequence, the occurrence of toxoplasmosis and an eventual vertical transmission of the disease during pregnancy. The present study was designed for determining the occurrence of latent Toxoplasma gondii among HIV-infected pregnant women during the first trimester in Bobo-Dioulasso. Thus, 348 pregnant women aged from 17 to 47 years (average age of 6.64 ± 4.75 yaers) were enrolled. The specific anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were quantified from whole blood specimens using the high-sensitivity direct agglutination and the enzyme linked fluorescent assays, respectively, the IgG avidity test being used for the dating of the primary infection. The results revealed that the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii latent infection was 34.7%. It was significantly higher in HIV-infected women compared with uninfected ones (68,7%; CI 95%: 43,6%-88,9%) versus (33,1%; CI 95%: 28, 2%-38,3%). In addition, all the occurrences of the high IgG avidity were closely linked with the presence of IgM. These results underlined the need for the clinical follow-up of the maternal HIV diseases including the toxoplasmosis during the pregnancy since; the newborns are still exposed to vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection in endemic areas like Burkina Faso.
Meijide, Héctor; Cañizares, Angelina; Castro-Iglesias, Ángeles; Delgado, Manuel; Pértega, Sonia; Pedreira, José; Bou, Germán; Poveda, Eva
Background The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently add the advice of one-time testing of HCV infection in persons born during 1945–1965. Moreover, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) newly recommended one-time HIV testing for persons aged 15–65. Herein, we evaluate the potential impact of these recommendations in a reference medical area of Spain. Methods All assays results entries for HCV and HIV serological markers ordered at a reference lab from primary care and specialized physicians between 2008 and 2012 were recorded in a medical area which covers 501,526 citizens in Northern Spain. The year of birth were also documented. Results A total of 108,159 anti-HCV-Ab results were generated during the study period. The global rate of anti-HCV-Ab+ was 7.7% (95% CI: 7.6%–7.9%), being more prevalent in men than women (8.6% vs. 4.5%). By year of birth, the highest prevalence was found in persons born between 1955 and 1970. HCV genotype 1 was the most prevalent (59.7%) followed by genotype 3 (22.7%). Regard HIV infection, among 65,279 anti-HIV results generated the prevalence of anti-HIV+ was 1.1% (95% CI: 1.0%–1.2%), being more frequent in men (2% vs 0.5%). The years of birth with highest rates of HIV infection exactly match with those for HCV infection. Conclusions The highest rates of HCV and HIV infections are found between 1960 and 1965. Different historical and social circumstances such as the huge intravenous drug use epidemic in the eighties in Spain, might explain it. Therefore, each country needs to determine its own HCV and HIV seroprevalences by year of birth to establish the proper recommendations for the screening of both infections. PMID:25436642
Ousseini, H; Meynard, D; Soumana Adamou, H
A seroepidemiological study of endemic treponematosis (bejel) in Niger allows us to realise an anonymous non correlated screening of VIH infection in Nomads: Touaregs of Tchirozerine (Agadez), Peuls Boro of Bermo (Maradi). On the 424 Touaregs screened only one was seropositive to VIH2 infection confirmed with Western blot that means 0.23% of seroprevalency comparable to that 0.50% found in the general population. The seroprevalency of trepronematosis (VDRL + TPHA+) is 7% in the range of 5 to 15 years old (80%), period which corresponds to the transmission of Bejel. Moreover this population don't travel to the seaborder countries. Concerning the 213 of the Peuls Bororo screened we had only 3 undetermined reactions to Western blot 1 and 2, despite the high seroprevalence of the treponematosis (VDRL+ TPHA+): 22% mostly in the subjects of more than 15 years old (89.36%) which is the sexual intercourse and exodus period to the seaborder countries, where 66% of our VIH patients are infected.
Altuğlu, İmre; Yolcu, Ayfer; Öcek, Zeliha Aslı; Yazan Sertöz, Rüçhan; Gökengin, Deniz
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), classified in Herpesviridae family, is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease. In contrast to the other herpesviruses, HHV-8 seroprevalence is low in general populations; however, the higher prevalence observed in individuals with immunodeficiencies such as AIDS poses an increased risk for KS. The global distribution of HHV-8 shows great variations, with the highest seroprevalence seen in Africa. The number of studies on the seroprevalence of HHV-8 in Turkey are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the HHV-8 seroprevalences in healthy blood donors and HIV-positive patients, that will contribute HHV-8 seroepidemiological data in our country. This study was designed as a cross-sectional study. A total of 551 healthy donors (76 female, 475 male; age range: 18-65 years) admitted to Ege University Medical School Hospital, Blood Center for blood donation between December 2013-January 2014, and 173 HIV-positive patients (30 female, 143 male; age range: 18-65 years) admitted to infectious diseases outpatient clinic between October 2013-January 2014, were included in the study. A commercial ELISA method (KSHV/HHV-8 IgG ELISA Kit, Advanced Biotechnologies Inc, USA) was used for the detection of IgG antibodies that were structured against HHV-8 lytic antigens. In the study, 29 (29/551, 5.3%) of blood donors and 44 (44/173, 25.4%) of HIV-positive patients, with a total of 73 (73/724, 10.1%) cases were found as HHV-8 seropositive. The difference between blood donors and HIV-positive patients in terms of HHV-8 seropositivity rates was statistically significant (5.3% versus 25.4%; p< 0.05). In both of the study groups, no statistically significant difference was detected between HHV-8 seropositivity with gender and age. When considering HIV-positive patients, no statistically significant difference was observed between HHV-8 seropositivity with the duration of anti-HIV
Simooya, O O; Sanjobo, N E; Kaetano, L; Sijumbila, G; Munkonze, F H; Tailoka, F; Musonda, R
Inmate populations include a large number of individuals at risk of HIV infection. However, there is insufficient data about HIV/AIDS epidemiology in prisons. Our study, conducted in Zambia, a sub-Saharan African nation with an estimated HIV prevalence of 19% in adults, was designed to address this shortfall.
su vida , o que hayan resultado positivos en el tamizaje de problemas de alcoholismo (en base a la Prueba de Identificación de Trastornos Debidos al...the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) through the Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP) and HIV/AIDS Program... plan for AIDS relief. Alcohol, HIV risk behaviors and transmission in Africa: devel- oping programs for the President’s emergency plan for AIDS relief
Emeka-Nwabunnia, Ijeoma; Ibeh, Bartholomew Okey; Ogbulie, Tochukwu Ekwutosi
Objective To investigate the prevalence and sexual behavioural dynamics of HIV infection in students of institutions of higher education (IHEs) as a guide to the design of a tailor-made HIV intervention programmes. Methods A total of 9 709 sexually matured students from five IHEs in Southeast Nigeria aged 19-24 years were recruited to obtain representative data from the institutionalised student population. HIV status was confirmed using enzyme based immuno-assay technique. Demographic and behavioural information were obtained through a structured questionnaire. Association of HIV infection with behavioural risk factors was done using multiple logistics regression model. Results IHEs in Southeast Nigeria have a higher HIV prevalence of 3.69% against the national projected rate of 2012. The age-specific prevalence among male students (2.91%) is non-significantly (P>0.1) lower than that of females (4.31%). Female students had higher rate of infection, multiple sexual partner, transactional and forced sex, unusual genital discharge and low condom use when compared with their male counterparts. These risk factors were associated with increased HIV seropositivity. HIV prevalence and sexual risky behaviour were high among students of IHEs when compared with previous estimates of their non-institutionalised age brackets. Unprotected sexual activity have a 4.2 times higher chances of infecting the partner with HIV. Conclusions The data showed a higher prevalence of HIV infection in students of IHEs in comparison with non-institutionalised persons of the same age bracket. Specifically, it could be inferred that appropriate HIV intervention measures was absent with higher incidence of the infection and risky behaviour found in female students. Therefore, a prioritised tailor-made policy for HIV control for students of IHEs should be considered.
Reniers, Georges; Araya, Tekebash; Berhane, Yemane; Davey, Gail; Sanders, Eduard J
HIV serosurveys have become important sources of HIV prevalence estimates, but these estimates may be biased because of refusals and other forms of non-response. We investigate the effect of the post-test counseling study protocol on bias due to the refusal to be tested. Data come from a nine-month prospective study of hospital admissions in Addis Ababa during which patients were approached for an HIV test. Patients had the choice between three consent levels: testing and post-test counseling (including the return of HIV test results), testing without post-test counseling, and total refusal. For all patients, information was collected on basic sociodemographic background characteristics as well as admission diagnosis. The three consent levels are used to mimic refusal bias in serosurveys with different post-test counseling study protocols. We first investigate the covariates of consent for testing. Second, we quantify refusal bias in HIV prevalence estimates using Heckman regression models that account for sample selection. Refusal to be tested positively correlates with admission diagnosis (and thus HIV status), but the magnitude of refusal bias in HIV prevalence surveys depends on the study protocol. Bias is larger when post-test counseling and the return of HIV test results is a prerequisite of study participation (compared to a protocol where test results are not returned to study participants, or, where there is an explicit provision for respondents to forego post-test counseling). We also find that consent for testing increased following the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in Ethiopia. Other covariates of refusal are age (non-linear effect), gender (higher refusal rates in men), marital status (lowest refusal rates in singles), educational status (refusal rate increases with educational attainment), and counselor. The protocol for post-test counseling and the return of HIV test results to study participants is an important consideration in HIV
Isaacman, S H; Miller, L A
State agencies in the US began covertly testing newborn infants for antibodies to HIV in 1986. In so doing, the HIV serostatus of childbearing mothers is being assessed without directly sampling maternal blood, for neonatal infants harbor maternal antibodies. Approved by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and funded by the federal government, serosurveillance programs test virtually all live newborns in the US for antibodies to HIV. Neither is consent for testing sought or obtained from mothers, nor are results on infant serostatus ultimately provided to subjects. The authors oppose ongoing national serosurveillance for HIV on medical, economic, legal, and moral grounds; studies have after all already described the epidemiology of HIV diseases. This ongoing research project has no direct benefit to those tested and treats human subjects like simple laboratory animals. The paper calls attention to the program's inherent sexism, racism, eugenics, invasion of privacy, and science without control. Medical principles; issues of concern; neonatal HIV serosurveillance; ethical issues; legal issues; an overview of HIV testing guidelines; and testing justifications of the World Health Organization, the CDC, and state health agencies are considered in separate sections. The World Medical Association, American Medical Association, epidemiological ethics, and other ethical guidelines are raised in the discussion on ethics, while common law, constitutions, federal statues, the Nuremburg Code, and international laws are reviewed under the rubric of legal concerns.
Daw, Mohamed A.; Shabash, Amira; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Dau, Aghnya A.
Background In 1998 Libya experienced a major outbreak of multiple blood borne viral hepatitis and HIV infections. Since then, no studies have been done on the epidemic features and risk factors of HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection among the general population. Methods A prospective study was carried out using a multi-centre clustering method to collect samples from the general population. The participants were interviewed, and relevant information was collected, including socio-demographic, ethnic, and geographic variables. This information was correlated with the risk factors involved in the transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV. Blood samples were collected and the sera were tested for HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV using enzyme immunoassay. Results A total of 9,170 participants from the nine districts of Tripoli were enrolled. The average prevalence of HBsAg was 3.7%, anti-HCV 0.9%, anti-HIV 0.15% and co-infection 0.02%. The prevalence varied from one district to another. HBV was more prevalent among those aged over 50 years and was associated with family history. Anti-HCV and anti-HIV were more prevalent among those aged 20–40 years. Intravenous drug use and blood transfusion were the main risk factors for HCV and HIV infection. Conclusion HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection are relatively common in Libya. High prevalence was associated with geographic, ethnic and socioeconomic variability within the community. HCV and HIV infections among the younger age groups are becoming an alarming issue. Regulations and health care education need to be implemented and longer term follow-up should be planned. PMID:24936655
Daw, Mohamed A; Shabash, Amira; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Dau, Aghnya A
In 1998 Libya experienced a major outbreak of multiple blood borne viral hepatitis and HIV infections. Since then, no studies have been done on the epidemic features and risk factors of HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection among the general population. A prospective study was carried out using a multi-centre clustering method to collect samples from the general population. The participants were interviewed, and relevant information was collected, including socio-demographic, ethnic, and geographic variables. This information was correlated with the risk factors involved in the transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV. Blood samples were collected and the sera were tested for HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV using enzyme immunoassay. A total of 9,170 participants from the nine districts of Tripoli were enrolled. The average prevalence of HBsAg was 3.7%, anti-HCV 0.9%, anti-HIV 0.15% and co-infection 0.02%. The prevalence varied from one district to another. HBV was more prevalent among those aged over 50 years and was associated with family history. Anti-HCV and anti-HIV were more prevalent among those aged 20-40 years. Intravenous drug use and blood transfusion were the main risk factors for HCV and HIV infection. HBV, HCV, HIV and co-infection are relatively common in Libya. High prevalence was associated with geographic, ethnic and socioeconomic variability within the community. HCV and HIV infections among the younger age groups are becoming an alarming issue. Regulations and health care education need to be implemented and longer term follow-up should be planned.
Augusto, Ângelo; Augusto, Orvalho; Taquimo, Atija; Nhachigule, Carina; Siyawadya, Narcisa; Tembe, Nelson; Bhatt, Nilesh; Mbofana, Francisco; Gudo, Eduardo Samo
No study has yet been conducted to estimate the burden of co-infection of HIV and HTLV-1/2 in inmates in sub-Saharan Africa. To investigate prevalence of co-infection in inmates in Mozambique, a total of 2140 inmates were screened for HIV, of which 515 were HIV seropositive. All HIV seropositive inmates were further screened for HTLV infection, and eight (1.55%) were co-infected. Co-infection was higher in females (3.45% [2/58; CI: 0.42-11.91]) as compared to males (1.35% [6/445; CI: 0.55-3.06]). Early screening of HTLV in prisons is urgently needed in Mozambique in order to improve the care provided to incarcerated individuals, including initiation of ART. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bhattar, Sonali; Aggarwal, Prabhav; Sahani, Satyendra Kumar; Bhalla, Preena
HIV, syphilis, hepatitis B and C (HBV & HCV) infections modify the epidemiology and presentation of each other. This study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of these infections and their co-infections in sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic attendees in New Delhi, India. A retrospective study including 220 patients was conducted during May 2014 through December 2014. Serodiagnosis of HIV was performed as per Strategy III of NACO guidelines; syphilis by VDRL followed by TPHA; HBV and HCV by rapid immuno-chromatographic test followed by ELISA. Male subjects were slightly more in number as compared to females (56.36% vs. 43.63%). Twelve (5.45%), 14 (6.36%), three (1.36 %) and one (0.45%) were reactive for HIV, VDRL, HBV and HCV, respectively. Three were both HIV and syphilis positive and one was both HIV and HBV positive; no co-infections of HBV/HCV, HIV/HBV/HCV and HIV/HBV/HCV/syphilis coexisted. High prevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis in STI clinic attendees mandate routine screening to detect co-infections and follow prompt therapy in order to minimize their sequelae.
Mullaert, Jimmy; Abgrall, Sophie; Lele, Nathalie; Batteux, Frederic; Slama, Lilia Ben; Meritet, Jean-Francois; Lebon, Pierre; Bouchaud, Olivier; Grabar, Sophie; Launay, Odile
Few data are available on the seroprotection status of HIV1-infected patients with respect to vaccine-preventable diseases. To describe, in a population of HIV1-infected migrants on stable, effective ART therapy, the seroprevalence of diphtheria, poliomyelitis, tetanus, yellow fever antibodies and serostatus for hepatitis B, and to identify factors associated with seroprotection. Vaccine responses against diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and yellow fever were also studied. Sub-Saharan African patients participating in the ANRS-VIHVO cohort were enrolled prior to travel to their countries of origin. Serologic analyses were performed in a central laboratory before and after the trip. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with initial seroprotection. 250 patients (99 men and 151 women) were included in the seroprevalence study. Median age was 45 years (IQR 39-52), median CD4 cell count was 440/μL (IQR 336-571), and 237 patients (95%) had undetectable HIV1 viral load. The initial seroprevalence rates were 69.0% (95%CI 63.2-74.7) for diphtheria, 70.7% (95%CI 65.0-76.3) for tetanus, and 85.9% (95%CI 81.6-90.2) for yellow fever. Only 64.4% (95%CI 58.5-70.3) of patients had protective antibody titers against all three poliomyelitis vaccine strains before travel. No serological markers of hepatitis B were found in 18.6% of patients (95%CI 13.7-23.3). Patient declaration of prior vaccination was the only factor consistently associated with initial seroprotection. We found a low prevalence of seroprotection against diphtheria, poliomyelitis, tetanus and hepatitis B. HIV infected migrants living in France and traveling to their native countries need to have their vaccine schedule completed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Igboama, Magdalene C; Ojo, Johnson Adeyemi; Odewale, Gbolabo
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health challenge especially in developing countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Human T-cell lymphotropic Virus type I (HTLV-I) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic, in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, and South-Western Nigeria. One hundred and eighty two randomly selected pregnant women were screened for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies using commercially available ELISA kit. Of the 182 blood samples of pregnant women screened whose age ranged from 15-49 years, 13 (7.1%), 5 (2.7%), 9 (4.9%), and 44 (24.2%) were positive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies, respectively. The co-infection rate of 0.5% was obtained for HBV/HCV, HBV/HIV, HIV/HTLV-1, and HCV/HTLV-1 while 1.1% and 0% was recorded for HBV/HTLV-1 and HCV/HIV co-infections, respectively. Expected risk factors such as history of surgery, circumcision, tattooing and incision showed no significant association with any of the viral STIs (P > 0.05). This study shows that there is the need for a comprehensive screening of all pregnant women for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 to prevent mother to child transmission of these viral infections and its attending consequences.
Essomba, Noel Emmanuel; Adiogo, Dieudonné; Koum, Danielle Kedy; Ndonnang, Carine; Ngo Ngwe, Madeleine Irma; Njock Ayuck, Léo; Lehman, Leopold; Coppieters, Yves
The vulnerable health status of Pygmies is the result of their continual exposure to the modern world. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and the attitudes and practices of Baka populations towards HIV infection. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted over a five-month period in 12 Pygmy camps. A questionnaire was completed to collect information, and anonymous screenings were held. For screening, whole blood was collected. The Determine HIV-1/2 test was used as the rapid test, and the SD Bioline HIV-1/2 test was used as the second test. Associations between variables were checked. A total of 560 Baka were recruited. The sex ratio was 0.92. Among the means of transmission, sexual intercourse was the most frequently cited (37.6%). A minority (28.5%) knew where to undergo an HIV test, 24.2% did not know that there exists treatment enabling patients to have a higher quality of life, and 75.7% had never used a condom. A total of 86.9% had never been tested for HIV. Subjects who had sex with the Bantu were three times more likely to be infected (p = 0.02), as well as those who had had more than three sexual partners. The changes affecting contemporary societies are inevitably influenced by the dominant factors of modernity, particularly progress, development, and social dynamics in all their aspects. Baka knowledge about HIV/AIDS is limited. Educational efforts, increased awareness, and guidance are needed.
Altindis, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Sebahattin; Dikengil, Tansel; Acemoglu, Hamit; Hosoglu, Salih
AIM: To compare the prevalence of hepatitis viral markers among soldiers from Turkey, blood donors from Northern Cyprus, and soldiers from Northern Cyprus. METHODS: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV and anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence, HBV DNA, HCV RNA and HCV genotyping among soldiers from Turkey (groupI), civil blood donors from Northern Cyprus (group II), and soldier candidates from Northern Cyprus (group III) were studied and compared to one another. In total, 17 545 cases (13 546 males and 3999 females with a mean age of 34.5 ± 10.3 year, groupI= 11 234, group II = 5057, and group III = 1254) were included into the study. RESULTS: Among all cases, HBsAg positivity rates were 2.46%, anti-HCV was 0.46% and anti-HIV was 0.00%. HBV DNA was 2.25%, HCV RNA was 0.33% in all groups. HBsAg positivity rates were 2.16% in groupI, 3.00% in group II and 2.71% in group III. There was a significant difference between groupIand group II (χ2 = 6.11, P = 0.047 < 0.05). Anti-HCV positivity rates were 0.45% in groupI, 0.45% in group II, and 0.56% in group III. Genotypes of HCV were 1b and 1a in groupI, 1b, 1a and 2 in group II, and 1b, 1a in group III. HBsAg carrier rates were 2.20% in females and 2.53% in males. Anti-HCV prevalence was 0.38% in females and 0.48% in males. HBsAg positivity rates were 2.53% in individuals younger than 50, and 1.47% in older than 50. There was a significant difference between the two groups (χ2 = 23.48, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Prevalences of HBsAg, HCV and HIV infections in Northern Cyprus population are similar to those of Turkey. PMID:17106927
Salomon, J. A.; Murray, C. J.
OBJECTIVE: To improve the methodological basis for modelling the HIV/AIDS epidemics in adults in sub-Saharan Africa, with examples from Botswana, Central African Republic, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe. Understanding the magnitude and trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is essential for planning and evaluating control strategies. METHODS: Previous mathematical models were developed to estimate epidemic trends based on sentinel surveillance data from pregnant women. In this project, we have extended these models in order to take full advantage of the available data. We developed a maximum likelihood approach for the estimation of model parameters and used numerical simulation methods to compute uncertainty intervals around the estimates. FINDINGS: In the four countries analysed, there were an estimated half a million new adult HIV infections in 1999 (range: 260 to 960 thousand), 4.7 million prevalent infections (range: 3.0 to 6.6 million), and 370 thousand adult deaths from AIDS (range: 266 to 492 thousand). CONCLUSION: While this project addresses some of the limitations of previous modelling efforts, an important research agenda remains, including the need to clarify the relationship between sentinel data from pregnant women and the epidemiology of HIV and AIDS in the general population. PMID:11477962
Tengan, Fatima Mitiko; Ibrahim, Karim Yakub; Dantas, Bianca Peixoto; Manchiero, Caroline; Magri, Mariana Cavalheiro; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques
Studies have shown that the immunosuppression induced by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) accelerates the natural history of liver disease associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV), with 3- to 5-fold higher odds of coinfected individuals developing cirrhosis. However, estimates of the seroprevalence of hepatitis C among people living with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLHA) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are widely variable. We performed a systematic review to estimate the seroprevalence of HCV among PLHA. We searched studies on HIV and HCV infections in LAC included in the PubMed, LILACS and Embase databases in December of 2014 with no time or language restrictions. The following combinations of search terms were used in the PubMed and Embase databases: (HIV OR Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Virus OR AIDS OR HTLV OR Human Immunodeficiency Virus OR Human T Cell) AND (HCV OR HEPATITIS C OR HEPATITIS C VIRUS OR HEPACIVIRUS) AND (name of an individual country or territory in LAC). The following search terms were used in the LILACS database: (HIV OR AIDS OR Virus da Imunodeficiencia Humana) AND (HCV OR Hepatite C OR Hepacivirus). An additional 11 studies were identified through manual searches. A total of 2,380 publications were located, including 617 duplicates; the remaining articles were reviewed to select studies for inclusion in this study. A total of 37 studies were selected for systematic review, including 23 from Brazil, 5 from Argentina, 3 from Cuba, 1 from Puerto Rico, 1 from Chile, 1 from Colombia, 1 from Mexico, 1 from Peru and 1 from Venezuela. The estimated seroprevalence of HCV infection varied from 0.8 to 58.5 % (mean 17.37; median 10.91), with the highest in Argentina and Brazil and the lowest in Venezuela and Colombia. Investigation of HCV infection among PLHA and of HIV infection among people living with HCV is highly recommended because it allows for better follow up, counseling and treatment of HIV
Zhang, Tiejun; Liu, Zhenqiu; Wang, Jun; Minhas, Veenu; Wood, Charles; Clifford, Gary M; He, Na; Franceschi, Silvia
Little information on the prevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) among HIV-negative individuals is available from Asia. In the present study, we report findings from a new survey of KSHV in 983 HIV-negative male migrants from Shanghai and their combination with previous similar surveys of 600 female migrants, 600 female sex-workers (FSW), 1336 sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic male patients, 439 intravenous drug-users (IVDU), and 226 men having sex with men (MSM) from China. KSHV-specific antibodies against latent and lytic antigens were assessed using Sf9 and BC3 monoclonal immunofluorescence assay. Age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for KSHV-positivity were estimated using Poisson regression. In total, 4184 HIV-negative participants were included. KSHV prevalence ranged from 9.8% (95% CI: 7.9%-11.7%) in male migrants to 32.3% (95% CI: 24.1%-34.1%) in MSM. IVDU show intermediate level (17.5%, 95%CI: 14.1%-21.4%). KSHV was associated with syphilis (PR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.38-2.98) in MSM but not in other groups. An association with human herpes virus 2 was also found among MSM (PR = 1. 83, 95%: 1.22-2.75) but not in migrant workers or FSW. KSHV prevalence in HIV-negative heterosexuals, FSW, and STI male patients from China is approximately 10%, but 2- and 3-fold higher in IVDU and MSM, respectively. Associations of KSHV with STIs among MSM only suggest that sexual transmission of the virus is important in MSM but not in heterosexuals.
Chaiwarith, Romanee; Praparattanapan, Jutarat; Nuket, Khanuengnit; Kotarathitithum, Wilai; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai
After the global implementation of national immunization programs for prevention of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), the prevalences of protective antibodies to these viruses are high in general population. However, there are limited data among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected individuals. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to these viruses, and the serologic responses after vaccination among HIV-infected adults in Northern Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 500 HIV-infected adults, aged 20-59 years, receiving combination antiretroviral therapy, CD4 cell count ≥200 cells/mm(3), and plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL, and 132 HIV-uninfected controls, aged 20-59 years, at Chiang Mai University Hospital during July and August 2011. Prevalences of protective antibodies to these viruses as well as serologic responses after MMR vaccination in those without protective antibody to at least one of the three viruses were compared between groups. The prevalences of protective antibodies to measles, mumps, and rubella were 94.2, 55.0, and 84.6 % among HIV-infected adults, and 97.7, 67.5, and 89.4 % among HIV-uninfected controls, respectively. The prevalence of protective antibody to mumps was significantly lower in HIV-infected adults (p-value = 0.010). MMR vaccination was done in 249 HIV-infected and 46 HIV-uninfected controls; at week 8 to 12 after vaccination, the seroprotective rates against measles, mumps, and rubella in HIV-infected adults were 96.4, 70.7, and 98.0 %, respectively, whereas those in HIV-uninfected controls were 100, 87, and 100 %, respectively. No serious adverse effects were observed. In contrast to measles and rubella, the prevalence of protective antibody to mumps was low in both HIV-infected adults and HIV-uninfected controls in northern Thailand. The seroprotective rates after MMR vaccination in both groups were considerably high, except only for mumps. Therefore, MMR vaccination
Rusine, John; Ondoa, Pascale; Asiimwe-Kateera, Brenda; Boer, Kimberly R; Uwimana, Jean Marie; Mukabayire, Odette; Zaaijer, Hans; Mugabekazi, Julie; Reiss, Peter; van de Wijgert, Janneke H
Data on prevalence and incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Rwanda are scarce. HBV status was assessed at baseline and Month 12, and anti-HCV antibodies at baseline, in a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients in Kigali, Rwanda: 104 men and 114 women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) at baseline, and 200 women not yet eligible for ART. Baseline prevalence of active HBV infection (HBsAg positive), past or occult HBV infection (anti-HBc positive and HBsAg negative) and anti-HCV was 5.2%, 42.9%, and 5.7%, respectively. The active HBV incidence rate was 4.2/1,000 person years (PY). In a multivariable logistic regression model using baseline data, participants with WHO stage 3 or 4 HIV disease were 4.19 times (95% CI 1.21-14.47) more likely to have active HBV infection, and older patients were more likely to have evidence of past exposure to HBV (aRR 1.03 per year; 95%CI 1.01-1.06). Older age was also positively associated with having anti-HCV antibodies (aOR 1.09; 95%CI 1.04-1.14) while having a higher baseline HIV viral load was negatively associated with HCV (aOR 0.60; 95% CI 0.40-0.98). The median CD4 increase during the first 12 months of ART was lower for those with active HBV infection or anti-HCV at baseline. Almost all participants (88%) with active HBV infection who were on ART were receiving lamivudine monotherapy for HBV. HBV and HCV are common in HIV-infected patients in Rwanda. Regular HBsAg screening is needed to ensure that HIV-HBV co-infected patients receive an HBV-active ART regimen, and the prevalence of occult HBV infection should be determined. Improved access to HBV vaccination is recommended. Active HCV prevalence and incidence should be investigated further to determine whether HCV RNA PCR testing should be introduced in Rwanda.
Sticchi, Laura; Bruzzone, Bianca; Caligiuri, Patrizia; Rappazzo, Emanuela; Lo Casto, Michele; De Hoffer, Laura; Gustinetti, Giulia; Viscoli, Claudio; Di Biagio, Antonio
Background Even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-infected subjects are at higher risk of complications from vaccine-preventable diseases than those uninfected. The current international guidelines strongly recommend that these patients should receive all the routine childhood vaccinations. Although these children represent an appropriate target for immunization, the available data indicate suboptimal coverage rates. Methods To evaluate seroprotection/seropositivity rates and vaccination coverage against the common vaccine-preventable diseases, all patients with vertically transmitted HIV-1 infection who attended San Martino Hospital were enrolled. Blood samples were collected for testing antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, hepatitis A and B viruses by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay and polioviruses by microneutralization test. In order to assess immunization coverage, retrospectively was recorded the vaccination history collecting data from Regional Immunization Database. Results A total of 39 perinatally HIV-1 infected patients were included in the study. At the time of serum was obtained, the mean age was 18,1 years (range: 6–28). The median CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was 702 cells/mm3 (2–1476 cells/mm3). Twenty-nine (74.4%) patients were found with HIV RNA load < 50 copies/mL. The proportion of subjects with protective anti-tetanus and anti-HBs were 43.6% and 30.8%, respectively. Seroprotection rates about 20% against rubella and measles were found, less than 20% against all the other antigens investigated. In particular, all patients resulted susceptible to mumps. High immunization rates were observed for polio and HBV (100% and 92.3%, respectively) and suboptimal for diphtheria-tetanus (84.6%). For the other recommended vaccines the rates were generally low. None of the patients received varicella vaccine doses. Conclusions As in the HAART era the vertically acquired HIV infection has become a chronic treatable disease
Luma, Henry Namme; Eloumou, Servais Albert Fiacre Bagnaka; Ekaney, Domin Sone Majunda; Lekpa, Fernando Kemta; Donfack-Sontsa, Olivier; Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo Mbatchou; Mapoure, Yacouba Njankouo
Background: Liver disease related to Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infection has become a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV/AIDS patients. Data on the prevalence of HBV and HCV in Cameroon remains inconclusive. Objective: We aimed to determine the sero-prevalence and correlates of Hepatitis markers in HIV/AIDS patients in two Regional Hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out from December 2014 to March 2015. HIV/AIDS patients aged 21 were included and above, receiving care at HIV treatment centres. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were collected to screen for Hepatitis with HBsAg and anti HCV antibody rapid immunochromatographic test kits. Correlates of hepatitis were investigated by logistic regression. STATA was used for data analysis. Results: We included 833 HIV/AIDS patients,78.8% (657) were female. Mean age was 44(SD 11) years. Prevalence of Hepatitis in general (total of two viral markers tested) was 8.9% (74/833), with 6.1% for HBsAg and 2.8% for Anti-HCV antibodies. From multivariate analysis, the likelihood of having hepatitis was independently increased by a history of surgical interventions [OR: 1.82(1.06-3.14)], and of sexually transmitted infections [OR: 2.20(1.04-4.67)]. Conclusion: Almost one in ten participants with HIV/AIDS attending the BRH and LRH tested positive for either HBsAg or anti HCV antibodies. Screening for HBV and HCV should therefore be integrated to the existing guidelines in Cameroon as it can influence management. More studies are needed to evaluate the extent of liver disease and magnitude of HIV suppression in hepatitis and HIV coinfection in this setting. PMID:27867437
Kolawole, Olatunji Matthew; Amuda, Oluwatomi Olufunke; Nzurumike, Charles; Suleiman, Muhammed Mustapha; Ikhevha Ogah, Jeremiah
Background Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is normally associated with orofacial (orolabial) infections and encephalitis, whereas HSV-2 usually causes genital infections and can be transmitted from infected mothers to neonates. The evidence suggesting that HSV is facilitating the spread of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and the risk posed by these synergies to neonates in developing countries informed this study. Objectives To determine the seroprevalence and co-infection of HIV and HSV, as well as their associated risk factors, in Lokoja, Nigeria. Methods This was a hospital-based cross-sectional, prospective study, which was carried out among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at the federal medical centre in Lokoja, Nigeria. sociodemographic characteristics and HIV-HSV status were determined by the use of a structured questionnaire and immunoassay kits, respectively. All data were analyzed using Stata statistical software (version 12), and the level of significance was determined to be P < 0.05 using the chi-square test. Results Of the 250 pregnant women screened for HIV and HSV, 154 (61.6%) were in the 2nd trimester of gestation, and all of the co-infected respondents were in their 2nd trimester. Only six (2.4%) of the respondents tested positive for HIV, with all six (100%) showing positivity for HSV so the co-infection rate was six (2.4%). Co-infection was found to occur between the ages of 15 and 35 years, while higher age groups did not show any co-infection. Parity, level of education, and history of painful genital ulcers had no significant association with co-infection. Conclusions Advocacy and publicity to raise awareness of the potential public health impact of HSV and HIV co-infection in Nigeria, where anti-HSV testing is not generally performed in all populations, is therefore recommended. PMID:28180012
Hepatitis C virus and HIV seroprevalences, sociodemographic characteristics, behaviors and access to syringes among drug users, a comparison of geographical areas in France, ANRS-Coquelicot 2011 survey.
Weill-Barillet, L; Pillonel, J; Semaille, C; Léon, L; Le Strat, Y; Pascal, X; Barin, F; Jauffret-Roustide, M
People who use drugs (PWUDs) are at a high risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but they have different characteristics depending on the local context. In France, seroprevalence, sociodemographic, and behavior information have only been studied at a national level rather than at a local level. The aim of this study was to describe and examine profile and drug use practice differences in seven French cities and departments and to assess whether these differences can explain HCV and HIV seroprevalence variations between French geographical areas. Data were collected from the cross-sectional ANRS-Coquelicot survey conducted for the second time in 2011 among drug users having injected or snorted drugs at least once in their life. Professional interviewers administrated a face-to-face questionnaire in six different areas in France: Paris, Marseille, Bordeaux, Lille, Strasbourg and the Seine-Saint-Denis department (Paris suburbs). Participants were asked to self-collect a fingerpick blood sample in order to search for the presence of anti-HIV and anti-HCV antibodies and to estimate seroprevalence in PWUDs. Overall, HCV and HIV seroprevalence was 44% [95% CI: 39.6-47.9] and 10% [95% CI: 7.5-12.6] respectively. The highest HCV seroprevalence was 56% in Marseille and the lowest was 24% in Bordeaux and for HIV the highest was 18% in Seine-Saint-Denis and the lowest was 0% in Lille. The population's age differed between areas and could mostly explain HCV seroprevalence variation but not exclusively. Profiles and practices, different in each area, can also explain this variation. In multivariate analysis, HCV seroprevalence was lower in Bordeaux (prevalence ratio [PR]=0.64), Strasbourg (PR=0.76), and Seine-Saint-Denis (PR=0.8) than in Paris. Nearly one-third of injectors declared having had difficulties to obtain syringes in the 6 previous months, but disparities existed between areas. HCV risk exposure in PWUDs remains high in France and
Zeleke, Ayalew Jejaw; Melsew, Yayehirad Alemu
Toxoplasmosis is serious in the case of immune suppression and prenatal transmission. In immunocompromised hosts, it is manifested primarily as a life-threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. Congenital toxoplasmosis results in abortion or congenitally acquired disorders which primarily affect the central nervous system. This study assessed seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection and associated factors among HIV-infected women within the reproductive age group (18-49 years) at Mizan Aman General Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 01 to May 30, 2015. Systematic random sampling technique was employed for participant selection. Enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay was used to test for T. gondii from venous blood specimens. Participants were interviewed using structured questionnaire for different variables. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed during data analysis. P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 270 HIV-infected women within the reproductive age group were included in the study. Mean age of the respondents was 31 years (SD = ±6.5). Of the total study participants, 255 (94.4%), 95% CI (91.6, 97.2%) were found to be seropositive for T. gondii anti-immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, and 6 (2.2%), 95% CI (1.3, 3.1%) for anti-immunoglobulin M (IgM). All the anti-IgM positive samples were also positive for IgG. Multivariate analysis showed that; age within 28-37 years (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.58, 95% CI 1.01, 6.60), level of education with unable or only able to read and write (AOR = 4.46, 95% CI 1.20, 16.60), and substance abuse (AOR = 4.49, 95 CI 1.60, 12.55) were significantly associated with seropositivity of T. gondii infection. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among the HIV-infected women in the childbearing age group in Mizan Aman was high. Age, educational status
de Almeida Rego, Filipe Ferreira; Mota-Miranda, Aline; de Souza Santos, Edson; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos
HTLV-1/HIV-1 co-infection is associated with severe clinical manifestations, marked immunodeficiency, and opportunistic pathogenic infections, as well as risk behavior. Salvador, the capital of the State of Bahia, Brazil, has the highest HTLV-1 prevalence (1.74%) found in Brazil. Few studies exist which describe this co-infection found in Salvador and its surrounding areas, much less investigate how these viruses circulate or assess the relationship between them. To describe the epidemiological and molecular features of HTLV in HIV co-infected women. To investigate the prevalence of HTLV/HIV co-infection in surrounding areas, as well as the molecular epidemiology of HTLV, a cross sectional study was carried out involving 107 women infected with HIV-1 from the STD/HIV/AIDS Reference Center located in the neighboring City of Feira de Santana. Patient samples were submitted to ELISA, and HTLV infection was confirmed using Western Blot and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Phylogenetic analysis using Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) was performed on HTLV LTR sequences in order to gain further insights about molecular epidemiology and the origins of this virus in Bahia. Four out of five reactive samples were confirmed to be infected with HTLV-1, and one with HTLV-2. The seroprevalence of HTLV among HIV-1 co-infected women was 4.7%. Phylogenetic analysis of the LTR region from four HTLV-1 sequences showed that all isolates were clustered into the main Latin American group within the Transcontinental subgroup of the Cosmopolitan subtype. The HTLV-2 sequence was classified as the HTLV-2c subtype. It was also observed that four HTLV/HIV-1 co-infected women exhibited risk behavior with two having parenteral exposure, while another two were sex workers. This article describes the characteristics of co-infected patients. This co-infection is known to be severe and further studies should be conducted to confirm the suggestion that HTLV-1 is spreading from
Coyle, Catelyn; Kwakwa, Helena
Despite common risk factors, screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV at the same time as part of routine medical care (dual-routine HCV/HIV testing) is not commonly implemented in the United States. This study examined improvements in feasibility of implementation, screening increase, and linkage to care when a dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model was integrated into routine primary care. National Nursing Centers Consortium implemented a dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model at four community health centers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on September 1, 2013. Routine HCV and opt-out HIV testing replaced the routine HCV and opt-in HIV testing model through medical assistant-led, laboratory-based testing and electronic medical record modification to prompt, track, report, and facilitate reimbursement for tests performed on uninsured individuals. This study examined testing, seropositivity, and linkage-to-care comparison data for the nine months before (December 1, 2012-August 31, 2013) and after (September 1, 2013-May 31, 2014) implementation of the dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model. A total of 1,526 HCV and 1,731 HIV tests were performed before, and 1,888 HCV and 3,890 HIV tests were performed after dual-routine testing implementation, resulting in a 23.7% increase in HCV tests and a 124.7% increase in HIV tests. A total of 70 currently HCV-infected and four new HIV-seropositive patients vs. 101 HCV-infected and 13 new HIV-seropositive patients were identified during these two periods, representing increases of 44.3% for HCV antibody-positive and RNA-positive tests and 225.0% for HIV-positive tests. Linkage to care increased from 27 currently infected HCV--positive and one HIV-positive patient pre-dual-routine testing to 39 HCV--positive and nine HIV-positive patients post-dual-routine testing. The dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model shows that integrating dual-routine testing in a primary care setting is possible and leads to increased HCV and HIV screening
Objective Despite common risk factors, screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV at the same time as part of routine medical care (dual-routine HCV/HIV testing) is not commonly implemented in the United States. This study examined improvements in feasibility of implementation, screening increase, and linkage to care when a dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model was integrated into routine primary care. Methods National Nursing Centers Consortium implemented a dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model at four community health centers in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on September 1, 2013. Routine HCV and opt-out HIV testing replaced the routine HCV and opt-in HIV testing model through medical assistant-led, laboratory-based testing and electronic medical record modification to prompt, track, report, and facilitate reimbursement for tests performed on uninsured individuals. This study examined testing, seropositivity, and linkage-to-care comparison data for the nine months before (December 1, 2012–August 31, 2013) and after (September 1, 2013–May 31, 2014) implementation of the dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model. Results A total of 1,526 HCV and 1,731 HIV tests were performed before, and 1,888 HCV and 3,890 HIV tests were performed after dual-routine testing implementation, resulting in a 23.7% increase in HCV tests and a 124.7% increase in HIV tests. A total of 70 currently HCV-infected and four new HIV-seropositive patients vs. 101 HCV-infected and 13 new HIV-seropositive patients were identified during these two periods, representing increases of 44.3% for HCV antibody-positive and RNA-positive tests and 225.0% for HIV-positive tests. Linkage to care increased from 27 currently infected HCV--positive and one HIV-positive patient pre-dual-routine testing to 39 HCV--positive and nine HIV-positive patients post-dual-routine testing. Conclusion The dual-routine HCV/HIV testing model shows that integrating dual-routine testing in a primary care setting is possible and leads
Tun, W; de Mello, M; Pinho, A; Chinaglia, M; Diaz, J
To compare population-based prevalence estimates of sexual risk behaviours and HIV seroprevalence of male sex workers who have sex with men (MSM) and those not engaged in sex work in Campinas, Brazil. MSM (n = 658) were recruited for a cross-sectional study through respondent-driven sampling. Audio-assisted computer self-interview was used to collect information on sexual behaviours and HIV testing (optional) was performed. Population-based prevalence estimates with 95% CI of characteristics and behaviours of MSM sex workers and non-sex workers are reported. One-quarter reported ever receiving payment for sex and 14.8% (95% CI 11.1 to 19.0) had been paid in the previous 2 months; most exclusively with men. MSM sex workers were significantly more likely than non-sex workers to report being transgendered (40.5% vs 8.1%), to practise unprotected receptive (22.4% vs 4.6%) and insertive (20.5% vs 5.0%) anal intercourse with > or =2 male partners and to have unprotected vaginal sex with women (22.7% vs 5.6%). MSM sex workers experienced significantly greater rates of psychological abuse (80.9% vs 58.4%) and physical abuse (48.2% vs 15.2%). MSM sex workers have higher sexual risk behaviours as well as social vulnerabilities than the general population of MSM. HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention efforts should be targeted to this riskier subgroup. Programmes should be transgender sensitive, should recognise that MSM sex workers have sex with men and women and address other factors that influence risk, such as homophobic abuse.
Border and imported bancroftian filariases: baseline seroprevalence in sentinel populations exposed to infections with Wuchereria bancrofti and concomitant HIV at the start of diethylcarbamazine mass treatment in Thailand.
Bhumiratana, Adisak; Koyadun, Surachart; Srisuphanunt, Mayuna; Satitvipawee, Pratana; Limpairojn, Nukool; Gaewchaiyo, Gitipong
Border bancroftian filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti nocturnally subperiodic mainly exists in Karens residing alongside the Thailand-Myanmar border. Imported bancroftian filariasis caused by W. bancrofti nocturnally periodic mainly exists in cross-border Myanmar migrants. We analyzed seroprevalence data based on W. bancrofti adult worm antigen (Ag) loads and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoglobulins in the sentinel population samples which were studied prior to the start of the diethylcarbamazine (DEC) mass treatment phase in the PELF during fiscal years 2002-2006. In the Karens, the cumulative infection prevalence (36.8% serological antigen positivity or SAP) was specific for age (p < 0.001) but universal for gender (p = 0.77). The infection intensity (median Ag load = 60,827 antigen units or AU/ml) was specific for age (p = 0.031) and for males (p = 0.016). In the Myanmars, infection prevalence (24.0% SAP) was universal for age (p = 0.961) and for gender (p = 0.676). The infection intensity (median Ag load = 19,068 AU/ml) was universal for age (p = 0.433) but specific for females (p = 0.027). Overall, the Ag loads between the groups were significantly different (p = 0.014). In analysis of concomitant HIV and W. bancrofti infections, 7 (3.2%) Myanmars infected with HIV 1 and 3 (5.7%) with concomitant infections, subjected to biannual DEC treatment with 300 mg oral-dose FILADEC, were prevalent. The antigenemia clearance in the concomitant infections (r = -0.732, p = 0.039) as well as in the single W. bancrofti infection (r = -0.781, p = 0.022) was correlated with time required to clear antigenemias. We reemphasize that W. bancrofti adult worm Ag loads in the sentinel population samples would be beneficial for the PELF's implementers at the provincial level to probe the disease burdens in target areas and to evaluate and monitor the DEC treatment efficacy and effectiveness in those sentinel populations, including those with concomitant HIV eligible
Chris Buck, W.; Kazembe, Peter N.; Phiri, Sam; Andrianarimanana, Diavolana; Weigel, Ralf
Background: Little is known about viral co-infections in African human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. We examined the prevalence of seromarkers for cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections among HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve children in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods: Ninety-one serum samples were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies to CMV, and IgG antibodies to HSV-2 and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Baseline demographic, clinical and laboratory data were abstracted from electronic records. Results: CMV IgG was the most common positive result in all age groups (in 73% of children <1 year, and 100% in all other groups). Three patients were CMV IgM positive (3.3%), suggesting acute infection. HSV-2 IgG was positive in four patients (4.4%), and HBsAg in two (2.2%). Conclusions: CMV infection occurred early in life, and few children had specific signs of CMV infection at the time of ART initiation. Unrecognized HBV infection represents opportunities for testing and treatment of HIV/HBV co-infected children. PMID:26884443
Sun, Hsin-Yun; Cheng, Chien-Yu; Lee, Nan-Yao; Yang, Chia-Jui; Liang, Shiou-Haur; Tsai, Mao-Song; Ko, Wen-Chien; Liu, Wen-Chun; Wu, Pei-Ying; Wu, Cheng-Hsin; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Hung, Chien-Ching
Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) after implementation of universal neonatal HBV vaccination and catch-up vaccination programs remains rarely investigated among the adults who were born in the vaccination era (in or after 1986) and engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. Between 2006 and 2012, we determined HBV surface antigen ([HBsAg), anti-HBs, and HBV core antibody (anti-HBc), hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV) and rapid plasma reagin titers among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) born during 1984-1985 (Group I: 244 persons) and those born in or after 1986 (Group II: 523), and HIV-uninfected MSM (Group III: 377) and heterosexuals (Group IV: 217) born in or after 1986. Prevalence and incidence of HBV infection were estimated and multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors associated with HBsAg positivity. Compared with Group I, Groups II-IV had a significantly lower prevalence of HBsAg positivity (7.8% vs 3.7%, 2.4%, and 3.2%, respectively); and the prevalence of anti-HBc positivity was also lower for Groups III and IV (30.3% vs. 19.6%, and 18.0%, respectively), but no difference was observed between Groups I and II (30.3% vs. 26.3%). In multivariate analysis, HBsAg positivity was significantly associated with syphilis (adjusted odds ratio, 2.990; 95% confidence interval, 1.502-5.953) and anti-HCV positivity (adjusted odds ratio, 3.402; 95% confidence interval, 1.091-10.614). In subjects of Group II with all-negative HBV markers at baseline, the incidence rate of HBsAg seroconversion was 0.486 episodes per 100 person-years; and for those who received combination antiretroviral therapy containing lamivudine and/or tenofovir, none developed HBsAg seroconversion during the follow-up. Among the adults who were born in or after 1986 and engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors in Taiwan, neonatal HBV vaccination and catch-up vaccination programs conferred long-term protection against HBsAg seroconversion and HBsAg positivity was
Hurley, P; Pinder, G
A controversial proposal for a survey of HIV infection in a probability sample of U.S. household residents as part of the government's surveillance of the AIDS epidemic provided a number of challenges to survey science. These were compounded by ethical concerns and social sensitivities surrounding the topic. Questions about the ability of a voluntary survey to produce an accurate national estimate of infection demanded rigorous study. In 1987, the Centers for Disease Control began planning field tests of a survey to obtain blood samples and information about respondents' sexual behavior and drug use. The authors were part of the team deployed by the National Center for Health Statistics that, with the contractor staff from Research Triangle Institute, conducted studies in Pittsburgh and Dallas, but only after much was learned about developing processes and procedures for dealing both with broad community concerns and with the interests of those gravely touched by the epidemic.
Hartl, Johannes; Otto, Benjamin; Madden, Richie Guy; Webb, Glynn; Woolson, Kathy Louise; Kriston, Levente; Vettorazzi, Eik; Lohse, Ansgar W.; Dalton, Harry Richard; Pischke, Sven
There have been large numbers of studies on anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence in Europe, however, the results of these studies have produced high variability of seroprevalence rates, making interpretation increasingly problematic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a clearer understanding of anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence in Europe and identify risk groups for HEV exposure by a meta-analysis of published studies. Methods: All European HEV-seroprevalence studies from 2003 to 2015 were reviewed. Data were stratified by assay, geographical location, and patient cohort (general population, patients with HIV, solid-organ transplant recipients, chronic liver disease patients, and individuals in contact with swine/wild animals). Data were pooled using a mixed-effects model. Results: Four hundred thirty-two studies were initially identified, of which 73 studies were included in the analysis. Seroprevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% to 52.5%, increased with age, but were unrelated to gender. General population seroprevalence varied depending on assays: Wantai (WT): 17%, Mikrogen (MG): 10%, MP-diagnostics (MP): 7%, DiaPro: 4%, Abbott 2%. The WT assay reported significantly higher seroprevalence rates across all cohorts (p < 0.001). Individuals in contact with swine/wild animals had significantly higher seroprevalence rates than the general population, irrespective of assay (p < 0.0001). There was no difference between any other cohorts. The highest seroprevalence was observed in France (WT: 32%, MP: 16%) the lowest in Italy (WT: 7.5%, MP 0.9%). Seroprevalence varied between and within countries. The observed heterogeneity was attributed to geographical region (23%), assay employed (23%) and study cohort (7%). Conclusion: Seroprevalcence rates primarily depend on the seroassy that is used, followed by the geographical region and study cohort. Seroprevalence is higher in individuals exposed to swine and/or wild animals, and increases with age. PMID:27509518
Ousseini, H; Kim, D S; Adamou, A
This study has been planned in order to determinate the frequency of the infection by VIH among the 394 new tuberculous, for a period extended from July 1990 to July 1991 at the section of pneumophtisiology in the National Hospital of Niamey. The number of seropositives is 7.6%. The two types of viruses, i.e. VIH1 and VIH2, and the double infection by VIH1 + VIH2 types exist in the tuberculous patients. The VIH1 is most frequently found in the subjects of age group 20-39 years, who are almost emigrants. Inspite of the actual weak sero-prevalency among the tuberculous patients, the authors claim that a sero-epidemiological sequential survey of tuberculosis in Niamey can be a relatively easy method for measuring the variations of sero-prevalency of AIDS in Niger.
Kibira, Simon Peter Sebina; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard; Daniel, Marguerite; Atuyambe, Lynn Muhimbuura; Makumbi, Fredrick Edward
Although male circumcision reduces the heterosexual HIV transmission risk, its effect may be attenuated if circumcised men increase sexual risk behaviours (SRB) due to perceived low risk. In Uganda information about the protective effects of circumcision has been publicly disseminated since 2007. If increased awareness of the protection increases SRB among circumcised men, it is likely that differences in prevalence of SRB among circumcised versus uncircumcised men will change over time. This study aimed at comparing SRBs and HIV sero-status of circumcised and uncircumcised men before and after the launch of the safe male circumcision programme. Data from the 2004 and 2011 Uganda AIDS Indicator Surveys (UAIS) were used. The analyses were based on generalized linear models, obtaining prevalence ratios (PR) as measures of association between circumcision status and multiple sexual partners, transactional sex, sex with non-marital partners, condom use at last non-marital sex, and HIV infection. In addition we conducted multivariate analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, and the multivariate models for HIV status were also adjusted for SRB. Twenty six percent of men were circumcised in 2004 and 28% in 2011. Prevalence of SRB was higher among circumcised men in both surveys. In the unadjusted analysis, circumcision was associated with having multiple sexual partners and non-marital partners. Condom use was not associated with circumcision in 2004, but in 2011 circumcised men were less likely to report condom use with the last non-marital partner. The associations between the other sexual risk behaviours and circumcision status were stable across the two surveys." In both surveys, circumcised men were less likely to be HIV positive (Adj PR 0.55; CI: 0.41-0.73 in 2004 and Adj PR 0.64; CI: 0.49-0.83 in 2011). There was higher prevalence of SRBs among circumcised men in both surveys, but the only significant change from 2004 to 2011 was a lower prevalence
Naber, D; Pajonk, F G; Perro, C; Löhmer, B
Psychiatric inpatients are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Investigations in the United States revealed seroprevalence rates of 5.5-8.9%. Therefore, inclusion of HIV antibody testing in routine laboratory screening is sometimes suggested. To investigate this issue for inpatients in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich, the incidence, reason for HIV testing and results were analyzed. Of 12,603 patients, hospitalized from 1985 to 1993, 4.9% (623 patients, 265 in risk groups) underwent the HIV test after informed consent. Thirty patients (4.8% of those tested) were found to be positive, but only in 5 cases (all of risk groups) was infection newly detected. Data indicate that, in psychiatry, HIV testing is reasonable only in patients in risk groups or if clinical variables suggest HIV infection.
Ajayi, G O; Omilabu, S A; Alamu, D; Balogun, Y; Badaru, S
We attempted to determine the seropositivity of HIV-positive patients to other antibodies (herpes, CMV, rubella, varicella, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, chlamydia, mumps, toxoplasmosis). The study was carried out at the Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy Centre of a Tertiary Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. A total of 70 patients (50 females and 20 males) attending the centre between June 1997 and December 2005 who were screened and found to be HIV-seropositive were further screened for herpes simplex IgG/IgM, CMV IgG/IgM, rubella IgG/IgM, varicella IgG/IgM, mumps IgG/IgM, toxoplasmosis IgG/IgM, chlamydia IgG/IgM, hepatitis B and hepatitis C IgG/IgM using ELISA kits and syphilis (THPA) using the HAE method. Our study showed that a large number of HIV-positive patients are carriers of other antibodies and should be screened for them before therapy.
de Batänjer, E C; de Pérez, G E
In attention to the important HIV-1 seroprevalence observed in Margarita Island, we carried out this study to establish HTLV-I/II seroprevalence into target groups for sexual transmission. Therefore the survey was done with 141 female sex workers and 40 Gay men between 1994 and 1997. We found HTLV-I infection in one man. This is the first known report to describe epidemiological features of HTLV-I/II infection in Margarita Island.
Bahr, Nathan C; Sarosi, George A; Meya, David B; Bohjanen, Paul R; Richer, Sarah M; Swartzentruber, Samantha; Halupnick, Ryan; Jarrett, Deidre; Wheat, L Joseph; Boulware, David R
Histoplasmosis is endemic to the Midwestern United States, but cases have been reported nearly worldwide. A 1970 study found 3.8% skin test sensitivity to Histoplasma capsulatum in Uganda but no systemic study of histoplasmosis exposure has occurred since the onset of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. This study investigated the seroprevalence of H. capsulatum and sought previously undetected cases of histoplasmosis in Kampala, Uganda. Serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or urine specimens were obtained from HIV-infected persons with suspected meningitis. Specimens were tested for H. capsulatum IgG and IgM by enzyme immune assay and Histoplasma antigen. 147 of the 257 subjects who were enrolled had cryptococcal meningitis. Overall, 1.3% (2/151) of subjects were serum Histoplasma IgG positive, and zero of 151 were IgM positive. Antigen was not detected in any serum (n = 57), urine (n = 37, or CSF (n = 63) samples. Both subjects with serum Histoplasma IgG positivity had cryptococcal meningitis. Histoplasma capsulatum IgG was detected at low levels in persons with HIV/AIDS in Kampala, Uganda. Histoplasmosis is not widespread in Uganda but microfoci do exist. There appears to be no cross-reactivity between Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma antigen testing, and cryptococcosis appears to be at most, a rare cause of positive Histoplasma IgG.
Mohi, Manjit Kaur; Kumar, Amith
Introduction As per NACO publication there are an estimated 2.08 Million HIV/AIDS cases in India as of February 2014. The estimated adult HIV prevalence in India is 0.27%, with a gender spit of 0.32% males and 0.22% females. Estimating the seroprevalence of HIV in a low risk population such as pregnant women provides essential information for an effective implementation of AIDS control programmes. In spite of an estimated adult HIV prevalence rate of 0.18% in Punjab, there are no previous studies among antenatal women to assess seroprevalence. Aim To assess the prevalence of HIV infection, among otherwise healthy pregnant females. Materials and Methods This retrospective study reviewed treatment records of 3686 antenatal women who underwent HIV testing. Demographic, obstetric and laboratory data was recorded into a preset proforma. Available data was analysed using SPSS version 13. Results Total of 38 subjects tested positive for HIV infection. Seroprevalence rate was 1.03%. A 25 -30 years age group had most number of infected individuals with 22 (57.89%) subjects. Seropositivity was common among rural domicile. Only 9 (23.68%) was aware of their seropositive status. A total of 20 (52.63%) subjects were illiterate, 14 (36.84%) had received primary school education. Conclusion Seroprevalence rate of 1.03% reported in this study has been the highest among the contemporary articles published in last decade. Efficient surveillance along with proper implementation of Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) is the need of the day. A prompt action at the hands of the authority will enable us to safeguard our present and future alike. PMID:27790524
Kane, C Toure; Diawara, S; Ndiaye, H D; Diallo, P A N; Wade, A S; Diallo, A G; Belec, L; Mboup, S
The objective of this article is to report seroprevalences on HIV and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) in female sex workers (FSW) and in two sentinel populations of pregnant women living in Senegal. Serosurveys of HIV and HSV-2 were conducted in two unselected sentinel populations from Dakar, Senegal, and its provinces, including in 2003 only pregnant women and 2006 pregnant women and FSW. The population study involved 888 pregnant women and 604 FSW. In pregnant women, HIV and HSV-2 seroprevalences were, respectively, 1.01% and 15.65%. There was no association between HSV-2 and HIV infection, whatever the age. In contrast, the seroprevalence of HIV infection in the group of FSW was high, reaching 22.9% in women over 30 years old. FSW above 20 years of age harboured much higher HSV-2 seroprevalences that those found in pregnant women of similar age groups. In FSW, strong associations between HSV-2 and age, and among HSV-2 and HIV-1 as well HIV-2, were evidenced. In conclusion, HIV epidemic remains concentrated in high-risk groups of the Senegalese population, such as the FSW population in which the seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection is very high. Intervention against STI including HSV-2 is urgently needed to prevent the spreading of HIV epidemic.
