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Sample records for hiv surveillance system

  1. Preliminary results from the new HIV surveillance system in France.

    PubMed

    Lot, F; Semaille, C; Cazein, F; Barin, F; Pinget, R; Pillonel, J; Desenclos, J C

    2004-10-01

    In addition to AIDS surveillance, data on HIV infection are necessary to better follow the dynamics of the epidemic. We report the first results of France's mandatory anonymous HIV notification system, which is linked to a virological surveillance of recent HIV infections and of circulating HIV types, groups and subtypes. HIV notifications are initiated by microbiologists who create an anonymous code of patient's identity. Clinicians complete the notification form with epidemiological and clinical data. Notifications are sent to the local health authorities and passed to the Institut de Veille Sanitaire (InVS). Laboratories voluntarily send sera from newly diagnosed HIV infected persons on dried blood spots to the national HIV reference laboratory where an immunoassay for recent infection (< or = 6 months) and a serotyping assay for the determination of group and subtype are done. The virological results are then merged at the InVS with the information from the mandatory reporting. Of the first 1301 new HIV diagnoses reported in 2003, 43% were in women, and overall, 53% were in heterosexuals, of whom 47% were of sub-Saharan African origin. MSM accounted for 36% of male notifications. A dried blood spot was available for 64% of new HIV diagnoses. Evidence of recent infection was found for 38%, ranging from 22% in IDUs to 58% in MSM. Twenty-six percent of infections in sub-Saharan migrants were recent infections. HIV-1 accounted for 98% of all notifications: 48% of these were non-B subtypes. The first results of the HIV notification system indicate that heterosexual transmission is the predominant mode of transmission and that persons originating from sub-Saharan Africa are particularly affected. Over half of infections shown to be recently acquired were in MSM; this may indicate an increased HIV incidence in this population.

  2. Using the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System to inform HIV prevention efforts in the United States.

    PubMed

    Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Raymond, H Fisher; Lansky, Amy; Mermin, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    The National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system (NHBS) was designed to monitor HIV prevalence and risk factors for infection among higher-risk individuals, i.e., sexually active men who have sex with men who attend venues, injection drug users who injected in the past 12 months, and heterosexuals living in low socioeconomic urban areas. These groups were selected as priorities for behavioral surveillance since they represent the major HIV transmission routes and the populations with the highest HIV burden. NHBS contributes to the nation's program of HIV surveillance by being the only multi-site population-based system that provides estimates on key HIV prevention measures among high-risk HIV-negative individuals, HIV-positive individuals unaware of their infection, and HIV-positive individuals aware of their infection who are in and out of care. Accurate and precise data on the behaviors in these populations are critical for tracking the epidemic, planning effective responses, and monitoring and evaluating those responses. Reports in this supplement illustrate the uses of NHBS data at the national and local level and reflect ongoing efforts to improve the system and remains essential for characterizing and monitoring the burden of HIV infection and sexual and behavioral risks.

  3. Using the HIV Surveillance System to Monitor the National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tian; Shouse, Luke; Li, Jianmin; Mermin, Jonathan; Hall, H. Irene

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To report on indicators of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, we analyzed data collected through the national HIV surveillance system. Methods. We analyzed data from adults and adolescents aged 13 years or older diagnosed with HIV in 13 US jurisdictions that have laboratory reporting of CD4+ T-lymphocyte (CD4) and viral load (VL) test results and enter CD4 and VL test results into the national surveillance system. Results. Of 4899 people diagnosed in 2009, 81.7% had at least 1 CD4 or VL test performed within 3 months of diagnosis. A higher proportion of Whites (86.2%) than Blacks (78.4%) and Hispanics (82.6%) had a CD4 or VL test. Of 53 642 people diagnosed through 2008 and living with HIV at the end of 2009 who had a VL test, 69.4% had a most recent VL of 200 copies per milliliter or less. The proportion of people with suppressed VLs differed among Blacks (60.2%), Hispanics (70.3%), and Whites (77.4%) and among people aged 13 to 24 years (44.3%) compared with people aged 65 years or older (84.2%). Of men who have sex with men, 74.2% had a suppressed VL. Conclusions. The findings highlight disparities in access to and success of care. PMID:23153150

  4. Anonymous reporting of HIV infection: an evaluation of the HIV/AIDS surveillance system in Norway 1983-2000.

    PubMed

    Aavitsland, P; Nilsen, O; Lystad, A

    2001-01-01

    Several European countries are considering implementing surveillance systems for HIV infection, but questions remain regarding patient confidentiality. The population-based HIV/AIDS surveillance system in Norway integrates anonymous HIV case reports from laboratories and clinicians and named AIDS case reports. This evaluation includes a description of the system, evidence of system attributes, estimation of resources for system operations, and documentation of the system's usefulness. HIV case reports provide a far better picture of the epidemic than AIDS reports. The median delay between positive HIV test and reporting was 30 days (interquartile range 18-49 days). Completeness of demographic and epidemiologic information in the surveillance database ranges from 60 to 100%. Information on pre-AIDS mortality and emigration is incomplete. The system cost euro 25,200 in 1999. Results are published every week and used for planning of health care and prevention. We conclude that the Norwegian surveillance system with anonymous reporting of HIV cases is simple, inexpensive and flexible, and capable of providing a representative and timely overview that guides prevention. The system fulfils its objectives while respecting confidentiality and adhering to ethical principles. A similar system may be considered in other countries.

  5. Classification of transmission risk in the national HIV/AIDS surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lisa M; McKenna, Matthew T; Janssen, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    Risk behavior information is essential for allocating resources and developing effective HIV prevention strategies. Over time, transmission risk information on HIV/AIDS cases has been less likely to be reported to the national surveillance system. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) invited approximately 30 experts in HIV/AIDS and behavioral research from state and local health departments, academia, community-based organizations, and the CDC to participate in a consultation in December 2001 to generate ideas on how best to deal with the lack of risk data. The group was charged with providing recommendations on methods for classifying and reporting risk information and for identifying methods and sources for improving ascertainment of transmission risk behaviors for individuals infected with HIV. This report describes the recommendations and the effects of implementing such recommended procedures on the national HIV/AIDS surveillance database.

  6. Classification of transmission risk in the national HIV/AIDS surveillance system.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lisa M.; McKenna, Matthew T.; Janssen, Robert S.

    2003-01-01

    Risk behavior information is essential for allocating resources and developing effective HIV prevention strategies. Over time, transmission risk information on HIV/AIDS cases has been less likely to be reported to the national surveillance system. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) invited approximately 30 experts in HIV/AIDS and behavioral research from state and local health departments, academia, community-based organizations, and the CDC to participate in a consultation in December 2001 to generate ideas on how best to deal with the lack of risk data. The group was charged with providing recommendations on methods for classifying and reporting risk information and for identifying methods and sources for improving ascertainment of transmission risk behaviors for individuals infected with HIV. This report describes the recommendations and the effects of implementing such recommended procedures on the national HIV/AIDS surveillance database. PMID:12941852

  7. Factors Associated with Incomplete Reporting of HIV and AIDS by Uganda's Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akankunda, Denis B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the last 20 years, Uganda has piloted and implemented various management information systems (MIS) for better surveillance of HIV/AIDS. With support from the United States Government, Uganda introduced the District Health Information Software 2 (DHIS2) in 2012. However, districts have yet to fully adapt to this system given a…

  8. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  9. Data Mining in HIV-AIDS Surveillance System : Application to Portuguese Data.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alexandra; Faria, Brígida Mónica; Gaio, A Rita; Reis, Luís Paulo

    2017-04-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is an infectious agent that attacks the immune system cells. Without a strong immune system, the body becomes very susceptible to serious life threatening opportunistic diseases. In spite of the great progresses on medication and prevention over the last years, HIV infection continues to be a major global public health issue, having claimed more than 36 million lives over the last 35 years since the recognition of the disease. Monitoring, through registries, of HIV-AIDS cases is vital to assess general health care needs and to support long-term health-policy control planning. Surveillance systems are therefore established in almost all developed countries. Typically, this is a complex system depending on several stakeholders, such as health care providers, the general population and laboratories, which challenges an efficient and effective reporting of diagnosed cases. One issue that often arises is the administrative delay in reports of diagnosed cases. This paper aims to identify the main factors influencing reporting delays of HIV-AIDS cases within the portuguese surveillance system. The used methodologies included multilayer artificial neural networks (MLP), naive bayesian classifiers (NB), support vector machines (SVM) and the k-nearest neighbor algorithm (KNN). The highest classification accuracy, precision and recall were obtained for MLP and the results suggested homogeneous administrative and clinical practices within the reporting process. Guidelines for reductions of the delays should therefore be developed nationwise and transversally to all stakeholders.

  10. Association Between Enacted Stigma and HIV-Related Risk Behavior Among MSM, National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, 2011.

    PubMed

    Balaji, Alexandra B; Bowles, Kristina E; Hess, Kristen L; Smith, Justin C; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    MSM bear a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. Enacted stigma (overt negative actions) against sexual minorities may play an important role in increasing HIV risk among this population. Using data from the 2011 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system, MSM cycle, we examined the independent associations between three measures of enacted stigma (verbal harassment, discrimination, physical assault) and engagement in each of four HIV-related risk behaviors as outcomes: condomless anal intercourse (CAI) at last sex with a male partner of HIV discordant or unknown status and, in the past 12 months, CAI with a male partner, ≥4 male sex partners, and exchange sex. Of 9819 MSM, 32% experienced verbal harassment in the past 12 months, 23% experienced discrimination, and 8% experienced physical assault. Discordant CAI at last sex with a male partner was associated with previous discrimination and physical assault. Past 12 month CAI with a male partner, ≥4 male sex partners, and exchange sex were each associated with verbal harassment, discrimination, and physical assault. These findings indicate that a sizable proportion of MSM report occurrences of past 12 month enacted stigma and suggest that these experiences may be associated with HIV-related risk behavior. Addressing stigma towards sexual minorities must involve an integrated, multi-faceted approach, including interventions at the individual, community, and societal level.

  11. Innovations in health and demographic surveillance systems to establish the causal impacts of HIV policies

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Kobus; Law, Matthew; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Tanser, Frank; Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS), in conjunction with HIV treatment cohorts, have made important contributions to our understanding of the impact of HIV treatment and treatment-related interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this review is to describe and discuss innovations in data collection and data linkage that will create new opportunities to establish the impacts of HIV treatment, as well as policies affecting the treatment cascade, on population health, economic and social outcomes. Recent Findings Novel approaches to routine collection of (i) biomarkers, (ii) behavioural data, (iii) spatial data, (iv) social network information, (v) migration events and (vi) mobile phone records can significantly strengthen the potential of HDSS to generate exposure and outcome data for causal analysis of HIV treatment impact and policies affecting the HIV treatment cascade. Additionally, by linking HDSS data to health service administration, education, and welfare service records, researchers can substantial broaden opportunities to establish how HIV treatment affects health and economic outcomes, when delivered through public-sector health systems and at scale. Summary As the HIV treatment scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa enters its second decade, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the long-term causal impacts of large-scale HIV treatment and related policies on broader population health outcomes, such as non-communicable diseases, as well as on economic and social outcomes, such as family welfare and children’s educational attainment. By collecting novel data and linking existing data to public-sector records, HDSS can create near-unique opportunities to contribute to this research agenda. PMID:26371462

  12. Access to HIV community services by vulnerable populations: evidence from an enhanced HIV/AIDS surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Madden, H C E; Phillips-Howard, P A; Hargreaves, S C; Downing, J; Bellis, M A; Vivancos, R; Morley, C; Syed, Q; Cook, P A

    2011-05-01

    HIV disproportionately affects vulnerable populations such as black and minority ethnic groups, men who have sex with men (MSM) and migrants, in many countries including those in the UK. Community organisations in the UK are charitable non-governmental organisations with a proportion of the workforce who volunteer, and provide invaluable additional support for people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Information on their contribution to HIV care in vulnerable groups is relatively sparse. Data generated from an enhanced HIV surveillance system in North West England, UK, was utilised for this study. We aimed to determine the characteristics of individuals who chose to access community services in addition to clinical services (1375 out of 4195 records of PLWHIV in clinical services). Demographic information, risk factors including residency status, uniquely gathered in this region, and deprivation scores were examined. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was conducted to predict the relative effect of patient characteristics on attendance at community services. Attendance at community services was highest in those living in the most, compared with least, deprived areas (p<0.001), and was most evident in MSM and heterosexuals. Compared to white UK nationals attendance was significantly higher in non-UK nationals of uncertain residency status (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 21.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.48-45.83; p<0.001), refugees (AOR = 5.75, 95% CI 3.3-10.03; p<0.001), migrant workers (AOR = 5.48, 95% CI 2.22-13.51; p<0.001) and temporary visitors (AOR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.68-7.05; p<0.001). Community services, initially established predominantly to support MSM, have responded to the changing demography of HIV and reach the most vulnerable members of society. Consequent to their support of migrant populations, community services are vital for the management of HIV in black and minority groups. Paradoxically, this coincides with increasing funding pressures on these

  13. HIV surveillance in MENA: recent developments and results.

    PubMed

    Bozicevic, Ivana; Riedner, Gabriele; Calleja, Jesus Maria Garcia

    2013-11-01

    To provide an overview of the current level of development and results from the national HIV surveillance systems of the 23 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to assess the quality of HIV surveillance systems in the period 2007-2011. A questionnaire was used to collect the information about the structure, activities and the results of HIV surveillance systems from the National AIDS Programmes. Assessment of the quality was based on four indicators: timeliness of data collection, appropriateness of populations under surveillance, consistency of the surveillance sites and groups measured over time, and coverage of the surveillance system. Only in four countries did surveillance systems enable assessment of epidemic trends in the same populations and locations over time, such as in pregnant women (Morocco, Iran), injecting drug users (Iran, Pakistan), female sex workers (Djibouti, Morocco) and male sex workers (Pakistan). There is increasing evidence of HIV infection being firmly established in at least one of the populations most at risk of HIV in nine MENA countries, while lower risk populations show elevated HIV prevalence in South Sudan, Djibouti and some parts of Somalia. The performance of HIV surveillance systems in several of the MENA countries has improved in recent years. The extent of HIV epidemics in the populations most at risk of HIV is still largely unknown in 10 countries. Multiple data sources that most of the countries still lack would enable indirectly estimation not only of the patterns of HIV epidemics but also the effectiveness of HIV responses.

  14. Piloting a System for Behavioral Surveillance Among Heterosexuals at Increased Risk of HIV in the United States

    PubMed Central

    DiNenno, Elizabeth A; Oster, Alexandra M; Sionean, Catlainn; Denning, Paul; Lansky, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: During the past decade, the number and proportion of reported HIV cases in the United States acquired through heterosexual contact has increased markedly. CDC employs the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) to monitor risk behaviors and HIV prevalence in high-risk populations. To identify a target population for conducting NHBS among heterosexuals at increased risk for HIV (NHBS-HET), CDC designed, implemented and evaluated a pilot study. Methods: The pilot study was conducted in 25 US metropolitan statistical areas in 2006-7. We recruited men and women who reported sex with at least one opposite-sex partner during the past year for a behavioral survey and HIV test. We investigated the relationship between newly diagnosed HIV infection and individual risk behaviors, sexual network characteristics, and social-structural characteristics to arrive at a definition of a heterosexual at increased risk of HIV. Results: Of 14,750 participants in the analysis, 207 (1.4%) had newly diagnosed HIV infection. Using low socioeconomic status (SES) as a criterion for defining a heterosexual at increased risk for HIV resulted in optimal rates of HIV prevalence, specificity, sensitivity and practicality. Conclusions: Results from the NHBS pilot study underscore the key role of social factors as determinants of HIV infection risk among U.S. heterosexuals, and low SES was incorporated into the definition of a heterosexual at increased risk for HIV in NHBS-HET cycles. Future cycles of NHBS-HET will help tailor prevention programs for those populations most at risk of HIV in the US. PMID:23049666

  15. Increases in HIV Testing among Men Who Have Sex with Men — National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, 20 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 2008 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Laura A.; Oster, Alexandra M.; Rose, Charles E.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Le, Binh C.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, 62% of estimated new HIV diagnoses in the United States were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact (men who have sex with men, MSM); 39% of these MSM were black or African American. HIV testing, recommended at least annually by CDC for sexually active MSM, is an essential first step in HIV care and treatment for HIV-positive individuals. A variety of HIV testing initiatives, designed to reach populations disproportionately affected by HIV, have been developed at both national and local levels. We assessed changes in HIV testing behavior among MSM participating in the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in 2008 and 2011. We compared the percentages tested in the previous 12 months in 2008 and 2011, overall and by race/ethnicity and age group. In unadjusted analyses, recent HIV testing increased from 63% in 2008 to 67% in 2011 overall (P<0.001), from 63% to 71% among black MSM (P<0.001), and from 63% to 75% among MSM of other/multiple races (P<0.001); testing did not increase significantly for white or Hispanic/Latino MSM. Multivariable model results indicated an overall increase in recent HIV testing (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.07, P<0.001). Increases were largest for black MSM (aPR = 1.12, P<0.001) and MSM of other/multiple races (aPR = 1.20, P<0.001). Among MSM aged 18–19 years, recent HIV testing was shown to increase significantly among black MSM (aPR = 1.20, P = 0.007), but not among MSM of other racial/ethnic groups. Increases in recent HIV testing among populations most affected by HIV are encouraging, but despite these increases, improved testing coverage is needed to meet CDC recommendations. PMID:25180514

  16. HIV surveillance in MENA: recent developments and results

    PubMed Central

    Bozicevic, Ivana; Riedner, Gabriele; Calleja, Jesus Maria Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide an overview of the current level of development and results from the national HIV surveillance systems of the 23 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), and to assess the quality of HIV surveillance systems in the period 2007–2011. Methods A questionnaire was used to collect the information about the structure, activities and the results of HIV surveillance systems from the National AIDS Programmes. Assessment of the quality was based on four indicators: timeliness of data collection, appropriateness of populations under surveillance, consistency of the surveillance sites and groups measured over time, and coverage of the surveillance system. Results Only in four countries did surveillance systems enable assessment of epidemic trends in the same populations and locations over time, such as in pregnant women (Morocco, Iran), injecting drug users (Iran, Pakistan), female sex workers (Djibouti, Morocco) and male sex workers (Pakistan). There is increasing evidence of HIV infection being firmly established in at least one of the populations most at risk of HIV in nine MENA countries, while lower risk populations show elevated HIV prevalence in South Sudan, Djibouti and some parts of Somalia. Conclusions The performance of HIV surveillance systems in several of the MENA countries has improved in recent years. The extent of HIV epidemics in the populations most at risk of HIV is still largely unknown in 10 countries. Multiple data sources that most of the countries still lack would enable indirectly estimation not only of the patterns of HIV epidemics but also the effectiveness of HIV responses. PMID:23434789

  17. A Matter of Perspective: Comparison of the Characteristics of Persons with HIV Infection in the United States from the HIV Outpatient Study, Medical Monitoring Project, and National HIV Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Buchacz, Kate; Frazier, Emma L.; Hall, H. Irene; Hart, Rachel; Huang, Ping; Franklin, Dana; Hu, Xiaohong; Palella, Frank J.; Chmiel, Joan S.; Novak, Richard M.; Wood, Kathy; Yangco, Bienvenido; Armon, Carl; Brooks, John T.; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analyses of the characteristics of persons living with HIV infection (PLWH) in the United States (US) captured in surveillance and other observational databases are few. To explore potential joint data use to guide HIV treatment and prevention in the US, we examined three CDC-funded data sources in 2012: the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS), a multisite longitudinal cohort; the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP), a probability sample of PLWH receiving medical care; and the National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS), a surveillance system of all PLWH. Overall, data from 1,697 HOPS, 4,901 MMP, and 865,102 NHSS PLWH were analyzed. Compared with the MMP population, HOPS participants were more likely to be older, non-Hispanic/Latino white, not using injection drugs, insured, diagnosed with HIV before 2009, prescribed antiretroviral therapy, and to have most recent CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count ≥500 cells/mm3 and most recent viral load test<2 00 copies/mL. The MMP population was demographically similar to all PLWH in NHSS, except it tended to be slightly older, HIV diagnosed more recently, and to have AIDS. Our comparative results provide an essential first step for combined epidemiologic data analyses to inform HIV care and prevention for PLWH in the US. PMID:26793282

  18. Effect of Recombination in the Evolutionary Dynamics of HIV under the Surveillance of Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Weiqun; Yang, Wenjing; Wang, Guanyu

    2009-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which has become one of the most destructive pandemics in history. The fact that HIV virus evolves very fast plays a central role in AIDS immunopathogenesis and the difficulty we face in finding a cure or a vaccine for AIDS. A distinguishing feature of HIV is its high frequency of recombination. The effect of recombination in the HIV evolution is not clear. We establish a mathematical model of the evolutionary dynamics. This model incorporates both point mutation and recombination for genetic diversity, and employs a fitness function developed by Wang and Deem (PRL 97, 188106, 2006) that accounts for the effect of immune system. Using this model, we explore the role of recombination in the battle between the virus population and the immune system, with a special focus on the condition under which recombination helps the virus population to escape from the immune system.

  19. Evaluation of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System among men who have sex with men in Denver, Colorado.

    PubMed

    DeYoung, Kathryn H; Al-Tayyib, Alia; Thrun, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Denver Public Health implements the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS), a cyclical survey of populations at increased risk for HIV. We evaluated the implementation of NHBS among Denver men who have sex with men (MSM), considering the system's simplicity, data quality, representativeness, and sensitivity to trends. We found that the time required for implementation and the complexity of data management and analysis are barriers to disseminating local findings. Data quality has improved in each cycle of the study but must be protected by continually checking for errors and training field staff to be attentive to detail. Compared with the US census and other convenience samples of Denver MSM, the overall demographic representativeness of NHBS has improved over time. However, there is concern that the underlying population included in the study may be changing. NHBS survey data show evidence of two suspected trends in the local MSM population at risk for HIV: increasing sexual risk-taking and the transition away from bars as a dominant partner-finding location. It is unclear whether the increasing reports of sexual risk-taking reflect a real trend or simply a change in the population sampled, since most NHBS participants are recruited at gay bars and other venues. To ensure that the sample continues to represent the underlying population at risk and accurately identify trends, it is necessary to closely monitor MSM sample characteristics during implementation and incorporate weighted data provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention into analyses.

  20. Mortality Disparities among HIV+ Men and Women in Puerto Rico: Data from the HIV/AIDS Surveillance System 2003-2014.

    PubMed

    Colón-López, Vivian; Miranda-De León, Sandra; Machin-Rivera, Mark; Marrero, Edna; Rolón-Colón, Yadira; Valencia-Torres, Ileska M; Suárez, Erick

    2017-03-01

    Describe the trend of the indirect standardized death rate of HIV for different modes of HIV transmission from 2003 to 2014 in Puerto Rico. Estimate the magnitude of the association between mode of HIV transmission and mortality at different time periods in Puerto Rico. ISDRs by sex and mode of transmission were computed using data from the PR National HIV/AIDS Surveillance System (2003-2014). Poisson models were used to assess the annual percent change of the ISDRs and RRs by sex. Injection drug users (IDUs) showed the highest decrease in ISDR (-10.56, for men; -9.32 for women). Compared to men who have sex with men (MSM), IDU men also had the highest RR, representing an increase of 93% (2009-2011) (RRIDU vs MSM: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.66-2.23). Compared to women who were IDUs, heterosexual (HET) women had less risk of dying (48% for the period of 2006 to 2008). Mortality has been decreasing in each mode of transmission for both sexes. In addition, though IDUs present the highest decrease of ISDR, it is still the group whose members have the highest risk of dying, both men and women. To better describe health disparities as related to HIV/AIDS mortality, future analyses should be performed using specific causes of death and the evaluation of other relevant clinical and sociodemographic factors. Such data might increase our understanding of mortality in people with HIV/AIDS on the island, as well as help in future efforts to develop intervention strategies for the aforementioned risk groups.

  1. Use of sentinel surveillance and geographic information systems to monitor trends in HIV prevalence, incidence, and related risk behavior among women undergoing syphilis screening in a jail setting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Andrea A; Martinez, Alexis N; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Goldenson, Joe; Kent, Charlotte; Liska, Sally; McFarland, Willi

    2009-01-01

    Innovative methods are needed to systematically track the HIV epidemic and appropriately target prevention and care programs in vulnerable populations of women. We conducted sentinel surveillance among women entering the jail system of San Francisco from 1999 to 2001 to track trends in HIV incidence, HIV prevalence, and related risk behavior. Using geographic information software (GIS), we triangulated findings to examine the spatial distribution of risk and disease. A total of 1,577 female arrestees voluntarily screened for sexually transmitted diseases at intake were included. HIV incidence, estimated using the serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion (STARHS), was 0.4% per year (95% confidence interval [95%CI]=0.1-2.1). HIV prevalence was 1.8% (95%CI=1.1-2.4). HIV infection was independently associated with age 30 to 39 years compared to all other ages, African-American race/ethnicity vs. non-African-American, and recent injection drug use. Maps showed that the communities in which arrested women reside are also those with the highest concentrations of newly detected female HIV cases, AIDS cases, and clients of substance use programs. The combined strategy of using sentinel surveillance in the jail setting and GIS to map the spatial distribution of disease provides a useful tool to identify patterns of risk in hard-to-reach, vulnerable populations of women.

  2. HPV vaccine coverage among men who have sex with men - National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    Meites, Elissa; Markowitz, Lauri E; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Oster, Alexandra M

    2014-11-12

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for disease associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). In late 2011, HPV vaccine was recommended for males through age 21 and MSM through age 26. Using data from the 2011 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, we assessed self-reported HPV vaccine uptake among MSM, using multivariate analysis to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among 3221 MSM aged 18-26, 157 (4.9%) reported ≥1 vaccine dose. Uptake was higher among men who visited a healthcare provider (aPR 2.3, CI: 1.2-4.2), disclosed same-sex sexual attraction/behavior to a provider (aPR 2.1, CI: 1.3-3.3), reported a positive HIV test (aPR 2.2, CI: 1.5-3.2), or received hepatitis vaccine (aPR 3.9, CI: 2.4-6.4). Of 3064 unvaccinated MSM, 2326 (75.9%) had visited a healthcare provider within 1 year. These national data on HPV vaccine uptake among MSM provide a baseline as vaccination recommendations are implemented.

  3. Comparing non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis drug regimens for HIV: insights from a linked HIV surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Anna B; El-Hayek, Carol; McCarthy, Damien; Armishaw, Jude; Watson, Kerrie; Wilkinson, Anna; Price, Brian; Wright, Edwina J; Hoy, Jennifer F; Stoové, Mark A

    2016-12-05

    Background: International non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (NPEP) guidelines recommend routine use of three drug NPEP regimens, despite absence of evidence for greater prevention efficacy compared with two drug regimens. This study examines the potential for excess HIV seroconversions among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) reporting receptive anal intercourse with a source of unknown HIV serostatus (RAIU) following a two-drug versus a three-drug NPEP regimen. Methods: Data for MSM in the Victorian NPEP service database between 10 August 2005 and 31 December 2012 were linked with all Victorian HIV notifications up to 31 December 2013. The primary outcome was NPEP failure following NPEP presentation among MSM reporting RAIU, stratified by the number of drugs prescribed. Results: Among 1482 MSM reporting 2002 episodes of RAIU and prescribed two- or three-drug NPEP, 70 seroconverted to HIV, but only 19 were considered possible NPEP failures. HIV diagnosis incidence among men reporting RAIU was 1.2/100 person years (PY) (95%CI=1.0-1.6); 1.1/100 PY (95%CI=0.8-1.4) among MSM prescribed two drugs and 2.2/100 PY (95%CI=1.4-3.7) among MSM prescribed three drugs (P<0.01). Of the 19 possible NPEP failures, 13 (0.7%) were prescribed two drugs and six (2.7%) three drugs (P<0.001). Conclusions: This study suggests that two-drug NPEP regimens do not result in excess seroconversions compared with three-drug regimens when used following RAIU. Clinical services should carefully consider their use of three drug NPEP and whether resources might be better invested in other prevention strategies, particularly pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP).

  4. Evaluation of Kenya's readiness to transition from sentinel surveillance to routine HIV testing for antenatal clinic-based HIV surveillance.

    PubMed

    Sirengo, Martin; Rutherford, George W; Otieno-Nyunya, Boaz; Kellogg, Timothy A; Kimanga, Davies; Muraguri, Nicholas; Umuro, Mamo; Mirjahangir, Joy; Stein, Ellen; Ndisha, Margaret; Kim, Andrea A

    2016-03-05

    Sentinel surveillance for HIV among women attending antenatal clinics using unlinked anonymous testing is a cornerstone of HIV surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa. Increased use of routine antenatal HIV testing allows consideration of using these programmatic data rather than sentinel surveillance data for HIV surveillance. To gauge Kenya's readiness to discontinue sentinel surveillance, we evaluated whether recommended World Health Organization standards were fulfilled by conducting data and administrative reviews of antenatal clinics that offered both routine testing and sentinel surveillance in 2010. The proportion of tests that were HIV-positive among women aged 15-49 years was 6.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.6-7.7%] in sentinel surveillance and 6.5% (95% CI 5.1-8.0%) in routine testing. The agreement of HIV test results between sentinel surveillance and routine testing was 98.0%, but 24.1% of specimens that tested positive in sentinel surveillance were recorded as negative in routine testing. Data completeness was moderate, with HIV test results recorded for 87.8% of women who received routine testing. Additional preparation is required before routine antenatal HIV testing data can supplant sentinel surveillance in Kenya. As the quality of program data has markedly improved since 2010 a repeat evaluation of the use of routine antenatal HIV testing data in lieu of ANC sentinel surveillance is recommended.

  5. Surveillance of recent HIV infections among newly diagnosed HIV cases in Germany between 2008 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Alexandra; Hauser, Andrea; Zimmermann, Ruth; Santos-Hövener, Claudia; Bätzing-Feigenbaum, Jörg; Wildner, Stephan; Kücherer, Claudia; Bannert, Norbert; Hamouda, Osamah; Bremer, Viviane; Bartmeyer, Barbara

    2017-07-11

    The HIV surveillance system in Germany is based on mandatory, anonymous notification of newly diagnosed HIV cases by laboratories. Because the time between HIV infection and the diagnosis of HIV varies widely between persons, it is difficult to determine the number of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases of HIV. In Germany, the BED-capture-enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) has been used to distinguish between recent and long-standing HIV infection. The aim of this analysis is to report the proportion of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases in Germany between 2008 and 2014 and to identify factors associated with recent infections. A sample of voluntary laboratories among all HIV diagnostic laboratories was recruited. Residual blood from HIV diagnostic tests was spotted on filter paper as dried serum or dried plasma spots and was sent along with the notification form of the HIV cases. The BED-CEIA test was performed. A case was defined as recent HIV infection with a BED-CEIA test result of less than 0.8 normalized optical density, with the exclusion of CDC stage C. The proportion of recent newly diagnosed HIV infections among different groups (such as transmission groups, gender or age groups) was calculated. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with recent HIV infection and to identify subpopulations with high proportions of recent HIV infections. Approximately 10,257 newly diagnosed cases were tested for recency using the BED-CEIA. In total, 3084 (30.4%) of those were recently infected with HIV. The highest proportion of recent HIV infections was found among men who had sex with men (MSM) (35%) and persons between 18 and 25 years of age (43.0%). Logistic regression revealed that female German intravenous drug users with a recent HIV infection had a higher chance of being detected than German MSM (OR 2.27). Surveillance of recent HIV infection is a useful additional tool to monitor the HIV epidemic in

  6. A low-cost, sustainable, second generation system for surveillance of people living with HIV in Spain: 10-year trends in behavioural and clinical indicators, 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Diez, M; Diaz, A; Garriga, C; Pons, M; Ten, A; Marcos, H; Gutierrez, G; Moreno, S; Gonzalez-Garcia, J; Barrios, Am; Arponen, S; Garcia, Mt; Royo, Mc; Toledo, J; Gonzalez, G; Aranguren, R; Izquierdo, A; Viloria, Lj; Elizalde, L; Martinez, E; Castrillejo, D; Lopez, I; Redondo, C; Cano, A; The Hospital Survey Study Group, C

    2014-05-22

    A second-generation surveillance system of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been implemented in Spain. Behavioural and clinical data were collected between 2002 and 2011 through an annual one-day, cross-sectional survey in public hospitals, including all in- and outpatients receiving HIVrelated care on the survey day. Mean age increased over time (from 38.7 years in 2002 to 43.8 years in 2011) and 68.4% of the 7,205 subjects were male. The proportion of migrants increased from 6.1% to 15.9%, while people who inject or used to inject drugs (PWID and Ex-PWID) decreased and men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals increased. Unprotected intercourse at last sex increased among MSM and PWID/Ex-PWID. Patients receiving antiretroviral treatment increased significantly from 76.0% to 88.2% as did those with CD4 T-cell counts ≥350 (from 48.2% to 66.9%) and viral copies <200 (from 47.0% to 85.2%). HIV-infected people with hepatitis C virus RNA decreased from 36.0% in 2004 to 29.9% in 2011, while those with HBsAg remained stable at around 4.4%. Implementation of a low-cost, sustainable system for second-generation surveillance in people living with HIV is feasible. In Spain, the information obtained has helped to define and refine public health policy and document treatment effectiveness.

  7. Sentinel surveillance for HIV-2 infection in high-risk US populations.

    PubMed Central

    Onorato, I M; O'Brien, T R; Schable, C A; Spruill, C; Holmberg, S D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. We conducted sentinel surveillance in persons practicing behaviors known to transmit retroviruses to determine the US presence and extent of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2). METHODS. Sentinel surveillance for HIV-2 was conducted by testing 31,533 anonymous blood specimens from patients at sexually transmitted disease clinics, injecting drug users at treatment centers, and clients at HIV counseling and testing sites in 14 US cities where West African immigrants often settle. Specimens were tested by HIV-1 and HIV-2 whole virus and synthetic peptide enzyme immunoassay and confirmed by HIV-1 and HIV-2 Western blots. RESULTS. Nearly 10% of 31,533 sera were positive for HIV-1. Two heterosexual Black male sexually transmitted disease patients were infected with HIV-2. One of the HIV-2 positive specimens did not cross-react on HIV-1 enzyme immunoassay screening. One client had antibodies consistent with malarial infection in West Africa; the other, who had syphilis, did not have antibodies to malaria or to any of 20 arboviruses present in Africa. CONCLUSIONS. Clinics serving clients from HIV-2 endemic areas should test persons practicing risk behaviors for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. Sentinel surveillance for HIV-2 serves as an early warning system for the possible spread of this virus in the United States. PMID:8460726

  8. New York panel is split over HIV case surveillance.

    PubMed

    1998-02-06

    New York's attempt to agree on a statewide plan for HIV surveillance was abandoned in January. A working group of the AIDS Advisory Council attempted to reach a consensus between several factions on whether to track AIDS cases by name or by coded number; the issue remains unresolved. Similar deliberations are taking place in 19 other States that currently do not keep records of HIV infections in adults. Opinions are polarized among several groups involved in developing the plan, citing confidentiality and effectiveness of tracking systems.

  9. It's Never Just HIV: Exposure to an HIV Prevention Media Campaign and Behavior Change Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Participating in the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in New York City.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Kathleen H; Neaigus, Alan; Shepard, Colin W; Cutler, Blayne H; Sweeney, Monica M; Rucinski, Katherine B; Jenness, Samuel M; Wendel, Travis; Marshall, David M; Hagan, Holly

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to and impact of the It's Never Just HIV mass media campaign aimed at HIV negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in New York City. Questions about the campaign were included in the local questionnaire of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-sponsored National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) study of MSM in NYC conducted in 2011. Participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited using venue-based sampling. Among 447 NYC National HIV Behavioral Surveillance study participants who self-reported HIV negative or unknown status and answered questions about the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's It's Never Just HIV campaign, more than one-third (n = 173, 38.7%) reported having seen the campaign. Latinos (34.8%) and blacks (34.4%) were less likely to report seeing the campaign compared to whites (47.7%). Most of those who reported seeing the campaign saw it on the subway (80.1%). Only 9.4% of those who saw the campaign reported having changed their sexual or health behaviors in response to the campaign. These data suggest that thousands of HIV-uninfected MSM in NYC have been reached by the campaign and recalled its message.

  10. Second-generation HIV surveillance: better data for decision-making.

    PubMed Central

    Rehle, Thomas; Lazzari, Stefano; Dallabetta, Gina; Asamoah-Odei, Emil

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to outline the key elements of the expanded surveillance efforts recommended by the second-generation HIV surveillance approach. Second-generation systems focus on improving and expanding existing surveillance methods and combine them in ways that have the greatest explanatory power. The main elements of this approach include: considering biological surveillance - HIV, AIDS, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) - and behavioural surveillance as integral components, targeting surveillance efforts at segments of the population where most new infections are concentrated - which might differ depending on the stage and type of the epidemic - and providing the rationale for the optimal use of data generated for monitoring the HIV epidemic and evaluating national AIDS control programmes. The paper emphasizes improvements in existing surveillance methodologies and discusses in detail crucial issues such as the validity of HIV prevalence data measured in pregnant women and linking HIV surveillance and behavioural data collection. In addition, a strategic partnership between second-generation surveillance and AIDS programme evaluation is proposed that stresses the complementary roles of these data collection activities in determining the effectiveness of prevention and care programmes and explaining the epidemiological trend data collected by sentinel serosurveillance systems. In conclusion, second-generation HIV surveillance systems provide a comprehensive, cost-effective and appropriate response to the information needs of AIDS control programmes. The implementation of such systems, including a better use of the data generated by the system, will ensure that national programmes are in the best possible position to respond to the challenges of the epidemic. PMID:15042234

  11. Collection of Social Determinant of Health Measures in U.S. National Surveillance Systems for HIV, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Victoria M.; Harrison, Kathleen McDavid; Hall, H. Irene; Dean, Hazel D.

    2011-01-01

    Challenges exist in the study of social determinants of health (SDH) because of limited comparability of population-based U.S. data on SDH. This limitation is due to differences in disparity or equity measurements, as well as general data quality and availability. We reviewed the current SDH variables collected for HIV, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through its population-based surveillance systems and assessed specific system attributes. Results were used to provide recommendations for a core set of SDH variables to collect that are both feasible and useful. We also conducted an environmental literature scan to determine the status of knowledge of SDH as underlying causes of disease and to inform the recommended core set of SDH variables. PMID:21836737

  12. Improving HIV Surveillance Among Transgender Populations in Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Rebeiro, Peter F.; McGoy, Shanell L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: HIV prevalence and outcome disparities among sexual and gender minorities are profound in the United States. Tennessee HIV surveillance practices have not been uniform for transgender status, although data collection capabilities exist. We, therefore, describe current reporting of data on transgender individuals in Tennessee to identify targets for improvement. Methods: Data for all HIV-diagnosed individuals living in Tennessee as of December 31, 2013, were extracted from the Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System (eHARS). The birth_sex (“Male” or “Female”) and current_gender (“Male,” “Female,” “Male-to-Female,” “Female-to-Male,” or “Additional Gender Identity”) variables were examined, and proportion missing current_gender data by region was ascertained. Transgender individuals were defined as having different birth_sex and current_gender values. To ensure the protection of health information, data were cleaned, deidentified, and aggregated using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) Version 9.3 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC). Results: Among 16,063 HIV-diagnosed individuals in Tennessee, 27 were transgender: 52% (n = 14) with “Male-to-Female,” 26% (n = 7) with “Female,” and 22% (n = 6) with “Male” as their current_gender values. Proportions missing current_gender differed significantly by region across Tennessee (global, P < 0.01). Conclusion: While HIV-positive transgender individuals should be recognized as integral members of the LGBT community, they should also be acknowledged as a separate subgroup when appropriate. Collecting information about current self-identified gender identity should no longer be optional in Tennessee HIV surveillance. Although making efforts to collect both birth_sex and current_gender mandatory with each interview will improve surveillance, it is critical to train all staff properly on the correct way to inquire about gender identity in a culturally sensitive manner

  13. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  14. Shifting the Paradigm: Using HIV Surveillance Data as a Foundation for Improving HIV Care and Preventing HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Patricia; Gardner, Lytt I; Buchacz, Kate; Garland, Pamela Morse; Mugavero, Michael J; Bosshart, Jeffrey T; Shouse, R Luke; Bertolli, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Context Reducing HIV incidence in the United States and improving health outcomes for people living with HIV hinge on improving access to highly effective treatment and overcoming barriers to continuous treatment. Using laboratory tests routinely reported for HIV surveillance to monitor individuals’ receipt of HIV care and contacting them to facilitate optimal care could help achieve these objectives. Historically, surveillance-based public health intervention with individuals for HIV control has been controversial because of concerns that risks to privacy and autonomy could outweigh benefits. But with the availability of lifesaving, transmission-interrupting treatment for HIV infection, some health departments have begun surveillance-based outreach to facilitate HIV medical care. Methods Guided by ethics frameworks, we explored the ethical arguments for changing the uses of HIV surveillance data. To identify ethical, procedural, and strategic considerations, we reviewed the activities of health departments that are using HIV surveillance data to contact persons identified as needing assistance with initiating or returning to care. Findings Although privacy concerns surrounding the uses of HIV surveillance data still exist, there are ethical concerns associated with not using HIV surveillance to maximize the benefits from HIV medical care and treatment. Early efforts to use surveillance data to facilitate optimal HIV medical care illustrate how the ethical burdens may vary depending on the local context and the specifics of implementation. Health departments laid the foundation for these activities by engaging stakeholders to gain their trust in sharing sensitive information; establishing or strengthening legal, policy and governance infrastructure; and developing communication and follow-up protocols that protect privacy. Conclusions We describe a shift toward using HIV surveillance to facilitate optimal HIV care. Health departments should review the

  15. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  16. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  17. Low HIV testing among persons who inject drugs—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2012✩

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Laura A.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Spiller, Michael W.; Broz, Dita; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Persons who inject drugs (PWID) continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV. HIV testing is key to reducing HIV transmission by increasing awareness of HIV status and linking HIV-positive persons to care. Using data from PWID participating in CDC’s National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system, we examined prevalence of recent HIV testing among PWID by certain characteristics to guide interventions to increase HIV testing. Methods We analyzed NHBS data from PWID 18 years or older recruited via respondent-driven sampling in 20 US cities in 2012. We examined demographic and behavioral factors associated with recent HIV testing (within 12 months before interview) using a Poisson model to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs). Results Of 9555 PWID, 53% had recently tested for HIV. In multivariable analysis, HIV testing was more frequent among participants who visited a healthcare provider (aPR 1.50, P < 0.001), participated in alcohol or drug treatment (aPR 1.21, P < 0.001), or received an HIV prevention intervention (aPR 1.26, P < 0.001). HIV testing was also more frequent among participants who received free sterile syringes (aPR 1.12, P < 0.001). Discussion Only half of PWID participating in NHBS in 2012 reported recent HIV testing. HIV testing was more frequent among participants who accessed health and HIV prevention services. To increase HIV testing among PWID, it is important for providers in healthcare and HIV prevention settings to proactively assess risk factors for HIV, including injection drug use, and offer a wide range of appropriate interventions, such as HIV testing. PMID:27323649

  18. Comparison of demographic and behavioral characteristics of men who have sex with men by enrollment venue type in the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Voetsch, Andrew C; Lansky, Amy; Drake, Amy J; MacKellar, Duncan; Bingham, Trista A; Oster, Alexandra M; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2012-03-01

    During 2003-2005, the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) enrolled men who have sex with men (MSM) from 12 different venue types in 15 metropolitan areas in the United States. Our goal was to examine whether limiting NHBS enrollment venues to gay bars and dance clubs could increase efficiency without changing the overall results and conclusions. We used logistic regression analysis to compare the demographic characteristics and reported HIV risk behaviors among MSM enrolled in gay bars and dance clubs with those enrolled in sex venues and those enrolled in other venues. Of the 11,471 eligible men included in the analysis, 6419 (56%) were enrolled at bars and clubs, 481 (4%) at sex venues, and 4571 (40%) at other venues. Compared with men enrolled at bars and clubs, men enrolled at sex venues were more likely to be older, of nonwhite race/ethnicity, bisexual, infrequent gay venue attendees, and to have 10 or more male sex partners in the past 12 months. Men enrolled at other venues were more likely to be older and less likely to use noninjecting drugs in the past 12 months. The absolute differences in these characteristics between men enrolled in bars and clubs and those enrolled in comparison venue categories were small in most instances. Although the differences in characteristics by venue category were not large in magnitude, there was evidence that restricting NHBS enrollment to bars and clubs would affect national estimates of behavioral risk factors among MSM.

  19. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  20. HIV/AIDS-related mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites.