Leonard, Noelle R.; Rajan, Sonali; Gwadz, Marya V.; Aregbesola, Temi
The heightened level of risk for HIV infection among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is driven by multilevel influences. Using cross-sectional data, we examined HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color in a high-HIV seroprevalence area (ages 16 to 21 years). Self-reported frequency of testing was high, with 42% of…
Simon, Patricia M.; And Others
Examined human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence data for young male street prostitutes. Examined sociodemographic characteristics, substance use patterns, HIV-related risk behaviors, and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome knowledge as potential correlates to HIV status. Findings suggest that adolescent male prostitutes are exposed to…
Leonard, Noelle R.; Rajan, Sonali; Gwadz, Marya V.; Aregbesola, Temi
The heightened level of risk for HIV infection among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is driven by multilevel influences. Using cross-sectional data, we examined HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color in a high-HIV seroprevalence area (ages 16 to 21 years). Self-reported frequency of testing was high, with 42% of…
Bautista, C T; Sanchez, J L; Montano, S M; Laguna‐Torres, A; Suarez, L; Sanchez, J; Campos, P; Gallardo, C; Mosquera, C; Villafane, M; Aguayo, N; Avila, M M; Weissenbacher, M; Ramirez, E; Child, R; Serra, M; Aponte, C; Mejia, A; Velazques, N; Gianella, A; Perez, J; Olson, J G; Carr, J K
Objective Assessment of HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviours among female commercial sex workers (FCSW) across major cities in South America. Methods Seroepidemiological, cross sectional studies of 13 600 FCSW were conducted in nine countries of South America during the years 1999–2002. Participants were recruited in brothels, massage parlours, hotels, and streets where anonymous questionnaires and blood samples were collected. HIV infection was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening and western blot confirmatory tests. Results The overall HIV seroprevalence was 1.2% (range 0.0%–4.5%). The highest HIV seroprevalences were reported in Argentina (4.5%) and Paraguay (2.6%); no HIV infected FCSW were detected in Venezuela and Chile. Consistent predictors of HIV seropositivity were: (1) a previous history of sexually transmitted infections (STI, AORs = 3.8–8.3), and (2) 10 years or more in commercial sex work (AORs = 2.2–24.8). In addition, multiple (⩾3) sexual contacts (AOR = 5.0), sex with foreigners (AOR = 6.9), use of illegal drugs (AOR = 3.2), and marijuana use (AOR = 8.2) were associated with HIV seropositivity in Southern Cone countries. Conclusions Consistently low HIV seroprevalences were detected among FCSW in South America, particularly in the Andean region. Predictors of HIV infection across the continent were STI and length of commercial sex work; however, use of illegal drugs, especially marijuana, and sexual contacts with foreigners were also found to be associated risk factors in the Southern Cone region. Interventions for the control of HIV and other STI need to be region and country specific; drug use appears to have an ever increasing role in the spread of HIV among heterosexually active populations. PMID:16877581
Barrientos, Jaime E; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella
This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.
Des Jarlais, D C; Friedman, S R; Choopanya, K; Vanichseni, S; Ward, T P
HIV/AIDS and iv drug use (IVDU) are of significant multinational scope and growing. Supporting increased IVDU in many countries are countries' geographical proximity to illicit drug trafficking distribution routes, law enforcement efforts which increase the demand for more efficient drug distribution and consumption, and countries' infrastructural and social modernization. Given the failures of intensified law enforcement efforts to thwart the use and proliferation of illegal drugs, countries with substantial IVDU should look away from preventing use to preventing HIV transmission within drug user populations. With HIV seroprevalence rates rapidly reaching 40-50% in some developing country IVDU groups, a variety of prevention programs is warranted. Such programs should be supported and implemented while prevention remains feasible. This paper examines the variation in HIV seroprevalence among IVD users, rapid HIV spread among users, HIV among IVDUs in Bangkok, emerging issues in HIV transmission among IVDUs, non-AIDS manifestations of HIV infection among IVDUs, prevention programs and effectiveness, and harm reduction.
Norley, Stephen; Kücherer, Claudia; Bazarbachi, Ali; El Hajj, Hiba; Marcus, Ulrich; Zimmermann, Ruth; Bannert, Norbert
Background Although human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is transmitted via the same routes as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), its worldwide seroprevalence differs drastically because HTLV is transmitted mainly via infected cells rather than free virus. The sharing of needles and other equipment places people who inject drugs (PWID) at particularly high-risk for such blood-borne diseases. Methods To validate the methodology used to process and analyze the dried blood spots (DBS) utilized in the study, dried serum spots (DSS) with dilutions of sera from known HTLV infected individuals were analyzed by ELISA and Western blot. DBS collected between 2011 and 2015 from 2,077 PWID in eight German cities recruited by respondent-driven sampling were tested for HTLV-specific antibodies. Results The validation demonstrated that the use of DSS allowed identification of samples with even low titers of HTLV-specific antibodies, although a confirmatory Western blot with an additional venous blood sample would often be required. Despite numerous HIV and HCV positive individuals being identified within the study population, none tested positive for HTLV. Conclusion While the HIV and HCV prevalences in German PWID are comparable to those in other European countries, the very low prevalence of HTLV reflects the situation in the general population. PMID:28829831
Hohn, Oliver; Norley, Stephen; Kücherer, Claudia; Bazarbachi, Ali; El Hajj, Hiba; Marcus, Ulrich; Zimmermann, Ruth; Bannert, Norbert
Although human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is transmitted via the same routes as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), its worldwide seroprevalence differs drastically because HTLV is transmitted mainly via infected cells rather than free virus. The sharing of needles and other equipment places people who inject drugs (PWID) at particularly high-risk for such blood-borne diseases. To validate the methodology used to process and analyze the dried blood spots (DBS) utilized in the study, dried serum spots (DSS) with dilutions of sera from known HTLV infected individuals were analyzed by ELISA and Western blot. DBS collected between 2011 and 2015 from 2,077 PWID in eight German cities recruited by respondent-driven sampling were tested for HTLV-specific antibodies. The validation demonstrated that the use of DSS allowed identification of samples with even low titers of HTLV-specific antibodies, although a confirmatory Western blot with an additional venous blood sample would often be required. Despite numerous HIV and HCV positive individuals being identified within the study population, none tested positive for HTLV. While the HIV and HCV prevalences in German PWID are comparable to those in other European countries, the very low prevalence of HTLV reflects the situation in the general population.
Background Factors previously associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) transmission in Africa include sexual, familial, and proximity to river water. We measured the seroprevalence of KSHV in relation to HIV, syphilis, and demographic factors among pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics in the Gauteng province of South Africa. Methods We tested for antibodies to KSHV lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73 antigens in 1740 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics who contributed blood to the "National HIV and Syphilis Sero-Prevalence Survey - South Africa, 2001". Information on HIV and syphilis serology, age, education, residential area, gravidity, and parity was anonymously linked to evaluate risk factors for KSHV seropositivity. Clinics were grouped by municipality regions and their proximity to the two main river catchments defined. Results KSHV seropositivity (reactive to either lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73) was nearly twice that of HIV (44.6% vs. 23.1%). HIV and syphilis seropositivity was 12.7% and 14.9% in women without KSHV, and 36.1% and 19.9% respectively in those with KSHV. Women who are KSHV seropositive were 4 times more likely to be HIV positive than those who were KSHV seronegative (AOR 4.1 95%CI: 3.4 - 5.7). Although, women with HIV infection were more likely to be syphilis seropositive (AOR 1.8 95%CI: 1.3 - 2.4), no association between KSHV and syphilis seropositivity was observed. Those with higher levels of education had lower levels of KSHV seropositivity compared to those with lower education levels. KSHV seropositivity showed a heterogeneous pattern of prevalence in some localities. Conclusions The association between KSHV and HIV seropositivity and a lack of common association with syphilis, suggests that KSHV transmission may involve geographical and cultural factors other than sexual transmission. PMID:20807396
Diarra, A B; Guindo, A; Kouriba, B; Dorie, A; Diabaté, D T; Diawara, S I; Fané, B; Touré, B A; Traoré, A; Gulbis, B; Diallo, D A
Red cell transfusion is one of the main treatments in sickle cell disease. However there are potential risks of blood transfusions. In order to propose strategies to improve blood safety in sickle cell disease in Mali, we conducted a prospective study of 133 patients with sickle cell anemia recruited at the sickle cell disease research and control center of Bamako, November 2010 to October 2011. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections by serum screening and the frequency of red cell alloimmunization before and after blood transfusion. The diagnosis of sickle cell syndrome was made by HPLC, the detection of markers of viral infection was performed by ELISA, and the diagnosis of alloimmunization was conducted by the Indirect Coombs test. Prevalence of viral infections observed at the time of enrolment of patients in the study was 1%, 3% and 1% respectively for HIV, HBV and HCV. Three cases of seroconversion after blood transfusion were detected, including one for HIV, one for HBV and one another for HCV in sickle cell anemia patients. All these patients had received blood from occasional donors. The red cell alloimmunization was observed in 4.4% of patients. All antibodies belonged to Rh system only. Blood transfusion safety in sickle cell anemia patients in Mali should be improved by the introduction of at least the technique for detecting the viral genome in the panel of screening tests and a policy of transfusions of blood units only from regular blood donors.
Riou, J; Aït Ahmed, M; Blake, A; Vozlinsky, S; Brichler, S; Eholié, S; Boëlle, P-Y; Fontanet, A
With the introduction of more efficient treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV), improved epidemiological information is required at the country level to allow evidence-based policymaking for elaboration of national strategies and HCV resources planning. We present a systematic review with meta-analysis of HCV seroprevalence data in adults in African countries. We conducted a systematic review of all HCV seroprevalence estimates reported in African countries from 2000 to 2014 in MEDLINE, AJOL and grey literature. We assessed studies performed in the general population and among blood donors, pregnant women and HIV-positive patients. A meta-regression analysis was used to provide adjusted estimates of HCV seroprevalence in the general adult population in each country, accounting for the heterogeneity in sample age structure and population types in the included studies. We identified 775 national-level estimations, among which 184 were included. Estimates of HCV seroprevalence were produced for 38 countries, in addition to the results from nationwide representative surveys available in Egypt and Libya. Next to Egypt, which clearly stands out, the highest levels of seroprevalence were found in Middle Africa (e.g. Cameroon, Gabon and Angola) and some West African countries (e.g. Burkina Faso, Benin), and the largest absolute numbers of infected adults were found in Nigeria, Ethiopia and Democratic Republic of Congo. This study exposes the diversity of HCV epidemiology among African countries. Egypt and several countries of West and Middle Africa present a HCV burden that will require strong governmental commitment to promote efficient preventive and curative interventions.
Diawara, Silman; Toure Kane, Coumba; Legoff, Jérôme; Gaye, Astou Gueye; Mboup, Souleymane; Bélec, Laurent
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is considered as a major co-factor of both sexual transmission and acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The HIV epidemic in Senegal is characterized by a remarkable and stable low prevalence. Whether HSV-2 may also constitute a possible co-factor favouring the spreading of HIV epidemic in Senegal is yet unknown. This prompted us to evaluate the HSV-2 seroprevalence in the sentinel population of pregnant women in Senegal. Two hundred and sixty pregnant women attending Roi Baudouin maternity in the capital city Dakar (n = 14; 135) and the antenatal clinic in Kaolack (n = 125), the third city of Senegal, were prospectively recruited between March and August 2003. Fifty-six women (22%) were positive for HSV-2 serology. The prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity was higher in women living in Dakar (26%) than in those living in Kaolack (16%) (P < 0.01). Only two women from Dakar and two other from Kaolack were found to be HIV-1-infected. Our observations suggest a seemingly low seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection in adult women Senegal, comparable with those usually reported in Western countries. Further, epidemiological surveys are needed to confirm these results in the general population.
Muro, Florida J; Fiorillo, Suzanne P; Sakasaka, Philoteus; Odhiambo, Christopher; Reddy, Elizabeth A; Cunningham, Coleen K; Buchanan, Ann M
Data on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection among children in Africa are limited. We evaluated the seroprevalence of both viruses among healthy, HIV-uninfected children and HIV-infected children in the Kilimanjaro region of northern Tanzania. HBV and HCV markers were assessed using serum and plasma samples from HIV-negative children ages 1 month to 18 years, recruited primarily from 2 hospital vaccination clinics; and HIV-infected children 1-16 years of age, enrolled in care and on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HBV markers included hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody, and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb). Evidence of any prior HBV infection was defined as a single positive HBsAg or HBcAb result; presumed chronic hepatitis B infection was defined as a single positive HBsAg result. HCV infection was assessed by anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Samples from 547 children were tested. Of 157 children infected with HIV, 9.6% (95% CI: 4.9, 14.2) showed evidence of any HBV infection, compared to 2.1% (95% CI: .6, 3.5) of HIV-negative children. Children with HIV were much more likely to show evidence of HBV infection than children without HIV (odds ratio [OR] = 5.0, P < .0001). Prevalence of presumed chronic HBV infection was 2.9% (95% CI: 1.5, 4.3) overall. Again, prevalence was higher among HIV-infected children (7.0% [95% CI: 3.0, 11.0]) compared to HIV-negative children (1.3% [95% CI: .2, 2.4]; OR = 5.8 [P = .0003]). Of 546 samples tested for anti-HCV antibody, none were positive. HBV seroprevalence is high among children in the Kilimanjaro Region, with a significantly higher prevalence among children who are infected with HIV. Routine screening for HBV is needed among HIV-infected children. Patients with coinfection require closer monitoring of liver transaminases due to potential for hepatic toxicities, and they may need HAART regimens that will
Muro, Florida J.; Fiorillo, Suzanne P.; Sakasaka, Philoteus; Odhiambo, Christopher; Reddy, Elizabeth A.; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Buchanan, Ann M.
Background Data on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection among children in Africa are limited. We evaluated the seroprevalence of both viruses among healthy, HIV-uninfected children and HIV-infected children in the Kilimanjaro region of northern Tanzania. Methods HBV and HCV markers were assessed using serum and plasma samples from HIV-negative children ages 1 month to 18 years, recruited primarily from 2 hospital vaccination clinics; and HIV-infected children 1–16 years of age, enrolled in care and on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HBV markers included hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody, and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb). Evidence of any prior HBV infection was defined as a single positive HBsAg or HBcAb result; presumed chronic hepatitis B infection was defined as a single positive HBsAg result. HCV infection was assessed by anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Samples from 547 children were tested. Of 157 children infected with HIV, 9.6% (95% CI: 4.9, 14.2) showed evidence of any HBV infection, compared to 2.1% (95% CI: .6, 3.5) of HIV-negative children. Children with HIV were much more likely to show evidence of HBV infection than children without HIV (odds ratio [OR] = 5.0, P < .0001). Prevalence of presumed chronic HBV infection was 2.9% (95% CI: 1.5, 4.3) overall. Again, prevalence was higher among HIV-infected children (7.0% [95% CI: 3.0, 11.0]) compared to HIV-negative children (1.3% [95% CI: .2, 2.4]; OR = 5.8 [P = .0003]). Of 546 samples tested for anti-HCV antibody, none were positive. Conclusion HBV seroprevalence is high among children in the Kilimanjaro Region, with a significantly higher prevalence among children who are infected with HIV. Routine screening for HBV is needed among HIV-infected children. Patients with coinfection require closer monitoring of liver transaminases due to potential for hepatic toxicities
Seroepidemiological surveys show that the prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection mostly varies in various geographical areas and reflects the local incidence of classic and endemic KS, being widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and Mediterranean countries and uncommon in the USA and Northern Europe. In the Middle East only few populations, such as Ashkenazi and Sephardic groups in Israel, have been adequately evaluated for HHV-8 seroprevalence. Among Iranian population a striking higher seroprevalence of HHV8 has been reported among haemodialysis (16.9%), renal transplant recipients (25%) and HIV (45.7%) patients compared to blood donors (2%). Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the rarest cancer in Iran, with an annual age-standardized incidence varying from 0.10 to 0.17 per 100,000 in males and from 0.06 to 0.08 per 100,000 in females. KS, however, is one of the most important malignancies in Iranian renal transplanted patients affecting up to 2.4% of organ recipients. The epidemiology of HHV8 and KS in Iran needs further evaluation. While the high prevalence of HHV-8 antibodies in HIV positive and haemodialysis individuals may be attributed to high-risk sexual behavior and polytransfusions, respectively, unknown determinants may be responsible for high seroprevalence of HHV8 and high incidence of KS in solid organ recipients. A global survey on HHV8 seroprevalence in Iran is mandatory to define co-factors associated with HHV8 infection and KS risk in the general Iranian population and in specific patient groups. PMID:21527020
Jalilvand, Somayeh; Shoja, Zabihollah; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat; Nategh, Rakhshandeh; Gharehbaghian, Ahmad
Seroepidemiological surveys show that the prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection mostly varies in various geographical areas and reflects the local incidence of classic and endemic KS, being widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and Mediterranean countries and uncommon in the USA and Northern Europe. In the Middle East only few populations, such as Ashkenazi and Sephardic groups in Israel, have been adequately evaluated for HHV-8 seroprevalence. Among Iranian population a striking higher seroprevalence of HHV8 has been reported among haemodialysis (16.9%), renal transplant recipients (25%) and HIV (45.7%) patients compared to blood donors (2%). Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the rarest cancer in Iran, with an annual age-standardized incidence varying from 0.10 to 0.17 per 100,000 in males and from 0.06 to 0.08 per 100,000 in females. KS, however, is one of the most important malignancies in Iranian renal transplanted patients affecting up to 2.4% of organ recipients. The epidemiology of HHV8 and KS in Iran needs further evaluation. While the high prevalence of HHV-8 antibodies in HIV positive and haemodialysis individuals may be attributed to high-risk sexual behavior and polytransfusions, respectively, unknown determinants may be responsible for high seroprevalence of HHV8 and high incidence of KS in solid organ recipients. A global survey on HHV8 seroprevalence in Iran is mandatory to define co-factors associated with HHV8 infection and KS risk in the general Iranian population and in specific patient groups.
Bourgeois, Anke; Mpoudi, Mireille; Butel, Christelle; Peeters, Martine; Mpoudi-Ngolé, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric
We found a high seroprevalence of HIV among young women in a commercial logging area in Cameroon. The vulnerability of these young women could be related to commercial logging and the social and economic networks it induces. The environmental changes related to this industry in Equatorial Africa may facilitate HIV dissemination. PMID:15550206
Chen, Jiang-Tao; Eyi, Urbano Monsuy; Matesa, Rocio Apicante; Obono, Maximo Miko Ondo; Ehapo, Carlos Sala; Yang, Li-Ye; Yang, Hui; Yang, Hui-Tian; Lin, Min
Background Regular screening of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus (HBV and HCV, respectively), and Treponema pallidum, in blood donors is essential to guaranteeing clinical transfusion safety. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of four TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (EG). Methods A retrospective survey of blood donors from January 2011 to April 2013 was conducted to assess the presence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum. The medical records were analyzed to verify the seroprevalence of these TTIs among blood donations stratified by gender, age and geographical region. Results Of the total 2937 consecutive blood donors, 1098 (37.39%) had a minimum of one TTI and 185 (6.29%) harbored co-infections. The general seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were 7.83%, 10.01%, 3.71% and 21.51%, respectively. The most frequent TTI co-infections were HBV-T. pallidum 60 (2.04%) and HIV-T. pallidum 46 (1.57%). The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and T. pallidum were highest among blood donors 38 to 47 years, 18 to 27 years and ≥ 48 years age, respectively (P<0.05). The seroprevalence of TTIs varied according to the population from which the blood was collected on Bioko Island. Conclusions Our results firstly provide a comprehensive overview of TTIs among blood donors on Bioko Island. Strict screening of blood donors and improved hematological examinations using standard operating procedures are recommended. PMID:26448460
Lange, H; Øverbø, J; Borgen, K; Dudman, S; Hoddevik, G; Urdahl, A M; Vold, L; Sjurseth, S K
In Norway, no published data on seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in humans and swine exists. Serum samples from blood donors, veterinarians, swine farm workers and swine were analysed by ELISA to estimate the seroprevalence of HEV in Norway and to investigate the association between direct contact with swine and HEV seroprevalence in humans. The seroprevalence of HEV IgG antibodies was 30% (24/79) in farm workers, 13% (21/163) in veterinarians, 14% (162/1200) in blood donors and 90% (137/153) in swine. Our results show a high seroprevalence of HEV in humans and swine in Norway. HEV seroprevalence in farm workers and blood donors increased with age, and veterinarians working with swine were twice as likely to be HEV seropositive compared to other veterinarians. High HEV seroprevalence in farm workers and veterinarians working with swine support previous reports suggesting swine as a reservoir for HEV infections in humans in Europe.
Malhotra, Sheetal; Marwaha, Neelam; Saluja, Karan
The percentage of HIV cases attributable to blood transfusion has decreased significantly in the last decade. The newer 4(th) generation Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been shown to have increased sensitivity compared to 3(rd) generation ELISA. To estimate the seroprevalence of HIV among blood donors using 4(th) generation ELISA assay and to compare it with the 3(rd) generation ELISA. This prospective study involved 10,200 blood donors- 6,800 were voluntary donors (3400-students and 3400-non students) and 3400 were replacement donors. All blood units were tested with 3(rd) as well as 4(th) generation ELISA. All samples found reactive or in grey zone with either 3(rd) or 4(th) generation ELISA were retested by Western blot (WB). The seroprevalence of HIV was estimated to be 1.37/1000 donations (0.14%) with 3(rd) generation ELISA compared to 3.62/1000 donations (0.36%) with 4(th) generation ELISA (p>0.05). The seroprevalence of HIV among voluntary donors was estimated to be 1.32/1000 donations (0.13%) with 3(rd) generation ELISA and 3.67/1000 donations (0.36%) with 4(th) generation ELISA. The prevalence of HIV among replacement donors was 1.47/1000 donations (0.15%) with 3(rd) generation ELISA and 3.52/1000 donations (0.35%) with 4(th) generation ELISA. 4(th) generation HIV ELISA detects a higher number of seroreactive donors compared to 3(rd) generation ELISA. However, larger studies are required with confirmatory tests for both 3(rd) and 4(th) generation ELISA for making any policy changes.
Stephens, Dustin B; Young, April M; Mullins, Ursula L; Havens, Jennifer R
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease and, along with substance abuse, an important HIV risk factor. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine HSV-2 seroprevalence in a sample of drug users in rural Appalachia. Rural Appalachian individuals age 18 or older reporting non-medical use of prescription opioids, heroin, crack/cocaine, or methamphetamine in the past 6 months (n = 499) were included. Behavioral, demographic, and sexual network data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Participants' serum was tested for HSV-2 antibodies using the Biokit rapid test (Lexington, MA). The estimated population seroprevalence of HSV-2 was 14.4% (95%CI: 9.6-19.4%). Only 8.8% were aware of being HSV-2+, and unprotected sex was reported in 80% of serodiscordant sexual relationships. In a multivariate model, female gender, age, older age at first oral sex, and frequency of unprotected sex in the sexual network were independently associated with HSV-2 seropositivity. Despite lower seroprevalence than that reported in similar studies of substance abusers, targeted interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior are warranted in this underserved population. Network-informed approaches with particular focus on women, older individuals, and those engaging in frequent unprotected sex are recommended.
Must, Kärt; Hytönen, Marjo K; Orro, Toomas; Lohi, Hannes; Jokelainen, Pikka
Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82%) and the Persian had the highest (60.00%). According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.
Pincus, S H; Schoenbaum, E E; Webber, M
The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among adults who are mentally retarded is not known. Policies for those in residential settings are being established despite incomplete information. Knowledge regarding HIV seroprevalence would enable administrators to make more effective policy decisions concerning testing and HIV prevention. Discarded sera from mentally retarded adults were anonymously tested for HIV antibody. Sera were collected from a health facility in Westchester County, NY, that provides care to developmentally disabled adults. After identifications were removed, sera were coded and linked to demographic and clinical variables from hospital and laboratory records. Sera came from individuals living in both institutional and less restrictive community settings in metropolitan New York City and more distant locations in New York State, all of whom were seen by the above facility. No HIV antibody was detected in sera from 241 mentally retarded adults. This study suggests that the prevalence of HIV antibody in mentally retarded adults is not high. Mandatory screening programs may not be appropriate for these individuals. Monies might be better spent on educational programs directed at AIDS prevention, and further development of ethical and safe policies for those who are mentally retarded.
Zheng, Xiaofan; Ding, Wei; Li, Gan; Wu, Yaling; Wu, Danxiao; Zhu, Hong; He, Ji; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Longyou; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun
Background The high prevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), paralleling the growing epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum (TP) infections in the general population, poses a great threat to blood safety in China. This study investigated the prevalence of serological markers for causative agents of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTI), i.e. HBV, HCV, HIV and TP, among volunteer blood donors in five cities/regions of Zhejiang Province, China. Material and methods We investigated whole blood and apheresis donations collected at the Blood Services in five cities/regions in Zhejiang Province between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2012. Two rounds of serological testing were performed for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV1/2 and anti-TP using different kits. The rates of serological positivity were calculated and further analysis was performed to examine the association between donors’ characteristics and seroprevalence. Results Of the 1,615,120 donations, approximately 40% came from first-time donors and 60% from repeat donors. The overall seroprevalence rates of HBV, HCV, HIV and TP were 0.51%, 0.25%, 0.15% and 0.52%, respectively. The overall prevalences of HCV and HIV remained relatively steady, whereas the prevalence of TP increased sharply after 2010. However, the prevalence of TTI agents varied among volunteer blood donors in different cities/regionsand demographic groups. Discussion We collected data on the seroprevalence of TTI agents among volunteer blood donors. Although the risk of TTI is low in China compared to that in some developing countries, sensitive screening methods and recruitment of regular donors are still very important for blood safety and availability. PMID:26192780
Aladro, Yolanda; Terrero, Rodrigo; Cerezo, Marta; Ginestal, Ricardo; Ayuso, Lucía; Meca-Lallana, Virginia; Millán, Jorge; Borrego, Laura; Martinez-Ginés, Marisa; Rubio, Luisa; de Andrés, Clara; Miralles, Ambrosio; Guijarro, Cristina; Rodríguez-García, Elena; García-Dominguez, José Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, Carmen; López de Silanes, Carlos; Gómez, Mayra; Thuissard, Israel; Cerdán, María; Palmí, Itziar; Díaz-Garzón, Luis Felipe; Meca-Lallana, Jose
To estimate the seroprevalence of anti-JCV antibodies, seroconverting rates and evolution of antibody levels in a multiple sclerosis (MS) Spanish cohort. Multicenter, retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal study. The JCV seroprevalence was analyzed in 711 MS patients by using 1st (STRATIFY-1) and 2nd generation (STRATIFY-2) two-step ELISA over 2.65 (±0.97) years. Seroconversion rate was obtained over 2 samples from 314 patients, and index stability from 301 patients with 3 or more samples available. The effect of each ELISA generation, demographics, clinical characteristics and therapy on seroprevalence was assessed by logistic regression. The overall anti-JCV seroprevalence was 55.3% (51.6-58.9), similar across regions (p=0.073). It increased with age (p<0.000) and when STRATIFY-2 was used (60.5%, p=0.001). Neither sex nor immunosuppressive therapy had any influence. Yearly seroconversion rate was 7% (considering only STRATIFY-2). Serological changes were observed in 24/301 patients, 5.7% initially seropositive reverted to seronegative and 7% initially seronegative changed to seropositive and again to seronegative, all these cases had initial index values around the assay's cut-off. JCV seroprevalence in Spanish MS patients was similar to that reported in other European populations. Changes in serostatus are not infrequent and should be considered in clinical decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Puren, A J
The first reported cases of HIV-1 infection in South Africa occurred in 1982. Two distinct HIV-1 epidemic patterns were recognized. Initially the infection was prevalent in white males who had sex with males. The HIV-1 clade B was associated with this group. By 1989, the second epidemic was recognized primarily in the black population. Infections in this case were mainly heterosexual in origin. The HIV-1 clade involved was mainly C. The national HIV-1 sero-prevalence in antenatal attendees was less than 1% in 1990 and by 1994 this figure had risen to 7.5%. The most recent antenatal surveillance for HIV-1 sero-prevalence in 1999 revealed the following. The national prevalence rate for 1999 was 22.4% compared with the 1998 rate of 22.8%. The data highlighted the profound effect the epidemic had and will have on the disease burden in South Africa and by extension on the social and economic fronts. This view was emphasised by the impact HIV-1 infection had on tuberculosis. For example, sentinel surveys have attributed 44% of tuberculosis cases to HIV-1 infection. Moreover, the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections will certainly exacerbate the HIV-1 epidemic.
van der Meijden, Els; Kazem, Siamaque; Burgers, Manda M; Janssens, Rene; Bouwes Bavinck, Jan Nico; de Melker, Hester; Feltkamp, Mariet C W
We identified a new polyomavirus in skin lesions from a patient with trichodysplasia spinulosa (TS). Apart from TS being an extremely rare disease, little is known of its epidemiology. On the basis of knowledge regarding other polyomaviruses, we anticipated that infections with trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSV) occur frequently and become symptomatic only in immunocompromised patients. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed and used a Luminex-based TSV viral protein 1 immunoassay, excluded cross-reactivity with phylogenetically related Merkel cell polyomavirus, and measured TSV seroreactivity. Highest reactivity was found in a TS patient. In 528 healthy persons in the Netherlands, a wide range of seroreactivities was measured and resulted in an overall TSV seroprevalence of 70% (range 10% in small children to 80% in adults). In 80 renal transplant patients, seroprevalence was 89%. Infection with the new TSV polyomavirus is common and occurs primarily at a young age.
Bedoya, Jair Alberto Patiño; Cortés Márquez, Mónica María; Cardona Arias, Jaiberth Antonio
To determine the seroprevalence of markers of transfusion transmissible infections in donors of a blood bank in Medellin, Colombia, beteween 2007 and 2010. A cross-sectional secondary data source, based on the results of biological testing of donors to a blood bank in Medellin. We determined the seroprevalence of markers of infection and were compared by sex and type of donor through frequency analysis, chi square, Fisher and prevalence ratios. The base population was 65,535 donors, and 3.3% had at least one positive biological test. The most prevalent marker in the blood bank testing was syphilis (1,2%), followed by trypanosomiasis (1,0%), hepatitis C virus (HCV) (0,6%), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 0,5% and hepatitis B virus (HBV) (0,2%). Based on the reference laboratory found a prevalence of 0.6% for syphilis, 0,1% for (HBV) and 0% for (HCV), (HIV) and Chagas. We found statistical differences in the prevalence of (HBV) and syphilis by sex and type of donor. The results are consistent with the prevalences given by Pan American Health Organization and can be correlated with the global prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections. The results founds by the blood bank lead to a transfusion risk reduction but limit the optimization of resources by excluding donors classified as false positives.
Hairgrove, Thomas B; Craig, Thomas M; Budke, Christine M; Rodgers, Sandy J; Gill, Ronald J
To our knowledge the seroprevalence of Anaplasma marginale in Texas has not been reported. The objective of this study was to estimate the point seroprevalence and spatial distribution of Texas cattle persistently infected with A. marginale. This was a cross-sectional observational study examining serum collected from 12,000 adult cattle marketed in 23 selected Texas auction markets during the second week of July 2011. A random subset of those cattle comprising 1835 individuals was evaluated for persistent infection with A. marginale using a commercial cELISA for antibody detection. The pooled apparent seroprevalence for cattle tested at auction markets across the state was 15.02% (95% CI: 11.02-19.53%), with markets in the western portion of the state demonstrating prevalence ⇒ 30%. The winter tick, Dermacentor albipictus is involved in the biological transfer of A. marginale and is prevalent in west Texas. Producers in endemic and non-endemic areas should be encouraged to determine the infection status of replacement cattle in order to implement effective management strategies for the control bovine anaplasmosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Covarrubías, Natalia; Hurtado, Carmen; Díaz, Alex; Mezzano, Gabriel; Brahm, Javier; Venegas, Mauricio
Reported seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in developed countries is between 0.3-53%. Published data relies on the assays used and its technical performance. Sensitivity on new available tests has improved, which has changed HEV seroprevalence around the world. We re-evaluated retrospectively, 178 serum samples of patients with previous anti HEV IgG determination between 2009 and 2012. Initial analysis was performed with ELISA kit Genelabs (Singapore), with 7.3% positivity. The reevaluation was done with ELISA kit AccuDiag TM HEV-IgG (Diagnostic Automation, United States), with reported sensitivity and specificity over 99.8%. With the new assay, 32.6% positive samples were found, significantly greater to the previous result (p<0.001) (4.5 times more). There were no differences in gender but a significant association between age and HEV IgG seropositivity was found (p<0.001). This suggests that previous testing might have underestimated HEV seroprevalence in Chile, which should be reevaluated using the new available test.
Shobokshi, Ossama A; Serebour, Frank E; Al-Drees, Abdullah Z; Mitwalli, Ahmed H; Qahtani, Ahmad; Skakni, Leila I
The aim of the study is to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in blood donors, children, pregnant women, hemodialysis patients and drug addicts in Saudi Arabia. Using third generation enzyme immunoassay kits, we have screened Saudi cohorts of all ages and sexes, namely infants, pre-school, school children, young adults and adults (blood donors and antenatals) for antibodies to HCV. We have also reviewed HCV seroprevalence data among high risk groups from 1998 to 2002. An overall 1.1% (6313 out of 557813) seroprevalence rate was determined among Saudi blood donors; 0.1% (5 out of 3854) in Saudi children; and 0.7% (22 out of 3127) among pregnant women. Hemodialysis patients remain at highest risk of infection at 55.7% whereas intravenous drug addicts have 14% exposure rate. We conclude that the present public health schemes have been effective in reducing hepatitis C infection in the general community in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia but the infection among high risk groups remain a major problem that needs to be actively addressed.
Bowler, Suzanne; And Others
Examines recent data on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) surveillance and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence; surveys on teenagers' knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors related to HIV/AIDS; key treatment issues; and barriers to prevention to review the problem and propose possible ways of combating it. Notes that data suggest…
Keddy, Karen H; Sooka, Arvinda; Smith, Anthony M; Musekiwa, Alfred; Tau, Nomsa P; Klugman, Keith P; Angulo, Frederick J
Typhoid fever remains an important disease in Africa, associated with outbreaks and the emerging multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) haplotype, H58. This study describes the incidence of, and factors associated with mortality due to, typhoid fever in South Africa, where HIV prevalence is high. Nationwide active laboratory-based surveillance for culture-confirmed typhoid fever was undertaken from 2003-2013. At selected institutions, additional clinical data from patients were collected including age, sex, HIV status, disease severity and outcome. HIV prevalence among typhoid fever patients was compared to national HIV seroprevalence estimates. The national reference laboratory tested Salmonella Typhi isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility and haplotype. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted determining factors associated with typhoid fever mortality. We identified 855 typhoid fever cases: annual incidence ranged from 0.11 to 0.39 per 100,000 population. Additional clinical data were available for 369 (46.8%) cases presenting to the selected sites. Among typhoid fever patients with known HIV status, 19.3% (29/150) were HIV-infected. In adult females, HIV prevalence in typhoid fever patients was 43.2% (19/44) versus 15.7% national HIV seroprevalence (P < .001); in adult males, 16.3% (7/43) versus 12.3% national HIV seroprevalence (P = .2). H58 represented 11.9% (22/185) of Salmonella Typhi isolates tested. Increased mortality was associated with HIV infection (AOR 10.7; 95% CI 2.3-50.3) and disease severity (AOR 9.8; 95% CI 1.6-60.0) on multivariate analysis. Typhoid fever incidence in South Africa was largely unchanged from 2003-2013. Typhoid fever mortality was associated disease severity. HIV infection may be a contributing factor. Interventions mandate improved health care access, including to HIV management programmes as well as patient education. Further studies are necessary to clarify
Theron, Gerhard B.; Cababasay, Mae P.; Van Dyke, Russell B.; Shapiro, David E.; Louw, Jeanne; Watts, D. Heather; Bulterys, Marc; Styer, Linda M.; Maupin, Robert
Objective To assess whether there was a difference in HIV seroprevalence between eligible women who declined and those who agreed to participate in a study of voluntary counseling and testing among women entering labor with unknown HIV status in South Africa. Methods Anonymous cord blood specimens were collected—as dried blood spots—from all women approached for participation in a cluster-randomized trial. No patient identifiers were included on the cord blood specimens. The dried blood spots were analyzed for HIV antibody via enzyme immunoassay and western blotting. Results Of 7238 women screened for study participation, 1041 (14.4%) had undocumented HIV status; of these women, 542 were eligible for inclusion and 343 enrolled. Based on 513 evaluable samples, the overall seroprevalence was 13.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.4–16.5), which was similar to the 13.1% (95% CI, 9.7–17.2) seroprevalence among the 343 enrolled women. Conclusion Seroprevalence among eligible women was similar to that among enrolled women, which indicates that study participation did not select for a group with an HIV seroprevalence substantially different from that among women who declined to enroll. PMID:23141415
Des Jarlais, D C; Padian, N
The controversy over "targeted" versus "universalistic" programs for HIV prevention has persisted throughout the history of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States and in some European countries. Building on previous analyses, we outline methods for integrating universalistic and targeted HIV prevention programming. The outline considers possible synergy between targeted and universalistic programs, rather than a forced choice between the two. Components within this framework include a continuum of the intensity of targeted programs, specification of local risk behavior populations, categories of risk behavior, and HIV seroprevalence within local risk-behavior populations. Given the scarce resources currently available, preventing all new HIV infections is not a realistic public health goal, but with better use of current scientific knowledge, it should be possible to greatly reduce the rate of new HIV infections.
Zhou, Feng; Li, Mufei; Li, Xiangwei; Yang, Yu; Gao, Cong; Jin, Qi; Gao, Lei
Men who have sex with men (MSM) were found to be one of the high-risk populations for Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) infection. Accompanied by the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among MSM, invasive amebiasis caused by E. histolytica has been paid attention to as an opportunistic parasitic infection. However, the status of E. histolytica infection among MSM has been barely studied in mainland China. Seroprevalance of E. histolytica was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Beijing and Tianjin, China. Factors potentially associated with E. histolytica infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. A total of 602 MSM were included in the study and the laboratory data on serostatus of E. histolytica were available for 599 of them (99.5%). 246 (41.1%) and 51 (8.5%) of the study participants were E. histolytica seropositive and HIV seropositive, respectively. Univariate analyses suggested preferred anal sex behaviors were associated with E. histolytica seropositivity. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, "only has receptive anal sex" (OR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.22 3.37), "majority receptive anal sex" (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.95), and "sadomasochistic behavior (SM)" (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.04, 5.13) were found to be significantly associated with E. histolytica infection. High seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection was observed among MSM from Beijing and Tianjin, China. Receptive anal sex behavior and SM were identified as potential predictors. Therefore, E. histolytica and HIV co-infection needs to be concerned among MSM due to their sharing the common risk behaviors.
Li, Xiangwei; Yang, Yu; Gao, Cong; Jin, Qi; Gao, Lei
Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) were found to be one of the high-risk populations for Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) infection. Accompanied by the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among MSM, invasive amebiasis caused by E. histolytica has been paid attention to as an opportunistic parasitic infection. However, the status of E. histolytica infection among MSM has been barely studied in mainland China. Methods Seroprevalance of E. histolytica was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on a cross-sectional study conducted in Beijing and Tianjin, China. Factors potentially associated with E. histolytica infection were identified by logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 602 MSM were included in the study and the laboratory data on serostatus of E. histolytica were available for 599 of them (99.5%). 246 (41.1%) and 51 (8.5%) of the study participants were E. histolytica seropositive and HIV seropositive, respectively. Univariate analyses suggested preferred anal sex behaviors were associated with E. histolytica seropositivity. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, “only has receptive anal sex” (OR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.22 3.37), “majority receptive anal sex” (OR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.95), and “sadomasochistic behavior (SM)” (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.04, 5.13) were found to be significantly associated with E. histolytica infection. Conclusions High seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection was observed among MSM from Beijing and Tianjin, China. Receptive anal sex behavior and SM were identified as potential predictors. Therefore, E. histolytica and HIV co-infection needs to be concerned among MSM due to their sharing the common risk behaviors. PMID:23717699
During routine testing of civilian applicants for U.S. military service, the overall seroprevalence of antibodies to HIV-1 was lower in 2010 than in any year since 1990. Among members of the active components of the U.S. Army and Air Force, HIV-1 seroprevalences were higher in 2008-2010 than in recent prior years. Among members of the active components of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps, the Marine Corps Reserve, and the Army National Guard, HIV-1 seroprevalences have slightly declined or remained relatively stable for at least ten years. In the reserve components of most of the service branches, it is difficult to discern long-term trends because of instability of seroprevalences observed in the relatively small numbers of reserve component members tested each year.
Treviño, Ana; Aguilera, Antonio; Caballero, Estrella; Toro, Carlos; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Rodríguez-Calviño, Juan J; Tuset, Concepción; Gómez-Hernando, César; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Ramos, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Díaz, Juan C; Benito, Rafael; Trigo, Matilde; García-Campello, Marta; Calderón, Enrique; Garcia, Juan; Rodríguez, Carmen; Soriano, Vincent
HTLV-1=2 antenatal screening is not mandatory in European countries. The rapid increase in immigrants coming from areas endemic for HTLV-1 infection has compelled a review of this policy in Spain. From February 2006 to December 2007, a cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women attended at 10 different Spanish hospitals. An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to test serum HTLV-1=2 antibodies; reactive samples were further confirmed by Western blot and=or polymerase chain reaction. A total of 20,518 pregnant women were examined, of whom 18,266 (89%) were native Spaniards. Overall, 946 (4.6%) of the immigrants came from HTLV-1 endemic areas (mainly Central and South America and sub-Saharan Africa). Four samples were EIA seroreactive for HTLV-1=2, two of them in women infected with HTLV-1 coming from endemic areas. The other two women were infected with HTLV-2; one was an immigrant from Bolivia and another was a native Spaniard who admitted prior injection drug use and was HIV-1 positive. The overall HTLV-1=2 seroprevalence was 0.19 per 1000 (95% CI: 0.05-0.49=1000). For HTLV-1, the seroprevalence was 2.11 per 1000 (95% CI: 0.26-7.62=1000) in pregnant women from endemic areas. The seroprevalence of HTLV-1=2 infection is below 0.02% among pregnant women in Spain, and therefore universal screening for HTLV-1=2 infection in antenatal clinics is not warranted. However, HTLV-1=2 screening could be considered in pregnant women coming from endemic areas, in whom the rate of infection is nearly 1000-fold higher than in native Spaniards and are the only group infected with the more pathogenic HTLV-1.
Tigga, Pinky; Joardar, Siddhartha Narayan; Halder, Arkendu; Lodh, Chandan; Samanta, Indranil; Isore, Devi Prasad; Batabyal, Kunal; Dey, Samir
Aim: This study was carried out to assess the presence of anti-bluetongue (BT) antibodies in sheep, goat and cattle of different agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from apparently healthy as well as suspected sheep, goat and cattle from different districts of Jharkhand covering different agro-climatic zones. Serum samples were screened by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) for detecting anti-BT antibodies. Results: Out of a total of 480 animal serum samples (sheep-190, goats-210 and cattle-80) screened, 83 (43.68%) of sheep, 91 (43.33%) of goat and 46 (57.50%) of cattle sera were found positive. The % positivity ranged between 41% and 51% in different agro-climatic zones. The results showed slight higher seroprevalence, although not significantly, in cattle than sheep and goats in different agro-climatic zones of Jharkhand. Conclusions: The above data indicate widespread prevalence of BT virus antibodies in studied areas. The incidence of BT is not detected officially, so far. The present seroprevalence status of BT in Jharkhand indicates presence of BT infection in the state for the first time. PMID:27047095
Mueller, Linda; Baud, David; Bertelli, Claire; Greub, Gilbert
The giant Lausannevirus was recently identified as a parasite of amoeba that replicates rapidly in these professional phagocytes. This study aimed at assessing Lausannevirus seroprevalence among asymptomatic young men in Switzerland and hopefully identifying possible sources of contact with this giant virus. The presence of anti-Lausannevirus antibodies was assessed in sera from 517 asymptomatic volunteers who filled a detailed questionnaire. The coreactivity between Lausannevirus and amoeba-resisting bacteria was assessed. Lausannevirus prevalence ranged from 1.74 to 2.51%. Sporadic condom use or multiple sexual partners, although frequent (53.97 and 60.35%, respectively), were not associated with anti-Lausannevirus antibodies. On the contrary, frequent outdoor sport practice as well as milk consumption were significantly associated with positive Lausannevirus serologies (p = 0.0066 and 0.028, respectively). Coreactivity analyses revealed an association between Criblamydia sequanensis (an amoeba-resisting bacterium present in water environments) and Lausannevirus seropositivity (p = 0.001). Lausannevirus seroprevalence is low in asymptomatic Swiss men. However, the association between virus seropositivity and frequent sport practice suggests that this member of the Megavirales may be transmitted by aerosols and/or exposure to specific outdoor environments. Milk intake was also associated with seropositivity. Whether the coreactivity observed for C. sequanensis and Lausannevirus reflects a common mode of acquisition or some unexpected cross-reactivity remains to be determined.
Msisha, Wezi M; Kapiga, Saidi H; Earls, Felton J; Subramanian, S V
To examine the extent to which the regional and neighborhood distribution of HIV in Tanzania is caused by the differential distribution of individual correlates and risk factors. Nationally representative, cross-sectional data on 12,522 women and men aged 15-49 years from the 2003-2004 Tanzanian AIDS Indicator Survey. Three-level multilevel binary logistic regression models were specified to estimate the relative contribution of regions and neighborhoods to the variation in HIV seroprevalence. Spatial distribution of individual correlates (and risk factors) of HIV do not explain the neighborhood and regional variation in HIV seroprevalence. Neighborhoods and regions accounted for approximately 14 and 6% of the total variation in HIV. HIV prevalence ranged from 1.8% (Kigoma) to 6.7% (Iringa) even after adjusting for the compositional make-up of these regions. An inverse association was observed between log odds of being HIV positive and neighborhood poverty [odds ratio (OR) 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09-0.61] and regional poverty (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95-0.99). Our study provides evidence for independent contextual variations in HIV, above and beyond that which can be ascribed to geographical variations in individual-level correlates and risk factors. We emphasize the need to adopt both a group-based and a place-based approach, as opposed to the dominant high-risk group approach, for understanding the epidemiology of HIV as well as for developing HIV intervention activities.
Wagner, H U; Van Dyck, E; Roggen, E; Nunn, A J; Kamali, A; Schmid, D S; Dobbins, J G; Mulder, D W
The aim of the study was to determine in a rural population the age- and sex-specific prevalence and incidence rates of serological reactivity of 5 common sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and their association with HIV-1 antibody status. Of the adult population of two villages (529 adults aged 15 years or more) 294 provided an adequate blood specimen both on enrollment and at 12 months. The sera were tested at 3 collaborating laboratories for antibodies against HIV-1, Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, Chlamydia trachomatis and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). A sample of 45 children were tested for HSV-1 and HSV-2. Seroprevalence rates in adults on enrollment were 7.8% for HIV-1, 10.8% for active syphilis, 10.4% for H. ducreyi, 66.0% for C. trachomatis, 91.2% for HSV-1 and 67.9% for HSV-2. Males were significantly more likely than females to be seropositive for H. ducreyi (15.6% versus 6.6%), but less likely to be HSV-2 antibody positive (57.0% versus 74.4%). Reactivity to H. ducreyi, C. trachomatis and HSV-2 rose with increasing age. In contrast, active syphilis showed no age trend. All STDs tended to be more common in those HIV-1 seropositive. Incidence rates over the 12 months were nil for HIV-1, 0.5% for syphilis, 1.2% for H. ducreyi, 11.3% for C. trachomatis, and 16.7% for HSV-2. The results of this exploratory study indicate that all STDs included are common in this rural population. The high HSV-2 prevalence rate among adolescents suggests that HSV-2 may be an important risk factor for HIV-1 infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Orkin, Chloe; Jeffery-Smith, Anna; Foster, Graham R; Tong, C Y William
Objectives An unlinked anonymous seroprevalence study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in samples derived from antenatal clinic attendees at 2 East London Hospitals. An unexpectedly high HCV seroprevalence of 2.6% (1.2% viraemic) had been revealed during an unlinked study of the emergency department at 1 of these hospitals. Design 1000 stored residual samples were tested for HCV antibody (anti-HCV) and reactive samples were further tested for HCV RNA. The study was reviewed by the East Midland NRES ethics committee project ID 181154, approval number 15/WS/0125. Results The anti-HCV reactivity rate was 0.5% (5/1000) with 0.1% (1/1000) confirmed viraemic. Prevalence for the other blood-borne viruses was higher: 1% (10/1000) were hepatitis B surface antigen positive and 0.3% were HIV antigen/antibody positive (3/1000). There were no co-infections. Conclusions More data to establish the prevalence of HCV in the antenatal population is needed. The addition of anti-HCV testing to the well-established antenatal screening programme provides a unique opportunity to impact on the health of pregnant women, their children, partners and future pregnancies in this new era of treatment for hepatitis C. PMID:27231001
Bodosheva, Aigerim; Kuttubaev, Omurbek; Hehl, Adrian B.; Tanner, Isabelle; Ziadinov, Iskender; Torgerson, Paul R.; Deplazes, Peter
Background HIV-prevalence, as well as incidence of zoonotic parasitic diseases like cystic echinococcosis, has increased in the Kyrgyz Republic due to fundamental socio-economic changes after the breakdown of the Soviet Union. The possible impact on morbidity and mortality caused by Toxoplasma gondii infection in congenital toxoplasmosis or as an opportunistic infection in the emerging AIDS pandemic has not been reported from Kyrgyzstan. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened 1,061 rural and 899 urban people to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 2 representative but epidemiologically distinct populations in Kyrgyzstan. The rural population was from a typical agricultural district where sheep husbandry is a major occupation. The urban population was selected in collaboration with several diagnostic laboratories in Bishkek, the largest city in Kyrgyzstan. We designed a questionnaire that was used on all rural subjects so a risk-factor analysis could be undertaken. The samples from the urban population were anonymous and only data with regard to age and gender was available. Estimates of putative cases of congenital and AIDS-related toxoplasmosis in the whole country were made from the results of the serology. Specific antibodies (IgG) against Triton X-100 extracted antigens of T. gondii tachyzoites from in vitro cultures were determined by ELISA. Overall seroprevalence of infection with T. gondii in people living in rural vs. urban areas was 6.2% (95%CI: 4.8–7.8) (adjusted seroprevalence based on census figures 5.1%, 95% CI 3.9–6.5), and 19.0% (95%CI: 16.5–21.7) (adjusted 16.4%, 95% CI 14.1–19.3), respectively, without significant gender-specific differences. The seroprevalence increased with age. Independently low social status increased the risk of Toxoplasma seropositivity while increasing numbers of sheep owned decreased the risk of seropositivity. Water supply, consumption of unpasteurized milk products or undercooked meat, as
Campagna, Sophie; Lévesque, Benoit; Anassour-Laouan-Sidi, Elhadji; Côté, Suzanne; Serhir, Bouchra; Ward, Brian J; Libman, Michael D; Drebot, Michael A; Makowski, Kai; Andonova, Maya; Ndao, Momar; Dewailly, Eric
We evaluated the seroprevalence of 10 zoonotic agents among the general population (15 years old and over) of Eastmain and Wemindji, James Bay, Quebec, in 2007. Overall seroprevalence rates were similar between the 2 communities. Nearly half the individuals tested (n = 251; 146 women, 105 men) were seropositive (n = 115) for at least one zoonosis. The highest seroprevalence rates were for Leptospira sp. (23%), Francisella tularensis (17%), and the California serogroup viruses (JC and SSH viruses) (10%). The other zoonoses (Toxoplasma gondii, Coxiella burnetii, Echinococcus granulosus, Toxocara canis, and Trichinella sp.) had seroprevalence rates ≤5%; no exposures were identified to hantaviruses (Sin Nombre virus). Overall, seropositivity was related to age, gender, hunting, and owning a dog. There was no medical history suggestive of overt diseases. Nonetheless, physicians should consider these agents when confronted with difficult or confusing diagnoses. In particular, the bacterial zoonoses should be ruled out in individuals with high or prolonged fever. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Colchero, M Arantxa; Cortés-Ortiz, María Alejandra; Romero-Martínez, Martín; Vega, Hamid; González, Andrea; Román, Ricardo; Franco-Núñez, Aurora; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio
To present results from HIV testing, knowledge of HIV status and socioeconomic factors associated with the probability of having a HIV positive result among transwomen (TW) in Mexico. In 2012, we conducted an HIV seroprevalence survey to 585 TW in Mexico City in three strata: gathering places, the Condesa HIV Clinic and in four detention centers. We estimated the prevalence of HIV in each strata and applied a probit model to the overall sample to analyze factors associated with the probability of a HIV positive result. The prevalence of HIV was 19.8% in meeting places; 31.9% in detention centers and 64% among the participants of the clinic. Age, low education and number of sexual partners was positively associated with HIV. Results from the study provide relevant information to design HIV prevention interventions tailored to the needs of the TW population.
Yang, Bin; Chen, Yingdan; Wu, Liang; Xu, Longqi; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Cheng, Xunjia
The seroprevalence of Entamoeba histolytica infection in the residents of seven provinces in China was examined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a crude antigen and a recombinant surface antigen, C-Igl, of the parasites. A total of 1,312 serum samples were investigated. The positivity rates for these two antigens were 11.05% and 6.25%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the seropositivity to E. histolytica between men and women. We used a logistic regression model and maximal-likelihood methods to estimate the prevalence of E. histolytica infection from sequential serologic data. Seropositivity in Sichuan, Guizhou, and Sinkiang Provinces was higher than that in Beijing, Shanghai, and Qinghai Provinces. The present study provides an overview of seropositivity to E. histolytica infection in seven provinces in China and use the logistic regression model estimation method to achieve a more accurate measure of amebiasis prevalence.
Olariu, Tudor Rares; Petrescu, Cristina; Darabus, Gheorghe; Lighezan, Rodica; Mazilu, Octavian
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that most commonly causes asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent hosts, but can have devastating consequences in congenitally infected infants and immunocompromised patients. We evaluated the seroprevalence of T. gondii in the general population in Western Romania. Sera from 304 individuals were analysed with the Pastorex Toxo test, which allows the simultaneous detection of T. gondii IgG and/or IgM antibodies. T. gondii antibodies were demonstrated in 197 individuals (64.8%) and the prevalence increased with age: 35.0% in those < 20 years versus 76.8% in those ≥ 70 years (p < 0.001). There was a higher prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in rural areas (76.9%) than in urban regions (55.3%) (p < 0.001). Our results suggest a high prevalence of T. gondii antibodies in Western Romania.
Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L
The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P < 0.001) more likely to be seropositive than dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk.
Keramat, Fariba; Majzobi, Mohammad Mehdi; Poorolajal, Jalal; Ghane, Zohreh Zarei; Adabi, Maryam
Brucellosis is a systemic disease with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients in Hamadan Province in the west of Iran. A total of 157 HIV-infected patients were screened through standard serological tests, including Wright's test, Coombs' Wright test, and 2-mercaptoethanol Brucella agglutination test (2ME test), blood cultures in Castaneda media, and CD4 counting. Data were analyzed using Stata version 11. Wright and Coombs' Wright tests were carried out, and only 5 (3.2%) patients had positive serological results. However, all patients had negative 2ME results, and blood cultures were negative for Brucella spp. Moreover, patients with positive serology and a mean CD4 count of 355.8 ± 203.11 cells/μL had no clinical manifestations of brucellosis, and, and the other patients had a mean CD4 count of 335.55 ± 261.71 cells/μL. Results of this study showed that HIV infection is not a predisposing factor of acquiring brucellosis.
Camargo, M Constanza; Constanza, Camargo M; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Eduardo, Lazcano-Ponce; Torres, Javier; Javier, Torres; Velasco-Mondragon, Eduardo; Eduardo, Velasco-Mondragón; Quiterio, Manuel; Manuel, Quiterio; Correa, Pelayo; Pelayo, Correa
Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common human infections and is considered to play an etiologic role in several gastroduodenal diseases. In this study we determined the H. pylori seroprevalence among adolescents in Morelos, Mexico, and explored the association between seroprevalence and socioeconomic, dietary and lifestyle variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5861 Mexican subjects aged 11-21 years. H. pylori infection was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay previously validated in Mexico. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic factors, housing, living conditions and food consumption. Multivariate logistic regression methods were used to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The overall H. pylori seroprevalence was 47.6%; 40.6% in preadolescents (11-14 years), 48.6% in adolescents (15-17 years), and 59.8% in young adults (18-24 years). A positive association was found between age and H. pylori seroprevalence. Inverse associations were found for availability of drinking water, sewerage, and home appliances at the time of the subject's birth, a proxy variable of socioeconomic status. Intake of milk products and total fats was positively associated with infection. This large seroprevalence study showed that H. pylori infection is frequent among adolescents in Mexico. An early acquisition of infection is indirectly suggested. Some variables denoting low socioeconomic status were inversely associated with H. pylori seroprevalence. Associations with intake of milk products and total fats suggest new hypotheses in this field of research.
Boughattas, Sonia; Behnke, Jerzy; Sharma, Aarti; Abu-Madi, Marawan
Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii as they can shed the environmentally resistant oocysts after acquiring infection. Human populations living in cities with high densities of feral cats are therefore likely to be at risk of infection. The current study is the first to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in the feral cat population in Qatar. We investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii among 495 adult cats from urban and suburban districts in Qatar. Using results from the Modified Agglutination Test, we fitted statistical models with host sex, area and season as explanatory factors and seropositivity as the outcome. The analysis revealed an overall seroprevalence of 82%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in the summer season (P = 0.006). No significant difference was detected (P > 0.05) between seroprevalence in female and male cats and in cats from urban and suburban districts of Qatar. Despite the seasonal difference, the observed seroprevalence of T. gondii suggests high environmental contamination throughout the year, with some female cats generating more intense responses compared to males. Both findings merit further investigations.
Courtois, X; Baccard-Longere, M; Dibi, K
A HIV seroprevalence among 312 antenatal mothers at their first visit to the Idjwi isle's hospital, in Zaïre, near Rwanda, and among 61 other patients, was made with the HIV1 Immunocomb of PBS Orgenics during one year: 1989. The seroprevalence is 0.32%, in this rural area, as was confirmed by Western-Blot. A panel of this 51 "false and true positive" and 13 negative african sera was tested with one other ELISA and two new rapid tests used in France, HIV CHEK 1 + 2 and TEST PACK HIV1/HIV2 to evaluate efficacy under conditions in which transfusions are normally given. These were performed within 15 mn of receipt of blood from a donor in Zaïre.
Holterman, Lennart; Vogels, Ronald; van der Vlugt, Remko; Sieuwerts, Martijn; Grimbergen, Jos; Kaspers, Jorn; Geelen, Eric; van der Helm, Esmeralda; Lemckert, Angelique; Gillissen, Gert; Verhaagh, Sandra; Custers, Jerome; Zuijdgeest, David; Berkhout, Ben; Bakker, Margreet; Quax, Paul; Goudsmit, Jaap; Havenga, Menzo
A novel plasmid-based adenovirus vector system that enables manufacturing of replication-incompetent (DeltaE1) adenovirus type 11 (Ad11)-based vectors is described. Ad11 vectors are produced on PER.C6/55K cells yielding high-titer vector batches after purification. Ad11 seroprevalence proves to be significantly lower than that of Ad5, and neutralizing antibody titers against Ad11 are low. Ad11 seroprevalence among human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV(+)) individuals is as low as that among HIV(-) individuals, independent of the level of immune suppression. The low level of coinciding seroprevalence between Ad11 and Ad35 in addition to a lack of correlation between high neutralizing antibody titers towards either adenovirus strongly suggest that the limited humoral cross-reactive immunity between these two highly related B viruses appears not to preclude the use of both vectors in the same individual. Ad11 transduces primary cells including smooth muscle cells, synoviocytes, and dendritic cells and cardiovascular tissues with higher efficiency than Ad5. Ad11 and Ad35 appear to have a similar tropism as judged by green fluorescent protein expression levels determined by using a panel of cancer cell lines. In addition, Ad5 preimmunization did not significantly affect Ad11-mediated transduction in C57BL/6 mice. We therefore conclude that the Ad11-based vector represents a novel and useful candidate gene transfer vehicle for vaccination and gene therapy.
Macía, Carmenza; Vargas, Sandra; Mora, Ana María; Sarmiento, Ashly Melissa; Pacheco, Robinson; Rosso, Fernando
Human lymphotropic virus (HTLV I/II) is a retrovirus that is prevalent across the Colombian Pacific coast, and is potentially transmissible by transfusion. Blood bank screening has been regulated since 2004, in order to reduce transmission of HTLV I/II through donation. Information on the seroprevalence of the virus in southwestern Colombia is limited. To determine the seroprevalence and the behavior of reactivity to HTLV I/II before and after the introduction of Western blot, and the comorbidity of HTLV and other infectious markers in donors from a blood bank in Cali, Colombia. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 77,117 blood bank donors from the Fundación Valle del Lili by analyzing records of donors who had been tested with the reactive test for anti-HTLV I-II antibodies (IgG) between January, 2008, and December, 2014. The cumulative seroprevalence during the study period was 0.24% (186/77,119). Reactivity was more common in women (61%), and the median age was 37 years (IQR: 24-48). The seroprevalence in the years before the introduction of Western blot was 0.13%, 0.19%, 0.31%, 0.32% and 0.18% (2008-2012), and thereafter it was 0.08% and 0.07% (2012-2014). Concomitant reactivity with other infectious markers was 11%: syphilis (57%), followed by HIV (19%), hepatitis B (14%) and hepatitis C (9%). The highest seroprevalence (0.38%) was reported in 2012. We found a high prevalence of reactivity to HTLV I-II compared to that reported in other studies. The results of this study are a starting point for the development of population studies.
Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kasymbekov, Joldoshbek; Dürr, Salome; Toktobaev, Nurjan; Doherr, Marcus G; Schueth, Tobias; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther
Kyrgyzstan reported 77.5 new human brucellosis cases per 100,000 people in 2007, which is one of the highest incidences worldwide. In Kyrgyzstan, the currently used diagnostic tests in humans and animals are the Rose Bengal Test and the Huddleson test. A national representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, cattle, sheep, and goats was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 4,936 livestock sera and 1,774 human sera were tested in Naryn, Chuy, and Osh Oblasts. The overall apparent seroprevalences of brucellosis were 8.8% in humans (95% CI 4.5-16.5), 2.8% (95% CI 1.6-4.9%) in cattle, 3.3% (95% CI 1.5-6.9%) in sheep, and 2.5% (95% CI 1.4-4.5%) in goats. Naryn Oblast had the highest seroprevalences in humans and sheep. More men than women were seropositive (OR = 1.96; P < 0.001). Human seroprevalence was significantly associated with small ruminant seroprevalence but not with cattle seroprevalence. Annual incidence of human brucellosis exposure, measured by serological tests, was more than ten times higher than the annual incidence of reported clinical brucellosis cases. This indicates an under-reporting of human brucellosis cases, even if only a fraction of seropositive people have clinical symptoms. In conclusion, this study confirms the high seroprevalence of brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan and warrants rapid effective intervention, among others, by mass vaccination of sheep and goats but also of cattle.
Abate, Melese; Wolde, Tesfaye
Transfusion-transmissible infectious agents such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Syphilis are among the greatest threats to blood safety for recipients. They are also the leading causes of death and chronic and life-threatening abnormalities. A retrospective analysis of consecutive blood donors' records covering the period between January 2010 and December 2014 was conducted to analyze for seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis among blood donors aged 17-65 years. The association of these infections with age group, blood group, their co-infection rate and year trends were analyzed. Linear regression analysis was used to determine trends of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections. Sterile venous anti-coagulated blood was collected from the donors and analyzed using highly sensitive and specific kits. From the total of 6827 consecutive blood donors, 963(14.1%) had serological evidence of infection with at least one pathogen and 73(1.07%) had multiple infections. The overall seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis was 3.16%, 9.48%, 0.73% and 0.73% respectively. Among those with multiple infections, the most common combinations were HIV-HBV 41/73(56.2%). Blood group "O positive" was the most common with 51.62% followed by "A positive". Moreover, significantly declining trends of HIV, HCV and syphilis seropositivity were observed over the study period. A substantial percentage of the blood donors harbour HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections. Strict selection of blood donors and comprehensive screening of donors' blood using standard methods are highly recommended to ensure the safety of blood for recipients.
Chuenchitra, Thippawan; Khantapura, Patchariya; Islam, Dilara; Sirisopana, Narongrid; Mason, Carl J.
The nationwide seroprevalence of hepatitis E IgG was determined among young men in Thailand. Overall seroprevalence was 14% (95% CI 13%–15%); range by province was 3%–26%. Seroprevalence was lowest in the south, an area predominantly occupied by persons of the Islam religion, whose dietary laws proscribe pork. PMID:25148245
Spaulding, Anne; Kim, Min Jung; Corpening, Kiemesha; Carpenter, Taptolia; Watlington, Portia; Bowden, Chava
Context HIV testing in jails provides an opportunity to reach individuals outside the scope of traditional screening programs. The rapid turnover of jail populations has, in the past, been a formidable barrier to offering routine access to testing. Objective To establish an opt-out, rapid HIV testing program, led by nurses on the jail staff, that would provide undiagnosed yet infected detainees opportunities to learn their status regardless of their hour of entry and duration of stay. Design Jail nurses offered rapid, opt-out HIV testing Setting Fulton County Jail (FCJ) in Georgia, United States. Participants 30,316 persons booked to FCJ. Intervention In late 2010, we performed a preliminary evaluation of HIV seroprevalence. Starting January 1, 2011, HIV testing via rapid oral mucosal swab was offered to entrants. In March 2013, fingerstick was substituted. Detainees identified as positives were assisted with linkage to care. Main outcome measures To estimate an upper limit of overall HIV prevalence among entrants, we determined seroprevalence by age and gender group. To measure program performance, we checked offer and acceptance rates for tests and rate of linkage to care among previously known and newly identified HIV+ detainees. Results The initial seroprevalence of HIV in FCJ was at least 2.18%. Between March 2013 and February 2014, 89 new confirmed positives were identified through testing. During these 12 months, 20,947 bookings were followed by an offer of HIV testing (69.10% offer rate), and 17,035 persons accepted (81.32% acceptance rate). A total of 458 previously and newly identified persons were linked to HIV care. Linkage was significantly higher among those aged 40 years and older (p<0.05). Conclusions A nurse-led, rapid HIV testing model successfully identified new HIV diagnoses. The testing program substantially decreased the number of persons who are HIV-infected but unaware of their status and promoted linkage to care. PMID:25427254
Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Emelumadu, Obiageli Fidelia; Nwamoh, Uche Ngozi; Ukegbu, Andrew Ugwunna; Okafor, Godwin Oc
Since the first seroprevalence survey in 1999, the HIV prevalence in Abia State has increased from 1.8% to 7.3% in 2010. The state is currently experiencing a generalized epidemic, with most transmission occurring through heterosexual low-risk sex. Drivers of the epidemic include low knowledge of HIV prevention, low risk perception, predominantly male factor-driven risky sexual behavior, and low condom use. This study reviewed the state HIV epidemic trend in relation to response, sought to identify the gaps between the epidemic and response, and recommended measures to strengthen the state response.
Hayney, Mary S; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Carlberg, Beth M; Buck, Jessica M; Muller, Daniel
Farmers are at increased risk of contracting tetanus. However, no difference in immunity to tetanus has been reported between rural and urban dwellers in large epidemiological studies. We hypothesized that tetanus antibody concentrations would be lower in farmers than in nonfarmers within the rural population. We recruited 102 adult subjects attending an agribusiness trade show who identified themselves as farmers in Wisconsin. The nonfarmer group (n = 120) was composed of adults attending the agribusiness show who were not engaged in farming or were participating in another research study. Concentrations of antibody to tetanus toxin (antiTT) in sera were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IBL, Hamburg). AntiTT levels of >0.15 IU/mL were considered protective. The antiTT concentrations for the farmer population (median = 2.74 IU/mL) were much higher than those for the nonfarmer group (median = 1.82 IU/mL) (P<.008). As in other studies, being male, being younger, and having a history of military service were positively correlated with protective antiTT concentrations. However, only farming, age, and the farming-sex interaction term were significantly associated with antiTT concentrations in the multiple-regression model. The farmers we studied had high antiTT concentrations and a high tetanus seroprevalence rate. Occupation may be an important consideration in the development of immunization policies. A broader seroepidemiological study of farmers must be undertaken before any such considerations can be made.
Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are the two most important agents of infectious diseases. Both HBV and HIV share common modes of transmission and have serious effects on both pregnant women and infants. In Bahir Dar city administration, there is a scarcity of information on sero-prevalence of HIV and HBV infection among pregnant women. The main objective of this study was to assess sero-prevalence and risk factors of HIV and HBV infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2013 to April 2013. Socio-demographic and explanatory variables were collected using a structured questionnaire by face to face interview. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HIV infection was also detected using the national HIV test algorithms. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. The odds ratio and 95% Confidence intervals were calculated. Results A total of 318 pregnant women with the mean age of 25.72 (SD. ±5.14) years old were enrolled. Overall, 21/318 (6.6%) and 12 /318 (3.8%) of the pregnant women were positive for HIV and HBsAg, respectively. Of these, HIV/HBV co-infection rate was 4 (19.0%). Previous history of blood transfusion (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI, 9.02-14.84), body tattooing (AOR = 5.7, 95% CI, 1.24-26.50), history of surgery (AOR = 11.1, 95% CI, 2.64-46.88) and unsafe injection (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI, 1.44-22.19) were significantly associated with HBV infection. Previous history of piercing with sharp materials (AOR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.17-7.80) and history of abortion (AOR = 6.6, 95% CI 2.50-17.71) were also statistically significant for HIV infection. Conclusions This study indicates that HIV and HBV infections are important public health issues in our region that need to be addressed. All pregnant women need
Devieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert; Lerner, Brenda G; Dyer, Janyce G; Baptista, Ligia; Lucenko, Barbara; Kalichman, Seth
Severely Mentally Ill (SMI) adults have disproportionately high HIV seroprevalence rates. Abuse of alcohol and other substances (AOD) and lifetime exposure to trauma by others are particularly potent risk factors, which, in combination with psychiatric disabilities, create triple jeopardy for HIV infection. This study examined the predictive utility of demographic characteristics; history of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; extent of drug and alcohol abuse; knowledge about HIV/AIDS; sexual self-efficacy; and condom attitudes toward explaining the variance in a composite of HIV high-risk behavior among 188 SMI women and 158 SMI men. History of sexual abuse, engaging in sexual activities while high on substances, and lower cannabis use were the most significant predictors of HIV sexual risk behaviors. Given the triple jeopardy for HIV risk in this population, a triple barreled approach that simultaneously addresses multiple health risks within an integrated treatment setting is warranted.
Rojas, Patria; Malow, Robert; Ruffin, Beverly; Rothe, Eugenio M; Rosenberg, Rhonda
This article reviews HIV/AIDS epidemiological data and recent research conducted in the Dominican Republic, with a focus on explaining the variability in estimated seroincidence and prevalence within the country. HIV seroprevalence estimates range from 1.0% (in the general population) to 11.0% among men who have sex with men (MSM). Some have indicated that the highest HIV seroprevalence occurs in Haitian enclaves called bateyes (US Agency for International Development [USAID], 2008), which are migrant worker shantytowns primarily serving the sugar industry in the Dominican Republic. Others report higher or comparable rates to the bateyes in areas related to the tourism and sex industries. As in other Caribbean and Latin American countries, reported HIV transmission in the Dominican Republic is predominantly due to unprotected heterosexual sex and the infection rate has been increasing disproportionally among women. The Dominican Republic represents two thirds of the Hispaniola island; the western one third is occupied by Haiti, the nation with the highest HIV prevalence in the western hemisphere. Although data is limited, it shows important differences in seroprevalence and incidence between these two countries, but commonalities such as poverty, gender inequalities, and stigma appear to be pivotal factors driving the epidemic. This article will discuss these and other factors that may contribute to the HIV epidemic in the Dominican Republic, as well as highlight the gaps in the literature and provide recommendations to guide further work in this area, particularly in the role of governance in sustainable HIV prevention.
Troncoso, Ignacio; Fischer, Christof; Arteaga, Francisca; Espinoza, Cristian; Azócar, Teresa; Abarca, Katia
Bartonella henselae infection is a worldwide zoonosis with the domestic cat as reservoir. Although people with occupational contact with these pets are risk population only few studies of prevalence in them have been reported. A study of seroprevalence of B. henselae was performed to veterinaries and other persons with occupational contact with cats, residents from the Bío-Bío region of Chile. Serum IgG antibodies against B. henselae were determined by indirect immunofluorescence (IFI). Demographic data and history of cat bites or scratches were recorded. There were 76 persons included in the study, 18 to 69 years old. A 93.4% had a history of cat scratch or bite. A seroprevalence of 60.5% were found. No differences were found between gender, age, or history of cat scratch or bite. A high seroprevalence in people from this region with occupational risk were found. No subgroups with higher risk factors than others were identified.
Lee, Chang-Seop; Kwon, Keun-Sang; Koh, Dai-Ha; Youm, Jung-Ho; Gwack, Jin; Lee, Ju-Hyung
We retrospectively analyzed serological test results for anti-hepatitis A virus immunoglobulin G (anti-HAV IgG) of sera collected from 779 military personnel during January 2001 to May 2008. The overall seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG of the subjects was 17.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.8-20.1%). When adjusted to the age-specific distribution of the army population, the age-adjusted seroprevalence was 14.6% (95% CI, 13.0-16.3%). All subjects who were 40 years and over had anti-HAV IgG. Meanwhile, the seroprevalence of anti-HAV IgG for those 24 years and younger was 4.7%. This low prevalence rate among young military personnel calls for stricter adherence to vaccination policies and stronger requirements for military HAV vaccination programs.
Jacobsen, K. H.; Koopman, J. S.
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is spread by faecal-oral contact or ingestion of contaminated food or water. Lifelong immunity is conferred by infection or vaccination, so anti-HAV seroprevalence studies can be used to indicate which populations are susceptible to infection. Seroprevalence rates are highly correlated with socioeconomic status and access to clean water and sanitation. Increasing household income, education, water quality and quantity, sanitation, and hygiene leads to decreases in HAV prevalence. Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United States, and most European nations have low anti-HAV rates. Although anti-HAV rates remain high in most Latin American, Asian, and Middle Eastern nations, average seroprevalence rates are declining. Surveys from Africa generally indicate no significant decline in anti-HAV rates. Because the severity of illness increases with age, populations with a high proportion of susceptible adults should consider targeted vaccination programmes. PMID:15635957
Chew, Cheng Hoon; Woon, Yuan Liang; Amin, Faridah; Adnan, Tassha H; Abdul Wahab, Asmah Hani; Ahmad, Zul Edzhar; Bujang, Mohd Adam; Abdul Hamid, Abdul Muneer; Jamal, Rahman; Chen, Wei Seng; Hor, Chee Peng; Yeap, Lena; Hoo, Ling Ping; Goh, Pik Pin; Lim, Teck Onn
Each year an estimated 390 million dengue infections occur worldwide. In Malaysia, dengue is a growing public health concern but estimate of its disease burden remains uncertain. We compared the urban-rural difference of dengue seroprevalence and determined age-specific dengue seroprevalence in Malaysia. We undertook analysis on 11,821 subjects from six seroprevalence surveys conducted in Malaysia between 2001 and 2013, which composed of five urban and two rural series. Prevalence of dengue increased with age in both urban and rural locations in Malaysia, which exceeded 90 % among those aged 70 years or beyond. The age-specific rates of the 5 urban surveys overlapped without clear separation among them, while prevalence was lower in younger subjects in rural series than in urban series, the trend reversed in older subjects. There were no differences in the seroprevalence by gender, ethnicity or region. Poisson regression model confirmed the prevalence have not changed in urban areas since 2001 but in rural areas, there was a significant positive time trend such that by year 2008, rural prevalence was as high as in urban areas. Dengue seroprevalence has stabilized but persisted at a high level in urban areas since 2001, and is fast stabilizing in rural areas at the same high urban levels by 2008. The cumulative seroprevalence of dengue exceeds 90 % by the age of 70 years, which translates into 16.5 million people or 55 % of the total population in Malaysia, being infected by dengue by 2013.
Kaufmann, Annatina; Kenfak-Foguena, Alain; André, Cyril; Canellini, Giorgia; Bürgisser, Philippe; Moradpour, Darius; Darling, Katharine E A; Cavassini, Matthias
The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) among blood donors in southwest Switzerland. HEV is recognized as a food-borne disease in industrialized countries, transmitted mainly through pork meat. Cases of transmission through blood transfusion have also been reported. Recent studies have revealed seroprevalence rates of 13.5%, 16.6% and 20.6% among blood donors in England, France and Denmark, respectively. We analyzed 550 consecutive blood donor samples collected in the region of Lausanne, canton of Vaud, Switzerland, for the presence of anti-HEV IgG, using the MP Diagnostics HEV ELISA kit. For each donor, we documented age, sex and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) value. The study panel was composed of 332 men (60.4%) and 218 women (39.6%). Overall, anti-HEV IgG was found in 27 of 550 samples (4.9%). The seroprevalence was 5.4% (18/332) in men and 4.1% (9/218) in women. The presence of anti-HEV IgG was not correlated with age, gender or ALT values. However, we observed a peak in seroprevalence of 5.3% in individuals aged 51 to 70 years old. Compared with other European countries, HEV seroprevalence among blood donors in southwest Switzerland is low. The low seroprevalence may be explained by the sensitivity of commercial tests used and/or the strict regulation of animal and meat imports. Data regarding HEV prevalence in Swiss livestock are lacking and merit exploration.
Azmi, Kifaya; Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Manasrah, Mu'taz; Mizrahi, Rotem; Nasereddin, Abed; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Ereqat, Suheir; Abdeen, Ziad; Lustig, Yaniv; Gelman, Boris; Schvartz, Gili; Steinman, Amir
West Nile virus (WNV) epidemiological situation in Israel and Palestine, due to their unique location, draws attention following to the global spread of West Nile fever (WNF). Although much information is available from Israel on clinical cases and prevalence of WNV, clinical cases are rarely reported in Palestine, and prevalence is not known. The objectives of this study were to determine WNV seroprevalence in various domestic animals in Palestine and to reevaluate current seroprevalence, force of infection, and risk factors for WNV exposure in horses in Israel. Sera samples were collected from 717 animals from Palestine and Israel (460 horses, 124 donkeys, 3 mules, 50 goats, 45 sheep, and 35 camels). Two hundred and ten horses were sampled twice. The level of WNV antibodies was determined using commercial Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Kit. Seroprevalence in equids was 73%. Seroprevalence in Israel (84.6%) was significantly higher than in Palestine (48.6%). Seroprevalence in horses (82.6%) was significantly higher than in donkeys and mules (39.3%). Multivariable statistical analysis showed that geographical area, landscape features (altitude), environmental factors (land surface temperature during the day [LSTD]), species, and age significantly influenced WNV seroprevalence. Fourteen of 95 (14.7%) sheep and goats and 14/35 camels (40%) sampled in Palestine were seropositive for WNV. Of the horses that were sampled twice, 82.8% were seropositive for WNV at the first sampling, and all remained seropositive. Three of the seronegative horses, all from Palestine, converted to positive when resampled (8.5%). The results indicate that domestic animals in Palestine were infected with WNV in the past, and the seroconversion indicates that WNV was circulating in Palestine in the summer of 2014. Control measures to prevent human infection should be implemented in Palestine. Anti WNV antibodies in domestic animals suggest that those species can be used as
Mota, B E F; Trindade, G S; Diniz, T C; da Silva-Nunes, M; Braga, E M; Urbano-Ferreira, M; Rodrigues, G O L; Bonjardim, C A; Ferreira, P C P; Kroon, E G
Vaccinia virus strains from the family Poxviridae have been frequently isolated in Brazil and associated with outbreaks of exanthematic disease affecting cows and humans. An ELISA IgG was applied to evaluate the seroprevalence of orthopoxviruses in a community located in a rural settlement in the Amazon region, where no orthopoxvirus outbreaks have yet been reported. An overall seroprevalence of 27.89% was found, and it was 23.38% in the non-vaccinated population (smallpox vaccination). These results strongly suggest that orthopoxviruses circulate in this population, and it is the first finding of seropositivity for orthopoxviruses in a population without any previously reported outbreaks.
El Mansouri, B; Rhajaoui, M; Sebti, F; Amarir, F; Laboudi, M; Bchitou, R; Hamad, M; Lyagoubi, M
In Morocco, the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women living in Rabat, was estimated by analyzing antibodies (IgG, IgM) levels using an ELISA test. The analysis of 2456 serums at the Institut National d'Hygiène showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis is about 50.6%. According to the questionnaire, the lack of knowledge about this disease and soil contact could be the main causes of toxoplasmosis infection. The use of IgG avidity test has excluded a recent infection in 93.5% of pregnant women with IgM positive sera.
Pando, Maria de los Angeles; Maulen, Sergio; Weissenbacher, Mercedes; Marone, Rubén; Duranti, Ricardo; Peralta, Liliana Martínez; Salomón, Horacio; Russell, Kevin; Negrete, Monica; Sosa Estani, Sergio; Montano, Silvia; Sanchez, José L; Avila, Maria Mercedes
To determine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence in a sample of men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires City and to identify risk factors associated with HIV type 1 infection. Participants were invited to receive HIV counselling and testing at "NEXO" (a gay non-governmental organization) by means of informative leaflets distributed in gay nightclubs, porno cinemas, gymnasiums, and in the streets. During the encounter, the study was explained by a trained social worker and individuals were invited to volunteer for the study. Diagnosis of HIV was performed using two screening tests and Western Blot assay was used as confirmatory. Human immunodeficiency virus was detected in 96 (13.8%; 95% CI: 11.4-16.7) of 694 MSM. Fourteen (14.6%) of the 96 HIV-positive MSM were already aware of their HIV serostatus. In univariate analysis, HIV-1 infection (odds ratio [OR] >1.5) was found to be associated with older age (30-39 years), being unemployed, a previous sexually transmitted disease (STD) history, and having an HIV-positive partner. Cocaine consumption and irregular use of condoms with occasional partners were also found to be risk factors. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, being unemployed (OR = 3.42; 95% CI: 1.17-9.99) and having an HIV-positive partner (OR = 2.67; 95% CI: 1.09-6.52) remained significant risk factors. The high HIV-1 prevalence observed suggests an urgent need for implementation of effective prevention campaigns. This represents the first cross-sectional epidemiological study of HIV among the high-risk group of MSM in Argentina.
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Achanta, Shanta; Kumar, Ajay M. V.; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Jaju, Jyoti; Shamrao, Srinivas Rao Motta; Uppaluri, Ramakrishna; Tekumalla, Rama Rao; Gupta, Devesh; Kumar, Ashok; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Dewan, Puneet K.
Background Though internationally recommended, provider initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) of persons suspected of tuberculosis (TB) is not a policy in India; HIV seroprevalence among TB suspects has never been reported. The current policy of PITC for diagnosed TB cases may limit opportunities of early HIV diagnosis and treatment. We determined HIV seroprevalence among persons suspected of TB and assessed feasibility and effectiveness of PITC implementation at this earlier stage in the TB diagnostic pathway. Methods All adults examined for diagnostic sputum microscopy (TB suspects) in Vizianagaram district (population 2.5 million), in November-December 2010, were offered voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) and assessed for TB diagnosis. Results Of 2918 eligible TB suspects, 2465(85%) consented to VCT. Among these, 246(10%) were HIV-positive. Of the 246, 84(34%) were newly diagnosed as HIV (HIV status not known previously). To detect a new case of HIV infection, the number needed to screen (NNS) was 26 among ‘TB suspects’, comparable to that among ‘TB patients’. Among suspects aged 25–54 years, not diagnosed as TB, the NNS was 17. Conclusion The seroprevalence of HIV among ‘TB suspects’ was as high as that among ‘TB patients’. Implementation of PITC among TB suspects was feasible and effective, detecting a large number of new HIV cases with minimal additional workload on staff of HIV testing centre. HIV testing of TB suspects aged 25–54 years demonstrated higher yield for a given effort, and should be considered by policy makers at least in settings with high HIV prevalence. PMID:22844467
Salama, P; Dondero, T J
Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized
Estébanez, P; Fitch, K; Nájera, R
In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers.
Estébanez, P.; Fitch, K.; Nájera, R.
In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers. PMID:8324860
Njunda, Anna L.; Assob, Jules C.N.; Nsagha, Dickson S.; Kamga, Henri L.; Nde, Peter F.; Yugah, Vuchas C.
Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women's ages ranged from 20–44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05) and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05). This research showed that consumption of raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon. PMID:28299065
Toxoplasma gondii infection in marine mammals is important because they are considered as a sentinel for contamination of seas with T. gondii oocysts, and toxoplasmosis causes mortality in these animals, particularly sea otters. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was determined in 75 captive mari...
Kwon, Hea Yoon; Im, Jae Hyoung; Lee, Sun Myoung; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Durey, Areum; Park, Shin-Goo; Kang, Jae-Seung; Lee, Jin-Soo
Cat-scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae is one of the most common zoonosis. However, only several cases of B. henselae infection have been reported in Korea. This study investigated the seroprevalence of B. henselae in healthy adults and related risk factors. Serum samples from 300 healthy participants were analyzed using an immunoglobulin G immunof luorescence assay (IFA) for B. henselae isolated in Korea. Surveys on the risk factors for B. henselae infection were conducted simultaneously. Of the participants, 47.7% and 15.0% raised dogs and cats, respectively. The overall seroprevalence of B. henselae was 15.0% (IFA titer ≥ 1:64). Participants who had raised cats showed 22.2% seropositivity against B. henselae, and those with no experience with cats showed 13.7% seroprevalence (p = 0.17). Participants who had cats as pets or been scratched by cats, showed 9.8% seropositivity against B. henselae (IFA titer ≥ 1:256). However, those who had not raised or been scratched by a cat showed 2.0% seropositivity (p = 0.015). In Korea, the seroprevalence of B. henselae is higher than expected, suggesting that Bartonella infection due to B. henselae is not uncommon. Cats are proposed to play a more important role than dogs in transmission of CSD.
Dill, Tatjana; Dobler, Gerhard; Saathoff, Elmar; Clowes, Petra; Kroidl, Inge; Ntinginya, Elias; Machibya, Harun; Maboko, Leonard; Löscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael
Rickettsioses caused by typhus group rickettsiae have been reported in various African regions. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,227 participants from 9 different sites in the Mbeya region, Tanzania; overall seroprevalence of typhus group rickettsiae was 9.3%. Risk factors identified in multivariable analysis included low vegetation density and highway proximity. PMID:23347529
Sondgeroth, Kerry S; Davis, Margaret A; Schlee, Sara L; Allen, Andy J; Evermann, James F; McElwain, Terry F; Baszler, Tim V
A caprine herd seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii infection was determined by passive surveillance of domestic goat herds in Washington State. Serum samples (n=1794) from 105 herds in 31 counties were analyzed for C. burnetii antibodies using a commercially available Q fever antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kit. The sera were submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory for routine serologic screening over an approximate 1-year period from November, 2010, through November, 2011. To avoid bias introduced by testing samples from ill animals, only accessions for routine screening of nonclinical animals were included in the study. A standard cluster sampling approach to investigate seroprevalence at the herd level was used to determine optimal study sample size. The results identified C. burnetii antibodies in 8.0% of samples tested (144/1794), 8.6% of goat herds tested (9/105), and 25.8% of counties tested (8/31). Within-herd seroprevalence in positive counties ranged from 2.9% to 75.8%. Counties with seropositive goats were represented in the western, eastern, southeastern, and Columbia basin agricultural districts of the state. To our knowledge this is the first county-specific, statewide study of C. burnetii seroprevalence in Washington State goat herds. The findings provide baseline information for future epidemiologic, herd management and public health investigations of Q fever.
Guerra, A; Navarro, C; de Guevara, C L
An epidemiological study on toxocariasis in children was carried out at our hospital (Madrid, Spain) in relation with a case of toxocariasis in a child with chronic hypereosinophilia. The study was based on a positive result of the ELISA test, using excretory-secretory antigen from Toxocara canis. The seroprevalence in children was 1%.
Dondero, T J; Pappaioanou, M; Curran, J W
A comprehensive, multifaceted approach to HIV surveillance is needed to provide the information necessary for public health management and policy. Because HIV infection is not readily or uniformly ascertained, survey methods and sentinel surveillance approaches must be used. At least some of the surveys must be blinded, that is, anonymous and unlinked to identifiable persons, to avoid the uninterpretable impact of self-selection bias that could lead to both significant underestimates and occasional overestimates of HIV prevalence. Other surveys must be nonblinded, with careful interviews of volunteer participants to evaluate risk factors for HIV infection. These various surveys must continue over time to evaluate trends in infection. A comprehensive family of complementary HIV surveys and studies and a national household-based HIV seroprevalence survey have been undertaken by the Public Health Service in collaboration with other Federal agencies, State and local health departments, blood collection agencies, and medical research institutions. These projects focus on accessible segments of the general population, childbearing women, persons at high risk for HIV, and persons in special settings such as prisons and colleges. This comprehensive surveillance approach will help monitor the levels and trends of HIV infection in the United States and help prioritize, target, and evaluate HIV prevention activities. PMID:3131809
Islam, S K Nazrul; Hossain, Kazi Jahangir; Kamal, Mustafa; Ahsan, Monira
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HIV infection in drug addicts and to address their drug habit, sexual life style and socioeconomic factors. This study was conducted among 505 male drug addicts comprising 250 intravenous drug users (IDUs) and 255 non-IDUs. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to screen HIV antibody in the sera of drug addicts. Seropositivity was confirmed by line immunoassay method. Results showed 3.76% (n =19) HIV-seroprevalence, of which 2.77% (n =14) were IDUs and the rest (0.99%, n =5) were non-IDUs. Amongst the IDUs (n =250) the seroprevalence rate was 5.6% (n =14) and in the non-IDUs (n =255), it was 1.96% (n =5). The seropositive addicts used multiple drugs for long periods of time, the majority of them (63.2%, n =12) started addiction with cannabis but ended up with heroin. Unprotected sex (did not use condom), multiple sexual partnerships and sexually transmitted diseases were common among the seropositives. Prevalence of these behavioural and biological risk factors in drug addicts was responsible for their being HIV infected. Most of the HIV-positive addicts were literate young adults (84.2%), employed (73.7%) and married (63.2%). None of them were homosexual. This study reveals that HIV-seroprevalence in the drug addicts of Bangladesh is still at the embryonic stage, it has not yet reached the threshold level.
Keddy, Karen H.; Sooka, Arvinda; Smith, Anthony M.; Musekiwa, Alfred; Tau, Nomsa P.; Klugman, Keith P.; Angulo, Frederick J.
Background Typhoid fever remains an important disease in Africa, associated with outbreaks and the emerging multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) haplotype, H58. This study describes the incidence of, and factors associated with mortality due to, typhoid fever in South Africa, where HIV prevalence is high. Methods and Findings Nationwide active laboratory-based surveillance for culture-confirmed typhoid fever was undertaken from 2003–2013. At selected institutions, additional clinical data from patients were collected including age, sex, HIV status, disease severity and outcome. HIV prevalence among typhoid fever patients was compared to national HIV seroprevalence estimates. The national reference laboratory tested Salmonella Typhi isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility and haplotype. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted determining factors associated with typhoid fever mortality. We identified 855 typhoid fever cases: annual incidence ranged from 0.11 to 0.39 per 100,000 population. Additional clinical data were available for 369 (46.8%) cases presenting to the selected sites. Among typhoid fever patients with known HIV status, 19.3% (29/150) were HIV-infected. In adult females, HIV prevalence in typhoid fever patients was 43.2% (19/44) versus 15.7% national HIV seroprevalence (P < .001); in adult males, 16.3% (7/43) versus 12.3% national HIV seroprevalence (P = .2). H58 represented 11.9% (22/185) of Salmonella Typhi isolates tested. Increased mortality was associated with HIV infection (AOR 10.7; 95% CI 2.3–50.3) and disease severity (AOR 9.8; 95% CI 1.6–60.0) on multivariate analysis. Conclusions Typhoid fever incidence in South Africa was largely unchanged from 2003–2013. Typhoid fever mortality was associated disease severity. HIV infection may be a contributing factor. Interventions mandate improved health care access, including to HIV management programmes as well as patient
Uwingabiye, Jean; Zahid, Hafidi; Unyendje, Loubet; Hadef, Rachid
This study aims to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among blood donors at the Blood Donor Center, Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital between 2010 and 2012. We conducted a retrospective study among military blood donors aged 18-50 years, with a male predominance (95%). Pre-donation interview is the first selection barrier for individuals at risk. Biological screening was performed by liquid enzyme immunoassay technique using antibodies and/or antigen. Fourth generation combined HCV and HIV antigen/antibody ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test was used. The Blood Donor Center and the laboratory of virology used the same technique performed in duplicate to confirm results. Out of 25661 tested samples, the prevalence rate of HBV infections was 3.97 ‰ (n = 102), the prevalence rate of HCV infections was 2.45 ‰ (n = 63) and the prevalence rate of HIV infections was 0.15 ‰ (n = 4). A single case with HBV and HCV virus co-infection (0.039 ‰) was registered, no association between HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV or HBV, HCV and HIV infections was recorded. The low seroprevalence rates of viral markers recorded in our study show improvement in preventive measures for donor selection and screening tests. The registered prevalence encourages the use of combined reagent, which is the only alternative to molecular biology in developing countries.
Nnaji, G A; Ezeagwuna, D A; Osakwe, O J; Nwigwe, A C; Ofiaeli, N G; Nnaji, I J F
Most religious bodies insist on premarital screening for prospective couples. To determine the level of voluntary screening, prevalence and risk factors of HIV among premarital couples. A cross-sectional descriptive study using interviewer administered questionnaire and HIV screening to collect data. Systematic sampling of everythird premarital couples attending the General outpatient Clinic between November 2010 and October 2011. SPSS version 17 was used for data analysis of 386 subjects. A majority of respondents (83.4% or 322); X2 = 172.446, df = 1, p < .05) had knowledge of transmission of HIV. Mandatory HIV screening was 5.7% (22); X2 = 303.018, df = 1, p < .05), while voluntary testing was 30% (113). The sero-prevalence of HIV was 2.6%, which was statistically and significantly associated with cohabitation and upper social class. A majority (68.4% or 266); X2 = 272.166, df = 3, p < .05) would call off marriage plans if their spouses tested positive to HIV. CONCLUSION The knowledge of transmission of HIV was very high with low sero-prevalence (2.6%) among premarital couples. Voluntary HIV testing was higher than mandatory request, while cohabitation and upper social class are risk factors for HIV transmission.
Karabaev, Bakyt B; Beisheeva, Nurgul J; Satybaldieva, Aiganysh B; Ismailova, Aikul D; Pessler, Frank; Akmatov, Manas K
Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan has experienced a major surge in blood-borne infections, but data from adequately powered, up-to-date studies are lacking. We thus examined a) the seroprevalences of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), HIV-1 p24 antigen and antibodies against hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), human immunodeficiency viruses (anti-HIV-1/2, HIV-1 group O), and Treponema pallidum among blood donors in Kyrgyzstan and assess their distribution according to sex, age, and provinces of residence; b) trends in the respective seroprevalences; and c) co-infection rates among the pathogens studied. Serological screening was performed on 37 165 blood donors at the Republican Blood Centre in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, between January 2013 and December 2015. We applied poststratification weights to control for sampling bias and used logistic regression analyses to examine the association of seropositivity and co-infections with sex, age, provinces of residence, and year of blood donation. Twenty nine thousand and one hundred forty-five (78%) donors were males and 8 020 (22%) were females. The median age was 27 years (range: 18 - 64). The prevalences of HBsAg, anti-HCV, HIV (p24 Ag and anti-HIV), and anti-T. pallidum were 3.6% (95%CI: 3.4 - 3.8%), 3.1% (3.0 - 3.3%), 0.78% (0.69 - 0.87%), and 3.3% (3.1 - 3.5%), respectively. Males were more likely to be seropositive for HBsAg than females (OR: 1.63; 95%CI: 1.40 - 1.90), but less likely to be seropositive for anti-HCV (0.85; 0.74 - 0.98) and HIV (0.65; 0.49 - 0.85). Prevalences were lower in the capital than in the other provinces. There was a decreasing trend in the seroprevalences of HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-T. pallidum from 2012 to 2015 (P-value for trend, P = 0.01, P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, respectively), while the seroprevalence of HIV increased (P = 0.049). One hundred eighty donors (0.48%) were seropositive for multiple infections. The highest co-infection rate was observed between anti-T. pallidum and HBs
Nissapatorn, V; Lee, C K C; Cho, S M; Rohela, M; Anuar, A Khirul; Quek, K F; Latt, H M
Three hundred and one sera of HIV/AIDS patients were tested for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody by ELISA technique. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 41.2% (95% CI: 35.5-46.9) in HIV/AIDS patients. The seroprevalence was significantly higher in the Malay (57.9%) than the Chinese (38.7%), followed by the Indian patients (29.6%) (p<0.05). No possible risk factor, such as contact with cats, consumption of uncooked meat, and history of blood transfusions was found to have any significant association with the presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibody in the study sample (p>0.05). Multivariate analysis was employed to find any association between Toxoplasma seroprevalence and a single subject having single or multiple risk factors. It was found that the association was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Among the HIV/AIDS study samples, 124 (41.2%) samples were found to have positive anti-Toxoplasma antibody, the association between the presence of anti-Toxoplasma antibody and CD4 cell count was determined but no statistically significant association was found (p>0.05). During the study period, only one case of active CNS toxoplasmosis was registered and the diagnostic criteria included: clinical presentations, CT scan finding, serological evidence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody, and respose to anti-Toxoplasma therapy.
Diesel, Holly; Ercole, Patrick; Taliaferro, Donna
The HIV/AIDS pandemic impacts people throughout the world and is complicated by fear, prejudice, and stigma. Nurses play a major role in the health care delivery systems, yet in many parts of the world with high HIV sero-prevalence rates, nurses lack sufficient training and education to provide care to patients with HIV/AIDS. In an effort to build capacity and improve knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding care of patients with HIV/AIDS, a 4-day workshop was provided by American nursing students for Cameroonian nursing students. The training program included HIV epidemiology, disease management, and natural course of the disease, testing, legal and ethical issues, and infection control practices. Pre- and post-test scores were calculated using a series of surveys that measured HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Results indicated that these measures of HIV-related perceptions improved due to the train-the-trainer workshop.
Adoga, Moses P; Banwat, Edmund B; Forbi, Joseph C; Nimzing, Lohya; Pam, Christopher R; Gyar, Silas D; Agabi, Yusuf A; Agwale, Simon M
Published data on HIV, HBV, and HCV in correctional facilities in Nigeria is scarce. We set out to establish the seroprevalence, co-infection, and risk factors for these infections for the first time among prison inmates in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. In a cross-sectional study conducted between April and May, 2007, blood samples were collected from 300 male prisoners of a mean age of 29.2 years, in the state's four medium-security prisons (overall population: 587). Prior to the study, ethical clearance and informed consent were obtained and structured questionnaires were administered. Samples were analyzed for HIV, HBsAg, and HCV using anti-HIV 1+2-EIA-avicenna, Shantest-HBsAg ELISA, and anti-HCV-EIA-avicenna, respectively. Specimens initially reactive for HIV were retested with vironostika microelisa. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.0. P values < or = 0.05 were considered significant. Of the 300 subjects, 54 (18.0 %), 69 (23.0 %), and 37 (12.3 %) tested positive for HIV, HBV, and HCV, respectively. Co-infections were eight (2.7 %) for HIV/HBV and two (0.7 %) for HBV/HCV. Those aged 21-26 years were more likely to be infected with HIV and HBV, while those aged 33-38 years had the highest HCV infection. Associated risk factors included duration in prison, previous incarceration (for HIV, HBV and HCV), intra-prison anal sex, multiple sex partners (for HIV and HBV), ignorance of transmission modes, blood transfusion, and alcohol consumption (for HBV and HCV). No inmate injected drugs. The overall outcome represents the need for prison-focused intervention initiatives in Nigeria. Injected drug use is an unlikely major transmission mode among Nigerian inmates.
The World Health Organization estimated that 2.2% of Nigeria's adult population was infected with HIV by the end of 1995. A 1993-94 sentinel surveillance report found a 3.8% HIV seroprevalence level among sexually active Nigerians sampled. HIV prevalence is rising in the country. Incidence and prevalence data are presented on HIV and AIDS in sections on antenatal clinics, HIV-1 and HIV-2, group variations, regional variations, age variations, prostitutes, and infection by blood. The Nigerian government has projected that there could be 7 million people infected with HIV in the country by the year 2000. Background is presented on the economy, living standards, health, and population. Vulnerability is then considered with regard to population mobility, drug trafficking, the vulnerability of women, the international sex trade, the military presence in Liberia, sexual attitudes, poverty, and ignorance. The responses of the government and the domestic nongovernment sector are then presented followed by description of external assistance from the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development, the British Overseas Development Agency, the World Health Organization, the private sector, and the European Commission.
Jain, M K; John, T J; Keusch, G T
India is the second most populous country in the world, with more than 880 million people in 1993. With less than 1% of the global land mass, India has more than 16% of the world's population, more than that of South America, Africa, and Australia combined. The population will exceed one billion by 2000, surpassing even China. By then, India will have more new cases of HIV infection per year than any single country, and probably the largest number of HIV-infected people as well. Whatever happens in India will therefore have a major impact upon the global pandemic of HIV and AIDS. The paper considers the history of the HIV epidemic in India, the probable routes of entry of HIV into India, trends in prevalence in population samples, the geographic distribution of HIV in India, AIDS in India, clinical problems in India, projections of HIV/AIDS cases, and how to control HIV/AIDS. The HIV epidemic has grown silently in India over the past decade, with the virus spread mainly through heterosexual intercourse. All known routes of transmission are, however, known in India, and increasing seroprevalence has been noted among prostitutes, STD clinic patients, blood donors, and IV drug users. The population has been largely ignorant of the advance of HIV, with public officials and the media at a loss to adequately inform the public about what is taking place. Greater energy and resources are now being devoted to the problem, but it may be too late to stop a major epidemic. The authors reviewed all available published and unpublished data to present an overview of the epidemiology of HIV and AIDS in India.
Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Jacinto, Michelle Moraes; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lorencetti, Emilaine Karine; da Rosa Filho, Heitor Tomé; Mueller, Andressa; de Garcia, Claudia Garcia; Nardi, Henrique Caetano; Koller, Silvia Helena; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues
This study assessed HIV prevalence and associated factors in 284 male-to-female transsexuals from southern Brazil. Seroprevalence was 25 %. Seroprevalence was higher and associated with older age, residence in the metropolitan area, history of diagnosis of other STDs, and reported history of sex work. The year of diagnosis showed no significant relationship with the prevalence of HIV nor the fact of being in a stable relationship, a history of drug use, years of education, and race/ethnicity. The odds of HIV infection compared with the general Brazilian population was 55.55 (95 % CI 38.39-80.39). Changes in the views of the vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS in Brazil and efforts in the construction of strategies of prevention and in the guarantee of human rights are required.
Li, Fen; Wang, Shi-Ping; Wang, Chang-Jian; He, Shi-Cheng; Wu, Xiang; Liu, Guo-Hua
Toxoplasma gondii infections are prevalent in animals and humans worldwide. In the present investigation, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in goats was investigated in Hunan province, subtropical China between March 2014 and December 2015. A total of 1,028 serum samples collected from 14 administrative regions of Hunan province were evaluated by the indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT) for the detection of specific antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 124 serum samples (12%). The T. gondii seroprevalence ranged from 1.7% to 19% among different regions in subtropical China, and the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.01). The results of the present survey indicated that T. gondii infection is prevalent in goats in Hunan, which poses a potential risk for human infection with T. gondii in this province. PMID:27762212
Verhelst, D; De Craeye, S; Vanrobaeys, M; Czaplicki, G; Dorny, P; Cox, E
Even though infected sheep are a potential source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans, information is lacking concerning the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep in Belgium. We examined 3170 serum samples for anti-Toxoplasma IgG in sheep by total lysate antigen (TLA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IgG to T. gondii was demonstrated in 87.4% of the tested sheep and in 96.2% of the 209 tested flocks. The seroprevalences in Antwerp (65.2%) and Wallonia (68.6%) are statistically lower than in the other regions in Belgium (96.7-97.8%) (P<0.05). The present study is the first report that analyzed the prevalence of T. gondii infection in sheep in Belgium and confirms the high prevalence of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies in the sheep population.
Thi, N Vu; De, N V; Praet, N; Claes, L; Gabriël, S; Dorny, P
Trichinellosis is an important emerging or re-emerging zoonotic disease in Southeast Asia. In Vietnam, data on trichinellosis are scarce. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of trichinellosis in the domestic lifecycle in two provinces of northwestern Vietnam, where recently isolated outbreaks of human trichinellosis occurred. Serum samples were obtained from 558 pigs, 125 dogs and 98 cats, transported on filter paper, and tested for Trichinella antibodies by ELISA and Western blot, using larval excretory-secretory (E/S) antigens. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies to Trichinella was 5.6%, 4% and 0% in pigs, dogs and cats, respectively. In pigs, positive cases were distributed in 8/20 districts of the two provinces. This study suggests that Trichinella spp. is circulating in the domestic life cycle in northwestern Vietnam. Further study is recommended to investigate the presence of Trichinella in a sylvatic cycle, and to identify the occurring Trichinella species.
Gilbert, N. L.; Gyorkos, T. W.; Béliveau, C.; Rahme, E.; Muecke, C.; Soto, J. C.
This study was undertaken to provide first-time estimates for the seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 infection among daycare educators in Montréal, Canada, and to identify factors associated with seropositivity. A cross-sectional design was used. Directors and educators from 81 daycare centres (DCCs) were surveyed about DCC and personal characteristics respectively, and serum samples from 477 female educators were tested for parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies. The seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 was 70%. Parvovirus B19 seropositivity was significantly associated with age and with working experience in DCCs, but the latter association was restricted to educators aged less than 40 years. In conclusion, working as a daycare educator appears to be associated with increased risk of acquiring parvovirus B19 infection, but this finding will require further investigation. Because of the large proportion of educators susceptible to acquiring parvovirus B19 infection, our findings also highlight the need for preventive measures. PMID:15816155
Hennes, Eva Maria; Kornek, Barbara; Huppke, Peter; Reindl, Markus; Rostasy, Kevin; Berger, Thomas
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an opportunistic central nervous system infection, caused by the John Cunningham virus (JCV). PML may occur during treatment with immunosuppressive agents or monoclonal antibodies such as natalizumab. The JCV seroprevalence increases with age with a seropositivity of 60% in the adult human population. In this study, we analyzed sera from 109 pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) patients (mean age 14 years) as well as sera from 162 patients with a wide range of suspected neurologic disorders (mean age 6.3 years). Our results showed a considerably lower seroprevalence for JCV in our pediatric cohort with 33.3% and equal distribution in both subgroups, compared with reported seropositivity in adult population. This could result in a lower risk for drug-induced PML in pediatric patients compared with adult patients and can influence the indication for natalizumab therapy in pediatric MS patients.
Schwarz, Kathleen B; Garrett, Beth; Alter, Miriam J; Thompson, Douglas; Strathdee, Steffanie A
Our objective was to investigate hepatitis C virus (HCV) seroprevalence in homeless caregivers and their children 2-18 years of age living in a family. During a 30-month period from October 2001 through April 2004 in Baltimore, 170 caregivers enrolled and 168 of these accepted testing for antibody to HCV (anti-HCV), as did all 336 children and adolescents enrolled. Main results. None of the children younger than 18 years old were HCV seropositive; in striking contrast, however, 32 (19%) caregivers were seropositive. Most (59%) were previously unaware of their HCV serostatus. History of ever injecting drugs was the strongest predictor of HCV seropositive status in the caregivers, reported by 14% overall, and by 71% of HCV positives. Conclusion. The homeless families were very receptive to our HCV seroprevalence study and are likely also to be receptive to shelter-based HCV prevention programs for young children and adolescents as well as for adults.
Maslin, Jérôme; Rogier, Christophe; Berger, Franck; Khamil, Mohamed Ali; Mattera, Didier; Grandadam, Marc; Caron, Mélanie; Nicand, Elizabeth
During a national survey in 2002 in Djibouti, serum samples were collected using a valid sampling scheme from 2423 Djiboutians representing the general population of urban and rural districts. The HIV-1 seroprevalence was 2%. The HIV-1 polymerase gene from 53 untreated patients was amplified. Phylogenetic analysis of 34 isolates revealed a majority of subtype C (73%) as well as other subtypes, including CRF02_AG recombinants (18%), subtype D (6%), and subtype A (3%).
Ray, K; Mahajan, M; Misra, R S
A total of 17,824 sera were screened for the presence of HIV 1 + 2 antibodies by Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA) to determine (i) seroprevalence of HIV infection in hospital high risk groups (ii) time trend of HIV seroprevalence in STD clinic attendees (both STD patients and non STD patients), over a period of six years, (iii) relationship of the STD's with HIV seropositivity (iv) clinical profile and epidemiological characteristics of the AIDS cases. A progressive increase in the HIV seropositive STD patients showing a five fold rise over six years was seen. Most gave history of multipartner sex especially with female CSW's. The most common STD associated with HIV seropositivity was Syphilis followed by Chancroid and Gonorrhoea. All had HIV-1 infection. The AIDS cases (20) presented mainly with tuberculosis, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary. The mode of infection, both in the HIV seropositive and AIDS cases, was mainly heterosexual relationship followed by blood transfusion. In a few cases, infection was perinatally transmitted. In the limited number of HIV positive contacts studied, seven were confirmed as Western Blot positive. HIV infection, although a later introduction in Delhi compared to the coastal cities, has shown a clear increasing trend in the STD patients.
Seruyange, Eric; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mambo Muvunyi, Claude; Uwimana, Zena G; Gatera, Maurice; Twagirumugabe, Theogene; Katare, Swaibu; Karenzi, Ben; Bergström, Tomas
Measles outbreaks are reported after insufficient vaccine coverage, especially in countries recovering from natural disaster or conflict. We compared seroprevalence to measles in blood donors in Rwanda and Sweden and explored distribution of active cases of measles and vaccine coverage in Rwanda. 516 Rwandan and 215 Swedish blood donors were assayed for measles-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data on vaccine coverage and acute cases in Rwanda from 1980 to 2014 were collected, and IgM on serum samples and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on nasopharyngeal (NPH) swabs from suspected measles cases during 2010-2011 were analysed. The seroprevalence of measles IgG was significantly higher in Swedish blood donors (92.6%; 95% CI: 89.1-96.1%) compared to Rwandan subjects (71.5%; 95% CI: 67.6-75.4%) and more pronounced <35 years of age. The OD values were significantly lower in the Rwandan blood donors as compared to Swedish subjects (p < 0.00001). However, effective measles vaccine coverage was concomitant with decrease in measles cases in Rwanda, with the exception of an outbreak in 1995 following the 1994 genocide. 76/544 serum samples were IgM positive and 21/31 NPH swabs were PCR positive for measles, determined by sequencing to be of genotype B3. Measles seroprevalence was lower in Rwandan blood donors compared to Swedish subjects. Despite this, the number of reported measles cases in Rwanda rapidly decreased during the study period, concomitant with increased vaccine coverage. Taken together, the circulation of measles was limited in Rwanda and vaccine coverage was favourable, but seroprevalence and IgG levels were low especially in younger age groups.
Nicol, Jérôme T J; Touzé, Antoine; Robinot, Rémy; Arnold, Francoise; Mazzoni, Elisa; Tognon, Mauro; Coursaget, Pierre
Many humans have antibodies against simian lymphotropic polyomavirus (LPyV), but its DNA has not been found in humans. Identification of human polyomavirus 9 (HPyV9) led us to compare the seroprevalence and cross-reactivity of LPyV and HpyV9. Results could indicate that humans who have antibodies against LPyV are infected by HPyV9.
Baljinnyam, Zolzaya; Suuri, Bujinlkham; Dashbal, Enkhbayar; Oidov, Baatarkhuu; Roth, Felix; Zinstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Dambadarjaa, Davaalkham
Background After the transition from socialism to a market economy in 1990, human brucellosis re-emerged in Mongolia. The aim of our study was to estimate a representative seroprevalence of Brucella spp. and to determine risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity among rural people. Methods A cross-sectional study with multistage random selection was conducted in eight provinces of Mongolia. Study participants were interviewed using a questionnaire to obtain their brucellosis history, current symptoms and likely risk factors. Blood samples were drawn to determine brucellosis seroprevalence. Results A total of 2856 randomly selected rural people aged four to 90 years were enrolled in the study. The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was 11.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.0–12.1), ranging between 2.3% and 22.6% in the eight provinces; 39.2% (n = 609) of nomadic camps had at least one seropositive participant. Risk factors associated with brucellosis seropositivity were being older than 45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.9, 95% CI = 5.1–8.7) and being a veterinarian (AOR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.5–5.0). Conclusion Our study confirms that human brucellosis seroprevalence among rural people in Mongolia is high. Human brucellosis can be effectively controlled if high-coverage livestock mass vaccination is implemented with a coverage survey after the vaccinations to ensure completeness. This mass vaccination should be accompanied by public awareness and educational programmes. PMID:25685600
Klaasen, Marieke; Roest, Hendrik-Jan; van der Hoek, Wim; Goossens, Bart; Secka, Arss; Stegeman, Arjan
Background Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a Gram negative bacterium present worldwide. Small ruminants are considered the main reservoirs for infection of humans. This study aimed to estimate the extent of C. burnetii infection among sheep and goats in part of The Gambia. Methodology/Principal Findings This survey was carried out from March to May 2012 at two areas in The Gambia. The first area comprised a cluster of seven rural villages situated 5–15 km west of Farafenni as well as the local abattoir. A second sampling was done at the central abattoir in Abuko (30 km from the capital, Banjul) in the Western Region. Serum samples were obtained from 490 goats and 398 sheep. In addition, 67 milk samples were obtained from lactating dams. Sera were tested with a Q fever ELISA kit. C. burnetii DNA was extracted from milk samples and then detected using a specific quantitative multiplex PCR assay, targeting the IS1111a element. A multivariable mixed logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between seropositivity and explanatory variables. An overall seroprevalence of 21.6% was found. Goats had a significantly higher seroprevalence than sheep, respectively 24.2% and 18.5%. Seropositive animals were significantly older than seronegative animals. Animals from the villages had a significantly lower seroprevalence than animals from the central abattoir (15.1% versus 29.1%). C. burnetii DNA was detected in 2 out of 67 milk samples, whereas 8 samples gave a doubtful result. Conclusion/Significance A substantial C. burnetii seroprevalence in sheep and goats in The Gambia was demonstrated. People living in close proximity to small ruminants are exposed to C. burnetii. Q fever should be considered as a possible cause of acute febrile illness in humans in The Gambia. Future studies should include a simultaneous assessment of veterinary and human serology, and include aetiology of febrile illness in local clinics. PMID:24454863
Talarmin, A; Chandler, L J; Kazanji, M; de Thoisy, B; Debon, P; Lelarge, J; Labeau, B; Bourreau, E; Vié, J C; Shope, R E; Sarthou, J L
This paper reports the first isolation of Mayaro (MAY) virus from a patient infected in French Guiana. The identification was initially performed using immunofluorescent antibody testing with specific mouse antibody, and confirmed by plaque-reduction neutralization testing and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. To determine if MAY virus infection is widespread in French Guiana, a serosurvey was performed to determine the prevalence of antibody to this virus in various ethnic groups and areas of French Guiana. Human sera (n = 1,962) were screened using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. To determine whether MAY virus circulates in the rain forest, a serosurvey in monkey populations was performed. Monkey sera (n = 150) were also screened for antibody to MAY virus using HI testing. Of the human sera tested, 6.3% were positive for anti-MAY virus antibodies. Significant differences in MAY virus seroprevalence between different age groups were observed. Seroprevalence rates increased with age, with a large increase in people 10-19 years of age in comparison with those less than 10 years of age. After adjustment for age, significant differences were also found between places of residence. The prevalence of anti-MAY virus antibody was higher in people living in contact with the forest, especially in the Haut Oyapock area (odds ratio [OR] = 97.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 48.2-197.9) and along the Maroni River (OR = 39.7, 95% CI = 20.6-76.6). The ethnic differences observed in this study were probably due to differences in residence. Among monkeys, higher seroprevalence rates were found in Alouatta seniculus (66.0%) than in Saguinus midas (18.2%). Among Alouatta, the seroprevalence increased significantly with weight (and therefore with age). This study indicates that MAY virus is present in French Guiana, and human infections occur in areas where people live near the tropical rain forest.
van der Heijden, Harold M J F; Landman, Wil J M
Histomona meleagridis is a protozoan parasite that may cause outbreaks of histomonosis with high mortality, especially in turkey flocks. Chickens are less susceptible to the disease than are turkeys, but are considered to act as an important reservoir. To determine the seroprevalence of H. meleagridis in Dutch layer chicken flocks, a large scale seroepidemiologic study (3376 samples) was performed by sampling 12 organic flocks, 24 free-ranging flocks, 40 flocks with floor housing, and 40 flocks with cage housing. At the end of the laying period, approximately 30 blood samples per flock were collected for serology. The seroprevalence found was high. In every flock, at least one of the samples tested positive while in 87% of the flocks, at least one of the samples was strongly positive. There were no significant statistical differences in seropositivity between the housing types. To confirm the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results, a small-scale seroepidemiologic study (576 samples) was performed in 29 additional layer chicken flocks kept in different housing systems. Subsequently, a subset of five seropositive flocks was selected. Five birds were obtained from each of these flocks in order to detect the parasite using culture and PCR. In all five flocks, H. meleagridis was either isolated from (culture), detected in (PCR), or both, the birds sampled. Together with the previously performed validation studies, the latter results confirm that the positive ELISA serology found is genuine. We conclude that the seroprevalence of H. meleagridis in layers is, as anticipated, high.