    PubMed

    Streatfield, P Kim; Khan, Wasif A; Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, Syed M A; Alam, Nurul; Millogo, Ourohiré; Sié, Ali; Zabré, Pascal; Rossier, Clementine; Soura, Abdramane B; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Kone, Siaka; Ngoran, Eliezer K; Utzinger, Juerg; Abera, Semaw F; Melaku, Yohannes A; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Gomez, Pierre; Jasseh, Momodou; Ansah, Patrick; Azongo, Daniel; Kondayire, Felix; Oduro, Abraham; Amu, Alberta; Gyapong, Margaret; Kwarteng, Odette; Kant, Shashi; Pandav, Chandrakant S; Rai, Sanjay K; Juvekar, Sanjay; Muralidharan, Veena; Wahab, Abdul; Wilopo, Siswanto; Bauni, Evasius; Mochamah, George; Ndila, Carolyne; Williams, Thomas N; Khagayi, Sammy; Laserson, Kayla F; Nyaguara, Amek; Van Eijk, Anna M; Ezeh, Alex; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Wamukoya, Marylene; Chihana, Menard; Crampin, Amelia; Price, Alison; Delaunay, Valérie; Diallo, Aldiouma; Douillot, Laetitia; Sokhna, Cheikh; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mee, Paul; Tollman, Stephen M; Herbst, Kobus; Mossong, Joël; Chuc, Nguyen T K; Arthur, Samuelina S; Sankoh, Osman A; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    As the HIV/AIDS pandemic has evolved over recent decades, Africa has been the most affected region, even though a large proportion of HIV/AIDS deaths have not been documented at the individual level. Systematic application of verbal autopsy (VA) methods in defined populations provides an opportunity to assess the mortality burden of the pandemic from individual data. To present standardised comparisons of HIV/AIDS-related mortality at sites across Africa and Asia, including closely related causes of death such as pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and pneumonia. Deaths related to HIV/AIDS were extracted from individual demographic and VA data from 22 INDEPTH sites across Africa and Asia. VA data were standardised to WHO 2012 standard causes of death assigned using the InterVA-4 model. Between-site comparisons of mortality rates were standardised using the INDEPTH 2013 standard population. The dataset covered a total of 10,773 deaths attributed to HIV/AIDS, observed over 12,204,043 person-years. HIV/AIDS-related mortality fractions and mortality rates varied widely across Africa and Asia, with highest burdens in eastern and southern Africa, and lowest burdens in Asia. There was evidence of rapidly declining rates at the sites with the heaviest burdens. HIV/AIDS mortality was also strongly related to PTB mortality. On a country basis, there were strong similarities between HIV/AIDS mortality rates at INDEPTH sites and those derived from modelled estimates. Measuring HIV/AIDS-related mortality continues to be a challenging issue, all the more so as anti-retroviral treatment programmes alleviate mortality risks. The congruence between these results and other estimates adds plausibility to both approaches. These data, covering some of the highest mortality observed during the pandemic, will be an important baseline for understanding the future decline of HIV/AIDS.

  1. HIV Surveillance and Epidemic Profile in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shawky, Sherine; Soliman, Cherif; Kassak, Kassem M.; Oraby, Doaa; El-Khoury, Danielle; Kabore, Inoussa

    2011-01-01

    Summary HIV infection is the most devastating infection that has emerged in the recent history. The risk of being infected can be associated with both individual’s knowledge and behavior and community vulnerability influenced by cultural norms, laws, politics, and social practices. Despite that the countries in the Middle East and North Africa have succeeded in keeping low the HIV epidemic rates, the number of identified infected cases are increasing. Since the appearance of the first AIDS cases, all the national authorities devoted their efforts to abort the epidemic in its early stages. The rate of new HIV infections across the Middle East and North Africa region are not at an alarming level, but the need for a concerted effort from nation-states and nongovernmental organizations to stem the spread of the virus across the region is vital. Most countries of the region have put in place better information systems to track the HIV epidemic, yet the passive HIV/AIDS reporting remains the cornerstone in the HIV surveillance systems. Several countries still believe that their current strategies are optimal to the HIV status within their territories and that their national strategies are appropriate to their low epidemic status that is not expected to grow. Additionally, these countries fear that establishing an HIV national program to survey risk behaviors may be perceived as an approval of these behaviors that are culturally and religiously unacceptable. This background article aims to summarize the HIV surveillance strategies and epidemic profile in 17 Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa. The article, also, displays the national surveillance system and the epidemic profile in Egypt and Lebanon as models for the region. This information aims to provide useful insights that may help the national authorities in finding out the best surveillance strategies that allow merging and collecting biological and risk data which is an integral part of their

  2. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  3. Linking HIV and antiretroviral drug resistance surveillance in Peru: a model for a third-generation HIV sentinel surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lama, Javier R; Sanchez, Jorge; Suarez, Luis; Caballero, Patricia; Laguna, Alberto; Sanchez, Jose L; Whittington, William L H; Celum, Connie; Grant, Robert M

    2006-08-01

    HIV drug resistance surveillance is limited by recruitment and selection bias and by limited information regarding HIV incidence rates, secondary resistance, and treatment prevalence. A second-generation HIV sentinel surveillance among men who have sex with men (MSM), regardless of prior history of HIV screening, serostatus, or treatment, was conducted in Peru in 2002. Recent HIV infection was estimated using sensitive/less sensitive enzyme immunoassay testing. Genotypic resistance testing was performed. HIV prevalence was 13.9% (456 HIV positive of 3280 participants). HIV incidence was estimated to be 5.1 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval: 3.1-8.3). Among 143 MSM who were aware of their HIV infection before testing, only 20 (14.0%) were receiving antiretrovirals (ARV). Mutations conferring ARV resistance were found in 12 (3.3%) of 359 treatment-naive and 5 (31.3%) of 16 treatment-experienced participants with successful genotyping. One recently infected man from Lima demonstrated 3-class multidrug resistance. The most frequently observed mutations in treatment-naive, chronically infected persons from Lima were M184V (1.7%), D30N (1.3%), L90M (1.3%), and L10I (1.3%). The prevalence of ARV resistance among treatment-naive MSM in Peru is low, reflecting limited access to treatment before 2004, and contrasts with the history of ARV treatment in developed countries, where high levels of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance occurred before introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Linking ARV resistance and HIV sentinel surveillance in developing settings is feasible and should be considered in third-generation HIV sentinel surveillance programs.

  4. Ten-year trends in HIV prevalence among visitors to public health centers under the National HIV Surveillance System in Korea, 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Korea saw a sharp increase in HIV diagnosis from 2000. This serious public health concern must be monitored diligently. We identified the characteristics and trends in HIV prevalence among visitors to public health centers (PHCs) from 2000 to 2009. Methods We retrieved ten-year data of HIV tests from 253 PHCs. The HIV prevalence was analyzed by gender, age, nationality, region, and reason for HIV testing. Data were analyzed using logistic regression and score test for trend. Results HIV prevalence among PHCs’ visitors has rapidly increased for six years since 2000, decreased from 2006, and then remained stable. Approximately 50% of total HIV tests were performed for sexually transmitted infection risk group (STI RG), who were tested 1.4 times within a year. Women and the 20s comprised approximately 70% and 40% of PHCs’ visitors, respectively. The prevalence of voluntary test takers was the highest and showed most rapid increase (P = 0.007), but that of prisoners declined (P = 0.003). The prevalence of STI RG was lower than those of the other groups and remained stable throughout the ten-year period (P = 0.606). Percentage of anonymous tests was 2–3% of a total HIV tests, but overall HIV-positive rate showed a rapid increase (P < 0.001). Conclusions As voluntary or anonymous testing groups are actively engaged in learning their status of HIV, these groups showed the highest in HIV infection. Groups in the population with these characteristics should be located and encouraged to be tested, and offered anonymity. This study suggests that it is important to ascertain the characteristics of people choosing to take voluntary testing. PMID:23020818

  5. [HIV and syphilis coinfection in pregnancy and vertical HIV transmission: a study based on epidemiological surveillance data].

    PubMed

    Acosta, Lisiane M W; Gonçalves, Tonantzin Ribeiro; Barcellos, Nêmora Tregnago

    2016-12-01

    To estimate the rate of HIV and syphilis coinfection among pregnant women living in Porto Alegre, Brazil, as well as the association of coinfection with vertical HIV transmission and socioeconomic variables. This analytical retrospective cross-sectional study employed data from the regular epidemiological surveillance system for the period from 2010 to 2013. Data were obtained regarding pregnant women with HIV and exposed children, syphilis in pregnancy, and congenital syphilis. The study population included 1 500 HIV-positive women with deliveries from 2010 to 2013. Of these, 155 (10.3%) were also infected with syphilis, corresponding to an HIV and syphilis coinfection rate of 10.2% (± 1.5%). The coinfected group had lower education levels, higher prevalence of black women, and greater HIV exposure related to drug use by the woman or a partner. Coinfected women had more delayed HIV diagnosis (for example, during childbirth) and greater prevalence of lacking prenatal care (44%). Crude analysis showed an association between vertical HIV transmission and HIV and syphilis co-infection (PR = 2.1; 95%CI: 1.21-3.74; P = 0.01) that persisted in the adjusted analysis. A profile of increased vulnerability was identified among pregnant women with HIV and syphilis coinfection. A positive impact of the treatment to reduce congenital syphilis and eliminate vertical transmission of HIV depends on enhanced access to qualified health care.

  6. HIV in gay and bisexual men in the United Kingdom: 25 years of public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Dougan, S; Evans, B G; Macdonald, N; Goldberg, D J; Gill, O N; Fenton, K A; Elford, J

    2008-02-01

    It is more than 25 years since the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom. In December 1981 a gay man was referred to a London hospital with opportunistic infections indicative of immunosuppression. National surveillance began the following year, in September 1982, with the notification of deaths and clinical reports of AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma plus laboratory reports of opportunistic infections. Since then epidemiological surveillance systems have evolved, adapting to, and taking advantage of advances in treatments and laboratory techniques. The introduction of the HIV antibody test in 1984 led to the reporting of HIV-positive tests by laboratories and the establishment of an unlinked anonymous survey in 1990 measuring undiagnosed HIV infection among gay men attending sexual health clinics. The widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) since 1996 has averted many deaths among HIV-positive gay men and has also resulted in a large reduction in AIDS cases. This led to a need for an enumeration of gay men with HIV accessing NHS treatment and care services (1995 onwards), more clinical information on HIV diagnoses for epidemiological surveillance (2000 onwards) and the routine monitoring of drug resistance (2001 onwards). Twenty-five years after the first case of AIDS was reported, gay and bisexual men remain the group at greatest risk of acquiring HIV in the United Kingdom. Latest estimates suggest that in 2004, 26 500 gay and bisexual men were living with HIV in the United Kingdom, a quarter of whom were undiagnosed. In this review, we examine how national surveillance systems have evolved over the past 25 years in response to the changing epidemiology of HIV/AIDS among gay and bisexual men in the United Kingdom as well as advances in laboratory techniques and medical treatments. We also reflect on how they will need to continue evolving to effectively inform health policy in the future.

  7. Spatio-temporal modelling of the HIV epidemic in Japan based on the national HIV/AIDS surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Tomoki; Nakase, Katsumi; Osaka, Ken

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, we develop a multiregion epidemic model in order to provide the basic information on local HIV epidemic states in Japan. By considering the previous efforts of national epidemic projections in Japan, we statistically calibrate a model by employing an estimation method that allows the inclusion of geographically varying parameters. Using this model, we present a geographical projection of local epidemics until 2015 by examining geographical variations in future epidemic growth and spatial relationships in HIV transmission. We also discuss the implications of planning preventive measures and improvement in the Japanese HIV/AIDS surveillance system based on analytical results.

  8. Adjusting HIV prevalence estimates for non-participation: an application to demographic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Mark E.; Marra, Giampiero; Radice, Rosalba; Canning, David; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-01-01

    participated in testing, and 18% estimated with imputation. We provide new confidence intervals that correct for the fact that the relationship between testing and HIV status is unknown and requires estimation. Conclusions We confirm the feasibility and value of adopting selection models to account for missing data in population-based HIV surveys and surveillance systems. Elements of survey design, such as interviewer identity, present the opportunity to adopt this approach in routine applications. Where non-participation is high, true confidence intervals are much wider than those generated by standard approaches to dealing with missing data suggest. PMID:26613900

  9. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 infection in Tamilnadu, India.

    PubMed

    Solomon, S; Anuradha, S; Ganapathy, M; Jagadeeswari

    1994-01-01

    The objective was to determine the time trends in the prevalence of HIV infection and to evaluate appropriate preventive intervention in different population groups. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 infection by anonymous unlinked technique was carried out in Tamilnadu from December 1989 to March 1993. The sentinel population monitored were attendees of STD clinics, blood donors and antenatal mothers. The results of HIV seropositivity were compared for each 6-month period. During the study period there was 10-fold rise of HIV seropositivity among STD patients (1% to 10%), 2-fold rise among antenatal attendees (0.37% to 0.76%), and 3-fold rise in blood donors (0.24% to 0.72%). There was a steady increase in the incidence of HIV infection among those with high risk behaviour (STD attendees) as well as in the general population. This information is of value in planning and evaluation of preventive and control programmes in India.

  10. HIV morbidity and mortality in Jamaica: analysis of national surveillance data, 1993–2005

    PubMed Central

    Losina, Elena; Figueroa, Peter; Duncan, Jacqueline; Divi, Nomita; Wolf, Lindsey L.; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.; Robertson, Minnette; Harvey, Kevin; Whorms, Sheldon; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Gebre, Yitades

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objectives Pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) HIV-related survival and timing of HIV identification have not been reported from the Caribbean. Using Jamaican national surveillance data, we estimated overall, AIDS-free, and AIDS survival, identified factors influencing HIV-related mortality, and examined factors associated with late HIV/AIDS identification. Methods The Jamaican HIV/AIDS tracking system (HATS) national surveillance data included timing of first positive HIV test, stage at identification, date of AIDS diagnosis, and death. We estimated overall and AIDS-free survival by initial stage, using a proportional hazard model to identify factors associated with worse survival, and logistic regression to examine factors related to later case identification. Results Of 10 674 reported HIV cases, 48% were asymptomatic, 14% symptomatic, and 38% first reported with AIDS. Five-year AIDS-free survival was 77% for asymptomatic persons and 63% for symptomatic. Median survival after AIDS diagnosis was 1.02 years. Age, number of opportunistic diseases, and initial stage were strongly associated with mortality. Older age, drug use, and sex with a commercial sex worker were associated with later identification. Conclusions In the pre-ART era, over one-third of HIV-infected persons in Jamaica were first identified with advanced disease. This highlights the need for earlier diagnosis as ART programs roll out in the Caribbean. PMID:17706448

  11. Assessment of an outreach street-based HIV rapid testing programme as a strategy to promote early diagnosis: a comparison with two surveillance systems in Spain, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Belza, M J; Hoyos, J; Fernández-Balbuena, S; Diaz, A; Bravo, M J; de la Fuente, L

    2015-04-09

    We assess the added value of a multisite, street-based HIV rapid testing programme by comparing its results to pre-existing services and assessing its potential to reduce ongoing transmission. Between 2008 and 2011, 8,923 individuals underwent testing. We compare outcomes with those of a network of 20 sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV clinics (EPI-VIH) and the Spanish National HIV Surveillance System (SNHSS); evaluate whether good visibility prompts testing and assess whether it reaches under-tested populations. 89.2% of the new infections were in men who have sex with men (MSM) vs 78.0% in EPI-VIH and 56.0% in SNHSS. 83.6% of the MSM were linked to care and 20.9% had <350 CD4 HIV prevalence was substantially lower than in EPI-VIH. 56.5% of the HIV-positive MSM tested because they happened to see the programme, 18.4% were previously untested and 26.3% had their last test ≥2 years ago. The programme provided linkage to care and early diagnosis mainly to MSM but attendees presented a lower HIV prevalence than EPI-VIH. From a cost perspective it would benefit from being implemented in locations highly frequented by MSM. Conversely, its good visibility led to reduced periods of undiagnosed infection in a high proportion of MSM who were not testing with the recommended frequency.

  12. Monitoring the levels and trends of HIV infection: the Public Health Service's HIV surveillance program.

    PubMed Central

    Dondero, T J; Pappaioanou, M; Curran, J W

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive, multifaceted approach to HIV surveillance is needed to provide the information necessary for public health management and policy. Because HIV infection is not readily or uniformly ascertained, survey methods and sentinel surveillance approaches must be used. At least some of the surveys must be blinded, that is, anonymous and unlinked to identifiable persons, to avoid the uninterpretable impact of self-selection bias that could lead to both significant underestimates and occasional overestimates of HIV prevalence. Other surveys must be nonblinded, with careful interviews of volunteer participants to evaluate risk factors for HIV infection. These various surveys must continue over time to evaluate trends in infection. A comprehensive family of complementary HIV surveys and studies and a national household-based HIV seroprevalence survey have been undertaken by the Public Health Service in collaboration with other Federal agencies, State and local health departments, blood collection agencies, and medical research institutions. These projects focus on accessible segments of the general population, childbearing women, persons at high risk for HIV, and persons in special settings such as prisons and colleges. This comprehensive surveillance approach will help monitor the levels and trends of HIV infection in the United States and help prioritize, target, and evaluate HIV prevention activities. PMID:3131809

  13. Veterinary hospital surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Brandy A; Morley, Paul S

    2015-03-01

    We cannot manage what we do not measure. In order to provide optimal patient care appropriate effort must be given to the prevention of infectious disease transmission through the development and maintenance of an infection control program that is founded on results obtained through organized surveillance efforts. Every facility is unique - thus efforts should be tailored to distinctive physical attributes and organizational limitations of individual practices. There is not only an ethical responsibility to do so, but there is a legal responsibility to meet the minimum standard of practice with respect to veterinary infection prevention and control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. SETI radio spectrum surveillance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, B.; Lokshin, A.; Marina, M.; Ching, L.

    1985-01-01

    The SETI Radio Spectrum Surveillance System (SRSSS) will provide a data base for assessing the radio frequency interference (RFI) environment for SETI and minimizing RFI disruptions during the search. The system's hardware and software are described and the sensitivity of the system is discussed.

  15. Shifting Patterns of the HIV Epidemic in Southwest China: A Case Study Based on Sentinel Surveillance, 1995-2012.

    PubMed

    Chow, Eric P F; Gao, Liangmin; Chen, Liang; Jing, Jun; Zhang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    The HIV epidemic is experiencing a rapid shift in transmission profile in China. This study aims to examine the changes in magnitude, transmission pattern, and trend of the HIV epidemic in a typical Southwest Chinese prefecture over the period of 1995-2012. HIV surveillance data from the web-based reporting system were analyzed during this period. We investigated the temporal trends in the changing characteristics of HIV transmission, the HIV disease burden in key affected populations, and assessed the impacts on HIV disease progression due to scale-up of antiretroviral treatment. A total of 3556 HIV/AIDS cases were reported in Yuxi prefecture, Yunnan, over the study period. The number of HIV tests conducted has dramatically increased from 1041 in 1995 to 247,859 in 2012, resulting in a substantial increase in HIV diagnoses from 11 cases to 327 cases over the same period. Since 2005, cumulatively 1250 eligible people living with HIV (PLHIV) have received combination antiretroviral therapy which reduced AIDS disease progression from 9.0% (95% CI: 6.7-11.4%) in 1995 to 0.1% (0-0.3%) in 2012 (ptrend=0.0002). The primary mode of HIV transmission has been shifted from injection sharing (71.9% diagnoses in 1995-2004) to unsafe sexual contacts (82.6% diagnoses in 2012). Yuxi prefecture is experiencing a concentrated but shifting HIV epidemic. Scale-up of HIV testing is essential to effective sentinel surveillance and enhancing early diagnosis and treatment in PLHIV.

  16. Estimating HIV Incidence, Time to Diagnosis, and the Undiagnosed HIV Epidemic Using Routine Surveillance Data.

    PubMed

    van Sighem, Ard; Nakagawa, Fumiyo; De Angelis, Daniela; Quinten, Chantal; Bezemer, Daniela; de Coul, Eline Op; Egger, Matthias; de Wolf, Frank; Fraser, Christophe; Phillips, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Estimates of the size of the undiagnosed HIV-infected population are important to understand the HIV epidemic and to plan interventions, including "test-and-treat" strategies. We developed a multi-state back-calculation model to estimate HIV incidence, time between infection and diagnosis, and the undiagnosed population by CD4 count strata, using surveillance data on new HIV and AIDS diagnoses. The HIV incidence curve was modelled using cubic splines. The model was tested on simulated data and applied to surveillance data on men who have sex with men in The Netherlands. The number of HIV infections could be estimated accurately using simulated data, with most values within the 95% confidence intervals of model predictions. When applying the model to Dutch surveillance data, 15,400 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 15,000, 16,000) men who have sex with men were estimated to have been infected between 1980 and 2011. HIV incidence showed a bimodal distribution, with peaks around 1985 and 2005 and a decline in recent years. Mean time to diagnosis was 6.1 (95% CI = 5.8, 6.4) years between 1984 and 1995 and decreased to 2.6 (2.3, 3.0) years in 2011. By the end of 2011, 11,500 (11,000, 12,000) men who have sex with men in The Netherlands were estimated to be living with HIV, of whom 1,750 (1,450, 2,200) were still undiagnosed. Of the undiagnosed men who have sex with men, 29% (22, 37) were infected for less than 1 year, and 16% (13, 20) for more than 5 years. This multi-state back-calculation model will be useful to estimate HIV incidence, time to diagnosis, and the undiagnosed HIV epidemic based on routine surveillance data.

  17. Air pollution surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Morgan, G B; Ozolins, G; Tabor, E C

    1970-10-16

    Atmospheric surveillance is necessary in order to identify airborne pollutants, to establish ambient concentrations of these pollutants, and to record their trends and patterns. Air pollutants may occur in the form of gases, liquids, and solids, both singly and in combination. Gaseous pollutants make up about 90 percent of the total mass emitted to the atmosphere with particulates and aerosols accounting for the remaining 10 percent. Small particulates are of particular importance because they may be in the respirable size range. These small particles may contain biologically active elements and compounds. Furthermore, they tend to remain in the atmosphere where they interfere with both solar and terrestrial infrared radiation, which may affect climate on a global basis.

  18. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  19. Estimating the cost to U.S. health departments to conduct HIV surveillance.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Ram K; Sansom, Stephanie L; Laffoon, Benjamin T; Farnham, Paul G; Shouse, R Luke; MacMaster, Karen; Hall, H Irene

    2014-01-01

    HIV case surveillance is a primary source of information for monitoring HIV burden in the United States and guiding the allocation of prevention and treatment funds. While the number of people living with HIV and the need for surveillance data have increased, little is known about the cost of surveillance. We estimated the economic cost to health departments of conducting high-quality HIV case surveillance. We collected primary data on the unit cost and quantity of resources used to operate the HIV case surveillance program in Michigan, where HIV burden (i.e., the number of HIV cases) is moderate to high (n=14,864 cases). Based on Michigan's data, we projected the expected annual HIV surveillance cost for U.S., state, local, and territorial health departments. We based our cost projection on the variation in the number of new and established cases, area-specific wages, and potential economies of scale. We estimated the annual total HIV surveillance cost to the Michigan health department to be $1,286,524 ($87/case), the annual total cost of new cases to be $108,657 ($133/case), and the annual total cost of established cases to be $1,177,867 ($84/case). Our projected median annual HIV surveillance cost per health department ranged from $210,600 in low-HIV burden sites to $1,835,000 in high-HIV burden sites. Our analysis shows that a systematic approach to costing HIV surveillance at the health department level is feasible. For HIV surveillance, a substantial portion of total surveillance costs is attributable to maintaining established cases.

  20. Air-traffic surveillance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    Passive ground-based radio-interferometry systems (RILS) monitor local air traffic by determining aircraft position in planes defined by surveillance area. Similar RILS arrangements are used to determine aircraft positions in three dimensions when combined with azimuth and range information obtained by radar. Information helps determine three-dimensional aircraft position without expensive encoding altimeters.

  1. HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh: a national surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Manirul; Mitra, Amal K; Mian, Anwarul Huq; Vermund, Sten H

    2009-01-01

    Summary Nationwide surveillance of HIV/AIDS from 1989 through 1996 in Bangladesh included several risk groups such as professional blood donors, patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), pregnant women at antenatal clinics, commercial sex workers (CSWs), patients with tuberculosis, long-distance truck drivers, sailors, and non-residents. The population was enrolled by convenience sampling after taking informed consent. Among 70,676 persons tested, 80 (1.13 per 1000) were HIV positive. The prevalence rate was steady until 1994, and then increased rapidly. The rate among male heterosexuals was significantly higher than that in females (3.40 per 1000 versus 0.29 per 1000; odds ratio (OR) 11.60; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 6.45 to 21.16; P<0.0001). Twelve per cent of patients with STDs had HIV. The HIV cases concentrated in 2 districts, Sylhet (25/72) and Chittagong (20/72), that border India and Myanmar (formerly Burma), respectively. Frequent movement of people of Bangladesh to India, Pakistan, Myanmar and Thailand, where HIV rates are higher, is one of the possible sources of spread of the cases. Bangladesh has the potential to avert epidemic spread of HIV at its early stage. PMID:10454184

  2. The social dynamics of consent and refusal in HIV surveillance in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Lindsey; Cousins, Thomas; Newell, Marie-Louise; Imrie, John

    2013-01-01

    In the context of low rates of participation in a prospective, population-based HIV surveillance programme, researchers at a surveillance site in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, conducted an operational study from January 2009 to February 2010, with the aim of improving participation rates, particularly in the provision of dried blood spots for the surveillance. Findings suggest, firstly, that consent to participation in the HIV surveillance is informed by the dynamics of relationality in the HIV surveillance “consent encounter.” Secondly, it emerged that both fieldworkers and participants found it difficult to differentiate between HIV surveillance and HIV testing in the surveillance procedure, and tended to understand and explain giving blood under the aegis of the surveillance as an HIV test. The conflation of surveillance and testing, we argue, is not merely a semantic confusion, but reveals an important tension inherent to global health research between individual risks and benefits and collective good, or between private morality and public good. Because of these structural tensions, we suggest, the HIV surveillance consent encounter activates multiple gift economies in the collection of blood samples. Thinking beyond the complex ethical dimensions provoked by new forms of long-term surveillance and health research, we therefore suggest that deepening relations between scientists, fieldworkers, and study participants in locality deserve more careful methodological consideration and descriptive attention. PMID:23219165

  3. Relationship between a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded HIV testing initiative and past-year testing by race/ethnicity: a multilevel analysis of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Tommi L; Caldwell, Julia T; Ford, Chandra L; Mulatu, Mesfin S; Godette, Dionne C

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) expanded testing initiative (ETI) aims to bolster HIV testing among populations disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic by providing additional funding to health departments serving these communities. ETI prioritizes testing in clinical settings; therefore, we examined the relationship between state-level ETI participation and past-year HIV testing among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adult respondents to the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System who accessed health services within the 12 months prior to being interviewed. Controlling for individual- and state-level characteristics in a multilevel logistic regression model, ETI participation was independently and positively associated with past-year testing, but this association varied by race/ethnicity. Hispanics had higher odds (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.11-2.02) and American Indian/Alaska Natives had lower odds (AOR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.43-0.99) of testing if they resided in states with (vs. without) ETI participation. State-level ETI participation did not significantly alter past-year testing among other racial/ethnic groups. Prioritizing public health resources in states most affected by HIV can improve testing patterns, but other mechanisms likely influence which racial/ethnic groups undergo testing.

  4. Industrial Process Surveillance System

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    2001-01-30

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  5. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    1998-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  6. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

    1998-06-09

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

  7. Advanced space system for geostationary orbit surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, N. N.; Nazarov, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The structure and orbital configuration of the advanced space system for geostationary orbit surveillance, as well as possible approaches to the development of the satellite bus and payload for the geostationary orbit surveillance, are considered.

  8. Using Molecular HIV Surveillance Data to Understand Transmission between Subpopulations in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Alexandra M.; Wertheim, Joel O.; Hernandez, Angela L.; Ocfemia, M. Cheryl Bañez; Saduvala, Neeraja; Hall, H. Irene

    2016-01-01

    Background Studying HIV transmission networks provides insight into the spread of HIV and opportunities for intervention. We identified transmission dynamics among risk groups and racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Methods For HIV-1 pol sequences reported to the U.S. National HIV Surveillance System during 2001–2012, we calculated pairwise genetic distance, identified linked pairs of sequences (those with distance ≤1.5%), and examined transmission category and race/ethnicity of these potential transmission partners. Results Of 40,950 sequences, 12,910 (32%) linked to ≥1 other sequence. Of men who have sex with men (MSM) who linked to ≥1 sequence, 88% were linked to other MSM and only 4% were linked to heterosexual women. Of heterosexual women for whom we identified potential transmission partners, 29% linked to MSM, 21% to heterosexual men, and 12% to persons who inject drugs. Older and black MSM were more likely to be linked to heterosexual women. Assortative mixing was present for all racial/ethnic groups; 81% of blacks/African Americans linked to other blacks. Conclusions This analysis is the first use of U.S. surveillance data to infer an HIV transmission network. Our data suggest that HIV infections among heterosexual women predominantly originate from MSM, followed by heterosexual men. Although few MSM were linked to women, suggesting that a minority of MSM are involved in transmission with heterosexual women, these transmissions represent a substantial proportion of HIV acquisitions by heterosexual women. Interventions that reduce transmissions involving MSM are likely to also reduce HIV acquisition among other risk groups. PMID:26302431

  9. HIV incidence estimate combining HIV/AIDS surveillance, testing history information and HIV test to identify recent infections in Lazio, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The application of serological methods in HIV/AIDS routine surveillance systems to identify persons with recently acquired HIV infection has been proposed as a tool which may provide an accurate description of the current transmission patterns of HIV. Using the information about recent infection it is possible to estimate HIV incidence, according to the model proposed by Karon et al. in 2008, that accounts for the effect of testing practices on the number of persons detected as recently infected. Methods We used data from HIV/AIDS surveillance in the period 2004-2008 to identify newly diagnosed persons. These were classified with recent/non-recent infection on the basis of an avidity index result, or laboratory evidence of recently acquired infection (i.e., previous documented negative HIV test within 6 months; or presence of HIV RNA or p24 antigen with simultaneous negative/indeterminate HIV antibody test). Multiple imputation was used to impute missing information. The incidence estimate was obtained as the number of persons detected as recently infected divided by the estimated probability of detection. Estimates were stratified by calendar year, transmission category, gender and nationality. Results During the period considered 3,633 new HIV diagnoses were reported to the regional surveillance system. Applying the model, we estimated that in 2004-2008 there were 5,465 new infections (95%CI: 4,538-6,461); stratifying by transmission category, the estimated number of infections was 2,599 among heterosexual contacts, 2,208 among men-who-have-sex-with-men, and 763 among injecting-drug-users. In 2008 there were 952 (625-1,229) new HIV infections (incidence of 19.9 per 100,000 person-years). In 2008, for men-who-have-sex-with-men (691 per 100,000 person-years) and injecting drug users (577 per 100,000 person-years) the incidence remained comparatively high with respect to the general population, although a decreasing pattern during 2004-2008 was observed

  10. Perinatal HIV Exposure Surveillance and Reporting in the United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Brady, Kathleen A; Storm, Deborah S; Naghdi, Azita; Frederick, Toni; Fridge, Jessica; Hoyt, Mary Jo

    We sought to describe the current status of perinatal HIV exposure surveillance (PHES) activities and regulations in the United States and to make recommendations to strengthen PHES. In 2014, we sent an online survey to health departments in the 50 states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and 6 cities and counties (Chicago, Illinois; Houston, Texas; Los Angeles, California; New York, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and San Francisco, California). We analyzed responses from 56 of the 59 (95%) jurisdictions. Thirty-three of 56 jurisdictions (59%) reported conducting PHES and following infants to determine their infection status. Of the 33 jurisdictions performing PHES, 28 (85%) linked maternal and infant data, but only 12 (36%) determined the HIV care status of postpartum women. Themes of respondents' recommendations for strengthening PHES centered on updating laws and regulations to support PHES, reporting all HIV test results and linking vital records with PHES data to identify and follow HIV-exposed infants, communicating with health care providers to improve reporting, training staff, and getting help from experienced jurisdictions to implement PHES. Our findings indicate that data on perinatal exposure collected through the current system are inadequate to comprehensively monitor and prevent perinatal HIV exposure and transmission. Comprehensive PHES data collection and reporting are needed to sustain the progress that has been made toward lowering perinatal HIV transmission rates. We propose that minimum standards be established for perinatal HIV exposure reporting to improve the completeness, quality, and efficiency of PHES in the United States.

  11. Trends in web-based HIV behavioural surveillance among gay and bisexual men in New Zealand: complementing location-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Peter J W; Dickson, Nigel P; Hughes, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Most HIV behavioural surveillance programmes for gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) sample from location-based (offline) or web-based (online) populations, but few combine these two streams. MSM sampled online have been found to differ demographically and behaviourally from those sampled offline, meaning trends identified in one system may not hold for the other. The aim was to examine trends among MSM responding to supplementary repeat online behavioural surveillance surveys who had not participated in offline surveillance earlier that year in the same city, to see whether trends were parallel, converged or diverged. We recruited a total of 1613 MSM from an Internet dating site in Auckland, New Zealand in 2006, 2008 and 2011 using identical questionnaires and eligibility criteria to offline surveillance. Condom use was stable over time, HIV testing rates rose, the proportion reporting over 20 recent male partners declined, and anal intercourse rates increased, consistent with trends in offline surveillance conducted concomitantly and reported elsewhere. Variant trends included greater stability in condom use with casual partners among online-recruited MSM, and a rise in regular fuckbuddy partnering not identified among offline-recruited MSM. Among MSM recruited online, the frequency of checking Internet dating profiles increased between 2008 and 2011. In conclusion, supplementary web-based behavioural surveillance among MSM generally corroborates trends identified in offline surveillance. There are however some divergent trends, that would have been overlooked if only one form of surveillance had been conducted. As MSM populations increasingly shift their socialising patterns online and diversify, multiple forms of HIV behavioural monitoring may be required.

  12. Strengthening HIV surveillance: measurements to track the epidemic in real time.

    PubMed

    Buthelezi, Usangiphile E; Davidson, Candace L; Kharsany, Ayesha Bm

    2016-07-01

    Surveillance for HIV as a public health initiative requires timely, detailed and robust data to systematically understand burden of infection, transmission patterns, direct prevention efforts, guide funding, identify new infections and predict future trends in the epidemic. The methods for HIV surveillance have evolved to reliably track the epidemic and identify new infections in real time. Initially HIV surveillance relied primarily on the reporting of AIDS cases followed by measuring antibodies to HIV to determine prevalence in key populations. With the roll-out of antiretroviral therapy (ART) resulting in better survival and the corresponding increase in HIV prevalence, the landscape of surveillance shifted further to track HIV prevalence and incidence within the context of programmes. Recent developments in laboratory assays that potentially measure and differentiate recent versus established HIV infection offer a cost-effective method for the rapid estimation of HIV incidence. These tests continue to be validated and are increasingly useful in informing the status of the epidemic in real time. Surveillance of heterogeneity of infections contributing to sub-epidemics requires methods to identify affected populations, density, key geographical locations and phylogenetically linked or clustered infections. Such methods could provide a nuanced understanding of the epidemic and prioritise prevention efforts to those most vulnerable. This paper brings together recent developments and challenges facing HIV surveillance, together with the application of newer assays and methods to fast-track the HIV prevention and treatment response.

  13. Can remote STI/HIV testing and eClinical Care be compatible with robust public health surveillance?

    PubMed Central

    Harding-Esch, Emma; Nardone, Anthony; Gibbs, Jo; Sutcliffe, Lorna; Sonnenberg, Pam; Estcourt, Claudia; Hughes, Gwenda; Mohammed, Hamish; Gill, Noel; Sadiq, S Tariq; Lowndes, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we outline the current data capture systems for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) surveillance used by Public Health England (PHE), and how these will be affected by the introduction of novel testing platforms and changing patient pathways. We outline the Chlamydia Online Clinical Care Pathway (COCCP), developed as part of the Electronic Self-Testing for Sexually Transmitted Infections (eSTI2) Consortium, which ensures that surveillance data continue to be routinely collected and transmitted to PHE. We conclude that both novel diagnostic testing platforms and established data capture systems must be adaptable to ensure continued robust public health surveillance. PMID:26742547

  14. [Circulatory disease surveillance system in Korea].

    PubMed

    Chun, Byung-Yeol

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of establishing the circulatory disease surveillance system in Korea is to ensure that the problems of circulatory disease importance are being monitored efficiently and effectively. The goals of circulatory disease surveillance system are to monitor the epidemiological trends of circulatory disease and to evaluate the outcome of health activity for controlling circulatory diseases. Surveillance system are being updated to achieve the needs for the integration of the surveillance and information system, the establishment of data standards, the electronic exchange of data, and changes in the goals of circulatory disease surveillance system to facilitate the response of this system to manage the national health problem effectively. This article provides the target diseases and determinant indicators to be monitored, structure of circulatory disease surveillance system, and many tasks and related activities that should be applied to this system.

  15. Who is omitted from repeated offline HIV behavioural surveillance among MSM? Implications for interpreting trends.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Peter; Dickson, Nigel; Hughes, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    Repeated behavioural surveillance should sample all epidemiologically relevant subgroups to provide a complete picture of trends in HIV risk behaviours. Web-based recruitment has been mooted but little empirical data exist on country experiences. We describe who is omitted from three rounds of a conventional offline-only surveillance programme among men who have sex with men (MSM) 2006-2011, but recruited subsequently on Internet dating sites, and the implications of this for understanding trends. The latter were younger, less gay identified and less gay community attached. Importantly, they reported different partnering patterns, lower condom use with casual and fuckbuddy-type male partners, and lower rates of HIV testing, compared to MSM routinely captured in offline surveillance. The replacement of offline socio-sexual activity by the Internet among many MSM means that current venue-based surveillance systems may underestimate risk behaviours, overlook trends among unsampled online MSM, and misinterpret trends observed in sampled MSM due to "sample drift" of most-at-risk MSM.

  16. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Kombewa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kombewa HDSS)

    PubMed Central

    Sifuna, Peter; Oyugi, Mary; Ogutu, Bernhards; Andagalu, Ben; Otieno, Allan; Owira, Victorine; Otsyula, Nekoye; Oyieko, Janet; Cowden, Jessica; Otieno, Lucas; Otieno, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The Kombewa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) grew out of the Kombewa Clinical Research Centre in 2007 and has since established itself as a platform for the conduct of regulated clinical trials, nested studies and local disease surveillance. The HDSS is located in a rural part of Kisumu County, Western Kenya, and covers an area of about 369 km2 along the north-eastern shores of Lake Victoria. A dynamic cohort of 141 956 individuals drawn from 34 718 households forms the HDSS surveillance population. Following a baseline survey in 2011, the HDSS continues to monitor key population changes through routine biannual household surveys. The intervening period between set-up and baseline census was used for preparatory work, in particular Global Positioning System (GPS) mapping. Routine surveys capture information on individual and households including residency, household relationships, births, deaths, migrations (in and out) and causes of morbidity (syndromic incidence and prevalence) as well as causes of death (verbal autopsy). The Kombewa HDSS platform is used to support health research activities, that is clinical trials and epidemiological studies evaluating diseases of public health importance including malaria, HIV and global emerging infectious diseases such as dengue fever. Formal data request and proposed collaborations can be submitted at Kombewadssdata@usamru-k.org. PMID:25009309

  17. Battlefield Optical Surveillance System (BOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Robert J.

    1997-02-01

    The battlefield optical surveillance system (BOSS) was developed for DARPA by the U.S. Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. BOSS is a HMMWV mounted laser surveillance and deterrence system. It is intended to be used to detect and to deter potentially hostile individuals, snipers and groups of agitators. The BOSS integrates the following: (1) a thermal camera (8-12 micrometer FLIR), that detects and cues to possible targets, (2) a 45 watt, 808 nm (near IR), air- cooled laser which provides covert illumination and designation for a day/night camera to acquire said target and attain a high-resolution image using night vision equipment, and (3) a 1 watt, 532 nm (green) laser that overtly illuminates and designates the target. It also has significant deterring effects both physiological and psychological on individuals and crowds. BOSS offers the potential capability to detect snipers before the first shot is fired. Detection of optical augmentations and the thermal characteristics of a sniper allows for this early detection. The integration of BOSS with acoustic sniper detection systems are being explored.

  18. Smart HIV testing system.

    PubMed

    El Kateeb, Ali; Law, Peter; Chan, King

    2005-06-01

    The quick HIV testing method called "MiraWell Rapid HIV Test" uses a specialized testing kit to determine whether an individual's blood is contaminated with the HIV virus or not. When a drop of blood is placed on the center of the testing kit, a simple pattern will appear in the middle of the kit to indicate the test status, i.e., positive or negative. This HIV test should be done in a small clinic or in a lab and the test must be conducted by a trained technician. A smart HIV testing system was developed through this research to eliminate the human error that is associated with the use of the quick HIV testing kits. Also, the smart HIV system will improve the testing productivity in comparison to those achieved by the trained technicians. In this research, we have developed a cost-effective system that analyzes the image produced by the HIV kits. We have used a System-On-Chip (SOC) design approach based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology and the Xilinx Virtex SOC chip in building the system's prototype. The system used a CMOS digital camera to capture the image and an FPGA chip to process the captured image and send the testing results to the display unit. The system can be used in small clinics and pharmacies and eliminates the need for trained technicians. The system has been tested successfully and 98% of the tests were correct.

  19. Routine data from prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) HIV testing not yet ready for HIV surveillance in Mozambique: a retrospective analysis of matched test results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Opt-out HIV testing is offered at 70% of antenatal care (ANC) clinics in Mozambique through the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) program. If routine data from this program were of sufficient quality, their heightened coverage and continuous availability could complement or even replace biannual sentinel serosurveys that currently serve as the primary HIV surveillance system in Mozambique. Methods We assessed the efficacy of routine HIV testing data from prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs for estimating the prevalence of HIV infection among pregnant women. The PMTCT program uses sequential point-of-care rapid tests conducted on site while ANC surveillance surveys use dried blood spots tested sequentially for HIV-1/2 antibodies at a central laboratory. We compared matched routine PMTCT and ANC surveillance test results collected during 2007 and 2009 ANC surveillance surveys from 36 sentinel sites. Results After excluding 659 women without PMTCT data, including 83 who refused rapid testing, test results from a total of 20,563 women were available. Pooling the data from both years indicated HIV prevalence from routine PMTCT testing was 14.4% versus 15.2% from surveillance testing (relative difference -5.1%; absolute difference -0.78%). Positive percent agreement (PPA) of PMTCT versus surveillance tests was 88.5% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 85.7-91.3%), with 19 sites having PPA below 90%; Negative percent agreement (NPA) was 98.9% (CI: 98.5-99.2%). No significant difference was found among three regions (North, Center and South), however both PPA and NPA were significantly higher in 2009 than 2007 (p < 0.05). Conclusions We found low PPA of PMTCT test results compared to surveillance data which is indicative either of testing errors or data reporting problems. Nonetheless, PPA improved significantly from 2007 to 2009, a possible positive trend that should be investigated further. Although use of PMTCT test results

  20. Completeness of hepatitis, brucellosis, syphilis, measles and HIV/AIDS surveillance in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Durusoy, Raika; Karababa, Ali O

    2010-02-17

    According to the surveillance system in Turkey, most diseases are notified only by clinicians, without involving laboratory notification. It is assumed that a considerable inadequacy in notifications exists; however, this has not been quantified by any researcher. Our aim was to evaluate the completeness of communicable disease surveillance in the province of Izmir, Turkey for the year of 2003 by means of estimating the incidences of diseases. Data on positive laboratory results for the notifiable and serologically detectable diseases hepatitis A, B, C, brucellosis, syphilis, measles and HIV detected in 2003 in Izmir (population 3.5 million) were collected from serology laboratories according to WHO surveillance standards and compared to the notifications received by the Provincial Health Directorate. Data were checked for duplicates and matched. Incidences were estimated with the capture-recapture method. Sensitivities of both notifications and laboratory data were calculated according to these estimates. Among laboratories performing serologic tests (n = 158) in Izmir, 84.2% accepted to participate, from which 23,515 positive results were collected. Following the elimination of duplicate results as well as of cases residing outside of Izmir, the total number was 11,402. The total number of notifications was 1802. Notification rates of cases found in laboratories were 31.6% for hepatitis A, 12.1% for acute hepatitis B, 31.8% for brucellosis, 25.9% for syphilis and 100% for HIV confirmation. It was discovered that for hepatitis A, B, C, brucellosis and syphilis, there is a considerable under-notification by clinicians and that laboratory data has the potential of contributing greatly to their surveillance. The inclusion of laboratories in the surveillance system of these diseases could help to achieve completeness of reporting.