RÖHRER, C.; GÄRTNER, B.; SAUERBREI, A.; BÖHM, S.; HOTTENTRÄGER, B.; RAAB, U.; THIERFELDER, W.; WUTZLER, P.; MODROW, S.
SUMMARY Acute parvovirus B19 infection is a risk for pregnant women. After vertical transmission the infected fetus may develop hydrops fetalis. Since B19 infection occurs mainly during childhood, children represent a main source for virus transmission. In order to determine whether certain groups in the German population show increased risks for B19 infection we analysed the seroprevalence using 6583 sera collected from adults in former Eastern and Western Germany during the German National Health Survey and 649 sera from healthy Thuringian children and adolescents. In adults the overall seroprevalence was 72·1%, rising from 20·4% in children (1–3 years) and 66·9% in adolescents (18–19 years) to 79·1% in the elderly (65–69 years). Significant differences were observed between females (73·3%) and males (70·9%) and between inhabitants of small (74·8%) and big cities (69·0%) but not between people of the former Eastern (72·8%) and Western states (72·0%) of Germany. For women during childbearing age (18–49 years) highest values were observed in those living together with two or more children (81·6%) and in women with occupational contact with children aged <6 years (88·9%). In contrast seroprevalence was significantly lower in age-matched female singles (64·8%) and in women with occupational contact with children aged >6 years and adolescents (63·8%). PMID:18198003
Mahshid, Mostafavi; Baharak, Akhtardanesh; Iraj, Sharifi; Sina, Kakooei; Javad, Khedri; Mehdi, Bamorovat
Visceral leishmaniasis is an endemic disease in many parts of Iran and infected dogs constitute the main domestic reservoirs that play a key role in transmission to humans. The objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in southeast of Iran. This survey was carried out from 2009 to 2011 in Kerman, Bam and Baft districts in Kerman province and Zabol in Sistan-Baluchestan province. Blood samples were taken from 201 dogs after complete clinical examination. Following hematological evaluation; collected sera were tested by indirect ELISA method for the presence of anti Leishmania infantum antibodies. Overall seroprevalence was 15.4 %, including 6.4, 3.5, 3 and 2.4 % in Bam, Zabol, Baft and Kerman, respectively. However, seroprevalence of disease was not significantly related to age, gender, presence of clinical signs and hematological disorders. Based to the results of the present study, CVL is endemic in southeastern Iran. Delayed diagnosis and euthanasia of potentially infectious animals may occur with an increased transmission risk to sand flies and subsequently to humans. Implementation of potent screening tests with high validity is essential for rapid detection and successful dog elimination programs in endemic parts of Iran.
Chen, Ju-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Jen; Wu, Ying-Ling
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoon which is well known for infecting humans and wild animals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were evaluated in 394 wild birds, belonging to 37 species, from 15 different administrative regions in Taiwan. Using modified agglutination test (MAT), the overall seroprevalence of infection was 23.35% (CI 95% = 19.17%-27.53%). Antibodies were detected in birds of prey (25.73%, CI 95% = 19.76%-31.70%), birds living in freshwater or marine systems (34.29%, CI 95% = 18.56%-50.01%) and ground-feeding birds (18.12%, CI 95% = 11.94%-24.31%). Adult birds showed higher seroprevalence than that in juvenile birds, and the presence of clinical abnormalities was associated with T. gondii seropositivity. The results showed that this pathogen has spread widely in Taiwan. This suggests the zoonotic potential of the disease, with transmission from urban to rural regions, and from terrestrial to aquatic systems. The pathogenicity of T. gondii infection in wild birds in Taiwan needs further investigation. This is the first study of the seroprevalence of T. gondii in wild birds in Taiwan.
Hwang, Y T; Pitt, J A; Quirk, T W; Dubey, J P
The protozoon Toxoplasma gondii has a worldwide distribution and affects many species of warm-blooded animals. In the Canadian prairies, mesocarnivores such as striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) have experienced an increase in density and distribution, and they are in close contact with human dwellings. However, there has been no systematic study on the seroprevalence of T. gondii in these mesocarnivore populations. The objectives of the current project were to determine the serum antibody prevalence of T. gondii in Canadian prairie mesocarnivores and to study the relationship between antibody prevalence and species, sex, age, location, and year of collection. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 5 of 24 (20.8%) skunks from Saskatchewan trapped in 1999 and 5 of 40 (12.5%) in 2000. Seroprevalences for T. gondii in raccoons and skunks trapped in Manitoba were 2 of 10 (20%) raccoons trapped in 2002, 7 of 44 (15.9%) trapped in 2003, and 16 of 37 (43.2%) trapped in 2004; and in 13 of 99 (13.1%) skunks trapped in 2003, 29 of 131 (22.1%) trapped in 2004, 53 of 165 (32.1%) trapped in 2005, and 30 of 51 (58.8%) trapped in 2006. Age, location, and year, but not the host species, were important variables in the determining the seroprevalence of T. gondii in skunks and raccoons. Results confirm that T. gondii is endemic in the skunk and raccoon populations in the Canadian prairies.
Angami, Khriemenuo; Reddy, Sudha V R; Singh, Kh Ibochouba; Singh, Ng Brajachand; Singh, P Ibomacha
One hundred and seventy five malnourished children aged between 1(1/2) and 12 years attending pediatric department of Regional Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital, Imphal from January 2001 to June 2002 were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection along with their biological mothers after pretest counselling and informed consent. The prevalence rate of HIV seropositivity among malnourished children was 21.7%. Children aged between 1(1/2) and 3 years had the highest seroprevalence (47.4%) and male to female ratio was 1.5: 1. Underweight children showed the highest seroprevalence (47.4%) and children with kwashiorkor showed least seroprevalence (10.5%). Mode of HIV transmission was vertical in 94.7%. The causative agent was HIV-I in all the cases. AIDS defining children features were seen more frequently among HIV seropositive malnourished children as compared to the seronegative children. Prolonged fever (p 0.001), oropharyngeal candidiasis (p<0.001), generalised lymphadenopathy (p<0.001) and disseminated maculopapular dermatitis (p<0.001) were significantly related to HIV infection. Among seronegative children 18.2% fulfilled the clinical criteria for AIDS and among seropositive children 94.7% had AIDS. The total mortality encountered among seropositive children was 34.2%. It is suggested to confirm findings based on larger community based data before recommending mandatory HIV testing in all malnourished children. Specific guidelines on the nutritional management of children with HIV/AIDS is needed in Manipur where HIV is spreading rapidly.
Ben Jemia, R; Gouider, E
Replacement donors are considered as having a major risk of transmission of infections to recipients mainly by the World Health Organisation. Seroprevalency of HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis were determined in 19,783 whole blood donations collected in the Tunisian National Blood Transfusion Centre during the year 2010 (12,968 [65.55%] replacement donations and 6815 [34.44%] voluntary blood donations). For HBV, HCV and syphilis, we performed a univariate analysis to determine whether age, sex and type of donation were risk factors, then multivariate logistic regression, to see if these factors were independent. Mean age of donors was 30.1 years (replacement donors 34.5 years, first time non-remunerated donors 34.5 years, P<0.001). The predominant age group was 30-39 years (35.51%) in replacement donors and 20-29 years (54.15%) in first time non-remunerated donors. Male gender was significantly predominant (73.00% men vs 27.00% women, P<10(-6)). There were significantly more men among replacement donors (82.27% vs 55.38%, P<10(-3)). There were more women in the age groups 18-19 and 20-29 years. Only one HIV seropositive donation was noted in a male first time non-remunerated donor aged 18. Replacement type of donation, male sex and age were three independent risk factors for the HBs Ag carriage. For anti-HCV antibodies and TPHA, only replacement type of donation and age were found out to be risk factors and only age was independent. In Tunisia, replacement blood donors were at higher risk of infection transmission, but only for hepatitis B. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Ochieng, Caroline; Ahenda, Petronella; Vittor, Amy Y.; Nyoka, Raymond; Gikunju, Stella; Wachira, Cyrus; Waiboci, Lilian; Umuro, Mamo; Kim, Andrea A.; Nderitu, Leonard; Juma, Bonventure; Montgomery, Joel M.; Breiman, Robert F.; Fields, Barry
Arthropod-borne viruses are a major constituent of emerging infectious diseases worldwide, but limited data are available on the prevalence, distribution, and risk factors for transmission in Kenya and East Africa. In this study, we used 1,091 HIV-negative blood specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007) to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV).The KAIS 2007 was a national population-based survey conducted by the Government of Kenya to provide comprehensive information needed to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Antibody testing for arboviruses was performed on stored blood specimens from KAIS 2007 through a two-step sandwich IgG ELISA using either commercially available kits or CDC-developed assays. Out of the 1,091 samples tested, 210 (19.2%) were positive for IgG antibodies against at least one of the three arboviruses. DENV was the most common of the three viruses tested (12.5% positive), followed by RVFV and CHIKV (4.5% and 0.97%, respectively). For DENV and RVFV, the participant’s province of residence was significantly associated (P≤.01) with seropositivity. Seroprevalence of DENV and RVFV increased with age, while there was no correlation between province of residence/age and seropositivity for CHIKV. Females had twelve times higher odds of exposure to CHIK as opposed to DENV and RVFV where both males and females had the same odds of exposure. Lack of education was significantly associated with a higher odds of previous infection with either DENV or RVFV (p <0.01). These data show that a number of people are at risk of arbovirus infections depending on their geographic location in Kenya and transmission of these pathogens is greater than previously appreciated. This poses a public health risk, especially for DENV. PMID:26177451
HIV/AIDS in southern Africa threatens the re-establishment of political and economic stability in the region after decades of conflict. 4 of the 5 highest HIV prevalence countries in the world are in southern Africa. While the process of re-integration has partly shaped the epidemiology of HIV in the region and contributes to its continued spread, the impact of AIDS will also create negative forces which will counteract the process of regionalization. The end of longstanding conflicts and turmoil in southern Africa has been followed by the massive movement of returning migrants together with considerable internal displacement. This movement has considerable implications for the spread of HIV. The example of the Kariba nexus is presented. Possibly the world's current area of highest HIV seroprevalence is the nexus centered upon Lake Kariba on the Zambia/Zimbabwe border. The area, encompassing the Southern Province of Zambia up as far as Lusaka and Mongu in Western Province, western and central Zimbabwe, northern Botswana, and the Caprivi Strip of Namibia, is characterized by large movements of people involved in formal and informal sector trading. The high 1996 adult HIV seroprevalence in Francistown, Botswana, of 43.1% suggests cross-border movements with neighboring Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. High regional HIV prevalence, planning to cope with the impact of HIV/AIDS, private sector costs, political factors, welfare implications, and recommendations are discussed.
Cossa, H A; Gloyd, S; Vaz, R G; Folgosa, E; Simbine, E; Diniz, M; Kreiss, J K
A cross-sectional study was conducted among displaced pregnant women in Mozambique to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV infection and syphilis. Between September 1992 and February 1993, 1728 consecutive antenatal attendees of 14 rural clinics in Zambézia were interviewed, examined, and tested for HIV and syphilis antibodies. The seroprevalence of syphilis and HIV were 12.2% and 2.9%, respectively. Reported sexual abuse was frequent (8.4%) but sex for money was uncommon. A positive MHA-TP result was significantly associated with unmarried status, history of past STD, HIV infection, and current genital ulcers, vaginal discharge, or genital warts. Significant correlates of HIV seropositivity included anal intercourse, history of past STD, and syphilis. In summary, displaced pregnant women had a high prevalence of syphilis but a relatively low HIV seroprevalence suggesting recent introduction of HIV infection in this area or slow spread of the epidemic. A syphilis screening and treatment programme is warranted to prevent perinatal transmission and to reduce the incidence of chancres as a cofactor for HIV transmission.
During routine testing of civilian applicants for U.S. military service, the overall seroprevalence of antibodies to HIV-1 in 2011 was the second lowest of any year since 1990. Among members of the active components of the U.S. Army, HIV-1 seroprevalences were higher during 2008 to 2011 than in recent prior years. Among members of the active components of the U.S. Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps, the Marine Corps Reserve, and the Army National Guard, HIV-1 seroprevalences have slightly declined or remained relatively stable for at least ten years. In the reserve components of most service branches, it is difficult to discern long-term trends because of instability of seroprevalences in the relatively small numbers of reserve component members tested each year. Monitoring of HIV-1 seroprevalences can help target and focus prevention initiatives. The recent repeal of the Don't Ask Don't Tell policy has created opportunities for prevention messages targeted to men who have sex with men.
... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Collapse All Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...
Velter, Annie; Barin, Francis; Bouyssou, Alice; Guinard, Jérôme; Léon, Lucie; Le Vu, Stéphane; Pillonel, Josiane; Spire, Bruno; Semaille, Caroline
A cross-sectional survey, using self-sampled finger-prick blood on blotting paper and anonymous behavioral self-administrated questionnaires was conducted in Paris in 2009 among MSM attending gay venues. Paired biological results and questionnaires were available for 886 participants. HIV seroprevalence was 17.7 % (95 % CI: 15.3-20.4). Four groups were identified according to their knowledge of their HIV biological status. Among the 157 found to be seropositive, 31 (19.7 %) were unaware of their status and reported high levels of sexual risk behaviors and frequent HIV testing in the previous 12 months. Among the 729 MSM diagnosed HIV-negative, 183 were no longer sure whether they were still HIV-negative, or had never been tested despite the fact that they engaged in at-risk sexual behaviors. This study provides the first estimate of HIV seroprevalence among MSM in Paris and underlines the specific need for combined prevention of HIV infection in this MSM population.
Ibrahim, Saira; Siddiqui, Anwar A; Siddiqui, Amna R; Ahmed, Waquaruddin; Moss, Paul A H; Lalani, El-Nasir M A
The seroprevalence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection ranges from 30 to 90 % in developed countries. Reliable estimates of HCMV seroprevalence are not available for Pakistan. This study determined the seroprevalence and sociodemographic factors associated with HCMV infection in adult populations of Karachi, Pakistan. A seroprevalence survey was conducted on 1000 adults, including residents of two semi-urban communities, and visitors to a government and a private hospital. Questionnaire-based interviews were conducted. Sera were analysed for HCMV-specific IgG and IgM. Chi-square or Fisher's exact test was used for comparing sociodemographic variables against seropositivity of HCMV-IgG or IgM. Multiple logistic regression modeling was performed for IgG seroprevalence and adjusted odds ratios were computed. The seroprevalence of HCMV-IgG and IgM was 93.2 and 4.3 % respectively. 95.3 % of individuals who were IgM seropositive were also seropositive for IgG. Around 6 % (15/250) of women of childbearing age remained uninfected and were therefore susceptible to primary infection. HCMV-IgG seroprevalence was associated with being female (p = 0.001), increasing age (p = 0.002) and crowding index (p = 0.003) and also with lower levels of both education (p < 0.001) and income (p = 0.008). Seroprevalence also differed significantly by marital status (p = 0.008) and sampling location (p < 0.001). A logistic regression model for HCMV-IgG seroprevalence showed associations with being female (OR = 1.89; 95 % CI: 1.10-3.25), increasing age (OR = 3.95; 95 % CI: 1.79-8.71) and decreasing income (OR = 0.72; 95 % CI: 0.54-0.96). A strong association was observed between increased seroprevalence of HCMV-IgM and decreasing household size (p = 0.008). Seroprevalence of HCMV is very high in Pakistan, although 6 % of women of childbearing age remain at risk of primary infection. The IgM seropositivity observed in some individuals
Morvan, J M; Auregan, G; Rasamindrakotroka, A J; de Ravel, T; Roux, J F
In Madagascar, the estimated incidence of tuberculosis is high (320 per 100,000) when human immunodeficiency virus (VIH) infection progress slowly. The authors have studied HIV seroprevalence in a group of tubercular patients and in two reference groups (general population and outpatients of the Clinical Biology Centre of Institut Pasteur). Circulation of HIV1 virus was observed with a low prevalence rate in all the 3 groups. There was no significant difference between tubercular patients and healthy population. Tubercular people ought to be a watch group for the epidemiological surveillance of HIV infection evolution in Madagascar.
Cox, John J; Murphy, Sean M; Augustine, Ben C; Guthrie, Joseph M; Hast, John T; Maehr, Sutton C; McDermott, Joseph
We assessed Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in 53 free-ranging American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) in the Central Appalachian Mountains, US. Seroprevalence was 62% with no difference between males and females or between juvenile and adult bears. Wildlife agencies should consider warnings in hunter education programs to reduce the chances for human infection from this source.
Leung, Jessica; Lopez, Adriana; Mitchell, Tarissa; Weinberg, Michelle; Lee, Deborah; Thieme, Martha; Schmid, D Scott; Bialek, Stephanie R
Little is known about varicella-zoster virus (VZV) susceptibility in US-bound refugee populations, although published data suggest that VZV seroprevalence in these refugee populations may be lower than US populations. We describe VZV seroprevalence in five US-bound refugee groups: (1) Bhutanese in Nepal, (2) Burmese on the Thailand-Burma (Myanmar) border, (3) Burmese in Malaysia, (4) Iraqi in Jordan, and (5) Somali in Kenya. Sera were tested for presence of VZV IgG antibodies among adults aged 18-45 years. Overall VZV seroprevalence was 97% across all refugee groups. VZV seroprevalence was also high across all age groups, with seroprevalence ranging from 92-100% for 18-26 year-olds depending on refugee group and 93-100% for 27-45 year-olds. VZV seroprevalence was unexpectedly high in these five US-bound refugee groups, though may not reflect seroprevalence in other refugee groups. Additional studies are needed to better understand VZV seroprevalence in refugee populations over time and by region.
Mata-Marín, José Antonio; Sandoval-Sánchez, Juan Joel; Huerta-García, Gloria; Arroyo-Anduiza, Carla Ileana; Alcalá-Martínez, Enrique; Mata-Marín, Luis Alberto; Sandoval-Ramirez, Jorge Luis; Gaytán-Martínez, Jesús
Our objective was to determine the seroprevalence of syphilis among HIV-infected patients in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was developed, and 318 HIV-positive patients were evaluated from January to February 2013 at Hospital de Infectología, National Medical Center 'La Raza' (a tertiary care hospital specialising in infectious diseases in Mexico City). Laboratory data were screened for the detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum. Patients completed a questionnaire relating to socio-demographic data and factors associated with syphilis. Of the 318 patients, 83% were men. The mean age ± SD was 36 ± 11 years; 52% were men who have sex with men and 47% had undertaken higher education. The overall seroprevalence of syphilis among these patients was 25% (95% confidence interval 21%, 30%). Men who have sex with men had a significantly higher seroprevalence (30% vs. 15%, p = 0.009). We conclude that, in Mexico, there is a high seroprevalence of syphilis antibodies in HIV-infected patients and that men who have sex with men are the group most affected.
Sadlier, Corinna; O'Rourke, Anna; Carr, Alison; Bergin, Colm
Epidemiological studies investigating seroprevalence of vaccine preventable infections at both individual and population level are important in guiding screening and vaccination practices. Data on seroprevalence of common vaccine preventable infections in HIV-infected individuals is lacking. We carried out a retrospective cohort study to investigate serological immunity and factors associated with immunity to hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and varicalla virus (VZV) in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals attending a large ambulatory HIV specialist centre in Ireland. Basic demographic data including risk of acquisition of HIV and region of origin was recorded. Between-group prevalence was compared using the Chi2 test and Wilkoxin signed rank test. Univariate variables with p<0.2 were entered into a multivariate logistic regression model. Of 1287 HIV-infected individuals included in this study (median [SD] age 39  years, 68% male, 46% Irish), 75% were hepatitis A IgG positive, 94% were VZV IgG positive, 3% were HBV surface antigen (sAg) positive while 29% were HBV core antibody (cAb) positive. This study identifies a significant proportion of HIV infected who were susceptible to common vaccine preventable infections. These results highlight the importance of proactive screening and immunization of HIV-infected individuals to ensure optimal protect ionagainst vaccine preventable diseases in this at risk patient group.
Viani, Rolando M; Araneta, Maria R; Spector, Stephen A
To compare HIV prevalence and HIV acquisition risk behaviors between pregnant women residents and migrants. A cross-sectional study of pregnant women of unknown HIV status seeking care at Tijuana General Hospital, Mexico. Pregnant women attending the labor and delivery unit or the prenatal clinic had a rapid HIV test drawn, with positive results confirmed by Western blot. Migrants were defined as women who had resided in Tijuana for less than 5 years. Between 2007 and 2008, a total of 3331 pregnant women consented to participate. The HIV seroprevalence did not differ between Tijuana residents (18 of 2502, 0.72%) and migrants (3 of 829, 0.36%, P = .32). In multivariate regression analyses, HIV acquisition risk behaviors included methamphetamine use (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 6.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3-15.8, P < .001) and first presentation at labor (adjusted OR: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.6-15.3, P = .005), adjusted for migrant status, age, and history of sexually transmitted infections. The overall HIV seroprevalence was 0.63% and did not differ between Tijuana residents and migrants. © The Author(s) 2014.
Viani, Rolando M.; Araneta, Maria R.; Spector, Stephen A.
Objective To compare HIV prevalence and HIV acquisition risk behaviors between pregnant women residents and migrants. Design A cross-sectional study of pregnant women of unknown HIV status seeking care at Tijuana General Hospital, Mexico. Methods Pregnant women attending the labor and delivery unit or the prenatal clinic had a rapid HIV test drawn, with positive results confirmed by Western blot. Migrants were defined as women who had resided in Tijuana for less than 5 years. Results Between 2007 and 2008, a total of 3331 pregnant women consented to participate. The HIV seroprevalence did not differ between Tijuana residents (18 of 2502, 0.72%) and migrants (3 of 829, 0.36%, P = .32). In multivariate regression analyses, HIV acquisition risk behaviors included methamphetamine use (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 6.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3–15.8, P < .001) and first presentation at labor (adjusted OR: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.6–15.3, P = .005), adjusted for migrant status, age, and history of sexually transmitted infections. Conclusion The overall HIV seroprevalence was 0.63% and did not differ between Tijuana residents and migrants. PMID:24935694
Moschella, Phillip C.; Hart, Kimberly W.; Ruffner, Andrew H.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Wayne, D. Beth; Sperling, Matthew I.; Trott, Alexander T.; Fichtenbaum, Carl J.
Objectives. We estimated the seroprevalence of both acute and chronic HIV infection by using a random sample of emergency department (ED) patients from a region of the United States with low-to-moderate HIV prevalence. Methods. This cross-sectional seroprevalence study consecutively enrolled patients aged 18 to 64 years within randomly selected sampling blocks in a Midwestern urban ED in a region of lower HIV prevalence in 2008 to 2009. Participants were compensated for providing a blood sample and health information. After de-identification, we assayed samples for HIV antibody and nucleic acid. Results. There were 926 participants who consented and enrolled. Overall, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV was 0.76% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30%, 1.56%). Three participants (0.32%; 95% CI = 0.09%, 0.86%) were nucleic acid–positive but antibody-negative and 4 (0.43%; 95% CI = 0.15%, 1.02%) were antibody-positive. Conclusions. Even when the absolute prevalence is low, a considerable proportion of undetected HIV cases in an ED population are acute. Identification of acute HIV in ED settings should receive increased priority. PMID:25033145
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Arreola-Valenzuela, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-Briones, Alfredo; Alanís-Quiñones, Olga Patricia; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio; Luevanos-Becerra, Carlos; Martínez-Saenz, Luis Felipe; Martínez-García, Sergio Arturo; Ramírez-Valles, Eda Guadalupe; Ibarra-Torres, Isaac; González-Verdín, Cesar Arnulfo
We sought to determine the frequency of serological markers of selected infections in a population of psychiatric patients in Durango City, Mexico, and to determine whether there are any epidemiological characteristics of the subjects associated with the infections. One hundred and five inpatients of a public psychiatric hospital of Durango were examined for HBsAg, anti-HCV antibodies, anti-HIV antibodies, anti-Brucella antibodies, rapid plasma reagin and anti-Cysticercus antibodies by commercially available assays. Anti-Cysticercus antibodies were confirmed by Western blot and HBsAg by neutralization assay. Epidemiological data from each participant were also obtained. Seroprevalences of HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, anti-Brucella, rapid plasma reagin and anti-Cysticercus antibodies found were 0.0%, 4.8%, 0.9%, 0.0%, 1.9%, and 0.9%, respectively. Overall, 9 (8.6%) inpatients showed seropositivity to any infection marker. We concluded that our psychiatric inpatients have serological evidence of a number of infections. HCV is an important pathogen among our psychiatric inpatients. Health care strategies for prevention and control of infections in Mexican psychiatric patients should be considered.
Background The epidemiology of Toxocara infection in humans in Mexico has been poorly explored. There is a lack of information about Toxocara infection in waste pickers. Aims Determine the seroepidemiology of Toxocara infection in waste pickers. Methods Through a case control study design, the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was determined in 90 waste pickers and 90 age- and gender-matched controls using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Associations of Toxocara exposure with socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral data of the waste pickers were also evaluated. Results The seroprevalence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies was significantly higher in waste pickers (12/90: 13%) than in control subjects (1/90: 1%) (OR = 14; 95% CI: 2–288). The seroprevalence was not influenced by socio-demographic or work characteristics. In contrast, increased seroprevalence was found in waste pickers suffering from gastritis, and reflex and visual impairments. Multivariate analysis showed that Toxocara exposure was associated with a low frequency of eating out of home (OR = 26; 95% CI: 2–363) and negatively associated with consumption of chicken meat (OR = 0.03; 95% CI: 0.003–0.59). Other behavioral characteristics such as animal contacts or exposure to soil were not associated with Toxocara seropositivity. Conclusions 1) Waste pickers are a risk group for Toxocara infection. 2) Toxocara is impacting the health of waste pickers. This is the first report of Toxocara exposure in waste pickers and of associations of gastritis and reflex impairment with Toxocara seropositivity. Results warrant for further research. PMID:23349987
Platts-Mills, James A; LaRochelle, Patrick; Campos, Kalina; Vinetz, Joseph M; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Ricaldi, Jessica N
Leptospirosis is a disease widely prevalent in tropical areas, but may also be present in urban areas. The present study aims to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira in the district of Puente Piedra, where there have been cases of severe leptospirosis in recent years. We collected data related to risk factors associated with leptospirosis and blood samples from 250 participants, selected by random sampling. We found a high prevalence of risk factors in the population and using the microscopic agglutination test, antibodies were found in only 3 participants (1.2%).
Heckman, Timothy G; Silverthorn, Monica; Waltje, Andrea; Meyers, Melissa; Yarber, William
Little is known about continued high-risk sexual behavior of persons living with HIV disease in rural areas of the United States. However, as HIV seroprevalence rates increase in rural communities, there is an urgent need to develop interventions to assist HIV-infected rural individuals who have difficulty refraining from high-risk sex. To characterize patterns of continued high-risk sex among 216 men and women living with HIV disease in rural areas of 12 states. Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. Thirty-two percent of men and 38% of women reported that all of their sex partners in the previous 3 months were HIV-seronegative. Among the 33% of men who engaged in anal sex, 59% never or rarely used condoms. Of the 55% of women who engaged in vaginal sex in the previous 3 months, 31% never used condoms. Culturally contextualized interventions are needed to initiate and facilitate the risk-reduction efforts of HIV-infected rural persons.
Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Corceal, Sewraz
Female sex workers (FSW) often have a disproportionately high prevalence of HIV infection and they, along with their clients, are considered a core group contributing to the transmission of HIV in many countries. In 2010, females who reported having vaginal/anal/oral sex in the last 6 months with a male in exchange for money or gifts, aged ≥15 years, and living in Mauritius were recruited into a survey using respondent driven sampling. Consenting females (n = 299) completed a behavioral questionnaire and provided venous blood for HIV, HCV and HBV testing. HIV seroprevalence among FSW was 28.9 % and 43.8 % were infected with HCV; among HIV seropositive FSW, 88.2 % were also infected with HCV. Almost 40 % of FSW reported injecting drugs sometime in their lives and 30.5 % of all FSW reported doing so in the previous 3 months. Among those who ever injected drugs, 82.5 % did so in the past 3 months and among those 60 % reported injecting drugs at least once a day. Among FSW who ever injected drugs, 17.5 % reported sharing a needle at last injection. Regression analyses found injection drug use behaviors to be positively associated with HIV seroprevalence. These findings indicate that FSW, especially those who inject drugs, are at high risk for HIV and HCV infection and transmission and illustrates the need for gender responsive HIV and injection drug use prevention and treatment models that respond to the unique situations that affect this population.
Mercier, Aurélien; Garba, Madougou; Bonnabau, Henri; Kane, Mamadou; Rossi, Jean-Pierre; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Dobigny, Gauthier
A serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii was conducted on 766 domestic and peridomestic rodents from 46 trapping sites throughout the city of Niamey, Niger. A low seroprevalence was found over the whole town with only 1.96% of the rodents found seropositive. However, differences between species were important, ranging from less than 2% in truly commensal Mastomys natalensis, Rattus rattus and Mus musculus, while garden-associated Arvicanthis niloticus displayed 9.1% of seropositive individuals. This is in line with previous studies on tropical rodents - that we reviewed here - which altogether show that Toxoplasma seroprevalence in rodent is highly variable, depending on many factors such as locality and/or species. Moreover, although we were not able to decipher statistically between habitat or species effect, such a contrast between Nile grass rats and the other rodent species points towards a potentially important role of environmental toxoplasmic infection. This would deserve to be further scrutinised since intra-city irrigated cultures are extending in Niamey, thus potentially increasing Toxoplasma circulation in this yet semi-arid region. As far as we are aware of, our study is one of the rare surveys of its kind performed in Sub-Saharan Africa and the first one ever conducted in the Sahel. PMID:23828008
Kavana, Nicholas; Sonaimuthu, Parthasarathy; Kasanga, Christopher; Kassuku, Ayub; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Fong, Mun Yik; Khan, Mohammad Behram; Mahmud, Rohela; Lau, Yee Ling
In this study, the seroprevalence of sparganosis and its relationship with sociodemographic factors in northern Tanzania have been assessed. A total of 216 serum samples from two rural districts, Monduli and Babati, were tested for sparganosis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The seroprevalence of anti-sparganum IgG antibodies was 62.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.1–68.9) in all age groups. There were significant associations between district (relative risk [RR] = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.42–2.69), education (RR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.15–1.70), and pet ownership with seropositivity (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.02–2.16) based on univariate analysis. However, only the district was significantly associated with seropositivity (odds ratio = 4.20, 95% CI = 1.89–9.32) in binary logistic regression analysis. Providing health education to people residing in sparganosis-endemic areas is likely to improve the efficacy of preventative measures and reduce human disease burden. PMID:27481059
Jiang, Yu; Wang, Lili; Lu, Zongji; Xuan, Hua; Han, Xiaohu; Xia, Xianzhu; Zhao, Fuguang; Tu, Changchun
Members of the Order Chiroptera are the natural reservoirs of lyssaviruses and play an important role in the transmission of rabies to animals and humans. In this present study, the seroprevalence for rabies virus was determined for bats sampled from four southern provinces on the Chinese mainland. A total of 685 bats of 8 species representing 4 families were collected from 10 sites, and were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated protein A/G mixture and viral neutralization test. Rabies antibody response was only detected from three bat species (Rousettus leschenaulti, Rhinolophus blythi, and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum). The overall rabies seroconversion rate was only 2.2% (15/685). Of the 15 positive sera, 13 (12 fruit bats and 1 insectivorous bat) were indirect fluorescent antibody test positive, and two insectivorous bats were virus neutralization positive when tested by the modified fluorescent antibody viral neutralization test, albeit extremely low. To our knowledge, this is the first published report describing rabies seroprevalences from Chinese bats. These results suggest that bats may play a role in the ecology of lyssaviruses in China, and further surveillance for the presence of lyssaviruses in bats should be undertaken throughout the country and extended to other species.
Rostamzadeh Khameneh, Zakieh; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Khalkhali, Hamid-Reza
Background While hepatitis E virus (HEV) mostly causes self-limited disease in general population, it is more severe in pregnant women. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran . Patients and Methods One hundred thirty six pregnant women referred to urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Anti-HEV IgG antibody was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA; Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes). Results Only five (3.6%) of 136 cases had positive results for anti-HEV IgG. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88), and income level (P = 0.19) of the two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas. Conclusions The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in , similar to the rates reported from developed countries. Effective health services and provision of safe water supplies in Urmia may take role in this low prevalence rate. PMID:24348644
Antona, D; Lepoutre, A; Fonteneau, L; Baudon, C; Halftermeyer-Zhou, F; LE Strat, Y; Lévy-Bruhl, D
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains the leading cause of congenital virus infection in developed countries. Measuring the national prevalence of this infection, especially among women of childbearing age, is of great value to estimate the risk of congenital CMV infection, as well as to identify risk groups that should be targeted for behavioural interventions and/or vaccination once a CMV vaccine finally becomes available. In order to fulfil these objectives, a seroprevalence survey was conducted in 2010, using a nationally representative, population-based sample of 2536 people aged between 15 and 49 years, living in metropolitan France and attending private microbiological laboratories for blood testing. All blood samples were analysed in the same laboratory and screened for CMV-specific IgG using an enzyme-linked immunoassay technique (Elisa PKS Medac Enzyme immunoassay). The overall point estimate of CMV infection seroprevalence for individuals aged 15-49 years was 41.9%. The estimates were higher in women than in men (respectively 45.6% and 39.3%), and people born in a non-Western country were more likely to be CMV seropositive than those born in France or in another Western country (93.7% vs. 37.7%). Our results showed that a substantial percentage of women of childbearing age in France are CMV seronegative and therefore at risk of primary CMV infection during pregnancy. Educational measures and future vaccine are key issues to prevent infection in pregnant women and congenital CMV disease.
Wong, A; Tan, K H; Tee, C S; Yeo, G S
The aim of our study was to determine the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV), toxoplasma and parvovirus infection in our local antenatal population, and to see the effects, if any, of age, race, parity and nationality on its seroprevalence. The sera of 120 consecutive antenatal women seen in KK Women's and Children's Hospital between the period of October 1997 and March 1998 were screened for cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG, toxoplasma IgG and parvovirus B19 IgG and IgM. An antibody titer greater than 1:32 was regarded as positive. A total of 87.0% of patients were tested seropositive for CMV IgG, 17.2% seropositive for toxoplasma IgG and 30.0% seropositive for parvovirus IgG. There seemed to be a trend of increasing seropositivity with age in all three groups, however only parovirus B19 reached statistical significance. The incidence of all three infections were higher among the Malays, Indians and other races compared to the Chinese. CMV is endemic in our population and hence the most common infection. Toxoplasmosis and parvovirus is relatively low in our population but this implies that a large proportion of our antenatal women are still susceptible to these infections. Prevention of congenital CMV, toxoplasmosis and parvovirus infection is mainly by educating the antenatal population.
Ding, Chuan Hun; Rashid, Zetti Zainol; Rahman, Md. Mostafizur; Khang, NanFeng; Low, Wan Ngor; Hussin, Nurabrar; Marzuki, Melissa Iqlima; Jaafar, Alyaa Nadhira; Roslan, Nurul Ain’ Nabilla; Chandrasekaran, Terukumar
Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of acute dengue in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Medical Centre and its correlation with selected haematological and biochemical parameters. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to June 2015. A patient was serologically diagnosed with acute dengue if the dengue virus IgG, IgM or NS-1 antigen was reactive. Results: Out of 1,774 patients suspected to have acute dengue, 1,153 were serologically diagnosed with the infection, resulting in a seroprevalence of 64.9%. Dengue-positive patients had a lower mean platelet count (89 × 109/L) compared to the dengue-negative patients (171 × 109/L) (p<0.0001). The mean total white cell count was also lower in the dengue-positive cases (4.7 × 109/L vs. 7.2 × 109/L; p<0.0001). The mean haematocrit was higher in patients with acute dengue (42.5% vs. 40.0%; p<0.0001). Likewise, the serum alanine transaminase level was also higher in patients with acute dengue (108 U/L vs. 54 U/L; p<0.0001). Conclusions: Dengue is very prevalent in UKM Medical Centre as most patients suspected to have acute dengue had serological evidence of the infection. The platelet count was the single most likely parameter to be abnormal (i.e. low) in patients with acute dengue. PMID:27182269
PAN, Yaoqian; WANG, Shuai; LIU, Xingyou; LI, Ruizhen; SUN, Yuqian; GADAHI, Javaid Ali
Background: Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian parasite commonly found in rabbits that can infect humans, causing encephalitozoonosis. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of this parasite in rabbits and humans in China Methods: Overall, 300 serum samples each from clinically healthy rabbit and human were collected from three regions of China (Sichuan Province, Chongqing Municipality and Jilin Province) from January to September 2013 and tested for anti-E. Cuniculi antibodies using an ELISA. Results: An overall seroprevalence of E. cuniculi was recorded as 56/300 (18.76%) and 29/300 (9.76%) in rabbit and human sera, respectively. The seropositivity of rabbit samples collected from Jilin province was 41%, which was significantly higher (P<0.01) than Sichuan Province (9%) and Chongqing Municipality (6%). Three breeds of rabbit were used in the present study and antibody detection in Rex Rabbit was significantly (P<0.01) higher than Japanese White and New Zealand Rabbit. In human, Jilin province was more prevalent (18%) followed by Sichuan Province (6%) and Chongqing Municipality (5%). Conclusions: The E. cuniculi was present and widespread among healthy rabbits and humans in China PMID:26246829
Pan, Yaoqian; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Xingyou; Li, Ruizhen; Sun, Yuqian; Gadahi, Javaid Ali
Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian parasite commonly found in rabbits that can infect humans, causing encephalitozoonosis. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of this parasite in rabbits and humans in China. Overall, 300 serum samples each from clinically healthy rabbit and human were collected from three regions of China (Sichuan Province, Chongqing Municipality and Jilin Province) from January to September 2013 and tested for anti-E. Cuniculi antibodies using an ELISA. An overall seroprevalence of E. cuniculi was recorded as 56/300 (18.76%) and 29/300 (9.76%) in rabbit and human sera, respectively. The seropositivity of rabbit samples collected from Jilin province was 41%, which was significantly higher (P<0.01) than Sichuan Province (9%) and Chongqing Municipality (6%). Three breeds of rabbit were used in the present study and antibody detection in Rex Rabbit was significantly (P<0.01) higher than Japanese White and New Zealand Rabbit. In human, Jilin province was more prevalent (18%) followed by Sichuan Province (6%) and Chongqing Municipality (5%). The E. cuniculi was present and widespread among healthy rabbits and humans in China.
Palmer, Jamie L; McCutchan, Thomas F; Vargas, F Hernan; Deem, Sharon L; Cruz, Marilyn; Hartman, Daniel A; Parker, Patricia G
A parasite species of the genus Plasmodium has recently been documented in the endangered Galapagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). Avian malaria causes high mortality in several species after initial exposure and there is great concern for the conservation of the endemic Galapagos penguin. Using a Plasmodium spp. circumsporozoite protein antigen, we standardized an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to test the level of exposure in this small population, as indicated by seroprevalence. Sera from adult and juvenile Galapagos penguins collected between 2004 and 2009 on the Galapagos archipelago were tested for the presence of anti- Plasmodium spp. antibodies. Penguins were also tested for the prevalence of avian malaria parasite DNA using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening. Total seroprevalence of malarial antibodies in this sample group was 97.2%, which suggests high exposure to the parasite and low Plasmodium-induced mortality. However, total prevalence of Plasmodium parasite DNA by PCR screening was 9.2%, and this suggests that parasite prevalence may be under-detected through PCR screening. Multiple detection methods may be necessary to measure the real extent of Plasmodium exposure on the archipelago.
Evander, Magnus; Putkuri, Niina; Eliasson, Mats; Lwande, Olivia Wesula; Vapalahti, Olli; Ahlm, Clas
The mosquito-borne Inkoo virus (INKV) is a member of the California serogroup in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus. These viruses are associated with fever and encephalitis, although INKV infections are not usually reported and the incidence is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of anti-INKV antibodies and associated risk factors in humans living in northern Sweden. Seroprevalence was investigated using the World Health Organization Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study, where a randomly selected population aged between 25 and 74 years (N = 1,607) was invited to participate. The presence of anti-INKV IgG antibodies was determined by immunofluorescence assay. Seropositivity for anti-INKV was significantly higher in men (46.9%) than in women (34.8%; P < 0.001). In women, but not in men, the prevalence increased somewhat with age (P = 0.06). The peak in seropositivity was 45–54 years for men and 55–64 years for women. Living in rural areas was associated with a higher seroprevalence. In conclusion, the prevalence of anti-INKV antibodies was high in northern Sweden and was associated with male sex, older age, and rural living. The age distribution indicates exposure to INKV at a relatively early age. These findings will be important for future epidemiological and clinical investigations of this relatively unknown mosquito-borne virus. PMID:26928830
Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities.
Nöstlinger, Christiana; Loos, Jasna
ABSTRACT Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has received considerable attention during past decades as a method to increase community ownership in research and prevention. We discuss its application to epidemiological research using the case of second-generation surveillance conducted among sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in Antwerp city. To inform evidence-based prevention planning for this target group, this HIV-prevalence study used two-stage time-location sampling preceded by formative research. Extensive collaborative partnerships were built with community organizations, a Community Advisory Board provided input throughout the project, and community researchers were trained to participate in all phases of the seroprevalence study. Valid oral fluid samples for HIV testing were collected among 717 SSA migrants and linked to behavioural data assessed through an anonymous survey between December 2013 and August 2014. A qualitative content analysis of various data sources (extensive field notes, minutes of intervision, and training protocols) collected at 77 data collection visits in 51 settings was carried out to describe experiences with challenges and opportunities inherent to the CBPR approach at three crucial stages of the research process: building collaborative partnerships; implementing the study; dissemination of findings including prevention planning. The results show that CBPR is feasible in conducting scientifically sound epidemiological research, but certain requirements need to be in place. These include among others sufficient resources to train, coordinate, and supervise community researchers; continuity in the implementation; transparency about decision-taking and administrative procedures, and willingness to share power and control over the full research process. CBPR contributed to empowering community researchers on a personal level, and to create greater HIV prevention demand in the SSA communities. PMID:26885938
Chetwynd, J; Brunton, C; Blank, M; Plumridge, E; Baldwin, D
To study the seroprevalence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) amongst a population of injecting drug users and to examine the relationship between potential risk factors and HCV infection. A sample of 116 clients attending a methadone treatment clinic in Christchurch took part in this study. Blood samples were analysed to detect antibodies to HCV and to test for HCV RNA: Serum transaminases were also measured. In addition a short questionnaire about sexual behaviour and drug use practices was self completed by all participants in strictest confidence. Slightly more than half the sample were female (54.3%) and most were of European origin (90.6%). The average age was 31.56 years and the average length of time they had been injecting drugs was 9.54 years. HCV antibodies were detected in 84.2% of the sample and HCV RNA in 66.1% of the sample including 75.9% amongst those who were anti-HCV positive and 16.6% amongst those who were anti-HCV negative. AST and ALT levels were elevated amongst 16.8% and 46.2% of the sample respectively. The likelihood of being anti-HCV positive increased with years of drug use and with increased sharing of injecting equipment. No significant relationship between HCV status and sexual practices was evident. Data on the history of drug using practices indicated that sharing of injecting equipment had become less common over time and access to new equipment through reliable sources had become more common with time. HCV is widespread amongst this population of injecting drug users suggesting the possibility of a major clinical and social problem. Despite evidence of a reduction in the sharing of injecting equipment, HCV transmission is still occurring indicating the potential for other parenterally transmitted diseases, such as HIV, to become established amongst injecting drug users. Those at high risk of HCV should be discouraged from donating blood because of the possibility of HCV seronegative infectivity.
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Alary, M; Castel, J
The surveillance of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) through case reporting only reflects the epidemiologic features of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) transmission a few years earlier and not the prevalence of HIV seropositivity. HIV infection is not a notifiable condition in Quebec. We were asked by the ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux du Québec to perform a pilot project for the surveillance of HIV seropositivity using a network of sentinel physicians. From May 15, 1988, to Sept. 30, 1989, physicians from four collaborating centres collected data on the serologic status, demographic characteristics and risk factors for 4209 patients who underwent HIV antibody testing. Of the 3899 subjects included in the study 7.9% were HIV positive. Through logistic regression analysis the following variables were found to be significantly associated with HIV seropositivity: presence of HIV-related symptoms (prevalence odds ratio [POR] 36.5), origin from an endemic area (POR 9.1), homosexuality or bisexuality (POR 8.4), intravenous drug use (POR 4.2), male sex (POR 2.8), previous HIV antibody testing (POR 2.5) and previous sexually transmitted disease (POR 1.8). Over the study period we found a large increase in HIV seroprevalence among intravenous drug users (4.2% in 1988 to 19.0% in 1989) (p = 0.02). This increase might reflect a recent change in the epidemiologic pattern of HIV transmission in Quebec. Surveillance of HIV seropositivity through a network of sentinel physicians may be a reasonable alternative to mandatory reporting. PMID:2357678
Christie, C D C; Steel-Duncan, J; Palmer, P; Pierre, R; Harvey, K; Johnson, N; Samuels, L A; Dunkley-Thompson, J; Singh-Minott, I; Anderson, M; Billings, C; Evans-Gilbert, T; Rodriquez, B; McDonald, C; Moore, J; Taylor, F; Smikle, M F; Williams, E; Whorms, S; Davis, D; Mullings, A; Morgan, O; McDonald, D; Alexander, G; Onyonyor, A; Hylton-Kong, T; Weller, P; Harris, M; Woodham, A; Haughton, D; Carrington, D; Figueroa, J P
Paediatric and Perinatal HIV/AIDS remain significant health challenges in the Caribbean where the HIV seroprevalence is second only to Sub-Saharan Africa. We describe a collaborative approach to the prevention, treatment and care ofHIVin pregnant women, infants and children in Jamaica. A team of academic and government healthcare personnel collaborated to address the paediatric and perinatal HIV epidemic in Greater Kingston as a model for Jamaica (population 2.6 million, HIV seroprevalence 1.5%). A five-point plan was utilized and included leadership and training, preventing mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT), treatment and care of women, infants and children, outcomes-based research and local, regional and international outreach. A core group of paediatric/perinatal HIV professionals were trained, including paediatricians, obstetricians, public health practitioners, nurses, microbiologists, data managers, information technology personnel and students to serve Greater Kingston (birth cohort 20,000). During September 2002 to August 2007, over 69 793 pregnant women presented for antenatal care. During these five years, significant improvements occurred in uptake of voluntary counselling (40% to 91%) and HIV-testing (53% to 102%). Eight hundred and eighty-three women tested HIV-positive with seroprevalence rates of 1-2% each year The use of modified short course zidovudine or nevirapine in the first three years significantly reduced mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV from 29% to 6% (RR 0.27; 95%0 CI--0.10, 0.68). During 2005 to 2007 using maternal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with zidovudine and lamivudine with either nevirapine, nelfinavir or lopinavir/ritonavir and infant zidovudine and nevirapine, MTCT was further reduced to an estimated 1.6% in Greater Kingston and 4.75% islandwide. In five years, we evaluated 1570 children in four-weekly paediatric infectious diseases clinics in Kingston, St Andrew and St Catherine and in six rural
Anita, S; Zahir, W M; Sa'iah, A; Rahimah, M A; Sha'ari, B N
Orang Asli, the indigenous people of Peninsular Malaysia comprises only 0.5% of total Malaysia population but contribute to 0.06% of total notified HIV cases in the country. Their current knowledge, attitude and practice related to HIV was not known. A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia was carried out involving 2706 Orang Asli from 33 remote and 47 fringe villages. Generally, the level of knowledge was fair (30%-50%) with mean scores of 55.7% (SD 31.7) while attitudes were negative. There was gender bias towards misconception on HIV transmission and sources of information. HIV seroprevalence of 0.3% was detected while risk behaviors were low. This study provides baseline information for HIV/AIDS preventive programs to the Orang Asli communities.
Drawing on 17 months of ethnographic fieldwork in Freetown, Sierra Leone, I highlight the recursive relationship between Sierra Leone as an exemplary setting and HIV as an exceptional disease. Through this relationship, I examine how HIV-positive individuals rely on both enumerative knowledge (seroprevalence rates) and vernacular accounting (NGO narratives of vulnerability) to communicate the uniqueness of their experience as HIV sufferers and to demarcate the boundaries of their status. Various observers' enumerative and vernacular accounts of Sierra Leone's decade-long civil conflict, coupled with global health accounts of HIV as exceptional, reveal the calculus of power through which global health projects operate. The contradictions between the exemplary and the exceptional-and the accompanying tension between quantitative and qualitative facts-are mutually constituted in performances and claims made by HIV-positive individuals themselves.
Babudieri, Sergio; Starnini, Giulio; Brunetti, Bruna; Carbonara, Sergio; D'Offizi, Gian Piero; Monarca, Roberto; Mazzarello, Giovanni; Novati, Stefano; Casti, Aldo; Florenzano, Grazia; Quercia, Giulio; Iovinella, Enzo; Sardu, Celestino; Romano, Anacleto; Dierna, Marinella; Vullo, Serafino; Pintus, Antonio; Maida, Ivana; Dori, Luca; Ardita, Sebastiano; Mura, Maria Stella; Andreoni, Massimo; Rezza, Giovanni
HIV and other infections represent an important health problem in Italian jails. In particular, HIV prevalence is high, due to the characteristics of the prison population, which is constituted by a large proportion of injecting drug users and foreigners. In addition, data from other countries suggest that risky behaviour are not uncommon during imprisonment, and transmission of HIV and other infection in this setting may also occur. Data from surveys conducted by the Penitentiary Authority in Italian jails show a decline of HIV seroprevalence from 9.7% in 1990 to 2.6% in 2001. However, these data are largely incomplete and do not account for possible biases due to self-selection of inmates toward HIV serological testing or to variations in the access to screening activities. More accurate data, possibly obtained through anonymous unlinked surveys, are needed in order to better plan health services and preventive measures.
Ballah, Ngormbu J; Kuonza, Lazarus R; De Gita, Gloria; Musekiwa, Alfred; Williams, Seymour; Takuva, Simbarashe
Strengthening current surveillance systems for syphilis is important to track and monitor disease burden. We used routinely collected laboratory information to generate surveillance estimates for syphilis trends among women of reproductive age (12-49 years) in the Northern Cape Province, a high syphilis burden region (2003 [8.6%] to 2011 [3.8%]) in South Africa. We extracted records meeting inclusion criteria from the National Health Laboratory Service electronic database for the period 2003-2012. A total of 286,024 women were included in the analysis. Syphilis seropositivity decreased between 2003 (5.7%) and 2012 (1.8%); p trend = 0.001, which was largely consistent with findings reported in the annual national syphilis and HIV survey from 2003 (8.6%) to 2011 (3.8%). Annually for the period from 2003 to 2012 there was an approximate 14% reduction in the prevalence ratio of syphilis seroprevalence (PR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.85-0.87, p < 0.001). Three of five districts had significant decreases in syphilis seropositivity over this period. There were also declines in prevalence ratios for syphilis seropositivity for the various age groups for the period. This study shows that the national laboratory database in South Africa can be used as a complimentary surveillance tool to describe and understand trends in syphilis seroprevalence in South Africa.
Spaulding, Anne C.; Seals, Ryan M.; Page, Matthew J.; Brzozowski, Amanda K.; Rhodes, William; Hammett, Theodore M.
Because certain groups at high risk for HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) come together in correctional facilities, seroprevalence was high early in the epidemic. The share of the HIV/AIDS epidemic borne by inmates of and persons released from jails and prisons in the United States (US) in 1997 was estimated in a previous paper. While the number of inmates and releasees has risen, their HIV seroprevalence rates have fallen. We sought to determine if the share of HIV/AIDS borne by inmates and releasees in the US decreased between 1997 and 2006. We created a new model of population flow in and out of correctional facilities to estimate the number of persons released in 1997 and 2006. In 1997, approximately one in five of all HIV-infected Americans was among the 7.3 million who left a correctional facility that year. Nine years later, only one in seven (14%) of infected Americans was among the 9.1 million leaving, a 29.3% decline in the share. For black and Hispanic males, two demographic groups with heightened incarceration rates, recently released inmates comprise roughly one in five of those groups' total HIV-infected persons, a figure similar to the proportion borne by the correctional population as a whole in 1997. Decreasing HIV seroprevalence among those admitted to jails and prisons, prolonged survival and aging of the US population with HIV/AIDS beyond the crime-prone years, and success with discharge planning programs targeting HIV-infected prisoners could explain the declining concentration of the epidemic among correctional populations. Meanwhile, the number of persons with HIV/AIDS leaving correctional facilities remains virtually identical. Jails and prisons continue to be potent targets for public health interventions. The fluid nature of incarcerated populations ensures that effective interventions will be felt not only in correctional facilities but also in communities to which releasees return. PMID:19907649
Spaulding, Anne C; Seals, Ryan M; Page, Matthew J; Brzozowski, Amanda K; Rhodes, William; Hammett, Theodore M
Because certain groups at high risk for HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) come together in correctional facilities, seroprevalence was high early in the epidemic. The share of the HIV/AIDS epidemic borne by inmates of and persons released from jails and prisons in the United States (US) in 1997 was estimated in a previous paper. While the number of inmates and releasees has risen, their HIV seroprevalence rates have fallen. We sought to determine if the share of HIV/AIDS borne by inmates and releasees in the US decreased between 1997 and 2006. We created a new model of population flow in and out of correctional facilities to estimate the number of persons released in 1997 and 2006. In 1997, approximately one in five of all HIV-infected Americans was among the 7.3 million who left a correctional facility that year. Nine years later, only one in seven (14%) of infected Americans was among the 9.1 million leaving, a 29.3% decline in the share. For black and Hispanic males, two demographic groups with heightened incarceration rates, recently released inmates comprise roughly one in five of those groups' total HIV-infected persons, a figure similar to the proportion borne by the correctional population as a whole in 1997. Decreasing HIV seroprevalence among those admitted to jails and prisons, prolonged survival and aging of the US population with HIV/AIDS beyond the crime-prone years, and success with discharge planning programs targeting HIV-infected prisoners could explain the declining concentration of the epidemic among correctional populations. Meanwhile, the number of persons with HIV/AIDS leaving correctional facilities remains virtually identical. Jails and prisons continue to be potent targets for public health interventions. The fluid nature of incarcerated populations ensures that effective interventions will be felt not only in correctional facilities but also in communities to which releasees return.
Rengifo-Herrera, Claudia; Pile, Edwin; García, Anabel; Pérez, Alexander; Pérez, Dimas; Nguyen, Felicia K.; de la Guardia, Valli; Mcleod, Rima; Caballero, Zuleima
Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease but information regarding domestic animals in Central America is scarce and fragmented. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats and dogs in different metropolitan regions of Panama. A total of 576 samples were collected; sera from 120 cats and 456 dogs were tested using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 30.73%. There is high seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats and dogs in the metropolitan regions around the Panama Canal; however, differences between these species were not significant. Statistical analysis indicated that there are relevant variables, such as the age of animals, with a direct positive relationship with seroprevalence. None of the variables related to animal welfare (veterinary attention provided, type of dwelling, and access to green areas and drinking water) were associated with seropositivity. PMID:28287391
Little, Susan; Sears, William; Lachtara, Jessica; Bienzle, Dorothee
The purposes of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection among cats in Canada and to identify risk factors for seropositivity. Signalment, lifestyle factors, and test results for FeLV antigen and FIV antibody were analyzed for 11 144 cats from the 10 Canadian provinces. Seroprevalence for FIV antibody was 4.3% and seroprevalence for FeLV antigen was 3.4%. Fifty-eight cats (0.5%) were seropositive for both viruses. Seroprevalence varied geographically. Factors such as age, gender, health status, and lifestyle were significantly associated with risk of FeLV and FIV seropositivity. The results suggest that cats in Canada are at risk of retrovirus infection and support current recommendations that the retrovirus status of all cats should be known.
Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Yonghua; Niu, Jingyuan; Xie, Qing; Xiao, Tingwei; Chen, Yunchao; Li, Han; Ma, Chenchen; Zhang, Haizhu; Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Zhenchao
To investigate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats in central China, 843 serum samples were collected in Henan province between March 2015 and May 2016 and tested for IgG antibodies against T. gondii using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 21% (178/843). No significant difference was observed based on the sex of cats (p > 0.05). Significantly higher seroprevalence (p < 0.05) was observed in mixed-breed cats (24%) compared to purebred cats (17%). Seroprevalence in rural cats (29%) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than in urban cats (16%), and increased significantly (p < 0.01) with age. These results showed that T. gondii was highly prevalent in domestic cats in Henan province, central China, which might have important implications for public health. PMID:28322721
Loeffen, Willie L.A.; Quak, Sjaak; de Boer-Luijtze, Els; van der Spek, Arco N.; Bouwstra, Ruth; Maas, Riks; Spierenburg, Marcel A.H.; de Kluijver, Eric P.; van Schaik, Gerdien; van der Poel, Wim H.M.
Infections with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are associated with congenital malformations in ruminants. Because reporting of suspected cases only could underestimate the true rate of infection, we conducted a seroprevalence study in the Netherlands to detect past exposure to SBV among dairy cattle. A total of 1,123 serum samples collected from cattle during November 2011–January 2012 were tested for antibodies against SBV by using a virus neutralization test; seroprevalence was 72.5%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in the central-eastern part of the Netherlands than in the northern and southern regions (p<0.001). In addition, high (70%–100%) within-herd seroprevalence was observed in 2 SBV-infected dairy herds and 2 SBV-infected sheep herds. No significant differences were found in age-specific prevalence of antibodies against SBV, which is an indication that SBV is newly arrived in the country. PMID:22709656
Rostami, Ali; Riahi, Seyed Mohammad; Fakhri, Yadollah; Saber, Vafa; Hanifehpour, Hooman; Valizadeh, Soghra; Gholizadeh, Majid; Pouya, Rokhsane Hosseini; Gamble, H Ray
This systematic review and meta-analysis study was performed to evaluate the worldwide seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among wild boar. We searched PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane, Scopus, EBSCOhost and Google Scholar databases for studies reporting T. gondii seroprevalence in wild boars between January 1995 and March 2017. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. We estimated the pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii in wild boars using a random-effects model, and evaluated overall seroprevalence in different geographical areas. A total of 43 articles that included 16788 wild boar from 23 countries fulfilled our eligibility criteria. Of these, 4759 wild boar had been defined T. gondii seropositive and we estimated the pooled worldwide seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in wild boars to be 23% (95% CI: 19-27%). The pooled seroprevalence in North America (32%, 20-45%; odds ratio [OR] 2.09) and Europe (26%, 21-30%; OR 1.72), was higher than Asia (13%, 5-23%). The lowest seroprevalence was estimated in South America (5%, 3-8%). An increased seropositivity was observed with elevation in geographical latitude. In subgroup analyses, the pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii was higher in wild boar older than 12 months of age (28%, 22-35%; OR 1.57) compared to those up to 12 months of age (20%, 16-25%). Our findings suggest that wild boar have an important role in human infection and the epidemiological cycle of T. gondii infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moloney, B J; Kirkland, P D; Heuer, C
To determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies in beef breeding herds across New South Wales (NSW) and to determine if there are any differences associated with geographic location and other herd-level factors. Cross-sectional survey of beef breeding cows (n = 3298) from 63 properties (approximately 55 cows per herd) sampled randomly from six regions in NSW using a multistage survey design. Samples were tested by ELISA for N. caninum. Seroprevalence was determined at animal and herd levels, using an analysis approach to account for stratification, sample weighting and within-herd clustering. Animal-level seroprevalence ranged from 1.8% to 11.3% across regions and the overall animal seroprevalence for NSW was 5.9%. The mean within-herd seroprevalence was 5.2%. The herd seroprevalence ranged from 50% to 92%, with an overall point estimate for NSW of 63.8% (using ≥ 1 animal positive = herd positive). The within-herd seroprevalence ranged from 1.6% to 32.7% Prevalence and associated confidence limits were adjusted for the design of the survey. Overall, about two-thirds of all herds in NSW showed evidence of infection, but the seroprevalence of N. caninum in individual beef cattle in NSW was low to moderate (1.8-11.3%). Significant differences occurred between regions. The risk for herds being positive for N. caninum was associated with geographic factors, particularly in the Mid-North Coast Region. © 2017 State of New South Wales.
... antibody tests, combination or fourth-generation tests, and nucleic acid tests (NAT). HIV tests may be performed on ... retested 3 months after your possible exposure. A nucleic acid test (NAT) looks for HIV in the blood. ...
Sogoba, Nafomon; Rosenke, Kyle; Adjemian, Jennifer; Diawara, Sory Ibrahim; Maiga, Ousmane; Keita, Moussa; Konaté, Drissa; Keita, Abdoul Salam; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Boisen, Matt; Nelson, Diana; Oottamasathien, Darin; Millett, Molly; Garry, Robert F.; Branco, Luis M.; Traoré, Sékou F.; Doumbia, Seydou; Feldmann, Heinz
Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to several nations in West Africa. In Mali, LASV was unknown until an exported case of Lassa fever was reported in 2009. Since that time, rodent surveys have found evidence of LASV-infected Mastomys natalensis rats in several communities in southern Mali, near the border with Côte d’Ivoire. Despite increased awareness, to date only a single case of Lassa fever has been confirmed in Mali. We conducted a survey to determine the prevalence of LASV exposure among persons in 3 villages in southern Mali where the presence of infected rodents has been documented. LASV IgG seroprevalence ranged from 14.5% to 44% per village. No sex bias was noted; however, seropositivity rates increased with participant age. These findings confirm human LASV exposure in Mali and suggest that LASV infection/Lassa fever is a potential public health concern in southern Mali. PMID:26981786
Sogoba, Nafomon; Rosenke, Kyle; Adjemian, Jennifer; Diawara, Sory Ibrahim; Maiga, Ousmane; Keita, Moussa; Konaté, Drissa; Keita, Abdoul Salam; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Boisen, Matt; Nelson, Diana; Oottamasathien, Darin; Millett, Molly; Garry, Robert F; Branco, Luis M; Traoré, Sékou F; Doumbia, Seydou; Feldmann, Heinz; Safronetz, David
Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to several nations in West Africa. In Mali, LASV was unknown until an exported case of Lassa fever was reported in 2009. Since that time, rodent surveys have found evidence of LASV-infected Mastomys natalensis rats in several communities in southern Mali, near the border with Côte d'Ivoire. Despite increased awareness, to date only a single case of Lassa fever has been confirmed in Mali. We conducted a survey to determine the prevalence of LASV exposure among persons in 3 villages in southern Mali where the presence of infected rodents has been documented. LASV IgG seroprevalence ranged from 14.5% to 44% per village. No sex bias was noted; however, seropositivity rates increased with participant age. These findings confirm human LASV exposure in Mali and suggest that LASV infection/Lassa fever is a potential public health concern in southern Mali.
Ortuño, Anna; Castellà, Joaquim; Almería, Sonia
The prevalence of Neospora caninum antibodies was determined in sera of 139 dogs from Catalonia (northeastern Spain) using the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Antibodies in the IFAT were found in 17 of 139 dogs (12.2%) with titers ranging from 1:50 to 1: 1,600. Seroprevalence was higher in dogs over 1 yr old compared with dogs younger than 1 yr (P < 0.05). No statistical difference was observed when sex, breed, purpose, or modus vivendi was compared with seropositivity. Most dogs had low antibody titers, which indicated subclinical infection in the area studied. No neosporosis-related disease was reported from any dog, although a German shepherd with an antibody titer of 1:800 showed pododermatitis. All sera were also screened using a commercial direct agglutination test (DAT). The DAT showed a similar specificity but a lower sensitivity when compared with IFAT as a reference technique.
Moro, Maria Luisa; Gagliotti, Carlo; Silvi, Giuliano; Angelini, Raffaella; Sambri, Vittorio; Rezza, Giovanni; Massimiliani, Erika; Mattivi, Andrea; Grilli, Elisa; Finarelli, Alba Carola; Spataro, Nadir; Pierro, Anna Maria; Seyler, Thomas; Macini, Pierluigi
After an outbreak of Chikungunya infection in Emilia-Romagna Region (North-eastern Italy), a survey was performed to estimate the seroprevalence of antibody to Chikungunya virus and the proportion of asymptomatic infections, to identify factors associated with infection, and evaluate the performance of the surveillance system. The method used was a survey on a random sample of residents of the village with the largest number of reported cases. The prevalence was 10.2% (33 of 325), being higher in older people and males, and lower when window screens and insect repellents were used. Only 18% of infected persons were fully asymptomatic, 85% of the 27 symptomatic confirmed cases satisfied the surveillance case definition, and 63% of the persons meeting the criteria for suspect case were identified by the active surveillance system. This study provides basic parameters for modeling the transmission potential of outbreaks and planning control measures for Chikungunya infection in temperate settings. PMID:20207883
Barnett, Elizabeth D; Christiansen, Demian; Figueira, Marisol
Immigrant children who enter the United States without immunization records may be required to receive vaccines for diseases to which they are already immune or for which they have previously received immunization. We tested 669 newly arrived refugees (age range, 0-20 years) for antibody to measles, rubella, and varicella, to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to these diseases in this group of immigrants. Five hundred forty-nine (82%) of 669 patients had antibody to measles, 545 (82%) of 668 had antibody to rubella, and 430 (64%) of 668 had antibody to varicella. Antibody to all 3 diseases increased with increasing age. No clinically significant differences in presence of antibody were noted by region of origin.
Kaplan, Mustafa; Kuk, Salih; Kalkan, Ahmet; Demirdağ, Kutbettin; Ozdarendeli, Aykut
In this study, for the detection of Fasciola hepatica infection seroprevalence in Elaziğ region (Eastern Anatolia), the presence of F. hepatica IgG antibodies were investigated by using a home-made enzyme immunoassay, in the sera of 540 healthy volunteers (254 males, 286 females) from different age groups (age range: 0-81 yrs, mean age: 33 +/- 20 yrs). The total seropositivity rate in this region of our country was found 2.78%, with no differences between males and females (respectively, 2.76% and 2.8%). F. hepatica IgG positive subjects were then evaluated for the parameters of age, educational and socioeconomical status, and it was found that there were no statistically significant differences.
Cunha, Rivaldo V; Trinta, Karen S; Montalbano, Camila A; Sucupira, Michel V F; de Lima, Maricelia M; Marques, Erenilde; Romanholi, Izilyanne H; Croda, Julio
The emergence of the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is currently expanding. In 2015, 38,332 cases of Chikungunya were reported to the Brazilian epidemiological surveillance system. Eighteen months after notification of the first case in the city of Feira de Santana, we conducted the first serosurvey to define the magnitude of transmission in a rural community in Brazil. The serosurvey was conducted in a random sample of 450 residences in the Chapada district, located 100 kilometers from Feira de Santana. We administered questionnaires and tested 120 sera from Chapada district residents for CHIKV IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies. An individual with CHIKV infection was defined as any person with CHIKV IgM or IgG antibodies detected in the serum. One Hundred cases of Chikungunya were reported after prolonged rainfall, which reinforced the relationship between the rainfall index and CHIKV transmission. Eighteen months after the start of the outbreak, we identified a seroprevalence of 20% (95% CI, 15.4-35%). CHIKV IgG- and IgM-specific antibodies were detected in 22/120 (18.3%) and 6/120 (5.0%) individuals, respectively. Among seropositive patients, 13/24 (54.2%) reported fever and joint pain over the previous two years (p<0.01). The rate of symptomatic CHIKV infection was 40.7%. We identified a moderate seroprevalence of Chikungunya in the Chapada district, and in half of the confirmed CHIKV infections, patients reported arthralgia and fever over the previous two years.
Raharimanga, Vaomalala; Carod, Jean-François; Ramarokoto, Charles-Emile; Chrétien, Jean-Baptiste; Rakotomanana, Fanjasoa; Talarmin, Antoine; Richard, Vincent
Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an enteric, viral, infectious disease endemic in many developing countries such as Madagascar. Infection is often subclinical or asymptomatic in children; however, symptomatic acute infections become more common with increasing age. In some developing countries, improvements in living conditions have led to changes in the epidemiological pattern of HAV infection. There are very few reports on the prevalence of HAV in Madagascar. This study was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus antibodies in relation to age in the city of Antananarivo, Madagascar. Methods Serum samples collected in 2004 during a cross-sectional survey of individuals aged between two and 24 years from Antananarivo were tested for anti-HAV antibody using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit. Subjects were investigated using a standardized social and medical history questionnaire. Results 926 subjects were enrolled including 406 males and 520 females. There were 251 children under 10 years old and 675 subjects between 10 and 24 years old. Of the 926 serum samples tested, 854 (92.2%) were positive for anti-HAV antibodies. The number of seropositive samples was similar for males and females. The overall seroprevalence was 83.7% (210/251) for children under 10 years old and 95.5% (644/675) for subjects aged between 10 and 24 years (p < 0.001). Conclusion Despite improvements in sanitary conditions and hygiene over the last few years, the prevalence of HAV in Antananarivo is high. Only children under five years old remain susceptible to HAV infection. Immunization against HAV is not needed at the present time in the Madagascan population, but should be recommended for travellers. PMID:18538023
Messerer, L; Bouzbid, S; Gourbdji, E; Mansouri, R; Bachi, F
The aim of the study was to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in the department of Annaba, Algeria. We performed a cross-sectional study with analytical purposes. The study was collaboration between the laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology, Faculty of Medicine of Annaba and Parasite Biology Department at the Pasteur Institute of Algeria. A total of 1028 pregnant women who underwent prenatal diagnosis/visit were included over a period of 4 years from January 2006 to December 2009. Immunoglobulin G and M were assayed, using the microparticle enzyme method. The avidity test was used to determine the date of contamination according to age of pregnancy. Search for the parasite was made by inoculation of the placenta and cord blood in white mice. The study compared mother-to-child serological profiles using Western Blot (WB) IgG and IgM. Direct (not well-cooked meat) and indirect (presence of cat, gardening) indicators were recorded to search for parasite exposure. Seroprevalence was 47.8 % (95 % CI: 44.8 to 51.0) and the rate of active toxoplasmosis was 1.1 % (95 % CI 0.6 to 1.8). According to their immune status, this was the first serology for 41 % (CI95 %: 38.0-44.0) of women; 12 % (CI95 %: 10.5-14.6) of primiparous women had only one serology test during their entire pregnancy. Major risk factors were consumption of poorly-cooked meat and exposure to cats. Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is a serious issue and an effective prevention program is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Dvořáková Heroldová, M; Dvořáčková, M
Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) is an emerging tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by an obligate intracellular bacterium, Anaplasma phagocytophilum. In Europe, A. phagocytophilum is transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks. After Lyme borreliosis and European tick-borne encephalitis, HGA is the third most common tick-borne infection in the USA and Europe. The clinical symptoms of anaplasmosis are non-specific and include malaise, fever, headache, myalgia, and arthralgia. In more severe cases, the gastrointestinal or respiratory tract may be affected. However, most infections are asymptomatic. The aim of our study was to determine the seroprevalence of A. phagocytophilum in patients with suspected Lyme borreliosis. A total of 314 sera from patients with suspected Lyme borreliosis were screened for IgG and IgM antibodies against A. phagocytophilum. The immunoblot assay was used to detect the antibodies. Anti-A. phagocytophilum antibodies were detected in 34 patients, i.e. in 10.82%. IgM antibodies were positive in 19 cases and IgG antibodies in 10 cases. Positivity to both IgM and IgG antibodies was revealed in five patients. Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were detected in 181 patients (57.64%). Co-seroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. and A. phagocytophilum was found in 26 patients (8.3%). Positivity for anti-A. phagocytophilum antibodies was most often seen in samples from the age group 60-69 years. Our results show that A. phagocytophilum infection is not uncommon in the Czech Republic and should be considered in patients with a history of a tick bite.
Passos-Castilho, Ana Maria; de Sena, Anne; Domingues, Ana Lucia Coutinho; Lopes-Neto, Edmundo Pessoa; Medeiros, Tibério Batista; Granato, Celso Francisco Hernandez; Ferraz, Maria Lúcia
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause chronic infection with rapid progression to liver cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients. HEV seroprevalence in patients with Schistosoma mansoni in Brazil is unknown. We evaluated the prevalence of past or present HEV infection in schistosomiasis patients in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A total of 80 patients with Schistosoma mansoni were consecutively enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies by enzyme immunoassay (Wantai anti-HEV IgG, Beijing, China) and for the presence of HEV RNA using real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with primers targeting the HEV ORF2 and ORF3. Clinical and laboratory tests as well as abdominal ultrasound were performed at the same day of blood collection. Anti-HEV IgG was positive in 18.8% (15/80) of patients with SM. None of the samples tested positive for anti-HEV IgM or HEV-RNA. Patients with anti-HEV IgG positive presented higher levels of alanine aminotranferase (p=0.048) and gama-glutamil transferase (p=0.022) when compared to patients without anti-HEV IgG antibodies. This study demonstrates that the seroprevalence of HEV is high in patients with Schistosoma mansoni in Northeastern of Brazil. Past HEV infection is associated with higher frequency of liver enzymes abnormalities. HEV infection and its role on the severity of liver disease should be further investigated among patients with Schistosoma mansoni. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Cunha, Rivaldo V.; Trinta, Karen S.; Montalbano, Camila A.; Sucupira, Michel V. F.; de Lima, Maricelia M.; Marques, Erenilde; Romanholi, Izilyanne H.
Background The emergence of the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is currently expanding. In 2015, 38,332 cases of Chikungunya were reported to the Brazilian epidemiological surveillance system. Eighteen months after notification of the first case in the city of Feira de Santana, we conducted the first serosurvey to define the magnitude of transmission in a rural community in Brazil. Methodology/Main findings The serosurvey was conducted in a random sample of 450 residences in the Chapada district, located 100 kilometers from Feira de Santana. We administered questionnaires and tested 120 sera from Chapada district residents for CHIKV IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies. An individual with CHIKV infection was defined as any person with CHIKV IgM or IgG antibodies detected in the serum. One Hundred cases of Chikungunya were reported after prolonged rainfall, which reinforced the relationship between the rainfall index and CHIKV transmission. Eighteen months after the start of the outbreak, we identified a seroprevalence of 20% (95% CI, 15.4–35%). CHIKV IgG- and IgM-specific antibodies were detected in 22/120 (18.3%) and 6/120 (5.0%) individuals, respectively. Among seropositive patients, 13/24 (54.2%) reported fever and joint pain over the previous two years (p<0.01). The rate of symptomatic CHIKV infection was 40.7%. Conclusions/Significance We identified a moderate seroprevalence of Chikungunya in the Chapada district, and in half of the confirmed CHIKV infections, patients reported arthralgia and fever over the previous two years. PMID:28107342
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto
Background Leptospira can be found in soil. However, it is unclear whether occupational exposure to soil may represent a risk for Leptospira infection in humans. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of gardener, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of gardeners associated with Leptospira exposure. Methods We performed a case-control study in 168 gardeners and 168 age- and gender-matched control subjects without gardening occupation in Durango City, Mexico. The seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in cases and controls was determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Leptospira exposure and the characteristics of the gardeners. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6%) of 168 gardeners and in 15 (8.9%) of 168 control subjects (odds ratio (OR): 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28 - 1.48; P = 0.40). Multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira seropositivity was positively associated with female gender (OR: 5.82; 95% CI: 1.11 - 30.46; P = 0.03), and negatively associated with eating while working (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05 - 0.87; P = 0.03). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that high anti-Leptospira levels were associated with consumption of boar meat (OR: 28.00; 95% CI: 1.20 - 648.80; P = 0.03). Conclusions This is the first case-control study of Leptospira exposure in gardeners. Results do not support an association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of gardener. However, further studies to confirm the lack of this association are needed. The potential role of consumption of boar meat in Leptospira infection deserves further investigation. PMID:26668679
Wilson, Heather M.; Hall, Jeffery S.; Flint, Paul L.; Franson, J. Christian; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Samuel, Michael D.
We examined seroprevalence (presence of detectable antibodies in serum) for avian influenza viruses (AIV) among 4,485 birds, from 11 species of wild waterfowl in Alaska (1998–2010), sampled during breeding/molting periods. Seroprevalence varied among species (highest in eiders (Somateria and Polysticta species), and emperor geese (Chen canagica)), ages (adults higher than juveniles), across geographic locations (highest in the Arctic and Alaska Peninsula) and among years in tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). All seroprevalence rates in excess of 60% were found in marine-dependent species. Seroprevalence was much higher than AIV infection based on rRT-PCR or virus isolation alone. Because pre-existing AIV antibodies can infer some protection against highly pathogenic AIV (HPAI H5N1), our results imply that some wild waterfowl in Alaska could be protected from lethal HPAIV infections. Seroprevalence should be considered in deciphering patterns of exposure, differential infection, and rates of AIV transmission. Our results suggest surveillance programs include species and populations with high AIV seroprevalences, in addition to those with high infection rates. Serologic testing, including examination of serotype-specific antibodies throughout the annual cycle, would help to better assess spatial and temporal patterns of AIV transmission and overall disease dynamics.
García-Hernández, Montserrat Elemi; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Sánchez-Betancourt, José Iván; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Vergara-Castañeda, Arely; Trujillo, María E; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is one of the most common causes of acute liver diseases in humans worldwide. In developing countries, HEV is commonly associated with waterborne outbreaks. Conversely, in industrialized countries, HEV infection is often associated with travel to endemic regions or ingestion of contaminated animal products. Limited information on both, human and animal HEV infection in Mexico is available. As a consequence, the distribution of the virus in the country is largely unknown. Here, we assessed the seroprevalence of HEV among swine in different geographical regions in Mexico. Seroprevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in swine herds in Mexico was evaluated in a representative sample including 945 pig serum specimens from different regions of the country using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in swine was 59.4%. The northern region of Mexico exhibited the highest seroprevalence in the country (86.6%), while the central and southern regions in Mexico showed lower seroprevalence, 42.7% and 51.5%, respectively. In Mexico, HEV seroprevalence in swine is high. Importantly, northern Mexico showed the highest seroprevalence in the country. Thus, further studies are required to identify the risk factors contributing to HEV transmission among pigs in the country. Assessment of HEV human infection in the context of viral transmission in swine is required to better understand the epidemiology of hepatitis E in Mexico.
Sattler, Andrew C; Krogwold, Roger A; Wittum, Thomas E; Rupprecht, Charles E; Algeo, Timothy P; Slate, Dennis; Smith, Kathleen A; Hale, Robert L; Nohrenberg, Gary A; Lovell, Charles D; Niezgoda, Mike; Montoney, Andrew J; Slemons, Richard D
The effect of different oral rabies vaccine (ORV) bait densities (75, 150, and 300 baits/km(2)) on the seroprevalence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (RVNAs) in raccoons (Procyon lotor) was assessed at a 15% seroprevalence difference threshold in rural areas of northeast Ohio. Results (n=588 raccoons) indicated that seropositivity for RVNAs was associated with both bait density and bait campaign frequency. Associations were not detected for raccoon gender, age, or macro-habitat. The odds of being seropositive were greater for raccoons originating from 300 bait/km(2) treatment areas relative to those coming from the 75 bait/km(2) areas (odds ratio [OR]=4.4, probability [P]<0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.4-7.9), while accounting for cumulative ORV campaigns. No statistical advantage in seroprevalence was detected when comparing 150-75 baits/km(2). These results indicate that a relatively extreme bait density when evenly distributed may be necessary to obtain a significant increase in seroprevalence. Higher bait densities may be more appropriate and less costly to address focused outbreaks than labor intensive trap-vaccinate-release and local population reduction campaigns. Finally, dramatic increases in seroprevalence of RVNA were not observed in raccoons between sequential, semi-annual campaigns, yet cumulative ORV campaigns were associated with gradual increases in seroprevalence.
Wilson, Heather M.; Hall, Jeffery S.; Flint, Paul L.; Franson, J. Christian; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Samuel, Michael D.
We examined seroprevalence (presence of detectable antibodies in serum) for avian influenza viruses (AIV) among 4,485 birds, from 11 species of wild waterfowl in Alaska (1998–2010), sampled during breeding/molting periods. Seroprevalence varied among species (highest in eiders (Somateria and Polysticta species), and emperor geese (Chen canagica)), ages (adults higher than juveniles), across geographic locations (highest in the Arctic and Alaska Peninsula) and among years in tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). All seroprevalence rates in excess of 60% were found in marine-dependent species. Seroprevalence was much higher than AIV infection based on rRT-PCR or virus isolation alone. Because pre-existing AIV antibodies can infer some protection against highly pathogenic AIV (HPAI H5N1), our results imply that some wild waterfowl in Alaska could be protected from lethal HPAIV infections. Seroprevalence should be considered in deciphering patterns of exposure, differential infection, and rates of AIV transmission. Our results suggest surveillance programs include species and populations with high AIV seroprevalences, in addition to those with high infection rates. Serologic testing, including examination of serotype-specific antibodies throughout the annual cycle, would help to better assess spatial and temporal patterns of AIV transmission and overall disease dynamics. PMID:23472177
Paradis, Marie-Anne; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Rajic, Andrijana; Ravel, André; Wilson, Jeff B.; Aramini, Jeff; McClure, Carol A.; Dick, C. Paul
Porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis is an important enteric disease in swine throughout the world. Information regarding the distribution of this pathogen in Canadian swine herds would be beneficial for the creation of control protocols. Pigs from Ontario, Quebec, and Alberta were tested by using an indirect immunofluorescence assay for antibodies to L. intracellularis. Pig seroprevalence was calculated as the proportion of pigs positive from total pigs tested in the targeted population. Seroprevalence (± standard error [sχ̄]) in market hogs in Ontario from farrow-finish (FF) farms and finishing (FIN) farms were significantly different at 77% (sχ̄ = 7%) and 29% (sχ̄ = 15%), respectively. Seroprevalence for sows and gilts in FF and farrowing and nursery (FAR + NUR) farms in Ontario were 90% (sχ̄ = 3%) and 93% (sχ̄ = 6%), respectively. Seroprevalence in breeding females in Quebec from FF and FAR farms was 82% (sχ̄ = 5%) and 87% (sχ̄ = 3%), respectively. Seroprevalence (57%, sχ̄ = 8%) in finishing pigs in Alberta from FF farms was significantly different from that of multisite (MS) farms and FIN farms, 6% (sχ̄ = 6%) and 9% (sχ̄ = 5%), respectively. Lawsonia intracellularis appears to be widespread in Canada and the seroprevalence on FF farms is higher than that on FIN and MS farms, possibly due to the presence of breeding females or management differences. PMID:17310623
Wilson, Heather M; Hall, Jeffery S; Flint, Paul L; Franson, J Christian; Ely, Craig R; Schmutz, Joel A; Samuel, Michael D
We examined seroprevalence (presence of detectable antibodies in serum) for avian influenza viruses (AIV) among 4,485 birds, from 11 species of wild waterfowl in Alaska (1998-2010), sampled during breeding/molting periods. Seroprevalence varied among species (highest in eiders (Somateria and Polysticta species), and emperor geese (Chen canagica)), ages (adults higher than juveniles), across geographic locations (highest in the Arctic and Alaska Peninsula) and among years in tundra swans (Cygnus columbianus). All seroprevalence rates in excess of 60% were found in marine-dependent species. Seroprevalence was much higher than AIV infection based on rRT-PCR or virus isolation alone. Because pre-existing AIV antibodies can infer some protection against highly pathogenic AIV (HPAI H5N1), our results imply that some wild waterfowl in Alaska could be protected from lethal HPAIV infections. Seroprevalence should be considered in deciphering patterns of exposure, differential infection, and rates of AIV transmission. Our results suggest surveillance programs include species and populations with high AIV seroprevalences, in addition to those with high infection rates. Serologic testing, including examination of serotype-specific antibodies throughout the annual cycle, would help to better assess spatial and temporal patterns of AIV transmission and overall disease dynamics.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite presenting as a zoonotic infection distributed worldwide. In HIV-positive individuals, it causes severe opportunistic infections, which is of major public health concern as it results in physical and psychological disabilities. In healthy immunocompetent individuals, it causes asymptomatic chronic persistent infections, but in immunosuppressed patients, there is reactivation of the parasite if the CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/μl. The seroprevalence rates are variable in different geographic areas. The tissue cyst or oocyst is the infective form which enters by ingestion of contaminated meat and transform into tachyzoites and disseminate into blood stream. In immunocompetent persons due to cell-mediated immunity the parasite is transformed into tissue cyst resulting in life long chronic infection. In HIV-infected people opportunistic infection by T. gondii occurs due to depletion of CD4 cells, decreased production of cytokines and interferon gamma and impaired cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity resulting in reactivation of latent infection. The diagnosis can be done by clinical, serological, radiological, histological or molecular methods, or by the combination of these. There is various treatment regimen including acute treatment, maintenance therapy should be given as the current anti T. gondii therapy cannot eradicate tissue cysts. In HIV patients, CD4 counts <100; cotrimoxazole, alternately dapsone + pyrimethamine can be given for 6 months. Hence, early diagnosis of T. gondii antibodies is important in all HIV-positive individuals to prevent complications of cerebral toxoplasmosis.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite presenting as a zoonotic infection distributed worldwide. In HIV-positive individuals, it causes severe opportunistic infections, which is of major public health concern as it results in physical and psychological disabilities. In healthy immunocompetent individuals, it causes asymptomatic chronic persistent infections, but in immunosuppressed patients, there is reactivation of the parasite if the CD4 counts fall below 200 cells/μl. The seroprevalence rates are variable in different geographic areas. The tissue cyst or oocyst is the infective form which enters by ingestion of contaminated meat and transform into tachyzoites and disseminate into blood stream. In immunocompetent persons due to cell-mediated immunity the parasite is transformed into tissue cyst resulting in life long chronic infection. In HIV-infected people opportunistic infection by T. gondii occurs due to depletion of CD4 cells, decreased production of cytokines and interferon gamma and impaired cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity resulting in reactivation of latent infection. The diagnosis can be done by clinical, serological, radiological, histological or molecular methods, or by the combination of these. There is various treatment regimen including acute treatment, maintenance therapy should be given as the current anti T. gondii therapy cannot eradicate tissue cysts. In HIV patients, CD4 counts <100; cotrimoxazole, alternately dapsone + pyrimethamine can be given for 6 months. Hence, early diagnosis of T. gondii antibodies is important in all HIV-positive individuals to prevent complications of cerebral toxoplasmosis. PMID:27722101
Myles, J E; Hirozawa, A; Katz, M H; Kimmerling, R; Bamberger, J D
This paper presents the findings of a retrospective review of charts of sexual assault survivors who were offered postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) between April 1998 and November 1999 at San Francisco General Hospital. The total cost of PEP medications was also computed. Overall, it is noted that one-third of the 367 sexual assault survivors chose to initiate PEP. Men who were anally raped are at the highest risk for HIV transmission and were most likely to initiate PEP. Among women, on the other hand, those who were non-White and homeless were less likely to accept PEP. In the context of cost, the total per-person cost of medication dispensed during the study period (US$65 per person offered PEP) is comparable to other medications offered routinely following sexual assault, such as azithromycin for chlamydia prophylaxis (US$43 per treatment). However, there is no definitive evidence that PEP is effective in preventing HIV seroconversion after sexual assault. It is suggested that in developing rational policy recommendation offering HIV PEP after sexual assault, further studies are needed to better delineate the rates of HIV seroprevalence among sexual assailants, the efficacy of PEP after sexual exposure, and the psychological benefits or harm incurred by the sexually assaulted patients.
South Africa's long isolation, and perhaps deliberate efforts by the apartheid government, have led to an unusual pattern of drug abuse in the country. Drugs not commonly used in other countries, such as Mandrax and Welconol, are widespread in South Africa, while the street drugs commonly found in other countries, such as cocaine and heroin, have been relatively rare. However, this is changing, as international drug traffickers now import a broad range of drugs, including heroin and cocaine. Demand for these drugs has been established in South Africa, including among the urban lower classes. Immigration, especially of other Africans and particularly Nigerians, has accelerated the trend. While both mandrax and crack cocaine are smoked, the former is a sedative and the latter is a stimulant with pro-sexual effects. These sexual effects, together with very strong addictive potential, have led to very high HIV seroprevalence in user populations. Addiction often leads female users into prostitution, with prostitutes being a prime conduit for the spread of both the drug and HIV infection. Desperate to earn funds to meet their crack consumption needs, drug-addicted female prostitutes in South Africa service many clients and engage in practices shunned by their nonaddicted peers, such as unprotected and anal sex. There will be serious long-term effects of crack cocaine consumption, together with prostitution, upon all of South African society.
Yi, Huso; Shidlo, Ariel; Sandfort, Theo
The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and preliminary validity of a newly developed 16-item measure to assess maladaptive responses to the stress of being at risk for HIV infection among HIV-negative gay men. The measure consisted of three factors: (1) fatalistic beliefs about maintaining an HIV-negative serostatus; (2) reduced perceived severity of HIV infection due to advances in medical treatment of HIV/AIDS; and (3) negative affective states associated with the risk of HIV infection. A total of 285 HIV-negative gay men at a counseling program in New York City participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the three-factor model as an acceptable model fit: NNFI = .91, CFI = .92, GFI = .90, RMSEA = .07. The measure and its subscales obtained in this sample achieved adequate internal consistency coefficients. Construct validity was supported by significant positive associations with internalized homophobia, depression, self-justifications for the last unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), and actual UAI with casual sex partners. Understanding the dynamics of maladaptive responses to the epidemic and intense anxieties elicited by HIV risk among HIV-negative gay men living in a place of high seroprevalence provides useful information to guide psychosocial interventions in the population. PMID:20043254
Bares, Sara; Eavou, Rebecca; Bertozzi-Villa, Clara; Taylor, Michelle; Hyland, Heather; McFadden, Rachel; Shah, Sachin; Pho, Mai T.; Walter, James; Badlani, Sameer; Schneider, John; Prachand, Nik; Benbow, Nanette
Objective The University of Chicago Medicine (UCM) led the Expanded Testing and Linkage to Care (X-TLC) program for disproportionately affected populations on the South Side of Chicago. The X-TLC program aimed to expand routine HIV testing to high-prevalence communities with disproportionately affected populations (i.e., minority men and women, men who have sex with men, and intravenous drug users) according to CDC guidelines at multiple clinical sites. Methods The X-TLC program used standard blood-based laboratory testing vs. point-of-care rapid testing or rapid laboratory testing with point-of-care results notification. Site coordinators and the linkage-to-care coordinator at UCM oversaw testing, test notification, and linkage to care. Results From February 1, 2011, through December 31, 2013, the X-TLC program completed 75,345 HIV tests on 67,153 unique patients. Of the total tests, 48,044 (63.8%) were performed on patients who self-identified as African American and 6,606 (8.8%) were performed on patients who self-identified as Hispanic. Of the 67,153 patients tested, 395 (0.6%) tested positive and 176 (0.3%) were previously unaware of their HIV-positive status. Seroprevalence was even higher for EDs, where 127 of 12,957 patients tested positive for HIV (1.0% seroprevalence), than for other patient care sites, including for new diagnoses, where 50 of 12,957 patients tested positive for HIV (0.4% seroprevalence). Of the 176 newly diagnosed patients, 166 of 173 (96.0%) patients who were still alive when testing was complete received their test results, and 148 of the 166 patients who were eligible for care (89.0%) were linked to care. Patients linked to X-TLC physicians did well with respect to the continuum of care: 77 of 123 (62.6%) patients achieved HIV viral load of <200 copies/milliliter. Conclusion Lead organizations such as UCM were able to assist and oversee HIV screening and linkage to care for HIV patients diagnosed at community sites. HIV screening and
Bares, Sara; Eavou, Rebecca; Bertozzi-Villa, Clara; Taylor, Michelle; Hyland, Heather; McFadden, Rachel; Shah, Sachin; Pho, Mai T; Walter, James; Badlani, Sameer; Schneider, John; Prachand, Nik; Benbow, Nanette; Pitrak, David
The University of Chicago Medicine (UCM) led the Expanded Testing and Linkage to Care (X-TLC) program for disproportionately affected populations on the South Side of Chicago. The X-TLC program aimed to expand routine HIV testing to high-prevalence communities with disproportionately affected populations (i.e., minority men and women, men who have sex with men, and intravenous drug users) according to CDC guidelines at multiple clinical sites. The X-TLC program used standard blood-based laboratory testing vs. point-of-care rapid testing or rapid laboratory testing with point-of-care results notification. Site coordinators and the linkage-to-care coordinator at UCM oversaw testing, test notification, and linkage to care. From February 1, 2011, through December 31, 2013, the X-TLC program completed 75,345 HIV tests on 67,153 unique patients. Of the total tests, 48,044 (63.8%) were performed on patients who self-identified as African American and 6,606 (8.8%) were performed on patients who self-identified as Hispanic. Of the 67,153 patients tested, 395 (0.6%) tested positive and 176 (0.3%) were previously unaware of their HIV-positive status. Seroprevalence was even higher for EDs, where 127 of 12,957 patients tested positive for HIV (1.0% seroprevalence), than for other patient care sites, including for new diagnoses, where 50 of 12,957 patients tested positive for HIV (0.4% seroprevalence). Of the 176 newly diagnosed patients, 166 of 173 (96.0%) patients who were still alive when testing was complete received their test results, and 148 of the 166 patients who were eligible for care (89.0%) were linked to care. Patients linked to X-TLC physicians did well with respect to the continuum of care: 77 of 123 (62.6%) patients achieved HIV viral load of <200 copies/milliliter. Lead organizations such as UCM were able to assist and oversee HIV screening and linkage to care for HIV patients diagnosed at community sites. HIV screening and linkage to care can be accomplished
Bashorun, Adebobola; Nguku, Patrick; Kawu, Issa; Ngige, Evelyn; Ogundiran, Adeniyi; Sabitu, Kabir; Nasidi, Abdulsalam; Nsubuga, Peter
Nigeria's population of 160 million and estimated HIV prevalence of 3.34% (2011) makes Nigeria the second highest HIV burden worldwide, with 3.2 million people living with HIV (PLHIV). In 2010, US government spent about US$456.5 million on the Nigerian epidemic. Antenatal clinic (ANC) HIV sero-prevalence sentinel survey has been conducted biennially in Nigeria since 1991 to track the epidemic. This study looked at the trends of HIV in Nigeria over the last decade to identify progress and needs. We conducted description of HIV sero-prevalence sentinel cross-sectional surveys conducted among pregnant women attending ANC from 2001 to 2010, which uses consecutive sampling and unlinked-anonymous HIV testing (UAT) in 160 sentinel facilities. 36,000 blood samples were collected and tested. We used Epi-Info to determine national and state HIV prevalence and trends. The Estimation and Projection Package with Spectrum were used to estimate/project the burden of infection. National ANC HIV prevalence rose from 1.8% (1991) to 5.8% (2001) and dropped to 4.1% (2010). Since 2001, states in the center, and south of Nigeria had higher prevalence than the rest, with Benue and Cross Rivers notable. Benue was highest in 2001 (14%), 2005 (10%), and 2010 (12.7%). Overall, eight states (21.6%) showed increased HIV prevalence while six states (16.2%) had an absolute reduction of at least 2% from 2001 to 2010. In 2010, Nigeria was estimated to have 3.19 million PLHIV, with the general population prevalence projected to drop from 3.34% in 2011 to 3.27% in 2012. Examining a decade of HIV ANC surveillance in Nigeria revealed important differences in the epidemic in states that need to be examined further to reveal key drivers that can be used to target future interventions.
Bashorun, Adebobola; Nguku, Patrick; Kawu, Issa; Ngige, Evelyn; Ogundiran, Adeniyi; Sabitu, Kabir; Nasidi, Abdulsalam; Nsubuga, Peter
Introduction Nigeria's population of 160 million and estimated HIV prevalence of 3.34% (2011) makes Nigeria the second highest HIV burden worldwide, with 3.2 million people living with HIV (PLHIV). In 2010, US government spent about US$456.5 million on the Nigerian epidemic. Antenatal clinic (ANC) HIV sero-prevalence sentinel survey has been conducted biennially in Nigeria since 1991 to track the epidemic. This study looked at the trends of HIV in Nigeria over the last decade to identify progress and needs. Methods We conducted description of HIV sero-prevalence sentinel cross-sectional surveys conducted among pregnant women attending ANC from 2001 to 2010, which uses consecutive sampling and unlinked-anonymous HIV testing (UAT) in160 sentinel facilities. 36,000 blood samples were collected and tested. We used Epi-Info to determine national and state HIV prevalence and trends. The Estimation and Projection Package with Spectrum were used to estimate/project the burden of infection. Results National ANC HIV prevalence rose from 1.8% (1991) to 5.8% (2001) and dropped to 4.1% (2010). Since 2001, states in the center, and south of Nigeria had higher prevalence than the rest, with Benue and Cross Rivers notable. Benue was highest in 2001 (14%), 2005 (10%), and 2010 (12.7%). Overall, eight states (21.6%) showed increased HIV prevalence while six states (16.2%) had an absolute reduction of at least 2% from 2001 to 2010. In 2010, Nigeria was estimated to have 3.19 million PLHIV, with the general population prevalence projected to drop from 3.34% in 2011 to 3.27% in 2012. Conclusion Examining a decade of HIV ANC surveillance in Nigeria revealed important differences in the epidemic in states that need to be examined further to reveal key drivers that can be used to target future interventions. PMID:25328622
Wang, Chengbin; Dollard, Sheila C; Amin, Minal M; Bialek, Stephanie R
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM indicates recent active CMV infection. CMV IgM seroprevalence is a useful marker for prevalence of transmission. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III 1988-1994, we present estimates of CMV IgM prevalence by race/ethnicity, provide a comparison of IgM seroprevalence among all women and among CMV IgG positive women, and explore factors possibly associated with IgM seroprevalence, including socioeconomic status and exposure to young children. There was no difference in IgM seroprevalence by race/ethnicity among all women (3.1%, 2.2%, and 1.6% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black and Mexican American, respectively; P = 0.11). CMV IgM seroprevalence decreased significantly with increasing age in non-Hispanic black women (P<0.001 for trend) and marginally among Mexican American women (P = 0.07), while no apparent trend with age was seen in non-Hispanic white women (P = 0.99). Among 4001 IgG+ women, 118 were IgM+, resulting in 4.9% IgM seroprevalence. In IgG+ women, IgM seroprevalence varied significantly by age (5.3%, 7.3%, and 3.7% for women of 12-19, 20-29, and 30-49 years; P = 0.04) and race/ethnicity (6.1%, 2.7%, and 2.0% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American; P<0.001). The factors reported associated with IgG seroprevalence were not associated with IgM seroprevalence. The patterns of CMV IgM seroprevalence by age, race/ethnicity, and IgG serostatus may help understanding the epidemiology of congenital CMV infection as a consequence of vertical transmission and are useful for identifying target populations for intervention to reduce CMV transmission.
Adjei, Andrew A; Armah, Henry B; Gbagbo, Foster; Ampofo, William K; Boamah, Isaac; Adu-Gyamfi, Clement; Asare, Isaac; Hesse, Ian FA; Mensah, George
Background Prisons are known to be high-risk environments for the spread of bloodborne and sexually transmitted infections. Prison officers are considered to have an intermittent exposure potential to bloodborne infectious diseases on the job, however there has been no studies on the prevalence of these infections in prison officers in Ghana. Methods A national multicenter cross-sectional study was undertaken on correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis infections in sample of prison inmates and officers from eight of ten regional central prisons in Ghana. A total of 1366 inmates and 445 officers were enrolled between May 2004 and December 2005. Subjects completed personal risk-factor questionnaire and provided blood specimens for unlinked anonymous testing for presence of antibodies to HIV, HCV and Treponema pallidum; and surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg). These data were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate techniques. Results Almost 18% (1336) of 7652 eligible inmates and 21% (445) of 2139 eligible officers in eight study prisons took part. Median ages of inmates and officers were 36.5 years (range 16–84) and 38.1 years (range 25–59), respectively. Among inmates, HIV seroprevalence was 5.9%, syphilis seroprevalence was 16.5%, and 25.5% had HBsAg. Among officers tested, HIV seroprevalence was 4.9%, HCV seroprevalence was 18.7%, syphilis seroprevalence was 7.9%, and 11.7% had HBsAg. Independent determinants for HIV, HBV and syphilis infections among inmates were age between 17–46, being unmarried, being illiterate, female gender, being incarcerated for longer than median time served of 36 months, history of homosexuality, history of intravenous drug use, history of sharing syringes and drug paraphernalia, history of participation in paid sexual activity, and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Independent determinants for HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among officers
Gupta, Phalguni; Kingsley, Lawrence; Sheppard, Haynes W; Harrison, Lee H; Chatterjee, Ramdas; Ghosh, Adhir; Roy, Pratima; Neogi, Dhruba K
HIV-1 infection in India has been increasing steadily over the last decade. In the absence of potent antiviral therapy, estimates of HIV infection are needed to monitor the epidemic, institute prevention strategies in target populations and determine the suitable populations for vaccine studies. In this report we present the HIV-1 seroprevalence and annual estimates of seroincidence in a high risk population from Calcutta, the most populous city in the eastern part of India. In 1206 high risk subjects tested over two years between February of 1999 and December 2000, we have determined an overall seroprevalence of 40.1% using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay followed by a confirmatory Western blot testing. Furthermore, using a newly described Standardized Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV-1 Seroconversion (STARHS), we have estimated an annual seroincidence rate of about 7% in this population during this two-year study. Such a high annual seroincidence rate makes this population well suited for studies of HIV-1 prevention, including vaccine trials.
Astemborski, J; Vlahov, D; Warren, D; Solomon, L; Nelson, K E
OBJECTIVES. Data from 538 women in a cohort study recruited in 1988-1989 were analyzed to determined whether trading sex for drugs or money was independently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence in a population of female intravenous drug users. METHODS. The women were grouped according to the number of partners with whom they reported trading sex for drugs or money during the previous 10 years: none, 1 through 49 (low), or 50 or more (high); the prevalence of HIV seropositivity in the three groups was 23.2%, 23.7%, and 47.6%, respectively. Logistic regression was used to compare the low- and high-trade groups separately with the group that reported no trading. RESULTS. Low trading was not associated with seroprevalent HIV infection. In a multivariate model, high trading (compared with no trading) was significantly associated with HIV seropositivity after adjustment for cocaine use, history of sexually transmitted diseases, and duration of intravenous drug use. CONCLUSIONS. These data indicate that, among intravenous drug-using women, high levels of trading sex for drugs or money were independently associated with HIV infection. This group needs to be targeted for further intensive intervention. PMID:8129052
HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...
Balaeva, Tatiana; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Sidorenkov, Oleg; Samodova, Olga; Firsova, Natalia; Sannikov, Anatoly; Klouman, Elise
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease (GUD) worldwide. Mother to child transmission causes high morbidity and mortality among infants. Russia is on the brink of a generalized HIV-epidemic, but Arkhangelsk is still a low-prevalence area. HSV-2 infection is associated with a three-fold increased risk of HIV-infection. The evidence on the seroprevalence of HSV-2 in Russia is limited. The aim of this study was to assess HSV-2 seroprevalence and correlates among young adults in the city of Arkhangelsk. 1243 adults aged 18-39 years participated in a cross-sectional population-based study, recruited by a public opinion agency applying a quota sampling method to achieve a data set with similar age- and sex-distribution as the population in Arkhangelsk. All participants completed a standardized, self-administrated questionnaire and were tested for HSV-2. Associations between HSV-2 seropositivity and selected sociodemographic and behavioral factors, and self-reported history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were studied by multivariable logistic regression. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 18.8 %: 12.2 % (95 % confidence interval, CI 9.7-15.2) among men and 24.0 % (95 % CI 20.1-27.3) among women. Among men, HSV-2 positivity was associated with being divorced/widowed (OR = 2.85, 95 % CI 1.06-7.70), cohabitation (OR = 2.45, 95 % CI 1.07-5.62), and a history of STIs (OR = 2.11, 95 % CI 1.14-3.91). In women, HSV-2 positivity was associated with high income (OR = 3.11, 95 % CI 1.45-6.71) and having a lifetime number of sexual partners between 2 and 5 (OR = 2.72, 95 % CI 1.14-6.51), whereas sexual debut at age 18 years or older was inversely associated with the outcome (OR = 0.47, 95 % CI 0.31-0.72). In both sexes, increasing age was the strongest correlate of HSV-2 seropositivity in multivariable analyses. The HSV-2 seroprevalence was twice as high in women than in men and increased
Varan, Aiden K.; Mercer, Daniel W.; Stein, Matthew S.
Objectives Although the hepatitis C epidemic in the United States disproportionately affects correctional populations, the last national estimates of seroprevalence and disease burden among these populations are more than a decade old. We investigated routine hepatitis C surveillance conducted in state prison systems and updated previous estimates. Methods We surveyed all U.S. state correctional departments to determine which state prison systems had performed routine hepatitis C screening since 2001. Using seroprevalence data for these prison systems, we estimated the national hepatitis C seroprevalence among prisoners in 2006 and the share of the epidemic borne by correctional populations. Results Of at least 12 states performing routine testing from 2001 to 2012, seroprevalences of hepatitis C ranged from 9.6% to 41.1%. All but one state with multiple measurements demonstrated declining seroprevalence. We estimated the national state prisoner seroprevalence at 17.4% in 2006. Based on the estimated total U.S. correctional population size, we projected that 1,857,629 people with hepatitis C antibody were incarcerated that year. We estimated that correctional populations represented 28.5%–32.8% of the total U.S. hepatitis C cases in 2006, down from 39% in 2003. Conclusions Our results provide an important updated estimate of hepatitis C seroprevalence and suggest that correctional populations bear a declining but still sizable share of the epidemic. Correctional facilities remain important sites for hepatitis C case finding and therapy implementation. These results may also assist future studies in projecting the societal costs and benefits of providing new treatment options in prison systems. PMID:24587554
Background Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, with a worldwide distribution. There have been limited reports about the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in equids around the world and little is known about the seroprevalence of T. gondii in equids in southwestern China, in particular in Yunnan Province. The objective of the present investigation was to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in equids in this area. Methods A total of 399 serum samples (266 from horses and 133 from donkeys) were collected in 2012, and assayed for T. gondii antibodies by Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) test using a commercially available kit. Results A total of 108 (27.1%) equids, including 81 (30.5%) horses and 27 (20.3%) donkeys were positive for T. gondii antibodies, and the seroprevalence ranged from 18.8% to 37.5% among different sampling areas. The seroprevalence was 27.4% and 26.8% for male and female equids, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The seroprevalence ranged from 21% to 32.9% among different age groups, and the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusions The results of the present survey indicated the existence of high T. gondii seroprevalence in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, which has significant public health concern. Therefore, it is imperative that improved integrated measures be carried out to prevent and control T. gondii infection in equids in the studied region. PMID:23742078
Panda, Samiran; Kumar, M Suresh; Lokabiraman, S; Jayashree, K; Satagopan, M C; Solomon, Suniti; Rao, Usha Anand; Rangaiyan, Gurumurthy; Flessenkaemper, Sabine; Grosskurth, Heiner; Gupte, Mohan D
Determining HIV prevalence in injection drug users (IDUs) and their regular sex partners in Chennai, India. A total of 226 IDUs and their regular sex partners were enrolled during April-July 2003. After informed consent was obtained, a semistructured questionnaire was administered and serum was tested for HIV antibody. The HIV seroprevalence was 30% (68/226) in IDUs and 5% in their regular sex partners (11/226). While in 25% of couples only the male partner was HIV positive, 5% of the couples were concordant for HIV infection and 70% were HIV negative. Fifty-seven percent of the HIV-positive IDUs and 45% of the HIV-infected women thought that they had "no chance" or "very little chance" of getting HIV, reflecting low HIV risk perception. More than 20% IDUs reported borrowing or lending of injection equipment. In univariate analyses "sex" and "condom use" with sex workers had no bearing but "more than twice a day injecting frequency," "history of incarceration," "tattoos," "recruitment from northern part of the city," and ever-injecting drugs in drug-selling places had significant association with HIV infection in IDUs. In an adjusted model, the odds of HIV infection were 2 times higher among IDUs who had ever injected drugs in drug-selling places and 6 times higher in those who were recruited from the northern part of central Chennai. Reducing sharing of injection equipment and unsafe tattooing through targeted and environmental interventions, increasing HIV risk perception, and promoting safer sex practices among IDUs and their sex partners are urgent program needs.
Chen, Bin; Peng, Xiuming; Xie, Tiansheng; Jin, Changzhong; Liu, Fumin; Wu, Nanping
Currently, there are three algorithms for screening of syphilis: traditional algorithm, reverse algorithm and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) algorithm. To date, there is not a generally recognized diagnostic algorithm. When syphilis meets HIV, the situation is even more complex. To evaluate their screening performance and impact on the seroprevalence of syphilis in HIV-infected individuals, we conducted a cross-sectional study included 865 serum samples from HIV-infected patients in a tertiary hospital. Every sample (one per patient) was tested with toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST), T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA), and Treponema pallidum enzyme immunoassay (TP-EIA) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The results of syphilis serological testing were interpreted following different algorithms respectively. We directly compared the traditional syphilis screening algorithm with the reverse syphilis screening algorithm in this unique population. The reverse algorithm achieved remarkable higher seroprevalence of syphilis than the traditional algorithm (24.9% vs. 14.2%, p < 0.0001). Compared to the reverse algorithm, the traditional algorithm also had a missed serodiagnosis rate of 42.8%. The total percentages of agreement and corresponding kappa values of tradition and ECDC algorithm compared with those of reverse algorithm were as follows: 89.4%,0.668; 99.8%, 0.994. There was a very good strength of agreement between the reverse and the ECDC algorithm. Our results supported the reverse (or ECDC) algorithm in screening of syphilis in HIV-infected populations. In addition, our study demonstrated that screening of HIV-populations using different algorithms may result in a statistically different seroprevalence of syphilis.
Conde-Glez, Carlos; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Rojas, Rosalba; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Romano-Mazzotti, Luis; Cervantes, Yolanda; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo
We estimated the seroprevalences of varicella-zoster virus (VZV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in this cross-sectional database study. Serum samples collected during the National Health and Nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2006) were obtained from subjects aged 1-70 years between January and October 2010. Serological assays for the determination of antibodies against VZV, HSV and CMV were performed. The overall seroprevalences of VZV, HSV-1, HSV-2 and CMV were 85.8%, 80.9%, 9.9% and 89.2%, respectively. Seroprevalences of VZV, HSV-1 and CMV were comparable between males and females. For HSV-2, although the seroprevalence rate was higher in females when compared to males, this difference in seroprevalence was not statistically significant. Seroprevalence rates for VZV, HSV-1, HSV-2 and CMV increased with age (p-value<.0001). Differences in seroprevalence rate for VZV by socioeconomic status (SES) were significant (p-value<0001). Results of the serological analyses reported high VZV seroprevalence, indicating high transmission in the Mexican population with children and adolescents at risk of acquiring VZV. Global HSV-1 seroprevalence was high, especially in adults. HSV-1 and HSV-2 seroprevalences were consistently higher in women than men, particularly for HSV-2. CMV seroprevalence was higher in Mexico when compared to developed countries. Seroepidemiological data on VZV supports the fact that varicella vaccination may serve as an alternative effective solution to reduce transmission in the Mexican population. For CMV and HSV, since no vaccines are available, activities to reduce transmission are important to reduce the risk of complications and therefore need to be considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dworkin, Shari L; Ehrhardt, Anke A
A considerable number of studies have sought to identify what factors accounted for substantial reductions in HIV seroprevalence after several countries deployed "ABC" (abstinence, be faithful, condom use) strategies. After much public discourse and research on ABC success stories, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 2004 epidemic report indicated that nearly 50% of infected people worldwide were women, up from 35% in 1985. In light of the feminization of HIV/AIDS, we critically assess the limitations of ABC strategies. We provide 3 additional prevention strategies that focus on gender relations, economics, and migration (GEM) and can speak to the new face of the epidemic. Pressing beyond ABC, GEM strategies provide the basis for a stronger central platform from which national efforts against HIV/AIDS can proceed to reduce transmission risks.
Avila, C; Stetler, H C; Sepúlveda, J; Dickinson, E; Castro, K G; Ward, J W; Romero, G; Valdespino, J L
Screening of blood product donations for antibody to HIV began in Mexico in May 1986. From June to October 1986, the HIV cumulative seroprevalence increased from 6.3 to 9.2% in a commercial plasma collection center. Of the 281 people who donated the antibody-positive units, 62 (22.1%) had documented seroconversion during these 5 months. An epidemiologic study of 54 seropositive and 58 seronegative donors was carried out. The HIV serologic status did not change in any of these donors after repeat testing. Only 13.0% of the seropositives and 15.5% of the seronegatives had any of the known risk factors for AIDS. There was a direct relationship between frequency of plasma donation and the risk of being seropositive. A survey of employees disclosed the frequent re-use of disposable blood collection equipment. We conclude that HIV transmission had probably occurred in this plasma collection center.