  1. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS)

    PubMed Central

    Kishamawe, Coleman; Isingo, Raphael; Mtenga, Baltazar; Zaba, Basia; Todd, Jim; Clark, Benjamin; Changalucha, John; Urassa, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS) is part of Kisesa OpenCohort HIV Study located in a rural area of North-Western Tanzania. Since its establishment in 1994, information on pregnancies, births, marriages, migrations and deaths have been monitored and updated between one and three times a year by trained fieldworkers. Other research activities implemented in the cohort include: sero surveys which have been conducted every 2–3 years to collect socioeconomic data, HIV sero status and health knowledge attitude and behaviour in adults aged 15 years or more living in the area; verbal autopsy (VA) interviews conducted to establish cause of death in all deaths encountered in the area; Llnking data collected at health facilities to community-based data; monitoring voluntary counselling and testing (VCT); and assessing uptake of antiretroviral treatment (ART). In addition, within the community, qualitative studies have been conducted to address issues linked to HIV stigma, the perception of ART access and adherence. In 2014, the population was over 35 000 individuals. Magu HDSS has contributed to Tanzanian estimates of fertility and mortality, and is a member of the INDEPTH network. Demographic data for Magu HDSS are available via the INDEPTH Network’s Sharing and Accessing Repository (iSHARE) and applications to access HDSS data for collaborative analysis are encouraged. PMID:26403815

  2. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS).

    PubMed

    Kishamawe, Coleman; Isingo, Raphael; Mtenga, Baltazar; Zaba, Basia; Todd, Jim; Clark, Benjamin; Changalucha, John; Urassa, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS) is part of Kisesa OpenCohort HIV Study located in a rural area of North-Western Tanzania. Since its establishment in 1994, information on pregnancies, births, marriages, migrations and deaths have been monitored and updated between one and three times a year by trained fieldworkers. Other research activities implemented in the cohort include: sero surveys which have been conducted every 2-3 years to collect socioeconomic data, HIV sero status and health knowledge attitude and behaviour in adults aged 15 years or more living in the area; verbal autopsy (VA) interviews conducted to establish cause of death in all deaths encountered in the area; Llnking data collected at health facilities to community-based data; monitoring voluntary counselling and testing (VCT); and assessing uptake of antiretroviral treatment (ART). In addition, within the community, qualitative studies have been conducted to address issues linked to HIV stigma, the perception of ART access and adherence.In 2014, the population was over 35 000 individuals. Magu HDSS has contributed to Tanzanian estimates of fertility and mortality, and is a member of the INDEPTH network. Demographic data for Magu HDSS are available via the INDEPTH Network's Sharing and Accessing Repository (iSHARE) and applications to access HDSS data for collaborative analysis are encouraged.

  3. Community perspectives on HIV, violence and health surveillance in rural South Africa: a participatory pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hullur, Nitya; D'Ambruoso, Lucia; Edin, Kerstin; Wagner, Ryan G; Ngobeni, Sizzy; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Byass, Peter

    2016-06-01

    South Africa faces a complex burden of disease consisting of infectious and non-communicable conditions, injury and interpersonal violence, and maternal and child mortality. Inequalities in income and opportunity push disease burdens towards vulnerable populations, a situation to which the health system struggles to respond. There is an urgent need for health planning to account for the needs of marginalized groups in this context. The study objectives were to develop a process to elicit the perspectives of local communities in the established Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural north-east South Africa on two leading causes of death: HIV/AIDS and violent assault, and on health surveillance as a means to generate information on health in the locality. Drawing on community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods, three village-based groups of eight participants were convened, with whom a series of discussions were held to identify and define the causes of, treatments for, and problems surrounding, deaths due to HIV/AIDS and violent assault. The surveillance system was also discussed and recommendations generated. The discussion narratives were the main data source, examined using framework analysis. The groups identified a range of social and health systems issues including risky sexual health behaviors, entrenched traditional practices, alcohol and substance abuse, unstable relationships, and debt as causative. Participants also explained how compromised patient confidentiality in clinics, insensitive staff, and a biased judicial system were problematic for the treatment and reporting of both conditions. Views on health surveillance were positive. Recommendations to strengthen an already well-functioning system related to maintaining confidentiality and sensitivity, and extending ancillary care obligations. The discussions provided information not available from other sources on the social and health systems processes through

  4. Audits and surveillance: A functional quality surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, R.J.; Duda, J.E.

    1987-03-01

    The implementation of a quality surveillance program can be painless and productive. The system described in this report has been in use at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) for more than a year and effectively fills the void between audits and inspections. Recognized benefits of this system include: minimum administrative overhead; excellent management overview; ease of implementing trending efforts; audit supplement; fully computerization; lower cost than traditional methods; early problem detection, adaptability to other projects and facilities.

  5. Comparison of adult HIV prevalence from national population-based surveys and antenatal clinic surveillance in countries with generalised epidemics: implications for calibrating surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    Gouws, E; Mishra, V; Fowler, T B

    2008-01-01

    Background: Estimates of the impact of HIV in countries with generalised epidemics are generally based on antenatal clinic surveillance data collected over time. In an attempt to obtain geographically more representative estimates of HIV prevalence, many countries are now also conducting national population-based surveys in which HIV testing is included. We compare adult HIV prevalence estimates from antenatal clinic surveillance to those from national population-based surveys to assess the implications for calibrating surveillance data. Methods: HIV prevalence estimates derived from fitting prevalence curves to antenatal clinic surveillance data are statistically compared to prevalence from national population-based surveys using data from 26 countries with generalised epidemics for the year in which the survey was conducted. Appropriate transformations are applied to inform the correction factors needed to adjust prevalence in countries where population-based surveys have not been conducted. Results: HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data generally overestimate population-based survey prevalence by about 20% (95% confidence interval: 10% to 30%) in both urban and rural areas. Conclusions: In countries where national population-based HIV surveys have been conducted, survey estimates of HIV prevalence (adjusted for potential survey biases as appropriate) can be used directly to calibrate antenatal clinic surveillance data. In countries where national HIV surveys have not been conducted, HIV prevalence derived from antenatal clinic surveillance data should be multiplied by about 0.8 to adjust for overestimation. PMID:18647861

  6. Acceptance of the use of HIV surveillance data for care engagement: national and local community perspectives.

    PubMed

    Evans, David; Van Gorder, Dana; Morin, Stephen F; Steward, Wayne T; Gaffney, Stuart; Charlebois, Edwin D

    2015-05-01

    Use of surveillance data including laboratory results (e.g., CD4 and HIV RNA) by public health departments to facilitate linkage, retention, and reengagement of HIV-infected individuals in health care is on the rise. This is part of the goal of increasing the proportion of infected persons achieving virologic suppression. However, this use of surveillance data is not without controversy, particularly among some providers and people living with HIV. We conducted informal discussions with key stakeholders and a literature search and held a national think tank in November 2012, bringing together 31 representatives of the federal government, county and state officials, health care providers, and community-based organizations. A follow-up community consultation specific to San Francisco was held January 24, 2014, with 10 participants. Notes from these activities were used as data for this analysis. The think tank identified 3 strategies using HIV surveillance data to aid in care engagement: (1) provider-mediated, where health department staff work with the provider of record on reengagement, (2) electronic linkages between surveillance databases and medical records databases, and (3) direct outreach, where trained health department staff reach out to persons out of care. Participants also developed recommendations for minimizing harm, guidance on meaningful stakeholder involvement, and a consensus statement in support of the use of HIV surveillance data in care engagement. Acceptance of the use of surveillance data for HIV care linkage, retention, and reengagement is achievable, particularly if stakeholders have been engaged in the design, conduct, and evaluation of programs.

  7. Revised surveillance case definitions for HIV infection among adults, adolescents, and children aged <18 months and for HIV infection and AIDS among children aged 18 months to <13 years--United States, 2008.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Eileen; Whitmore, Suzanne; Glynn, Kathleen M; Dominguez, Kenneth; Mitsch, Andrew; McKenna, Matthew T

    2008-12-05

    For adults and adolescents (i.e., persons aged >/=13 years), the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection classification system and the surveillance case definitions for HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been revised and combined into a single case definition for HIV infection. In addition, the HIV infection case definition for children aged <13 years and the AIDS case definition for children aged 18 months to <13 years have been revised. No changes have been made to the HIV infection classification system, the 24 AIDS-defining conditions for children aged <13 years, or the AIDS case definition for children aged <18 months. These case definitions are intended for public health surveillance only and not as a guide for clinical diagnosis. Public health surveillance data are used primarily for monitoring the HIV epidemic and for planning on a population level, not for making clinical decisions for individual patients. CDC and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists recommend that all states and territories conduct case surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS using the 2008 surveillance case definitions, effective immediately.

  8. Five-year trends in epidemiology and prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, St. Petersburg, Russia: results from perinatal HIV surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic in Russia has increasingly involved reproductive-aged women, which may increase perinatal HIV transmission. Methods Standard HIV case-reporting and enhanced perinatal HIV surveillance systems were used for prospective assessment of HIV-infected women giving birth in St. Petersburg, Russia, during 2004-2008. Trends in social, perinatal, and clinical factors influencing mother-to-child HIV transmission stratified by history of injection drug use, and rates of perinatal HIV transmission were assessed using two-sided χ2 or Cochran-Armitage tests. Results Among HIV-infected women who gave birth, the proportion of women who self-reported ever using injection drugs (IDUs) decreased from 62% in 2004 to 41% in 2008 (P < 0.0001). Programmatic improvements led to increased uptake of the following clinical services from 2004 to 2008 (all P < 0.01): initiation of antiretroviral prophylaxis at ≤28 weeks gestation (IDUs 44%-54%, non-IDUs 45%-72%), monitoring of immunologic (IDUs 48%-64%, non-IDUs 58%-80%) and virologic status (IDUs 8%-58%, non-IDUs 10%-75%), dual/triple antiretroviral prophylaxis (IDUs 9%-44%, non-IDUs 14%-59%). After initial increase from 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.5%-7.8%) in 2004 to 8.5% (CI 6.1%-11.7%) in 2005 (P < 0.05), perinatal HIV transmission decreased to 5.3% (CI 3.4%-8.3%) in 2006, and 3.2% (CI 1.7%-5.8%) in 2007 (P for trend <0.05). However, the proportion of women without prenatal care and without HIV testing before labor and delivery remained unchanged. Conclusions Reduced proportion of IDUs and improved clinical services among HIV-infected women giving birth were accompanied by decreased perinatal HIV transmission, which can be further reduced by increasing outreach and HIV testing of women before and during pregnancy. PMID:22032196

  9. Risk factors for HIV seropositivity among people consulting for HIV antibody testing: a pilot surveillance study in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Alary, M; Castel, J

    1990-01-01

    The surveillance of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) through case reporting only reflects the epidemiologic features of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) transmission a few years earlier and not the prevalence of HIV seropositivity. HIV infection is not a notifiable condition in Quebec. We were asked by the ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux du Québec to perform a pilot project for the surveillance of HIV seropositivity using a network of sentinel physicians. From May 15, 1988, to Sept. 30, 1989, physicians from four collaborating centres collected data on the serologic status, demographic characteristics and risk factors for 4209 patients who underwent HIV antibody testing. Of the 3899 subjects included in the study 7.9% were HIV positive. Through logistic regression analysis the following variables were found to be significantly associated with HIV seropositivity: presence of HIV-related symptoms (prevalence odds ratio [POR] 36.5), origin from an endemic area (POR 9.1), homosexuality or bisexuality (POR 8.4), intravenous drug use (POR 4.2), male sex (POR 2.8), previous HIV antibody testing (POR 2.5) and previous sexually transmitted disease (POR 1.8). Over the study period we found a large increase in HIV seroprevalence among intravenous drug users (4.2% in 1988 to 19.0% in 1989) (p = 0.02). This increase might reflect a recent change in the epidemiologic pattern of HIV transmission in Quebec. Surveillance of HIV seropositivity through a network of sentinel physicians may be a reasonable alternative to mandatory reporting. PMID:2357678

  10. Brief Report: Nonfatal Overdose Events Among Persons Who Inject Drugs: Findings From Seven National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Cities 2009 & 2012.

    PubMed

    Robinson, William T; Kazbour, Catherine; Nassau, Tanner; Fisher, Kiva; Sheu, Shane; Rivera, Alexis V; Al-Tayyib, Alia; Glick, Sara Nelson; Braunstein, Sarah; Barak, Narquis; Shinefeld, Jennifer; Poe, Jonathon; Raymond, Henry Fisher; Brady, Kathleen

    2017-07-01

    The rate of drug and opioid overdose deaths in the United States has more than tripled over the past 15 years. The ability to conduct public health surveillance on nonfatal overdoses is limited. The current study used National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) data to estimate recent and lifetime history of nonfatal overdose events in persons who inject drugs in 7 cities. Recent and lifetime experience of overdose events ranged from 3% to 20% and from 29% to 63%, respectively. Adapting systems such as NHBS may be useful in responding to and monitoring emergent public health problems such as the overdose epidemic.

  11. Auditing national HIV guidelines and policies: The United Kingdom CD4 Surveillance Scheme.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alison E; Kall, Meaghan M; Smith, Ruth D; Yin, Zheng; Hunter, Alan; Hunter, Alan; Delpech, Valerie C

    2012-01-01

    The United Kingdom's CD4 surveillance scheme monitors CD4 cell counts among HIV patients and is a national resource for HIV surveillance. It has driven public health policy and allowed auditing of national HIV testing, treatment and care guidelines. WE DEMONSTRATE ITS UTILITY THROUGH FOUR EXAMPLE OUTPUTS: median CD4 count at HIV diagnosis; late HIV diagnosis and short-term mortality; the timing of first CD4 count to indicate entry into HIV care; and the proportion of patients with CD4 counts <350 cells/mm3 receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ARV). In 2009, 95% (61,502/64,420) of adults living with diagnosed HIV infection had CD4 counts available. The median CD4 count at diagnosis increased from 276 to 335 cells/mm3 between 2000 and 2009, indicating modest improvements in HIV testing. In 2009, 52% of patients were diagnosed at a late stage of HIV infection (CD4 <350 cells/mm(3)); these individuals had a ten-fold risk of dying within a year of their diagnosis compared to those diagnosed promptly. In 2008, the national target of performing a CD4 count within 14 days of diagnosis was met for 61% of patients. National treatment guidelines have largely been met with 83% patients with CD4 <350 cells/mm(3) receiving ARV. The monitoring of CD4 counts is critical to HIV surveillance in the United Kingdom enabling the close monitoring of efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with late diagnosis and underpins the auditing of policies and guidelines. These routine surveillance outputs can be generated at national and local levels to drive and monitor public health policy and prevention efforts.

  12. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2003-04-22

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  13. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2006-02-14

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  14. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2004-10-12

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  15. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a SPRT sequential probability ratio test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  16. Community perspectives on HIV, violence and health surveillance in rural South Africa: a participatory pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hullur, Nitya; D’Ambruoso, Lucia; Edin, Kerstin; Wagner, Ryan G; Ngobeni, Sizzy; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Byass, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background South Africa faces a complex burden of disease consisting of infectious and non–communicable conditions, injury and interpersonal violence, and maternal and child mortality. Inequalities in income and opportunity push disease burdens towards vulnerable populations, a situation to which the health system struggles to respond. There is an urgent need for health planning to account for the needs of marginalized groups in this context. The study objectives were to develop a process to elicit the perspectives of local communities in the established Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural north–east South Africa on two leading causes of death: HIV/AIDS and violent assault, and on health surveillance as a means to generate information on health in the locality. Methods Drawing on community–based participatory research (CBPR) methods, three village–based groups of eight participants were convened, with whom a series of discussions were held to identify and define the causes of, treatments for, and problems surrounding, deaths due to HIV/AIDS and violent assault. The surveillance system was also discussed and recommendations generated. The discussion narratives were the main data source, examined using framework analysis. Results The groups identified a range of social and health systems issues including risky sexual health behaviors, entrenched traditional practices, alcohol and substance abuse, unstable relationships, and debt as causative. Participants also explained how compromised patient confidentiality in clinics, insensitive staff, and a biased judicial system were problematic for the treatment and reporting of both conditions. Views on health surveillance were positive. Recommendations to strengthen an already well–functioning system related to maintaining confidentiality and sensitivity, and extending ancillary care obligations. Conclusion The discussions provided information not available from other sources on

  17. A computer-based surveillance system for human immunodeficiency virus infection in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chew, S K; Snodgrass, I

    1995-04-01

    The first case of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was detected in Singapore in 1985 and the first case of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1986. Since then, the number of infections had increased. By the end of 1993, there were 222 residents with HIV infection, including 75 cases of AIDS. In view of the rapidly increasing magnitude of HIV infection, a microcomputer-based surveillance system was designed and developed in 1992 to better monitor epidemiological trends of HIV infection in Singapore. OBJECTIVE--The objective was to define a composite model of a successful HIV and AIDS registry that included: (a) patient data forms, (b) patient's contact data forms, (c) data analysis, and (d) report generation. METHODOLOGY--An IBM-compatible desk-top microcomputer was used for the project. The main software used for computer programming and data analysis were DBase IV (Version 1.5) and Epi Info (Version 5.0), respectively. Security features were incorporated into the programme to ensure confidentiality of information and that only authorized personnel could gain access to the programme. MAIN FINDINGS--The system functioned as the National HIV Notification Registry and was able to track notifications, analyse data and enabled prompt dissemination of information. The system was also linked to another database system for tuberculosis to enhance surveillance of both HIV infection and tuberculosis. CONCLUSION--The authors believe that this system would enhance surveillance and provide timely information for national AIDS control programmes. However, the effectiveness of this computer-based surveillance system is dependent on an established notification structure with notifications of sufficient completeness for both HIV infection and AIDS.

  18. Assessing the use of HIV surveillance data to help gauge patient retention-in-care

    PubMed Central

    Lubelchek, Ronald J.; Finnegan, Katelynne J.; Hotton, Anna L.; Hazen, Ronald; Murphy, Patricia; Prachand, Nikhil G.; Benbow, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Background Improved retention-in-care may enhance health outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). While laboratory surveillance data may be used to gauge retention, no previous reports have compared surveillance lab vs. clinic visit-based measures of retention-in-care. We compared lab surveillance vs. clinic visit-based approaches for identifying retention status for PLWHA. Methods We examined 2011 patient visit data from the Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center, Cook County's HIV clinic. We defined retained patients as those with visits every 6 months over 2 years and matched patients classified via visit data against HIV surveillance labs reported to the Chicago Department of Health. We determined the sensitivity, specificity and receiver operator characteristics of varying lab surveillance vs. clinic visit measures of retention. Results Of patients classified via clinic visit data, 91% of 1,714 in-care vs. 22% of 200 out-of-care patients met our most stringent surveillance based retention definition – having ≥ 2 viral load/CD4s performed 90 days apart reported by the same laboratory in 2011. Of surveillance lab-based definitions for retention, having ≥ 2 HIV viral load and/or CD4 values at least 3 months apart reported from the same facility possessed the best receiver operator parameters and the receiver operator characteristics curve comparing several surveillance lab vs. clinic-visit based retention measures had an area under the curve of 0.95. Discussion Our findings demonstrate that surveillance laboratory data can be used to assess retention-in-care for PLWHA. These data suggest that bi-directional data sharing between public health entities and care providers could advance re-engagement efforts. PMID:25867775

  19. Adapting behavioural surveillance to antiretroviral-based HIV prevention: reviewing and anticipating trends in the Australian Gay Community Periodic Surveys.

    PubMed

    Holt, Martin; Lea, Toby; Mao, Limin; Zablotska, Iryna; Lee, Evelyn; de Wit, John B F; Prestage, Garrett

    2016-08-29

    Background: In Australia, the preventative use of antiretroviral drugs [pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and treatment as prevention] is being embraced to protect individuals at high risk of HIV and reduce onward transmission. Methods: The adaptation of a behavioural surveillance system, the Gay Community Periodic Surveys, was reviewed to monitor the uptake and effect of new prevention strategies in Australia's primary HIV-affected population (gay and bisexual men, GBM). The national trends in key indicators during 2000-15 were reviewed and a new measure to take account of antiretroviral-based prevention was developed. Results: Between 2000 and 2015, there were significant increases (P<0.001) in annual HIV testing (56.1-64.8%), condomless sex with casual partners (26.8-38.8%) and the proportion of HIV-positive men on HIV treatment (72.5-88.4%) and with an undetectable viral load (73.7-94.7%). The proportion of casual partners who were HIV negative, not on PrEP and who engaged in receptive condomless sex also increased between 2000 and 2015 from 12.8 to 19.3%. Two scenarios anticipating the effect of PrEP highlighted the need to target GBM who engage in receptive condomless sex while also sustaining condom use at a population level. Conclusions: Behavioural surveillance can be successfully adapted to follow the effect of antiretroviral-based prevention. It is anticipated that HIV testing and HIV treatment will continue to increase among Australian GBM, but to prevent new infections, intervention in the growing proportion of GBM who have condomless sex with casual partners is needed. For PrEP to have its desired effect, condom use needs to be sustained.

  20. New York City syndromic surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Richard; Mostashari, F; Das, D; Besculides, M; Rodriguez, C; Greenko, J; Steiner-Sichel, L; Balter, S; Karpati, A; Thomas, P; Phillips, M; Ackelsberg, J; Lee, E; Leng, J; Hartman, J; Metzger, K; Rosselli, R; Weiss, D

    2004-09-24

    New York City's first syndromic surveillance systems were established in 1995 to detect outbreaks of waterborne illness. In 1998, daily monitoring of ambulance dispatch calls for influenza-like illness began. After the 2001 World Trade Center attacks, concern about biologic terrorism led to the development of surveillance systems to track chief complaints of patients reporting to emergency departments, over-the-counter and prescription pharmacy sales, and worker absenteeism. These systems have proved useful for detecting substantial citywide increases in common viral illnesses (e.g., influenza, norovirus, and rotavirus). However, the systems have not detected more contained outbreaks earlier than traditional surveillance. Future plans include monitoring school health and outpatient clinic visits, augmenting laboratory testing to confirm syndromic signals, and conducting evaluation studies to identify which of these systems will be continued for the long term.

  1. Laser Surveillance System for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M. S.; Bieber, Jr., A. M.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures.

  2. Self tuning system for industrial surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Stephan, Wegerich W; Jarman, Kristin K.; Gross, Kenneth C.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system for automatically establishing operational parameters of a statistical surveillance system. The method and system performs a frequency domain transition on time dependent data, a first Fourier composite is formed, serial correlation is removed, a series of Gaussian whiteness tests are performed along with an autocorrelation test, Fourier coefficients are stored and a second Fourier composite is formed. Pseudorandom noise is added, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed to establish SPRT missed alarm probabilities and tested with a synthesized signal. A false alarm test is then emperically evaluated and if less than a desired target value, then SPRT probabilities are used for performing surveillance.

  3. Use of Multiple Data Sources and Individual Case Investigation to Refine Surveillance-Based Estimates of the HIV Care Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowski, Julia C.; Buskin, Susan E.; Bennett, Amy; Thiede, Hanne; Golden, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the HIV care continuum among HIV-infected persons residing in Seattle & King County, Washington at the end of 2011 and compare estimates of viral suppression derived from different population-based data sources. Methods We derived estimates for the HIV care continuum using a combination of HIV case and laboratory surveillance data supplemented with individual investigation of cases that appeared to be unlinked to or not retained in HIV care, a jurisdiction-wide population-based retrospective chart review, and local data from the CDC's Medical Monitoring Project and National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. Results Adjusting for in- and out-migration of persons diagnosed with HIV, laboratory surveillance data supplemented with individual case investigation suggest that 67% of persons diagnosed with HIV and 57% of all HIV-infected persons living in King County at the end of 2011 were virally suppressed (plasma HIV RNA <200 copies/mL). The viral suppression estimates we derived from a population-based chart review and adjusted local Medical Monitoring Project data were similar to the surveillance-derived estimate and identical to each other (59% viral suppression among all HIV-infected persons). Conclusions The level of viral suppression in King County is more than twice the national estimate and exceeds estimates of control for other major chronic diseases in the U.S. Our findings suggest that national care continuum estimates may be substantially too pessimistic, and highlight the need to improve HIV surveillance data. PMID:25140904

  4. An emergency response UAV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro A; Geckle, William J; Barton, Jeffrey D; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z; Martin, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs.

  5. An Emergency Response UAV Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Pedro A.; Geckle, William J.; Barton, Jeffrey D.; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z.; Martin, Sean R.

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs. PMID:17238697

  6. Strengthening HIV surveillance in the antiretroviral therapy era: rationale and design of a longitudinal study to monitor HIV prevalence and incidence in the uMgungundlovu District, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kharsany, Ayesha B M; Cawood, Cherie; Khanyile, David; Grobler, Anneke; Mckinnon, Lyle R; Samsunder, Natasha; Frohlich, Janet A; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Puren, Adrian; Welte, Alex; George, Gavin; Govender, Kaymarlin; Toledo, Carlos; Chipeta, Zawadi; Zembe, Lycias; Glenshaw, Mary T; Madurai, Lorna; Deyde, Varough M; Bere, Alfred

    2015-11-20

    South Africa has over 6,000,000 HIV infected individuals and the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) is the most severely affected. As public health initiatives to better control the HIV epidemic are implemented, timely, detailed and robust surveillance data are needed to monitor, evaluate and inform the programmatic interventions and policies over time. We describe the rationale and design of the HIV Incidence Provincial Surveillance System (HIPSS) to monitor HIV prevalence and incidence. The household-based survey will include a sample of men and women from two sub-districts of the uMgungundlovu municipality (Vulindlela and the Greater Edendale) of KZN, South Africa. The study is designed as two sequential cross-sectional surveys of 10,000 randomly selected individuals aged 15-49 years to be conducted one year apart. From the cross sectional surveys, two sequential cohorts of HIV negative individuals aged 15-35 years will be followed-up one year later to measure the primary outcome of HIV incidence. Secondary outcomes include the laboratory measurements for pulmonary tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections and evaluating tests for estimating population-level HIV incidence. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) access, HIV-1 RNA viral load, and CD4 cell counts in HIV positive individuals will assess the effectiveness of the HIV treatment cascade. Household and individual-level socio-demographic characteristics, exposure to HIV programmatic interventions and risk behaviours will be assessed as predictors of HIV incidence. The incidence rate ratio of the two cohorts will be calculated to quantify the change in HIV incidence between consecutive samples. In anticipation of better availability of population-level HIV prevention and treatment programmes leading to decreases in HIV incidence, the sample size provides 84% power to detect a reduction of 30% in the HIV incidence rate between surveys. The results from HIPSS will provide critical data regarding HIV prevalence and

  7. Improving HIV Surveillance Data for Public Health Action in Washington, DC: A Novel Multiorganizational Data-Sharing Method

    PubMed Central

    Smart, JC

    2016-01-01

    Background The National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for active surveillance programs for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to more accurately measure access to and retention in care across the HIV care continuum for persons living with HIV within their jurisdictions and to identify persons who may need public health services. However, traditional public health surveillance methods face substantial technological and privacy-related barriers to data sharing. Objective This study developed a novel data-sharing approach to improve the timeliness and quality of HIV surveillance data in three jurisdictions where persons may often travel across the borders of the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia. Methods A deterministic algorithm of approximately 1000 lines was developed, including a person-matching system with Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System (eHARS) variables. Person matching was defined in categories (from strongest to weakest): exact, very high, high, medium high, medium, medium low, low, and very low. The algorithm was verified using conventional component testing methods, manual code inspection, and comprehensive output file examination. Results were validated by jurisdictions using internal review processes. Results Of 161,343 uploaded eHARS records from District of Columbia (N=49,326), Maryland (N=66,200), and Virginia (N=45,817), a total of 21,472 persons were matched across jurisdictions over various strengths in a matching process totaling 21 minutes and 58 seconds in the privacy device, leaving 139,871 uniquely identified with only one jurisdiction. No records matched as medium low or low. Over 80% of the matches were identified as either exact or very high matches. Three separate validation methods were conducted for this study, and they all found ≥90% accuracy between records matched by this novel method and traditional matching methods. Conclusions This study illustrated a novel data-sharing approach that may facilitate timelier and better

  8. Improving HIV Surveillance Data for Public Health Action in Washington, DC: A Novel Multiorganizational Data-Sharing Method.

    PubMed

    Ocampo, Joanne Michelle F; Smart, J C; Allston, Adam; Bhattacharjee, Reshma; Boggavarapu, Sahithi; Carter, Sharon; Castel, Amanda D; Collmann, Jeff; Flynn, Colin; Hamp, Auntré; Jordan, Diana; Kassaye, Seble; Kharfen, Michael; Lum, Garret; Pemmaraju, Raghu; Rhodes, Anne; Stover, Jeff; Young, Mary A

    2016-01-01

    The National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for active surveillance programs for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to more accurately measure access to and retention in care across the HIV care continuum for persons living with HIV within their jurisdictions and to identify persons who may need public health services. However, traditional public health surveillance methods face substantial technological and privacy-related barriers to data sharing. This study developed a novel data-sharing approach to improve the timeliness and quality of HIV surveillance data in three jurisdictions where persons may often travel across the borders of the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia. A deterministic algorithm of approximately 1000 lines was developed, including a person-matching system with Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System (eHARS) variables. Person matching was defined in categories (from strongest to weakest): exact, very high, high, medium high, medium, medium low, low, and very low. The algorithm was verified using conventional component testing methods, manual code inspection, and comprehensive output file examination. Results were validated by jurisdictions using internal review processes. Of 161,343 uploaded eHARS records from District of Columbia (N=49,326), Maryland (N=66,200), and Virginia (N=45,817), a total of 21,472 persons were matched across jurisdictions over various strengths in a matching process totaling 21 minutes and 58 seconds in the privacy device, leaving 139,871 uniquely identified with only one jurisdiction. No records matched as medium low or low. Over 80% of the matches were identified as either exact or very high matches. Three separate validation methods were conducted for this study, and they all found ≥90% accuracy between records matched by this novel method and traditional matching methods. This study illustrated a novel data-sharing approach that may facilitate timelier and better quality HIV surveillance data for public health

  9. Profile: The Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Crampin, Amelia C; Dube, Albert; Mboma, Sebastian; Price, Alison; Chihana, Menard; Jahn, Andreas; Baschieri, Angela; Molesworth, Anna; Mwaiyeghele, Elnaeus; Branson, Keith; Floyd, Sian; McGrath, Nuala; Fine, Paul E M; French, Neil; Glynn, Judith R; Zaba, Basia

    2012-01-01

    The Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Karonga HDSS) in northern Malawi currently has a population of more than 35 000 individuals under continuous demographic surveillance since completion of a baseline census (2002–2004). The surveillance system collects data on vital events and migration for individuals and for households. It also provides data on cause-specific mortality obtained by verbal autopsy for all age groups, and estimates rates of disease for specific presentations via linkage to clinical facility data. The Karonga HDSS provides a structure for surveys of socio-economic status, HIV sero-prevalence and incidence, sexual behaviour, fertility intentions and a sampling frame for other studies, as well as evaluating the impact of interventions, such as antiretroviral therapy and vaccination programmes. Uniquely, it relies on a network of village informants to report vital events and household moves, and furthermore is linked to an archive of biological samples and data from population surveys and other studies dating back three decades. PMID:22729235

  10. Timeliness of Malaria Surveillance System in Iran

    PubMed Central

    AKBARI, Hossein; MAJDZADEH, Reza; RAHIMI FOROUSHANI, Abbas; RAEISI, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the timeliness of reporting of malaria surveillance system and understanding the existing problems. Methods: The timeliness of malaria surveillance system of Iran was evaluated in four provinces of Iran including Sistan & Baluchistan, Hormozgan, Kerman (as provinces with local malaria transmission) and Khuzestan (without local malaria transmission). In this descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study two levels of Primary Health Care service providers including first level (Health Houses) and second level (Urban or Rural Health care units) were evaluated with regard to reporting of malaria surveillance system. Results: Forms number 1 (87% reported within one day) and number 2 (reporting median: 2 days) are reported from first level to second level, and forms number 4 (median: 4 days), number 3 (median: 6 days), number 7 (median: 9 days), number 5 (median: 11 days) and number 6 (median: 19 days) are reported from second level to the third level respectively in a shorter time. Independent variables such as distance, local malaria transmission level, and case finding type, are the factors affecting the reporting delay. Conclusion: Reporting in the first level compared to the second level is done with lower delay. In the areas where there is a deadline set for reporting, reporting is done more timely. Whatever number of malaria cases is decreased, sensitivity and subsequently timeliness reduced. It is recommended that the studies of timeliness be done with sensitivity and usefulness analysis of surveillance system. PMID:23515191

  11. Epidemiology of the viral hepatitis-HIV syndemic in San Francisco: a collaborative surveillance approach.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Melissa A; Scheer, Susan; Shallow, Sue; Pipkin, Sharon; Huang, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of people coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV in San Francisco, the San Francisco Department of Public Health's Communicable Disease Control and Prevention Section and the HIV Epidemiology Section collaborated to link their registries. In San Francisco, hepatitis reporting is primarily through passive laboratory-based surveillance, and HIV/AIDS reporting is primarily through laboratory-initiated active surveillance. We conducted the registry linkage in 2010 using a sequential algorithm. The registry match included 31,997 HBV-infected people who were reported starting in 1984; 10,121 HCV-infected people who were reported starting in 2001; and 34,551 HIV/AIDS cases reported beginning in 1981. Of the HBV and HCV cases, 6.3% and 12.6% were coinfected with HIV, respectively. The majority of cases were white males; however, black people were disproportionately affected. For more than 90% of the HBV/HIV cases, male-to-male sexual contact (men who have sex with men [MSM]) was the risk factor for HIV infection. Injection drug use was the most frequent risk factor for HIV infection among the HCV/HIV cases; however, 35.6% of the HCV/HIV coinfected males were MSM but not injection drug users. By linking the two registries, we found new ways to foster collaborative work and expand our programmatic flexibility. This analysis identified particular populations at risk for coinfection, which can be used by viral hepatitis and HIV screening, prevention, and treatment programs to integrate, enhance, target, and prioritize prevention services and clinical care within the community to maximize health outcomes.

  12. Routine surveillance for the detection of acute and recent HIV infections and transmission of antiretroviral resistance.

    PubMed

    Truong, Hong-Ha M; Grant, Robert M; McFarland, Willi; Kellogg, Timothy; Kent, Charlotte; Louie, Brian; Wong, Ernest; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2006-11-14

    To estimate the rate of acute and recent HIV infections and the prevalence of primary antiretroviral resistance. A consecutive sample of individuals presenting for HIV testing at the San Francisco municipal sexually transmitted diseased (STD) clinic in 2004 (n = 3789). HIV antibody-positive specimens were screened by BED IgG capture enzyme immunoassay to identify recent infections. HIV antibody-negative specimens were screened by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) to detect acute infections. Newly detected infections were genotyped to detect primary antiretroviral resistance. There were 11 acute and 44 recent HIV infections among the total 136 newly detected cases. NAAT increased case identification by 8.08% over standard antibody testing. Acute HIV infections were associated with having a known HIV-positive partner, and a history of hepatitis B, syphilis, and chlamydia. The prevalence of primary antiretroviral resistance was 13.2%, with drug-resistant mutations detected in 17 of 129 cases genotyped. Mutations conferring resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) were present in 11 of 17 cases. The integration of HIV nucleic acid amplification, recent infection, and antiretroviral resistance testing enhanced HIV/STD surveillance. The high proportion of NNRTI mutations detected suggests they may be more common in source partners or more fit for transmission than other forms of drug-resistant HIV-1. Primary antiretroviral resistance monitoring in STD clinic patients may guide the selection of treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis regimens active against viruses being transmitted in the community, and provide health departments with surveillance data in a sentinel population at risk of HIV transmission.

  13. System specification for the integrated monitoring and surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This System Specification establishes the requirements for the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS). In this document, ``Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System`` is used to describe the concept of integrated sensors, computers, personnel, and systems that perform the functions of sensing conditions, acquiring data, monitoring environmental safety and health, controlling and accounting for materials, monitoring material stability, monitoring container integrity, transferring data, and analyzing, reporting, and storing data. This concept encompasses systems (e.g. sensors, personnel, databases, etc.) that are already in place at the sites but may require modifications or additions to meet all identified surveillance requirements. The purpose of this System Specification is to provide Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store plutonium materials with a consolidation of all known requirements for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides. This compilation may be used (1) as a baseline for surveillance system design specifications where 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides will be stored and monitored; (2) as a checklist for evaluating existing surveillance systems to ensure that all requirements are met for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides; and (3) as a baseline for preparing procurement specifications tailored for site specific storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides.

  14. Low-Cost Instant Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1983-06-01

    A low-cost, battery-operated surveillance system was developed for use in international nuclear safeguards. The resulting system utilizes components of the commercial Polavision instant movie system to provide single-frame color or black/white images which are automatically developed and displayed by a portable Polavision Player whenever it is desired to stop and view the film. The system is designed for long-term unattended use, triggered by a timer or other input signal. To provide positive assurance of continuing operation, a self-diagnostic module was designed to detect the most common failure modes and transmit real-time status data to a remote location. The resulting system provides a low-cost surveillance capability which may be useful in various law enforcement applications.

  15. Domestic violence surveillance system:a model

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Rafael; Gutiérrez, María Isabel; Mena-Muñoz, Jorge Humberto; Córdoba, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a domestic violence surveillance system. Material and Methods The strategies included implementation of a standard digitalized reporting and analysis system along with advocacy with community decision makers, strengthening inter-institutional attention networks, consultation for constructing internal flow charts, sensitizing and training network teams in charge of providing health care in cases of domestic violence and supporting improved public policy prevention initiatives. Results A total of 6 893 cases were observed using 2004 and 2005 surveillance system data. The system reports that 80% of the affected were women, followed by 36% children under 14 years. The identified aggressors were mainly females' partners. The system was useful for improving victim services. Conclusions Findings indicate that significant gains were made in facilitating the attention and treatment of victims of domestic violence, improving the procedural response process and enhancing the quality of information provided to policy-making bodies. PMID:18373003

  16. Are countries using global fund support to implement HIV drug resistance surveillance? A review of funded HIV grants.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Karen F; Caudwell, Emily; Xueref, Serge; Ha, Thuy Huong; Bertagnolio, Silvia

    2012-05-01

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) is the largest funder of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment programs worldwide. Since 2002, the Global Fund has encouraged grant recipients to implement drug resistance surveillance (DRS) as part of treatment programs. We reviewed documentation of 147 grants funded in 2004-2008 (funding rounds 4-8) to assess grantees' use of funds to support HIV DRS. Overall, 94 grants (64%) described HIV DRS as part of the national treatment program. However, only 32 grants (22%) specifically documented DRS as a grant-funded activity. This review provides baseline information suggesting limited use by countries of Global Fund financing to support HIV DRS. Additional assessment is required to evaluate barriers to using Global Fund grants to support DRS.

  17. Laser surveillance system for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S; Zucker, M S; Bieber, Jr, A M

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a laser system and have used it with a simulated BWR assembly. The reflected signal from the zircaloy rods depends on the position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of background with no assembly.

  18. Systems pharmacology augments drug safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lorberbaum, T; Nasir, M; Keiser, M J; Vilar, S; Hripcsak, G; Tatonetti, N P

    2015-02-01

    Small molecule drugs are the foundation of modern medical practice, yet their use is limited by the onset of unexpected and severe adverse events (AEs). Regulatory agencies rely on postmarketing surveillance to monitor safety once drugs are approved for clinical use. Despite advances in pharmacovigilance methods that address issues of confounding bias, clinical data of AEs are inherently noisy. Systems pharmacology-the integration of systems biology and chemical genomics-can illuminate drug mechanisms of action. We hypothesize that these data can improve drug safety surveillance by highlighting drugs with a mechanistic connection to the target phenotype (enriching true positives) and filtering those that do not (depleting false positives). We present an algorithm, the modular assembly of drug safety subnetworks (MADSS), to combine systems pharmacology and pharmacovigilance data and significantly improve drug safety monitoring for four clinically relevant adverse drug reactions.

  19. Behavioral surveillance: current perspectives, and its role in catalyzing action.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tim

    2003-02-01

    In the age of 2nd generation surveillance, behavioral surveillance systems form one of the central components of national HIV monitoring systems. Different approaches to behavioral monitoring and the comparative role of behavioral surveillance are discussed, followed by an exploration of some of the practical issues that arise in the implementation of behavioral surveillance systems. This article concludes by stressing the importance of ensuring that the results of behavioral surveillance work are translated into actions that improve the national response to HIV.

  20. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan?

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Eireen; Pacho, Agnes; Galvan, Maria Adona; Corpuz, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR), Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR) and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). Methods A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results Two of 11 (18%) surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45%) surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91%) rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7%) considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27%) surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6%) surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR) were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other. PMID:26767139

  1. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan?

    PubMed

    Tante, Sheila; Villa, Eireen; Pacho, Agnes; Galvan, Maria Adona; Corpuz, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR), Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR) and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Two of 11 (18%) surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45%) surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91%) rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7%) considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27%) surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6%) surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR) were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other.

  2. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  3. Using HIV Surveillance Registry Data to Re-Link Persons to Care: The RSVP Project in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Buchacz, Kate; Chen, Miao-Jung; Parisi, Maree Kay; Yoshida-Cervantes, Maya; Antunez, Erin; Delgado, Viva; Moss, Nicholas J.; Scheer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background Persons with unsuppressed HIV viral load (VL) who disengage from care may experience poor clinical outcomes and potentially transmit HIV. We assessed the feasibility and yield of using the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH) enhanced HIV surveillance system (eHARS) to identify and re-engage such persons in care. Methods Using SFDPH eHARS data as of 4/20/2012 (index date), we selected HIV-infected adults who were alive, had no reported VL or CD4 cell count results in the past nine months (proxy for “out-of-care”) and a VL >200 copies/mL drawn nine to 15 months earlier. We prioritized cases residing locally for investigation, and used information from eHARS and medical and public health databases to contact them for interview and referral to the SFDPH linkage services (LINCS). Twelve months later, we matched-back to eHARS data to assess how HIV laboratory reporting delays affected original eligibility, and if persons had any HIV laboratory results performed and reported within 12 months after index date (‘new labs’). Results Among 434 eligible persons, 282 were prioritized for investigation, of whom 75 (27%) were interviewed, 79 (28%) could not be located, and 48 (17%) were located out of the area. Among the interviewed, 54 (72%) persons accepted referral to LINCS. Upon match-back to eHARS data, 324 (75%) in total were confirmed as eligible, including 221 (78%) of the investigated; most had new labs. Conclusions Among the investigated persons presumed out-of-care, we interviewed and offered LINCS referral to about one-quarter, demonstrating the feasibility but limited yield of our project. Matching to updated surveillance data revealed that a substantial minority did not disengage from care and that most re-engaged in HIV care. Verifying persons’ HIV care status with medical providers and improving timeliness of transfer and cross-jurisdictional sharing of HIV laboratory data may aid future efforts. PMID:25748668

  4. Future trends in compact TV surveillance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, K.; Heaysman, B.; Vodrazka, P.

    1985-01-01

    Up to now the IAEA's Safeguards Surveillance Program has been based upon 8 mm film camera systems. As this type of equipment availability is controlled by the needs of the amateur market, the Agency is forced to follow the changing world trend in replacing film with video. The eventual substitution of film with video systems should be influenced by two design approaches, namely integrated systems, resembling physically the present film cameras, and/or remote camera-control unit systems. This paper describes experiments being carried out on both types by some Member States as well as the Agency's activities in this field.

  5. 17 CFR 38.156 - Automated trade surveillance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated trade surveillance... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.156 Automated trade surveillance system. A designated contract market must maintain an automated trade surveillance system capable of detecting and investigating...

  6. 17 CFR 38.156 - Automated trade surveillance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated trade surveillance... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.156 Automated trade surveillance system. A designated contract market must maintain an automated trade surveillance system capable of detecting and investigating...

  7. [Survey adaptation for bio-behavioural surveillance of HIV in Chilean female sex workers].

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Bielka; Stuardo, Valeria; Manríquez, José Manuel; Belmar, Julieta; Folch, Cinta

    2017-04-12

    To adapt a behavioural questionnaire for second-generation HIV/AIDS surveillance in female sex workers (FSWs) in the Metropolitan Region, Chile. Qualitative study of instruments validation. A Spanish instrument adapted in Catalonia was validated through a translation and back-translation of the original version. The content validity was determined through a modified Delphi method, via FSW and HIV experts representing community, political and institutional levels. Applicability aspects were determined by the application of the questionnaire to FSW in the Metropolitan Region. The questionnaire, drafted in Spain, was successfully adapted to Chilean Spanish. The content validity process enabled sections to be created that address HIV in FSWs. The adapted questionnaire takes less than 15minutes to complete, which makes it usable in fieldwork. The 61 women surveyed came from different countries (all were Latin Americans) and had different educational levels; all this enabled potential applicability problems to be detected. The adapted questionnaire for Chile contains all the UNAIDS indicators for FSWs, as well as the recommended indicators of Family Health International for bio-behavioural surveillance. Said questionnaire serves as a tool for second-generation HIV/other STD surveillance and further contributes to preventive policies in Chilean FSWs. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Routine feedback of test results to participants in clinic- and survey-based surveillance of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cheryl; Garcia Calleja, Jesus Maria; Sabin, Keith; Obermeyer, Carla; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Zaba, Basia; El-Hayek, Carol; Singh, Jerome Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Surveillance for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in low- and middle-income countries started in the 1980s. However, the questions of whether the results of HIV tests should be given to participants, and if so how, has still not been resolved. In the absence of effective treatment, it was considered acceptable to withhold results from HIV-positive participants. However, when antiretroviral treatment is available, some argue for beneficence – that it is the researcher’s duty to return the test results to all those who provide samples for surveillance. The corollary is that only participants who wish to receive their test results would be eligible to participate in surveys. Others argue for autonomy – that to obtain a more representative result for the general population, surveys should not exclude participants who do not wish to receive their test results. This round table discussion takes a closer look at those two arguments. We believe that the global community should work towards routine feedback of HIV surveillance while ensuring that participants receive and understand their test results. PMID:26229207

  9. Routine feedback of test results to participants in clinic- and survey-based surveillance of HIV.

    PubMed

    Baggaley, Rachel; Johnson, Cheryl; Garcia Calleja, Jesus Maria; Sabin, Keith; Obermeyer, Carla; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Zaba, Basia; El-Hayek, Carol; Singh, Jerome Amir

    2015-05-01

    Surveillance for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in low- and middle-income countries started in the 1980s. However, the questions of whether the results of HIV tests should be given to participants, and if so how, has still not been resolved. In the absence of effective treatment, it was considered acceptable to withhold results from HIV-positive participants. However, when antiretroviral treatment is available, some argue for beneficence - that it is the researcher's duty to return the test results to all those who provide samples for surveillance. The corollary is that only participants who wish to receive their test results would be eligible to participate in surveys. Others argue for autonomy - that to obtain a more representative result for the general population, surveys should not exclude participants who do not wish to receive their test results. This round table discussion takes a closer look at those two arguments. We believe that the global community should work towards routine feedback of HIV surveillance while ensuring that participants receive and understand their test results.

  10. Validation of Retention in HIV Care Status Using the New York City HIV Surveillance Registry and Clinical Care Data From a Large HIV Care Center.

    PubMed

    Pati, Rituparna; Robbins, Rebekkah S; Braunstein, Sarah L

    2017-01-11

    Improving retention in care is a key element of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). However, definitions for measuring retention in care are not standardized. To compare measures of retention based on both clinic visit data and HIV laboratory surveillance data. Retrospective cohort study. New York City (NYC), New York. We matched adult patients with HIV infection seen at the Spencer Cox Center for Health (SCC) in 2010 or 2011 with the NYC HIV Surveillance Registry. Retention in care was measured on the basis of SCC electronic medical record (EMR) data (≥1 medical visits in 2012) and Surveillance Registry data (≥2 CD4/viral load [VL] tests ≥90 days apart in 2012). There were 5746 adult HIV-infected patients seen at SCC between 2010 and 2011 who matched with the Surveillance Registry. Seventy-eight percent (n = 4469) had 1 or more medical visits at SCC in 2012 and were considered retained on the basis of the EMR definition, among which 3831 (86%) met the surveillance definition for retention in care. Patients who did not have a medical visit at SCC in 2012 (n = 1277) were lost to care in NYC (n = 485; 36%), engaged in care at an alternate provider (n = 622; 49%), or died after their last SCC visit (n = 197; 15%). This study is an important comparison of laboratory surveillance versus clinic visit-based measures of retention in care in an urban setting with the largest HIV epidemic in the country. Collaborative projects between local health departments and clinical care providers can help validate the care status of patients and inform the allocation of resources to reengage patients who are lost to care. The combined use of laboratory and clinic visit-based data to measure retention in care provides a more accurate representation of the care status of HIV-infected patients than use of a single data source alone. Routine sharing of data by public health institutions and clinical care providers would help target resources toward reengaging patients who are

  11. Comparison of surveillance sample demographics over two cycles of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance Project, Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Risser, Jan M H; Montealegre, Jane R

    2014-04-01

    We examined differences in sample demographics across cycles of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance project, that examines HIV risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM), injection drug users (IDU), and heterosexuals living in areas of high HIV prevalence (HET). MSM were recruited through venue-based sampling, and IDU and HET through respondent driven sampling (RDS). RDS data were weighted to account for sampling bias. We compared crude prevalence estimates from MSM1 (2004) to those from MSM2 (2008) for demographic factors known to influence risky sexual and drug-use behaviors. We compared crude and adjusted prevalence estimates for IDU1 (2005) and IDU2 (2009) and HET1 (2006) and HET2 (2010). In the MSM cycle, we found differences in age, and the proportions seeking medical care and reporting a recent arrest. There were no differences in the comparison of crude and weighted estimates for the RDS collected samples, nor were there differences comparing HET1 and HET2 weighted estimates. IDU2 recruited a larger proportion of males, and had a higher percent who graduated from high school and who reported recent medical care and a previous HIV test. Differences across MSM cycles may be related to differences in venues identified for each cycle. Differences in the IDU cycles may be due to an effort on our part to increase the racial/ethnic and drug-use diversity of the sample in IDU2. Our findings show the importance of formative work for both venue-based and RDS samples to increase understanding of the dimensions that affect social networks and the dynamics of populations in space and time. With familiarity of the target population, we believe that both venue-based and RDS recruitment approaches for NHBS work well and can be used to evaluate changes in risky sexual and drug use behaviors and in HIV testing behaviors.

  12. Review of sampling hard-to-reach and hidden populations for HIV surveillance.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Robert; Sabin, Keith; Saidel, Tobi; Heckathorn, Douglas

    2005-05-01

    Adequate surveillance of hard-to-reach and 'hidden' subpopulations is crucial to containing the HIV epidemic in low prevalence settings and in slowing the rate of transmission in high prevalence settings. For a variety of reasons, however, conventional facility and survey-based surveillance data collection strategies are ineffective for a number of key subpopulations, particularly those whose behaviors are illegal or illicit. This paper critically reviews alternative sampling strategies for undertaking behavioral or biological surveillance surveys of such groups. Non-probability sampling approaches such as facility-based sentinel surveillance and snowball sampling are the simplest to carry out, but are subject to a high risk of sampling/selection bias. Most of the probability sampling methods considered are limited in that they are adequate only under certain circumstances and for some groups. One relatively new method, respondent-driven sampling, an adaptation of chain-referral sampling, appears to be the most promising for general applications. However, as its applicability to HIV surveillance in resource-poor settings has yet to be established, further field trials are needed before a firm conclusion can be reached.

  13. An integrated national mortality surveillance system for death registration and mortality surveillance, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiwei; Wu, Xiaoling; Lopez, Alan D; Wang, Lijun; Cai, Yue; Page, Andrew; Yin, Peng; Liu, Yunning; Li, Yichong; Liu, Jiangmei; You, Jinling; Zhou, Maigeng

    2016-01-01

    In China, sample-based mortality surveillance systems, such as the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention's disease surveillance points system and the Ministry of Health's vital registration system, have been used for decades to provide nationally representative data on health status for health-care decision-making and performance evaluation. However, neither system provided representative mortality and cause-of-death data at the provincial level to inform regional health service needs and policy priorities. Moreover, the systems overlapped to a considerable extent, thereby entailing a duplication of effort. In 2013, the Chinese Government combined these two systems into an integrated national mortality surveillance system to provide a provincially representative picture of total and cause-specific mortality and to accelerate the development of a comprehensive vital registration and mortality surveillance system for the whole country. This new system increased the surveillance population from 6 to 24% of the Chinese population. The number of surveillance points, each of which covered a district or county, increased from 161 to 605. To ensure representativeness at the provincial level, the 605 surveillance points were selected to cover China's 31 provinces using an iterative method involving multistage stratification that took into account the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. This paper describes the development and operation of the new national mortality surveillance system, which is expected to yield representative provincial estimates of mortality in China for the first time.

  14. HIV/AIDS Behavioral Surveillance among Angolan Military Men

    PubMed Central

    Bing, Eric G.; Ortiz, Daniel J.; Ovalle-Bahamón, Ricardo E.; Cheng, Karen G.; Huang, Fannie H.; Ernesto, Francisco; Duan, Naihua

    2010-01-01

    To assess HIV-related risk behavior among military men in a post-conflict sub-Saharan African country with low HIV prevalence this study evaluated sexual risk taking and related behaviors among a stratified random sample of 1710 military personnel in four regions of Angola. Over 90% were sexually active and 60% had two or more sexual partners within the past year. Condom use varied depending on partner type, from a low of 10% to a high of 54%. Factors independently predicting the number of sexual partners included younger age, younger age of sexual debut, being away from home, being in the eastern part of the country, higher military rank, higher education, alcohol before sex, and problem alcohol use. Independent predictors of sexually transmitted infection symptoms included age of sexual debut, lower education, higher rank, and having had sex with a casual partner or a commercial sex worker in the previous 12 months. These findings indicate high rates of HIV-risk taking behaviors among military personnel and the need for aggressive prevention campaigns to reduce HIV risk among military personnel and the populations they serve. PMID:17641966

  15. Audit of endoscopic surveillance biopsy specimens in HIV positive patients with gastrointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, S G; Lipman, M C; Squire, S; Pillay, D; Gillespie, S; Sankey, E A; Dhillon, A P; Johnson, M A; Lee, C A; Pounder, R E

    1993-01-01

    An audit of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in HIV infected patients with gastrointestinal symptoms assessed the frequency of disease detected by endoscopy and routine laboratory analysis of surveillance biopsy specimens. Sixty nine consecutive endoscopies were performed in 59 HIV infected patients. Endoscopic biopsy specimens were taken from the lower oesophagus, gastric antrum, and third part of the duodenum for virology, histopathology, parasitology, bacteriology, and mycobacterial culture. Endoscopic appearances detected disease in 25/59 (42.4%) patients (oesophageal candida, 14; oesophageal ulcer, 3; Kaposi's sarcoma, 4; others, 4), but only 4/43 (9.3%) specimens showed evidence of disease in the absence of endoscopic abnormality. Virology for cytomegalovirus (detection of early antigenic fluorescent foci and culture) was positive in 6/59 (10.2%) patients, but parasitology and mycobacterial culture were negative in all cases. Histopathology was abnormal in 11/52 (21%) oesophageal biopsy specimens, 13/47 (28%) gastric biopsy specimens, and 4/65 (6%) duodenal biopsy specimens. Abnormal findings were found predominantly in those with advanced HIV disease (CDC Stage IV) (21/33 patients (64%)) compared with those with early HIV disease (CDC Stage II) (5/26 (19%)). In conclusion, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy detects macroscopic disease in AIDS patients and those with low CD4 counts, but routine surveillance biopsy specimens of apparently normal bowel in early HIV disease (or where CD4 counts are greater than 0.2 x 10(9)/1) are of little value. PMID:8244115

  16. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Vilim, R.B.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.

    1998-04-28

    A method and system are disclosed for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process. 33 figs.

  17. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Vilim, Richard B.; Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.

    1998-01-01

    A method and system for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process.

  18. An 11-Year Surveillance of HIV Type 1 Subtypes in Nagoya, Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Seiichiro; Ibe, Shiro; Hattori, Junko; Shigemi, Urara; Fujisaki, Saeko; Shimizu, Kayoko; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Mamiya, Naoto; Utsumi, Makoto; Hamaguchi, Motohiro; Kaneda, Tsuguhiro

    2009-01-01

    Abstract To monitor active HIV-1 transmission in Nagoya, Japan, we have been determining the subtypes of HIV-1 infecting therapy-naive individuals who have newly visited the Nagoya Medical Center since 1997. The subtypes were determined by phylogenetic analyses using the base sequences in three regions of the HIV-1 genes including gag p17, pol protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT), and env C2V3. Almost all HIV-1 subtypes from 1997 to 2007 and 93% of all HIV-1 isolates in 2007 were subtype B. HIV-1 subtypes A, C, D, and F have been detected sporadically since 1997, almost all in Africans and South Americans. The first detected circulating recombinant form (CRF ) was CRF01_AE (11-year average annual detection rate, 7.7%). Only two cases of CRF02_AG were detected in 2006. A unique recombinant form (URF ) was first detected in 1998 and the total number of URFs reached 25 by year 2007 (average annual detection rate, 4.7%). Eleven of these 25 were detected from 2000 to 2005 and had subtypes AE/B/AE as determined by base sequencing of the gag p17, pol PR and RT, and env C2V3 genes (average annual detection rate, 3.7%). Unique subtype B has been detected in six cases since 2006. All 17 of these patients were Japanese. Other recombinant HIV-1s have been detected intermittently in eight cases since 1998. During the 11-year surveillance, most HIV-1s in Nagoya, Japan were of subtype B. We expect that subtype B HIV-1 will continue to predominate for the next several years. Active recombination between subtype B and CRF01_AE HIV-1 and its transmission were also shown.

  19. A multistate approach for estimating the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus by using HIV and AIDS French surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Sommen, Cécile; Alioum, Ahmadou; Commenges, Daniel

    2009-05-15

    Before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996, monitoring the epidemics of HIV infection was extensively based on back-calculating the number of new HIV infections from AIDS surveillance data and knowledge of the AIDS incubation period distribution. However, the increase in the AIDS incubation period induced by HAART has complicated the use of AIDS diagnosis data only, and made it necessary to supplement these data with HIV diagnosis data. We explore the advantage of combining HIV and AIDS surveillance data in the context where the HIV diagnosis data are available only for the most recent years. Extending the earlier work of Aalen et al. (Statist. Med. 1997; 16(19):2191-2210) based on a discrete-time Markov model that describes simultaneously disease progression, HIV diagnosis and treatment intake, we propose a penalized likelihood approach to estimate smooth HIV incidence, together with HIV diagnosis rates. The smoothing parameter is chosen using an approximated cross-validation criterion. In a simulation study, we show that incorporation of HIV test information improves the precision of the estimation of the incidence of infections in recent periods. The method is illustrated using HIV and AIDS surveillance data collected by the Institut de Veille Sanitaire, France. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The development of an evaluation framework for injury surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Williamson, Ann M; O'Connor, Rod

    2009-01-01

    Background Access to good quality information from injury surveillance is essential to develop and monitor injury prevention activities. To determine if information obtained from surveillance is of high quality, the limitations and strengths of a surveillance system are often examined. Guidelines have been developed to assist in evaluating certain types of surveillance systems. However, to date, no standard guidelines have been developed to specifically evaluate an injury surveillance system. The aim of this research is to develop a framework to guide the evaluation of injury surveillance systems. Methods The development of an Evaluation Framework for Injury Surveillance Systems (EFISS) involved a four stage process. First, a literature review was conducted to identify an initial set of characteristics that were recognised as important and/or had been recommended to be assessed in an evaluation of a surveillance system. Second, this set of characteristics was assessed using SMART criteria. Third, those surviving were presented to an expert panel using a two round modified-Delphi study to gain an alternative perspective on characteristic definitions, practicality of assessment, and characteristic importance. Finally, a rating system was created for the EFISS characteristics. Results The resulting EFISS consisted of 18 characteristics that assess three areas of an injury surveillance system – five characteristics assess data quality, nine characteristics assess the system's operation, and four characteristics assess the practical capability of an injury surveillance system. A rating system assesses the performance of each characteristic. Conclusion The development of the EFISS builds upon existing evaluation guidelines for surveillance systems and provides a framework tailored to evaluate an injury surveillance system. Ultimately, information obtained through an evaluation of an injury data collection using the EFISS would be useful for agencies to recommend how a

  1. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. Dale; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Gribble, R. Parks; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Prince, James M.; Reid, Larry D.

    1996-01-01

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm.

  2. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Gribble, R. Parks

    1995-01-01

    A holographic surveillance system including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm.

  3. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H.D.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Gribble, R.P.

    1995-10-03

    A holographic surveillance system is disclosed including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm. 21 figs.

  4. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; McMakin, D.L.; Gribble, R.P.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Reid, L.D.

    1996-09-17

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm. 28 figs.

  5. [Analysis on bacillary dysentery surveillance data collected from the National Surveillance System in 2007.].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hao-jie; Chang, Zhao-rui; Zhang, Jing

    2010-03-01

    To improve the national surveillance plan on bacillary dysentery and to increase the sensitivity of the surveillance system on the disease. Data was collected through China Disease Reporting Information System (CDRIS) and National Sentinel Surveillance Sites on bacillary dysentery. Data from the CDRIS was compared with the data from the National Sentinel Surveillance to identify the exiting problems. Data from the monitoring sites showed that the detection rate of infant cases of bacillary dysentery infection was 1%, less than that of other age groups. The highest rates were seen in children aged 3 through 9 years. Rate on misdiagnosis in all age group was 23.38%, when using the surveillance case definition of clinical cases and suspect case. The rate of misdiagnosis on infant cases of bacillary dysentery infection by clinical diagnosis was 50%. It showed that Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei were dominant with the positive rates as 57.21% and 42.41%, respectively. From the national sentinel surveillance sites, the confirmed cases taking up 43.39% which did not match the figure from the CDRIS. The diagnostic criterion for bacillary dysentery fit well on other age groups in surveillance system except on infants. Active surveillance on bacillary dysentery that combining both clinical and laboratory diagnosis seems quite necessary on CDRIS, especially for infants.

  6. [Surveillance for HIV infection in MSM selected through respondent driven sampling in Beijing, 2005-2012].

    PubMed

    Sun, Y M; Sun, W D; Lu, H Y; Xin, R L; He, S F; Zhang, Q; Yue, H; Fan, X G; Ma, X Y

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To understand the HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) and discuss the feasibility of respondent driven sampling (RDS) as a tool to conduct long term HIV surveillance in MSM in Beijing. Methods: From 2005 to 2012 RDS was used to recruit MSM for face-to-face interview with structured questionnaire to collect their demographic characteristics and HIV risk-related behavior. Blood samples were collected from them for HIV test. Results: A total of 427, 540, 607, 614, 616, 602, 579 and 600 MSM were surveyed, respectively, from 2005 to 2012. The HIV infection prevalence increased from 4.2%(95%CI: 1.9-7.0) in 2005 to 10.1% (95%CI: 7.2-13.2) in 2012 (P=0.02). Meanwhile, HIV prevalence substantially increased among MSM aged >25 years, in floating population and with lower education level (≤high school), from 6.4%(95%CI: 2.2-9.5), 3.3%(95%CI: 1.8-5.4) and 5.5% (95%CI: 2.2-8.9) in 2005 to 7.6% (95%CI: 5.4-10.3, P=0.04), 10.7% (95% CI: 7.8-14.6, P=0.04) and 10.4% (95% CI:7.2-14.3, P=0.04) in 2012, respectively. Moreover, the HIV infection prevalence in MSM aged ≤25 years old and with higher education level (>high school) increased from 1.7%(95%CI: 0.4-3.1) in 2009 and 1.1%(95%CI: 0.2-1.7) in 2007 to 13.7%(95%CI: 7.2-20.4) and 9.1%(95%CI: 4.7-13.8) in 2012, respectively, the differences were not significant. Furthermore, the HIV infection prevalence in MSM who had 2-9 male sex partners in the last six months increased from 4.0% (95% CI: 1.0-8.0) in 2005 to 12.6% (95% CI: 8.7-16.7) in 2012 (P=0.02). Conclusions: Studies have shown that RDS is an effective and feasible sampling method for long term HIV surveillance in MSM. The HIV infection prevalence in MSM in Beijing increased from 2005 to 2012, especially among those with older age, in floating population and with lower educational level. More attention should be paid to MSM with younger age and with higher educational level.

  7. Long Range Infrared Surveillance System (LRIRSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Gregg W.

    1987-09-01

    The contract requirement for the LRIRSS program was to design, fabricate, test, and deliver infrared (IR) surveillance systems capable of target detection and recognition at extended ranges. Several significant technical advancements were made during the course of the program. The twenty three inch primary reflecting surface had to be of aluminum due to thermal and weight considerations. This was accomplished through the use of diamond point turned aluminum. The IR and laser receivers are active simultaneously; this has been achieved through the incorporation of a "chopping" mirror that time shares the main aperture between the FLIR and CO2 laser receivers. In addition, the laser had to be eye-safe at the transmitter exit aperture. The use of a single pulse Carbon Dioxide (CO2) laser has met the requirement, and is certified by the US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency in Study No. 25-42-0335-85. The major technical challenges have been met, as well as several minor difficulties that arose during the execution of the effort. All hardware has been delivered to the Government in accord with the contractual schedule. NOMENCLATURE CO2 Carbon Dioxide CPU Central Processing Unit FLIR Forward Looking Infrared FOV Field of View IFOV Instantaneous Field of View IR Infrared LRF Laser Rangefinder LRIRSS Long Range Infrared Surveillance System PCB Printed Circuit Board

  8. Optimizing the response to surveillance alerts in automated surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Masoumeh; Buckeridge, David L

    2011-02-28

    Although much research effort has been directed toward refining algorithms for disease outbreak alerting, considerably less attention has been given to the response to alerts generated from statistical detection algorithms. Given the inherent inaccuracy in alerting, it is imperative to develop methods that help public health personnel identify optimal policies in response to alerts. This study evaluates the application of dynamic decision making models to the problem of responding to outbreak detection methods, using anthrax surveillance as an example. Adaptive optimization through approximate dynamic programming is used to generate a policy for decision making following outbreak detection. We investigate the degree to which the model can tolerate noise theoretically, in order to keep near optimal behavior. We also evaluate the policy from our model empirically and compare it with current approaches in routine public health practice for investigating alerts. Timeliness of outbreak confirmation and total costs associated with the decisions made are used as performance measures. Using our approach, on average, 80 per cent of outbreaks were confirmed prior to the fifth day of post-attack with considerably less cost compared to response strategies currently in use. Experimental results are also provided to illustrate the robustness of the adaptive optimization approach and to show the realization of the derived error bounds in practice.

  9. Low-cost panoramic infrared surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecskes, Ian; Engel, Ezra; Wolfe, Christopher M.; Thomson, George

    2017-05-01

    A nighttime surveillance concept consisting of a single surface omnidirectional mirror assembly and an uncooled Vanadium Oxide (VOx) longwave infrared (LWIR) camera has been developed. This configuration provides a continuous field of view spanning 360° in azimuth and more than 110° in elevation. Both the camera and the mirror are readily available, off-the-shelf, inexpensive products. The mirror assembly is marketed for use in the visible spectrum and requires only minor modifications to function in the LWIR spectrum. The compactness and portability of this optical package offers significant advantages over many existing infrared surveillance systems. The developed system was evaluated on its ability to detect moving, human-sized heat sources at ranges between 10 m and 70 m. Raw camera images captured by the system are converted from rectangular coordinates in the camera focal plane to polar coordinates and then unwrapped into the users azimuth and elevation system. Digital background subtraction and color mapping are applied to the images to increase the users ability to extract moving items from background clutter. A second optical system consisting of a commercially available 50 mm f/1.2 ATHERM lens and a second LWIR camera is used to examine the details of objects of interest identified using the panoramic imager. A description of the components of the proof of concept is given, followed by a presentation of raw images taken by the panoramic LWIR imager. A description of the method by which these images are analyzed is given, along with a presentation of these results side-by-side with the output of the 50 mm LWIR imager and a panoramic visible light imager. Finally, a discussion of the concept and its future development are given.

  10. Evaluation of the National Human Immunodeficiency Virus Surveillance System for the 2011 diagnosis year.

    PubMed

    Karch, Debra L; Chen, Mi; Tang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention completed migration of all 59 surveillance project areas (PAs) from the case-based HIV/AIDS Reporting System to the document-based Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System. We conducted a PA-level assessment of Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System process and outcome standards for HIV infection cases. Process standards were reported by PAs and outcome standards were calculated using standardized Centers for Disease Control and Prevention SAS code. A total of 59 PAs including 50 US states, the District of Columbia, 6 separately funded cities (Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles County, New York City, Philadelphia, and San Francisco), and 2 territories (Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands). Cases diagnosed or reported to the PA surveillance system between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011, using data collected through December 2012. Process standards for death ascertainment and intra- and interstate case de-duplication; outcome standards for completeness and timeliness of case reporting, data quality, intrastate duplication rate, risk factor ascertainment, and completeness of initial CD4 and viral load reporting. Fifty-five of 59 PAs (93%) reported linking cases to state vital records death certificates during 2012, 76% to the Social Security Death Master File, and 59% to the National Death Index. Seventy percent completed monthly intrastate, and 63% completed semiannual interstate de-duplication. Eighty-three percent met the 85% or more case ascertainment standard, and 92% met the 66% or more timeliness standard; 75% met the 97% or more data quality standard; all PAs met the 5% or less intrastate duplication rate; 41% met the 85% or more risk factor ascertainment standard; 90% met the 50% or more standard for initial CD4; and 93% met the same standard for viral load reporting. Overall, 7% of PAs met all 11 process and outcome standards. Findings support the need for continued improvement in HIV surveillance activities

  11. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Recently Infected Individuals at Men Who Have Sex with Men Sentinel Surveillance Points in Hebei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Chen, Suliang; Zhao, Hongru; Liu, Yongjian; Zhao, Cuiying; Zhang, Yuqi; Li, Jingyun; Cui, Ze; Wang, Xianfeng

    2015-10-01

    For this study, 50 HIV-1 plasma samples of recently infected men who have sex with men (MSM) were amplified and sequenced. Multiple subtypes were identified by phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 gag, env, and pol gene regions, including CRF01_AE (56.0%), CRF07_BC (30.0%), subtype B (12.0%), and unique recombinant forms (URFs, 6.0%). CRF01_AE was the most frequent genotype in the epidemic. Three recombination patterns of URFs were identified: 01BC, 01B, and 01C. The rate of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutation (M46L) was 2.08% (1/48). URFs and TDR first identified in this study suggest that HIV-1 prevalence is more and more complicated, and HIV-1 drug-resistant strains have begun to spread among at risk populations in Hebei. Our findings can provide vital information for an efficient surveillance system and strategic HIV prevention and control measures in China by revealing the evolutionary status and HIV-1 TDR of HIV-1 strains among recently infected MSM in Hebei Province.

  12. Mental health surveillance and information systems.

    PubMed

    Gater, R; Chisholm, D; Dowrick, C

    2015-09-28

    Routine information systems for mental health in many Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are rudimentary or absent, making it difficult to understand the needs of local populations and to plan accordingly. Key components for mental health surveillance and information systems are: national commitment and leadership to ensure that relevant high quality information is collected and reported; a minimum data set of key mental health indicators; intersectoral collaboration with appropriate data sharing; routine data collection supplemented with periodic surveys; quality control and confidentiality; and technology and skills to support data collection, sharing and dissemination. Priority strategic interventions include: (1) periodically assessing and reporting the mental health resources and capacities available using standardized methodologies; (2) routine collection of information and reporting on service availability, coverage and continuity, for priority mental disorders disaggregated by age, sex and diagnosis; and (3) mandatory recording and reporting of suicides at the national level (using relevant ICD codes).

  13. VISSTM: : A Video Intelligent Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriss, William P.; Price, Wayne G.; Bober, Miroslaw Z.

    2002-12-01

    Video surveillance is gaining increasing popularity as a possible response to various threats such as terrorism, vandalism and crime. The need for automated analysis of the events monitored by video cameras and support for fast search and browsing of such recorded video data is evident. In this paper we present VISSTM, a prototype system that uses advanced video segmentation and MPEG-7 technology to analyse and index visual events in real time. Visual features such as shape, colour and texture are extracted and used to describe the images stored on the system. A search of large volumes of data can be performed very quickly. We show examples of the fast search made possible with VISSTM.

  14. Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  15. [Mapping HIV prevalence in the Netherlands with geographic information systems].

    PubMed

    Op de Coul, E L M; Joore, I K; van Sighem, A; Bom, B C J; Hillebregt, M; Prins, J M; Geerlings, S E; van Bergen, J E A M

    2017-01-01

    To map regions of the Netherlands with high HIV prevalence for surveillance and prevention purposes. Information on numbers of HIV patients receiving clinical care on 31 December 2014 per postcode region was requested from the HIV monitoring foundation (SHM). These details were related to data from Statistics Netherlands on the number of residents per municipal area or district with the aid of a geographic information system (GIS). Distribution mapping showed that ten municipal areas in the Netherlands have an HIV prevalence of 2 or more per 1000 residents aged 15-60 years. We discovered the highest prevalence in Amsterdam (8.1) and suburbs, Rotterdam (3.4), The Hague (2.7) and Arnhem (2.5). Large differences were seen between districts, particularly in Amsterdam where HIV was concentrated within two districts: Central Amsterdam (9-28) and Amsterdam Southeast (5-20). In Rotterdam and The Hague, HIV prevalence rates are lower and differences between districts are smaller. Geographical analyses show differences in HIV prevalence for municipal areas and districts in big cities in the Netherlands. These data can be used for new interventions, to better focus HIV detection.

  16. Using HIV Viral Load From Surveillance to Estimate the Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, Sarah L; Robertson, McKaylee M; Myers, Julie; Nash, Denis

    2016-10-01

    HIV surveillance programs do not typically collect comprehensive data on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We validated a population-based measure of ART initiation that uses HIV viral load (VL) results in the absence of data on ART. We used CD4/VL data reported to NYC HIV Surveillance for persons aged ≥13 years and diagnosed with HIV from 2006 to 2012 to validate estimates of ART initiation date based on 3 ART initiation definitions: (1) ≥1-log decline in copies per milliliter between 2 VLs over 3 months; (2) ≥2-log decline in copies per milliliter between 2 VLs over 3 months; and (3) the earliest of either a ≥1-log decline in VL over 3 months, or a change from detectable VL to undetectable VL (<400 copies/mL) over any interval. We plotted median CD4 counts by quarter before and after ART initiation to compare estimated initiation date with nadir of the CD4 trajectory. A total of 24,348 persons were diagnosed with HIV in NYC from 2006 to 2012. In all, 12,123 persons had probable ART initiation based on ≥2-log decline, 12,719 based on ≥1-log decline, and 14,311 based on ≥1-log decline or detectable-undetectable change. Lowest median CD4 count occurred at the estimated ART initiation date for all 3 definitions. The definition based on a ≥1-log VL decline or a change from detectable to undetectable VL captured more ART initiations and identified earlier initiation dates. Serial VL measures are a valid source for estimating ART initiation. A definition that includes a ≥1-log VL decline or a change from detectable to undetectable VL performed best.

  17. Using HIV Viral Load From Surveillance to Estimate the Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Braunstein, Sarah L.; Robertson, McKaylee M.; Myers, Julie; Nash, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Introduction HIV surveillance programs do not typically collect comprehensive data on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We validated a population-based measure of ART initiation that uses HIV viral load (VL) results in the absence of data on ART. Methods We used CD4/VL data reported to NYC HIV Surveillance for persons aged ≥13 years and diagnosed with HIV from 2006 to 2012 to validate estimates of ART initiation date based on 3 ART initiation definitions: (1) ≥1-log decline in copies per milliliter between 2 VLs over 3 months; (2) ≥2-log decline in copies per milliliter between 2 VLs over 3 months; and (3) the earliest of either a ≥1-log decline in VL over 3 months, or a change from detectable VL to undetectable VL (<400 copies/mL) over any interval. We plotted median CD4 counts by quarter before and after ART initiation to compare estimated initiation date with nadir of the CD4 trajectory. Results A total of 24,348 persons were diagnosed with HIV in NYC from 2006 to 2012. In all, 12,123 persons had probable ART initiation based on ≥2-log decline, 12,719 based on ≥1-log decline, and 14,311 based on ≥1-log decline or detectable–undetectable change. Lowest median CD4 count occurred at the estimated ART initiation date for all 3 definitions. The definition based on a ≥1-log VL decline or a change from detectable to undetectable VL captured more ART initiations and identified earlier initiation dates. Conclusions Serial VL measures are a valid source for estimating ART initiation. A definition that includes a ≥1-log VL decline or a change from detectable to undetectable VL performed best. PMID:27152466

  18. Surveillance of HIV antiretroviral drug resistance in treated individuals in England: 1998-2000.

    PubMed

    Scott, Paul; Arnold, Eve; Evans, Barry; Pozniak, Anton; Moyle, Graeme; Shahmenesh, Mohsen; White, David; Shirley, Jane; Cane, Patricia; Pillay, Deenan

    2004-03-01

    To establish a surveillance programme for HIV drug resistance within the UK covering the years from 1998 to 2000, following the introduction of triple combination antiretroviral therapy. Sentinel sites included large, medium sized and small clinical centres. Data were analysed until December 2000. Of nearly 300 samples tested, results from 91, 92 and 92 patients, respectively in 1998, 1999 and 2000, who were receiving HIV therapy with a viral load >2000 copies/mL, the majority had viruses with some degree of drug resistance. Overall, the presence of any resistance increased between 1998 and 1999, and fell again in 2000 (69% versus 88% versus 55%). However, major differences were observed between drug classes, such that non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance rose dramatically over the period studied. We show that this correlated with increased NNRTI prescribing. Furthermore, an overall increase in prevalence of viruses with resistance to one or more drugs within all three available classes was observed. A higher prevalence of drug resistance was observed in patients from smaller clinical centres. This is the first such sentinel surveillance dataset from the UK, and is unique in correlating these data with national antiretroviral prescribing patterns. Our findings are relevant to the increased transmission of HIV drug resistance observed over this period.

  19. Ensuring Inclusion of Adolescent Key Populations at Higher Risk of HIV Exposure: Recommendations for Conducting Biological Behavioral Surveillance Surveys.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Sass, Justine; Acaba, Jeffry; Cheng, Wing-Sie; Mark Prabhu, Shirley

    2017-06-20

    Ending acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) depends on greater efforts to reduce new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and prevent AIDS-related deaths among key populations at highest HIV risk, including males who have sex with males, sex workers, and people who inject drugs. Although adolescent key populations (AKP) are disproportionately affected by HIV, they have been largely ignored in HIV biological behavioral surveillance survey (BBSS) activities to date. This paper reviews current ethical and sampling challenges and provides suggestions to ensure AKP are included in surveillance activities, with the aim being to enhance evidence-informed, strategic, and targeted funding allocations and programs toward ending AIDS among AKP. HIV BBSS, conducted every few years worldwide among adult key populations, provide information on HIV and other infections' prevalence, HIV testing, risk behaviors, program coverage, and when at least three of these surveys are conducted, trend data with which to evaluate progress. We provide suggestions and recommendations on how to make the case to ethical review boards to involve AKP in surveillance while assuring that AKP are properly protected. We also describe two widely used probability sampling methods, time location sampling and respondent driven sampling, and offer considerations of feature modifications when sampling AKP. Effectively responding to AKP's HIV and sexual risks requires the inclusion of AKP in HIV BBSS activities. The implementation of strategies to overcome barriers to including AKP in HIV BBSS will result in more effective and targeted prevention and intervention programs directly suited to the needs of AKP. ©Lisa Grazina Johnston, Justine Sass, Jeffry Acaba, Wing-Sie Cheng, Shirley Mark Prabhu. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 20.06.2017.

  20. Asset surveillance system: apparatus and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    System and method for providing surveillance of an asset comprised of numerically fitting at least one mathematical model to obtained residual data correlative to asset operation; storing at least one mathematical model in a memory; obtaining a current set of signal data from the asset; retrieving at least one mathematical model from the memory, using the retrieved mathematical model in a sequential hypothesis test for determining if the current set of signal data is indicative of a fault condition; determining an asset fault cause correlative to a determined indication of a fault condition; providing an indication correlative to a determined fault cause, and an action when warranted. The residual data can be mode partitioned, a current mode of operation can be determined from the asset, and at least one mathematical model can be retrieved from the memory as a function of the determined mode of operation.

  1. The Usefulness of Individual-Level HIV Surveillance Data to Initiate Statewide HIV Partner Services: Experiences From Hawaii and New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Beltrami, John; Gans, Andrew; Wozniak, Michelle; Murphy, John; Puesta, Benjamin; Kennebrew, Daphne; Angie Allen, Mary; OʼConnor, Kevin

    2017-07-31

    Partner services are a broad array of services that should be offered to persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and that are based on a process through which HIV-infected persons are interviewed to elicit information about their sex and needle-sharing partners. Human immunodeficiency virus testing of partners can result in a high yield of newly diagnosed HIV positivity, but despite this yield and the benefits of partners knowing their exposures and HIV status, partner services are often not conducted. We sought to determine the newly diagnosed HIV positivity and benefits to 2 health departments that conducted demonstration projects that focused on statewide HIV partner services. The main sources of information used for this case study analysis included the health department funding applications, progress reports and final reports submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and records of communications between Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the health departments. Required quantitative reporting included the number of partners tested and the number of partners with newly diagnosed confirmed HIV infection. Required qualitative reporting included how health departments benefited from their demonstration project activities. Hawaii and New Mexico. Sex and needle-sharing partners of persons who were newly diagnosed with HIV infection. The use of HIV surveillance data to initiate statewide HIV partner services. Newly diagnosed HIV positivity. During 2012-2015, the newly diagnosed HIV positivity among partners was 18% (78/427): 16% (17/108) in Hawaii and 19% (61/319) in New Mexico. The health departments benefited from improved collaborations among HIV prevention program and surveillance staff and among the health departments, providers, and AIDS service organizations. Hawaii and New Mexico each achieved a high newly diagnosed HIV positivity and benefited from improved local collaborations. As a result of the success of these

  2. HIV Prevalence Comparison Between Antenatal Sentinel Surveillance and Demographic and Health Survey in Rwanda§

    PubMed Central

    Kayibanda, Jeanne Françoise; Alary, Michel; Bitera, Raphaël; Kabeja, Adeline; Hinda, Ruton; Munyakazi, Louis; Chitou, Bassirou; Gatarayiha, Jean Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare HIV prevalence from antenatal surveillance to that of the demographic and health survey (DHS), and to identify factors determining the difference of HIV prevalence between women recruited in these two surveys in Rwanda in 2005. Methods: Comparative cross-sectional study of HIV prevalence and socio-demographic factors collected by the antenatal survey in 13,745 pregnant women, seen in 30 health centres located throughout the country and those collected by the DHS among 5641 women, aged 15-49 years living in households located throughout the country. Log-binomial regression and direct standardization were used to estimate and compare HIV prevalence between the two surveys. Results: HIV prevalence in the antenatal survey was slightly higher than that in DHS women (4.1% versus 3.6% p=0.103). Socio-demographic characteristics were differently distributed between the two populations. Whereas, 59%, 93%, 53% of pregnant women were aged 20-29 years, married or cohabiting and living in rural areas respectively, the corresponding proportions among DHS women were 35%, 48% and 83% (p<0.001). Simultaneous standardization of antenatal prevalence according to the distribution of socio-demographic characteristics in the DHS gave an overall HIV prevalence estimate of 3.6%, similar to the prevalence measured among DHS women. Conclusions: HIV prevalence in the antenatal survey overestimated that among women of the general population in Rwanda in 2005. This overestimation could be corrected by standardization of antenatal prevalence according to the distribution of age, geographical area, marital status, parity, and education, in the general population. PMID:21643421

  3. Existing public health surveillance systems for mental health in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Mental health is a challenging public health issue worldwide and surveillance is crucial for it. However, mental health surveillance has not been developed until recently in certain developed countries; many other countries, especially developing countries, have poor or even no health information systems. This paper presents surveillance related to mental health in China, a developing country with a large population of patients with mental disorders. Detailed information of seven relevant surveillance systems is introduced respectively. From the perspective of utilization, problems including accessibility, comprehensiveness and data quality are discussed. Suggestions for future development are proposed.

  4. Electronic tuberculosis surveillance systems: a tool for managing today's TB programs.

    PubMed

    Nadol, P; Stinson, K W; Coggin, W; Naicker, M; Wells, C D; Miller, B; Nelson, L J

    2008-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) released the Stop TB Strategy in 2006, along with a revised version of the tuberculosis (TB) recording and reporting forms and register. These publications illustrate the need for an enhanced TB surveillance system that will include such key elements as rapid assessment of the quality of DOTS services; integration and response to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic; TB control challenges, such as increased smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB); increased engagement of all care providers, such as private health care services and the community; and promotion of research to support program improvement. Electronic surveillance systems utilize computer technology to facilitate the capture, transfer and reporting of the WHO-recommended TB data elements. Electronic surveillance offers several potential advantages over the traditional paper-based systems used in many low-resource settings, such as improved data quality and completeness, more feasible links to other health care programs, quality-enhanced data entry and analysis features and increased data security. These advantages must, however, be weighed against the requirements and costs of electronic surveillance, including implementation and support of a quality paper-based surveillance system and the additional costs associated with infrastructure, training and human resources for the implementation and continuing support of an electronic system. Using examples from three different electronic TB surveillance systems that are being implemented in various resource-limited settings, this article demonstrates the feasibility, requirements and value of such systems to support the WHO-recommended enhancement of TB surveillance.

  5. Survey of Clostridium difficile infection surveillance systems in Europe, 2011.

    PubMed

    Kola, Axel; Wiuff, Camilla; Akerlund, Thomas; van Benthem, Birgit H; Coignard, Bruno; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Weitzel-Kage, Doris; Suetens, Carl; Wilcox, Mark H; Kuijper, Ed J; Gastmeier, Petra

    2016-07-21

    To develop a European surveillance protocol for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), existing national CDI surveillance systems were assessed in 2011. A web-based electronic form was provided for all national coordinators of the European CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of 35 national coordinators approached, 33 from 31 European countries replied. Surveillance of CDI was in place in 14 of the 31 countries, comprising 18 different nationwide systems. Three of 14 countries with CDI surveillance used public health notification of cases as the route of reporting, and in another three, reporting was limited to public health notification of cases of severe CDI. The CDI definitions published by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) were widely used, but there were differing definitions to distinguish between community- and healthcare-associated cases. All CDI surveillance systems except one reported annual national CDI rates (calculated as number of cases per patient-days). Only four surveillance systems regularly integrated microbiological data (typing and susceptibility testing results). Surveillance methods varied considerably between countries, which emphasises the need for a harmonised European protocol to allow consistent monitoring of the CDI epidemiology at European level. The results of this survey were used to develop a harmonised EU-wide hospital-based CDI surveillance protocol. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  6. Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    López, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Valenzuela, Berta; Lorca, Lilia; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena

    2009-01-01

    Pet diseases may pose risks to human health but are rarely included in surveillance systems. A pilot surveillance system of pet infectious diseases in Santiago, Chile, found that 4 canine and 3 feline diseases accounted for 90.1% and 98.4% of notifications, respectively. Data also suggested association between poverty and pet diseases. PMID:19861073

  7. HIV epidemic and human rights among men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for HIV prevention, care, and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Abara, Winston E; Garba, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has presented evidence that men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV and are at increased risk for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, many countries in SSA have failed to address the needs of MSM in national HIV/AIDS programmes. Furthermore, many MSM face structural barriers to HIV prevention and care, the most significant of which include laws that criminalise male-to-male sexual contact and facilitate stigma and discrimination. This in turn increases the vulnerability of MSM to acquiring HIV and presents barriers to HIV prevention, care, and surveillance. This relationship illustrates the link between human rights, social justice, and health outcomes and presents considerable challenges to addressing the HIV epidemic among MSM in SSA. The response to the HIV epidemic in SSA requires a non-discriminatory human rights approach to all at-risk groups, including MSM. Existing international human rights treaties, to which many SSA countries are signatories, and a 'health in all policies' approach provides a strong basis to reduce structural barriers to HIV prevention, care, surveillance, and research, and to ensure that all populations in SSA, including MSM, have access to the full range of rights that help ensure equal opportunities for health and wellness.

  8. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-06-20

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  9. Drug safety during pregnancy and in infants. Lack of mortality related to mitochondrial dysfunction among perinatally HIV-exposed children in pediatric HIV surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, M L; Rhodes, P; Gordon, L; Fleming, P

    2000-11-01

    The objectives were to assess whether any deaths reported among perinatally exposed, uninfected, or indeterminate children were consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction, and to characterize perinatal exposure to antiretrovirals among children born in the last five years and reported to perinatal HIV surveillance. Population-based HIV/AIDS surveillance data on perinatally exposed children born in 1993 through 1998 from 32 states with HIV reporting and from a special HIV surveillance project in Los Angeles County and in 22 hospitals in New York City were used. The classifications of exposure and deaths were consistent with the investigation of deaths across all US cohorts. Deaths were ascertained from recent matches with death registries in each state. Causes of death were ascertained from death certificates, autopsy records when available, and medical records. None of the 98 deaths (1.1%) among 9067 perinatally exposed uninfected or indeterminate children born from 1993 through 1998 and reported through pediatric HIV surveillance died of conditions that were consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. This included 679 children exposed to zidovudine (ZDV) and 3TC, 277 exposed to other antiretroviral combinations, 4512 exposed to ZDV alone, 927 with no antiretroviral exposure, and 2672 with unknown exposure--1128 of whom were born before March 1994 and were unlikely to have been exposed to ZDV. No deaths attributable to mitochondrial dysfunction were found through this evaluation of population-based HIV surveillance data. Long-term follow-up of antiretroviral-exposed children has been recommended by the Public Health Service. This evaluation highlights the contribution of population-based surveillance to the evaluation of potential toxicities associated with maternal antiretroviral use.

  10. Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) for unannounced safeguards inspections.