Tsang, Michelle A.; Schneider, John A.; Sypsa, Vana; Schumm, Phil; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K.; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Friedman, Samuel R.; Malliori, Meni; Hatzakis, Angelos
Background Greece experienced an unprecedented increase in HIV cases among drug injectors in 2011 following economic crisis. Network level factors are increasingly understood to drive HIV transmission in emerging epidemics. Methods We examined the relationship between networks, risk behaviors and HIV serostatus among 1,404 people who inject drugs in Athens, Greece. We generated networks using the chain-referral structure within a large HIV screening program. Network proportions, the proportion of a respondent’s network with a given characteristic, were calculated. Multiple logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between network proportions and individual HIV seroprevalance, injection frequency and unprotected sex. Results 1030 networks were generated. Respondent HIV seroprevalence was associated with greater proportions of network members who were HIV infected (i.e. those with ≥50% of network members HIV-positive vs. those with no network members HIV-positive) [AOR, 3.11; 95% CI, 2.10 to 4.62], divided drugs [AOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.35] or injected frequently [AOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.21]. Homelessness was the only sociodemographic characteristic associated with a risk outcome measure – high-frequency injecting [AOR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.93]. These associations were weaker for more distal second and third degree networks and not present when examined within random networks. Conclusion Networks are an independently important contributor to the HIV outbreak in Athens Greece. Network associations were strongest for the immediate network, with residual associations for distal networks. Homelessness was associated with high frequency injecting. Prevention programs should consider including network-level interventions to prevent future emerging epidemics. PMID:26115439
Tsang, Michelle A; Schneider, John A; Sypsa, Vana; Schumm, Phil; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Friedman, Samuel R; Malliori, Meni; Hatzakis, Angelos
Greece experienced an unprecedented increase in HIV cases among drug injectors in 2011 after economic crisis. Network-level factors are increasingly understood to drive HIV transmission in emerging epidemics. We examined the relationship between networks, risk behaviors, and HIV serostatus among 1404 people who inject drugs in Athens, Greece. We generated networks using the chain-referral structure within a large HIV screening program. Network proportions, the proportion of a respondent's network with a given characteristic, were calculated. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between network proportions and individual HIV seroprevalence, injection frequency and unprotected sex. Of note, 1030 networks were generated. Respondent HIV seroprevalence was associated with greater proportions of network members who were HIV infected (ie, those with ≥ 50% of network members HIV positive vs. those with no network members HIV positive) (AOR: 3.11; 95% CI: 2.10 to 4.62), divided drugs (AOR: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.10 to 2.35), or injected frequently (AOR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.21). Homelessness was the only sociodemographic characteristic associated with a risk outcome measure--high-frequency injecting (AOR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.93). These associations were weaker for more distal second- and third-degree networks and not present when examined within random networks. Networks are an independently important contributor to the HIV outbreak in Athens, Greece. Network associations were strongest for the immediate network, with residual associations for distal networks. Homelessness was associated with high-frequency injecting. Prevention programs should consider including network-level interventions to prevent future emerging epidemics.
Lescano, Andres G.; Garcia, Hector H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Gavidia, Cesar M.; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Villaran, Manuel V.; Montano, Silvia M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.
Background Neurocysticercosis accounts for 30%–50% of all late-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. We assessed the clustering patterns of Taenia solium human cysticercosis seropositivity and seizures around tapeworm carriers in seven rural communities in Peru. Methodology The presence of T. solium–specific antibodies was defined as one or more positive bands in the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB). Neurocysticercosis-related seizures cases were diagnosed clinically and had positive neuroimaging or EITB. Principal Findings Eleven tapeworm carriers were identified by stool microscopy. The seroprevalence of human cysticercosis was 24% (196/803). Seroprevalence was 21% >50 m from a carrier and increased to 32% at 1–50 m (p = 0.047), and from that distance seroprevalence had another significant increase to 64% at the homes of carriers (p = 0.004). Seizure prevalence was 3.0% (25/837) but there were no differences between any pair of distance ranges (p = 0.629, Wald test 2 degrees of freedom). Conclusion/Significance We observed a significant human cysticercosis seroprevalence gradient surrounding current tapeworm carriers, although cysticercosis-related seizures did not cluster around carriers. Due to differences in the timing of the two outcomes, seroprevalence may reflect recent T. solium exposure more accurately than seizure frequency. PMID:19172178
Rigaud, E; Jaulhac, B; Garcia-Bonnet, N; Hunfeld, K-P; Féménia, F; Huet, D; Goulvestre, C; Vaillant, V; Deffontaines, G; Abadia-Benoist, G
In order to assess the level of occupational exposure to the main pathogens transmitted by the Ixodes ricinus tick, a seroprevalence study was performed on serum samples collected in 2003 from 2975 forestry workers of northeastern France. The global seroprevalence estimated for the seven pathogens studied was 14.1% (419/2975) for Borrelia burgdorferi sl, 5.7% (164/2908) for Francisella tularensis, 2.3% (68/2941) for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 1.7% (50/2908) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and 1.7% (48/2908) for Bartonella henselae. The seroprevalences of Babesia divergens and Babesia microti studied in a subgroup of participants seropositive for at least one of these latter pathogens were 0.1% (1/810) and 2.5% (20/810), respectively. Borrelia burgdorferi sl seroprevalence was significantly higher in Alsace and Lorraine and F. tularensis seroprevalence was significantly higher in Champagne-Ardenne and Franche-Comté. The results of this survey also suggest low rates of transmission of Bartonella henselae and F. tularensis by ticks and a different west/east distribution of Babesia species in France. The frequency and potential severity of these diseases justify continued promotion of methods of prevention of I. ricinus bites.
Lee, Soo Young; Han, Seung Beom; Bae, E Young; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kang, Jin Han; Park, Yeon-Joon; Ma, Sang Hyuk
This study was conducted to evaluate age-specific seroprevalence of pertussis in Korea and to formulate a strategy to prevent and reduce the incidence of pertussis. Residual serum samples of healthy adolescents and adults 11 yr of age or older were collected between July 2012 and December 2012, and anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG titers were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. We compared the mean anti-PT IgG titers and seroprevalence of pertussis of the six age groups: 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and ≥ 61 yr. A total of 1,192 subjects were enrolled. The mean anti-PT IgG titer and pertussis seroprevalence were 35.53 ± 62.91 EU/mL and 41.4%, respectively. The mean anti-PT IgG titers and seroprevalence were not significantly different between the age groups. However, the seroprevalence in individuals 51 yr of age or older was significantly higher than in individuals younger than 51 yr (46.5% vs 39.1%, P = 0.017). Based on these results, a new pertussis prevention strategy is necessary for older adults.
Martínez-Vega, Pedro Pablo; Rodríguez-Vivas, Roger Iván; Pérez-Osorio, Carlos; Villegas-Perez, Sandra Luz; Sauri-Arceo, Carlos Humberto
The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence to Ehrlichia spp. in dogs from Xcalak, Quintana Roo, Mexico, and the associated factors. Serum samples were obtained from 118 dogs and used in an indirect immunofluorescent assay test for the detection of antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about possible variables associated with seroprevalence. These variables were analyzed through Chi2 test and logistic regression. Dog seroprevalence of antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. was 64% (75/118). Fifty-two percent (61/118) of dogs had tick infestation which was identified as Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Anemia was observed in 36% of dogs. Leucopenia (2.5%), thrombocytopenia (70%), and hemorrhage (14%) were also observed. Thirty-one percent (23/75) of dogs with anemia, 4% (3/75) of dogs with leucopenia, 80% (60/75) of dogs with thrombocytopenia, 17% (13/75) of dogs with hemorrhages, and 59% (44/75) of dogs with ticks were positive for Ehrlichia spp. antibodies. The factors associated with seroprevalence were age (1–3 and >3 years old, OR = 7.77 and OR = 15.39, resp.), tick infestation (OR = 3.13), and thrombocytopenia (OR = 3.36). In conclusion, seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. was high in the community of Xcalak and its associated factors were age, tick infestation, and thrombocytopenia. PMID:28096818
Burri, C; Vial, F; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P; Schwermer, H; Darling, K; Reist, M; Wu, N; Beerli, O; Schöning, J; Cavassini, M; Waldvogel, A
Hepatitis E is considered an emerging human viral disease in industrialized countries. Studies from Switzerland report a human seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) of 2.6-21%, a range lower than in adjacent European countries. The aim of this study was to determine whether HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars is also lower in Switzerland and whether it is increasing and thus indicating that this zoonotic viral infection is emerging. Serum samples collected from 2,001 pigs in 2006 and 2011 and from 303 wild boars from 2008 to 2012 were analysed by ELISA for the presence of HEV-specific antibodies. Overall HEV seroprevalence was 58.1% in domestic pigs and 12.5% in wild boars. Prevalence in domestic pigs was significantly higher in 2006 than in 2011. In conclusion, HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland is comparable with the seroprevalence in other countries and not increasing. Therefore, prevalence of HEV in humans must be related to other factors than prevalence in pigs or wild boars.
Al-Mekaini, Lolowa A; Kamal, Salwa M; Al-Jabri, Omer; Soliman, Maher; Alshamsi, Huda; Narchi, Hassib; Souid, Abdul-Kader; Alsuwaidi, Ahmed R
In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), many vaccine-preventable diseases are notifiable and are often reported despite high estimated immunization coverage. The serological assessment of immunity against these infections (serosurveillance) complements disease surveillance (notification). This study aimed to assess the yet unmeasured serological immunities to nine vaccine-preventable infections among vaccinated Emirati children. This cross-sectional study involved children who attended the Well-Child Care Programme of the Ambulatory Healthcare Services (Al-Ain, UAE) between July 2014 and September 2015. Serological testing was performed in 227 Emirati children (49% females); subjects were aged (mean±standard deviation) 45±14 months (median 43, range 23-71 months). The seroprevalence rates varied markedly among the studied vaccine-preventable diseases, ranging from 39.2% (pertussis) to 98.3% (rubella). Other high seroprevalence rates were noted for measles (98.2%) and poliovirus (92%). The seroprevalence rate for mumps was 82.8%, for varicella was 68.3%, for diphtheria was 86.4%, for tetanus was 89.9%, and for Haemophilus influenzae type B was 84.1%. A large number of the studied children had low seroprevalence rates against pertussis, varicella, and mumps. Studies are needed to explore whether modifying the national immunization programme could improve these low seroprevalence estimates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Estimate seroprevalence, clinical case rate, and proportion of subclinical infections from chikungunya. A cross-sectional study was conducted in October 2015 at 39 sites distributed across Nicaragua. Demographic and clinical information was compiled through a personal survey. Blood samples were collected to detect chikungunya antibodies using the ELISA inhibition method developed by Nicaragua's National Diagnostic and Reference Center. Results were analyzed using generalized linear models and multilevel Poisson models. A total of 11 722 participants aged >2 years were enrolled and 11 280 samples were processed. National seroprevalence was 32.8% (95% CI [95% confidence interval]: 31.9-33.6), with a clinical case rate of 26.5% (95% CI: 25.7-27.3) and a proportion of subclinical infections of 19.1% (95% CI: 17.8-20.4). Seroprevalence varied among the 39 sites and was greater at sites with higher vector infestation indices. Individually, seroprevalence was higher in participants aged >11 years. Since its introduction, this is the first study on chikungunya seroprevalence in continental Latin America to determine national prevalence, clinical case rate, and proportion of subclinical infections. The study model, employing broad community participation and leadership by the Ministry of Health of Nicaragua, can be an example for conducting similar studies in the region.
Roemer, G W; Coonan, T J; Garcelon, D K; Starbird, C H; McCall, J W
Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) are endemic to six of the eight California Channel Islands (USA). The island fox is classified as a threatened species by the State of California, and recently three of the six subspecies have experienced abrupt population declines. As part of a continuing effort to determine the cause of the declines, we tested island fox serum samples collected in 1988 (n = 176) and 1997-98 (n = 156) over the entire geographic range of the species for seroprevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) antigen. Using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PetChek, Idexx Laboratories, Westbrook, Maine, USA) we detected heartworm antigen in four of the six populations of island foxes. On San Miguel and Santa Rosa Islands, seroprevalence in adult foxes was >85% (n = 62) in 1988 and increased to 100% (n = 24) in 1997-98. On Santa Cruz Island, seroprevalence in adult foxes decreased from 83% (n = 30) to 58% (n = 26), whereas on San Nicolas Island, seroprevalence increased from 25% (n = 32) to 77% (n = 30) during the same period. All of the pups assayed (n = 33) were seronegative. The seroprevalences of heartworm reported herein for the four populations of island foxes are the highest yet reported for a fox species. However, additional demographic data reported elsewhere suggests that heartworm has not been a major factor in the recent declines of island fox populations.
Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Li, Run-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Hua; Cong, Wei; Song, Hui-Qun; Yu, Xing-Long; Zhu, Xing-Quan
Chlamydia spp. are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria, which are responsible for significant public health problems in humans and have major economic impact on animals. In the present study, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, was examined using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). Antibodies to Chlamydia were detected in 747 of 1,191 (62.7%, 95% CI 60-65.5) serum samples (IHA titer ≥ 1:16). The Chlamydia seroprevalence ranged from 35% (95% CI 25.7-44.4) to 77.1% (95% CI 69.1-85.2) among different regions in Hunan province, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). In addition, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows was higher in summer (75.7%, 95% CI 71.3-80) and spring (63.2%, 95% CI 57.5-68.8) than in autumn (56.9%, 95% CI 51.5-62.3) and winter (48.6%, 95% CI 42-55.3), and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The results of the present investigation indicated the high seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in sows in Hunan province, subtropical China, which poses a potential risk for human infection with Chlamydia in this province. This is the first report of Chlamydia seroprevalence in sows over the last two decades in Hunan province, subtropical China.
Izopet, Jacques; Labrique, Alain B; Basnyat, Buddha; Dalton, Harry R; Kmush, Brittany; Heaney, Christopher D; Nelson, Kenrad E; Ahmed, Zabed B; Zaman, K; Mansuy, Jean-Michel; Bendall, Richard; Sauné, Karine; Kamar, Nassim; Arjyal, Amit; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Prajapati, Krishna Govind; Adhikary, Dinesh
Hepatitis E causes a significant burden of disease in developing countries and has recently been increasingly recognized in developed countries. Comparing population anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) seroprevalence across populations has been difficult. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence in both adults and children in three hyper-endemic areas (Nepal, Bangladesh and southwest France) using a sensitive, commercial anti-HEV IgG assay. Serum or plasma from adults and children in Nepal (n=498), Bangladesh (n=1,009) and Southwest France (n=1031) were tested for anti-HEV IgG using the Wantai assay. After age-standardization, anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence was 47.1%, 49.8% and 34.0% in Nepal, Bangladesh and southwest France, respectively. There was no difference in seroprevalence by gender in any of the countries. A paucity of infections in children 1-10 years-old was consistently observed (less than 15%) at all 3 locations. Surprisingly similar high rates of anti-HEV antibodies were detected using a common, sensitive assay. Despite differences in the epidemiology and circulating genotype of HEV in Nepal, Bangladesh and southwest France, this study found more similarities in population seroprevalence than expected. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Silva-Aguilar, D; Villena, I; Dubey, J P
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Michoacán, Mexico, is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 341 dairy goats in Michoacán, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 9 farms in 6 municipalities. Overall, antibodies to Toxoplasma were found in 52 (15.2%) of 341 goats, with titers of 1:25 in 16, 1:50 in 9, 1:100 in 4, 1:200 in 4, 1:400 in 4, 1:800 in 9, 1:1,600 in 3, and 1:3,200 or higher in 3. Seropositive goats were found in all 9 farms sampled, and seroprevalence varied significantly among farms (1.9-90%). Seroprevalence of T. gondii varied with age, municipality, altitude, and climate but not with breed. Increased seroprevalence was found in goats aged 13-24 and 49-86 mo old (25% and 22.9%, respectively). Goats raised in farms in a municipality with semi-warm humid climate at 1,700 m of altitude had the highest seroprevalence (62.1%). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in goats in Michoacán State, Mexico, and of an association of seropositivity to T. gondii and semi-warm humid climate. Results indicate that infected goats are likely an important source of infection with T. gondii in humans in Michoacán State.
Hu, Dongfang; Lv, Lin; Zhang, Zhendong; Xiao, Yihong
A cross-sectional serological study was conducted in Shandong province of China to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with seropositivity due to pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection in small- and medium-sized farrow-to-finish herds following outbreaks of variant PRV strains. A total of 6,035 blood samples from 224 randomly selected herds were screened. The results showed that 25.0% of the herds and 56.7% of the serum samples were seropositive for field strains of PRV. Herds consisting of 50–100 breeding sows had higher herd seroprevalence and serum sample seroprevalence than larger herds. Both the highest herd seroprevalence and highest serum sample seroprevalence were observed in western Shandong, followed northern Shandong. Based on univariate analysis, the following risk factors were utilized in subsequent multivariable logistic regression analysis: region, herd size, weight of purchased gilts, and all-in/all-out practice. Upon multivariate analysis, region, herd size, weight of purchased gilts and all-in/all-out practice were significantly associated with PRV herd seropositivity. These findings indicate that we are facing a serious situation in the prevention and control of pseudorabies. The results could help predict the next outbreak and set out control measures. PMID:26726021
Kendall, Carl; Kerr, Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo; Mota, Rosa Maria Salani; Cavalcante, Socorro; Macena, Raimunda Hermelinda Maia; Chen, Sanny; Gaffga, Nicholas; Monterosso, Edgar; Bastos, Fransisco I.; Serrano, Dulcelina
Objectives To conduct the first population size estimation and biological and behavioral surveillance survey among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Angola. Design Population size estimation with multiplier method and a cross-sectional study using respondent-driven sampling. Setting Luanda Province, Angola. Study was conducted in a large hospital. Participants Seven hundred ninety-two self-identified MSM accepted a unique object for population size estimation. Three hundred fifty-one MSM were recruited with respondent-driven sampling for biological and behavioral surveillance survey. Methods Interviews and testing for HIV and syphilis were conducted on-site. Analysis used Respondent-Driven Sampling Analysis Tool and STATA 11.0. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses examined factors associated with HIV and unprotected sex. Six imputation strategies were used for missing data for those refusing to test for HIV. Main Outcome A population size of 6236 MSM was estimated. Twenty-seven of 351 individuals were tested positive. Adjusted HIV prevalence was 3.7% (8.7% crude). With imputation, HIV seroprevalence was estimated between 3.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6 to 6.5] and 10.5% (95% CI: 5.6 to 15.3). Being older than 25 (odds ratio = 10.8, 95% CI: 3.5 to 32.8) and having suffered episodes of homophobia (odds ratio = 12.7, 95% CI: 3.2 to 49.6) significantly increased the chance of HIV seropositivity. Conclusions Risk behaviors are widely reported, but HIV seroprevalence is lower than expected. The difference between crude and adjusted values was mostly due to treatment of missing values in Respondent-Driven Sampling Analysis Tool. Solutions are proposed in this article. Although concerns were raised about feasibility and adverse outcomes for MSM, the study was successfully and rapidly completed with no adverse effects. PMID:25014130
He, Y; Xu, M J; Zhou, D H; Zou, F C; Lin, R Q; Yin, C C; He, X H; Liang, R; Liang, M; Zhu, X Q
Enzootic pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a severe disease of pigs, causing significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide, including the tropical and subtropical regions. In order to obtain the baseline prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in pigs from intensive farms in southern China, double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect M. hyoneumoniae antibodies in 460 pig serum samples collected from 12 administrative cities in China's southern Guangdong province. According to the proportions of the infected animals, among the 12 intensive farms, only two of them showed no infection of M. hyoneumoniae and the seroprevalence ranged from 0% to 90%, with an averaged prevalence of 45.7%. The highest prevalence was found in breeding boars (68.8%), followed by sows (54.5%). These data showed that the infection of pigs with M. hyopneumoniae is severe, and boars might be more important carriers and transfers of M. hyoneumoniae than sows. Integrated strategies and measures should be taken to control the infection of pigs with M. hyopneumoniae in southern China.
Esmat, Gamal; Raziky, Maissa El; Nabeel, Mohammed M; Maher, Rabab; Zakaria, Zeinab
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly prevalent in Egypt. This work aimed at determining the seroprevalence of HCV among Cairo University students. The present study included 3,000 students from Cairo University, Egypt. Blood sample was obtained from each participant to be tested for HCV seromarker. HCV RNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out for those with positive anti-HCV. Overall prevalence rate of HCV antibody (anti-HCV) was 4.6%. It showed that the prevalence was relatively higher among females (86/1660; 5.2%) while males (51/1340; 3.8%) with no significant difference. PCR for HCV RNA was detected in 31.4% of the HCV antibody positive subjects (43/137). Which showed statistical significant difference between males (29/51) and females (14/86) at P = 0.001. Despite the prevalence rate reported in the present study was similar to anti-HCV prevalence among persons in the same age group, confirmed that HCV infection is detected among Cairo University students. J. Med. Virol. 88:1384-1387, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Praskova, Ivana; Bezdekova, Barbora; Zeman, Petr; Jahn, Petr
Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the aetiological agent of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis (EGA). The aim of this survey was to assess the prevalence of anti-A. phagocytophilum antibodies in the horse population of the Czech Republic (CZ) and to investigate possible links between seropositivity and the geographic origin, age, and/or sex of the tested horses. Antibodies against A. phagocytophilum were screened using an indirect fluorescent antibody method (IFA). Serum samples from 96 healthy horses from 8 localities (7 within the CZ and one control upland/tick-free locality in Ukraine) were examined. While the controls tested negative, the seroprevalence in the Czech localities was estimated at 73%, which suggests that subclinical EGA is common among horses in the CZ. Significant differences between seropositivity rates in individual stables were demonstrated (explicable by the different environment and/or management styles of the horses stabled therein). Horses in stables from which previous manifest cases had been reported tended to have higher average titres. Mares displayed a somewhat higher seropositivity rate than did stallions; age had no demonstrable effect upon the serological status of the examined horses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Björkman, C; Jakubek, E-B; Arnemo, J M; Malmsten, J
Transmission of the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum between wild and domestic animals has gained some interest during recent years. Because of the close relationship between gray wolf (Canis lupus) and dog it has been suggested that gray wolf is a definitive host for the parasite. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of N. caninum in Scandinavian gray wolves and to investigate any geographical patterns of the infection. The investigation was based on blood samples collected from 109 wolves between 1998 and 2009 within the Scandinavian wolf project Skandulv. They were analysed by N. caninum iscom ELISA and those with absorbance values exceeding 0.20 were also analysed by immunoblotting. Samples that were positive in both tests were deemed positive. Four (3.7%) wolves were positive at the first sampling. They were all sampled 2005 at different locations, and were both females and males. From one male wolf three samples were collected over a 7-year period. No antibodies were detected at the first sampling in 1998 when he was approximately 8 months old but when he was sampled again 5 and 7 years later the ELISA and immunoblotting were positive. The results indicate that N. caninum infection is present in Scandinavian wolves. It is unclear how the wolves acquired the infection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Archelli, Susana; Santillan, Graciela I; Fonrouge, Reinaldo; Céspedes, Graciela; Burgos, Lola; Radman, Nilda
Toxocariasis is an infection that has worldwide distribution. Toxocara canis is the most relevant agent due to its frequent occurrence in humans. Soil contamination with embryonated eggs is the primary source of T. canis. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in 10-month to 3 year-old abandoned infants, considered to be at high risk because of their orphanhood status and early age. Blood samples were collected from 120 children institutionalized in an orphanage in the city of La Plata. In this study, we observed 38.33% of seropositive cases for T. canis by ELISA and 45% by Western blot techniques; significant differences among groups A (<1 year), B (1-2 years) and C (>2 years) were also found. In research group A, children presented a seropositivity rate of 23.91%, in group B of 42.85% and in group C of 56%, which indicates an increase in frequency as age advances, probably because of greater chances of contact with infective forms of the parasite since canines and soil are frequently infected with T. canis eggs. Abandoned children come from poor households, under highly unsanitary conditions resulting from inadequate or lack of water supply and sewer networks, and frequent promiscuity with canines, which promotes the occurrence of parasitic diseases. These children are highly vulnerable due to their orphanhood status and age.
Stadler, Laura Patricia; Bernstein, David I.; Callahan, S. Todd; Turley, Christine B.; Munoz, Flor M.; Ferreira, Jennifer; Acharya, Mekhala; Simone, Gina A. Gorgone; Patel, Shital M.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Rosenthal, Susan L.
Background Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of disability, including sensorineural hearing loss, developmental delay, and mental retardation. Understanding risk factors for acquisition of CMV infection in adolescent females will help determine vaccine strategies. Methods Females (12–17 years) were recruited from primary care settings in Cincinnati, Galveston, Houston, and Nashville from June 2006 to July 2010 for a seroepidemiologic study, from which seronegative participants were recruited for a CMV vaccine trial. Participants (n = 1585) responded to questions regarding potential exposures. For those with young children in the home (n = 859), additional questions were asked about feeding and changing diapers, and for those > 14 years of age (n = 1162), questions regarding sexual activity were asked. Serum was evaluated for CMV antibody using a commercial immunoglobulin G assay. Results Cytomegalovirus antibody was detected in 49% of participants. In the univariate analyses, CMV seroprevalence was significantly higher among African Americans, those with children < 3 years of age in the home, and those with a history of oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse. Among those with young children in the home, feeding children and changing diapers further increased the association with CMV infection. However, in the final multivariate analysis, only African Americans and household contact with young children were associated with CMV infection. Conclusions By age 12, evidence of CMV infection was common. Multiple factors regarding race and personal behaviors likely contribute to seroconversion earlier in life. PMID:23687583
Kang, Shin-Seok; Byeon, Hyeon-Seop; Ku, Bok Kyung; Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Jiro; Woo, Jeongim; Ahn, Byeongwoo; Kim, Soojin; Monoldorova, Sezim; Park, Chan-Ho; Cho, Sang-Nae; Jeon, Bo-Young
Tuberculosis is a contagious disease in animals, primarily cattle, although it also affects wild animals and humans. There are few data on the state of tuberculosis in domesticated elk (Cervus canadensis) in Korea. In order to investigate tuberculosis in elk, the effectiveness of an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using MPB70 and MPB83 antigens was compared with the tuberculin skin test (TST), and seroprevalence was measured with this assay using serum samples collected from domesticated elk herds in Korea. The respective sensitivities of the MPB70 and MPB83 ELISAs were 51.9% (95% CI 42.0-61.6) and 49.1% (95% CI 39.3-58.9), and their specificities were 100.0% (95% CI 92.6-100.0) and 97.9% (95% CI 88.9-100.0), respectively, in comparison with the TST. The herd prevalence ranged from 50 to 80% and the mean herd seropositive rate was 67.7% (21 of 31). Of 819 serum samples, 163 (19.9%) were seropositive, and the within-region prevalence ranged from 18.5-58.0%. In conclusion, the ELISA using the MPB70 and MPB83 antigens showed moderate sensitivity and high specificity compared to TST in elk, and tuberculosis was assumed to be fairly prevalent in domesticated elk in Korea.
Rassier, Gabriela Lopes; Borsuk, Sibele; Pappen, Felipe; Scaini, Carlos Jaime; Gallina, Tiago; Villela, Marcos Marreiro; da Rosa Farias, Nara Amélia; Benavides, Magda Vieira; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires
Visceral toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis that occurs through the ingestion of embryonated Toxocara spp. eggs. A wide range of animal species can act as paratenic hosts for this ascarid. The main risk factor for humans is the ingestion of the eggs from contaminated soil; however, infection can also occur through the ingestion of contaminated raw or undercooked infected meat from paratenic hosts. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of Toxocara spp.-specific antibodies in sheep and to determine the risk factors associated with the infection of sheep in Rio Grande do Sul (a major sheep-producing and sheep-consuming state) in southern Brazil. Serum samples collected from 1,642 sheep were tested using an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the excretory-secretory Toxocara canis antigen. Seroprevalence was 29.0% (477/1,642), and every farm included in the study contained at least one seropositive animal. These results indicate that T. canis infection is widely distributed among sheep herds in Rio Grande do Sul and that it represents a potential risk to human health.
Ikobah, Joanah Moses; Okpara, Henry Chima; Ekanem, Emmanuel Eyo; Udo, Jacob Jackson
Introduction Hepatitis A infection is prevalent in developing countries where sanitation is still a public health issue. In Nigeria, there is no epidemiological data on children for this infection. A community based study was carried out to establish the seroprevalence and predictors of this infection in children. Methods A community based cross sectional study was carried out in Akpabuyo local Government Area of Cross River State in southern Nigeria. Multi-staged sampling technique was used to recruit 406 children aged 1-18 years. Blood samples were analysed for anti-HAV total antibody (IgM and IgG) using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay Assay(ELISA). A multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors that independently predicted the occurrence of anti-HAV total antibody. p value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Two hundred and twenty four subjects tested positive for anti-HAV total antibody giving a prevalence rate of 55.2%. The median age for those positive was 9 years and for those without evidence of HAV infection was 4 years. One hundred and one (45.1%) males and 123 (54.9%) females were positive. The study population was mainly of the low social class with 94.1%. After multivariate analysis, predictors of HAV infection were age and social class. Conclusion HAV infection was prevalent in the study population. Educational campaign is imperative and vaccine provision is advocated to further curb the spread of this infection. PMID:26090068
Quijano-Hernández, Israel A; Castro-Barcena, Alejandro; Barbabosa-Pliego, Alberto; Ochoa-García, Laucel; Del Ángel-Caraza, Javier; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan C
American trypanosomiasis is a growing health issue in the Americas. México is an endemic country, where some locations such as in the State of México are considered highly prevalent. In the valley of Toluca city, the capital of the State of Mexico, there exists an apparent high prevalence in dogs. The absence of triatomine vectors suggests that dogs may not be infected. Therefore, we conducted a directed survey to domiciliated and nondomiciliated dogs to reassess dogs' T. cruzi seroprevalence status. HAI and ELISA serologic tests were applied to 124 and 167 serums of domiciliated and nondomiciliated dogs in the target city. Risk factors were estimated, but the results did not show any evidence to assess them. No domiciliated dogs tested positive to both tests, whereas only one non-domiciliated dog resulted positive. This animal may have acquired the infection in an endemic area and then migrated to Toluca. Research results indicate that T. cruzi infection is not actively transmitted among dogs, and it is pointed out that dogs are the main sentinel animal population to evaluate a possible expansion of the territory affected by Chagas' disease.
Zhang, N-Z; Zhang, X-X; Zhou, D-H; Huang, S-Y; Tian, W-P; Yang, Y-C; Zhao, Q; Zhu, X-Q
Parrots are one of the most popular pet birds in China, and can harbour Chlamydia which has significance for human and animal health. We investigated, by indirect haemagglutination assay, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in four species of parrots, namely budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) that were collected from Weifang and Beijing cities, North China and explored the association between potential risk factors and chlamydial seropositivity. We further determined the genotype of Chlamydia in 21 fresh faecal samples based on the ompA sequence by reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Of the 311 parrots examined, 35·37% (95% confidence interval 30·06-40·68) were seropositive, and species, gender, age, season and geographical location were identified as risk factors. Two PCR-positive samples represented Chlamydia psittaci genotype A. The occurrence of C. psittaci genotype A in the droppings of two pet parrots in China suggests potential environmental contamination with Chlamydiaceae and may raise a public health concern.
Sobrino, R; Cabezón, O; Millán, J; Pabón, M; Arnal, M C; Luco, D F; Gortázar, C; Dubey, J P; Almeria, S
Serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), 3 of 6 European wildcats (Felis silvestris), 66 of 102 (64.7%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 15 of 32 (46.9%) wolves (Canis lupus), 26 of 37 (70.3%) Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 17 of 20 (85.0%) stone martens (Martes foina), 4 of 4 pine martens (Martes martes), 6 of 6 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra), 4 of 4 polecats (Mustela putorius), 1 of 1 ferret (Mustela putorius furo), 13 of 21 (61.9%) European genets (Genetta genetta), and 13 of 22 (59.1%) Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon). Serological results indicated a widespread exposure to T. gondii among wild carnivores in Spain. The high T. gondii seroprevalence in Iberian lynx and the European wildcat reported here may be of epidemiologic significance because seropositive cats might have shed oocysts.
Lin, Weiyan; Wang, Dong; Xiong, Yongzhen; Tang, Hao; Liao, Zhengfa; Ni, Jindong
In order to assess the immunity to rubella infection in Dongguan, China, we conducted a seroprevalence survey on rubella and used ELISA to measure rubella-specific IgG in serum samples. A total of 1,017 individuals aged 0-59 years were selected by multistage cluster sampling. Among them, 904 (88.9%) were seropositive for rubella. Two groups (20-29 and ≥40 years) had seropositivity rates of <90%. In comparison with participants aged ≥20 years, rubella immunization rates were higher in those aged <20 years (83.2% vs. 93.7%, respectively; χ(2) = 28.063, P < 0.001). Among women aged 20-29 years, only 63.8% had antibodies above the protective level. Multivariate analysis revealed that only sex and age were significantly associated with rubella-protective antibody levels. Our results suggest that in the study area, women of childbearing age had a greater serological susceptibility to rubella. Additional vaccinations for rubella of susceptible young adults should be considered, particularly in women of childbearing age.
Garam, G. B.; Bora, D. P.; Borah, B.; Bora, M.; Das, S. K.
Aim: This study was conducted to find out the seroprevalence of Rotavirus(RV) infection among the pig population of Arunachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: Serums samples were collected from piglets of age ranging from 1 week to 6 months and the sows associated with the piglets that were reared under organized and unorganized system of management in six different districts of Arunachal Pradesh. The prevalence of RV specific antibodies was detected using a polyclonal antibody-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA). Results: The study revealed that out of 394 serum samples, 255 (64.72%) samples were found to be positive for RV-specific antibody in i-ELISA. Considering the samples from different districts, Papumpare district of Arunachal Pradesh showed highest numbers of seropositive animals (68.75%) followed by upper Subansiri (64.91%) while West Siang district showed lowest positivity rate (61.22%). Conclusion: As considerable seropositivity was recorded among pig population of Arunachal Pradesh in this study, there is urgent need to establish high-impact and cost-effective public health intervention tools, key among them being the introduction of strict hygiene practice and RV vaccination program, to greatly reduce the number of deaths due to diarrheal diseases. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on the prevalence of RV infection from pigs of Arunachal Pradesh. PMID:27956785
Manjunath, Shrruthi; Kulkarni, Prachet G; Nagavelu, Krishnaveni; Samuel, Rosa J; Srinivasan, Sandhya; Ramasamy, Nandhini; Hegde, Nagendra R; Gudde, Ramachandra S
Health monitoring is an integral part of laboratory animal quality standards. However, current or past prevalence data as well as regulatory requirements dictate the frequency, type and the expanse of health monitoring. In an effort to understand the prevalence of rodent pathogens in India, a preliminary study was carried out by sero-epidemiology. Sera samples obtained from 26 public and private animal facilities were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against minute virus of mice (MVM), ectromelia virus (ECTV), lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), Sendai virus (SeV), and Mycoplasma pulmonis in mice, and SeV, rat parvo virus (RPV), Kilham's rat virus (KRV) and sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) in rats, by sandwich ELISA. It was observed that MHV was the most prevalent agent followed by Mycoplasma pulmonis and MVM in mice, and SDAV followed by RPV were prevalent in rats. On the other hand, none of the samples were positive for ECTV in mice, or SeV or KRV in rats. Multiple infections were common in both mice and rats. The incidence of MHV and Mycoplasma pulmonis was higher in facilities maintained by public organizations than in vivaria of private organizations, although the difference was not statistically different. On the other hand the prevalence of rodent pathogens was significantly higher in the northern part of India than in the South. These studies form the groundwork for detailed sero-prevalence studies which should further lay the foundations for country-specific guidelines for health monitoring of laboratory animals.
Azman, Andrew S; Bouhenia, Malika; Iyer, Anita S; Rumunu, John; Laku, Richard Lino; Wamala, Joseph F; Rodriguez-Barraquer, Isabel; Lessler, Justin; Gignoux, Etienne; Luquero, Francisco J; Leung, Daniel T; Gurley, Emily S; Ciglenecki, Iza
AbstractLarge protracted outbreaks of hepatitis E virus (HEV) have been documented in displaced populations in Africa over the past decade though data are limited outside these exceptional settings. Serological studies can provide insights useful for improving surveillance and disease control. We conducted an age-stratified serological survey using samples previously collected for another research study from 206 residents of an internally displaced person camp in Juba, South Sudan. We tested serum for anti-HEV antibodies (IgM and IgG) and estimated the prevalence of recent and historical exposure to the virus. Using data on individuals' serostatus, camp arrival date, and state of origin, we used catalytic transmission models to estimate the relative risk of HEV infection in the camp compared with that in the participants' home states. The age-adjusted seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG was 71% (95% confidence interval = 63-78), and 4% had evidence of recent exposure (IgM). We estimated HEV exposure rates to be more than 2-fold (hazard ratio = 2.3, 95% credible interval = 0.3-5.8) higher in the camp than in the participants' home states, although this difference was not statistically significant. HEV transmission may be higher than previously appreciated, even in the absence of reported cases. Improved surveillance in similar settings is needed to understand the burden of disease and minimize epidemic impact through early detection and response.
Hotta, A; Tanabayashi, K; Yamamoto, Y; Fujita, O; Uda, A; Mizoguchi, T; Yamada, A
Tularemia is a zoonotic disease caused by Francisella tularensis. The distribution of the pathogen in Japan has not been studied well. In this study, seroprevalence of tularemia among wild black bears and hares in Japan was determined. Blood samples collected from 431 Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) and 293 Japanese hares (Lepus brachurus) between 1998 and 2009 were examined for antibodies against F. tularensis by micro-agglutination test (MA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. By subsequent confirmatory tests using western blot (WB) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), eight sera from Japanese black bears were definitely shown to be seropositive. All of these eight bears were residents of the northeastern part of main-island of Japan, where human tularemia had been reported. On the other hand, no seropositive Japanese hares were found. These results suggest that Japanese black bears can serve as sentinel for tularemia surveillance and may help understand the distribution of F. tularensis throughout the country. This is the first report on detection of antibody to F. tularensis in black bears of Japan.
Kim, Yong-Hun; Chung, Young-Bae
The aim of this study is to determine the Toxocara seropositive rate among healthy people with eosinophilia. A total of 97 people residing in Seoul who were healthy and whose blood eosinophilia was over 10%, as shown by regular health check-ups in 2004, were subjected to this study. Their sera were tested by immunoblotting and ELISA with the antigen of larval Toxocara canis excretory-secretory (ES) protein. Sixty-five sera were band-positive (67.0%). The seropositve control sera were positive to band sizes of 66 kDa, 56 kDa, 32 kDa, and 13 kDa. In ELISA, 63 sera (65.0%) were positive to T. canis ES protein. There was no significant correlation between the IgG ELISA titer and the level of eosinophilia (r = 0.156, P = 0.156). As there were insufficient data to determine whether there were cross-reactions with other helminthic infections, or whether atopy occurred, further studies are required to verify the cause of the seropositive reactions against T. canis ES antigen. Toxocariasis seropositivity is suggested to be the major cause of eosinophilia, since the Toxocara seroprevalence among Korean rural adults was shown to be approximately 5%. PMID:18344674
Chan, P W; Anuar, A K; Fong, M Y; Debruyne, J A; Ibrahim, J
The larva of Toxocara spp., a common animal roundworm, may infect non-compatible hosts, causing a profound immunological reaction with marked eosinophil and IgE responses, not unlike in atopy. In this study, we determined the seroprevalence of Toxocara exposure in 66 asthmatic and 58 non-asthmatic children. Exposure to Toxocara was determined by examining the serum samples of the children for specific IgG antibodies to L2 Toxocara larvae, using a commercially available diagnostic kit. There was no significant difference in the mean age, sex, social class, residence type and presence of domestic pets at home between the two children groups. Children with bronchial asthma were observed to have higher Toxocara seropositivity than that of the non-asthmatic controls (21.2 vs 8.6%, P=0.047). The observed relationship between exposure to Toxocara infection and bronchial asthma in Malaysian children warrants further evaluation. An understanding of any possible contribution to the pathogenesis of childhood asthma provides a potential avenue for prevention.
Parameswaran, N.; O'Handley, RM.; Grigg, ME.; Fenwick, SG.; Thompson, RCA.
Infection with Toxoplasma gondii is a significant problem in Australian marsupials, and can lead to devastating disease and predispose animals to predation. T. gondii infection in kangaroos is also of public health significance due to the kangaroo meat trade. A moderate seroprevalence of T. gondii was observed in a study of western grey kangaroos located in the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. Of 219 kangaroos tested, 15.5% (95%CI: 10.7-20.3) were positive for T. gondii antibodies using an ELISA developed to detect T. gondii IgG in macropod marsupials. When compared with the commercially available MAT (modified agglutination test), the ELISA developed was in absolute agreement and yielded a κ coefficient of 1.00. Of 18 kangaroos tested for the presence of T. gondii DNA by PCR, the 9 ELISA positive kangaroos tested PCR positive and the 9 ELISA negative kangaroos tested PCR negative indicating the ELISA protocol was both highly specific and sensitive and correlated 100% with the more labour intensive PCR assay. PMID:19567231
Richman, Douglas D.
The use of chemotherapy to suppress replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has transformed the face of AIDS in the developed world. Pronounced reductions in illness and death have been achieved and healthcare utilization has diminished. HIV therapy has also provided many new insights into the pathogenesis and the viral and cellular dynamics of HIV infection. But challenges remain. Treatment does not suppress HIV replication in all patients, and the emergence of drug-resistant virus hinders subsequent treatment. Chronic therapy can also result in toxicity. These challenges prompt the search for new drugs and new therapeutic strategies to control chronic viral replication.
Sitoe, Sonia Paula Benedito Luis; Rafael, Bernardete; Meireles, Luciana Regina; Andrade, Heitor Franco de; Thompson, Ricardo
Toxoplasmosis, a protozoan disease, causes severe disease in fetuses during pregnancy and deadly encephalitis in HIV patients. There are several studies on its seroprevalence around the world, but studies focusing on African countries are limited in number and mostly anecdotal. We studied two groups of samples from Mozambique by ELISA, using serum samples from 150 pregnant women and six Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from AIDS patients with encephalitis. HIV status was confirmed, and CD4 blood counts were obtained from HIV-positive pregnant women. IgG seroprevalence of the group as a whole was 18.7% (28/150), with a higher prevalence in HIV-positive individuals compared to those who were HIV-negative (31.3%, [18/58] vs. 10.9%, [10/92]) patients. These data may be biased due to cumulative effects of exposition affecting disease prevalence. If corrected, this data may indicate an interaction of HIV and T. gondii. Prevalence of both diseases increases with age, but this is more clearly seen for toxoplasmosis (p < 0.005) than HIV infection, possibly explained by higher transmission of HIV after childhood. In HIV patients suffering from encephalitis, CSF serology showed that 33% of specific IgG CSF had a high avidity, which was in accordance with the data from the group of pregnant women. Lower prevalence rates of both infections in older groups could be explained by more deaths in the infected groups, resulting in an artificially lower prevalence. Using CD4 counts as a marker of time of HIV infection, and correcting for age, patients with contact with T. gondii had fewer CD4 cells, suggesting prolonged HIV disease or other causes. Toxoplasma IgG prevalence is higher in HIV+ groups, which could be ascribed to HIV- and T. gondii-associated risk factors, such as exposure to higher and more diverse social contacts. The low incidence of Toxoplasma IgG in younger age groups shows that transmission could be related to better access to cyst-containing meat in adulthood, as
Ridzuan, J Mohd; Aziah, B D; Zahiruddin, W M
To determine the leptospirosis seroprevalence and to identify the predominant infecting serovars among oil palm plantation workers. The cross-sectional study involved 350 asymptomatic oil palm plantation workers in Melaka and Johor. A serological test using the microscopic agglutination test was conducted in the Institute of Medical Research with a cut-off titre for seropositivity of ≥1:100. The overall seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies was 28.6%. The job category with the highest seroprevalence was the fruit collector with 59.2%. The predominant serovar identified was serovar Sarawak (Lepto 175) (62%). A high seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies was detected among oil palm plantation workers and specifically among fruit collectors. The predominant infecting serovar among the workers was serovar Sarawak (Lepto 175). The findings suggest that more studies are needed to determine the reasons for the high seroprevalence and the transmission and pathogenicity of the local serovar Sarawak (Lepto 175).
Gül, Serdar; Satilmiş, Ozgun Kiriş; Ozturk, Baris; Gökçe, Mehmet Ilker; Kuscu, Ferit
Brucellosis is an important public-health problem in Turkey. Children may constitute 20 to 30% of all brucellosis cases in the world, especially in the endemic regions. Data on the seroprevalence of brucellosis in childhood are very limited. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among a child population. One thousand one hundred and ten subjects were included in the study. Blood samples were collected and tested with Rose Bengal (RB) and standard tube agglutination test (SAT). RB test results were positive for 6 patients, and SAT was negative for all patients. Our findings suggest that seroprevalence of brucellosis is decreasing in Middle Anatolia due to a new cattle vaccination and eradication programme which was initiated in 2009.
Wood, Heidi; Drebot, Michael A; Dewailly, Eric; Dillon, Liz; Dimitrova, Kristina; Forde, Martin; Grolla, Allen; Lee, Elise; Loftis, Amanda; Makowski, Kai; Morrison, Karen; Robertson, Lyndon; Krecek, Rosina C
Studies examining the prevalence of zoonotic agents in the Caribbean are very limited. The objective of this study was to examine the seroprevalence of seven zoonotic agents among individuals residing on 10 English-speaking Caribbean countries. Sera from healthy, pregnant women were collected from Antigua-Barbuda, Belize, Bermuda, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent-Grenadines and tested for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus, hepatitis E virus, hantaviruses, leptospiral agents, spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR), typhus group rickettsiae (TGR), and Coxiella burnetii (Q fever). The highest seroprevalence values were observed for dengue virus, SFGR, and leptospirosis, although the lowest seroprevalence values were observed for hepatitis E virus, C. burnetii, and TGR. Antibodies to hantaviruses were not detected in any individuals.
Millen, Katharine; Kugeler, Kiersten J.; Hinckley, Alison F.; Lawaczeck, Elisabeth W.; Mead, Paul S.
Lyme disease, a tick-borne illness caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, infects humans and other species, including dogs. Canine seroprevalence has been suggested as a sentinel marker of human disease risk. A recent publication reported high canine seroprevalence (> 5%) in Routt County, Colorado, an area where Lyme disease is generally considered nonendemic. We surveyed veterinarians in Routt County and discovered that 11 of 12 seropositive dogs (> 90%) had a documented history of travel to or residence in a Lyme disease endemic area. These findings do not support the presence of an undocumented disease focus and reveal that despite its high sensitivity, there are limitations in the specificity and positive predictive value of elevated canine seroprevalence as a marker of human risk. PMID:23421882
Moore, J; Beeker, C; Harrison, J S; Eng, T R; Doll, L S
At least 10 former Peace Corps volunteers are believed to have acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during their time of service. To assess HIV risk behavior among current Peace Corps volunteers, cross-sectional data were collected from 1242 randomly selected volunteers in 28 countries in 1991. 474 (38%) were stationed in sub-Saharan Africa. Non-sexual HIV-related risk activities included injection from local health facilities (209) and ears or body parts pierced (59). Of the 1018 volunteers who were unmarried or not living with a spouse, 61% of men and 60% of women indicated they had at least one sexual partner during their time of service; 30% and 20%, respectively, had three or more partners. Only 17 men and 12 women reported having a same-sex partner. 52% of sexually active Peace Corps volunteers stationed in Eastern Europe, 43% of those in Central or South America, 36% in sub-Saharan Africa, and 32% in Asia and the Pacific had a sexual partner from the host country. 32% of these volunteers used condoms on every occasion with partners from the host country, 49% used condoms some of the time, and 19% never used them. For male volunteers, consistent condom use was negatively associated with alcohol use and positively related to the perception that HIV was a problem in the host country; for female volunteers, younger age and fewer partners were the significant correlates of condom use. The inconsistent use of condoms in countries where HIV is widespread suggests a need for Peace Corps leaders to educate volunteers about local seroprevalence rates, cultural differences in sexual negotiation, and the importance of condom use.
Armah, Henry B; Narter-Olaga, Edwin G; Adjei, Andrew A; Asomaning, Kofi; Gyasi, Richard K; Tettey, Yao
Infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) occurs mainly in Japan, Central and West Africa and the Caribbean Basin. Although antibody to HTLV-I has been reported among pregnant women in several endemic countries, there is no information regarding the seroprevalence in pregnant Ghanaian women. The reported seroprevalence of HTLV-I among healthy Ghanaian blood donors is between 0.5 and 4.2 %. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-I among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at the 37 Military Hospital, Accra, Ghana, between the months of January and December 2003. The presence of antibodies specific for HTLV-I/II was tested using a particle agglutination test (PAT) kit and confirmed by Western blotting (WB). Of the 960 sera tested, HTLV-I/II antibodies were detected in 24 samples using the PAT kit. WB results indicated that, of the 24 positive PAT specimens, 20 specimens (83.3 %) were HTLV-I positive, one (4.2 %) was HTLV-II positive, two (8.3 %) were HTLV positive and one (4.2 %) was indeterminate. Therefore, the overall seroprevalence of HTLV-I was 2.1 %. Seroprevalence increased with age, suggesting sexual contact as the primary mode of transmission among women of childbearing age, rather than breastfeeding during infancy. The seroprevalence of 2.1 % reported here for HTLV-I in pregnant women in Accra is comparable to that of human immunodeficiency virus among the same population. In conclusion, the results indicate that HTLV-I is prevalent among asymptomatic Ghanaian pregnant women and thus there is a need to consider introducing antenatal screening for HTLV-I in Ghana.
Wallace, Gregory S; Pahud, Barbara A; Weldon, William C; Curns, Aaron T; Oberste, M Steven; Harrison, Christopher J
No indigenous cases of poliomyelitis have occurred in the US since 1979; however the risk of importation persists until global eradication is achieved. The seropositivity rate for different age cohorts with exposures to different poliovirus vaccine types and wild virus in the US are not presently known. A convenience sample was conducted in the Kansas City metropolitan area during 2012-2103 with approximately 100 participants enrolled for each of 5 age cohorts categorized based on vaccine policy changes over time in the US. Immunization records for poliovirus vaccination were required for participants <18 y of age. We evaluated the prevalence of serum antibodies to all 3 poliovirus serotypes. Seroprevalence was evaluated by demographics as well as between polio serotypes. The overall seroprevalence to poliovirus was 90.7%, 94.4%, and 83.3%, for types 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Seroprevalence was high (88.6%-96.2%) for all 3 types of poliovirus for the 6-10 y old age group that was likely to have received a complete schedule of IPV-only vaccination. Children 2-3 y of age, who have not yet completed their full IPV series, had lower seroprevalence compared with all older age groups for types 1 and 2 (p-value <0. 05). Seroprevalence was high for all 3 types of poliovirus in the population surveyed. Seroprevalence for subjects aged 2-3 y was lower than all other age groups for serotypes 1 and 2 highlighting the importance of completing the recommended poliovirus vaccine series with a booster dose at age 4-6 y.
Hesamizadeh, Khashayar; Sharafi, Heidar; Keyvani, Hossein; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Najafi-Tireh Shabankareh, Azar; Sharifi Olyaie, Roghiyeh; Keshvari, Maryam
Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both transmitted by the fecal-oral route and are known as the leading causes of acute viral hepatitis in the world, especially in developing countries. There is a lack of updated data on HAV and HEV seroprevalence in Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HAV and HEV among a group of blood donors in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was performed from July 2014 to December 2014, on a total of 559 blood donors referred to the Tehran blood transfusion center. The serum samples were tested for antibodies to HAV and HEV, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results In the present study, 536 (95.9%) cases were male and 23 (4.1%) female with mean age of 38 years. Out of 559 blood donors, 107 (19.1%) were first-time donors, 163 (29.2%) lapsed donors and 289 (51.7%) regular donors. Anti-HAV was found in 395 (70.7%) and anti-HEV in 45 (8.1%) of the blood donors. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence increased by age. There was no significant difference between genders in terms of anti-HAV and anti-HEV status. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence was significantly related to the level of education, where the donors with higher level of education had lower rate of HAV and HEV seroprevalence. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence was significantly higher in regular and lapsed donors than in first-time donors. Conclusions The present study showed that both HAV and HEV infections are still endemic in Iran. PMID:27110256
Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Conde-Gonzalez, Carlos; Rojas, Rosalba; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Romano-Mazzotti, Luis; Cervantes, Yolanda; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) remains a public health concern worldwide contributing to significant morbidity in developed and developing countries. This cross-sectional database study estimated the overall HAV seroprevalence and the seroprevalence by gender, age, region and socioeconomic status in Mexico. Between January and October 2010, serum samples collected during the National Health and Nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2006) were obtained from subjects aged 1–95 y. Subjects’ gender, age, geographical region and socioeconomic status were extracted from the survey and compiled into a subset database by the Mexican National Institute of Public Health. Anti-HAV antibodies were measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. A total of 3658 subjects were included in the according-to-protocol cohort. Overall, the HAV seroprevalence was 84.2%. The HAV seroprevalence rates were similar between females (86.1%) and males (82.2%). The percentage of subjects seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies was highest in adults aged ≥ 20 y (96.9%), followed by adolescents aged 10–19 y (80.1%) and lowest in children aged 1–9 y (45.0%) (p < 0.0001). Regionally, the highest HAV seroprevalence rate was observed in the South (88.8%) followed by Central and Northern Mexico and Mexico City (p = 0.02). The HAV seroprevalence was similar between subjects of high socioeconomic (90.1%) status and of low socioeconomic status (86.6%). This study confirms the intermediate HAV endemicity in Mexico. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to evaluate the inclusion of an effective hepatitis A vaccine from a population-based perspective in addition to continuous efforts to improve hygiene and sanitation that have a substantial impact on the disease burden. PMID:23291940
HIV seroprevalence was carried out in 42,738 individuals attending the STD Centre of a New Delhi hospital from September 1990 to December 2001. The different epidemiological parameters of the patients in Group 1 (asymptomatic HIV-seropositive individuals) and Group 2 (AIDS cases), were compared in four spans A, B, C, D. Significant rise in seroprevalence from 0.4% to 4.4% was observed with time. The patients in Group 1 were mainly 15-19 years followed by 30-44 years age group. Overall, the Male:Female ratio in Groups 1 and 2 were 3:1 and 6:1, respectively. The transmission was predominantly heterosexual in both the groups. The patients with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) emerged as the most prominent category in Group 1, showing a steady rising trend till 1999 and stabilizing thereafter. Ulcerative STIs, mainly syphilis, showed maximum association. In most of the cases, the infection was acquired by promiscuous males from female commercial sex workers or casual acquaintances and further transmitted to their spouses. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection. However, patients presented with fever, loss of weight and diarrhoea in increasing number during time D. The present study reiterates the importance of early management of STI patients and counselling of high risk groups, early partner notification and routine antenatal HIV check-up in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS infection in third world countries like India.
Mougenez, Stephane; Chad, N'Djamena; Howe, John
Think of advertising and what comes to mind, soap powders, motor cars, baked beans? All of these, of course, are heavily advertised, but what about HIV? Among the most durable of the government's advertisement campaigns have been the ones concerning HIV. Tens of millions of pounds have been spent telling the public of the presence and dangers of the virus.
Noor Azian, M Y; Hakim, S Lokman; Sumiati, A; Norhafizah, M
The objective of this study was to determine exposure to cysticercosis among a rural population in a selected village in Ranau, Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 135 serum samples were analyzed. The result showed that the seroprevalence of cysticercosis antibodies was 2.2%. There was no significant difference in the seroprevalence among age groups (p=0.307). Even though there was a slightly higher antibody titer in males compared to females, the difference was not significant (p=0.400). The results indicate evidence of exposure to cysticercosis in this rural population.
Adam, Awadalkareem; Seidahmed, Osama M E; Weber, Christopher; Schnierle, Barbara; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Reiche, Sven; Jassoy, Christian
Outbreaks of infections with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have previously been reported from Sudan but the prevalence in the general population is unknown. We investigated the seroprevalence of CHIKV infection in 379 serum samples from patients with fever in the outpatient clinics of three hospitals in eastern and central Sudan. The seroprevalence was 1.8%, indicating that CHIKV infections are rare in these parts of Sudan. As the vector Aedes aegypti is endemic in this area, the population is at risk for a CHIKV epidemic.
Prellwitz, Isabel M; Alves, Brunna M; Ikeda, Maria Letícia R; Kuhleis, Daniele; Picon, Pedro D; Jarczewski, Carla A; Osório, Marta R; Sánchez, Alexandra; Seuánez, Héctor N; Larouzé, Bernard; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A
People deprived of liberty in prisons are at higher risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to their increased exposure through intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual activity, tattooing in prison and blood exposure in fights and rebellions. Yet, the contribution of intramural HIV transmission to the epidemic is scarcely known, especially in low- and middle-income settings. In this study, we surveyed 1,667 inmates incarcerated at Presídio Central de Porto Alegre, located in southern Brazil, for HIV infection and molecular characterization. The HIV seroprevalence was 6.6% (110/1,667). Further analyses were carried out on 40 HIV-seropositive inmates to assess HIV transmission clusters and drug resistance within the facility with the use of molecular and phylogenetic techniques. The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes observed was similar to the one reported for the general population in southern Brazil, with the predominance of HIV-1 subtypes C, B, CRF31_BC and unique BC recombinants. In particular, the high rate (24%) of URF_BC found here may reflect multiple exposures of the population investigated to HIV infection. We failed to find HIV-infected inmates sharing transmission clusters with each other. Importantly, the analysis of HIV-1 pol genomic fragments evidenced high rates of HIV primary and secondary (acquired) drug resistance and an alarming proportion of virologic failure among patients under treatment, unveiling suboptimal access to antiretroviral therapy (ARV), low ARV adherence and dissemination of drug resistant HIV strains in primary infections. Our results call for immediate actions of public authority to implement preventive measures, serological screening and, for HIV-seropositive subjects, clinical and treatment follow-up in order to control HIV infection and limit the spread of drug resistance strains in Brazilian prisons.
Ikeda, Maria Letícia R.; Kuhleis, Daniele; Picon, Pedro D.; Jarczewski, Carla A.; Osório, Marta R.; Sánchez, Alexandra; Seuánez, Héctor N.; Larouzé, Bernard; Soares, Marcelo A.; Soares, Esmeralda A.