    SciTech Connect

    Galdoz, Erwin G. , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Pinkalla, Mark

    2010-09-01

    The Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The joint project addresses specific requirements of redundant surveillance systems installed in two South American nuclear facilities as a tool to support unannounced inspections conducted by ABACC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The surveillance covers the critical time (as much as a few hours) between the notification of an inspection and the access of inspectors to the location in facility where surveillance equipment is installed. ABACC and the IAEA currently use the EURATOM Multiple Optical Surveillance System (EMOSS). This outdated system is no longer available or supported by the manufacturer. The current EMOSS system has met the project objective; however, the lack of available replacement parts and system support has made this system unsustainable and has increased the risk of an inoperable system. A new system that utilizes current technology and is maintainable is required to replace the aging EMOSS system. ABACC intends to replace one of the existing ABACC EMOSS systems by the Secure Video Surveillance System. SVSS utilizes commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technologies for all individual components. Sandia National Laboratories supported the system design for SVSS to meet Safeguards requirements, i.e. tamper indication, data authentication, etc. The SVSS consists of two video surveillance cameras linked securely to a data collection unit. The collection unit is capable of retaining historical surveillance data for at least three hours with picture intervals as short as 1sec. Images in .jpg format are available to inspectors using various software review tools. SNL has delivered two SVSS systems for test and evaluation at the ABACC Safeguards Laboratory. An additional 'proto-type' system remains

  11. HIV risk behavioral surveillance in Bangkok, Thailand: sexual behavior trends among eight population groups.

    PubMed

    Mills, S; Benjarattanaporn, P; Bennett, A; Pattalung, R N; Sundhagul, D; Trongsawad, P; Gregorich, S E; Hearst, N; Mandel, J S

    1997-09-01

    To assess trends in HIV risk behaviors over a 3-year period in eight population groups in Bangkok, Thailand. Using a repeated cross-sectional survey design with a structured questionnaire, we collected five sets of self-reported sexual behavior data related to HIV risk from the following subject groups at the same sampling sites during 1993-1996: direct and indirect female sex workers, male attenders of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics, female attenders of antenatal care clinics, male and female vocational students, and male and female factory workers. Reported patronage of commercial sex by the three male groups declined by an overall average of 48% over the 3-year period. Other non-regular sexual partnerships declined among male STD clinic attenders and vocational students. Condom use during most recent sexual intercourse between sex workers and clients peaked at high levels (>90%) in the early data waves, while among indirect sex workers and their clients, consistent condom usage increased from 56% to 89%. Low condom use persisted among sex workers and their non-paying sex partners. Single women reported low levels of sexual activity and condom use with no signs of an increase. Similarly, married women from antenatal clinics reported low condom use with their husbands, with no change throughout the period of the study. HIV risk behavioral surveillance is a useful way of determining whether behavior change has occurred in specific population groups. The results here confirm and add to a growing set of evidence of risk behavior reduction in Thailand. The behavioral changes did not occur uniformly but varied depending on the sexual dyad and the population group under study. Behavioral surveillance should be promoted and its methodologies strengthened in attempts to understand the local dynamics of HIV epidemics.

  12. Mass HIV Treatment and Sex Disparities in Life Expectancy: Demographic Surveillance in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bor, Jacob; Rosen, Sydney; Chimbindi, Natsayi; Haber, Noah; Herbst, Kobus; Mutevedzi, Tinofa; Tanser, Frank; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-01-01

    Background Women have better patient outcomes in HIV care and treatment than men in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed—at the population level—whether and to what extent mass HIV treatment is associated with changes in sex disparities in adult life expectancy, a summary metric of survival capturing mortality across the full cascade of HIV care. We also determined sex-specific trends in HIV mortality and the distribution of HIV-related deaths in men and women prior to and at each stage of the clinical cascade. Methods and Findings Data were collected on all deaths occurring from 2001 to 2011 in a large population-based surveillance cohort (52,964 women and 45,688 men, ages 15 y and older) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy (93% response rate). Demographic data were linked at the individual level to clinical records from the public sector HIV treatment and care program that serves the region. Annual rates of HIV-related mortality were assessed for men and women separately, and female-to-male rate ratios were estimated in exponential hazard models. Sex-specific trends in adult life expectancy and HIV-cause-deleted adult life expectancy were calculated. The proportions of HIV deaths that accrued to men and women at different stages in the HIV cascade of care were estimated annually. Following the beginning of HIV treatment scale-up in 2004, HIV mortality declined among both men and women. Female adult life expectancy increased from 51.3 y (95% CI 49.7, 52.8) in 2003 to 64.5 y (95% CI 62.7, 66.4) in 2011, a gain of 13.2 y. Male adult life expectancy increased from 46.9 y (95% CI 45.6, 48.2) in 2003 to 55.9 y (95% CI 54.3, 57.5) in 2011, a gain of 9.0 y. The gap between female and male adult life expectancy doubled, from 4.4 y in 2003 to 8.6 y in 2011, a difference of 4.3 y (95% CI 0.9, 7.6). For women, HIV mortality declined from 1.60 deaths per 100 person-years (95% CI 1.46, 1.75) in 2003 to 0.56 per 100 person

  13. Profile: Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Clark, Benjamin D; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B; Wagner, Ryan G; Garenne, Michel L; Clark, Samuel J; Tollman, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observational work includes cohorts focusing on different stages along the life course, evaluation of national policy at population, household and individual levels and examination of household responses to shocks and stresses and the resulting pathways influencing health and well-being. Trials target children and adolescents, including promoting psycho-social well-being, preventing HIV transmission and reducing metabolic disease risk. Efforts to enhance the research platform include using automated measurement techniques to estimate cause of death by verbal autopsy, full ‘reconciliation’ of in- and out-migrations, follow-up of migrants departing the study area, recording of extra-household social connections and linkage of individual HDSS records with those from sub-district clinics. Fostering effective collaborations (including INDEPTH multi-centre work in adult health and ageing and migration and urbanization), ensuring cross-site compatibility of common variables and optimizing public access to HDSS data are priorities. PMID:22933647

  14. Profile: Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Derra, Karim; Rouamba, Eli; Kazienga, Adama; Ouedraogo, Sayouba; Tahita, Marc C; Sorgho, Hermann; Valea, Innocent; Tinto, Halidou

    2012-10-01

    The Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), located in the rural centre of Burkina Faso, was established in 2009 by the Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro with the aim of providing a core framework for clinical trials and also to support the Burkina Faso health authorities in generating epidemiological data that can contribute to the setup and assessment of health interventions. In the baseline of initial census, 54 781 individuals were recorded of whom 56.1% are female. After the initial census, vital events such as pregnancies, births, migrations and deaths have been monitored, and data on individuals and household characteristics are updated during regular 4-monthly household visits. The available data are categorized into demographic, cultural, socio-economic and health information, and are used for monitoring and evaluation of population development issues. As a young site, our objective has been to strengthen our skills and knowledge and share new scientific experiences with INDEPTH and HDSS sites in Burkina Faso. In addition, all data produced by the Nanoro HDSS will be made publicly available through the INDEPTH data sharing system.

  15. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: Farafenni Health and Demographic Surveillance System in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Jasseh, Momodou; Gomez, Pierre; Greenwood, Brian M; Howie, Stephen R C; Scott, Susana; Snell, Paul C; Bojang, Kalifa; Cham, Mamady; Corrah, Tumani; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2015-06-01

    The Farafenni Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Farafenni HDSS) is located 170 km from the coast in a rural area of The Gambia, north of the River Gambia. It was set up in 1981 by the UK Medical Research Council Laboratories to generate demographic and health information required for the evaluation of a village-based, primary health care programme in 40 villages. Regular updates of demographic events and residency status have subsequently been conducted every 4 months. The surveillance area was extended in 2002 to include Farafenni Town and surrounding villages to support randomized, controlled trials. With over three decades of prospective surveillance, and through specific scientific investigations, the platform (population ≈ 50,000) has generated data on: morbidity and mortality due to malaria in children and during pregnancy; non-communicable disease among adults; reproductive health; and levels and trends in childhood and maternal mortality. Other information routinely collected includes causes of death through verbal autopsy, and household socioeconomic indicators. The current portfolio of the platform includes tracking Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) attainments in rural Gambia and cause-of-death determination.

  16. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project.

  17. Mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rosewell, Alexander; Ropa, Berry; Randall, Heather; Dagina, Rosheila; Hurim, Samuel; Bieb, Sibauk; Datta, Siddhartha; Ramamurthy, Sundar; Mola, Glen; Zwi, Anthony B; Ray, Pradeep; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2013-11-01

    The health care system in Papua New Guinea is fragile, and surveillance systems infrequently meet international standards. To strengthen outbreak identification, health authorities piloted a mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system and used established frameworks to evaluate whether the system was meeting objectives. Stakeholder experience was investigated by using standardized questionnaires and focus groups. Nine sites reported data that included 7 outbreaks and 92 cases of acute watery diarrhea. The new system was more timely (2.4 vs. 84 days), complete (70% vs. 40%), and sensitive (95% vs. 26%) than existing systems. The system was simple, stable, useful, and acceptable; however, feedback and subnational involvement were weak. A simple syndromic surveillance system implemented in a fragile state enabled more timely, complete, and sensitive data reporting for disease risk assessment. Feedback and provincial involvement require improvement. Use of mobile phone technology might improve the timeliness and efficiency of public health surveillance.

  18. EWES. Early Warning Expert System for Equipment Operability Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.; Herzog, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    EWES is an Al-based expert system for signal validation and sensor operability surveillance in industrial applications that require high-reliability, high-sensitivity annunciation of degraded sensors, discrepant signals, or the onset or incipience of system disturbances.

  19. Early Warning Expert System for Equipment Operability Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1996-12-18

    EWES is an Al-based expert system for signal validation and sensor operability surveillance in industrial applications that require high-reliability, high-sensitivity annunciation of degraded sensors, discrepant signals, or the onset or incipience of system disturbances.

  20. Stereographic Projection in the Joint Surveillance System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    Dlvision Joint Surveillance Sjya h-og oI’c Jaint Surveillance SY4 Prog Ofc FOR TH~ OOAD~ JILYSELL If. WOESME, GS -14 Deputy Syritem Progran Director...937 1.875 650 1200 .9852 1,485 2.969 430 120 .9998 .021 .042 410 240 .9993 .072 .145 390 360 .9985 .154 .308 370 480 . 9973 .266 .533 330 720 .9942 .581

  1. Local collaborations: development and implementation of Boston's bioterrorism surveillance system.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Verna B; Gunn, Julia E; Auerbach, John; Brinsfield, Kathryn H; Dyer, K Sophia; Barry, M Anita

    2003-01-01

    The Boston Public Health Commission developed and implemented an active surveillance system for bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies. A bioterrorism Surveillance Task Force was formed with representatives from local emergency medicine, infection control, infectious diseases, public health, and emergency medical services. These local agencies worked together to develop a reliable, easy to use electronic surveillance system. Collaboration at the local level and building on existing relationships is a key component of this system. Effective follow-up systems and technology back-up plans are essential. Improved communication networks and increased bioterrorism education for clinicians and the general public have also been achieved.

  2. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  3. HIV genotypes and primary drug resistance among HIV seropositive blood donors in Brazil: role of infected blood donors as sentinel populations for molecular surveillance of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Alencar, CS; Sabino, EC; Carvalho, SMF; Leao, S; Carneiro- Proietti, AB; Capuani, L; Oliveira, CL; Carrick, D; Birch, RJ; Gonçalez, TT; Keating, S; Swanson, P; Hackett, J; Busch, MP

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few surveillance studies analyzing genotypes or primary (transmitted) drug resistance in HIV-infected blood donors in Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize patterns of HIV genotypes and primary resistance among HIV seropositive donors identified at 4 geographically dispersed blood centers in Brazil. Methods All HIV-infected donors who returned for counseling at the 4 REDS-II Hemocenters in Brazil from January 2007–March 2011 were invited to participate in a case-control study involving a questionnaire on risk factors. Viral sequencing was also offered to positive cases to assign genotypes and to detect and characterize primary resistance to RT and protease inhibitors according to WHO guidelines. Results Of the 341 HIV seropositive donors who consented to participate in the risk-factor and genetics study, pol sequences were obtained for 331 (97%). Clade B was predominant (76%) followed by F (15%) and C (5%). Primary resistance was present in 36 (12.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2,15.5) of the 303 individuals not exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART), varying from 8.2% (95%CI 2,7,13.6) in Recife to 19.4% in São Paulo (95%CI 9.5,29.2); there were no significant correlations with other demographics or risk factors. Conclusion Although subtype B remains the most prevalent genotype in all 4 areas, increasing rates of subtype C in Sao Paulo and F in Recife were documented relative to earlier reports. Transmitted drug resistance was relatively frequent, particularly in the city of Sao Paulo which showed an increase compared to previous HIV seropositive donor data from 10 years ago. PMID:23507660

  4. A comparison of active adverse event surveillance systems worldwide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Lin; Moon, Jinhee; Segal, Jodi B

    2014-08-01

    Post-marketing drug surveillance for adverse drug events (ADEs) has typically relied on spontaneous reporting. Recently, regulatory agencies have turned their attention to more preemptive approaches that use existing data for surveillance. We conducted an environmental scan to identify active surveillance systems worldwide that use existing data for the detection of ADEs. We extracted data about the systems' structures, data, and functions. We synthesized the information across systems to identify common features of these systems. We identified nine active surveillance systems. Two systems are US based-the FDA Sentinel Initiative (including both the Mini-Sentinel Initiative and the Federal Partner Collaboration) and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD); two are Canadian-the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES) and the Vaccine and Immunization Surveillance in Ontario (VISION); and two are European-the Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions by Integrative Mining of Clinical Records and Biomedical Knowledge (EU-ADR) Alliance and the Vaccine Adverse Event Surveillance and Communication (VAESCO). Additionally, there is the Asian Pharmacoepidemiology Network (AsPEN) and the Shanghai Drug Monitoring and Evaluative System (SDMES). We identified two systems in the UK-the Vigilance and Risk Management of Medicines (VRMM) Division and the Drug Safety Research Unit (DSRU), an independent academic unit. These surveillance systems mostly use administrative claims or electronic medical records; most conduct pharmacovigilance on behalf of a regulatory agency. Either a common data model or a centralized model is used to access existing data. The systems have been built using national data alone or via partnership with other countries. However, active surveillance systems using existing data remain rare. North America and Europe have the most population coverage; with Asian countries making good advances.

  5. Respondent driven sampling for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Jane R; Johnston, Lisa G; Murrill, Christopher; Monterroso, Edgar

    2013-09-01

    Since 2005, respondent driven sampling (RDS) has been widely used for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance surveys (BBSS) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). In this manuscript, we provide a focused review of RDS among hard-to-reach high-risk populations in LAC and describe their principal operational, design, and analytical considerations. We reviewed published and unpublished reports, protocols, and manuscripts for RDS studies conducted in LAC between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011. We abstracted key operational information and generated summary statistics across all studies. Between 2005 and 2011, 87 RDS studies were conducted in 15 countries in LAC (68 % in South America, 18 % in Mexico and Central America, and 14 % in the Caribbean). The target populations were primarily men who have sex with men (43 %), sex workers (29 %), and drug users (26 %). Study considerations included establishing clear eligibility criteria, measuring social network sizes, collecting specimens for biological testing, among others. Most of the reviewed studies are the first in their respective countries to collect data on hard-to-reach populations and the first attempt to use a probability-based sampling method. These RDS studies allowed researchers and public health practitioners in LAC to access hard-to-reach HIV high-risk populations and collect valuable data on the prevalence of HIV and other infections, as well as related risk behaviors.

  6. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Rufiji HDSS).

    PubMed

    Mrema, Sigilbert; Kante, Almamy M; Levira, Francis; Mono, Amaniel; Irema, Kahema; de Savigny, Don; Masanja, Honorati

    2015-04-01

    The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) was established in October 1998 to evaluate the impact on burden of disease of health system reforms based on locally generated data, prioritization, resource allocation and planning for essential health interventions. The Rufiji HDSS collects detailed information on health and survival and provides a framework for population-based health research of relevance to local and national health priorities.In December 2012 the population under surveillance was about 105,503 people, residing in 19,315 households. Monitoring of households and members within households is undertaken in regular 6-month cycles known as 'rounds'. Self reported information is collected on demographic, household, socioeconomic and geographical characteristics. Verbal autopsy is conducted using standardized questionnaires, to determine probable causes of death. In conjunction with core HDSS activities, the ongoing studies in Rufiji HDSS focus on maternal and new-born health, evaluation of safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) exposure in early pregnancy and the clinical safety of a fixed dose of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQP) in the community. Findings of studies conducted in Rufiji HDSS can be accessed at www.ihi.or.tz/IHI-Digital-Library.

  7. State electronic disease surveillance systems --- United States, 2007 and 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-10-21

    The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) is a web-based infrastructure for public health surveillance data exchange between CDC and the 50 states. In 2007, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) conducted an assessment to evaluate states' electronic disease surveillance capacity. In 2010, CSTE conducted a follow-up assessment to evaluate the operational status and progress of integration, interoperability, and capacity of state electronic disease surveillance systems. This report summarizes the results of that assessment, which indicated a 17.5% increase from 40 states in 2007 to 47 states in 2010 with fully operational general communicable disease (GCD) electronic surveillance systems, a 211.5% increase from 13 to 39 states in the number of systems that were interoperable, a 22.4% increase from 23 to 34 states in the number with integrated systems, and a 20.0% increase to 42 states with the capacity to receive electronic laboratory reports (ELRs). New Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services rules for meaningful use of health information technology encourage data exchange between electronic health record systems and public health agencies, including submission of ELRs. To meet national goals for health information exchange to improve population health, variation in disease surveillance systems should decrease, and functionality should increase.

  8. Developing a Web-Based HIV Behavioral Surveillance Pilot Project Among Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Travis; Smith, Amanda; Denson, Damian; Dinenno, Elizabeth; Lansky, Amy

    2012-01-01

    A web-based HIV behavioral surveillance system (WHBS) has potential to collect behavioral data from men who have sex with men (MSM) not reached through traditional sampling methods. Six U.S. cities conducted a WHBS pilot in 2005-2007 to determine the feasibility to conduct a behavioral surveillance project entirely on the internet. THREE SAMPLING METHODS OF ADULT MSM ON THE INTERNET WERE EXPLORED: direct marketing (DM) using banner advertisements; respondent-driven sampling (RDS) using peer recruitment; and venue-based sampling (VBS) using internet venues. A total of 8,434 complete MSM surveys were obtained: 8,109 through DM, 130 through RDS, and 195 through VBS. By methods, enrollment rates ranged from 70-90%; completion rates ranged from 67-95%. DM obtained the largest proportions of racial/ethnic minority MSM (36%) and MSM 18-20 years (19%). Only the DM method achieved a substantial number of complete MSM surveys. Successful implementation of an internet-based systematic sampling method may be problematic, but a convenience sample of MSM using banner advertisements is feasible and may produce useful and timely behavioral information from a large number of MSM.

  9. Space Surveillance System Technical Summary Report No. 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1958-12-31

    CON SPACE SURVEILLAN ( TECHNICAL SUMMARY ARPA Order No. Applications Research December 31, 19 bitTrLaUT170AJ- Ld U. S. NAVAL RESEARCH Li Washinzton...31 DEC 1958 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-12-1958 to 00-12-1958 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Space Surveillance System Technical Summary Report...of what became the Naval Space Surveillance System. The descriptions and data were once classified, but have log since been unclassified. Additionally

  10. Increasing HIV-1 Drug Resistance Between 2010 and 2012 in Adults Participating in Population-Based HIV Surveillance in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Manasa, Justen; Danaviah, Siva; Lessells, Richard; Elshareef, Muna; Tanser, Frank; Wilkinson, Eduan; Pillay, Sureshnee; Mthiyane, Hloniphile; Mwambi, Henry; Pillay, Deenan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2016-08-01

    As more human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients access combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), higher proportions of newly infected patients may be infected with drug-resistant viruses. Regular surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is required in southern Africa where high rates of transmission persist despite rapid expansion of ART. Dried blood spot samples from cART-naive participants from two rounds of an annual population-based HIV surveillance program in rural KwaZulu-Natal were tested for HIV RNA, and samples with HIV RNA >10,000 copies/ml were genotyped for drug resistance. The 2009 surveillance of drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list was used for drug resistance interpretation. The data were added to previously published data from the same program, and the χ(2) test for trend was used to test for trend in estimated prevalence of any TDR. Seven hundred and one participants' data were analyzed: 67 (2010), 381 (2011), and 253 (2012). No TDR was detected in 2010. Years 2011 and 2012 had 18 participants with SDRMs 4.7% and 7.1%, respectively (p = .02, χ(2) test for trend). The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation, K103N, was the most common mutation, occurring in 27 (3.8%) of the participants, while nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs were detected in 10 (1.4%) of the participants, of whom eight had only a single NRTI SDRM. The increase in levels of drug resistance observed in this population could be a signal of increasing transmission of drug-resistant HIV. Thus, continued surveillance is critical to inform public health policies around HIV treatment and prevention.

  11. Increasing HIV-1 Drug Resistance Between 2010 and 2012 in Adults Participating in Population-Based HIV Surveillance in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Danaviah, Siva; Lessells, Richard; Elshareef, Muna; Tanser, Frank; Wilkinson, Eduan; Pillay, Sureshnee; Mthiyane, Hloniphile; Mwambi, Henry; Pillay, Deenan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As more human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients access combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), higher proportions of newly infected patients may be infected with drug-resistant viruses. Regular surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is required in southern Africa where high rates of transmission persist despite rapid expansion of ART. Dried blood spot samples from cART-naive participants from two rounds of an annual population-based HIV surveillance program in rural KwaZulu-Natal were tested for HIV RNA, and samples with HIV RNA >10,000 copies/ml were genotyped for drug resistance. The 2009 surveillance of drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list was used for drug resistance interpretation. The data were added to previously published data from the same program, and the χ2 test for trend was used to test for trend in estimated prevalence of any TDR. Seven hundred and one participants' data were analyzed: 67 (2010), 381 (2011), and 253 (2012). No TDR was detected in 2010. Years 2011 and 2012 had 18 participants with SDRMs 4.7% and 7.1%, respectively (p = .02, χ2 test for trend). The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation, K103N, was the most common mutation, occurring in 27 (3.8%) of the participants, while nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs were detected in 10 (1.4%) of the participants, of whom eight had only a single NRTI SDRM. The increase in levels of drug resistance observed in this population could be a signal of increasing transmission of drug-resistant HIV. Thus, continued surveillance is critical to inform public health policies around HIV treatment and prevention. PMID:27002368

  12. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health.

  13. Mobile Phone–based Infectious Disease Surveillance System, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L.A.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stephen, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone–based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ≈4,000 interactions between field veterinarians and reports on the animal population received by the system. Development of human resources and increased communication between local stakeholders (groups and persons whose actions are affected by emerging infectious diseases and animal health) were instrumental for successful implementation. The primary lesson learned was that mobile phone–based surveillance of animal populations is acceptable and feasible in lower-resource settings. However, any system implementation plan must consider the time needed to garner support for novel surveillance methods among users and stakeholders. PMID:20875276

  14. Data modeling and query processing for distributed surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Yunyoung; Hong, Sangjin; Rho, Seungmin

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents data modeling and query processing for distributed surveillance systems. We define a metadata rule to search and manage information for distributed or heterogeneous surveillance systems. For human activity recognition, we propose a method that classifies these actions separately from complicated activities as a sequence of basic activities. In addition, we define the domain and range of relations based on the relationship between elements. Furthermore, we describe the state descriptors to represent an image sequence. To address the interaction of multiple objects, we classify human actions into symmetric or asymmetric actions. The prior motion model and the inference approach are applied adaptively according to environments. We define the grammar for the representation of the surveillance video and specify different query criteria for surveillance video retrieval. In the experiments, we show the prototype system that provides event detection, object identification, object tracking, face recognition, and activity recognition.

  15. Potential Impact of Integrating HIV Surveillance and Clinic Data on Retention-in-Care Estimates and Re-Engagement Efforts.

    PubMed

    Enns, Eva A; Reilly, Cavan S; Virnig, Beth A; Baker, Karen; Vogenthaler, Nicholas; Henry, Keith

    2016-09-01

    Retention in care is essential to the health of people living with HIV and also for their communities. We sought to quantify the value of integrating HIV surveillance data with clinical records for improving the accuracy of retention-in-care estimates and the efficiency of efforts to re-engage out-of-care patients. Electronic medical records (EMRs) of HIV+ patients ≥18 years old from a public, hospital-based clinic in Minneapolis, MN between 2008 and 2014 were merged with state surveillance data on HIV-related laboratory tests, out-of-state relocation, and mortality. We calculated levels of retention and estimated the number of required case investigations to re-engage patients who appeared to be out of care over the study period with and without surveillance data integration. Retention was measured as the proportion of years in compliance with Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) guidelines (two clinical encounters >90 days apart annually) and the proportion of patients experiencing a gap in care >12 months. With data integration, retention estimates improved from an average HRSA compliance of 70.3% using EMR data alone to 77.5% with surveillance data, whereas the proportion of patients experiencing a >12-month gap in care decreased from 45.0% to 34.4%. If case investigations to re-engage patients were initiated after a 12-month gap in care, surveillance data would avoid 330 (29.3%) investigations over the study period. Surveillance data integration improves the accuracy of retention-in-care estimates and would avert a substantial number of unnecessary case investigations for patients who appear to be out of care but, in fact, receive care elsewhere or have died.

  16. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS).

    PubMed

    Beguy, Donatien; Elung'ata, Patricia; Mberu, Blessing; Oduor, Clement; Wamukoya, Marylene; Nganyi, Bonface; Ezeh, Alex

    2015-04-01

    The Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) was the first urban-based longitudinal health and demographic surveillance platform in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The NUHDSS was established in 2002 to provide a platform to investigate the long-term social, economic and health consequences of urban residence, and to serve as a primary research tool for intervention and impact evaluation studies focusing on the needs of the urban poor in SSA. Since its inception, the NUHDSS has successfully followed every year a population of about 65,000 individuals in 24,000 households in two slum communities--Korogocho and Viwandani--in Nairobi, Kenya. Data collected include key demographic and health information (births, deaths including verbal autopsy, in- and out-migration, immunization) and other information that characterizes living conditions in the slums (livelihood opportunities, household amenities and possessions, type of housing etc.). In addition to the routine data, it has provided a robust platform for nesting several studies examining the challenges of rapid urbanization in SSA and associated health and poverty dynamics. NUHDSS data are shared through internal and external collaborations, in accordance with the Centre's guidelines for publications, data sharing.

  17. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Next Generation Space Surveillance System-of-Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McShane, B.

    2014-09-01

    International economic and military dependence on space assets is pervasive and ever-growing in an environment that is now congested, contested, and competitive. There are a number of natural and man-made risks that need to be monitored and characterized to protect and preserve the space environment and the assets within it. Unfortunately, today's space surveillance network (SSN) has gaps in coverage, is not resilient, and has a growing number of objects that get lost. Risks can be efficiently and effectively mitigated, gaps closed, resiliency improved, and performance increased within a next generation space surveillance network implemented as a system-of-systems with modern information architectures and analytic techniques. This also includes consideration for the newest SSN sensors (e.g. Space Fence) which are born Net-Centric out-of-the-box and able to seamlessly interface with the JSpOC Mission System, global information grid, and future unanticipated users. Significant opportunity exists to integrate legacy, traditional, and non-traditional sensors into a larger space system-of-systems (including command and control centers) for multiple clients through low cost sustainment, modification, and modernization efforts. Clients include operations centers (e.g. JSpOC, USSTRATCOM, CANSPOC), Intelligence centers (e.g. NASIC), space surveillance sensor sites (e.g. AMOS, GEODSS), international governments (e.g. Germany, UK), space agencies (e.g. NASA), and academic institutions. Each has differing priorities, networks, data needs, timeliness, security, accuracy requirements and formats. Enabling processes and technologies include: Standardized and type accredited methods for secure connections to multiple networks, machine-to-machine interfaces for near real-time data sharing and tip-and-queue activities, common data models for analytical processing across multiple radar and optical sensor types, an efficient way to automatically translate between differing client and

  19. A New Molecular Surveillance System for Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kishor; Pandey, Basu Dev; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Acharya, Jyoti; Kato, Kentaro; Kaneko, Osamu; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Presently, global efforts are being made to control and eradicate the deadliest tropical diseases through the improvement of adequate interventions. A critical point for programs to succeed is the prompt and accurate diagnosis in endemic regions. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are being massively deployed and used to improve diagnosis in tropical countries. In the present report, we evaluated the hypothesis of, after use for diagnosis, the reuse of the Leishmania RDT kit as a DNA source, which can be used downstream as a molecular surveillance and/or quality control tool. As a proof of principle, a polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to detect Leishmania spp. minicircle kinetoplast DNA from leishmaniasis RDT kits. Our results show that Leishmania spp. DNA can be extracted from used RDTs and may constitute an important, reliable, and affordable tool to assist in future leishmaniasis molecular surveillance methods. PMID:24752687

  20. Severe morbidity after antiretroviral (ART) initiation: active surveillance in HIV care programs, the IeDEA West Africa collaboration.

    PubMed

    Abo, Yao; Zannou Djimon, Marcel; Messou, Eugène; Balestre, Eric; Kouakou, Martial; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Ahouada, Carin; de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Dabis, François; Lewden, Charlotte; Minga, Albert

    2015-04-09

    The causes of severe morbidity in health facilities implementing Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) programmes are poorly documented in sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to describe severe morbidity among HIV-infected patients after ART initiation, based on data from an active surveillance system established within a network of specialized care facilities in West African cities. Within the International epidemiological Database to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA)--West Africa collaboration, we conducted a prospective, multicenter data collection that involved two facilities in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire and one in Cotonou, Benin. Among HIV-infected adults receiving ART, events were recorded using a standardized form. A simple case-definition of severe morbidity (death, hospitalization, fever>38°5C, Karnofsky index<70%) was used at any patient contact point. Then a physician confirmed and classified the event as WHO stage 3 or 4 according to the WHO clinical classification or as degree 3 or 4 of the ANRS scale. From December 2009 to December 2011, 978 adults (71% women, median age 39 years) presented with 1449 severe events. The main diagnoses were: non-AIDS-defining infections (33%), AIDS-defining illnesses (33%), suspected adverse drug reactions (7%), other illnesses (4%) and syndromic diagnoses (16%). The most common specific diagnoses were: malaria (25%), pneumonia (13%) and tuberculosis (8%). The diagnoses were reported as syndromic in one out of five events recorded during this study. This study highlights the ongoing importance of conventional infectious diseases among severe morbid events occurring in patients on ART in ambulatory HIV care facilities in West Africa. Meanwhile, additional studies are needed due to the undiagnosed aspect of severe morbidity in substantial proportion.

  1. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB) Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national); all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic), United States (Alaska)] voluntarily completed the survey – representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7) and commercial software (n=6). Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion This review successfully establishes baseline knowledge

  2. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB) Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national); all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic), United States (Alaska)] voluntarily completed the survey - representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7) and commercial software (n=6). Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. This review successfully establishes baseline knowledge on similarities and differences among circumpolar

  3. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders; On Behalf Of The International Circumpolar Surveillance-Tuberculosis Working Group

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB) Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national); all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic), United States (Alaska)] voluntarily completed the survey - representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7) and commercial software (n=6). Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion This review successfully establishes baseline knowledge on

  4. Epidemiology and detection of HIV-1 among pregnant women in the United Kingdom: results from national surveillance 1988-96.

    PubMed Central

    Nicoll, A.; McGarrigle, C.; Brady, A. R.; Ades, A. E.; Tookey, P.; Duong, T.; Mortimer, J.; Cliffe, S.; Goldberg, D.; Tappin, D.; Hudson, C.; Peckham, C.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in pregnant women in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Serial unlinked serosurveillance for HIV-1 in neonatal specimens and surveillance through registers of diagnosed maternal and paediatric infections from reporting by obstetricians, paediatricians, and microbiologists. SETTING: United Kingdom, 1988-96. SUBJECTS: Pregnant women proceeding to live births and their children. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time trends in prevalence of HIV-1 seropositivity in newborn infants (as a proxy for infection in mothers); the proportions of mothers with diagnosed HIV-1 infections, and their characteristics. RESULTS: HIV-1 prevalence among mothers in London rose sixfold between 1988 and 1996 (0.19% of women tested; 1 in 520 in 1996). Apart from in Edinburgh and Dundee, levels remained low in Scotland (0.025%; 1 in 3970) and elsewhere in the United Kingdom (0.016%; 1 in 1930). Over a third of births to infected mothers in 1996 occurred outside London. In London the reported infections were predominantly among black African women, whereas in Scotland most were associated with drug injecting. The contribution of reported infection among African women increased over time as that of drug injecting declined. In Scotland 51% of mothers' infections were diagnosed before the birth. In England, despite a national policy initiative in 1992 to increase the antenatal detection rate of HIV, no improvement in detection was observed, and in 1996 only 15% of previously unrecognised HIV infections were diagnosed during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1 infection affects mothers throughout the United Kingdom but is most common in London. Levels of diagnosis in pregnant women have not improved. Surveillance data can monitor effectively the impact of initiatives to reduce preventable HIV-1 infections in children. PMID:9472504

  5. Date of first positive HIV test: reliability of information collected for HIV/AIDS surveillance in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, H. Irene; Li, Jianmin; Campsmith, Michael; Sweeny, Patricia; Lee, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the reliability of the first positive HIV test date reported in the U.S. HIV/AIDS Reporting System (HARS). This date is essential to determine case counts for resource allocation for HIV treatment and prevention efforts. METHODS: The dates of first positive HIV tests reported by individuals with HIV in an interview survey conducted in 16 states (n=16,394, interviewed 1995-2002) were compared with the dates of HIV diagnosis reported to HARS. The percentage of agreement for the year of diagnosis and the weighed kappa (k) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated. RESULTS: Self-reported year of diagnosis agreed with the year of diagnosis in HARS for 56% of date pairs (k=0.69; 95% CI 0.68, 0.70); 30% reported an earlier diagnosis year. Agreement differed by sex, age, race, exposure, and reason or place of testing (p<.01). Lower agreement was found when the self-reported diagnostic test was anonymous (k=0.57; 95% CI 0.52, 0.62) compared with confidential tests (k=0.66; 95% CI 0.64, 0.68). Lower agreement was also found for cases first reported with AIDS (k=0.58; 95% CI 0.55, 0.62) compared with cases first reported with HIV not AIDS (k=0.71; 95% CI 0.70, 0.73) as well as for participants interviewed three years or more after their HARS diagnosis date (k=0.55; 95% CI 0.52, 0.57) compared with those interviewed within one year (k=0.62; 95% CI 0.61, 0.63). More than 20% of participants in almost all groups, however, reported earlier diagnosis years than those recorded in HARS. CONCLUSION: As many as 30% of HIV diagnoses may have occurred earlier than recorded in HARS. Additional studies need to determine mechanisms to adequately capture diagnosis dates in HARS. PMID:15736337

  6. Sports injury surveillance systems. 'One size fits all'?

    PubMed

    van Mechelen, W

    1997-09-01

    Sport is beneficial to health, but may also cause injuries. Therefore there is a need for sports injury prevention. Sports injury prevention should be based on the outcome of scientific research and should be part of the 'sequence of prevention'. In applying the 'sequence of prevention', first the incidence and severity of the sports injury problem need to be established. Secondly the aetiology and the mechanism of sports injuries need to be identified. Only based on this information can preventative measures be introduced, which must subsequently be evaluated for effectiveness. The principle of the 'sequence of prevention' cannot be applied without proper sports injury surveillance. This paper addresses the question of whether one uniform sports injury surveillance system can be used to cover all aspects of sports injury research at all stages of the 'sequence of prevention'. It is argued that a general sports injury surveillance system is useful for answering questions about the incidence and severity of the sports injury problem in various subsets of a population. It can also be used for time trend studies. If the purpose of injury surveillance is to identify the aetiology or the effectiveness of preventative measures, then sports injury surveillance should be tailored to the specific sports situation. Sports injury surveillance systems are not useful in identifying the mechanism of injury.

  7. Atypical nervous system manifestations of HIV.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Jennifer; Venna, Nagagopal; Cho, Tracey A

    2011-07-01

    Despite the widespread success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in reducing morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection, HIV-associated neurologic disease remains prevalent. Although the virus is unable to infect neurons or muscle fibers directly, it can still injure these structures by a variety of mechanisms, many of which are yet to be elucidated. Additionally, antiretroviral medications used to treat HIV infection can cause damage to the nervous system both by direct toxicity and via modulation of host-virus interactions. Some neurologic complications of HIV infection are rarely seen and are poorly understood; nevertheless, they are important to recognize. In this review article, the authors focus on the uncommon neurologic manifestations of HIV infection, including mononeuropathies, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies, motor neuron disease, polymyositis, diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome, mononeuritis multiplex, HIV-associated neuromuscular weakness syndrome, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, and central nervous system HIV-escape meningoencephalomyelitis and myelitis. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  8. An integrated comprehensive occupational surveillance system for health care workers.

    PubMed

    Dement, John M; Pompeii, Lisa A; Østbye, Truls; Epling, Carol; Lipscomb, Hester J; James, Tamara; Jacobs, Michael J; Jackson, George; Thomann, Wayne

    2004-06-01

    Workers in the health care industry may be exposed to a variety of work-related stressors including infectious, chemical, and physical agents; ergonomic hazards; psychological hazards; and workplace violence. Many of these hazards lack surveillance systems to evaluate exposures and health outcomes. The development and implementation of a comprehensive surveillance system within the Duke University Health System (DUHS) that tracks occupational exposures and stressors as well as injuries and illnesses among a defined population of health care workers (HCWs) is presented. Human resources job and work location data were used to define the DUHS population at risk. Outcomes and exposure data from existing occupational health and safety programs, health promotion programs, and employee health insurance claims, were linked with human resources data and de-identified to create the Duke Health and Safety Surveillance System (DHSSS). The surveillance system is described and four examples are presented demonstrating how the system has successfully been used to study consequences of work-related stress, hearing conservation program evaluation, risk factors for back pain and inflammation, and exposures to blood and body fluids (BBF). Utilization of existing data, often collected for other purposes, can be successfully integrated and used for occupational health surveillance monitoring of HCWs. Use of the DHSSS for etiologic studies, benchmarking, and intervention program evaluation are discussed. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. HIV-1 transcriptional regulation in the central nervous system and implications for HIV cure research

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Melissa J.; Cowley, Daniel J.; Wesselingh, Steve L.; Gorry, Paul R.; Gray, Lachlan R.

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) invades the central nervous system (CNS) during acute infection which can result in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in up to 50% of patients, even in the presence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Within the CNS, productive HIV-1 infection occurs in the perivascular macrophages and microglia. Astrocytes also become infected, although their infection is restricted and does not give rise to new viral particles. The major barrier to the elimination of HIV-1 is the establishment of viral reservoirs in different anatomical sites throughout the body and viral persistence during long-term treatment with cART. While the predominant viral reservoir is believed to be resting CD4+ T-cells in the blood, other anatomical compartments including the CNS, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, bone marrow, and genital tract can also harbor persistently infected cellular reservoirs of HIV-1. Viral latency is predominantly responsible for HIV-1 persistence, and is most likely governed at the transcriptional level. Current clinical trials are testing transcriptional activators, in the background of cART, in an attempt to purge these viral reservoirs and reverse viral latency. These strategies aim to activate viral transcription in cells constituting the viral reservoir, so they can be recognized and cleared by the immune system, while new rounds of infection are blocked by co-administration of cART. The CNS has several unique characteristics that may result in differences in viral transcription and in the way latency is established. These include CNS-specific cell types, different transcription factors, altered immune surveillance, and reduced antiretroviral drug bioavailability. A comprehensive understanding of viral transcription and latency in the CNS is required in order to determine treatment outcomes when using transcriptional activators within the CNS. PMID:25060300

  10. HIV-1 transcriptional regulation in the central nervous system and implications for HIV cure research.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Melissa J; Cowley, Daniel J; Wesselingh, Steve L; Gorry, Paul R; Gray, Lachlan R

    2015-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) invades the central nervous system (CNS) during acute infection which can result in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in up to 50% of patients, even in the presence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Within the CNS, productive HIV-1 infection occurs in the perivascular macrophages and microglia. Astrocytes also become infected, although their infection is restricted and does not give rise to new viral particles. The major barrier to the elimination of HIV-1 is the establishment of viral reservoirs in different anatomical sites throughout the body and viral persistence during long-term treatment with cART. While the predominant viral reservoir is believed to be resting CD4(+) T cells in the blood, other anatomical compartments including the CNS, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, bone marrow, and genital tract can also harbour persistently infected cellular reservoirs of HIV-1. Viral latency is predominantly responsible for HIV-1 persistence and is most likely governed at the transcriptional level. Current clinical trials are testing transcriptional activators, in the background of cART, in an attempt to purge these viral reservoirs and reverse viral latency. These strategies aim to activate viral transcription in cells constituting the viral reservoir, so they can be recognised and cleared by the immune system, while new rounds of infection are blocked by co-administration of cART. The CNS has several unique characteristics that may result in differences in viral transcription and in the way latency is established. These include CNS-specific cell types, different transcription factors, altered immune surveillance, and reduced antiretroviral drug bioavailability. A comprehensive understanding of viral transcription and latency in the CNS is required in order to determine treatment outcomes when using transcriptional activators within the CNS.

  11. Use of outcomes to evaluate surveillance systems for bioterrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    McBrien, Kerry A; Kleinman, Ken P; Abrams, Allyson M; Prosser, Lisa A

    2010-05-07

    Syndromic surveillance systems can potentially be used to detect a bioterrorist attack earlier than traditional surveillance, by virtue of their near real-time analysis of relevant data. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis using the area under the curve (AUC) as a comparison metric has been recommended as a practical evaluation tool for syndromic surveillance systems, yet traditional ROC curves do not account for timeliness of detection or subsequent time-dependent health outcomes. Using a decision-analytic approach, we predicted outcomes, measured in lives, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs, for a series of simulated bioterrorist attacks. We then evaluated seven detection algorithms applied to syndromic surveillance data using outcomes-weighted ROC curves compared to simple ROC curves and timeliness-weighted ROC curves. We performed sensitivity analyses by varying the model inputs between best and worst case scenarios and by applying different methods of AUC calculation. The decision analytic model results indicate that if a surveillance system was successful in detecting an attack, and measures were immediately taken to deliver treatment to the population, the lives, QALYs and dollars lost could be reduced considerably. The ROC curve analysis shows that the incorporation of outcomes into the evaluation metric has an important effect on the apparent performance of the surveillance systems. The relative order of performance is also heavily dependent on the choice of AUC calculation method. This study demonstrates the importance of accounting for mortality, morbidity and costs in the evaluation of syndromic surveillance systems. Incorporating these outcomes into the ROC curve analysis allows for more accurate identification of the optimal method for signaling a possible bioterrorist attack. In addition, the parameters used to construct an ROC curve should be given careful consideration.

  12. Verification of Neonatal Tetanus Surveillance Systems in Katsina State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nass, Shafique Sani; Danawi, Hadi; Cain, Loretta; Sharma, Monoj

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rates of neonatal tetanus (NNT) remain underreported in Nigeria. The goal of the study was to compare the NNT prevalence and the mortality rates from the existing surveillance system and active surveillance of health facility records in 7 selected health facilities from 2010 to 2014 in Katsina State, Nigeria. The study is a retrospective record review using extracted data from NNT records and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The prevalence of NNT and mortality rate were 336 cases and 3.4 deaths per 100 000 population, respectively, whereas the prevalence of NNT and mortality rate reported through the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system were 111 cases and 1.0 death per 100 000 population, respectively. The study shows underreporting of NNT in the existing IDSR system. Active surveillance is a good strategy for verifying underreporting of NNT in the surveillance system. The IDSR system should be strengthened with the capacity to detect events associated with a disease toward global elimination.

  13. HIV and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis in ethnic minorities in United Kingdom: is surveillance serving its purpose?

    PubMed Central

    De Cock, K. M.; Low, N.

    1997-01-01

    Experience of disease differs across ethnic groups, and ethnicity is a relevant personal characteristic for descriptive epidemiology. Information about ethnicity and country of birth is omitted from the routine notification of many diseases. HIV infection and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis have different incidence rates in different ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Omission of ethnic data from surveillance activities allows such differences in incidence to go undetected and unaddressed. Surveillance data that included ethnic details could guide interventions to reduce inequalities in health between different subpopulations. PMID:9202508

  14. Hunters' acceptability of the surveillance system and alternative surveillance strategies for classical swine fever in wild boar - a participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Katja; Calba, Clémentine; Peyre, Marisa; Staubach, Christoph; Conraths, Franz J

    2016-09-06

    Surveillance measures can only be effective if key players in the system accept them. Acceptability, which describes the willingness of persons to contribute, is often analyzed using participatory methods. Participatory epidemiology enables the active involvement of key players in the assessment of epidemiological issues. In the present study, we used a participatory method recently developed by CIRAD (Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement) to evaluate the functionality and acceptability of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) surveillance in wild boar in Germany, which is highly dependent on the participation of hunters. The acceptability of alternative surveillance strategies was also analyzed. By conducting focus group discussions, potential vulnerabilities in the system were detected and feasible alternative surveillance strategies identified. Trust in the current surveillance system is high, whereas the acceptability of the operation of the system is medium. Analysis of the acceptability of alternative surveillance strategies showed how risk-based surveillance approaches can be combined to develop strategies that have sufficient support and functionality. Furthermore, some surveillance strategies were clearly rejected by the hunters. Thus, the implementation of such strategies may be difficult. Participatory methods can be used to evaluate the functionality and acceptability of existing surveillance plans for CSF among hunters and to optimize plans regarding their chances of successful implementation.

  15. New HIV diagnoses among adults aged 50 years or older in 31 European countries, 2004-15: an analysis of surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Tavoschi, Lara; Gomes Dias, Joana; Pharris, Anastasia

    2017-09-26

    The HIV burden is increasing in older adults in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA). We investigated factors associated with HIV diagnosis in older adults in the 31 EU/EEA countries during a 12 year period. In this analysis of surveillance data, we compared data from older people (aged ≥50 years) with those from younger people (aged 15-49 years). We extracted new HIV diagnoses reported to the European Surveillance System between Jan 1, 2004, and Dec 31, 2015, and stratified them by age, sex, migration status, transmission route, and CD4 cell count. We defined late diagnosis as CD4 count of less than 350 cells per μL at diagnosis and diagnosis with advanced HIV disease as less than 200 cells per μL. We compared the two age groups with the χ(2) test for difference, and used linear regression analysis to assess temporal trends. During the study period 54 102 new HIV diagnoses were reported in older adults. The average notification rate of new diagnoses was 2·6 per 100 000 population across the whole 12 year period, which significantly increased over time (annual average change [AAC] 2·1%, 95% CI 1·1-3·1; p=0·0009). Notification rates for new HIV diagnoses in older adults increased significantly in 16 countries in 2004-15, clustering in central and eastern EU/EEA countries. In 2015, compared with younger adults, older individuals were more likely to originate from the reporting country, to have acquired HIV via heterosexual contact, and to present late (p<0·0001 for all comparisons). HIV diagnoses increased significantly over time among older men (AAC 2·2%, 95% CI 1·2-3·3; p=0·0006), women (1·3%, 0·2-2·4; p=0·025), men who have sex with men (5·8%, 4·3-7·5; p<0·0001), and injecting drug users (7·4%, 4·8-10·2; p<0·0001). Our findings suggest that there is a compelling need to deliver more targeted testing interventions for older adults and the general adult population, such as by increasing awareness among health

  16. What can be gained from comprehensive disaggregate surveillance? The Avon Surveillance System for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Wendi; Sadler, Katharine; Cassell, Jackie A; Horner, Paddy; Low, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe a new disaggregate surveillance system covering key diagnosed sexually transmitted infections in a UK locality. Methods The Avon System for Surveillance of Sexually Transmitted Infections (ASSIST) collects computerised person‐ and episode‐based information about laboratory‐diagnosed sexually transmitted infections from genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics, the Avon Brook Clinic, and the Health Protection Agency and trust laboratories in primary care trusts in Avon. The features of the system are illustrated here, by describing chlamydia‐testing patterns according to the source of test, age and sex, and by mapping the distribution of chlamydia across Bristol, UK. Results Between 2000 and 2004, there were 821 685 records of tests for sexually transmitted infections, with 23 542 positive results. The proportion of tests and positive results for chlamydia and gonorrhoea sent from general practice increased over time. Most chlamydia tests in both GUM and non‐specialist settings were performed on women aged >25 years, but positivity rates were highest in women aged <25 years. The positivity rate remained stable between 2000 and 2004. Including data from all diagnostic settings, chlamydia rates were about twice as high as those estimated only from genitourinary clinic cases. Conclusions The ASSIST model could be a promising new tool for planning and measuring sexual health services in England if it can become sustainable and provide more timely data using fewer resources. Collecting denominator data and including infections diagnosed in primary care are essential for meaningful surveillance. PMID:17344247

  17. ESSENCE II and the framework for evaluating syndromic surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Joseph S; Burkom, H; Pavlin, J

    2004-09-24

    The Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-Based Epidemics (ESSENCE II) is a prototype syndromic surveillance system for capturing and analyzing public health indicators for early detection of disease outbreaks. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of ESSENCE II according to a CDC framework for evaluating syndromic surveillance systems. Each major topic of the framework is addressed in this assessment of ESSENCE II performance. ESSENCE captures data in multiple formats, parses text strings into syndrome groupings, and applies multiple temporal and spatio-temporal outbreak-detection algorithms. During a recent DARPA evaluation exercise, ESSENCE algorithms detected a set of health events with a median delay of 1 day after the earliest possible detection opportunity. ESSENCE II has provided excellent performance with respect to the framework and has proven to be a useful and cost-effective approach for providing early detection of health events.

  18. Dried blood spots for HIV-1 drug resistance and viral load testing: A review of current knowledge and WHO efforts for global HIV drug resistance surveillance.

    PubMed

    Bertagnolio, Silvia; Parkin, Neil T; Jordan, Michael; Brooks, James; García-Lerma, J Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping is an essential component of the World Health Organization global HIV Drug Resistance (HIVDR) prevention and assessment strategy. Plasma is considered to be the most appropriate specimen type for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping. However, use of plasma may not be feasible in rural, remote areas in resource-limited settings since its preparation and storage requires personnel and laboratory infrastructure that is often lacking. An alternative specimen type for HIVDR genotyping is dried blood spots (DBS). DBS can be made from blood drawn for routine clinical or surveillance purposes without special laboratory processing. The filter paper used is relatively inexpensive, easily obtained and stored, and although procedures for making DBS must be followed precisely, the training required is less intensive than that required for plasma separation. HIV nucleic acids are generally stable over long periods of time and freezing is not required unless storage over two weeks is planned. In addition, DBS are more easily transported than plasma because they can be shipped as non-hazardous materials using regular mail or courier services. Many studies have reported the successful genotyping of HIV-1 from DBS and some have shown a high genotypic concordance with plasma genotypes despite potential DNA interferences. During the past few years DBS have started to be widely used for HIV-1 drug resistance testing, and an increased number of reports from resource-limited areas have indicated DBS as the preferred specimen type for transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance surveillance where plasma collection is not feasible. The World Health Organization has brought together a group of experts (WHO HIVResNet DBS working group) to review current data on DBS preparation, storage, and transport conditions, and provide a reference protocol, which is also summarized in this article.

  19. 76 FR 62321 - Airworthiness Directives; Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) Units AGENCY... certain Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) traffic alert and collision avoidance system... Federal holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Aviation...

  20. Sentinel surveillance system for early outbreak detection in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Following the outbreak of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean, the Ministry of Health directed the necessary development of an early outbreak detection system. A disease surveillance team including the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar (IPM) was organized to establish a sentinel syndromic-based surveillance system. The system, which was set up in March 2007, transmits patient data on a daily basis from the various voluntary general practitioners throughout the six provinces of the country to the IPM. We describe the challenges and steps involved in developing a sentinel surveillance system and the well-timed information it provides for improving public health decision-making. Methods Surveillance was based on data collected from sentinel general practitioners (SGP). The SGPs report the sex, age, visit date and time, and symptoms of each new patient weekly, using forms addressed to the management team. However, the system is original in that SGPs also report data at least once a day, from Monday to Friday (number of fever cases, rapid test confirmed malaria, influenza, arboviral syndromes or diarrhoeal disease), by cellular telephone (encrypted message SMS). Information can also be validated by the management team, by mobile phone. This data transmission costs 120 ariary per day, less than US$1 per month. Results In 2008, the sentinel surveillance system included 13 health centers, and identified 5 outbreaks. Of the 218,849 visits to SGPs, 12.2% were related to fever syndromes. Of these 26,669 fever cases, 12.3% were related to Dengue-like fever, 11.1% to Influenza-like illness and 9.7% to malaria cases confirmed by a specific rapid diagnostic test. Conclusion The sentinel surveillance system represents the first nationwide real-time-like surveillance system ever established in Madagascar. Our findings should encourage other African countries to develop their own syndromic surveillance systems. Prompt detection of an outbreak of infectious disease may lead to

  1. Information Systems to Support Surveillance for Malaria Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W.; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y.; Gosling, Roly D.

    2015-01-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination. PMID:26013378

  2. Information systems to support surveillance for malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y; Gosling, Roly D

    2015-07-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination.

  3. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... surveillance systems operated by law enforcement, fire or emergency rescue organizations or by manufacturers... 90 of this chapter. (2) The operation of imaging systems under this section requires coordination, as... of this device is restricted to law enforcement, fire and rescue officials, public utilities,...

  4. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... surveillance systems operated by law enforcement, fire or emergency rescue organizations or by manufacturers... 90 of this chapter. (2) The operation of imaging systems under this section requires coordination, as... of this device is restricted to law enforcement, fire and rescue officials, public utilities,...

  5. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... surveillance systems operated by law enforcement, fire or emergency rescue organizations or by manufacturers... 90 of this chapter. (2) The operation of imaging systems under this section requires coordination, as... of this device is restricted to law enforcement, fire and rescue officials, public utilities,...

  6. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report: U.S. HIV and AIDS Cases Reported through December 2001. Year-End Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This report presents tables on: persons reported to be living with HIV infection and AIDS, by area and age group; AIDS cases and annual rates and HIV infection cases, by area and age group; male and female adult/adolescent annual AIDS and HIV infection rates; AIDS and HIV cases by age group, exposure category, and sex; male and female…

  7. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Thamattoor, Usha; Thomas, Tinku; Banandur, Pradeep; S, Rajaram; Duchesne, Thierry; Abdous, Belkacem; Washington, Reynold; B M, Ramesh; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively. Methods Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs) conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity. Results The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA) districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age≥25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with age<25 years; illiterate (AOR:1.62; 95%CI:1.03 to 2.54) compared to literate; employed in agriculture (AOR:1.34; 95%CI:1.11 to 1.62) or with occupations like driver/helper/industry/factory workers/hotel staff (AOR:1.59; 95%CI:1.26 to 2.01) compared to unemployed. District level HIV prevalence among FSWs (AOR:1.03; 95%CI:1.0 to 1.05) and percentage women marrying under 18 years were significantly associated with ANC-HIV positivity (AOR:1.02; 95%CI:1.00 to 1.04). Conclusion Illiteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV

  8. Multilevel Analysis of the Predictors of HIV Prevalence among Pregnant Women Enrolled in Annual HIV Sentinel Surveillance in Four States in Southern India.

    PubMed

    Thamattoor, Usha; Thomas, Tinku; Banandur, Pradeep; Rajaram, S; Duchesne, Thierry; Abdous, Belkacem; Washington, Reynold; Ramesh, B M; Moses, Stephen; Alary, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity of the HIV epidemic across districts of south India is reflected in HIV positivity among antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. Along with individual factors, contextual factors also need consideration for effective HIV interventions. Thus, identifying district and individual level factors that influence ANC HIV positivity assumes importance to intervene effectively. Data on HIV sentinel surveillance among the ANC population were obtained from the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) between years 2004 and 2007. Data from serial cross-sectional studies among female sex workers (FSWs) conducted during this time period in 24 districts were used to generate district level variables corresponding to parameters concerning this high risk population. Other district level data were obtained from various official/governmental agencies. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify individual and district level factors associated with ANC-HIV positivity. The average ANC-HIV prevalence from 2004 to 2007 in the 24 integrated biological and behavioural assessments (IBBA) districts ranged from 0.25 to 3.25%. HIV positivity was significantly higher among ANC women with age ≥ 25 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR):1.49; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):1.27 to 1.76] compared to those with age<25 years; illiterate (AOR:1.62; 95%CI:1.03 to 2.54) compared to literate; employed in agriculture (AOR:1.34; 95%CI:1.11 to 1.62) or with occupations like driver/helper/industry/factory workers/hotel staff (AOR:1.59; 95%CI:1.26 to 2.01) compared to unemployed. District level HIV prevalence among FSWs (AOR:1.03; 95%CI:1.0 to 1.05) and percentage women marrying under 18 years were significantly associated with ANC-HIV positivity (AOR:1.02; 95%CI:1.00 to 1.04). Illiteracy of the woman, higher HIV prevalence among FSWs and early marriage were associated with HIV positivity among pregnant women in southern India. In addition to targeted HIV preventive interventions among FSWs

  9. Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems: China and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-05-08

    Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards surveillance of arboviral disease and unexplained pneumonia were analysed to gain a better understanding of the RAEW mode of operation. This study may be used to explore options for further strengthening of global collaboration and timely detection and surveillance of infectious disease outbreaks. A qualitative study design was used, combining data retrieved from the literature and from semi-structured interviews with Chinese (5 national-level and 6 provincial-level) and Dutch (5 national-level) experts. The results show that some differences exist such as in the use of automated electronic components of the early warning system in China ('CIDARS'), compared to a more limited automated component in the Netherlands ('barometer'). Moreover, RAEW units in the Netherlands focus exclusively on infectious diseases, while China has a broader 'all hazard' approach (including for example chemical incidents). In the Netherlands, veterinary specialists take part at the RAEW meetings, to enable a structured exchange/assessment of zoonotic signals. Despite these differences, the main conclusion is that for the two infections studied, the early warning system in China and the Netherlands are remarkably similar considering their large differences in infectious disease history, population size and geographical setting. Our main recommendations are continued emphasis on international corporation that requires insight into national infectious disease surveillance systems, the usage of a One Health approach in infectious disease surveillance, and further exploration/strengthening of a combined syndromic and laboratory surveillance system.

  10. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  11. HIV testing behaviors and attitudes after adoption of name-to-code HIV case surveillance in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Sharon G; Gelfand, Sarah E; Buskin, Susan E; Kent, James B; Kahle, Erin M; Barkan, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    Controversy over HIV reporting in Washington State raised concerns that name-to-code reporting might reduce HIV testing. We assessed HIV testing and the influence of reporting among people at risk for HIV. An anonymous survey was conducted 9 months after HIV reporting began. Recruitment for men who have sex with men was at bars; high-risk heterosexuals at a sexually transmitted disease clinic; and injection drug users at needle exchange sites. Eighty-nine percent of 267 participants had been tested for HIV at least once but only half reported testing regularly. Injection drug users and men who have sex with men were more likely than HRH to report regular testing. Main reasons for delaying testing were thinking that HIV exposure was unlikely or not wanting to think about being HIV positive; concern about government reporting was cited by only 2%. Over half the respondents hadn't heard about the new name-to-code HIV reporting mechanism, although 69% thought there was some type of HIV reporting. Only 18% correctly identified the mechanism of HIV reporting. HIV prevention programs should focus on the most common reasons for delaying or avoiding HIV testing: believing that one has not been exposed to HIV, and the fear of learning that one is HIV positive.

  12. Accounting for nonsampling error in estimates of HIV epidemic trends from antenatal clinic sentinel surveillance.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Jeffrey W; Bao, Le

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to propose and demonstrate an approach to allow additional nonsampling uncertainty about HIV prevalence measured at antenatal clinic sentinel surveillance (ANC-SS) in model-based inferences about trends in HIV incidence and prevalence. Mathematical model fitted to surveillance data with Bayesian inference. We introduce a variance inflation parameter (Equation is included in full-text article.)that accounts for the uncertainty of nonsampling errors in ANC-SS prevalence. It is additive to the sampling error variance. Three approaches are tested for estimating (Equation is included in full-text article.)using ANC-SS and household survey data from 40 subnational regions in nine countries in sub-Saharan, as defined in UNAIDS 2016 estimates. Methods were compared using in-sample fit and out-of-sample prediction of ANC-SS data, fit to household survey prevalence data, and the computational implications. Introducing the additional variance parameter (Equation is included in full-text article.)increased the error variance around ANC-SS prevalence observations by a median of 2.7 times (interquartile range 1.9-3.8). Using only sampling error in ANC-SS prevalence (Equation is included in full-text article.), coverage of 95% prediction intervals was 69% in out-of-sample prediction tests. This increased to 90% after introducing the additional variance parameter (Equation is included in full-text article.). The revised probabilistic model improved model fit to household survey prevalence and increased epidemic uncertainty intervals most during the early epidemic period before 2005. Estimating (Equation is included in full-text article.)did not increase the computational cost of model fitting. We recommend estimating nonsampling error in ANC-SS as an additional parameter in Bayesian inference using the Estimation and Projection Package model. This approach may prove useful for incorporating other data sources such as routine prevalence from Prevention of

  13. Distributed visual-target-surveillance system in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Sheng; Bi, Daowei

    2009-10-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a powerful unattended distributed measurement system, which is widely used in target surveillance because of its outstanding performance in distributed sensing and signal processing. This paper introduces a multiview visual-target-surveillance system in WSN, which can autonomously implement target classification and tracking with collaborative online learning and localization. The proposed system is a hybrid system of single-node and multinode fusion. It is constructed on a peer-to-peer (P2P)-based computing paradigm and consists of some simple but feasible methods for target detection and feature extraction. Importantly, a support-vector-machine-based semisupervised learning method is used to achieve online classifier learning with only unlabeled samples. To reduce the energy consumption and increase the accuracy, a novel progressive data-fusion paradigm is proposed for online learning and localization, where a feasible routing method is adopted to implement information transmission with the tradeoff between performance and cost. Experiment results verify that the proposed surveillance system is an effective, energy-efficient, and robust system for real-world application. Furthermore, the P2P-based progressive data-fusion paradigm can improve the energy efficiency and robustness of target surveillance.

  14. Health & demographic surveillance system profile: the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Northern Nigeria (Nahuche HDSS).

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olatunji; Doctor, Henry V; Jumare, Abdulazeez; Sahabi, Nasiru; Abdulwahab, Ahmad; Findley, Sally E; Abubakar, Sani D

    2014-12-01

    The Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) study site, established in 2009 with 137 823 individuals is located in Zamfara State, north western Nigeria. North-West Nigeria is a region with one of the worst maternal and child health indicators in Nigeria. For example, the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey estimated an under-five mortality rate of 185 deaths per 1000 live births for the north-west geo-political zone compared with a national average of 128 deaths per 1000 live births. The site comprises over 100 villages under the leadership of six district heads. Virtually all the residents of the catchment population are Hausa by ethnicity. After a baseline census in 2010, regular update rounds of data collection are conducted every 6 months. Data collection on births, deaths, migration events, pregnancies, marriages and marriage termination events are routinely conducted. Verbal autopsy (VA) data are collected on all deaths reported during routine data collection. Annual update data on antenatal care and household characteristics are also collected. Opportunities for collaborations are available at Nahuche HDSS. The Director of Nahuche HDSS, M.O. Oche at [ochedr@hotmail.com] is the contact person for all forms of collaboration.

  15. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Malaviya, Paritosh; Picado, Albert; Hasker, Epco; Ostyn, Bart; Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Shankar, Ravi; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), established in 2007, was developed as an enlargement of the scope of a research collaboration on the project Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, which had been ongoing since 2005. The HDSS is located in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-endemic area in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state in India. It is the only HDSS conducting research on VL, which is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by female phlebotomine sandflies and is fatal if left untreated. Currently the HDSS serves a population of over 105 000 in 66 villages. The HDSS collects data on vital events including pregnancies, births, deaths, migration and marriages, as well as other socio-economic indicators, at regular intervals. Incident VL cases are identified. The HDSS team is experienced in conducting both qualitative and quantitative studies, sample collection and rapid diagnostic tests in the field. In each village, volunteers connect the HDSS team with the community members. The Muzaffarpur-TMRC HDSS provides opportunities for studies on VL and other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and their interaction with demographic events such as migration. Queries related to research collaborations and data sharing can be sent to Dr Shyam Sundar at [drshyamsundar@hotmail.com]. PMID:25186307

  16. Surveillance and response for high-risk populations: what can malaria elimination programmes learn from the experience of HIV?

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Jerry O; Cueto, Carmen; Smith, Jennifer L; Hwang, Jimee; Gosling, Roly; Bennett, Adam

    2017-01-18

    To eliminate malaria, malaria programmes need to develop new strategies for surveillance and response appropriate for the changing epidemiology that accompanies transmission decline, in which transmission is increasingly driven by population subgroups whose behaviours place them at increased exposure. Conventional tools of malaria surveillance and response are likely not sufficient in many elimination settings for accessing high-risk population subgroups, such as mobile and migrant populations (MMPs), given their greater likelihood of asymptomatic infections, illegal risk behaviours, limited access to public health facilities, and high mobility including extended periods travelling away from home. More adaptive, targeted strategies are needed to monitor transmission and intervention coverage effectively in these groups. Much can be learned from HIV programmes' experience with "second generation surveillance", including how to rapidly adapt surveillance and response strategies to changing transmission patterns, biological and behavioural surveys that utilize targeted sampling methods for specific behavioural subgroups, and methods for population size estimation. This paper reviews the strategies employed effectively for HIV programmes and offers considerations and recommendations for adapting them to the malaria elimination context.

  17. Evaluation of the integrated disease surveillance and response system for infectious diseases control in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adokiya, Martin Nyaaba; Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Barau, Inuwa Yau; Beiersmann, Claudia; Mueller, Olaf

    2015-02-04

    Well-functioning surveillance systems are crucial for effective disease control programs. The Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy was developed and adopted in 1998 for Africa as a comprehensive public health approach and subsequently, Ghana adopted the IDSR technical guidelines in 2002. Since 2012, the IDSR data is reported through the new District Health Information Management System II (DHIMS2) network. The objective was to evaluate the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system in northern Ghana. This was an observational study using mixed methods. Weekly and monthly IDSR data on selected infectious diseases were downloaded and analyzed for 2011, 2012 and 2013 (the years before, of and after DHIMS2 implementation) from the DHIMS2 databank for the Upper East Region (UER) and for two districts of UER. In addition, key informant interviews were conducted among local and regional health officers on the functioning of the IDSR. Clinically diagnosed malaria was the most prevalent disease in UER, with an annual incidence rate close to 1. Around 500 suspected HIV/AIDS cases were reported each year. The highest incidence of cholera and meningitis was reported in 2012 (257 and 392 cases respectively). Three suspected cases of polio and one suspected case of guinea worm were reported in 2013. None of the polio and guinea worm cases and only a fraction of the reported cases of the other diseases were confirmed. A major observation was the large and inconclusive difference in reported cases when comparing weekly and monthly reports. This can be explained by the different reporting practice for the sub-systems. Other challenges were low priority for surveillance, ill-equipped laboratories, rare supervision and missing feedback. The DHIMS2 has improved the availability of IDSR reports, but the quality of data reported is not sufficient. Particularly the inconsistencies between weekly and monthly data need to be addressed. Moreover

  18. Second-generation surveillance for HIV/AIDS in Pakistan: results from the 4th round of Integrated Behavior and Biological Survey 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Faran; Salim, Momina; Akhtar, Naeem; Arshad, Salwa; Reza, Tahira Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In an effort to fully analyse and understand the HIV situation and its epidemiology in Pakistan, a bilateral collaboration between the National AIDS Control Program and the Canadian International Development Agency resulted in the establishment of an effective second-generation surveillance (SGS) system for HIV/AIDS between 2004 and 2012 in accordance with the published guidelines. This paper presents findings from the 4th round of SGS. Methods A mapping exercise was initially conducted for size estimations of the key vulnerable populations: people who inject drugs (PWIDs), male sex workers (MSWs), hijra sex workers (HSWs), and female sex workers (FSWs), followed by an Integrated Behavioral and Biological Surveillance in 20 selected cities across Pakistan. Results The estimated sizes of the four key populations mapped in the 20 cities were 89 178 FSWs, 46 351 PWIDs, 23 317 HSWs and 19 119 MSWs. The HIV sero-prevalence among PWIDs was the highest among all key populations surveyed at 37.8% (CI 37.3 to 38.3) nationally, followed by a prevalence of 7.2% (CI 6.8 to 7.5) among HSWs, 3.1% (CI 2.8 to 3.4) among MSWs and 0.8% (CI 0.4 to 1.0) for FSWs. Various key risk behaviours, that is, sharing of syringes by PWIDs and inconsistent use of condoms by sex workers, were documented. Conclusions Pakistan's HIV epidemic that once was characterised primarily by transmission among PWIDs is now increasingly characterised by significant sexual transmission, and all types of sex workers (male, hijra and female) exhibit epidemiological proportions of infection. There is a need to develop concrete strategic plans for each vulnerable subpopulation, initially focusing prevention resources on those with a higher risk or vulnerability. PMID:23912818

  19. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20 Security...

  20. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20 Security...

  1. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20 Security...

  2. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20 Security...

  3. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20 Security...

  4. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of…

  5. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of…

  6. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements for surveillance systems. 15.511 Section 15.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY... limits specified in the table in paragraph (c) of this section, UWB transmitters operating under the...

  7. Design of natural user interface of indoor surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; Liu, Dan; Jiang, Mu-Jin; Cao, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Conventional optical video surveillance systems usually just record what they view, but they can't make sense of what they are viewing. With lots of useless video information stored and transmitted, waste of memory space and increasing the bandwidth are produced every day. In order to reduce the overall cost of the system, and improve the application value of the monitoring system, we use the Kinect sensor with CMOS infrared sensor, as a supplement to the traditional video surveillance system, to establish the natural user interface system for indoor surveillance. In this paper, the architecture of the natural user interface system, complex background monitoring object separation, user behavior analysis algorithms are discussed. By the analysis of the monitoring object, instead of the command language grammar, when the monitored object need instant help, the system with the natural user interface sends help information. We introduce the method of combining the new system and traditional monitoring system. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. It can satisfy the system requirements of non-contact, online, real time, higher precision and rapid speed to control the state of affairs at the scene.

  8. Migration distorts surveillance estimates of engagement in care: results of public health investigations of persons who appear to be out of HIV care.

    PubMed

    Buskin, Susan E; Kent, James B; Dombrowski, Julia C; Golden, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Prevention and clinical efforts are increasingly focused on improving the HIV care cascade, the sequential steps from diagnosis to engagement in care and viral suppression. Monitoring of this cascade is largely dependent on HIV laboratory surveillance data. However, little is known about the completeness of these data or the true care status of individuals for whom no data are reported. We investigated people presumed to be living with HIV/AIDS in King County, WA, who had no laboratory results reported to HIV surveillance for at least 1 year between 2006 and 2010. We determined whether each person had relocated, died, or remained in the county. Of 7379 HIV-infected people presumed living in King County, 2545 (35%) had 1 or more 12-month gap in laboratory reporting. Among these individuals, 47% had relocated, 7% died, and 38% remained in King County; we were unable to determine the status of 8%. Of individuals remaining in the area, 91% had evidence of returning to or being in HIV care. Case investigations reduced the proportion of individuals thought to be out of care in 2011 from 27% to 16%. Investigations of individuals without laboratory results reported to HIV surveillance identified large numbers of people who are no longer living in the area. Our findings suggest that current estimates of the HIV care cascade may be too pessimistic and that individual case investigations are required to accurately define the size and composition of the population of people living with HIV in local areas.

  9. Surveillance of Traumatic Firefighter Fatalities: An Assessment of Four Systems

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Chris R.; Marsh, Suzanne M.; Castillo, Dawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Firefighters regularly respond to hazardous situations that put them at risk for fatal occupational injuries. Traumatic occupational fatality surveillance is a foundation for understanding the problem and developing prevention strategies. We assessed four surveillance systems for their utility in characterizing firefighter fatalities and informing prevention measures. Methods We examined three population-based systems (the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and systems maintained by the United States Fire Administration and the National Fire Protection Association) and one case-based system (data collected through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program). From each system, we selected traumatic fatalities among firefighters for 2003–2006. Then we compared case definitions, methods for case ascertainment, variables collected, and rate calculation methods. Results Overall magnitude of fatalities differed among systems. The population-based systems were effective in characterizing the circumstances of traumatic firefighter fatalities. The case-based surveillance system was effective in formulating detailed prevention recommendations, which could not be made based on the population-based data alone. Methods for estimating risk were disparate and limited fatality rate comparisons between firefighters and other workers. Conclusions The systems included in this study contribute toward a greater understanding of firefighter fatalities. Areas of improvement for these systems should continue to be identified as they are used to direct research and prevention efforts. PMID:21800748

  10. A national framework for an antimicrobial resistance surveillance system within Iranian healthcare facilities: Towards a global surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Reza; GhaziSaeedi, Marjan; Masoumi-Asl, Hossein; Rezaei-Hachesu, Peyman; Mirnia, Kayvan; Samad-Soltani, Taha

    2017-09-01

    The threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is growing rapidly, perhaps more dramatically in developing countries. A demand to monitor, surveil and predict AMR has prompted the design and implementation of AMR surveillance systems (AMRSSs) at all geographic levels, especially in the national context. This study reviewed AMRSSs in leading countries and organisations in order to customise a comprehensive framework for a national system in Iran. The research was conducted in two phases: a review of the literature and comparative analysis; and a knowledge, attitude and practice study. In the first phase, the AMRSSs of pioneering organisations and countries were reviewed by examining related documents. In the second phase, important components for the Iranian national system were determined on the basis of the World Health Organization's Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (WHO GLASS). This study determined the surveillance methods, priority specimens and pathogens, testing methods, reporting protocols and scheduling, recommended data sets, and tools and information flow necessary for the Iranian system. On this basis, a national framework was developed using the class and activity diagrams in Unified Modelling Language. A context diagram was also designed on the basis of a generic biosurveillance architecture. The design and implementation of a national AMRSS for Iranian healthcare facilities is critically required because of irrational antimicrobial use in Iran and insufficient data regarding its consequences. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Event communication in a regional disease surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Loschen, Wayne; Coberly, Jacqueline; Sniegoski, Carol; Holtry, Rekha; Sikes, Marvin; Happel Lewis, Sheryl

    2007-10-11

    When real-time disease surveillance is practiced in neighboring states within a region, public health users may benefit from easily sharing their concerns and findings regarding potential health threats. To better understand the need for this capability, an event communications component (ECC) was added to the National Capital Region Disease Surveillance System, an operational biosurveillance system employed in the District of Columbia and in surrounding Maryland and Virginia counties. Through usage analysis and user survey methods, we assessed the value of the enhanced system in daily operational use and during two simulated exercises. Results suggest that the system has utility for regular users of the system as well as suggesting several refinements for future implementations.

  12. A review of occupational disease surveillance systems in Modernet countries.

    PubMed

    Carder, M; Bensefa-Colas, L; Mattioli, S; Noone, P; Stikova, E; Valenty, M; Telle-Lamberton, M

    2015-11-01

    To improve occupational health public policies and to facilitate coordinated research within the European Union to reduce the incidence of occupational diseases (ODs), it is important to know what OD surveillance systems exist and how they compare. Monitoring trends in occupational diseases and tracing new and emerging risks in a network (Modernet) participants are well placed to provide this information as most either contribute data to and/or are involved in the management of OD systems. To identify and describe OD surveillance systems in Modernet countries with the longer-term objective of identifying a core template to be used on a large scale. A questionnaire sent to Modernet participants, seeking structured information about the OD surveillance system(s) in their country. Overall 14 countries (70%) provided information for 33 OD systems, among them 11 compensation-based (CB) systems. Six countries provided information for non-CB systems reporting for any type of OD. The other systems reported either only ODs from a prescribed list, or specific diagnoses or diagnostic groups, with reports to most schemes being physician-based. Data collected varied but all systems collected diagnosis, age, gender, date reported and occupation (and/or industry) and most collected information on exposure. This review provides information beneficial to both policy makers and researchers by identifying data sources useable to measure OD trends in European countries and opening the way to future work, both on trend comparisons within Europe and on the definition of a core template to extend OD surveillance on a larger scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Millimeter-wave high-resolution holographic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, Thomas E.; Smith, Russell R.

    1994-03-01

    A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 X 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electronically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A 1D mechanical scan can be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05 m. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  14. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  15. Launching a National Surveillance System after an earthquake --- Haiti, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-08-06

    On January 12, 2010, Haiti experienced a magnitude-7.0 earthquake; Haitian government officials estimated that 230,000 persons died and 300,000 were injured. At the time, Haiti had no system capable of providing timely surveillance on a wide range of health conditions. Within 2 weeks, Haiti's Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP), the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), CDC, and other national and international agencies launched the National Sentinel Site Surveillance (NSSS) System. The objectives were to monitor disease trends, detect outbreaks, and characterize the affected population to target relief efforts. Fifty-one hospital and clinic surveillance sites affiliated with the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) were selected to report daily counts by e-mail or telephone for 25 specified reportable conditions. During January 25-April 24, 2010, a total of 42,361 persons had a reportable condition; of these, 54.5% were female, and 32.6% were aged <5 years. Nationally, the three most frequently reported specified conditions were acute respiratory infection (ARI) (16.3%), suspected malaria (10.3%), and fever of unknown cause (10.0%). Injuries accounted for 12.0% of reported conditions. No epidemics or disease clusters were detected. The number of reports decreased over time. NSSS is ongoing and currently transitioning into becoming a long-term national surveillance system for Haiti. NSSS data could assist decision makers in allocation of resources and identifying effective public health interventions. However, data reporting and quality could be improved by additional surveillance education for health-care providers, laboratory confirmation of cases of disease, and Internet-based weekly reporting.

  16. HIV: challenging the health care delivery system.

    PubMed Central

    Levi, J; Kates, J

    2000-01-01

    HIV offers a lens through which the underlying problems of the US health care system can be examined. New treatments offer the potential of prolonged quality of life for people living with HIV if they have adequate access to health care. However, increasing numbers of new cases of HIV occur among individuals with poor access to health care. Restrictions on eligibility for Medicaid (and state-by-state variability) contribute to uneven access to the most important safety net source of HIV care financing, while relatively modest discretionary programs attempt to fill in the gap with an ever-increasing caseload. Many poor people with HIV are going without care, even though aggregate public spending on HIV-related care will total $7.7 billion in fiscal year 2000, an amount sufficient to cover the care costs of one half of those living with HIV. But inefficiencies and inequities in the system (both structural and geographic) require assessment of the steps that can be taken to create a more rational model of care financing for people living with HIV that could become a model for all chronic diseases. PMID:10897178

  17. HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance Among Jamaican Men Who Have Sex with Men Should Be Prioritized for Reducing HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Ann M.; Nelson, Julie A.E.; Weir, Sharon S.; Figueroa, J. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is highest among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica but no genotypic data are available on the virus strains that are responsible for the epidemic among this key population. HIV-1 polymerase (pol) genes from 65 MSM were sequenced and used to predict drug resistance mutations. An HIV drug resistance prevalence of 28% (minimum 13%) was observed among this cohort, with the most frequent mutations conferring resistance to efavirenz, nevirapine, and lamivudine. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed 10 times the number of linked HIV infections among this cohort than respondent reporting. HIV treatment and prevention efforts in Jamaica could benefit significantly from Pol genotyping of the HIV strains infecting socially vulnerable MSM prior to initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), as this would guide suppressive ART and unearth HIV transmission clusters to enable more effective delivery of treatment and prevention programs. PMID:26133540

  18. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.; Singer, Ralph M.; Humenik, Keith E.

    1993-01-01

    An expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  19. Patterns of knowledge and condom use among population groups: results from the 2005 Ethiopian behavioral surveillance surveys on HIV.

    PubMed

    Kassie, Getnet M; Mariam, Damen H; Tsui, Amy O

    2008-12-31

    Behavioral surveys help interpret the magnitude of HIV/AIDS. We analyzed indicators of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and condom use among sub populations selected for behavioral surveillance in Ethiopia. We used 2005 HIV/AIDS behavioral data from ten target groups. These were female sex workers, defense forces, police force, pastoralists, truck drivers, intercity bus drivers, road construction workers, teachers, factory workers and people in ANC catchment areas. Data from 14,524 individuals were analyzed. The majority were males (63.6%). Overall, knowledge of the three preventive methods, misconceptions and comprehensive knowledge was 57%, 75% and 18.5%, respectively. Female sex workers and the defense force showed some behavioral change in using a condom during the most recent sexual encounter and consistently used a condom with non-regular sexual partners and paying partners. Women, pastoralists and the illiterate were less likely to use condom. Misconceptions about the transmission of HIV were high and comprehensive knowledge about HIV & AIDS was low, particularly among pastoralists. Consistent condom use and condom use during the last sexual encounter were high among both female sex workers and defense force employees, both with paying and non-regular sexual partners. This might be a positive sign, though a considerable proportion in each target group did not report using a condom during sex with non-regular partners.

  20. HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among people who inject drugs in Iran: the 2010 National Surveillance Survey

    PubMed Central

    Khajehkazemi, Razieh; Osooli, Mehdi; Sajadi, Leily; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Sedaghat, Abbas; Fahimfar, Noushin; Safaie, Afshin; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Haghdoost, Ali-Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of HIV and related risk behaviours among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran. Methods We conducted a national cross-sectional bio-behavioural surveillance survey between March and July 2010, interviewing male PWID from a geographically dispersed sample through a facility-based sampling method. Results We recruited 2480, and tested 2290 PWID. The overall prevalence of HIV was 15.2% (95% CI 9.7% to 23.1%). Among those who had injected drugs over the last month, 36.9% had used a non-sterile needle, and 12.6% had practiced shared injection. Over the past 12 months preceding the interview, 30.4% had sold sex for money, drugs, goods or a favour. In the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of HIV had a positive association with age, while having above high school education, and permanent job were protective. Conclusions Unsafe injection, and sexual risk behaviours are still frequent and the prevalence of HIV among PWID remains high. Intensified efforts are needed to prevent the further spread of HIV among Iranian PWID and their sexual partners. PMID:24037249

  1. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Jiangping; Buck, Peter; Sockett, Paul; Aramini, Jeff; Pollari, Frank

    2006-04-20

    An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  2. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, Jiangping; Buck, Peter; Sockett, Paul; Aramini, Jeff; Pollari, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS. PMID:16626490

  3. High prevalence of HIV drug resistance among newly diagnosed infants aged <18 months: results from a nationwide surveillance in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Inzaule, Seth Chekata; Osi, Samuels Jay; Akinbiyi, Gbenga; Emeka, Asadu; Khamofu, Hadiza; Mpazanje, Rex; Ilesanmi, Oluwafunke; Ndembi, Nicaise; Odafe, Solomon; Sigaloff, Kim C E; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F; Akanmu, Sulaimon

    2017-09-25

    The world-health organization recommends protease-inhibitor-based first-line regimen in infants due to risk of drug resistance from failed prophylaxis used in prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). However cost and logistics impede implementation in sub-Saharan Africa and >75% of children still receive non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based regimen (NNRTI) used in PMTCT. We assessed the national pre-treatment drug resistance prevalence of HIV-infected children <18 months in Nigeria, using the WHO recommended HIV drug resistance surveillance protocol. We used remnant-dried blood spots collected between June 2014 and July 2015 from15 early-infant diagnosis facilities spread across all the six geopolitical regions of Nigeria. Sampling was through a probability-proportional to size approach. HIV drug resistance was determined by population-based sequencing. Overall, in 48% of infants (205 of 430) drug resistance mutations (DRM) were detected, conferring resistance to predominantly NNRTIs (45%). NRTI and multi-class NRTI/NNRTI resistance were present at 22% and 20% respectively, while resistance to protease inhibitors was at 2%. Among 204 infants with exposure to drugs for PMTCT, 57% had DRMs, conferring NNRTI resistance in 54% and multi-class NRTI/NNRTI resistance in 29%. DRMs were also detected in 34% of 132 PMTCT unexposed infants. A high frequency of PDR, mainly NNRTI-associated, was observed in a nationwide surveillance among newly diagnosed HIV-infected children in Nigeria. PDR prevalence was equally high in PMTCT-unexposed infants. Our results support the use of protease inhibitor-based first-line regimens in HIV-infected young children regardless of PMTCT history and underscore the need to accelerate implementation of the newly disseminated guideline in Nigeria.

  4. TENTACLE: Multi-Camera Immersive Surveillance System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    standard format by which blog entries, news headlines, audio, and video is disseminated via the web . SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar SBIR Small Business...Thru. TIGR Tactical Ground Reporting System, a web -based information sharing system available to the United States Army TIPL Tentacle IPL TM...Earth for development due to our past experience developing with it, and the maturity of the Tentacle user interface mockup we created (located at

  5. Imaging sensor systems for air to ground surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Bruce A.; Penn, Joseph A.

    2006-05-01

    Automated aerial surveillance and detection of hostile ground events, and the tracking of the perpetrators have become of critical importance in the prevention and control of insurgent uprisings and the global war on terror. Yet a basic understanding of the limitations of sensor system coverage as a function of aerial platform position and attitude is often unavailable to program managers and system administrators. In an effort to better understand this problem we present some of the design tradeoffs for two applications: 1) a 360° viewing focal-plane array sensor system modeled for low altitude aerostat applications, and 2) a fixed diameter area of constant surveillance modeled for high altitude fixed wing aircraft applications. Ground coverage requirement tradeoffs include the number of sensors, sensor footprint geometry, footprint coverage variability as a function of platform position and attitude, and ground surface modeling. Event location specification includes latitude, longitude, altitude for the pixel centroid and corners, and line-of-sight centroid range.

  6. Do HIV Prevalence Trends in ANC Surveillance Represent Trends in the General Population in the ART Era? The Case of Manicaland, East Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Gregson, Simon; Dharmayat, Kanika; Pereboom, Monique; Takaruza, Albert; Mugurungi, Owen; Schur, Nadine; Nyamukapa, Constance A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective National estimates of HIV trends in generalised epidemics rely on HIV prevalence data from antenatal clinic (ANC) surveillance. We investigate whether HIV prevalence trends in ANC data reflect trends in men and women in the general population during the scale-up of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in Manicaland, Zimbabwe. Methods Trends in HIV prevalence in local ANC attendees and adults aged 15-49yrs in towns, agricultural estates, and villages were compared using five rounds of parallel ANC (N≈1,200) and general-population surveys (N≈10,000) and multi-variable log-linear regression. Changes in the age-pattern of HIV prevalence and the age-distribution of ANC attendees were compared with those in the general population. Age-specific pregnancy prevalence rates were compared by HIV infection and ART status. Results Cumulatively, from 1998-2000 to 2009-2011, HIV prevalence fell by 60.0% (95% CI, 51.1%-67.3%) in ANC surveillance data and by 34.3% (30.8%-37.7%) in the general population. Most of the difference arose following the introduction of ART (2006-2011). The estates and villages reflected this overall pattern but HIV prevalence in the towns was lower at local ANCs than in the general population, largely due to attendance by pregnant women from outlying (lower prevalence) areas. The ageing of people living with HIV in the general population (52.4% aged >35yrs, 2009-2011) was under-represented in the ANC data (12.6%) due to lower fertility in older and HIV-infected women. Conclusion After the introduction of ART in Manicaland, HIV prevalence declined more steeply in ANC surveillance data than in the general population. Models used for HIV estimates must reflect this change in bias. PMID:26372390

  7. An intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahboub, Khalid; Gadgil, Neeraj; Ribera, Javier; Delgado, Blanca; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Video surveillance systems are of a great value for public safety. With an exponential increase in the number of cameras, videos obtained from surveillance systems are often archived for forensic purposes. Many automatic methods have been proposed to do video analytics such as anomaly detection and human activity recognition. However, such methods face significant challenges due to object occlusions, shadows and scene illumination changes. In recent years, crowdsourcing has become an effective tool that utilizes human intelligence to perform tasks that are challenging for machines. In this paper, we present an intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video that includes the video recorded as a part of search and rescue missions and large-scale investigation tasks. We describe a method to enhance crowdsourcing by incorporating human detection, re-identification and tracking. At the core of our system, we use a hierarchal pyramid model to distinguish the crowd members based on their ability, experience and performance record. Our proposed system operates in an autonomous fashion and produces a final output of the crowdsourcing analysis consisting of a set of video segments detailing the events of interest as one storyline.

  8. System integration and development for biological warfare agent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Jacob A.; Green, Lance D.; Deshpande, Alina; White, P. Scott

    2007-04-01

    A wide variety of technical needs exist for surveillance, monitoring, identifying, or detecting pathogens with potential use as biological terrorism or warfare agents. Because the needs vary greatly among diverse applications, tailored systems are needed that meet performance, information, and cost requirements. A systems perspective allows developers to identify chokepoints for each application, and focus R&D investments on the limiting factors. Surveillance and detection systems are comprised of three primary components: information (markers), chemistries (assays), and instrumentation for "readout". Careful consideration of these components within the context of each application will allow for increases in efficiency and performance not generally realized when researchers focus on a single component in isolation. In fact, many application requirements can be met with simple novel combinations of existing technologies, without the need for huge investments in basic research. Here we discuss some of the key parameters for surveillance, detection, and identification of biothreat agents, and provide examples of focused development that addresses key bottlenecks, and greatly improve system performance.

  9. Quality assurance applied to animal disease surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Salman; Stärk, K D C; Zepeda, C

    2003-08-01

    Monitoring and surveillance systems (MOSS) are essential activities for official Veterinary Services. In addition, the increased trade in animals and animal products over recent years has increased the importance of international disease reporting. A reliable surveillance system is the key to early warning of a change in the health status of any animal population. Such a system is also essential for providing evidence about the absence of diseases or in determining the extent of a disease which is known to be present. The authors discuss a set of methods and approaches for evaluating the quality of surveillance and survey systems. Certain steps are required when assessing the quality of a service or product. Various approaches for quality assessment are available and the suitability of each method depends on the objective of the evaluation. An essential basic requirement is, however, to use an objective, transparent and systematic approach. The evidence collected and the analyses used to reach conclusions must be of such high quality that the results are acceptable to both the management of the MOSS and the assessor. Repeated discussions and negotiations may be necessary to reach consensus, particularly if the judgement affects activities between trading partners. Well-documented MOSS with specified objectives and integrated quality assurance mechanisms are likely to be easier to evaluate.