People deprived of liberty in prisons are at higher risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to their increased exposure through intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual activity, tattooing in prison and blood exposure in fights and rebellions. Yet, the contribution of intramural HIV transmission to the epidemic is scarcely known, especially in low- and middle-income settings. In this study, we surveyed 1,667 inmates incarcerated at Presídio Central de Porto Alegre, located in southern Brazil, for HIV infection and molecular characterization. The HIV seroprevalence was 6.6% (110/1,667). Further analyses were carried out on 40 HIV-seropositive inmates to assess HIV transmission clusters and drug resistance within the facility with the use of molecular and phylogenetic techniques. The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes observed was similar to the one reported for the general population in southern Brazil, with the predominance of HIV-1 subtypes C, B, CRF31_BC and unique BC recombinants. In particular, the high rate (24%) of URF_BC found here may reflect multiple exposures of the population investigated to HIV infection. We failed to find HIV-infected inmates sharing transmission clusters with each other. Importantly, the analysis of HIV-1 pol genomic fragments evidenced high rates of HIV primary and secondary (acquired) drug resistance and an alarming proportion of virologic failure among patients under treatment, unveiling suboptimal access to antiretroviral therapy (ARV), low ARV adherence and dissemination of drug resistant HIV strains in primary infections. Our results call for immediate actions of public authority to implement preventive measures, serological screening and, for HIV-seropositive subjects, clinical and treatment follow-up in order to control HIV infection and limit the spread of drug resistance strains in Brazilian prisons. PMID:23874857
Boulos, R; Halsey, N A; Holt, E; Ruff, A; Brutus, J R; Quinn, T C; Adrien, M; Boulos, C
Pregnant Haitian women (n = 4,474) residing in a periurban slum were interviewed to identify risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases and sera were tested to identify antibodies to HIV-1 and syphilis. The seroprevalence rates for antibodies to HIV-1 increased from 8.9% in 1986 to 9.9% in 1987 and 10.3% in 1988. Sera obtained in 1982 from 533 mothers of young infants in the same community revealed that 7.8% were HIV-1 seropositive. Of women pregnant for the first time in 1986-1988, 6.6% were HIV-1 seropositive and 6.0% had a positive VDRL. The highest seropositivity rates (greater than 15%) were noted in women 20 to 29 years of age with a history of two or more sexual partners in the year prior to pregnancy. Factors independently associated with HIV-1 seropositivity in pregnant women by logistic regression analysis included being unmarried, age 20-29 years, having had more than one sex partner in the year prior to pregnancy, a positive serologic test for syphilis, and smoking. A dose-response effect was noted in the association between HIV-1 seropositivity and smoking. The association between smoking and HIV-1 infections could be confounded by unrecognized behavioral factors or due to a biologic effect of smoking. The continuing high HIV-1 seropositivity rates in pregnant women indicate that current preventive measures are insufficient and increased control efforts are urgently needed.
Ohshige, K.; Morio, S.; Mizushima, S.; Kitamura, K.; Tajima, K.; Ito, A.; Suyama, A.; Usuku, S.; Saphonn, V.; Heng, S.; Hor, L. B.; Tia, P.; Soda, K.
To describe epidemiological features on HIV prevalence among female commercial sex workers (CSWs), a cross-sectional study on sexual behaviour and serological prevalence was carried out in Cambodia. The CSWs were interviewed on their demographic characters and behaviour and their blood samples were taken for testing on sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, syphilis, and hepatitis B. Associations between risk factors and HIV seropositivity were analysed. High seroprevalence of HIV and Chlamydia trachomatis IgG antibody (CT-IgG-Ab) was shown among the CSWs (54 and 81.7%, respectively). Univariate logistic regression analyses showed an association between HIV seropositivity and age, duration of prostitution, the number of clients per day and CT-IgG-Ab. Especially, high-titre chlamydial seropositivity showed a strong significant association with HIV prevalence. In multiple logistic regression analyses, CT-IgG-Ab with higher titre was significantly independently related to HIV infection. These suggest that existence of Chlamydia trachomatis is highly related to HIV prevalence. PMID:10722142
Seroprevalence of parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus antibodies in haemophiliacs treated exclusively with clotting-factor concentrates considered safe against human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C viruses.
Flores, G; Juárez, J C; Montoro, J B; Tusell, J M; Altisent, C; Juste, C; Jardí, R
Clotting-factor concentrates (CFC) are a potential source of transmission of blood-borne viruses. Newer physical and chemical methods (pasteurization, wet-heating, solvent/detergent treating) developed to inactivate viruses are effective against HIV, HBV and HCV. However, it is not clear if these methods protect against other pathogenic viruses such as parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV). To evaluate the safety of current CFC we have studied seroprevalence of parovirus B19, CMV, HAV and HEV antibodies in 22 HIV and HCV negative haemophiliacs who were treated exclusively with clotting-factor concentrates considered safe with respect to HIV and HCV transmission, 22 healthy individuals served as controls. Neither HAV nor HEV antibodies were detected in haemophiliacs or controls. Two controls and two haemophiliacs were seropositive for CMV. Five controls (32% prevalence) and 15 haemophiliacs (77%) were positive to parovirus B19. No statistical differences can be established for seropositivity with CMV, HAV and HEV between haemophilic patients and controls. In the case of parvovirus B19 the differences are statistically significant (P= 0.0128). The relative risk of parvovirus B19 is 2.4 in the case of haemophiliacs. CFC considered safe against HIV and HCV are not safe against parvovirus B19, although they seem to be safe against CMV, HAV and HEV.
Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt
Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are one of the main causes of foodborne bacterial infections in Europe. Slaughter pigs are the main reservoir and carcasses are contaminated during a sub-optimal hygienically slaughtering-process. Serology is potentially an easy option to test for the Yersinia-status of the pig (batches) before slaughter. A study of the variation in activity values (OD%) of Yersinia spp. in pigs and pig batches when applying a serological test were therefore conducted. In this study, pieces of the diaphragm of 7047 pigs, originating from 100 farms, were collected and meat juice was gathered, where after an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Pigtype Yopscreen (Labor Diagnostik Leipzig, Qiagen, Leipzig, Germany) was performed. The results were defined positive if the activity values exceeded the proposed cut-off value of 30 OD%. Results at pig level displayed a bimodal-shaped distribution with modes at 0-10% (n=879) and 50-60% (n=667). The average OD% was 51% and 66% of the animals tested positive. The within-batch seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 100% and also showed a bimodal distribution with modes at 0% (n=7) and 85-90% (n=16). On 7 farms, no single seropositive animal was present and in 22 farms, the mean OD% was below 30%. Based on the results obtained at slaughter, 66% of the pigs had contact with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. at farm level. The latter occurred in at least 93% of the farms indicating that most farms are harboring enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maloney, Jenny; Newsome, Anthony; Huang, Junjun; Kirby, Jordona; Kranz, Melissa; Wateska, Angela; Dunlap, Brett; Yabsley, Michael J; Dunn, John R; Jones, Timothy F; Moncayo, Abelardo C
Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas' disease. Autochthonous human and canine transmission of T. cruzi has been documented in Tennessee, but little is known about its ecology, including the prevalence of T. cruzi among wildlife in Tennessee. Serum samples from 706 raccoons (Procyon lotor) from 10 counties in the Ridge and Valley and Blue Ridge Mountains ecoregions of eastern Tennessee were tested for antibodies reactive with T. cruzi using the indirect fluorescent antibody assay. Two hundred six (29.2%) samples were seropositive, with 9 counties yielding positive samples (range 14.6-63.6%). Significantly more raccoons from rural habitats (35.1%) were found positive for T. cruzi exposure than were those from suburban habitats (23.1%, P < 0.001). Land cover class was not associated with seropositivity status (P = 0.441), even though deciduous forest was the most common site from where raccoons were trapped and the most common site of positive raccoons in rural areas (42%). Interestingly, age was positively associated with seropositivity. Raccoons older than 1 yr (adults) were 40.1% seropositive compared to 12.2% of those less than 1 yr (juveniles; P < 0.001). Female adults were significantly more likely to be exposed to T. cruzi than were male adult raccoons (P < 0.001). No significant seroprevalence difference was seen among male and female juveniles. This study contributes to understanding the dynamics of T. cruzi exposure within raccoon populations in Tennessee. The importance of habitat (rural vs. suburban) and microhabitat (dens) in risk of exposure to these populations is also discussed.
Curcio, Sabino R; Tria, Laurel P; Gucwa, Azad L
Babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne disease (TBD) caused by Babesia microti, an intracellular parasite of red blood cells. Currently, it is the highest ranked pathogen transmitted by blood transfusion. Most healthy individuals infected with B. microti are asymptomatic, but may be at risk for chronic infection. Similar to Lyme disease transmitted by Borrelia burgdorferi, B. microti is spread by Ixodes scapularis ticks. The rate of coinfection with these TBDs in humans is unclear as most studies have focused their prevalence in ticks or rodent reservoirs. In this study, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence of B. microti infection in individuals who tested positive for Lyme disease. Serum samples obtained from 130 subjects in New York were tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against B. microti. Overall, 26.9% of the serum samples tested were positive for IgM and IgG antibodies against B. microti, suggesting exposure to TBD. Individuals who tested positive for Lyme disease as determined by two-tiered serological testing and the presence of both IgM and IgG antibodies directed against B. burgdorferi, were significantly increased for antibodies directed against B. microti (28.6%; p < 0.05), suggesting the possibility of coinfection with both TBDs. In contrast, the Lyme disease-negative control group had only 6.7% of samples seropositive for B. microti. These findings suggest the need for more extensive studies investigating infection rates with multiple TBDs in areas where they are endemic and further support for the need to implement an FDA-approved screening test for blood products to help prevent transfusion-transmitted babesiosis.
Manjunath, Shrruthi; Kulkarni, Prachet G.; Nagavelu, Krishnaveni; Samuel, Rosa J.; Srinivasan, Sandhya; Ramasamy, Nandhini; Hegde, Nagendra R.; Gudde, Ramachandra S.
Health monitoring is an integral part of laboratory animal quality standards. However, current or past prevalence data as well as regulatory requirements dictate the frequency, type and the expanse of health monitoring. In an effort to understand the prevalence of rodent pathogens in India, a preliminary study was carried out by sero-epidemiology. Sera samples obtained from 26 public and private animal facilities were analyzed for the presence of antibodies against minute virus of mice (MVM), ectromelia virus (ECTV), lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), Sendai virus (SeV), and Mycoplasma pulmonis in mice, and SeV, rat parvo virus (RPV), Kilham’s rat virus (KRV) and sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) in rats, by sandwich ELISA. It was observed that MHV was the most prevalent agent followed by Mycoplasma pulmonis and MVM in mice, and SDAV followed by RPV were prevalent in rats. On the other hand, none of the samples were positive for ECTV in mice, or SeV or KRV in rats. Multiple infections were common in both mice and rats. The incidence of MHV and Mycoplasma pulmonis was higher in facilities maintained by public organizations than in vivaria of private organizations, although the difference was not statistically different. On the other hand the prevalence of rodent pathogens was significantly higher in the northern part of India than in the South. These studies form the groundwork for detailed sero-prevalence studies which should further lay the foundations for country-specific guidelines for health monitoring of laboratory animals. PMID:26158453
Zautner, A E; Johann, C; Strubel, A; Busse, C; Tareen, A M; Masanta, W O; Lugert, R; Schmidt-Ott, R; Groß, U
Post-infectious sequelea such as Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS), reactive arthritis (RA), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may arise as a consequence of acute Campylobacter-enteritis (AE). However, reliable seroprevalence data of Campylobacter-associated sequelae has not been established. The objectives of this study were, first, to identify the most specific and sensitive test antigen in an optimized ELISA assay for diagnosing a previous Campylobacter-infection and, second, to compare the prevalence of anti-Campylobacter antibodies in cohorts of healthy blood donors (BD), AE, GBS, RA, and IBD patients with antibodies against known GBS, RA and IBD triggering pathogens. Optimized ELISAs of single and combined Campylobacter-proteins OMP18 and P39 as antigens were prepared and sera from AE, GBS, RA and IBD patients and BD were tested for Campylobcter-specific IgA and IgG antibodies. The results were compared with MIKROGEN™-recomLine Campylobacter IgA/IgG and whole cell lysate-immunoblot. Antibodies specific for Helicobacter pylori, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Borrelia afzelii were tested with commercial immunoblots. ROC plot analysis revealed AUC maxima in the combination of OMP18 and P39 for IgA and in the P39-antigen for IgG. As a result, 34-49 % GBS cases, 44-62 % RA cases and 23-40 % IBD cases were associated with Campylobacter-infection. These data show that Campylobcater-seropositivity in these patient groups is significantly higher than other triggering pathogens suggesting that it plays an important role in development of GBS and RA, and supports the hypothesis that recurrent acute campylobacteriosis triggers IBD.
Georoff, Timothy A; Joyner, Priscilla H; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E; Pogranichniy, Roman M
Laboratory records of serology results from captive macropodidae sampled between 1997 and 2005 were reviewed to assess the seroprevalence of retrovirus exposure. Serum samples from 269 individuals (136 males, 133 females) representing 10 species of macropods housed in 31 North American captive collections were analyzed for retrovirus antibody using an indirect immunofluorescent assay. The prevalence of positive antibody titers comparing male versus female, between species, between age groups, and among animals with identified parentage was examined by nonparametric statistical analyses. Median age of animals at time of sample collection was 36 mo (range 2-201 mo). Total percentage seropositive was 20.4%. Serum antibody was detected in 31 of 47 (66.0%) tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii), nine of 24 (37.5%) yellow-footed rock wallaby (Petrogale xanthopus), four of 11 (36.4%) swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor), 10 of 80 (12.5%) red-necked wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus), and one of 54 (1.9%) parma wallaby (Macropus parma). No individuals of western gray kangaroo (n=3) (Macropus fuliginosus), eastern gray kangaroo (n=19) (Macropus giganteus), common wallaroo (n=6) (Macropus robustus), red kangaroo (n=11) (Macropus rufus), or Matschie's tree kangaroo (n=14) (Dendrolagus matschiei) were positive for retrovirus antibody. These results demonstrate that five species of captive macropods have a history of exposure to retrovirus, with the highest percentage seropositive and highest statistical correlation in M. eugenii (pair-wise Fisher's exact test, alpha = 0.05). Additionally, one wild-caught M. eugenii was confirmed seropositive during quarantine period, indicating that retrovirus exposure may exist in wild populations.
Newton, Ogbodo Ekene; Oghene, Otue Akpevwe; Okonko, Iheanyi Omezuruike
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) share common routes of infection and as such, co-infection is expected. Co-infection of the two viruses is of great medical importance as it determines the effect of drugs used for treatment at various stages. This interplay between HIV and HCV sets the tone for the objective of this study which is to ascertain the seroprevalence of HCV among newly diagnosed HIV patients in Ughelli, a suburban area of Delta State, Nigeria. A total of 200 newly diagnosed HIV-positive patients were recruited for this study. Each of the sera was tested for anti-HCV antibody using SWE-life HCV ultra rapid test strip. Appropriate questionnaires were used to ascertain other important information which include social behaviour such as whether the patients were MSM (males), IDU, tattoo and/or have received blood transfusion in the past. The prevalence of HCV among the study population was determined to be 15.0%. A higher seroprevalence was observed among females (16.5%) than in males (13.0%). A higher seroprevalence was also observed among age groups >26 years (16.0%) than in age-groups 14-25 years (13.0%) and 2-13 years (0.0%). Of the 7 patients with tattoos, 1(14.3%) tested positive for HCV compared to 29(15.0%) with no tattoos. We found no significant correlation with transfusion, intravenous drug use (IDU), men that have sex with men (MSM), tattooing and the seroprevalence of HCV. However, significant correlation existed with age, sex and HCV prevalence. This study reports a 15.0% seroprevalence of HCV among newly diagnosed HIV patients and that is alarmingly well above several other studies done in the past in Nigeria and other countries of sub-Saharan Africa. Planned preven tion, screening, and treatment are needed to reduce further transmission and morbidity. Future studies involving HCV-RNA assays are needed.
Chopra, Shashi; Arora, Usha
The HIV infection is associated with several dermatological conditions which may be the first pointer towards the existence of HIV. These may present with unusual and atypical manifestations in the course of the HIV infection. Keeping this in mind, the seroprevalence of HIV in these persons and the spectrum of the skin and the mucocutaneous lesions in the HIV positive patients was studied. The current prospective study was conducted over a period of 3 years (2006-2008). A total of 604 persons who had any kind of skin and mucocutaneous infections were screened for the HIV infection as per the NACO guidelines after recording their clinical and epidemiological profiles. Out of the 604 patients who were screened, 90(14.90%) were seropositive for the HIV-I antibodies and none was positive for the HIV-2 antibodies. Seventy three point thirty three percent 73.33 of the seropositive patients were in the age group of 15-40 years, with a male-female ratio of 1:1.05. The heterosexual route was the most common mode of transmission (86.6%).A wide range of infectious and noninfectious lesions were observed. In the HIV seropositive patients, oral candidiasis (32.22%) was the most common infectious disease which was observed, followed by herpes zoster (13.33%), genital warts (7.77%) and genital herpes (6.66%). The most common noninfectious manifestation was seborrhoic dermatitis (8.88%), followed by pruritic papular eruptions (7.77%). As there is a high prevalence of the HIV infection in patients who have skin and mucocutaneous disorders, the doctors, during the investigation of these patients, must have a high level of suspicion for the HIV infection in their mind. An early detection of HIV optimizes the chemoprophylaxis for many opportunistic mucocutaneous disorders.
Viani, Rolando M; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Spector, Stephen A
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance of parallel rapid HIV testing and the presence of HIV-associated risk factors in pregnant women with unknown HIV status in Baja California, Mexico. Pregnant women attending the delivery unit or the prenatal clinic at Tijuana General Hospital had blood drawn for parallel rapid HIV testing with Determine™ HIV-1/2 and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen(®) HIV. The parallel rapid HIV test performance was compared to the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and western blot. From September 2007 to July 2008, 1,383 (94%) of 1,464 women in labor and 1,992 (96%) of 2,075 women in prenatal care were enrolled. The HIV seroprevalence among women screened during labor (19/1,383, 1.37%, 95% CI: 0.85-2.18%) was significantly higher compared to those seeking prenatal care (5/1,992, 0.25%, 95% CI: 0.09-0.62%; p<0.001). Of 25 pregnant women testing positive by parallel rapid HIV testing 24 had a positive confirmatory western blot and one (0.03%) was confirmed as false positive. Additionally, two (0.06%) women had parallel rapid HIV discordant testing results; both tested negative by western blot. All women who tested negative by rapid testing had negative results on pooled EIA antibody testing. The overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of parallel rapid HIV testing were 100%, 99.9%, 96%, and 100%, respectively. These findings document a very high acceptance rate and an excellent performance of the parallel rapid HIV testing strategy during pregnancy.
Vergeront, J M; Reiser, W J; Druckenmiller, J K; Krchnavek, K A; Davis, J P
The authors review Wisconsin statutes related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing in primary care, including the areas of written informed consent, documentation of consent, testing without consent, testing of minors, disclosure of test results without the consent of the test subject, reporting requirements, discrimination, access by insurance companies and third-party payors to HIV test results, and civil liabilities and criminal penalties associated with violation of HIV-related state statutes. During the course of the HIV epidemic in Wisconsin, many individuals (service providers, legislators, consumers and advocates) supported the enactment of HIV-related legislation. Today, Wisconsin has some of the nation's most comprehensive HIV legislation. These laws have set a legal framework that balances the rights of individuals with protection of public's health. The relatively low seroprevalence of HIV infection in Wisconsin can be attributed, in part, to the state's HIV-related legislation. While Wisconsin HIV legislation is broadly focused, much of it is concerned with HIV testing. This article examines common questions as they pertain to HIV testing in primary care and to the following areas addressed by state statutes: counseling and referral for health and support services [Wisconsin statute s. 252 14(3)] informed consent for testing or disclosure [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(2)] written consent to disclose [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(3) & (4)] testing without consent of the test subject [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(2)] confidentiality of an HIV test [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(5)] reporting of positive test results [Wisconsin statute s. 252.15(7)] discrimination [Wisconsin statute s. 252.14(2)] civil and criminal liabilities [Wisconsin statute s. 252.14(4); 252.15(8) & (9)].
Chopra, Shashi; Arora, Usha
Background and Aims The HIV infection is associated with several dermatological conditions which may be the first pointer towards the existence of HIV. These may present with unusual and atypical manifestations in the course of the HIV infection. Keeping this in mind, the seroprevalence of HIV in these persons and the spectrum of the skin and the mucocutaneous lesions in the HIV positive patients was studied. Methods The current prospective study was conducted over a period of 3 years (2006-2008). A total of 604 persons who had any kind of skin and mucocutaneous infections were screened for the HIV infection as per the NACO guidelines after recording their clinical and epidemiological profiles. Results Out of the 604 patients who were screened, 90(14.90%) were seropositive for the HIV-I antibodies and none was positive for the HIV-2 antibodies. Seventy three point thirty three percent 73.33 of the seropositive patients were in the age group of 15-40 years, with a male-female ratio of 1:1.05. The heterosexual route was the most common mode of transmission (86.6%).A wide range of infectious and noninfectious lesions were observed. In the HIV seropositive patients, oral candidiasis (32.22%) was the most common infectious disease which was observed, followed by herpes zoster (13.33%), genital warts (7.77%) and genital herpes (6.66%). The most common noninfectious manifestation was seborrhoic dermatitis (8.88%), followed by pruritic papular eruptions (7.77%). Conclusion As there is a high prevalence of the HIV infection in patients who have skin and mucocutaneous disorders, the doctors, during the investigation of these patients, must have a high level of suspicion for the HIV infection in their mind. An early detection of HIV optimizes the chemoprophylaxis for many opportunistic mucocutaneous disorders. PMID:23373031
Grønborg, Helene Ladefoged; Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Wejse, Christian
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among HIV-infected individuals may cause end-organ disease, which is an AIDS-defining condition. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that CMV may alter the outcome of HIV infection, other than causing end-organ diseases. We reviewed literature on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa. Systematic review of published studies on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa using the PubMed database. High CMV seroprevalence was found throughout Africa, exceeding 90% in most populations. Retinitis, pneumonia, and colitis were the most commonly reported CMV manifestations in HIV-infected individuals. Among patients with pulmonary symptoms, the prevalence of CMV pneumonitis varied from 20% to over 60%, whereas CMV was found in 0% to 14% of patients with gastrointestinal manifestations. Cytomegalovirus retinitis was found in 0% to 2.6% of examined HIV-infected individuals. The diagnostics of CMV end-organ diseases were found complex and difficult to interpret in African settings. Cytomegalovirus viremia was correlated with significantly lower CD4 cell count and increase in activated and apoptosis vulnerable T-lymphocytes. Also, CMV coinfection was found to be associated with increased transmission and progression of HIV infection. Moreover, detectable CMV DNA was an independent predictor of HIV transmission and mortality among HIV-infected individuals. Cytomegalovirus is highly prevalent in Africa and a common cause of disease manifestations in HIV-infected individuals among all age groups. Cytomegalovirus coinfection in HIV-infected individuals in Africa is associated with increased transmission and mortality of HIV, but it is a neglected area of research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lancaster, Kathryn Elizabeth; Powers, Kimberly A.; Lungu, Thandie; Mmodzi, Pearson; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Chadwick, Katy; Go, Vivian F.; Pence, Brian W.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Miller, William C.
Objective The HIV care continuum among female sex workers (FSW), a key population, has not been well characterized, especially within the generalized epidemics of sub-Saharan Africa. This was the first study to characterize the HIV care continuum among FSW in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods From July through September 2014, we used venue-based sampling to enroll 200 adult FSW in Lilongwe, Malawi into a cross-sectional evaluation assessing HIV care continuum outcomes. Seropositive FSW, identified using HIV rapid testing, received rapid CD4 counts in addition to viral loads using dried blood spots. We calculated proportions of HIV-infected FSW who had history of care, were on ART, and had suppressed viral load and we used Poisson regression to estimate the associations of demographic characteristics and transmission risk behaviors with each outcome. Results HIV seroprevalence was 69% (n = 138). Among all FSW the median age was 24 years (IQR: 22–28). Among the 20% who were newly diagnosed and reported previously testing negative, the median time since last HIV test was 11 months (interquartile range: 3–17). The majority (69%) of HIV-infected FSW had a history of HIV care, 52% reported current ART use, and 45% were virally suppressed. Of the FSW who reported current ART use, 86% were virally suppressed. Transmission risk behaviors were not associated with continuum outcomes. Conclusions FSW in Lilongwe were predominately young and have a high HIV prevalence. Only half of HIV-infected FSW reported current ART use, but the majority of those on ART were virally suppressed. To reduce ongoing transmission and improve health outcomes, increased HIV testing, care engagement, and ART coverage is urgently needed among FSW. Universal testing and treatment strategies for all FSW in Malawi must be strongly considered. PMID:26808043
HIV Treatment HIV Medication Adherence (Last updated 3/2/2017; last reviewed 3/2/2017) Key Points Medication adherence means sticking ... exactly as prescribed. Why is adherence to an HIV regimen important? Adherence to an HIV regimen gives ...
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Goff, Gregory; Whitney, Hugh; Drebot, Michael A
California serogroup viruses, including Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) and snowshoe hare virus (SSHV), are mosquito-borne members of the Bunyaviridae family and are endemic across North America. These arboviruses are potential pathogens which occasionally cause neuroinvasive disease in humans and livestock. A neutralization assay was used to document JCV and SSHV seroprevalence using blood collected from a variety of domestic and wildlife host species. These species were sampled in an island setting, Newfoundland, which contains diverse ecoregions, ecological landscapes, and habitats. Seroprevalence rates for each virus differed significantly among host species and within certain species across different geographic areas. JCV was significantly associated with large mammals, and SSHV was significantly associated with snowshoe hares. Seroprevalence rates in the 5 species of animals tested for prior exposure to JCV ranged from 0% in snowshoe hares to 64% in horses. Seroprevalence rates for SSHV ranged from less than 1% in bovines to 55% in all snowshoe hares. The seroprevalence of SSHV differed significantly (P < 0.05) among hares occupying the discrete habitats of watersheds separated by 14 to 35 km. Cattle on farms in boreal forest landscapes displayed significantly higher JCV seroprevalence (P < 0.001) than those on farms located in seacoast landscapes. Lifelong geographic isolation of cattle to insular Newfoundland was associated with significantly lower JCV seroprevalence (P < 0.01) than that for cattle which had lived off-island.
Etcheverry, M. Florencia; Lum, Paula J.; Evans, Jennifer L.; Sanchez, Emilia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Sierra, Ernesto; Gatell, José M.; Page, Kimberly; Joseph, Joan
Being able to recruit high-risk volunteers who are also willing to consider future participation in vaccine trials are critical features of vaccine preparedness studies. We described data from two cohorts of injection- and non-injection drug users in Barcelona, Spain [Red Cross centre] and in San Francisco, USA, [UFO-VAX study] at high risk of HIV/HCV infection to assess behaviour risk exposure and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. We successfully identified drug-using populations that would be eligible for future HIV vaccine efficacy trials, based on reported levels of risk during screening and high levels of willingness to participate. In both groups, Red Cross and UFO-VAX respectively, HCV infection was highly prevalent at baseline (41% and 34%), HIV baseline seroprevalence was 4.2% and 1.5%, and high levels of willingness were seen (83% and 78%). PMID:21241735
Etcheverry, M Florencia; Lum, Paula J; Evans, Jennifer L; Sanchez, Emilia; de Lazzari, Elisa; Mendez-Arancibia, Eva; Sierra, Ernesto; Gatell, José M; Page, Kimberly; Joseph, Joan
Being able to recruit high-risk volunteers who are also willing to consider future participation in vaccine trials are critical features of vaccine preparedness studies. We described data from two cohorts of injection- and non-injection drug users in Barcelona, Spain [Red Cross centre] and in San Francisco, USA, [UFO-VAX study] at high risk of HIV/HCV infection to assess behaviour risk exposure and willingness to participate in future preventive HIV vaccine trials. We successfully identified drug-using populations that would be eligible for future HIV vaccine efficacy trials, based on reported levels of risk during screening and high levels of willingness to participate. In both groups, Red Cross and UFO-VAX respectively, HCV infection was highly prevalent at baseline (41% and 34%), HIV baseline seroprevalence was 4.2% and 1.5%, and high levels of willingness were seen (83% and 78%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hwahng, Sel J; Nuttbrock, Larry
Public health research has indicated extremely high HIV seroprevalence (13%-63%) among low-income transfeminine people of color of African, Latina, and Asian descent living in the U.S. This article combines two data sets. One set is based on an ethnographic study (N = 50, 120 hours of participant observation). The other set is based on a longitudinal quantitative study (baseline N = 600, N = 275 followed for 3 years). Transfeminine people of color are much more likely to be androphilic and at high HIV risk. A greater understanding of adolescent gender-related abuse and trauma-impacted androphilia contributes toward a holistic conceptual model of HIV risk. A theoretical model is proposed that incorporates findings from both studies and integrates sociostructural, interpersonal, and intrapsychic levels of HIV risk.
and labour with a country where the prevalence of the HIV is particularly high, constitute an element of an explanation of the positive relationship between the resources of households and HIV seroprevalence. Also, factors related to the economic situation probably contributed to reinforcing the opposite relationship between HIV seroprevalence and poverty, the macro-econometric analysis highlighting a direct relationship between the massive return of migrants of Côte d'Ivoire and the level of HIV prevalence in Burkina Faso.
Rafizah, A A Noor; Aziah, B D; Azwany, Y N; Imran, M Kamarul; Rusli, A Mohamed; Nazri, S Mohd; Nikman, A Mohd; Nabilah, I; Asma', H Siti; Zahiruddin, W M; Zaliha, I
To determine the seroprevalence of leptospirosis among febrile inpatient cases in northeastern Malaysia. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 999 febrile cases admitted to 10 hospitals in northeastern Malaysia. A survey using a proforma sheet was used to obtain sociodemographic and occupational information. Serum samples were screened for leptospirosis by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test (IgM ELISA) and confirmed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). There was an equivalent distribution of males and females in the 999 respondents enrolled in the study. The majority were Malay (94.7%) and their mean age was 39.4 (standard deviation 17.6) years. The overall seroprevalence of leptospirosis was 8.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.8-10.3) (n=84). The high-risk occupational group was found to have a higher seroprevalence, which was 56% (95% CI 45.3-66.1) (n=47). The predominant serogroup was Sejroe (82.1%, 95% CI 72.6-88.8) (n=69). This study revealed a possible high seroprevalence of leptospirosis among febrile cases, indicating the need to review the importance of adding leptospirosis to the case investigation of febrile illness, especially among high-risk occupational groups in Malaysia, as well as in other endemic countries. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rengifo-Herrera, Claudia; Pile, Edwin; García, Anabel; Pérez, Alexander; Pérez, Dimas; Nguyen, Felicia K; de la Guardia, Valli; Mcleod, Rima; Caballero, Zuleima
Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease but information regarding domestic animals in Central America is scarce and fragmented. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats and dogs in different metropolitan regions of Panama. A total of 576 samples were collected; sera from 120 cats and 456 dogs were tested using a commercial indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 30.73%. There is high seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats and dogs in the metropolitan regions around the Panama Canal; however, differences between these species were not significant. Statistical analysis indicated that there are relevant variables, such as the age of animals, with a direct positive relationship with seroprevalence. None of the variables related to animal welfare (veterinary attention provided, type of dwelling, and access to green areas and drinking water) were associated with seropositivity. © C. Rengifo-Herrera et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.
Morovati, Hassan; Shirvani, Edris; Noaman, Vahid; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Hatami, Alireza; Bahreyari, Masoume; Shahramyar, Zahra; Morovati, Mohammad H; Azimi, Mahmoud; Sakhaei, Davoud
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV), the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) is an exogenous C-type oncovirus in the Retroviridae family. It causes significant economic losses associated with the costs of control and eradication programs due to carcass condemnation at slaughter and restrictions of export of cattle and semen to importing countries. The main objective of this research was to determine the seroprevalence of BLV infection in cattle herds in central region of Iran (Isfahan province) using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect serum antibodies against BLV. Samples of blood serum were collected from 403 female dairy cattle (Holstein-Friesian) from 21 livestock farms and 303 animals (81.9%) were BLV seropositive. A significant association was found between age as a potential risk factor and BVL seroprevalence with animals ≥ 4 years (86.6%) having a significantly (χ(2) = 35.6, p < 0.001) higher seroprevalence compared to those < 4 years (54.2%). We found no significant statistical association between seroprevalence and pregnancy, lactation status and farming systems as potential risk factors in this study (p > 0.1). It is concluded that BLV infection is a very common problem in the study area. Hence, control measures should be instituted to combat the disease and further studies are required to investigate the impact of this disease on dairy production in the country.
Yad Yad, Mohammad Jafar; Jomehzadeh, Nabi; Jafar Sameri, Maryam; Noorshahi, Nooshin
Acute toxoplasmosis may lead to congenital toxoplasmosis with fetal complications outcome during pregnancy. Anti- Toxoplasma gondii antibody seroprevalence is unclear in pregnant women of south of Khuzestan province, since limited data about T. gondii seroepidemiology has been published in pregnant women of this area (Abadan, Shadegan, Khoramshar). The aim of this study was to clarify the status of T. gondii seroprevalence in pregnant women of south of Khuzestan province. In this cross-sectional study, 501 full-term pregnant women were included. This study was carried out in Taleghani teaching hospital for six 6 months from May to October 2011. Informed consents signed by the patients were obtained. Blood IgG and IgM were measured using ELISA technique. The data was analyzed by SPSS 13 (Chicago, IL, USA). Chi-square test was used for comparison. The participants' age range was 15 to 45 years (average: 27.4 ± 13). Of the 501 pregnant women, 70.65 % (n = 354) were seronegative for T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. There were statistical relationships between IgG seroprevalence and age, as well as IgG seroprevalence and cat holding. There was high percentage of seronegative (70.65 %) IgG and IgM antibodies in full-term pregnant women. They were susceptible to acute toxoplasmosis; thus, prenatal screening was recommend in our province after cost-beneficial analyses.
Yad Yad, Mohammad Jafar; Jomehzadeh, Nabi; Jafar Sameri, Maryam; Noorshahi, Nooshin
Background: Acute toxoplasmosis may lead to congenital toxoplasmosis with fetal complications outcome during pregnancy. Anti- Toxoplasma gondii antibody seroprevalence is unclear in pregnant women of south of Khuzestan province, since limited data about T. gondii seroepidemiology has been published in pregnant women of this area (Abadan, Shadegan, Khoramshar). Objectives: The aim of this study was to clarify the status of T. gondii seroprevalence in pregnant women of south of Khuzestan province. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 501 full-term pregnant women were included. This study was carried out in Taleghani teaching hospital for six 6 months from May to October 2011. Informed consents signed by the patients were obtained. Blood IgG and IgM were measured using ELISA technique. The data was analyzed by SPSS 13 (Chicago, IL, USA). Chi-square test was used for comparison. Results: The participants’ age range was 15 to 45 years (average: 27.4 ± 13). Of the 501 pregnant women, 70.65 % (n = 354) were seronegative for T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. There were statistical relationships between IgG seroprevalence and age, as well as IgG seroprevalence and cat holding. Conclusions: There was high percentage of seronegative (70.65 %) IgG and IgM antibodies in full-term pregnant women. They were susceptible to acute toxoplasmosis; thus, prenatal screening was recommend in our province after cost-beneficial analyses. PMID:25147724
Redlinger, T; O'Rourke, K; Nickey, L; Martinez, G
Two seroprevalence studies of viral hepatitis A and hepatitis E were conducted in El Paso, Tex, and Cd Juárez, Mexico. Subjects were randomly selected, low-income pregnant women. Blood from 557 women in El Paso and 307 women in Cd Juárez, obtained from routine prenatal testing, was analyzed for antibodies to hepatitis A and hepatitis E. Women from both cities showed high seroprevalence rates of hepatitis A (75.8% in El Paso and 96.1% in Cd Juárez). Rates increased significantly by age, with 100% of women in Cd Juárez older than 28 years testing positive. Nationality and ethnicity were significantly associated with hepatitis A seroprevalence: Mexican nationals, 96.1%; US Hispanics, 78.8%; and US Caucasians, 36.4% (P < .001). With respect to hepatitis E, 0.4% of women in El Paso and 1.6% of women in Cd Juárez tested positive for anti-HEV. The rate of hepatitis A seroprevalence was higher for women with lower educational levels and for women residing in crowded households, but these findings were not statistically significant.
Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Yonghua; Niu, Jingyuan; Xie, Qing; Xiao, Tingwei; Chen, Yunchao; Li, Han; Ma, Chenchen; Zhang, Haizhu; Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Zhenchao
To investigate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic cats in central China, 843 serum samples were collected in Henan province between March 2015 and May 2016 and tested for IgG antibodies against T. gondii using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 21% (178/843). No significant difference was observed based on the sex of cats (p > 0.05). Significantly higher seroprevalence (p < 0.05) was observed in mixed-breed cats (24%) compared to purebred cats (17%). Seroprevalence in rural cats (29%) was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than in urban cats (16%), and increased significantly (p < 0.01) with age. These results showed that T. gondii was highly prevalent in domestic cats in Henan province, central China, which might have important implications for public health. © S. Wang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017.
Gamboa-León, Rubi; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Claudia; S. Pacheco-Tucuch, Freddy; O'Shea, Matthew; Rosecrans, Kathryn; Pippitt, Julia; Dumonteil, Eric; Buekens, Pierre
Our objective was to determine the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among mothers and children in two rural Mayan communities in Yucatan, Mexico and examine sociodemographic characteristics and adverse reproductive outcomes associated with maternal infection. We performed household surveys in the communities of Sudzal and Teya. Mothers were interviewed, and blood samples were obtained to perform rapid tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). We surveyed 390 mothers and 685 children. The overall seroprevalence was 2.3% among mothers and 0.4% among children. In Sudzal, we found a seroprevalence of 4.4% among mothers and 0.7% in children. In Teya, we found a seroprevalence of 0.9% among mothers and 0.3% among children. Compared with uninfected mothers, seropositive mothers reported more stillbirths (relative risk = 4.7; 95% confidence interval = 2.1–10.4). T. cruzi infection is present in these communities, and infected children indicate active transmission. Seropositivity in mothers is associated with a history of adverse reproductive outcomes. PMID:24935948
Xin, Ke-Sheng; Liu, Hui; Wang, Hong-Bing; Yao, Zong-Liang
Although Toxoplasma gondii infection in primary school children has been investigated in many countries, limited surveys have been available in primary school children in China. In the present study, we report the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in primary school children in Shandong province, China. Sera from 6,000 primary school children were evaluated for T. gondii antibodies with ELISA. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 16.0% (961/6,000), of which 14.5% (870/6,000) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, 3.4% (206/6,000) positive for IgM, and 1.9% (115/6,000) were positive for both IgG and IgM. The results of the present investigation indicated a high seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in primary school children in Shandong province, China. Therefore, effective measures should be taken to prevent and control T. gondii infection in primary school children in this province. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of T. gondii seroprevalence in primary school children in Shandong province, China.
Schwarz, Norbert G; Girmann, Mirko; Randriamampionona, Njary; Bialonski, Alexandra; Maus, Deborah; Krefis, Anne Caroline; Njarasoa, Christine; Rajanalison, Jeanne Fleury; Ramandrisoa, Herly Daniel; Randriarison, Maurice Lucien; May, Jürgen; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael
In October 2009, two-3 months after an outbreak of a febrile disease with joint pain on the eastern coast of Madagascar, we assessed serologic markers for chikungunya virus (CHIKV), dengue virus (DENV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in 1,244 pregnant women at 6 locations. In 2 eastern coast towns, IgG seroprevalence against CHIKV was 45% and 23%; IgM seroprevalence was 28% and 5%. IgG seroprevalence against DENV was 17% and 11%. No anti-DENV IgM was detected. At 4 locations, 450-1,300 m high, IgG seroprevalence against CHIKV was 0%-3%, suggesting CHIKV had not spread to higher inland-altitudes. Four women had IgG against RVFV, probably antibodies from a 2008 epidemic. Most (78%) women from coastal locations with CHIKV-specific IgG reported joint pain and stiffness; 21% reported no symptoms. CHIKV infection was significantly associated with high bodyweight. The outbreak was an isolated CHIKV epidemic without relevant DENV co-transmission.
Aharonson-Raz, Karin; Baneth, Gad; Lopes, Ana Patrícia; Brancal, Hugo; Schallig, Henk; Cardoso, Luís; Steinman, Amir
A cross-sectional investigation was done on the seroprevalence of Leishmania infantum and Toxoplasma gondii infection among apparently healthy horses in Israel. This survey included 383 horses distributed in 22 farms throughout Israel during the years 2011-2013. Serum samples were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using the direct agglutination test (DAT) specific to Leishmania and by the modified agglutination test (MAT) for the presence of IgG antibodies to T. gondii. Low seroprevalences were detected for both L. infantum and T. gondii in the horse population in Israel; of the 338 horses tested, 6 (1.4%) were found to be seropositive for L. infantum and 11 (2.5%) for T. gondii, with no significant association between seroprevalence and demographic/environmental factors. An ongoing geographical expansion of L. infantum, previously reported in humans and dogs in Israel, was also supported by our results in horses. Here we present evidence of exposure of horses to L. infantum and T. gondii in Israel. Continuous seroprevalence surveillance in horses, such as the one performed in this study, might further elucidate the eco-epidemiology of these two important zoonotic parasites in this country.
The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in horses in Mexico is unknown. Therefore, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 495 horses in Durango State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Horses were from 18 farms in 3 municipalities in the valley region of Durango State...
Montoya, J A; Morales, M; Juste, M C; Bañares, A; Simon, F; Genchi, C
Blood samples from 823 dogs were tested for circulating Dirofilaria immitis antigen during a 1-year period (May 2002 to May 2003) on Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, Spain. Seroprevalence of heartworm infection was 21%. Heartworm infection was similar in males and females and was more common in dogs aged >6 years. Distribution of infection in varying climatic zones was not statistically different.
Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) is a good indicator of the environmental contamination with oocysts because chickens become infected mainly by feeding from ground/feed/soil contaminated with oocysts. The seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies in 125 free-r...
Mikaelian, I; Higgins, R; Lequient, M; Major, M; Lefebvre, F; Martineau, D
Raccoons may represent a source of leptospires for humans and domestic animals. We describe a case of severe interstitial nephritis associated with the serovar bratislava of Leptospira interrogans (1st report in wildlife), and the seroprevalence to 4 leptospire serovars in a recreational area in Quebec. Images Figure 1. p442-a PMID:9220134
Martínez, S; Yus, E; Sanjuán, M L; Camino, F; Eiras, M C; Arnaiz, I; Diéguez, F J
The aim of the present study was to establish a relationship between the results obtained with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique for antibodies (against bovine herpesvirus 1) in serum and those in milk at the herd level. For this purpose, 275 samples of bulk-tank milk were analysed with glycoprotein E (gE) antibody ELISA and 207 more were analysed with glycoprotein B (gB) antibody ELISA (482 in total). All of these samples came from dairy herds whose seroprevalence was also evaluated. The results of this study were then used to analyse the sensitivity of the bulk-tankmilk test in detecting herds with a high risk of active infection (>60% seroprevalence) and its specificity in detecting those with few (<20%) or no seropositive animals. In regard to the reference test (results in blood serum), the sensitivity of the bulk-tankmilk test in detecting herds with >60% seropositive animals was 100% for both gE and gB ELISAs. The specificity figures, for gE and gB ELISAs, respectively, were 88.4% and 99.1% for infection-free herds and 72.6% and 96% for herds with <20% seroprevalence. In a quantitative approach, Pearson's correlation coefficients, reported as a measure of linear association between herd seroprevalences and transformed optical density values recorded in bulk-tank milk, were -0.63 for gE ELISA and 0.67 for gB ELISA.
Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P
The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in southern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples of 429 sheep from 4 farms in 2 geographical regions in Oaxaca State, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT); 99 (23.1%) of the 429 sheep had positive MAT titers: 1:25 in 35, 1:50 in 18, 1:100 in 7, 1:200 in 1, 1:400 in 3, 1:800 in 10, 1:1,600 in 5, and 1:3,200, or higher, in 20. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection varied with management, breed of sheep, and location. It was significantly higher in sheep raised under semi-intensive (grazed on cultivated pasture and hay) conditions than in those raised under semi-extensive conditions (grazed on communal natural grass land). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in mixed-breed sheep than in pure breeds. Sheep raised in temperate climate in municipalities at 1,560-1,600 m above sea level (Central Valley region) had a significantly higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than those raised in semiarid and warm-humid climates in municipalities at 1,020-1,080 m of altitude (Cañada region) (29.8% vs. 7.1%, respectively). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico.
Valencia, M C; Rodriguez, C O; Puñet, O G; de Blas Giral, I
Q fever is a zoonosis related to the existence of Coxiella burnetii infected animals. The authors studied the seroprevalence and risk factors associated to C. burnetii infection in veterinary students in Zaragoza (Spain). Sera were collected at the beginning and the end of the academic year (1994-1995) and were tested by Complement fixation test to detect antibodies against C. burnetii. 10.02 and 11.02% seroprevalences were observed at the beginning and the end of the study respectively. The cumulative incidence through the period of study was 0.0157. Risk factors associated to C. burnetii were multiple: students coursing the speciality in Food Inspection and Technology or the speciality of Animal Production; to practise with living animals in general and particularly with ruminants and to contact frequently with persons who worked with animals, particularly with veterinarians, farmers and animal traders. In parallel, the students coursing the first course showed a significant lower seroprevalence. Male students from the fifth course were significantly more seroprevalent than females, where sex was a protection factor. Concerning the clinical signs asked in the questionnaire, cardiovascular disturbances, flu and/or pneumonia, sweating, transient hyperthermia or spondylitis were associated factors. Conversely, a good response after treatment of symptoms was a protection factor. The only risk factor associated with incidence along the year of study was practising in farms. The authors recommend a revision of hygiene measures to control risk factors and the diagnostic of C. burnetii infection when populations at risk show the associated symptoms.
Dirar, Bashahun Gebremichael; Nasinyama, George William; Gelalcha, Benti Deresa
A cross-sectional study was carried out in Jimma town and Chora Botor district of Jimma zone from February 2014 to May 2014 to determine seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in cattle. A total of 348 blood samples (174 each from zebu and crossbreed) were collected. The sera were separated and screened by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), and positive sera were retested by complement fixation test (CFT) for confirmation. The overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 1.4 and 0.3 % as tested by RBPT and CFT, respectively. The seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in indigenous and crossbreed cattle was 1.1 and 0.6 % and 1.7 and 0 % using RBPT and CFT, respectively. Retained fetal membrane was the only risk factor found to be significantly associated with seropositivity of brucellosis in this study (p = 0.019). The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis was very low. However, due to the zoonotic and economic importance of the disease, prevention and control measures are required to stop further spread of the disease. To effectively implement this, the One Health (OH) is the most constructive approach we recommend.
Ilieva, Juliana; Andreev, Nikolay; Mitov, Ivan
The aim of this study was to assess the association between some dietary factors and prevalence of H. pylori infection or strain virulence in 294 adult asymptomatic blood donors. Methods. Seroprevalence was evaluated using ELISA. Logistic regression was used. Results. Anti-H. pylori IgG prevalence was 72.4%, and CagA IgG seroprevalence was 49.3%. In the multivariate analyses, the frequent (>5 days per week) honey consumption was associated with both reduced H. pylori seroprevalence OR, 0.68 with 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.473–0.967 and reduced CagA IgG seroprevalence OR, 0.65 with 95% CI, 0.486–0859. Frequent (>5 days per week) yoghurt consumption also was associated with lower H. pylori virulence of the strains (CagA IgG OR, 0.56 with 95% CI, 0.341–0.921). Smoking and consumption of the other dietary factors resulted in no significant differences in the prevalence of H. pylori IgG and CagA IgG within the subject groups. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report revealing reverse associations between honey or yoghurt consumption and CagA IgG prevalence as well as between frequent honey consumption and lower prevalence of the H. pylori infection. Regular honey and yoghurt consumption can be of value as a supplement in the control of H. pylori therapy. PMID:28659975
Girmann, Mirko; Randriamampionona, Njary; Bialonski, Alexandra; Maus, Deborah; Krefis, Anne Caroline; Njarasoa, Christine; Rajanalison, Jeanne Fleury; Ramandrisoa, Herly Daniel; Randriarison, Maurice Lucien; May, Jürgen; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael
In October 2009, two–3 months after an outbreak of a febrile disease with joint pain on the eastern coast of Madagascar, we assessed serologic markers for chikungunya virus (CHIKV), dengue virus (DENV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in 1,244 pregnant women at 6 locations. In 2 eastern coast towns, IgG seroprevalence against CHIKV was 45% and 23%; IgM seroprevalence was 28% and 5%. IgG seroprevalence against DENV was 17% and 11%. No anti-DENV IgM was detected. At 4 locations, 450–1,300 m high, IgG seroprevalence against CHIKV was 0%–3%, suggesting CHIKV had not spread to higher inland-altitudes. Four women had IgG against RVFV, probably antibodies from a 2008 epidemic. Most (78%) women from coastal locations with CHIKV-specific IgG reported joint pain and stiffness; 21% reported no symptoms. CHIKV infection was significantly associated with high bodyweight. The outbreak was an isolated CHIKV epidemic without relevant DENV co-transmission. PMID:23092548
Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence and sociodemographic data, health-related and occupational factors and other correlates of sero-posivity among dentists in the city of Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 1302 dentists in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. All dentists were tested for anti-HCV using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Individuals positive for anti-HCV were recalled for further evaluation. The presence of HCV RNA in anti-HCV-positive samples was assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data on demographic, behavioural and occupational exposure aspects were collected through questionnaires. Results The seroprevalence of anti-HCV was 0.9% (95% IC 0.5-1.7%). The factors associated to the prevalence of hepatitis C were history of blood transfusion (p = 0.002) and having undergone a test for hepatitis C (p = 0.015). Conclusions The seroprevalence of anti-HCV among dentists is low. Moreover, no occupational exposure was associated to the seroprevalence of hepatitis C. PMID:20030849
Bower, Hilary; Glynn, Judith R.
Asymptomatic ebolavirus infection could greatly influence transmission dynamics, but there is little consensus on how frequently it occurs or even if it exists. This paper summarises the available evidence on seroprevalence of Ebola, Sudan and Bundibugyo virus IgG in people without known ebolavirus disease. Through systematic review, we identified 51 studies with seroprevalence results in sera collected from 1961 to 2016. We tabulated findings by study population, contact, assay, antigen and positivity threshold used, and present seroprevalence point estimates and 95% confidence intervals. We classified sampled populations in three groups: those with household or known case-contact; those living in outbreak or epidemic areas but without reported case-contact; and those living in areas with no recorded cases of ebolavirus disease. We performed meta-analysis only in the known case-contact group since this is the only group with comparable exposures between studies. Eight contact studies fitted our inclusion criteria, giving an overall estimate of seroprevalence in contacts with no reported symptoms of 3.3% (95% CI 2.4–4.4, P<0.001), but with substantial heterogeneity. PMID:28140390
Louati, N; Feki, L; Rekik, H; Feki, H; Chaabouni, M; Hammami, A; Gargouri, J; Karray-Hakim, H
The aim of the study was to assess hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence in blood donors from South Tunisia in two periods 2000 and 2007. Serum samples collected from 376 blood donors in each period aged 18 to 30 years from different regions of South Tunisia were analysed for anti-HAV IgG. The global seroprevalence of HAV infection was 85.9% in 2007 as compared with 94.9% in 2000. The seroprevalence in the 18-20 years age group was 91.9% in 2000 vs 80.6% in 2007, and increased to 99% in 2000 and 92% in 2007 in the subjects over 26. Taking account of geographic area, the HAV seroprevalence in Sfax city decreased from 88.9% in 2000 to 62.7% in 2007 (p < 0.001), but it is still approximatively the same in rural areas (98.4% and 96%) and in the governorates of South Tunisia (97.6% and 99.2%). In conclusion, the number of adults in the city of Sfax which are not immunized against HAV is increasing. Thus, adolescents and young adults are at risk to develop symptomatic and potentially severe hepatitis A.
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Cisneros-Martínez, Jorge Arturo
Psychiatric patients have a higher seroprevalence of toxocariasis than general population. However, there is poor knowledge about any specific psychiatric diagnosis associated with toxocariasis. The aim of the study was to determine whether seropositivity to Toxocara was associated with schizophrenia. Through an age and gender-matched case-control seroprevalence study in Durango City, Mexico, 50 schizophrenic inpatients in a public psychiatric hospital and 100 control subjects of the general population were compared for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. One of the 50 (2%) schizophrenic inpatients, and 3 (3%) of the 100 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. No statistically significant difference in Toxocara seroprevalence among cases and controls was found (P=0.59). The Toxocara positive schizophrenic patient suffered from paranoid schizophrenia (F20.0) and had a number of putative risk factors for Toxocara exposure including contact with cats, dogs and other animals, worked in agriculture, and consumed undercooked meat, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and untreated water. Results suggest that seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was low and not associated with schizophrenia in psychiatric inpatients in Durango, Mexico. However, further studies to elucidate the association of toxocariasis with schizophrenia are needed.
Ben-Ayed, Yousr; Hannachi, Hela; Ben-Alaya-Bouafif, Nissaf; Gouider, Emna; Triki, Henda; Bahri, Olfa
The aims of this study are to determine seroprevalence of Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Tunisian blood donors and to evaluate its risk of parenteral transmission. Sera collected from 426 blood donors were tested for HEV IgG by indirect ELISA. Individuals were recruited from two national transfusion centers, in the North and the South of the country. Seroprevalence of HEV IgG was then compared with two other groups with increased risk of exposure to parenterally transmitted agents: 80 hemophiliac and 286 hemodialysis patients. Among blood donors, the seroprevalence was estimated to be 4.5%. It was significantly higher in the hemophiliac and hemodialysis groups with 7.5% and 10.2%, respectively, (P = 0.002). No significant correlation was observed for this IgG 1 seroprevalence between age and sex among three studied groups. These results suggest that HEV has a high risk of parenteral transmission and confirm that the low endemicity of hepatitis E in Tunisia was observed.
Jung, Byeong Yeal; Lee, Kyung Woo; Ha, Tae Young
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance, and has a worldwide distribution. The present study aimed to determine leptospiral seroprevalence in clinically healthy racing horses from all three racecourses in Korea. Serum samples from 1,226 racing horses were examined using a microscopic agglutination test to detect the presence of antibodies against 18 Leptospira serovars. Of the tested samples, 307 (25.0%) were found to be positive. The distribution of seroprevalence differed significantly by racecourse (P=0.004); the Jeju course had the highest incidence (31.1%), followed by the Seoul (25.2%) and Busan (19.5%) racecourses. Seasonal variation in seropositivity was also apparent (P=0.000), being lower in spring (13.0%) and winter (12.5%), and higher in summer (36.7%) and autumn (34.7%). No significant age- or gender-related difference in seroprevalence was noted in this study (P>0.05). Seroprevalence was higher (P=0.006) among ponies than among thoroughbreds. Sejroe was the most frequently detected serovar (n=236), followed by Bratislava (n=35), Ballum (n=16), Autumnalis (n=10), and Canicola (n=10). The majority of serum titers were relatively low; most values ranged from 1:100 (n=217) to 1:200 (n=69). These results suggest that the Sejroe serovar may be maintained in the racing horse population in Korea.
Opsteegh, M; Haveman, R; Swart, A N; Mensink-Beerepoot, M E; Hofhuis, A; Langelaar, M F M; van der Giessen, J W B
Cats, as definitive hosts, play an important role in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii. To determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for T. gondii infection in Dutch domestic cats, serum samples of 450 cats were tested for T. gondii antibodies by indirect ELISA. Binary mixture analysis was used to estimate the seroprevalence, the optimal cut-off value and the probability of being positive for each cat. The seroprevalence was estimated at 18.2% (95% CI: 16.6-20.0%) and showed a decrease with age in very young cats, an increase up to about 4 years old and ranged between 20 and 30% thereafter. Hunting (OR 4.1), presence of a dog in the household (OR 2.1), former stray cat (OR 3.3) and feeding of raw meat (OR 2.7) were identified as risk factors by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Prevalence differences were estimated by linear regression on the probabilities of being positive and used to calculate the population attributable fractions for each risk factor. Hunting contributed most to the T. gondii seroprevalence in the sampled population (35%). Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Sucilla-Pérez, Héctor; Conde-González, Carlos J; Izazola, José Antonio; Romero-Martínez, Martin; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio
To estimate seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among 15-49 years old Mexicans living in households and to describe the profile of seroreactive individuals. Cross-sectional study implemented in 2012 using a national probabilistic sample with behavioral data from face-to-face interviews at households and HCV antibodies screening using capillary blood from same individuals. HCV seroprevalence in Mexico was estimated at 0.27% (IC95% 0.12-0.60), representing 161 000 persons. Seroprevalence was significantly higher among males (0.45% CI95% 0.01-0.89) than females (0.10% CI95% 0.00-0.22). Multivariate analysis suggests a higher possibility of HCV reactivity among men, increasing with age and higher among those sexually active, and lower for higher socioeconomic level. HCV seroprevalence in Mexico by 2012 seems significantly lower than the estimation from 2000 of 1.2% for the same age-group. Evidence of infection among individuals 15-19 years old suggests the need to strength preventive actions, particularly in subjects with risky behaviors.
Must, Kärt; Lassen, Brian; Jokelainen, Pikka
In Estonia, northeastern Europe, Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in humans has not declined, in contrast to many other countries. The reasons for this are unknown. Domestic cats are important hosts in the epidemiology of the parasite, but information on local feline T. gondii infections has been lacking. An epidemiological cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii and the risk factors associated with seropositivity in cats in Estonia. Surplus from blood samples that had been collected for unrelated diagnostic purposes from 306 pet cats and 184 shelter cats were analyzed for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies by using a direct agglutination test. Two questionnaires were designed to reveal relevant risk factors for seropositivity. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in cats in Estonia was 60.8%. Older age, outdoor access, hunting, living outside the city in the countryside, and not being a purebred cat were among the risk factors associated with seropositivity. T. gondii is highly prevalent in domestic cats in Estonia. This suggests that the environment has been contaminated with T. gondii. Seropositivity indicates previous oocyst shedding, and most of the cats had outdoor access. The increase in T. gondii seroprevalence with age indicates acquired infections, and most of the risk factors were lifestyle-related. Cat owners could diminish the risk of T. gondii infection and also limit the spread of the parasite by not allowing their cats to roam free.