  10. Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyatikanto, Rhorom; Religia, Bahar; Rachman, Abdul; Dani, Tiar

    2015-09-01

    Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO & GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar scheme to establish an analysis pipeline for optical space surveillance system hosted in Indonesia.

  11. Secure Video Surveillance System Acquisition Software

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-04

    The SVSS Acquisition Software collects and displays video images from two cameras through a VPN, and store the images onto a collection controller. The software is configured to allow a user to enter a time window to display up to 2 1/2, hours of video review. The software collects images from the cameras at a rate of 1 image per second and automatically deletes images older than 3 hours. The software code operates in a linux environment and can be run in a virtual machine on Windows XP. The Sandia software integrates the different COTS software together to build the video review system.

  12. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Taabo Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Koné, Siaka; Baikoro, Nahoua; N'Guessan, Yao; Jaeger, Fabienne N; Silué, Kigbafori D; Fürst, Thomas; Hürlimann, Eveline; Ouattara, Mamadou; Séka, Marie-Chantal Y; N'Guessan, Nicaise A; Esso, Emmanuel L J C; Zouzou, Fabien; Boti, Louis I; Gonety, Prosper T; Adiossan, Lukas G; Dao, Daouda; Tschannen, Andres B; von Stamm, Thomas; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2015-02-01

    The Taabo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) is located in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, approximately 150 km north-west of Abidjan. The Taabo HDSS started surveillance activities in early 2009 and the man-made Lake Taabo is a key eco-epidemiological feature. Since inception, there has been a strong interest in research and integrated control of water-associated diseases such as schistosomiasis and malaria. The Taabo HDSS has generated setting-specific evidence on the impact of targeted interventions against malaria, schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases. The Taabo HDSS consists of a small town, 13 villages and over 100 hamlets. At the end of 2013, a total population of 42 480 inhabitants drawn from 6707 households was under surveillance. Verbal autopsies have been conducted to determine causes of death. Repeated cross-sectional epidemiological surveys on approximately 5-7% of the population and specific, layered-on haematological, parasitological and questionnaire surveys have been conducted. The Taabo HDSS provides a database for surveys, facilitates interdisciplinary research, as well as surveillance, and provides a platform for the evaluation of health interventions. Requests to collaborate and to access data are welcome and should be addressed to the secretariat of the Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire: [secretariat@csrs.ci]. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  13. TENTACLE Multi-Camera Immersive Surveillance System Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-16

    IPC ( inter -process communication ) methods which would allow passing of data from the CMU SDK platform to the rest of the Tentacle system in a more...IP Internet Protocol IPC Inter -Process Communication 153 Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 88ABW Cleared 05...on events meaningful to the user. 15. SUBJECT TERMS realtime video surveillance, people and vehicle tracking , multi-camera multi-sensor fusion

  14. A conditional probability approach to surveillance system sensitivity assessment.

    PubMed

    Majdzadeh, R; Pourmalek, F

    2008-01-01

    To determine the sexually transmitted diseases (STD) surveillance system sensitivity with a conditional probability approach at district level in Darregaz, a frontier town in the north of Iran. A cross-sectional survey. We used a sample survey of sexually active inhabitants for proxy measurement of the medical service utilization pattern for STD, and interviews with all practitioners to determine their knowledge of STD diagnosis and attitude towards STD reporting as proxy measures of actual STD diagnosis and reporting, respectively. Point estimates of the STD surveillance system sensitivity for each of the health service sectors were derived from multiplying the three proxy measures of sensitivity determinants, i.e., utilization, diagnosis, and reporting, as conditional probabilities. Estimates of sensitivity for all health service sectors were summed to obtain the overall sensitivity. The sensitivity of the surveillance system was 21.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15.5-25.3%) for detecting symptomatic STD. Of the sexually active inhabitants, 8.9% (95% CI 5.5-14.2%) did not use health services if they contracted STDs. The public health sector's contribution to overall sensitivity (59.6%) was greater than its proportion of service utilization for STD (45.3%). The strengths of the conditional probability approach are feasibility of conducting necessary surveys, decomposing sensitivity into its determinants, and providing evidence for intervention at different points for planning purposes. This approach tends to overestimate the overall sensitivity.

  15. Declining HIV Prevalence in Parallel With Safer Sex Behaviors in Burkina Faso: Evidence From Surveillance and Population-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Nagot, Nicolas; Samadoulougou, Sekou; Sokey, Mamadou; Guiré, Abdoulaye; Sombié, Issiaka; Meda, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate trends in HIV prevalence and changes in reported sexual behaviors between 1998 and 2014 in Burkina Faso. Methods: We obtained data on HIV prevalence from antenatal care (ANC) surveillance sites (N = 9) that were consistently included in surveillance between 1998 and 2014. We also analyzed data on HIV prevalence and reported sex behaviors from 3 population-based surveys from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted in 1998–99, 2003, and 2010. Sex behavior indicators comprised never-married youth who have never had sex; sex with more than 1 partner; sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; condom use at last sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; and sex before age 15. We calculated survey-specific HIV prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used the chi-square test or chi-square test for trend to compare HIV prevalence across survey years and to analyze trends in reported sex behaviors. Results: HIV prevalence among pregnant women ages 15–49 decreased by 72% in urban areas, from 7.1% in 1998 to 2.0% in 2014, and by 75% in rural areas, from 2.0% in 2003 to 0.5% in 2014. HIV declined most in younger age groups, which is a good reflection of recent incidence, with declines of 55% among 15–19-year-olds, 72% among 20–24-year-olds, 40% among 25–29-year-olds, and 7% among those ≥30 years old (considering urban and rural data combined). Data reported in the DHS corroborated these declines in HIV prevalence: between 2003 and 2010, HIV prevalence dropped significantly—by 89% among girls ages 15–19, from 0.9% (95% CI, 0.2 to 1.6) to 0.1% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.4), and by 78% among young women ages 20–24, from 1.8% (95% CI, 1.6 to 3.0) to 0.4% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.7). During the same time period, people reported safer sex behaviors. For example, significantly higher percentages of never-married youth reported they had never had sex, lower percentages of sexually active youth reported multiple

  16. Surveillance for travel-related disease--GeoSentinel Surveillance System, United States, 1997-2011.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Kira; Esposito, Douglas H; Han, Pauline; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Freedman, David O; Plier, D Adam; Sotir, Mark J

    2013-07-19

    In 2012, the number of international tourist arrivals worldwide was projected to reach a new high of 1 billion arrivals, a 48% increase from 674 million arrivals in 2000. International travel also is increasing among U.S. residents. In 2009, U.S. residents made approximately 61 million trips outside the country, a 5% increase from 1999. Travel-related morbidity can occur during or after travel. Worldwide, 8% of travelers from industrialized to developing countries report becoming ill enough to seek health care during or after travel. Travelers have contributed to the global spread of infectious diseases, including novel and emerging pathogens. Therefore, surveillance of travel-related morbidity is an essential component of global public health surveillance and will be of greater importance as international travel increases worldwide. September 1997-December 2011. GeoSentinel is a clinic-based global surveillance system that tracks infectious diseases and other adverse health outcomes in returned travelers, foreign visitors, and immigrants. GeoSentinel comprises 54 travel/tropical medicine clinics worldwide that electronically submit demographic, travel, and clinical diagnosis data for all patients evaluated for an illness or other health condition that is presumed to be related to international travel. Clinical information is collected by physicians with expertise or experience in travel/tropical medicine. Data collected at all sites are entered electronically into a database, which is housed at and maintained by CDC. The GeoSentinel network membership program comprises 235 additional clinics in 40 countries on six continents. Although these network members do not report surveillance data systematically, they can report unusual or concerning diagnoses in travelers and might be asked to perform enhanced surveillance in response to specific health events or concerns. During September 1997-December 2011, data were collected on 141,789 patients with confirmed or

  17. Integrated Surveillance for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Final Report of the Integrated Surveillance Study Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    Rules ( IFR ) and Visual Flight Rules (VFR) flight following that depends on cooperative avionics to support surveillance source data collection systems...identify aircraft that are receiving ANSP IFR or VFR flight following service. Aircraft identity is used as a radio call sign in the NAS to address...driven by requirements to provide and sustain IFR traffic capacity, that is, to have surveillance available even during subsystem outages. Coverage

  18. Reconciling surveillance systems with limited resources: an evaluation of passive surveillance for rabies in an endemic setting.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Laura; Gilbert, William; Subasinghe, Dynatra; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance systems for rabies in endemic regions are often subject to severe constraints in terms of resources. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) propose the use of an active surveillance system to substantiate claims of disease freedom, including rabies. However, many countries do not have the resources to establish active surveillance systems for rabies and the testing of dead dogs poses logistical challenges. This paper explores the potential of using a scenario tree model parameterised with data collected via questionnaires and interviews to estimate the sensitivity of passive surveillance, assessing its potential as a viable low-cost alternative to active surveillance systems. The results of this explorative study illustrated that given a large enough sample size, in this case the entire population of Colombo City, the sensitivity of passive surveillance can be 100% even at a low disease prevalence (0.1%), despite the low sensitivity of individual surveillance components (mean values in the range 4.077×10(-5)-1.834×10(-3) at 1% prevalence). In addition, logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with increased recognition of rabies in dogs and reporting of rabies suspect dogs. Increased recognition was observed amongst dog owners (OR 3.8 (CI, 1.3-10.8)), people previously bitten by dogs (OR 5.9 (CI, 2.2-15.9)) and people who believed they had seen suspect dogs in the past (OR 4.7 (CI, 1.8-12.9)). Increased likelihood of reporting suspect dogs was observed amongst dog owners (OR 5.3 (CI, 1.1-25)). Further work is required to validate the data collection tool and the assumptions made in the model with respect to sample size in order to develop a robust methodology for evaluating passive rabies surveillance.

  19. Strengthening public health surveillance and response using the health systems strengthening agenda in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nsubuga, Peter; Nwanyanwu, Okey; Nkengasong, John N; Mukanga, David; Trostle, Murray

    2010-12-03

    There is increased interest in strengthening health systems for developing countries. However, at present, there is common uncertainty about how to accomplish this task. Specifically, several nations are faced with an immense challenge of revamping an entire system. To accomplish this, it is essential to first identify the components of the system that require modification. The World Health Organization (WHO) has proposed health system building blocks, which are now widely recognized as essential components of health systems strengthening.With increased travel and urbanization, the threat of emerging diseases of pandemic potential is increasing alongside endemic diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), malaria, and hepatitis virus infections. At the same time, the epidemiologic patterns are shifting, giving rise to a concurrent increase in disease burden due to non-communicable diseases. These diseases can be addressed by public health surveillance and response systems that are operated by competent public health workers in core public health positions at national and sub-national levels with a focus on disease prevention.We describe two ways that health ministries in developing countries could leverage President Obama's Global Health Initiative (GHI) to build public health surveillance and response systems using proven models for public health systems strengthening and to create the public health workforce to operate those systems. We also offer suggestions for how health ministries could strengthen public health systems within the broad health systems strengthening agenda. Existing programs (e.g., the Global Vaccine Alliance [GAVI] and the Global Fund Against Tuberculosis, AIDS, and Malaria [GFTAM]) can also adapt their current health systems strengthening programs to build sustainable public health systems.

  20. [General epidemiology of nosocomial infections. Surveillance systems and programs].

    PubMed

    Pujol, Miquel; Limón, Enric

    2013-02-01

    Infections related to the health-care system are those associated with health care practices in hospitalized patients as well as in out-patients with health-care contact. Nosocomial infections affect 5% of in-patients, and carry a high morbidity, mortality and economic cost. The main types of nosocomial infections are related to invasive procedures, and include respiratory tract infection, surgical site infections, urinary tract infections, and vascular catheter bacteremia. It has been shown that the application of checklists and a bundle of measures are useful in preventing these infections. Epidemiological surveillance, defined as the gathering of information to take actions, is the basis of infection control programs. These have evolved from a global surveillance targeted at processes and indicators of nosocomial infection. The comparison of these indicators can be useful in establishing preventive measures.

  1. An expert system for culture-based infection control surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, M. G.; Steib, S. A.; Fraser, V. J.; Dunagan, W. C.

    1993-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections represent a significant cause of prolonged inpatient days and additional hospital charges. We describe an expert system, called GERMWATCHER, which applies the Centers for Disease Control's National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance culture-based criteria for detecting nosocomial infections. GERMWATCHER has been deployed at Barnes Hospital, a large tertiary-care teaching hospital, since February 1993. We describe the Barnes Hospital infection control environment, the expert system design, and a predeployment performance evaluation. We then compare our system to other efforts in computer-based infection control. PMID:8130456

  2. Naval Space Surveillance System (NAVSPASUR) solid state transmitter modernization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francoeur, A. R.

    The author describes the design of the modernized solid-state transmitter for the US Naval Space Surveillance System (NAVSPASUR) station transmitters at Jordan Lake, AL, Gila River, AZ, and Lake Kickapoo, TX. The modernized NAVSPASUR is the highest average power solid-state transmitter ever produced. With the antenna gain of the system, it produces an effective radiated average power in excess of 98 dBw. Solid-state modernization of the NAVSPASUR transmitter has produced significant cost and performance improvements, which are expected to extend the operating life of the system into the next century.

  3. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.

    1988-01-21

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil area of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor. 2 figs.

  4. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor.

  5. Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS): towards a global surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Laura F; Kress, Howard; Sumner, Steven A; Gleckel, Jessie; Kawemama, Philbert; Gordon, Rebecca N

    2016-04-01

    To describe the Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS). The survey is a national, household survey that systematically measures the prevalence, nature and consequences of sexual, physical and emotional violence against children. This report provides information about the history, implementation, ethical protections, utility, results, limitations, and future directions of the VACS work. The study has been implemented in 11 countries in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean, providing each of these countries with baseline data and momentum to address violence against children as a public health and human rights priority. These data are novel in each country, and VACS is well poised to contribute to an existing surveillance system or be used as the basis of a periodic surveillance system. Without ongoing surveillance to assess prevalence and the impact of policy, prevention and response programming, violence will likely continue to be overlooked as the linchpin public health crisis that it is, globally and in individual countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. A Behavior Based Control System for Surveillance UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekan, John; Lu, Bowen; Li, Bo; Gu, Dongbing; Hu, Huosheng

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is required to carry out duties such as surveillance, reconnaissance, search and rescue and security patrol missions. Autonomous operation of UAVs is a key to the success of these missions. In this chapter, we propose to use a behavior based control architecture to implement autonomous operation for UAV surveillance missions. This control architecture consists of two layers: a low level control layer and a behavior layer. The low level control layer decomposes 3D motion of UAVs into several atomic actions, such as yaw, roll, pitch, altitude, and 2D position control. These atomic actions together serve as a basis for the behavior layer. The behavior layer consists of a number of necessary behaviors used for surveillance missions, including take-off, object tracking, hovering, landing, trajectory following, obstacle avoidance amongst other behaviors. These behaviors can be instantiated individually or collectively to fulfill the required missions issued by human operators. To evaluate the proposed control architecture, the commercially available DraganFlyer QuadRotor was used as the UAV platform. With the aid of an indoor positioning system, several atomic actions and a group of behaviors were developed for the DraganFlyer. Real testing experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed system.

  7. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, D. L.; Sheen, D. M.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, T. E.; Smith, R. R.; Droppo, J. G., Jr.

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. Metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 (times) 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electronically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  8. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, D.L.; Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; Smith, R.R.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 {times} 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electonically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  9. Health care system and policy factors influencing engagement in HIV medical care: piecing together the fragments of a fractured health care delivery system.

    PubMed

    Mugavero, Michael J; Norton, Wynne E; Saag, Michael S

    2011-01-15

    Grounded in a socio-ecological framework, we describe salient health care system and policy factors that influence engagement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinical care. The discussion emphasizes successful programs and models of service delivery and highlights the limitations of current, fragmented health care system components in supporting effective, efficient, and sustained patient engagement across a continuum of care. A fundamental need exists for improved synergies between funding and service agencies that provide HIV testing, prevention, treatment, and supportive services. We propose a feedback loop whereby actionable, patient-level surveillance of HIV testing and engagement in care activities inform educational outreach and resource allocation to support integrated "testing and linkage to care plus" service delivery. Ongoing surveillance of programmatic performance in achieving defined benchmarks for linkage of patients who have newly diagnosed HIV infection and retention of those patients in care is imperative to iteratively inform further educational efforts, resource allocation, and refinement of service delivery.

  10. Evaluating a surveillance system: live-bird market surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza, a case study.

    PubMed

    Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Nguku, Patrick; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ike; Kabir, Junaidu; Okolocha, Emmanuel; Tseggai, Tesfai; Joannis, Tony; Okewole, Phillip; Kumbish, Peterside; Ahmed, Mohammed; Lombin, Lami; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 was first reported in poultry in Nigeria in February 2006. The only human case that occurred was linked to contact with poultry in a live bird market (LBM). LBM surveillance was instituted to assess the degree of threat of human exposure to H5N1. The key indicator was detection of H5N1 in LBMs. We evaluated the surveillance system to assess its operations and attributes. We used the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. We reviewed and analyzed passive surveillance data for HPAI (January 2006-March 2009) from the Avian Influenza National Reference Laboratory, and live bird market surveillance data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Nigeria. We interviewed key stakeholders and reviewed reports of live bird market surveillance to obtain additional information on the operations of the system. We assessed the key system attributes. A total of 299 cases occurred in 25 (72%) states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The system detected HPAI H5N1 virus in 7 (9.5%) LBMs; 2 (29%) of which were from 2 (18.2%) states with no previous case. A total of 17,852 (91.5%) of samples arrived at the laboratory within 24 hours but laboratory analysis took over 7 days. The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were 15.4% and 66.7% respectively. The system is useful, flexible, complex and not timely, but appears to be meeting its objectives. The isolation of HPAI H5N1 virus in some of these markets is an indication that the markets are possible reservoirs of the virus in Nigeria. We recommend that the Federal Government of Nigeria should dedicate more funds for surveillance for HPAI as this will aid early warning and reduce the risk of a pandemic.

  11. Early warning epidemic surveillance in the Pacific island nations: an evaluation of the Pacific syndromic surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Craig, Adam T; Kama, Mike; Samo, Marcus; Vaai, Saine; Matanaicake, Jane; Joshua, Cynthia; Kolbe, Anthony; Durrheim, David N; Paterson, Beverley J; Biaukula, Viema; Nilles, Eric J

    2016-07-01

    The Pacific Syndromic Surveillance System (PSSS), launched in 2010, provides a simple mechanism by which 121 sentinel surveillance sites in 21 Pacific island countries and areas perform routine indicator- and event-based surveillance for the early detection of infectious disease outbreaks. This evaluation aims to assess whether the PSSS is meeting its objectives, what progress has been made since a formative evaluation of the system was conducted in 2011, and provides recommendations to enhance the PSSS's performance in the future. Twenty-one informant interviews were conducted with national operators of the system and regional public health agencies that use information generated by it. Historic PSSS data were analysed to assess timeliness and completeness of reporting. The system is simple, acceptable and useful for public health decision-makers. The PSSS has greatly enhanced Pacific island countries' ability to undertake early warning surveillance and has contributed to efforts to meet national surveillance-related International Health Regulation (2005) capacity development obligations. Despite this, issues with timeliness and completeness of reporting, data quality and system stability persist. A balance between maintaining the system's simplicity and technical advances will need to be found to ensure its long-term sustainability, given the low-resource context for which it is designed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. HIV-2 Surveillance with Next-Generation Sequencing Reveals Mutations in a Cytotoxic Lymphocyte-Restricted Epitope Involved in Long-Term Nonprogression.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Julie; Brennan, Catherine A; Alessandri-Gradt, Elodie; Plantier, Jean-Christophe; Cloherty, Gavin A; Berg, Michael G

    2017-04-01

    HIV-2 exhibits a natural history of infection distinct from HIV-1. Primarily found in West Africa and in only 10%-20% of HIV infections in this region, patients with HIV-2 typically exhibit a slower progression to AIDS, lower viral loads, and decreased rates of transmission. Here, we used next-generation sequencing to determine the sequence and phylogenetic classification of nine HIV-2 genomes. We identified a patient with a series of mutations in an invariant cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL)-restricted gag epitope required for retroviral structure and replication and implicated in long-term nonprogression to AIDS. The presence of wild-type sequence argues these mutations are involved in immune escape, whereas its reversion to a sequence seen only in the sooty mangabey reservoir suggests an alternate means of controlling infection. Surveillance and molecular characterization of circulating strains are essential for continued development of monitoring tools and may provide greater insight into the reduced pathogenicity of HIV-2.

  13. HIV Incidence in Rural South Africa: Comparison of Estimates from Longitudinal Surveillance and Cross-Sectional cBED Assay Testing

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Wallrauch, Claudia; Welte, Alex; McWalter, Thomas A.; Mbizana, Nhlanhla; Viljoen, Johannes; Graham, Natalie; Tanser, Frank; Puren, Adrian; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2008-01-01

    Background The BED IgG-Capture Enzyme Immunoassay (cBED assay), a test of recent HIV infection, has been used to estimate HIV incidence in cross-sectional HIV surveys. However, there has been concern that the assay overestimates HIV incidence to an unknown extent because it falsely classifies some individuals with non-recent HIV infections as recently infected. We used data from a longitudinal HIV surveillance in rural South Africa to measure the fraction of people with non-recent HIV infection who are falsely classified as recently HIV-infected by the cBED assay (the long-term false-positive ratio (FPR)) and compared cBED assay-based HIV incidence estimates to longitudinally measured HIV incidence. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured the long-term FPR in individuals with two positive HIV tests (in the HIV surveillance, 2003–2006) more than 306 days apart (sample size n = 1,065). We implemented four different formulae to calculate HIV incidence using cBED assay testing (n = 11,755) and obtained confidence intervals (CIs) by directly calculating the central 95th percentile of incidence values. We observed 4,869 individuals over 7,685 person-years for longitudinal HIV incidence estimation. The long-term FPR was 0.0169 (95% CI 0.0100–0.0266). Using this FPR, the cross-sectional cBED-based HIV incidence estimates (per 100 people per year) varied between 3.03 (95% CI 2.44–3.63) and 3.19 (95% CI 2.57–3.82), depending on the incidence formula. Using a long-term FPR of 0.0560 based on previous studies, HIV incidence estimates varied between 0.65 (95% CI 0.00–1.32) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.00–1.43). The longitudinally measured HIV incidence was 3.09 per 100 people per year (95% CI 2.69–3.52), after adjustment to the sex-age distribution of the sample used in cBED assay-based estimation. Conclusions/Significance In a rural community in South Africa with high HIV prevalence, the long-term FPR of the cBED assay is substantially lower than previous

  14. Syndromic surveillance for health information system failures: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mei-Sing; Magrabi, Farah; Coiera, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the applicability of a syndromic surveillance method to the early detection of health information technology (HIT) system failures. Methods A syndromic surveillance system was developed to monitor a laboratory information system at a tertiary hospital. Four indices were monitored: (1) total laboratory records being created; (2) total records with missing results; (3) average serum potassium results; and (4) total duplicated tests on a patient. The goal was to detect HIT system failures causing: data loss at the record level; data loss at the field level; erroneous data; and unintended duplication of data. Time-series models of the indices were constructed, and statistical process control charts were used to detect unexpected behaviors. The ability of the models to detect HIT system failures was evaluated using simulated failures, each lasting for 24 h, with error rates ranging from 1% to 35%. Results In detecting data loss at the record level, the model achieved a sensitivity of 0.26 when the simulated error rate was 1%, while maintaining a specificity of 0.98. Detection performance improved with increasing error rates, achieving a perfect sensitivity when the error rate was 35%. In the detection of missing results, erroneous serum potassium results and unintended repetition of tests, perfect sensitivity was attained when the error rate was as small as 5%. Decreasing the error rate to 1% resulted in a drop in sensitivity to 0.65–0.85. Conclusions Syndromic surveillance methods can potentially be applied to monitor HIT systems, to facilitate the early detection of failures. PMID:23184193

  15. Development of a unified web-based national HIV/AIDS information system in China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yurong; Wu, Zunyou; Poundstone, Katharine; Wang, Changhe; Qin, Qianqian; Ma, Ye; Ma, Wei

    2010-12-01

    In the past, many data collection systems were in operation for different HIV/AIDS projects in China. We describe the creation of a unified, web-based national HIV/AIDS information system designed to streamline data collection and facilitate data use. Integration of separate HIV/AIDS data systems was carried out in three phases. Phase 1, from January 2006 to December 2007, involved creating a set of unified data collection forms that took into account existing program needs and the reporting requirements of various international organizations. Phase 2, from January to October 2007, involved creating a web-based platform to host the integrated HIV/AIDS data collection system. Phase 3, from November to December 2007, involved pilot testing the new, integrated system prior to nationwide application. Eight web-based data collection subsystems based on one platform began operation on 1 January 2008. These eight subsystems cover: (i) HIV/AIDS case reporting; (ii) HIV testing and counselling; (iii) antiretroviral treatment (ART) for adults; (iv) ART for children; (v) behavioural interventions for high-risk groups; (vi) methadone maintenance treatment; (vii) sentinel and behavioural surveillance; and (viii) local county background information. The system provides real-time data to monitor HIV testing, prevention and treatment programs across the country. China's new unified, web-based HIV/AIDS information system has improved the efficiency of data collection, reporting, analysis and use, as well as data quality and security. It is a powerful tool to support policy making, program evaluation and implementation of the national HIV/AIDS program and, thus, may serve a model for other countries.

  16. Surveillance System and Method having an Adaptive Sequential Probability Fault Detection Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor); Herzog, James P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  17. Surveillance system and method having an adaptive sequential probability fault detection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzog, James P. (Inventor); Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  18. Surveillance system and method having an adaptive sequential probability fault detection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor); Herzog, James P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  19. Evolution of an Integrated Public Health Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Derek A.; Ford, Nancy; Tlusty, Susan; Bodurtha, Joann N.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing recognition in maternal and child health of the importance of social, behavioral, biological, and genetic factors across the entire life course. Unfortunately, most state maternal and child health surveillance systems are not designed to readily address longitudinal research questions or track and follow children across multiple programs over time. The Virginia Department of Health (VDH) recently integrated its birth defects registry, newborn hearing screening tracking and management system, and electronic birth certificate (EBC) into a robust, Web-based surveillance system called the Virginia Vital Events and Screening Tracking System (VVESTS). Completely redesigning the existing birth defects and newborn hearing screening system (the Virginia Infant Screening and Infant Tracking System—VISITS I) with minimal disruption of ongoing reporting presented a number of challenges. Because VVESTS had different requirements such as required fields and data validations, extensive data preparation was required to ensure that existing VISITS I data would be included in the new system (VISITS II). Efforts included record deduplication, conversion of free text fields into discrete variables, dealing with missing/invalid data, and linkage with birth certificate data. VISITS II serves multiple program needs; improves data quality and security; automates linkages within families, across programs, and over time; and improves the ability of VDH to provide children with birth defects and their families necessary follow-up services and enhanced care coordination. PMID:22097701

  20. Video coding for next-generation surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasen, Lena M.; Fahlander, Olov

    1997-02-01

    Video is used as recording media in surveillance system and also more frequently by the Swedish Police Force. Methods for analyzing video using an image processing system have recently been introduced at the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science, and new methods are in focus in a research project at Linkoping University, Image Coding Group. The accuracy of the result of those forensic investigations often depends on the quality of the video recordings, and one of the major problems when analyzing videos from crime scenes is the poor quality of the recordings. Enhancing poor image quality might add manipulative or subjective effects and does not seem to be the right way of getting reliable analysis results. The surveillance system in use today is mainly based on video techniques, VHS or S-VHS, and the weakest link is the video cassette recorder, (VCR). Multiplexers for selecting one of many camera outputs for recording is another problem as it often filters the video signal, and recording is limited to only one of the available cameras connected to the VCR. A way to get around the problem of poor recording is to simultaneously record all camera outputs digitally. It is also very important to build such a system bearing in mind that image processing analysis methods becomes more important as a complement to the human eye. Using one or more cameras gives a large amount of data, and the need for data compression is more than obvious. Crime scenes often involve persons or moving objects, and the available coding techniques are more or less useful. Our goal is to propose a possible system, being the best compromise with respect to what needs to be recorded, movements in the recorded scene, loss of information and resolution etc., to secure the efficient recording of the crime and enable forensic analysis. The preventative effective of having a well functioning surveillance system and well established image analysis methods is not to be neglected. Aspects of

  1. Rotavirus Surveillance at a WHO-Coordinated Invasive Bacterial Disease Surveillance Site in Bangladesh: A Feasibility Study to Integrate Two Surveillance Systems.

    PubMed

    Tanmoy, Arif Mohammad; Ahmed, Asm Nawshad Uddin; Arumugam, Rajesh; Hossain, Belal; Marzan, Mahfuza; Saha, Shampa; Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H; Black, Robert E; Kang, Gagandeep; Saha, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently coordinates rotavirus diarrhea and invasive bacterial disease (IBD) surveillance at 178 sentinel sites in 60 countries. However, only 78 sites participate in both surveillance systems using a common sentinel site. Here, we explored the feasibility of extending a WHO-IBD surveillance platform to generate data on the burden of rotaviral diarrhea and its epidemiological characteristics to prepare the countries to measure the impact of rotaviral vaccine. A six-month (July to December, 2012) surveillance, managed by IBD team, collected stool samples and clinical data from under-five children with acute watery diarrhea at an IBD sentinel site. Samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA and genotyped by PCR at the regional reference laboratory (RRL). Specimens were collected from 79% (n=297) of eligible cases (n=375); 100% of which were tested for rotavirus by ELISA and 54% (159/297) of them were positive. At RRL, all the cases were confirmed by PCR and genotyped (99%; 158/159). The typing results revealed the predominance of G12 (40%; 64/159) genotype, followed by G1 (31%; 50/159) and G9 (19%; 31/159). All in all, this exploratory surveillance collected the desired demographic and epidemiological data and achieved almost all the benchmark indicators of WHO, starting from enrollment number to quality assurance through a number of case detection, collection, and testing of specimens and genotyping of strains at RRL. The success of this WHO-IBD site in achieving these benchmark indicators of WHO can be used by WHO as a proof-of-concept for considering integration of rotavirus surveillance with WHO-IBD platforms, specifically in countries with well performing IBD site and no ongoing rotavirus surveillance.

  2. A multisensor system for airborne surveillance of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, A. T.; Ketchal, R.; Catoe, C.

    1973-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is developing a prototype airborne oil surveillance system for use in its Marine Environmental Protection Program. The prototype system utilizes an X-band side-looking radar, a 37-GHz imaging microwave radiometer, a multichannel line scanner, and a multispectral low light level system. The system is geared to detecting and mapping oil spills and potential pollution violators anywhere within a 25 nmi range of the aircraft flight track under all but extreme weather conditions. The system provides for false target discrimination and maximum identification of spilled materials. The system also provides an automated detection alarm, as well as a color display to achieve maximum coupling between the sensor data and the equipment operator.

  3. A multisensor system for airborne surveillance of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, A. T.; Ketchal, R.; Catoe, C.

    1973-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is developing a prototype airborne oil surveillance system for use in its Marine Environmental Protection Program. The prototype system utilizes an X-band side-looking radar, a 37-GHz imaging microwave radiometer, a multichannel line scanner, and a multispectral low light level system. The system is geared to detecting and mapping oil spills and potential pollution violators anywhere within a 25 nmi range of the aircraft flight track under all but extreme weather conditions. The system provides for false target discrimination and maximum identification of spilled materials. The system also provides an automated detection alarm, as well as a color display to achieve maximum coupling between the sensor data and the equipment operator.

  4. Surveillance for thrombocytopenia in persons infected with HIV: results from the multistate Adult and Adolescent Spectrum of Disease Project.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P S; Hanson, D L; Chu, S Y; Jones, J L; Ciesielski, C A

    1997-04-01

    Thrombocytopenia in persons infected with HIV is prevalent and has numerous causes. To study the occurrence, associations, and effect on survival of thrombocytopenia in HIV-infected persons, we used surveillance data from a longitudinal survey of the medical records of 30,214 HIV-infected patients who received medical care from January 1990 through August 1996 in more than 100 medical clinics in 10 U.S. cities. Thrombocytopenia was defined as a physician diagnosis of thrombocytopenia or a platelet count of < 50,000 platelets/ microliter. Analysis of associations of thrombocytopenia was conducted using logistic regression. In HIV+ patients, the 1-year incidence [corrected] of thrombocytopenia was 8.7% in persons with one or more AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses (clinical AIDS), 3.1% in patients with a CD4 count < 200 cells/mm3 but not clinical AIDS (immunologic AIDS), and 1.7% in persons without clinical or immunologic AIDS. The incidence of thrombocytopenia was associated with clinical AIDS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.2; 99% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-3.0), immunologic AIDS (AOR 1.5, CI 1.0-2.1), history of injecting drug use (AOR 1.4, CI 1.0-1.9), anemia (AOR 5.0, CI 3.8-6.7), lymphoma (AOR 3.7, CI 1.3-10.6), and black race (AOR 0.7, CI 0.5-0.9). After controlling for anemia, clinical AIDS, CD4 count, neutropenia, antiretroviral therapy, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis, thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with decreased survival (risk ratio 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.8). Thrombocytopenia in HIV-infected persons is an important clinical condition associated with shorter survival.

  5. Evaluation Of The NASA Quality Surveillance System Pilot In Meeting Requirements For Contractor Surveillance Under Performance Based Contracting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Karen E.

    2001-01-01

    The use of performance-based contracting at Kennedy Space Center has necessitated a shift from intrusive oversight of contractor activities to an insight surveillance role. This paper describes the results of a pilot implementation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System (NQSS) in the Space Shuttle Main Engines Processing Facility. The NQSS is a system to sample contractor activities using documented procedures, specifications, drawings and observations of work in progress to answer the question "Is the contractor doing what they said they would do?" The concepts of the NQSS are shown to be effective in providing assurance of contractor quality. Many of the concepts proven in the pilot are being considered for incorporation into an overall KSC Quality Surveillance System.

  6. Evaluation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System Pilot in Meeting Requirements for Contractor Surveillance Under Performance Based Contracting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    The use of performance-based contracting at Kennedy Space Center has necessitated a shift from intrusive oversight of contractor activities to an insight surveillance role. This paper describes the results of a pilot implementation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System (NQSS) in the Space Shuttle Main Engines Processing Facility. The NQSS is a system to sample contractor activities using documented procedures, specifications, drawings and observations of work in progress to answer the question "Is the contractor doing what they said they would do?" The concepts of the NQSS are shown to be effective in providing assurance of contractor quality. Many of the concepts proven in the pilot are being considered for incorporation into an overall KSC Quality Surveillance System.

  7. Evaluation Of The NASA Quality Surveillance System Pilot In Meeting Requirements For Contractor Surveillance Under Performance Based Contracting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Karen E.

    2001-01-01

    The use of performance-based contracting at Kennedy Space Center has necessitated a shift from intrusive oversight of contractor activities to an insight surveillance role. This paper describes the results of a pilot implementation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System (NQSS) in the Space Shuttle Main Engines Processing Facility. The NQSS is a system to sample contractor activities using documented procedures, specifications, drawings and observations of work in progress to answer the question "Is the contractor doing what they said they would do?" The concepts of the NQSS are shown to be effective in providing assurance of contractor quality. Many of the concepts proven in the pilot are being considered for incorporation into an overall KSC Quality Surveillance System.

  8. Evaluation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System Pilot in Meeting Requirements for Contractor Surveillance Under Performance Based Contracting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    The use of performance-based contracting at Kennedy Space Center has necessitated a shift from intrusive oversight of contractor activities to an insight surveillance role. This paper describes the results of a pilot implementation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System (NQSS) in the Space Shuttle Main Engines Processing Facility. The NQSS is a system to sample contractor activities using documented procedures, specifications, drawings and observations of work in progress to answer the question "Is the contractor doing what they said they would do?" The concepts of the NQSS are shown to be effective in providing assurance of contractor quality. Many of the concepts proven in the pilot are being considered for incorporation into an overall KSC Quality Surveillance System.

  9. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS): purpose, production, and potential.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) developed the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) to assist all 192 WHO Member States in collecting data on youth and adult tobacco use. The flexible GTSS system includes common data items but allows countries to include important unique information at their discretion. It uses a common survey methodology, similar field procedures for data collection, and similar data management and processing techniques. The GTSS includes collection of data through three surveys: the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) for youth, and the Global School Personnel Survey (GSPS) and the Global Health Professional Survey (GHPS) for adults. GTSS data potentially can be applied in four ways. First, countries and research partners can disseminate data through publications, presentations, and an active GTSS web site. Second, countries can use GTSS data to inform politicians about the tobacco problem in their country, leading to new policy decisions to prevent and control tobacco use. Third, GTSS can provide countries with valuable feedback to evaluate and improve Country National Action Plans or develop new plans. Fourth, in response to the WHO FCTC call for countries to use consistent methods and procedures in their surveillance efforts, GTSS offers such consistency in sampling procedures, core questionnaire items, training infield procedures, and analysis of data across all survey sites. The GTSS represents the most comprehensive tobacco surveillance system ever developed and implemented. As an example, this paper describes development of the GYTS and discusses potential uses of the data. Sample data were drawn from 38 sites in 24 countries in the African Region, 82 sites in 35 countries in the Americas Region, 20 sites in 17 countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank region in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 25 sites in 22 countries in the European

  10. Location-based HIV behavioural surveillance among MSM in Auckland, New Zealand 2002-2011: condom use stable and more HIV testing.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Peter J W; Dickson, Nigel P; Hughes, Anthony J

    2014-03-01

    Over the last decade, annual HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men (MSM) in New Zealand increased, then stabilised in 2006 and have not increased further. The aim was to examine trends in behaviours in order to better understand this pattern and inform community-based prevention. From 2002 to 2011, we conducted five repeat cross-sectional behavioural surveillance surveys among MSM at community locations in Auckland (fair day, gay bars, sex-on-site venues; n=6091). Participation was anonymous and self-completed. Recruitment methods were consistent at each round. Overall, the samples became more ethnically diverse and less gay community attached over time. Condom use during anal intercourse was stable across three partnering contexts (casual, current regular fuckbuddy, current regular boyfriend), with a drop among casual contacts in 2011 only. In the 6 months prior to surveys, there was a gradual decline over time in the proportion reporting >20 male partners, an increase in acquiring partners from the internet and increases in engagement in anal intercourse in some partnering contexts. HIV testing in the 12 months prior to surveys rose from 35.1% in 2002 to 50.4% in 2011, mostly from 2008. This first indepth examination of trends in HIV-related behaviours among five consecutive large and diverse samples of MSM in New Zealand does not suggest condom use is declining. However, subtle changes in sexual networks and partnering may be altering the epidemic determinants in this population and increasing exposure.

  11. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Severtsen, R.H.

    1999-01-12

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system is disclosed including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image. 13 figs.

  12. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Severtsen, Ronald H.

    1999-01-01

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image.

  13. Markov random fields for static foreground classification in surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, Jack K.; Lu, Thomas T.

    2014-09-01

    We present a novel technique for classifying static foreground in automated airport surveillance systems between abandoned and removed objects by representing the image as a Markov Random Field. The proposed algorithm computes and compares the net probability of the region of interest before and after the event occurs, hence finding which fits more naturally with their respective backgrounds. Having tested on a dataset from the PETS 2006, PETS 2007, AVSS20074, CVSG, VISOR, CANDELA and WCAM datasets, the algorithm has shown capable of matching the results of the state-of-the-art, is highly parallel and has a degree of robustness to noise and illumination changes.

  14. [Spatial orientation of pilot using a cockpit exterior surveillance system].

    PubMed

    Chuntul, A V; Lapa, V V; Davydov, V V

    2013-01-01

    Spatial orientation of pilots using a cockpit exterior surveillance system was tested in real nighttime helicopter flights. Major factors complicating adequate spatial orientation and provoking visual illusions in pilots are lack of information for spatial depth (relation) perception in two-dimensional TV images altering their position along the horizontal and vertical lines of trajectory and simultaneous piloting and target search-identification operations. Reliability of pilot's spatial orientation could be improved by displaying on the exterior imaging screen also relevant flight navigation parameters.

  15. Evaluation and Reform of Mexican National Epidemiological Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; González-Urbán, Luis; Sarti, Elsa

    2001-01-01

    To generate timely and reliable information for decision making in local health centers, Mexico's National Epidemiological Surveillance System (SINAVE) was evaluated and reformed. The reform was achieved by consensus through national meetings of epidemiologists, using a conceptual model of requirements, leadership, participation, and motivation. The new SINAVE is run by committees that use data from 16 468 local health centers that generate homogeneous information from all health institutions. Indicators, flowcharts, and standardized instruments were created. The reforms modernized SINAVE and strengthened epidemiologists' leadership, consolidated local decision making, and assessed control actions needed to improve the health of the Mexican population. PMID:11684594

  16. Establishing a cost-effective national surveillance system for Bluetongue using scenario tree modelling

    PubMed Central

    Hadorn, Daniela C.; Racloz, Vanessa; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Stärk, Katharina D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases pose a special challenge to veterinary authorities due to complex and time-consuming surveillance programs taking into account vector habitat. Using stochastic scenario tree modelling, each possible surveillance activity of a future surveillance system can be evaluated with regard to its sensitivity and the expected cost. The overall sensitivity of various potential surveillance systems, composed of different combinations of surveillance activities, is calculated and the proposed surveillance system is optimized with respect to the considered surveillance activities, the sensitivity and the cost. The objective of this project was to use stochastic scenario tree modelling in combination with a simple cost analysis in order to develop the national surveillance system for Bluetongue in Switzerland. This surveillance system was established due to the emerging outbreak of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in Northern Europe in 2006. Based on the modelling results, it was decided to implement an improved passive clinical surveillance in cattle and sheep through campaigns in order to increase disease awareness alongside a targeted bulk milk testing strategy in 200 dairy cattle herds located in high-risk areas. The estimated median probability of detection of cases (i.e. sensitivity) of the surveillance system in this combined approach was 96.4%. The evaluation of the prospective national surveillance system predicted that passive clinical surveillance in cattle would provide the highest probability to detect BTV-8 infected animals, followed by passive clinical surveillance in sheep and bulk milk testing of 200 dairy cattle farms in high-risk areas. This approach is also applicable in other countries and to other epidemic diseases. PMID:19607784

  17. Profile: the KEMRI/CDC Health and Demographic Surveillance System--Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odhiambo, Frank O; Laserson, Kayla F; Sewe, Maquins; Hamel, Mary J; Feikin, Daniel R; Adazu, Kubaje; Ogwang, Sheila; Obor, David; Amek, Nyaguara; Bayoh, Nabie; Ombok, Maurice; Lindblade, Kimberly; Desai, Meghna; ter Kuile, Feiko; Phillips-Howard, Penelope; van Eijk, Anna M; Rosen, Daniel; Hightower, Allen; Ofware, Peter; Muttai, Hellen; Nahlen, Bernard; DeCock, Kevin; Slutsker, Laurence; Breiman, Robert F; Vulule, John M

    2012-08-01

    The KEMRI/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) is located in Rarieda, Siaya and Gem Districts (Siaya County), lying northeast of Lake Victoria in Nyanza Province, western Kenya. The KEMRI/CDC HDSS, with approximately 220 000 inhabitants, has been the foundation for a variety of studies, including evaluations of insecticide-treated bed nets, burden of diarrhoeal disease and tuberculosis, malaria parasitaemia and anaemia, treatment strategies and immunological correlates of malaria infection, and numerous HIV, tuberculosis, malaria and diarrhoeal disease treatment and vaccine efficacy and effectiveness trials for more than a decade. Current studies include operations research to measure the uptake and effectiveness of the programmatic implementation of integrated malaria control strategies, HIV services, newly introduced vaccines and clinical trials. The HDSS provides general demographic and health information (such as population age structure and density, fertility rates, birth and death rates, in- and out-migrations, patterns of health care access and utilization and the local economics of health care) as well as disease- or intervention-specific information. The HDSS also collects verbal autopsy information on all deaths. Studies take advantage of the sampling frame inherent in the HDSS, whether at individual, household/compound or neighbourhood level.

  18. The utility of information collected by occupational disease surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Money, A; Carder, M; Hussey, L; Agius, R M

    2015-11-01

    The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in the UK and the Republic of Ireland (ROI) is an integrated system of surveillance schemes collecting work-related ill-health (WRIH) data since 1989. In addition to providing information about disease incidence, trends in incidence and the identification of new hazards, THOR also operates an ad hoc data enquiry service enabling interested parties to request information about cases of WRIH reported to THOR. To examine requests for information made to a network of surveillance schemes for WRIH in the UK. Analysis via SPSS of data requests received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. A total of 631 requests were received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. Requests were predominantly submitted by participating THOR physicians (34%) and the main THOR funder-the UK Health & Safety Executive (HSE) (31%). The majority (67%) of requests were for information about work-related respiratory or skin disease with relatively few requests for other diagnoses, such as musculoskeletal or mental ill-health. Requests frequently related to a specific industry and/or occupation (42%) and/or a specific causal agent (58%). Data collected by occupational disease surveillance systems such as THOR are an extremely useful source of information, the use of which extends beyond informing government on disease incidence and trends in incidence. The data collected provide a framework that can assist a wide range of enquirers with clinical diagnoses, identification of suspected causative agents/exposures and to highlight growing risks in particular industrial and occupational sectors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A smart system for surveillance of animal welfare during transport.