López-Roig, Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Lavenir, Rachel; Serra-Cobo, Jordi
We report an active surveillance study of the occurrence of specific antibodies to European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 (EBLV-1) in bat species, scarcely studied hitherto, that share the same refuge. From 2004 to 2012, 406 sera were obtained from nine bat species. Blood samples were subjected to a modified fluorescent antibody virus neutralization test to determine the antibody titer. EBLV-1-neutralizing antibodies were detected in six of the nine species analyzed (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. kuhlii, Hypsugo savii, Plecotus austriacus, Eptesicus serotinus and Tadarida teniotis). Among all bats sampled, female seroprevalence (20.21%, 95% CI: 14.78%–26.57%) was not significantly higher than the seroprevalence in males (15.02%, 95% CI: 10.51%–20.54%). The results showed that the inter-annual variation in the number of seropositive bats in T. teniotis and P. austriacus showed a peak in 2007 (>70% of EBLV-1 prevalence). However, significant differences were observed in the temporal patterns of the seroprevalence modeling of T. teniotis and P. austriacus. The behavioral ecology of these species involved could explain the different annual fluctuations in EBLV-1 seroprevalence. PMID:25192547
Rocheleau, Jean-Philippe; Arsenault, Julie; Lindsay, L Robbin; DiBernardo, Antonia; Kulkarni, Manisha A; Côté, Nathalie; Michel, Pascal
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a highly pathogenic arbovirus that infects humans, horses, and other animals. There has been a significant increase in EEEV activity in southeastern Canada since 2008. Few data are available regarding nonlethal EEEV infections in mammals, and consequently the distribution and pathogenicity spectrum of EEEV infections in these hosts is poorly understood. This cross-sectional study focuses on the evaluation of viral activity in southern Quebec's horses by seroprevalence estimation. A total of 196 horses, 18 months and older, which had never been vaccinated against EEEV and have never traveled outside Canada, were sampled from 92 barns distributed throughout three administrative regions of southern Quebec. Blood samples were taken from each horse and titrated for EEEV antibodies by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Equine population vaccination coverage was estimated by surveying horse owners and equine practitioners. PRNT results revealed an EEEV seroprevalence up to 8.7%, with 95% confidence limits ranging from 4.4% to 13.0%. Vaccination coverage was estimated to be at least 79%. Our study reveals for the first time in Canada a measure of EEEV seroprevalence in horses. High seroprevalence in unvaccinated animals challenges the perception that EEEV is a highly lethal pathogen in horses. Monitoring high-risk vector-borne infections such as EEEV in animal populations can be an important element of a public health surveillance strategy, population risk assessment and early detection of epidemics.
Asmare, Kassahun; Krontveit, Randi I; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein
This meta-analysis estimates a single-group summary (effect size) for seroprevalence of Brucella spp. exposure in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. It also attempts to identify study-level variables that could explain the variation in apparent seroprevalence. The literature search was restricted to studies published in English language from January 2000 to December 2013. A template was designed to retrieve the most biologically plausible and consistent variables from the articles. A total of 29 published papers containing 40 animal-level studies were used in the analyses. The single-group summary of Brucella seroprevalence in cattle was estimated to reach 3.3 % with 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.6-4.2 %). Of all the variables considered, region was the only specific factor identified to explain about 20 % of between-study variation. Accordingly, the region-based meta-analysis forest plot revealed the highest prevalence in central Ethiopia followed by southern part. The lowest prevalence estimate was observed in the western part of the country. The visual inspection of the funnel plot demonstrated the presence of possible publication bias which might dictate shortage of studies with higher prevalences or variance inflation due to infectiousness of Brucella. In conclusion, the quantitative review showed the seroprevalence to be low but widely distributed. More importantly, the review underscores the need for isolation and characterization of the circulating Brucella spp. to capture the type of Brucella spp. involved and its distribution in cattle in Ethiopia.
Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Michoacán, Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 341 dairy goats in Michoacán, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 9 farms in 6 municipalities. Overall, antibodies to Toxoplasma w...
Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs has epidemiological concern for its contributing role in human infections. We determined seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 402 domestic pigs raised in backyards in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25); 182...
The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in southern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples of 429 sheep from 4 farms in 2 geographical regions in Oaxaca State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT); 99 (23.1%) of the 429 sh...
The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in northern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples from 511 sheep from 8 farms in Durango State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Sheep were raised in 3 geographical regions, i....
Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 562 goats in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test. Goats were raised in 12 farms in two geographical regions: semi-desert (n=70) and mountains ...
Pereira, Yenny; Samudio, Margarita; Ojeda, Andrea; Cabello, Águeda
Dengue is an infection of great global importance with different clinical presentations. To establish the seroprevalence of infection by the dengue virus in a district of the Paraguayan Chaco. Cross-sectional study in 418 inhabitants of three villages in the district of Villa Hayes, Paraguay, using a probabilistic household sampling, a questionnaire and blood sampling. Antibodies were determined by the ELISA capture IgG anti dengue method and factors associated with seroprevalence were evaluated. The overall seroprevalence for dengue virus infection was 24,2% (CI95%: 20,2%-28,6%); 34% (n: 142) of respondents reported history of dengue in the previous 10-year period. Of the 276 people (66%) who reported no history of dengue infection, 37 (13%) tested positive, which points out asymptomatic individuals. The main factors associated with infection were: males with significantly higher prevalence than women (31%); to be over 60 years of age (44%), be residents of Villa Hayes (31,1%). No association with educational level or monthly income of the participants, nor housing condition, drinking water source or type of bathroom were observed. The larval infestation rate was 0,51%. The relatively low seroprevalence of infection by the dengue virus is consistent with the small size of the district and highlights the potential risk of infection in future epidemics.
Santacruz-Sanmartín, Eduardo; Hincapié-Palacio, Doracelly; Ospina, Marta C; Perez-Toro, Olga; Bernal-Restrepo, Luz M; Buitrago-Giraldo, Seti; Lenis-Ballesteros, Viviana; Díaz, Francisco J
We related seroprevalence and outbreaks data in order to identify factors that could explain the occurrence of outbreaks despite high vaccination coverage in Medellín Colombia. Samples from a population seroprevalence data obtained in 2009 in a random survey were analyzed. IgG levels were determined for mumps using 2 commercial tests of 2119 individuals aged 6-64 years. A comparative analysis was undertaken using age-specific mumps seroprevalence data and information of 98 epidemiological investigations of mumps outbreaks reported in 2009. Overall, seroprevalence was 91.6% (95% CI=89.3-93.5%). The age-specific seronegativity was 20.3% and 20.6% in age groups 11-15 years and 16-20 years respectively. Individuals aged 6-20 years were the most affected during outbreaks. In individuals born in 2003, a year after the change in the booster schedule from 10 to 5 years, the proportion of unvaccinated individuals (14%) and those who received only one dose of MMR (45%) increased substantially. On average, 23.5 days elapsed between the onset of symptoms in secondary cases and the outbreak investigation. Potential contributing factors for the occurrence of outbreaks of mumps were the relatively high prevalence of seronegativity among individuals aged 11-20 years, delays in investigation and control of outbreaks, and incomplete vaccination schedules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Hendriksen, Ilse C. E.; Ferro, Josefo; Montoya, Pablo; Chhaganlal, Kajal D.; Seni, Amir; Gomes, Ermelinda; Silamut, Kamolrat; Lee, Sue J.; Lucas, Marcelino; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Fanello, Caterina I.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Dondorp, Arjen M.
Background. Severe falciparum malaria with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection is common in settings with a high prevalence of both diseases, but there is little information on whether HIV affects the clinical presentation and outcome of severe malaria. Methods. HIV status was assessed prospectively in hospitalized parasitemic adults and children with severe malaria in Beira, Mozambique, as part of a clinical trial comparing parenteral artesunate versus quinine (ISRCTN50258054). Clinical signs, comorbidity, complications, and disease outcome were compared according to HIV status. Results. HIV-1 seroprevalence was 11% (74/655) in children under 15 years and 72% (49/68) in adults with severe malaria. Children with HIV coinfection presented with more severe acidosis, anemia, and respiratory distress, and higher peripheral blood parasitemia and plasma Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2). During hospitalization, deterioration in coma score, convulsions, respiratory distress, and pneumonia were more common in HIV-coinfected children, and mortality was 26% (19/74) versus 9% (53/581) in uninfected children (P < .001). In an age- and antimalarial treatment–adjusted logistic regression model, significant, independent predictors for death were renal impairment, acidosis, parasitemia, and plasma PfHRP2 concentration. Conclusions. Severe malaria in HIV-coinfected patients presents with higher parasite burden, more complications, and comorbidity, and carries a higher case fatality rate. Early identification of HIV coinfection is important for the clinical management of severe malaria. PMID:22752514
Uusküla, Anneli; Des Jarlais, Don C; Raag, Mait; Pinkerton, Steven D; Feelemyer, Jonathan
The study was undertaken to assess the potential effectiveness of combined HIV prevention on the very high seroprevalence epidemic among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Tallinn, Estonia, a transitional country. Data from community-based cross-sectional (respondent-driven sampling) surveys of PWID in 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011 were used together with mathematical modeling of injection-associated HIV acquisition to estimate changes in injection-related HIV incidence during these periods. Utilization of one, two, or three of the interventions available in the community (needle and syringes exchange program, antiretroviral treatment [ART], HIV testing, opioid substitution treatment) was reported by 42.5%, 30.5%, and 11.5% of HIV+ and 34.7%, 36.4%, and 5.7% of HIV- PWIDs, respectively, in 2011. The modeling results suggest that the combination of needle/syringe programs and provision of ART to PWID in Tallinn substantially reduced the incidence of HIV infection in this population, from an estimated 20.7/100 person-years in 2005 to 7.5/100 person-years in 2011. In conclusion, combined prevention targeting HIV acquisition and transmission-related risks among PWID in Tallinn has paralleled the downturn of the HIV epidemic in this population.
Padilla-Raygoza, Nicolás; Gamboa-León, Rubí; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Dumonteil, Eric; Buekens, Pierre; Ruiz-Paloalto, Ma Laura; Diaz-Guerrero, Rosalina
Publishing negative seroprevalence studies not only helps to have more accurate seroprevalence estimates but also allows calculating the specificity of the diagnostic tests used. We performed a population-based Trypanosoma cruzi seroprevalence survey in a community in central Mexico. We surveyed 204 women and children and collected blood by finger prick. We performed rapid tests (Stat-Pak, Chembio, Inc., Medford, New York) and recombinant Chagas ELISA tests v3.0 (Wiener, Rosario, Argentina). All rapid tests and all ELISA tests were negative. The rapid test had 100 % of specificity compared to the ELISA.
Zolzaya, Baljinnyam; Selenge, Tsend; Narangarav, Tsegeen; Gantsetseg, Dorj; Erdenechimeg, Dashzevge; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther
Mongolia implemented a brucellosis livestock mass vaccination campaign from 2000 to 2009. However, the number of human cases did not decline since 2004 and the current epidemiological situation in Mongolia was uncertain. The objective of this study was to estimate the representative seroprevalences of humans and livestock in two provinces in view of their comparison with officially reported data. A representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, sheep, goats, cattle, yaks, horses, camels and dogs was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 8054 livestock and dog sera and 574 human sera were collected in Sukhbaatar and Zavkhan provinces. Human and animal sera were tested with the Rose Bengal and ELISA tests. The overall apparent seroprevalence of brucellosis was 27.3% in humans (95% CI 23.7-31.2%), 6.2% (95% CI 5.5-7.1%) in sheep, 5.2% (95% CI 4.4-5.9%) in goats, 16.0% (95% CI 13.7-18.7%) in cattle, 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-7.6%) in camels, 8.3 (95% CI 6.0-11.6%) in horses and 36.4% (95% CI 26.3-48.0%) in dogs. More women than men were seropositive (OR = 1.7; P < 0.0014). Human seroprevalence was not associated with small ruminant and cattle seroprevalence at the nomadic camp (hot ail) level. Annual incidence of clinical brucellosis, inferred from the seroprevalence using a catalytic model, was by a factor of 4.6 (1307/280) in Sukhbaatar and by a factor of 59 (1188/20) in Zavkhan. This represents a 15-fold underreporting of human brucellosis in Mongolia. The lack of access to brucellosis diagnostic testing at the village level hinders rural people from receiving appropriate treatment. In conclusion, this study confirms the high seroprevalence of human and livestock brucellosis in Mongolia. Stringent monitoring and quality control of operational management of a nationwide mass vaccination of small and large ruminants is warranted to assure its effectiveness. More research is needed to
Rosenberg, S D; Goodman, L A; Osher, F C; Swartz, M S; Essock, S M; Butterfield, M I; Constantine, N T; Wolford, G L; Salyers, M P
OBJECTIVES: This study assessed seroprevalence rates of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among individuals with severe mental illness. METHODS: Participants (n = 931) were patients undergoing inpatient or outpatient treatment in Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, or North Carolina. RESULTS: The prevalence of HIV infection in this sample (3.1%) was approximately 8 times the estimated US population rate but lower than rates reported in previous studies of people with severe mental illness. Prevalence rates of HBV (23.4%) and HCV (19.6%) were approximately 5 and 11 times the overall estimated population rates for these infections, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated rates of HIV, HBV, and HCV were found. Of particular concern are the high rates of HCV infection, which are frequently undetected. Individuals with HCV infection commonly fail to receive appropriate treatment to limit liver damage and unknowingly may be a source of infection to others. PMID:11189820
Jilani, Md Shariful Alam; Robayet, Jamshedul Alam Mohammad; Mohiuddin, Md; Hasan, Md Rokib; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Haq, Jalaluddin Ashraful
Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an endemic disease in Bangladesh. No systematic study has yet been done to detect the environmental source of the organism and its true extent in Bangladesh. The present study attempted to isolate B. pseudomallei in soil samples and to determine its seroprevalence in several districts in Bangladesh. Soil samples were collected from rural areas of four districts of Bangladesh from where culture confirmed melioidosis cases were detected earlier. Multiple soil samples, collected from 5-7 sampling points of 3-5 sites of each district, were cultured in Ashdown selective media. Suspected colonies of B. pseudomallei were identified by biochemical and serological test, and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using 16s rRNA specific primers. Blood samples were collected from 940 healthy individuals of four districts to determine anti- B. pseudomallei IgG antibody levels by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using sonicated crude antigen. Out of 179 soil samples, B. pseudomallei was isolated from two samples of Gazipur district which is located 58 km north of capital Dhaka city. Both the isolates were phenotypically identical, arabinose negative and showed specific 550bp band in PCR. Out of 940 blood samples, anti- B. pseudomallei IgG antibody, higher than the cut-off value (>0.8), was detected in 21.5% individuals. Seropositivity rate was 22.6%-30.8% in three districts from where melioidosis cases were detected earlier, compared to 9.8% in a district where no melioidosis case was either detected or reported (p<0.01). Seropositivity increased with the advancement of age from 5.3% to 30.4% among individuals aged 1-10 years and > 50 years respectively. The seropositivity rates were 26.0% and 20.6% in male and female respectively, while it was 20-27% among different occupational groups. No significant association was observed with gender (χ2 = 3.441, p = 0.064) or any occupational group (χ2 = 3.835, p = 0
Robayet, Jamshedul Alam Mohammad; Mohiuddin, Md.; Hasan, Md. Rokib
Background Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is an endemic disease in Bangladesh. No systematic study has yet been done to detect the environmental source of the organism and its true extent in Bangladesh. The present study attempted to isolate B. pseudomallei in soil samples and to determine its seroprevalence in several districts in Bangladesh. Methodology and Results Soil samples were collected from rural areas of four districts of Bangladesh from where culture confirmed melioidosis cases were detected earlier. Multiple soil samples, collected from 5–7 sampling points of 3–5 sites of each district, were cultured in Ashdown selective media. Suspected colonies of B. pseudomallei were identified by biochemical and serological test, and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using 16s rRNA specific primers. Blood samples were collected from 940 healthy individuals of four districts to determine anti- B. pseudomallei IgG antibody levels by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using sonicated crude antigen. Out of 179 soil samples, B. pseudomallei was isolated from two samples of Gazipur district which is located 58 km north of capital Dhaka city. Both the isolates were phenotypically identical, arabinose negative and showed specific 550bp band in PCR. Out of 940 blood samples, anti- B. pseudomallei IgG antibody, higher than the cut-off value (>0.8), was detected in 21.5% individuals. Seropositivity rate was 22.6%-30.8% in three districts from where melioidosis cases were detected earlier, compared to 9.8% in a district where no melioidosis case was either detected or reported (p<0.01). Seropositivity increased with the advancement of age from 5.3% to 30.4% among individuals aged 1–10 years and > 50 years respectively. The seropositivity rates were 26.0% and 20.6% in male and female respectively, while it was 20–27% among different occupational groups. No significant association was observed with gender (χ2 = 3.441, p = 0.064) or any
Yüksekkaya, Serife; Aras, Zeki; Uçan, Uçkun Sait
Brucella canis which is the main etiologic agent of brucellosis in dogs, can be transmitted to man. It causes mild or asymptomatic infection in human compared with other Brucella species. B.canis can be transmitted to man either by laboratory accidents or contact with infected dogs. Since B.canis infections in humans are not routinely investigated in hospitals in Turkey, the data are limited to reveal the current status of B.canis infections in people in our country. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of B.canis infection in brucellosis-suspected cases. The study was conducted at Konya Education and Research Hospital, (located at Central Anatolia of Turkey) during March-August 2010 period. Serum samples were obtained from 1000 patients (age range: 15-65 years; 652 of them were women) presented with brucellosis-like symptoms, including fever, headache, night sweats, appetite loss, weakness, arthralgia and myalgia. Rose Bengal Plate Tests (Seromed, Turkey) for smooth Brucella species were negative in all serum samples. Rough type B.canis antigen was prepared with B.canis NCTC 10854 strain for serodiagnosis. Antibody responses to B.canis in the serum samples were investigated by rapid slide agglutination test (SAT) and modified plate agglutination test (MPAT). Of the 1000 sera tested, 34 (0.34%) were found to be positive with SAT while the remaining were found negative. MPAT was used for the detection of antibody titer and 22 (0.22%) out of 1000 sera were found positive with MPAT (one had 1/48, five had 1/96, six had 1/192, six had 1/384, four had 1/768 titers). Among 22 positive patients, 17 were female and five were male, and the difference between the genders was found statistically significant (p< 0.05). It was concluded the use of both S and R antigens in the serological tests applied for the diagnosis of brucellosis in our country will supplement both diagnosis and seroepidemiological data related to brucellosis.
Rahman, Shams; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Waterboer, Tim; Rollison, Dana E; Ingles, Donna J; Torres, B Nelson; Michel, Angelika; Sudenga, Staci L; Pawlita, Michael; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Borenstein, Amy R; Wang, Wei; Giuliano, Anna R
Data on cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) seroprevalence are primarily derived from skin cancer case-control studies. Few studies have reported the seroprevalence of cutaneous HPV among healthy men. This study investigated the seroprevalence of cutaneous HPV types and associated risk factors among men residing in Brazil, Mexico and the USA. Six hundred men were randomly selected from the HPV Infection in Men study. Archived serum specimens were tested for antibodies against 14 cutaneous HPV genotypes, β-HPV types (5/8/12/14/17/22/23/24/38/48), α-HPV 27, γ-HPV 4, µ-HPV1 and ν-HPV 41 using a glutathione S-transferase L1-based multiplex serology assay. Risk factor data were collected by a questionnaire. Binomial proportions were used to estimate seroprevalence, and logistic regression to examine factors associated with seropositivity. Overall, 65.4 % of men were seropositive to ≥1 of the 14 cutaneous HPV types, and 39.0 % were positive for ≥1 β-HPV types. Seroprevalence was 8.9, 30.9, 28.6 and 9.4 % for α-HPV 27, γ-HPV 4, µ-HPV 1 and ν-HPV 41, respectively. In multivariate analyses, seropositivity for any cutaneous HPV type was associated with higher education [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.75; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.08-2.83], and seropositivity of any β-HPV type was significantly associated with increasing age (AOR 1.72; 95 % CI 1.12-2.63, for men aged 31-44 years vs men aged 18-30 years). Other factors associated with various type-specific cutaneous HPV seropositivity included country, circumcision and lifetime number of male sexual partners. These data indicate that exposure to cutaneous HPV is common. Future studies are needed to assess the role of cutaneous HPV in diseases.
Enders, Gisela; Daiminger, Anja; Lindemann, Lisa; Knotek, Frank; Bäder, Ursula; Exler, Simone; Enders, Martin
In Germany, studies on the IgG seroprevalence in pregnancy and in women of childbearing age are rare. Therefore, we retrospectively evaluated the CMV IgG seropositive rate in 40,324 pregnant women as well as in 31,093 female and male bone marrow donors over 15 consecutive years (1996-2010). Furthermore, the result of a study conducted in 1999 investigating 1,305 healthy adolescents with known ethnicity was included. The overall CMV IgG seroprevalence in pregnant women (15-50 years) was 42.3%. Age-dependent analysis revealed a significantly higher seropositive rate (55.6%) in young women (15-25 years) than in those aged 26-40 years (37-42%) and in women older than 40 years (48.3%). Over the study period of 15 years, the rate of seroprevalence in pregnant women declined significantly (χ(2) test < 0.01) from 44.3% in the first interval period (1996-2000), to 42.8% (2001-2005) and to 40.9% (2006-2010). The most influencing factor on CMV seropositivity appeared to be the socioeconomic status (SES), which we characterized by type of health insurance: Seroprevalence in women with low, middle and upper SES was 91.8, 46.9 and 33.7%, respectively. Female bone marrow donors of childbearing age (15-45 years) showed a significantly higher seropositive rate of 36.5% than age-matched male donors (28.6%). In adolescents aged 13-16 years, no gender-specific differences were recognized. Concerning ethnicity, youngsters with German descent had a significantly lower seroprevalence (29.9%) than those with non-German descent (67.4%).
Liu, Gui; Markowitz, Lauri E; Hariri, Susan; Panicker, Gitika; Unger, Elizabeth R
A 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, licensed in 2014, prevents 4 HPV types targeted by the quadrivalent vaccine (6/11/16/18) and 5 additional high-risk (HR) types (31/33/45/52/58). Measuring seropositivity before vaccine introduction provides baseline data on exposure to types targeted by vaccines. We determined seroprevalence of HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 among 4943 persons aged 14-59 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006. Among females, seroprevalence was 40.5% for any of the 9 vaccine types, 30.0% for any 7 HR types (16/18/31/33/45/52/58), 19.0% for any 5 additional types (31/33/45/52/58), and 18.3% for 16/18. Compared with non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks had higher seroprevalence of 31/33/45/52/58 (36.8% vs 15.9%) and 16/18 (30.1% vs 17.8%), while Mexican Americans had higher seroprevalence of 31/33/45/52/58 (23.6% vs 15.9%) (P < .05 for all). In multivariable analyses of data from females, race/ethnicity, number of sex partners, and age were associated with 16/18 and 31/33/45/52/58 seropositivity. Seropositivity was lower among males than among females (P < .001 for all type categories). In 2005-2006, about 40% of females and 20% of males had serological evidence of exposure to ≥1 of 9 HPV types. Seroprevalence of all type categories, especially HPV 31/33/45/52/58 among females, varied by race/ethnicity. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Mdladla, Khanyisile; Dzomba, Edgar F; Muchadeyi, Farai C
The present study investigated the seroprevalence of antibodies to Ehrlichia ruminantium and the associated risk factors in goats from five different farming provinces of South Africa. Sera collected from 686 goats of the commercial meat type (n=179), mohair type (n=9), non-descript indigenous goats from Eastern Cape (n=56), KwaZulu-Natal (n=209), Limpopo (n=111), North West (n=61) and Northern Cape (n=11) provinces and a feral Tankwa goat (n=50) were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to antigens of E. ruminantium using the indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFAT). Fifty two percent of these goats had ticks. The overall seroprevalence of antibodies to E. ruminantium was 64.87% (445/686) with the highest seroprevalence reported for Limpopo (95.50%) and lowest for Northern Cape (20.29%). Highest seroprevalence for antibodies to E. ruminantium was observed in goats from endemic regions (76.09%), and from smallholder production systems (89.54%). High seroprevalence was also observed in non-descript indigenous goats (85.04%), adult goat (69.62%), in does (67.46%) and goats infested with ticks (85.79%). The logistic model showed a gradient of increasing risk for commercial meat type Savanna (OR=3.681; CI=1.335-10.149) and non-descript indigenous (OR=3.466; CI=1.57-7.645) compared to Boer goats and for goats from the smallholder production system (OR=2.582; CI=1.182-5.639) and those with ticks (OR=3.587; CI=2.105-6.112). Results from this study showed that E. ruminantium infections were prevalent but were widely and unevenly distributed throughout South Africa. Findings from the study facilitate identification and mapping of risk areas for heartwater and its endeminicity in South Africa and should be taken into consideration for future disease control strategies and local goat improvement programs.
ALI, Md. Wajed; ALAUDDIN, Md.; AZAD, Md. Thoufic Anam; HASAN, Md. Ariful; APPIAH-KWARTENG, Cornelia; TAKASU, Masaki; BABA, Minami; KITOH, Katsuya; RAHMAN, Moizur; TAKASHIMA, Yasuhiro
An epidemiological survey of Theileria annulata infection was undertaken in a cattle population in Rajshahi Division, Bangladesh. The local cattle breeds from the area (North Bengal Gray and Deshi) and crosses between the local breeds and Holstein cattle were predominantly screened. In total, 192 cattle serum samples were collected in two areas of Rajshahi Division, the Rajshahi District (n=147) and Natore District (n=45). The samples were screened with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using T. annulata surface protein (TaSP) as the antigen. The seroprevalence was 80.0% (36/45) in Natore and 20.4% (30/147) in Rajshahi. A logistic regression analysis showed that the sampling location was significantly associated with seropositivity, whereas age, sex and breed were not. Although the logistic regression analysis did not show a linear dependence on age, we considered age-specific seroprevalence separately in the two districts. Seroprevalence did not differ significantly among age categories in the Natore District. In contrast, all the cattle <1 year old in the Rajshahi District were seronegative (11/11). Seroprevalence in the 1- and 2-year-old cattle was significantly lower in the Rajshahi District than in the Natore District. In the older age categories (3, 4 and >5 years), seroprevalence did not differ significantly between the Natore and Rajshahi Districts. These results suggest that the cattle in the Rajshahi District were sporadically exposed to T. annulata, whereas most cattle in the Natore District became infected during an early phase of life. PMID:27396398
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne disease characterized by fever, thrombocytopenia and diarrhea. SFTS was firstly reported in Korea in 2013 but its seroprevalence in the country has yet to be investigated. Here, we investigate the seroprevalence of SFTS in a Korean population. A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients who had their sera tested for various reasons at a tertiary university hospital on particular days in May 2015. This study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in southeastern Korea. Total antibodies including immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM), specific to SFTS virus (SFTSV) in serum samples were detected by a double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 1,069 serum samples were tested. Median age was 59 years (range 12–96 years), and 51.5% were male. Overall, 22 patients (2.1%) were tested positive for anti-SFTSV antibodies. The SFTS seroprevalence increased significantly with age (P = 0.034). The seropositive rate of rural area was higher than that of urban area (7.7% vs. 1.9%, P = 0.040). Seropositive rates were not significantly different among underlying diseases. None of the antibody-positive patients showed typical symptoms or laboratory findings of SFTS at the time of sample collection. Results of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were negative for all the seropositive patients. Our study shows 2.1% SFTS seroprevalence among the patients visiting a tertiary hospital in Korea. Seroprevalence is higher in older and rural population. PMID:27914128
Background Taiwan is an endemic area of viral hepatitis, including hepatitis A, which is transmitted mainly from the fecal-oral route. In order to reduce the transmission through food intake, the government implemented a policy of nationwide disposal tableware use in public eating places in 1982. We conducted a study to estimate the seroprevalence of Hepatitis A in a group of workers in Taiwan in 2005, determine the risk factors, and compare seroprevalence to published estimates in Taiwan to evaluate changes in the seroprevalence after the implementation of the nationwide disposal tableware use. Methods We recruited workers of an industrial park during their annual health examinations in 2005 and measured their anti-hepatitis A virus IgG titer using microparticle enzyme immunoassay. We compared the seroprevalence across different birth cohorts within the study population and also analyzed data from previous studies. Results The overall sero-positive rate was 22.0% in the 11,777 participants. The rate was much lower among those who were covered by the program since birth (born after 1982) in comparison with those who were not (2.7% vs. 25.3%, p < 0.001). From the analyses of data from pervious studies, we found the age-specific rates were similar in cohorts born in or after 1982 across studies conducted in different time periods but decreased with the calendar year in cohorts born before 1982. In particular, the age-specific seroprevalence dropped to less than one third in a three-year period among those who were born around 1982. Conclusions Data from both the current and previous studies in different time periods supported the effectiveness of disposal tableware in preventing the transmission of hepatitis A. PMID:21092247
Opsteegh, Marieke; Swart, Arno; Fonville, Manoj; Dekkers, Leo; van der Giessen, Joke
Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen that is best known as a cause of abortion or abnormalities in the newborn after primary infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in wild boar to investigate the possible role of their meat in human infection and to get an indication of the environmental contamination with T. gondii. The presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was determined by in-house ELISA in 509 wild boar shot in 2002/2003 and 464 wild boar shot in 2007. Most of the boar originated from the “Roerstreek” (n = 673) or the “Veluwe” (n = 241). A binormal mixture model was fitted to the log-transformed optical density values for wild boar up to 20 months old to estimate the optimal cut-off value (−0.685) and accompanying sensitivity (90.6%) and specificity (93.6%). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 24.4% (95% CI: 21.1–27.7%). The prevalence did not show variation between sampling years or regions, indicating a stable and homogeneous infection pressure from the environment. The relation between age and seroprevalence was studied in two stages. Firstly, seroprevalence by age group was determined by fitting the binary mixture model to 200 animals per age category. The prevalence showed a steep increase until approximately 10 months of age but stabilized at approximately 35% thereafter. Secondly, we fitted the age-dependent seroprevalence data to several SIR-type models, with seropositives as infected (I) and seronegatives as either susceptible (S) or resistant (R). A model with a recovery rate (SIS) was superior to a model without a recovery rate (SI). This finding is not consistent with the traditional view of lifelong persistence of T. gondii infections. The high seroprevalence suggests that eating undercooked wild boar meat may pose a risk of infection with T. gondii. PMID:21283764
Yang, Bingyi; Wu, Peng; Wu, Joseph T.; Lau, Eric H. Y.; Leung, Gabriel M.; Yu, Hongjie; Cowling, Benjamin J.
Background Hand, foot and mouth disease mostly affects children and carries a substantial disease burden in the Western Pacific region. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the most virulent causative agent, and a monovalent vaccine against EV71 will soon become commercially available in China. An improved understanding of EV71 epidemiology could aid policy decisions regarding childhood immunization in China. Objective We aimed to assess and summarize information to date from individual seroepidemiologic studies of EV71 in mainland China in order to determine patterns of the age-specific risk of infection. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of children aged 0–15 years, published in English or Chinese, was conducted. Estimates of seroprevalence were summarized by age group. A mixed-effects regression model was used to explore factors co-varying with EV71 seroprevalence. Results We identified 42 published studies, including 15 in English. We found that an average of 78% of neonates were seropositive to EV71 infection but such maternally conferred immunity almost completely waned by 5 months. The seroprevalence of EV71 antibody increased directly with age among pre-school children, from 26% (95% CI, 18–33%) at 1 year to 70% (95% CI, 62–78%) at 5 years. Age of subjects, sample size, sampling year, sampling method, geographic latitude and publication language were associated with variations of individual seroprevalence estimates. Conclusions Seroprevalence of EV71 antibody gradually declined during the first five months in infants. Infection with EV71 was most likely to occur between 2 and 4 years. Our findings may be useful in informing population-based EV71 vaccination strategies. PMID:26368058
Hernández-Tinoco, J.; Sánchez-Anguiano, L. F.; Ramos-Nevárez, A.; Cerrillo-Soto, S. M.; Sáenz-Soto, L.; Liesenfeld, O.
Purpose The seroprevalence of infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii and the association with risk factors has not been determined in inmates. Through a case-control study, 166 inmates from a state correctional facility in Durango City, Mexico and 166 age- and gender-matched non-incarcerated subjects were examined for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Results Seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies was higher in inmates (35, 21.1%) than in controls (14, 8.4%) (OR = 2.90; 95% CI: 1.43–5.94; P = 0.001). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were detected in two (1.2%) inmates and in seven (4.2%) controls (P = 0.17). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, incarceration, and behavioral characteristics of inmates revealed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with being born out of Durango State (OR = 3.91; 95% CI: 1.29–11.79; P = 0.01). In addition, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher (P = 0.03) in inmates that had suffered from injuries (17/56: 30.4%) than those without such history (18/110: 16.4%). Conclusions The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in inmates in Durango City is higher than the seroprevalences found in the general population in the same city, indicating that inmates may represent a new risk group for T. gondii infection. Further research on T. gondii infection in inmates is needed. PMID:24678408
Frederick, Toni; Burian, Pamela; Terrault, Norah; Cohen, Mardge; Augenbraun, Michael; Young, Mary; Seaberg, Eric; Justman, Jessica; Levine, Alexandra M; Mack, Wendy J; Kovacs, Andrea
Although the primary mode of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission is exposure to blood products or injection drug use (IDU), studies have found varying independent risk factors for HCV infection among persons with no history of IDU or exposure to blood products. For HIV-infected women, sexual transmission may be another potential source of HCV infection. HIV-infected and HIV-negative women at risk for HIV enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) during October 1994 to November 1995 and again between October 2001 and November 2002 were studied. Clinical and demographic factors associated with HCV seroprevalence were assessed in multivariate logistic regression models controlling for history of blood transfusion and IDU. Among 3636 women with HCV results, 31.5% were HCV antibody positive (HCV+) including 13.5% with no reported history of IDU or blood transfusions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses stratified on IDU showed that among women with no history of IDU, sex with an IDU male was independently associated with HCV positivity (odds ratio [OR] = 2.8, 95% confidence [CI] = 2.1, 3.8, p < 0.0001) after controlling for blood transfusion, age, HIV infection, unemployment, birth in the United States, history of hepatitis B infection, and current smoking status. Further stratification on HIV status showed that the association was significant only for the HIV+ (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3, 2.7, p = 0.0007) compared to the HIV- women (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.4, 2.7) although these odds ratios were not significantly different (p = 0.25). For HIV-positive women with no reported history of IDU, sex with an IDU male was independently associated with HCV suggesting that sexual transmission may be an important mode of HCV transmission for these high-risk women.
Busch, M P; Young, M J; Samson, S M; Mosley, J W; Ward, J W; Perkins, H A
Little information is available regarding the risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection for patients transfused before routine anti-HIV-1 screening of blood donors was instituted in March 1985. A model was developed for estimating both the proportion and the number of transfusion recipients in the San Francisco Bay area who were infected by HIV-1 during each of the 7 years preceding routine donor screening for anti-HIV-1. The model is based on analysis of 1) donation histories of HIV-1-infected donors identified at the regional blood center; 2) HIV-1 seroprevalence estimates for homosexual and bisexual men in San Francisco; and 3) HIV-1 infection and survival rates for recipients traced by the Transfusion Safety Study and Irwin Memorial Blood Centers' Look Back Program. The incidence of transfusion-associated HIV-1 infection is estimated to have risen rapidly from the first occurrence in 1978 to a peak in late 1982 of approximately 1.1 percent per transfused unit. The decrease after 1982 coincided with the implementation of high-risk donor deferral measures. It is estimated that, overall, approximately 2135 transfusion recipients were infected with HIV-1 in the San Francisco region alone. This number suggests a higher prevalence of transfusion-associated HIV-1 infection than has been generally recognized and indicates the need for continued tracing of potentially exposed recipients. The data also strongly support the effectiveness of early donor education and self-exclusion measures and emphasize the importance of continued research and development in this area.
Nelson, LaRon E; Wilton, Leo; Agyarko-Poku, Thomas; Zhang, Nanhua; Aluoch, Marilyn; Thach, Chia T; Owiredu Hanson, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw
Ghanaian men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high HIV seroprevalence, but despite a critical need to address this public health concern, research evidence has been extremely limited on influences on sexual risk behavior among MSM in Ghana. To investigate associations between HIV/STD knowledge, HIV stigma, and sexual behaviors in a sample of MSM in Ghana, we conducted a secondary data analysis of cross-sectional survey data from a non-probability sample of Ghanaian MSM (N = 137). Nearly all the men (93%) had more than one current sex partner (M = 5.11, SD = 7.4). Of those reported partners, the average number of current female sexual partners was 1.1 (SD = 2.6). Overall, knowledge levels about HIV and STDs were low, and HIV stigma was high. There was no age-related difference in HIV stigma. Younger MSM (≤25 years) used condoms less often for anal and vaginal sex than did those over 25. Relative frequency of condom use for oral sex was lower in younger men who had higher STD knowledge and also was lower in older men who reported high HIV stigma. Knowledge and stigma were not associated with condom use for anal or vaginal sex in either age group. These descriptive data highlight the need for the development of intervention programs that address HIV/STD prevention knowledge gaps and reduce HIV stigma in Ghanaian communities. Intervention research in Ghana should address age-group-specific HIV prevention needs of MSM youth.
DiFranceisco, W; Holtgrave, D R; Hoxie, N; Reiser, W J; Resenhoeft, R; Pinkerton, S D; Vergeront, J
A common assumption is that outreach-based HIV counseling and testing services reach a clientele with a higher HIV seroprevalence than clinic-based counseling and testing. To examine this assumption, we analyzed Wisconsin's anonymous counseling and testing client records for 62,299 contacts (testing episodes) from 1992 to 1995. Bivariate analysis of counseling and testing service setting (outreach-based or clinic-based) and HIV test results suggested that outreach contacts were 23% (odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.0-1.5) more likely to test HIV-seropositive than clinic-based contacts. Relations between HIV test outcome and variables for client age, race, gender, previous testing history, mode of risk exposure, and region, as well as service setting, were examined by logistic regression. An inverted relation between service setting and seropositivity (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.5-0.8) indicated that, within some subpopulations, outreach contacts were significantly less likely to test HIV-positive than clinic-based contacts. Analysis of interactions among the covariates identified race as a critical codeterminant in the relation between service setting and test outcome. These results support retargeting outreach services to enhance their overall effectiveness. Specific recommendations include the need for aggressive strategies to better "market" HIV counseling and testing to nonwhite populations, and to focus resources more selectively on gay/bisexual men of all races.
Hooshyar, Dina; Surís, Alina M; Czarnogorski, Maggie; Lepage, James P; Bedimo, Roger; North, Carol S
In the USA, 21% of the estimated 1.1 million people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are unaware they are HIV-infected. In 2011, Veterans Health Administration (VHA)'s Office of Public Health in conjunction with VHA's Health Care for Homeless Veterans Program funded grants to support rapid HIV testing at homeless outreach events because homeless populations are more likely to obtain emergent rather than preventive care and have a higher HIV seroprevalence as compared to the general population. Because of a Veterans Affairs North Texas Health Care System (VANTHCS)'s laboratory testing requirement, VANTHCS partnered with community agencies to offer rapid HIV testing for the first time at VANTHCS' 2011 Homeless Stand Downs in Dallas, Fort Worth, and Texoma, Texas. Homeless Stand Downs are outreach events that connect Veterans with services. Veterans who declined testing were asked their reasons for declining. Comparisons by Homeless Stand Down site used Pearson χ², substituting Fisher's Exact tests for expected cell sizes <5. Of the 910 Veterans attending the Homeless Stand Downs, 261 Veterans reported reasons for declining HIV testing, and 133 Veterans were tested, where 92% of the tested Veterans obtained their test results at the events - all tested negative. Veterans' reported reasons for declining HIV testing included previous negative result (n=168), no time to test (n=49), no risk factors (n=36), testing is not a priority (n=11), uninterested in knowing serostatus (n=6), and HIV-infected (n=3). Only "no time to test" differed significantly by Homeless Stand Down site. Nonresponse rate was 54%. Offering rapid HIV testing at Homeless Stand Downs is a promising testing venue since 15% of Veterans attending VANTHCS' Homeless Stand Downs were tested for HIV, and majority obtained their HIV test results at point-of-care while further research is needed to determine how to improve these rates.
Mishra, Vinod; Vaessen, Martin; Boerma, J. Ties; Arnold, Fred; Way, Ann; Barrere, Bernard; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth; Sangha, Jasbir
OBJECTIVES: To describe the methods used in the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) to collect nationally representative data on the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and assess the value of such data to country HIV surveillance systems. METHODS: During 2001-04, national samples of adult women and men in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Dominican Republic, Ghana, Mali, Kenya, United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia were tested for HIV. Dried blood spot samples were collected for HIV testing, following internationally accepted ethical standards. The results for each country are presented by age, sex, and urban versus rural residence. To estimate the effects of non-response, HIV prevalence among non-responding males and females was predicted using multivariate statistical models for those who were tested, with a common set of predictor variables. RESULTS: Rates of HIV testing varied from 70% among Kenyan men to 92% among women in Burkina Faso and Cameroon. Despite large differences in HIV prevalence between the surveys (1-16%), fairly consistent patterns of HIV infection were observed by age, sex and urban versus rural residence, with considerably higher rates in urban areas and in women, especially at younger ages. Analysis of non-response bias indicates that although predicted HIV prevalence tended to be higher in non-tested males and females than in those tested, the overall effects of non-response on the observed national estimates of HIV prevalence are insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Population-based surveys can provide reliable, direct estimates of national and regional HIV seroprevalence among men and women irrespective of pregnancy status. Survey data greatly enhance surveillance systems and the accuracy of national estimates in generalized epidemics. PMID:16878227
Poulsen, A G; Aaby, P; Jensen, H; Dias, F
Because the seroprevalence of HIV-2 has been shown to be high in older age groups, we conducted a survey of all persons aged 50 years or over in two districts in Bissau, investigating the presence of HIV antibodies and possible risk factors for HIV infection with a particular emphasis on age, the impact of the war of independence (1963-74), traditional marital and extramarital sex patterns, blood contact and contact with monkeys. In 670 participants, the HIV-2 prevalence was 14.3%; 16.1% in women and 12.3% in men. The HIV-1 prevalence was only 0.5% (3/670). The HIV-2 prevalence peaked for men in the 60-69 years age group, and for women in the 50-59 years age group, declining markedly in the following age group for both men and women (OR = 0.09 (0.01-0.51), OR = 0.37 (0.15-0.82), respectively). This pattern could be due to differential mortality for HIV-2 infected individuals or to a cohort effect for a generation who were sexually active at the time of the war of independence in the 1960s and early 1970s in Bissau. Supporting the link with the colonial army, women who had had sex with a white man had a higher seroprevalence (OR = 3.63 (1.12-11.24)). The ethnic group indigenous to Bissau city had a much lower prevalence, but demographic and cultural risk factors such as marital status, religion, education and having lived outside Bissau were not associated with HIV-2. In the multivariate analyses for women, variables related to extramarital sex or prostitution (having sex with a white man, having lived in Senegal, not living with husband, and not marrying first sexual partner) were associated with higher risk. For men, previous spouses who had died or had divorced were associated with higher prevalence. Having married the first sexual partner was protective against HIV-2 infection for both men (OR = 0.29 (0.09-0.76)) and women (OR = 0.19 (0.04-1.00)). Hospitalizations, possibly due to transfusions, tended to be associated with higher risk, but only for women (OR = 1
Following the transfusion of a young woman with two units of blood infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during a Cesarean section performed at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of Port-Royal Hospital in Paris in 1984, the author realized the danger that this virus would represent for women and their children, at a time when the infection seemed to be confined to homosexuals, drug addicts, hemophiliacs and transfusion recipients. He was confronted with a whole series of issues, including the rejection of HIV-positive women; the need for special precautions in the labor room and operating theater; and the need for these patients to be managed in a single center staffed by skilled and willing healthcare professionals who could help them decide whether or not to continue the pregnancy. The main risks at this time were the onset of life-threatening opportunistic infections during pregnancy and HIV transmission to the child (estimated at 20% to 30%). Other thorny issues included the case of couples wishing to have children when either of the two members was infected, and the question of professional confidentiality when an immunocompromised HIV-seropositive husband stubbornly refused to inform his wife or to use condoms. It seemed important to bring these women together, especially those of African origin, within a self-help group where they could express themselves openly and discuss their difficulties. Screening for HIV antibodies in early pregnancy became necessary to permit preventive treatment of mother-child HIV transmission, and to inform pediatricians. There was also a need to estimate and monitor the seroprevalence of HIV among pregnant women, and this was done by conducting a "sentinel" survey that was subsequently taken over by INSERM and the European Centre for the Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS. After listing many other issues that were hotly debated over the years, the author describes how, at the beginning of the epidemic, new proposals
Berbesi-Fernández, Dedsy; Segura-Cardona, Ángela; Montoya-Vélez, Liliana; Castaño-Perez, Guillermo A
A constant and progressive increase in the availability of heroin in Colombia in recent decades and the intravenous use of this drug have established the need to prevent a possible epidemic of HIV and hepatitis C. This research determined the sero-prevalence of hepatitis C and HIV according to sociodemographic characteristics and risk behaviors in people who inject drugs in Armenia, Colombia. This is a cross-sectional study on 265 users captured through respondent-driven sampling after informed consent. Sero-prevalence of hepatitis C was 22.3 % [95% CI 12.3 % -23.5 %]; for HIV infection, it was 2.6 % [95% CI 0.4 to 6.0]; 67.5% reported injecting for more than two years, 35 % shared needles and syringes, and 12.4 % had used a condom during their last sexual intercourse. Users who did not purchase syringes in drugstores in the last six months are 2.7 times [95% CI 1.32 to 5.48] more likely to contract hepatitis C; daily injection frequency was higher in HIV- positive cases [OR 2.87; 95% CI 0.55 to 15.9] but nonsignificant. One fourth of respondents are infected with HIV or hepatitis C, either as a single infection or co-infection. This study identified risk practices such as sharing needles and low condom use in the last six months, worldwide documented and discussed risk factors. This research is a first step in the search for strategies to prevent the spread of HIV infection and hepatitis C in networks of injecting drug users.
Musako, Chimuka; Abolnik, Celia
A cross-sectional study was conducted in five provinces and 11 districts of Zambia to determine the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks. Of the chickens sampled, 73.9% tested positive for avian paramyxovirus type 1 antibodies by means of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seroprevalence varied amongst the five provinces sampled, ranging from 82.6% in the Eastern Province to 48.3% in Luapula Province. Seroprevalence also varied amongst the 11 districts sampled, ranging from 91.3% in Monze district of Southern Province to 22.8% in Mufulira district of the Copperbelt province. Overall, the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease in Zambian backyard chicken flocks has increased since the previous study conducted in 1994.
Toikkanen, Salla E; Baillot, Armin; Dreesman, Johannes; Mertens, Elke
The number of asylum seekers arriving in Germany has increased rapidly since 2014 and cases of vaccine-preventable diseases at reception centres were reported. Asylum seekers 12 years and older arriving in Lower Saxony were serologically screened for antibodies against measles, rubella and varicella between November 2014 and October 2015. We calculated the seroprevalence from the screening data by disease, country of origin and age group and compared them to literature-based herd immunity thresholds in order to identify immunisation gaps. In total, 23,647 specimens were included in our study. Although the vast majority of asylum seekers tested positive for antibodies against measles, rubella and varicella, the seroprevalences were not sufficient to ensure herd immunity. The seroprevalences varied substantially between countries of origin and increased with age. Immunisation of asylum seekers against measles, rubella and varicella is needed and the detailed information on seroprevalences among subgroups of asylum seekers can be used for targeted immunisations at reception centres.
Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Dargham, Soha R; Mohammed, Layla I; Abu-Raddad, Laith J
HSV-1 epidemiology in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) remains poorly understood. Our study aimed to measure HSV-1 antibody prevalence (seroprevalence) and its age-distribution among select MENA populations residing in Qatar. Sera were collected from male blood donors attending Hamad Medical Corporation 2013-2015. A total of 2,077 sera were tested for anti-HSV-1 antibodies using HerpeSelect® 1 ELISA IgG kits (Focus Diagnostics, USA). Robust Poisson regression was conducted to estimate adjusted infection prevalence ratios. Country-specific HSV-1 seroprevalence was estimated for 10 national populations: 97.5% among Egyptians, 92.6% among Yemenis, 90.7% among Sudanese, 88.5% among Syrians, 86.5% among Jordanians, 82.3% among Qataris, 81.4% among Iranians, 81.4% among Lebanese, 80.5% among Palestinians, and 77.0% among Pakistanis. Age-specific HSV-1 seroprevalence was estimated for Egypt, the Fertile Crescent (Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestine, and Syria), and Qatar. Seroprevalence increased with age among Fertile Crescent and Qatari nationals. Seroprevalence increased from 70.0% among those aged ≤24 years up to 98.0% among those aged ≥55 years among Fertile Crescent nationals. Seroprevalence was consistently above 90% for all ages among Egyptians. HSV-1 seroprevalence is high in MENA, though with some variation across countries. The seroprevalence appears to have declined among current young age cohorts compared to its levels a few decades ago. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Romero-Salas, Dora; García-Vázquez, Zeferino; Cruz-Romero, Anabel; Peniche-Cardeña, Alvaro; Ibarra-Priego, Nelly; Aguilar-Domínguez, Mariel; Pérez-de-León, Adalberto A; Dubey, Jitender P
Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) is of epidemiological importance because of the risk for transmission to humans. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 339 water buffaloes in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Seroprevalence association with general characteristics of buffaloes and their environment was also investigated. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 165 (48.7%) of the 339 buffaloes with MAT titers of 1:25 in 104, 1:50 in 52, and 1:100 in 9. Bivariate analysis showed that seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was similar in buffaloes regardless of their general characteristics i.e., age, sex, and breed. In contrast, the seroprevalence in buffaloes varied significantly with environmental characteristics including altitude, mean annual temperature, and mean annual rainfall of the municipalities studied. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity in buffaloes was associated with a mean annual rainfall between 1266-1650 mm (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.15-2.94; P = 0.01). Results indicate that environmental characteristics may influence the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in buffaloes. This is the first report on the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in buffaloes in Mexico. Further research is needed to assess the risk for infection in humans associated with the ingestion of raw or undercooked meat from buffaloes infected with T. gondii.
Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Xu, Ying-Tian
Bluetongue (BT), caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), is an arthropod-borne viral disease in ruminants. However, information about BTV infection in yaks in China is limited. Moreover, no such data concerning BTV in Tibetan sheep is available. Therefore, 3771 serum samples were collected from 2187 Tibetan sheep and 1584 yaks between April 2013 and March 2014 from Tibetan Plateau, western China, and tested for BTV antibodies using a commercially available ELISA kit. The overall seroprevalence of BTV was 17.34% (654/3771), with 20.3% (443/2187) in Tibetan sheep and 13.3% (211/1584) in yaks. In the Tibetan sheep group, the seroprevalence of BTV in Luqu, Maqu, Tianzhu, and Nyingchi Prefecture was 20.3%, 20.8%, 20.5%, and 19.1%, respectively. The seroprevalence of BTV in different season groups varied from 16.5% to 23.4%. In the yak group, BTV seroprevalence was 12.6%, 15.5%, and 11.0% in Tianzhu, Maqu, and Luqu counties, respectively. The seroprevalence in different seasons was 12.6%, 15.5%, 15.4%, and 9.0% in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. The season was the major risk factor concerning BTV infection in yaks (P < 0.05). The date of the BTV seroprevalence in Tibetan sheep and yaks provides baseline information for controlling BT in ruminants in western China. PMID:28512638
Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Feng, Sheng-Yong; Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Yin, Ming-Yang; Qin, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan
The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of fascioliasis in yaks, Bos grunniens, from 3 counties of Gansu Province in China. A total of 1,584 serum samples, including 974 samples from white yaks from Tianzhu, 464 from black yaks from Maqu, and 146 from black yaks from Luqu County, were collected and analyzed using ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against Fasciola hepatica. The overall F. hepatica seroprevalence was 28.7% (454/1,584), with 29.2% in white yaks (284/974) and 27.9% in black yaks (170/610). The seroprevalence of F. hepatica in yaks from Tianzhu, Luqu, and Maqu was 29.2%, 22.6%, and 29.5%, respectively. Female yaks (30.9%) had higher F. hepatica seroprevalence than male yaks (23.4%). Also, F. hepatica seroprevalence varied by different age group from 24.1% to 33.8%. Further, the seroprevalence ranged from 21.8% to 39.1% over different seasons. Interestingly, the season and age of yaks were associated with F. hepatica infection in yaks in the investigated areas. These findings provided a basis for further studies on this disease in yaks from 3 counties of Gansu Province in northwestern China, which may ultimately support the development of effective control strategies of fascioliasis in these areas. PMID:28285513
Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Feng, Sheng-Yong; Ma, Jian-Gang; Zheng, Wen-Bin; Yin, Ming-Yang; Qin, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan
The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of fascioliasis in yaks, Bos grunniens, from 3 counties of Gansu Province in China. A total of 1,584 serum samples, including 974 samples from white yaks from Tianzhu, 464 from black yaks from Maqu, and 146 from black yaks from Luqu County, were collected and analyzed using ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against Fasciola hepatica. The overall F. hepatica seroprevalence was 28.7% (454/1,584), with 29.2% in white yaks (284/974) and 27.9% in black yaks (170/610). The seroprevalence of F. hepatica in yaks from Tianzhu, Luqu, and Maqu was 29.2%, 22.6%, and 29.5%, respectively. Female yaks (30.9%) had higher F. hepatica seroprevalence than male yaks (23.4%). Also, F. hepatica seroprevalence varied by different age group from 24.1% to 33.8%. Further, the seroprevalence ranged from 21.8% to 39.1% over different seasons. Interestingly, the season and age of yaks were associated with F. hepatica infection in yaks in the investigated areas. These findings provided a basis for further studies on this disease in yaks from 3 counties of Gansu Province in northwestern China, which may ultimately support the development of effective control strategies of fascioliasis in these areas.
Liu, Yan; Watson, Stella C.; Gettings, Jenna R.; Lund, Robert B.; Nordone, Shila K.; McMahan, Christopher S.
This paper forecasts the 2016 canine Anaplasma spp. seroprevalence in the United States from eight climate, geographic and societal factors. The forecast’s construction and an assessment of its performance are described. The forecast is based on a spatial-temporal conditional autoregressive model fitted to over 11 million Anaplasma spp. seroprevalence test results for dogs conducted in the 48 contiguous United States during 2011–2015. The forecast uses county-level data on eight predictive factors, including annual temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, county elevation, forestation coverage, surface water coverage, population density and median household income. Non-static factors are extrapolated into the forthcoming year with various statistical methods. The fitted model and factor extrapolations are used to estimate next year’s regional prevalence. The correlation between the observed and model-estimated county-by-county Anaplasma spp. seroprevalence for the five-year period 2011–2015 is 0.902, demonstrating reasonable model accuracy. The weighted correlation (accounting for different sample sizes) between 2015 observed and forecasted county-by-county Anaplasma spp. seroprevalence is 0.987, exhibiting that the proposed approach can be used to accurately forecast Anaplasma spp. seroprevalence. The forecast presented herein can a priori alert veterinarians to areas expected to see Anaplasma spp. seroprevalence beyond the accepted endemic range. The proposed methods may prove useful for forecasting other diseases. PMID:28738085
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) seroprevalence data have not previously been reported for different geographical regions of China. This study investigated the cross-sectional seroprevalence of antibodies to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 virus-like particles in Chinese women. Methods Population-based samples of women were enrolled from 2006 to 2007 in 3 rural and 2 urban areas of China. Each consenting woman completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. Serum antibodies were detected using a competitive Luminex immunoassay that measures antibodies to type-specific, neutralizing epitopes on the virus-like particles. Results A total of 4,731 women (median age 35, age range 14-54) were included, of which 4,211 were sexually active women (median age 37) and 520 virgins (median age 18). Low risk HPV 6 was the most common serotype detected (7.3%), followed by HPV 16 (5.6%), HPV 11 (2.9%), and HPV 18 (1.9%). Overall HPV seroprevalence to any type was significantly higher among sexually active women (15.8%) than virgins (2.5%) (P = 0.005). Overall seroprevalence among sexually active women gradually increased with age. Women from rural regions had significantly lower overall seroprevalence (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9, versus metropolitan regions, P < 0.001). With increasing number of sexual partners, women were at higher risk of seropositivity of any type (OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.7-3.9 for > = 4 partners versus 1 partner, P < 0.001). Wives were at higher risk of seropositivity for HPV 16/18/6/11 when reporting having a husband who had an extramarital sexual relationship (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.6-2.5, versus those whose husbands having no such relationship, P < 0.001). There was a strong association between HPV 16 seropositivity and presence of high-grade cervical lesions (OR = 6.5; 95% CI: 3.7-11.4, versus normal cervix, P < 0.001). Conclusions HPV seroprevalence differed significantly by age, geography, and sexual behavior
Ji, Jia; Sun, Hai-Kui; Smith, Jennifer S; Wang, He; Esser, Mark T; Hu, Shangying; Pretorius, Robert G; Chen, Wen; Belinson, Jerome L; Qiao, You-Lin
Human papillomavirus (HPV) seroprevalence data have not previously been reported for different geographical regions of China. This study investigated the cross-sectional seroprevalence of antibodies to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 virus-like particles in Chinese women. Population-based samples of women were enrolled from 2006 to 2007 in 3 rural and 2 urban areas of China. Each consenting woman completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. Serum antibodies were detected using a competitive Luminex immunoassay that measures antibodies to type-specific, neutralizing epitopes on the virus-like particles. A total of 4,731 women (median age 35, age range 14-54) were included, of which 4,211 were sexually active women (median age 37) and 520 virgins (median age 18). Low risk HPV 6 was the most common serotype detected (7.3%), followed by HPV 16 (5.6%), HPV 11 (2.9%), and HPV 18 (1.9%). Overall HPV seroprevalence to any type was significantly higher among sexually active women (15.8%) than virgins (2.5%) (P = 0.005). Overall seroprevalence among sexually active women gradually increased with age. Women from rural regions had significantly lower overall seroprevalence (Odds Ratio (OR) = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.6-0.9, versus metropolitan regions, P < 0.001). With increasing number of sexual partners, women were at higher risk of seropositivity of any type (OR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.7-3.9 for > = 4 partners versus 1 partner, P < 0.001). Wives were at higher risk of seropositivity for HPV 16/18/6/11 when reporting having a husband who had an extramarital sexual relationship (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.6-2.5, versus those whose husbands having no such relationship, P < 0.001). There was a strong association between HPV 16 seropositivity and presence of high-grade cervical lesions (OR = 6.5; 95% CI: 3.7-11.4, versus normal cervix, P < 0.001). HPV seroprevalence differed significantly by age, geography, and sexual behavior within China, which all should be considered when implementing an optimal