    PubMed

    Gebresenbet, G; Wikner, I; Van de Water, G; Freson, L; Geers, R

    2003-12-01

    New welfare regulations will impose surveillance systems so that information on the quality of transport conditions is available. Moreover a route description is useful for optimisation of transport logistics, but also in relation to estimating of sanitary risk and food safety, including traceability of individual animals. Therefore a transport surveillance system has been developed which is integrating the following information: individual identification of animals, (un)loading place and time, air quality (temperature, relative humidity, emissions), vibration and behaviour of the animals. These data are collected by telemetry and GPS, and are transmitted to a dispatch centre by GSM. Hence, information is available on-line and on disk, so that the driver can be informed and corrected at the spot. Dynamic route optimization of cattle collection from farms and logistical activities of abattoirs are considered in relation to animal welfare. Another instrumentation package that comprises sensors of heart rate and vibration on the animal has been integrated. These sensors can be mounted on animals and the data is transferred to a database through a wireless network. Comprehensive field measurement has been made to evaluate the system and found that the package performs well. Hence, advice will be generated for vehicle manufacturers, hauliers, farmers, slaughterhouses and retailers.

  20. Situation exploration in a persistent surveillance system with multidimensional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad S.

    2013-03-01

    There is an emerging need for fusing hard and soft sensor data in an efficient surveillance system to provide accurate estimation of situation awareness. These mostly abstract, multi-dimensional and multi-sensor data pose a great challenge to the user in performing analysis of multi-threaded events efficiently and cohesively. To address this concern an interactive Visual Analytics (VA) application is developed for rapid assessment and evaluation of different hypotheses based on context-sensitive ontology spawn from taxonomies describing human/human and human/vehicle/object interactions. A methodology is described here for generating relevant ontology in a Persistent Surveillance System (PSS) and demonstrates how they can be utilized in the context of PSS to track and identify group activities pertaining to potential threats. The proposed VA system allows for visual analysis of raw data as well as metadata that have spatiotemporal representation and content-based implications. Additionally in this paper, a technique for rapid search of tagged information contingent to ranking and confidence is explained for analysis of multi-dimensional data. Lastly the issue of uncertainty associated with processing and interpretation of heterogeneous data is also addressed.

  1. Toward Development of a Face Recognition System for Watchlist Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kamgar-Parsi, Behrooz; Lawson, Wallace; Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad

    2011-10-01

    The interest in face recognition is moving toward real-world applications and uncontrolled sensing environments. An important application of interest is automated surveillance, where the objective is to recognize and track people who are on a watchlist. For this open world application, a large number of cameras that are increasingly being installed at many locations in shopping malls, metro systems, airports, etc., will be utilized. While a very large number of people will approach or pass by these surveillance cameras, only a small set of individuals must be recognized. That is, the system must reject every subject unless the subject happens to be on the watchlist. While humans routinely reject previously unseen faces as strangers, rejection of previously unseen faces has remained a difficult aspect of automated face recognition. In this paper, we propose an approach motivated by human perceptual ability of face recognition which can handle previously unseen faces. Our approach is based on identifying the decision region(s) in the face space which belong to the target person(s). This is done by generating two large sets of borderline images, projecting just inside and outside of the decision region. For each person on the watchlist, a dedicated classifier is trained. Results of extensive experiments support the effectiveness of our approach. In addition to extensive experiments using our algorithm and prerecorded images, we have conducted considerable live system experiments with people in realistic environments.

  2. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Menizibeya Osain

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods: Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe) health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results: Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion: The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine surveillance and medical

  3. Web-based infectious disease surveillance systems and public health perspectives: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Cho, Youngtae; Shim, Eunyoung; Woo, Hyekyung

    2016-12-08

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are a significant public health concern, and early detection and immediate response is crucial for disease control. These challenges have led to the need for new approaches and technologies to reinforce the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for detecting emerging infectious diseases. In the last few years, the availability of novel web-based data sources has contributed substantially to infectious disease surveillance. This study explores the burgeoning field of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems by examining their current status, importance, and potential challenges. A systematic review framework was applied to the search, screening, and analysis of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases to extensively review the English literature published between 2000 and 2015. Eleven surveillance systems were chosen for evaluation according to their high frequency of application. Relevant terms, including newly coined terms, development and classification of the surveillance systems, and various characteristics associated with the systems were studied. Based on a detailed and informative review of the 11 web-based infectious disease surveillance systems, it was evident that these systems exhibited clear strengths, as compared to traditional surveillance systems, but with some limitations yet to be overcome. The major strengths of the newly emerging surveillance systems are that they are intuitive, adaptable, low-cost, and operated in real-time, all of which are necessary features of an effective public health tool. The most apparent potential challenges of the web-based systems are those of inaccurate interpretation and prediction of health status, and privacy issues, based on an individual's internet activity. Despite being in a nascent stage with further modification needed, web-based surveillance systems have evolved to complement

  4. Schistosomiasis: Geospatial Surveillance and Response Systems in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, John; Bergquist, Robert; Rinaldi, Laura; Xiao-nong, Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  5. Integrated bio-behavioural HIV surveillance surveys among female sex workers in Sudan, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Elhadi, Magda; Elbadawi, Abdulateef; Abdelrahman, Samira; Mohammed, Ibtisam; Bozicevic, Ivana; Hassan, Ehab A; Elmukhtar, Mohammed; Ahmed, Sally; Abdelraheem, Mohammed Sidahmed; Mubarak, Nazik; Elsanousi, Salwa; Setayesh, Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess HIV and syphilis prevalence, HIV-related behaviours and testing for HIV in female sex workers (FSW) in Sudan. Design Bio-behavioural surveys using respondent-driven sampling were carried out among FSW in the capital cities of 14 states in Sudan in 2011–2012. HIV and syphilis testing was done by rapid tests. Results 4220 FSW aged 15–49 years were recruited. The median age of recruited women varied from 21 to 28 years per site. The highest HIV prevalence was measured at two sites in the eastern zone (5.0% and 7.7%), while in the other zones it ranged from 0% to 1.5%. Syphilis prevalence ranged from 1.5% in the northern zone to 8.9% in the eastern zone. Ever having been tested for HIV was reported by 4.4%–23.9% of FSW across all sites. Condom use at last sex with a client varied from 4.7% to 55.1%, while consistent condom use with clients in the month preceding the surveys was reported by 0.7%–24.5% of FSW. The highest reporting of ever injecting drugs was measured at a site in the western zone (5.0%). Conclusions The surveys’ findings indicate that the highest burden of HIV in FSW is in the eastern states of the country. Condom use and HIV testing data demonstrate the need for HIV interventions that should focus on HIV testing and risk reduction strategies that include stronger condom promotion programmes in FSW and their clients. PMID:23996450

  6. Surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China: From 2012 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honglong; Wang, Liping; Lai, Shengjie; Li, Zhongjie; Sun, Qiao; Zhang, Peng

    2017-07-01

    Appropriate surveillance and early warning of infectious diseases have very useful roles in disease control and prevention. In 2004, China established the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System and the Public Health Emergency Event Surveillance System to report disease surveillance and events on the basis of data sources from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System, China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System in this country. This study provided a descriptive summary and a data analysis, from 2012 to 2014, of these 3 key surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China with the intent to provide suggestions for system improvement and perfection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Status of state electronic disease surveillance systems--United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    2009-07-31

    The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) is a web-based system that uses standard health information technology (IT) codes to integrate disease surveillance systems, enabling them to transfer public health, laboratory, and clinical data securely from health-care providers to public health departments. Each jurisdictions' system consists of a base system and modules that can be used for specific surveillance purposes. States also use NEDSS-like or other electronic systems to conduct surveillance on specific diseases or conditions. Until recently, no assessment had been done to describe the status and characteristics of state electronic disease surveillance systems. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) conducted such an assessment in August 2007 in all 50 states. This report presents the results of that assessment, which indicated that, in 2007, state electronic disease surveillance systems varied widely and were in various stages of implementation. Each state had either custom-built systems or purchased systems that were customizable, with associated disease modules to meet its own surveillance needs. As interoperability becomes the standard for electronic data sharing, more states will face customization costs and the need to hire more technical specialists who can manage health information and exchange. Further collaboration and support from surveillance and health-care IT stakeholders with public health will be needed to improve the efficacy and quality of electronic disease surveillance systems.

  8. The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS).

    PubMed

    Tran, Bich Huu; Nguyen, Ha Thanh; Ho, Hien Thi; Pham, Cuong Viet; Le, Vui Thi; Le, Anh Vu

    2013-06-01

    The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS) is the only health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in an urbanizing area of the Chi Linh district of Hai Duong, a northern province of Vietnam. It is one of the few field laboratories in the world that links operational research and health interventions with field training. The CHILILAB HDSS provides longitudinal data on demographic and health indicators for the community of Chi Linh. In 2012, when the CHILILAB HDSS included 57,561 people from 17 993 households in 3 towns and 4 communes, it used structured questionnaires to collect information on population changes (birth, death, migration, marriage, and pregnancy) in the community. As of December 2012, 5 rounds of a baseline survey and 17 periodic update surveys or re-enumeration surveys had been conducted. In addition, several specialized public-health research projects, focused particularly on adolescent health, have been implemented by the CHILILAB HDSS. The information that the CHILILAB HDSS has gathered provides a picture of the health status of the population and socio-economic situation in Chi Linh district. The contact person for data sharing is the director of the CHILILAB (E-mail: thb@hsph.edu.vn).

  9. Validation of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Sleep Questions

    PubMed Central

    Jungquist, Carla R.; Mund, Jaime; Aquilina, Alan T.; Klingman, Karen; Pender, John; Ochs-Balcom, Heather; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Dickerson, Suzanne S.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: Sleep problems may constitute a risk for health problems, including cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, poor work performance, and motor vehicle accidents. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the current Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) sleep questions by establishing the sensitivity and specificity for detection of sleep/ wake disturbance. Methods: Repeated cross-sectional assessment of 300 community dwelling adults over the age of 18 who did not wear CPAP or oxygen during sleep. Reliability and validity testing of the BRFSS sleep questions was performed comparing to BFRSS responses to data from home sleep study, actigraphy for 14 days, Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and PROMIS-57. Results: Only two of the five BRFSS sleep questions were found valid and reliable in determining total sleep time and excessive daytime sleepiness. Conclusions: Refinement of the BRFSS questions is recommended. Citation: Jungquist CR, Mund J, Aquilina AT, Klingman K, Pender J, Ochs-Balcom H, van Wijngaarden E, Dickerson SS. Validation of the behavioral risk factor surveillance system sleep questions. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(3):301–310. PMID:26446246

  10. Profile: The Niakhar Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Delaunay, Valerie; Douillot, Laetitia; Diallo, Aldiouma; Dione, Djibril; Trape, Jean-François; Medianikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Sokhna, Cheikh

    2013-01-01

    The Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Niakhar, a rural area of Senegal, is located 135 km east of Dakar. The HDSS was established in 1962 by the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) of Senegal to face the shortcomings of the civil registration system and provide demographic indicators. Some 65 villages in the Niakhar area were followed annually by the HDSS from 1962–1969. The study zone was reduced to 8 villages from 1969–1983, and from then on the HDSS was extended to include 22 other villages, covering a total of 30 villages for a population estimated at 43 000 in January 2012. Thus, 8 villages in the Niakhar area have been under demographic surveillance for almost 50 years and 30 villages for 30 years. Vital events, migrations, marital changes, pregnancies, and immunizations are routinely recorded every 4 months. The HDSS data base also includes epidemiological, economic, and environmental information obtained from specific surveys. Data were collected through annual rounds from 1962 to 1987. The rounds became weekly from 1987–1997, followed by routine visits conducted every 3 months between 1997 and 2007 and every 4 months since then. The data collected in the HDSS are not open to access, but can be fairly shared under conditions of collaboration and endowment. PMID:24062286

  11. Dipole-dipole interaction in electronic article surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, H. L.; Li, X.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, J. T.; Xie, W. H.; Zhao, Z. J.

    2017-08-01

    The dipole-dipole interaction in electronic article surveillance system is studied in this paper. The acoustic magnetic properties investigations were performed on amorphous ribbon Fe24Co11.82Ni47.3Si1.47B15 with a size of 38.5 mm  ×  6 mm  ×  0.03 mm at room temperature. The results showed that the dependence of resonance amplitude and frequency on the external magnetic field varied with the number of ribbons. To understand the mechanism, hysteresis loops in arrays of N ribbons with and without a bias magnet have been performed. A theoretical model was used to calculate the dipolar fields among the ribbons and the magnet. The ribbons without a bias magnet exhibited a higher anisotropy field as the number of ribbons increased, which arises from the dipole-dipole interaction between them. The plateau and kink in hysteresis loops with bias magnets also change with the number of ribbons because of the dipole-dipole interactions among the ribbons themselves, and the interaction between the ribbons and the bias magnet also. The superimposed dipolar field affects the acoustic magnetic properties of the ribbons in electronic article surveillance system.

  12. Weather-enabled future onboard surveillance and navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutuel, L.; Baillon, B.; Barnetche, B.; Delpy, P.

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing traffic and the development of business trajectories, there is a widespread need to anticipate any adverse weather conditions that could impact the performance of the flight or to use of atmospheric parameters to optimize trajectories. Current sensors onboard air transport are challenged to provide the required service, while new products for business jets and general aviation open the door to innovative assimilation of weather information in onboard surveillance and navigation. The paper aims at surveying current technology available to air transport aircraft and pointing out their shortcomings in view of the modernization proposed in SESAR and NextGen implementation plans. Foreseen innovations are then illustrated via results of ongoing research like FLYSAFE or standardization efforts, in particular meteorological datalink services and impact on Human-Machine Interface. The paper covers the operational need to avoid adverse weather like thunderstorm, icing, turbulence, windshear and volcanic ash, but also the requirement to control in 4D the trajectory through the integration of wind and temperature grids in the flight management. The former will lead to enhanced surveillance systems onboard the aircraft with new displays and new alerting schemes, ranging from targeted information supporting better re-planning to auto-escape strategies. The latter will be standard in next generation flight management systems. Finally both will rely on ATM products that will also assimilate weather information so that situational awareness is shared and decision is collaborative.

  13. Prototyping of a Situation Awareness System in the Maritime Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, D. O. D.; Sediono, W.; Shah, A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses about the design of a Situation Awareness (SA) system to support vessel crews and control room operators in improving the decision making process. The architecture of the system is ontology based. The vessel crews and control room operators may face a loss of SA. They may have limited cognitive abilities which make it difficult to make a decision in a high stress level, short time availability and continuously evolving situation with incomplete information. In this work, we describe the application of Semantic Web Rule Language to represent corresponding knowledge in the maritime surveillance domain. The result of this research will demonstrate that an ontology based system can be used to remodel the information into a meaningful and valuable form to predict the future states of SA and improve the decision making process.

  14. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project: Phase I accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, B.G.; Crawford, D.C.

    1997-01-15

    The authors present the results of the Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS) demonstration project Phase I efforts. The rationale behind IMSS development is reviewed and progress in each of the 5 basic tasks is detailed. Significant results include decisions to use Echelon LonWorks networking protocol and Microsoft Access for the data system needs, a preliminary design for the plutonium canning system glovebox, identification of facilities and materials available for the demonstration, determination of possibly affected facility documentation, and a preliminary list of available sensor technologies. Recently imposed changes in the overall project schedule and scope are also discussed and budgetary requirements for competition of Phase II presented. The results show that the IMSS demonstration project team has met and in many cases exceeded the commitments made for Phase I deliverables.

  15. Alternative methods for computing the sensitivity of complex surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Hood, G M; Barry, S C; Martin, P A J

    2009-12-01

    Stochastic scenario trees are a new and popular method by which surveillance systems can be analyzed to demonstrate freedom from pests and disease. For multiple component systems-such as a combination of a serological survey and systematically collected observations-it can be difficult to represent the complete system in a tree because many branches are required to represent complex conditional relationships. Here we show that many of the branches of some scenario trees have identical outcomes and are therefore redundant. We demonstrate how to prune branches and derive compact representations of scenario trees using matrix algebra and Bayesian belief networks. The Bayesian network representation is particularly useful for calculation and exposition. It therefore provides a firm basis for arguing disease freedom in international forums.

  16. Establishment, test and evaluation of a prototype volcano surveillance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. L.; Eaton, J. P.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D.; Marquez, D.; Allen, R.

    1973-01-01

    A volcano-surveillance system utilizing 23 multilevel earthquake counters and 6 biaxial borehole tiltmeters is being installed and tested on 15 volcanoes in 4 States and 4 foreign countries. The purpose of this system is to give early warning when apparently dormant volcanoes are becoming active. The data are relayed through the ERTS-Data Collection System to Menlo Park for analysis. Installation was completed in 1972 on the volcanoes St. Augustine and Iliamna in Alaska, Kilauea in Hawaii, Baker, Rainier and St. Helens in Washington, Lassen in California, and at a site near Reykjavik, Iceland. Installation continues and should be completed in April 1973 on the volcanoes Santiaguito, Fuego, Agua and Pacaya in Guatemala, Izalco in El Salvador and San Cristobal, Telica and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua.

  17. Public Health Surveillance in Pilot Drinking Water Contamination Warning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C.; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the lessons learned from operation and maintenance of the public health surveillance (PHS) component of five pilot city drinking water contamination warning systems (CWS) including: Cincinnati, New York, San Francisco, Philadelphia, and Dallas. Introduction The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designed a program to pilot multi-component contamination warning systems (CWSs), known as the “Water Security initiative (WSi).” The Cincinnati pilot has been fully operational since January 2008, and an additional four pilot utilities will have their own, custom CWSs by the end of 2012. A workshop amongst the pilot cities was conducted in May 2012 to discuss lessons learned from the design, implementation, operation, maintenance, and evaluation of each city’s PHS component. Methods When evaluating potential surveillance tools to integrate into a drinking water contamination warning system, it is important to consider design decisions, dual use applications/considerations, and the unique capabilities of each tool. The pilot cities integrated unique surveillance tools, which included a combination of automated event detection tools and communication and coordination procedures into their respective PHS components. The five pilots performed a thorough, technical evaluation of each component of their CWS, including PHS. Results Four key lessons learned were identified from implementation of the PHS component in the five pilot cities. First, improved communication and coordination between public health and water utilities was emphasized as an essential goal even if it were not feasible to implement automated surveillance systems. The WSi pilot project has helped to strengthen this communication pathway through the process of collaborating to develop the component, and through the need to investigate PHS alerts. Second, the approximate location of specific cases associated with PHS alerts was found to be an essential feature that

  18. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report: U.S. HIV and AIDS Cases Reported through June 2001. Midyear Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This report includes new tables which present trends in estimated annual AIDS incidence from 1996-00, by U.S. region, race/ethnicity, and exposure category. Some of the tables include: persons reported to be living with HIV infection and with AIDS, by state and age group; AIDS cases and annual rates per 100,000 population, by metropolitan area and…

  19. The Emerging HIV Epidemic on the Mexico-US Border: An International Case Study Characterizing the Role of Epidemiology in Surveillance and Response

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mays, Vickie M.; Jimenez, Richard; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose HIV/AIDS surveillance data are critical for monitoring epidemic trends, but can mask dynamic sub-epidemics, especially in vulnerable populations that under-utilize HIV testing. In this case study, we describe community-based epidemiologic data among injection drug users (IDU) and female sex workers (FSWs) in two northern Mexico-US Border States that identified an emerging HIV epidemic and generated a policy response. Methods We draw from quantitative and qualitative cross-sectional and prospective epidemiologic studies and behavioral intervention studies among IDUs and FSWs in Tijuana, Baja California and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua. Results Recognition that the HIV epidemic on Mexico’s northern border was already well established in subgroups where it had been presumed to be insignificant was met with calls for action and enhanced prevention efforts from researchers, NGOs and policy makers. Conclusions Successful policies and program outcomes included expansion of needle exchange programs, a nation-wide mobile HIV prevention program targeting marginalized populations, a successful funding bid from the Global Fund for HIV, TB and Malaria to scale up targeted HIV prevention programs and the establishment of binational training programs on prevention of HIV and substance use. We discuss how epidemiologic data informed HIV prevention policies and suggest how other countries may learn from Mexico’s experience. PMID:22626001

  20. The emerging HIV epidemic on the Mexico-U.S. border: an international case study characterizing the role of epidemiology in surveillance and response.

    PubMed

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mays, Vickie M; Jimenez, Richard; Patterson, Thomas L

    2012-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance data are critical for monitoring epidemic trends, but they can mask dynamic subepidemics, especially in vulnerable populations that underuse HIV testing. In this case study, we describe community-based epidemiologic data among injection drug users (IDUs) and female sex workers (FSWs) in two northern Mexico-U.S. border states that identified an emerging HIV epidemic and generated a policy response. We draw from quantitative and qualitative cross-sectional and prospective epidemiologic studies and behavioral intervention studies among IDUs and FSWs in Tijuana, Baja California, and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua. The recognition that the HIV epidemic on Mexico's northern border was already well established in subgroups in whom it had been presumed to be insignificant was met with calls for action and enhanced prevention efforts from researchers, nongovernmental organizations, and policy makers. Successful policies and program outcomes included expansion of needle-exchange programs, a nationwide mobile HIV prevention program targeting marginalized populations, a successful funding bid from the Global Fund for HIV, TB, and Malaria to scale up targeted HIV-prevention programs, and the establishment of bi-national training programs on prevention of HIV and substance use. We discuss how epidemiologic data informed HIV prevention policies and suggest how other countries may learn from Mexico's experience. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Social patterns and differentials in the fertility transition in the context of HIV/AIDS: evidence from population surveillance, rural South Africa, 1993 - 2013.

    PubMed

    Houle, Brian; Pantazis, Athena; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Tollman, Stephen; Clark, Samuel J

    2016-01-01

    Literature is limited on the effects of high prevalence HIV on fertility in the absence of treatment, and the effects of the introduction of sustained access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on fertility. We summarize fertility patterns in rural northeast South Africa over 21 years during dynamic social and epidemiological change. We use data for females aged 15-49 from the Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (1993-2013). We use discrete time event history analysis to summarize patterns in the probability of any birth. Overall fertility declined in 2001-2003, increased in 2004-2011, and then declined in 2012-2013. South Africans showed a similar pattern. Mozambicans showed a different pattern, with strong declines prior to 2003 before stalling during 2004-2007, and then continued fertility decline afterwards. There was an inverse gradient between fertility levels and household socioeconomic status. The gradient did not vary by time or nationality. The fertility transition in rural South Africa shows a pattern of decline until the height of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, with a resulting stall until further decline in the context of ART rollout. Fertility patterns are not homogenous among groups.

  2. The integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibin; Yatawara, Mahendra; Huang, Shao-Chi; Dudley, Kevin; Szekely, Christine; Holden, Stuart; Piantadosi, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer (PASS-PC). The integrated PASS-PC is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed at collecting a variety of data on prostate cancer patients in a standardized and efficient way. The integrated PASS-PC was commissioned by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) and built through the joint of efforts by a group of experts in medical oncology, genetics, pathology, nutrition, and cancer research informatics. Their main goal is facilitating the efficient and uniform collection of critical demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, dietary and clinical information to be used in developing new strategies in diagnosing, preventing and treating prostate cancer.The integrated PASS-PC is designed based on common industry standards - a three tiered architecture and a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA). It utilizes open source software and programming languages such as HTML, PHP, CSS, JQuery, Drupal and MySQL. We also use a commercial database management system - Oracle 11g. The integrated PASS-PC project uses a "confederation model" that encourages participation of any interested center, irrespective of its size or location. The integrated PASS-PC utilizes a standardized approach to data collection and reporting, and uses extensive validation procedures to prevent entering erroneous data. The integrated PASS-PC controlled vocabulary is harmonized with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thesaurus. Currently, two cancer centers in the USA are participating in the integrated PASS-PC project.THE FINAL SYSTEM HAS THREE MAIN COMPONENTS: 1. National Prostate Surveillance Network (NPSN) website; 2. NPSN myConnect portal; 3. Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer (PASS-PC). PASS-PC is a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) compatible product. The integrated PASS-PC provides a foundation for collaborative prostate cancer research. It has been built to

  3. Factors Associated With Recent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Puerto Rico, National Human Immunodeficiency Virus Behavioral Surveillance System, 2011.

    PubMed

    Chapin-Bardales, Johanna; Sanchez, Travis; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Hageman, Kathy; Spiller, Michael W; Rolon-Colon, Yadira; Miranda de Leon, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Annual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is considered a key strategy for HIV prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM). In Puerto Rico, HIV research has primarily focused on injection drug use, yet male-to-male sexual transmission has been increasing in recent years. Cross-sectional data from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system collected in 2011 in San Juan, Puerto Rico, were analyzed to identify factors associated with HIV testing in the past 12 months (recent testing). Overall, 50% of participants were tested recently. In the multivariate analysis, testing recently was associated with having multiple partners in the past 12 months (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] [≥4 vs 1 partner] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.2-2.0), visiting a health care provider in the past 12 months (aPR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.04-1.8), and disclosing male-male attraction/sex to a health care provider (aPR< 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7). Human immunodeficiency virus testing was suboptimal among MSM in San Juan. Strategies to increase HIV testing among MSM may include promoting HIV testing for all sexually active MSM including those with fewer partners, increasing utilization of the healthcare system, and improving patient-provider communication.

  4. Factors Associated With Recent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Puerto Rico, National Human Immunodeficiency Virus Behavioral Surveillance System, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Chapin-Bardales, Johanna; Sanchez, Travis; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Hageman, Kathy; Spiller, Michael W.; Rolon-Colon, Yadira; de Leon, Sandra Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Background Annual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is considered a key strategy for HIV prevention for men who have sex with men (MSM). In Puerto Rico, HIV research has primarily focused on injection drug use, yet male-to-male sexual transmission has been increasing in recent years. Methods Cross-sectional data from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system collected in 2011 in San Juan, Puerto Rico, were analyzed to identify factors associated with HIV testing in the past 12 months (recent testing). Results Overall, 50% of participants were tested recently. In the multivariate analysis, testing recently was associated with having multiple partners in the past 12 months (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] [≥4 vs 1 partner] = 1.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.2–2.0), visiting a health care provider in the past 12 months (aPR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.04–1.8), and disclosing male-male attraction/sex to a health care provider (aPR< 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1–1.7). Conclusions Human immunodeficiency virus testing was suboptimal among MSM in San Juan. Strategies to increase HIV testing among MSM may include promoting HIV testing for all sexually active MSM including those with fewer partners, increasing utilization of the healthcare system, and improving patient-provider communication. PMID:27200518

  5. Evaluation of active mortality surveillance system data for monitoring hurricane-related deaths-Texas, 2008.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ekta; Zane, David F; Beasley, Crystal; Jones, Russell; Rey, Araceli; Noe, Rebecca S; Martin, Colleen; Wolkin, Amy F; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye M

    2012-08-01

    The Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) implemented an active mortality surveillance system to enumerate and characterize hurricane-related deaths during Hurricane Ike in 2008. This surveillance system used established guidelines and case definitions to categorize deaths as directly, indirectly, and possibly related to Hurricane Ike. The objective of this study was to evaluate Texas DSHS' active mortality surveillance system using US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) surveillance system evaluation guidelines. Using CDC's Updated Guidelines for Surveillance System Evaluation, the active mortality surveillance system of the Texas DSHS was evaluated. Data from the active mortality surveillance system were compared with Texas vital statistics data for the same time period to estimate the completeness of reported disaster-related deaths. From September 8 through October 13, 2008, medical examiners (MEs) and Justices of the Peace (JPs) in 44 affected counties reported deaths daily by using a one-page, standardized mortality form. The active mortality surveillance system identified 74 hurricane-related deaths, whereas a review of vital statistics data revealed only four deaths that were hurricane-related. The average time of reporting a death by active mortality surveillance and vital statistics was 14 days and 16 days, respectively. Texas's active mortality surveillance system successfully identified hurricane-related deaths. Evaluation of the active mortality surveillance system suggested that it is necessary to collect detailed and representative mortality data during a hurricane because vital statistics do not capture sufficient information to identify whether deaths are hurricane-related. The results from this evaluation will help improve active mortality surveillance during hurricanes which, in turn, will enhance preparedness and response plans and identify public health interventions to reduce future hurricane-related mortality rates.

  6. Evaluation of Active Mortality Surveillance System Data for Monitoring Hurricane-Related Deaths—Texas, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Ekta; Zane, David F.; Beasley, Crystal; Jones, Russell; Rey, Araceli; Noe, Rebecca S.; Martin, Colleen; Wolkin, Amy F.; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) implemented an active mortality surveillance system to enumerate and characterize hurricane-related deaths during Hurricane Ike in 2008. This surveillance system used established guidelines and case definitions to categorize deaths as directly, indirectly, and possibly related to Hurricane Ike. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate Texas DSHS’ active mortality surveillance system using US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) surveillance system evaluation guidelines. Methods Using CDC’s Updated Guidelines for Surveillance System Evaluation, the active mortality surveillance system of the Texas DSHS was evaluated. Data from the active mortality surveillance system were compared with Texas vital statistics data for the same time period to estimate the completeness of reported disaster-related deaths. Results From September 8 through October 13, 2008, medical examiners (MEs) and Justices of the Peace (JPs) in 44 affected counties reported deaths daily by using a one-page, standardized mortality form. The active mortality surveillance system identified 74 hurricane-related deaths, whereas a review of vital statistics data revealed only four deaths that were hurricane-related. The average time of reporting a death by active mortality surveillance and vital statistics was 14 days and 16 days, respectively. Conclusions Texas’s active mortality surveillance system successfully identified hurricane-related deaths. Evaluation of the active mortality surveillance system suggested that it is necessary to collect detailed and representative mortality data during a hurricane because vital statistics do not capture sufficient information to identify whether deaths are hurricane-related. The results from this evaluation will help improve active mortality surveillance during hurricanes which, in turn, will enhance preparedness and response plans and identify public health

  7. Systems approaches to animal disease surveillance and resource allocation: methodological frameworks for behavioral analysis.

    PubMed

    Rich, Karl M; Denwood, Matthew J; Stott, Alistair W; Mellor, Dominic J; Reid, Stuart W J; Gunn, George J

    2013-01-01

    While demands for animal disease surveillance systems are growing, there has been little applied research that has examined the interactions between resource allocation, cost-effectiveness, and behavioral considerations of actors throughout the livestock supply chain in a surveillance system context. These interactions are important as feedbacks between surveillance decisions and disease evolution may be modulated by their contextual drivers, influencing the cost-effectiveness of a given surveillance system. This paper identifies a number of key behavioral aspects involved in animal health surveillance systems and reviews some novel methodologies for their analysis. A generic framework for analysis is discussed, with exemplar results provided to demonstrate the utility of such an approach in guiding better disease control and surveillance decisions.

  8. Systems Approaches to Animal Disease Surveillance and Resource Allocation: Methodological Frameworks for Behavioral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Karl M.; Denwood, Matthew J.; Stott, Alistair W.; Mellor, Dominic J.; Reid, Stuart W. J.; Gunn, George J.

    2013-01-01

    While demands for animal disease surveillance systems are growing, there has been little applied research that has examined the interactions between resource allocation, cost-effectiveness, and behavioral considerations of actors throughout the livestock supply chain in a surveillance system context. These interactions are important as feedbacks between surveillance decisions and disease evolution may be modulated by their contextual drivers, influencing the cost-effectiveness of a given surveillance system. This paper identifies a number of key behavioral aspects involved in animal health surveillance systems and reviews some novel methodologies for their analysis. A generic framework for analysis is discussed, with exemplar results provided to demonstrate the utility of such an approach in guiding better disease control and surveillance decisions. PMID:24348922

  9. Complement: a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ricklin, Daniel; Hajishengallis, George; Yang, Kun; Lambris, John D

    2010-09-01

    Nearly a century after the significance of the human complement system was recognized, we have come to realize that its functions extend far beyond the elimination of microbes. Complement acts as a rapid and efficient immune surveillance system that has distinct effects on healthy and altered host cells and foreign intruders. By eliminating cellular debris and infectious microbes, orchestrating immune responses and sending 'danger' signals, complement contributes substantially to homeostasis, but it can also take action against healthy cells if not properly controlled. This review describes our updated view of the function, structure and dynamics of the complement network, highlights its interconnection with immunity at large and with other endogenous pathways, and illustrates its multiple roles in homeostasis and disease.

  10. Information management in Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Karimi, Afsaneh; Erfannia, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality is preventable by proper information management and is the main target of the Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (MMSS). Aim This study aimed to determine the status of information management in the Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (IMMSS). Methods The population of this descriptive and analytical study, which was conducted in 2016, included 96 administrative staff of health and treatment deputies of universities of medical sciences and the Ministry of Health in Iran. Data were gathered by a five-part questionnaire with confirmed validity and reliability. A total of 76 questionnaires were completed, and data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19, by descriptive and inferential statistics. The relationship between variables “organizational unit” and the four studied axes was studied using Kendall’s correlation coefficient test. Results The status of information management in IMMSS was desirable. Data gathering and storage axis and data processing and compilation axis achieved the highest (2.7±0.46) and the lowest (2.4±0.49) mean scores, respectively. The data-gathering method, control of a sample of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences, use of international classification of disease, and use of this system information by management teams to set resources allocation achieved the lowest mean scores in studied axes. Treatment deputy staff had a more positive attitude toward the status of information management of IMMSS than the health deputy staff (p=0.004). Conclusion Although the status of information management in IMMSS was desirable, it could be improved by modification of the data-gathering method; creating communication links between different data resources; a periodic sample control of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences; and implementing ICD-MM and integration of its rules on a unified system of death. PMID:28894555

  11. Information management in Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Karimi, Afsaneh; Erfannia, Leila

    2017-07-01

    Maternal mortality is preventable by proper information management and is the main target of the Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (MMSS). This study aimed to determine the status of information management in the Iranian Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (IMMSS). The population of this descriptive and analytical study, which was conducted in 2016, included 96 administrative staff of health and treatment deputies of universities of medical sciences and the Ministry of Health in Iran. Data were gathered by a five-part questionnaire with confirmed validity and reliability. A total of 76 questionnaires were completed, and data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 19, by descriptive and inferential statistics. The relationship between variables "organizational unit" and the four studied axes was studied using Kendall's correlation coefficient test. The status of information management in IMMSS was desirable. Data gathering and storage axis and data processing and compilation axis achieved the highest (2.7±0.46) and the lowest (2.4±0.49) mean scores, respectively. The data-gathering method, control of a sample of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences, use of international classification of disease, and use of this system information by management teams to set resources allocation achieved the lowest mean scores in studied axes. Treatment deputy staff had a more positive attitude toward the status of information management of IMMSS than the health deputy staff (p=0.004). Although the status of information management in IMMSS was desirable, it could be improved by modification of the data-gathering method; creating communication links between different data resources; a periodic sample control of women deaths in reproductive age in the universities of medical sciences; and implementing ICD-MM and integration of its rules on a unified system of death.

  12. Sports Injury Surveillance Systems: A Review of Methods and Data Quality.

    PubMed

    Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Finch, Caroline F

    2016-01-01

    Data from sports injury surveillance systems are a prerequisite to the development and evaluation of injury prevention strategies. This review aimed to identify ongoing sports injury surveillance systems and determine whether there are gaps in our understanding of injuries in certain sport settings. A secondary aim was to determine which of the included surveillance systems have evaluated the quality of their data, a key factor in determining their usefulness. A systematic search was carried out to identify (1) publications presenting methodological details of sports injury surveillance systems within clubs and organisations; and (2) publications describing quality evaluations and the quality of data from these systems. Data extracted included methodological details of the surveillance systems, methods used to evaluate data quality, and results of these evaluations. Following literature search and review, a total of 15 sports injury surveillance systems were identified. Data relevant to each aim were summarised descriptively. Most systems were found to exist within professional and elite sports. Publications concerning data quality were identified for seven (47%) systems. Validation of system data through comparison with alternate sources has been undertaken for only four systems (27%). This review identified a shortage of ongoing injury surveillance data from amateur and community sport settings and limited information about the quality of data in professional and elite settings. More surveillance systems are needed across a range of sport settings, as are standards for data quality reporting. These efforts will enable better monitoring of sports injury trends and the development of sports safety strategies.

  13. Bootstrap confidence intervals and bias correction in the estimation of HIV incidence from surveillance data with testing for recent infection.

    PubMed

    Carnegie, Nicole Bohme

    2011-04-15

    The incidence of new infections is a key measure of the status of the HIV epidemic, but accurate measurement of incidence is often constrained by limited data. Karon et al. (Statist. Med. 2008; 27:4617–4633) developed a model to estimate the incidence of HIV infection from surveillance data with biologic testing for recent infection for newly diagnosed cases. This method has been implemented by public health departments across the United States and is behind the new national incidence estimates, which are about 40 per cent higher than previous estimates. We show that the delta method approximation given for the variance of the estimator is incomplete, leading to an inflated variance estimate. This contributes to the generation of overly conservative confidence intervals, potentially obscuring important differences between populations. We demonstrate via simulation that an innovative model-based bootstrap method using the specified model for the infection and surveillance process improves confidence interval coverage and adjusts for the bias in the point estimate. Confidence interval coverage is about 94–97 per cent after correction, compared with 96–99 per cent before. The simulated bias in the estimate of incidence ranges from −6.3 to +14.6 per cent under the original model but is consistently under 1 per cent after correction by the model-based bootstrap. In an application to data from King County, Washington in 2007 we observe correction of 7.2 per cent relative bias in the incidence estimate and a 66 per cent reduction in the width of the 95 per cent confidence interval using this method. We provide open-source software to implement the method that can also be extended for alternate models.

  14. The Missile Defense Agency's space tracking and surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, John; Zondervan, Keith

    2008-10-01

    The Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) is a layered system incorporating elements in space. In addition to missile warning systems at geosynchronous altitudes, an operational BMDS will include a low Earth orbit (LEO) system-the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS). It will use infrared sensing technologies synergistically with the Space Based Infrared Systems (SBIRS) and will provide a seamless adjunct to radars and sensors on the ground and in airborne platforms. STSS is being designed for a future operational capability to defend against evolving threats. STSS development is divided into phases, commencing with a two-satellite demonstration constellation scheduled for launch in 2008. The demonstration satellites will conduct a menu of tests and experiments to prove the system concept, including the ground segment. They will have limited operational capability within the integrated BMDS. Data from the demonstration satellites will be received and processed by the Missile Defense Space Experiment Center (MDSEC), a part of the Missile Defense Integration and Operations Center (MDIOC). MDA launched in 2007 into LEO a satellite (NFIRE) designed to make near-field multispectral measurements of boosting targets and to demonstrate laser communication, the latter in conjunction with the German satellite TerraSAR-X. The gimbaled, lightweight laser terminal has demonstrated on orbit a 5.5 gbps rate in both directions. The filter passbands of NFIRE are similar to the STSS demonstrator track sensor. While providing useful phenomenology during its time on orbit, NFIRE will also serve as a pathfinder in the development of STSS operations procedures.

  15. Enhanced HIV-1 surveillance using molecular epidemiology to study and monitor HIV-1 outbreaks among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Athens and Bucharest.

    PubMed

    Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Paraschiv, Simona; Sypsa, Vana; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Tsiara, Chryssa; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Psichogiou, Mina; Flampouris, Andreas; Mardarescu, Mariana; Niculescu, Iulia; Batan, Ionelia; Malliori, Meni; Otelea, Dan; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-10-01

    A significant increase in HIV-1 diagnoses was reported among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in the Athens (17-fold) and Bucharest (9-fold) metropolitan areas starting 2011. Molecular analyses were conducted on HIV-1 sequences from IDUs comprising 51% and 20% of the diagnosed cases among IDUs during 2011-2013 for Greece and Romania, respectively. Phylodynamic analyses were performed using the newly developed birth-death serial skyline model which allows estimating of important epidemiological parameters, as implemented in BEAST programme. Most infections (>90%) occurred within four and three IDU local transmission networks in Athens and Bucharest, respectively. For all Romanian clusters, the viral strains originated from local circulating strains, whereas in Athens, the local strains seeded only two of the four sub-outbreaks. Birth-death skyline plots suggest a more explosive nature for sub-outbreaks in Bucharest than in Athens. In Athens, two sub-outbreaks had been controlled (Re<1.0) by 2013 and two appeared to be endemic (Re∼1). In Bucharest one outbreak continued to expand (Re>1.0) and two had been controlled (Re<1.0). The lead times were shorter for the outbreak in Athens than in Bucharest. Enhanced molecular surveillance proved useful to gain information about the origin, causal pathways, dispersal patterns and transmission dynamics of the outbreaks that can be useful in a public health setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A system safety approach to the FAA surveillance process

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, P.W.; Olson, D.R.

    1997-08-08

    As commercial air travel grows in terms of the number of passenger miles flown, there is expected to be a corresponding dramatic increase in the absolute number of accidents. This despite an enviable safety record and a very low accident rate. The political environment is such that an increase in the absolute number of accidents is not acceptable, with a stated goal of a factor of five reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate within ten years. The objective of this project is to develop an improved surveillance process that will provide measurements of the current state-of-health and predictions of future state of health of aircraft, operators, facilities, and personnel. Methodologies developed for nuclear weapon safety, in addition to more well known system safety and high-consequence engineering techniques, will be used in this approach.

  17. 76 FR 72897 - Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Privacy Act Systems of Records; APHIS Animal Health Surveillance and Monitoring System AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of a proposed new system of records; request for comment. SUMMARY: The Animal and Plant...

  18. Updates to SCORPION persistent surveillance system with universal gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Michael; Chambers, Jon; Winters, Michael; Brunck, Al

    2008-10-01

    This paper addresses benefits derived from the universal gateway utilized in Northrop Grumman Systems Corporation's (NGSC) SCORPION, a persistent surveillance and target recognition system produced by the Xetron campus in Cincinnati, Ohio. SCORPION is currently deployed in Operations Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Enduring Freedom (OEF). The SCORPION universal gateway is a flexible, field programmable system that provides integration of over forty Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) types from a variety of manufacturers, multiple visible and thermal electro-optical (EO) imagers, and numerous long haul satellite and terrestrial communications links, including the Army Research Lab (ARL) Blue Radio. Xetron has been integrating best in class sensors with this universal gateway to provide encrypted data exfiltration to Common Operational Picture (COP) systems and remote sensor command and control since 1998. In addition to being fed to COP systems, SCORPION data can be visualized in the Common sensor Status (CStat) graphical user interface that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from up to seven hundred SCORPION system gateways on single or multiple displays. This user friendly visualization enables a large amount of sensor data and imagery to be used as actionable intelligence by a minimum number of analysts.

  19. Terrain Commander: a next-generation remote surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finneral, Henry J.

    2003-09-01

    Terrain Commander is a fully automated forward observation post that provides the most advanced capability in surveillance and remote situational awareness. The Terrain Commander system was selected by the Australian Government for its NINOX Phase IIB Unattended Ground Sensor Program with the first systems delivered in August of 2002. Terrain Commander offers next generation target detection using multi-spectral peripheral sensors coupled with autonomous day/night image capture and processing. Subsequent intelligence is sent back through satellite communications with unlimited range to a highly sophisticated central monitoring station. The system can "stakeout" remote locations clandestinely for 24 hours a day for months at a time. With its fully integrated SATCOM system, almost any site in the world can be monitored from virtually any other location in the world. Terrain Commander automatically detects and discriminates intruders by precisely cueing its advanced EO subsystem. The system provides target detection capabilities with minimal nuisance alarms combined with the positive visual identification that authorities demand before committing a response. Terrain Commander uses an advanced beamforming acoustic sensor and a distributed array of seismic, magnetic and passive infrared sensors to detect, capture images and accurately track vehicles and personnel. Terrain Commander has a number of emerging military and non-military applications including border control, physical security, homeland defense, force protection and intelligence gathering. This paper reviews the development, capabilities and mission applications of the Terrain Commander system.

  20. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system.

  1. Direct cost associated with the development and implementation of a local syndromic surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Amy; Guenther, Eric; Fleischauer, Aaron T; Gunn, Julia; Hutwagner, Lori; Barry, M Anita

    2007-01-01

    Enhancing public health surveillance to include electronic syndromic surveillance systems has received increased attention in recent years. Although cost continually serves as a critical factor in public health decision making, few studies have evaluated direct costs associated with syndromic surveillance systems. In this study, we calculated the direct costs associated with developing and implementing a syndromic surveillance system in Boston, Massachusetts, from the perspective of local, state, and federal governments. Between December 2003 and July 2005, the Boston Public Health Commission (BPHC), in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Massachusetts Department of Public Health developed a syndromic surveillance system in which limited demographic and chief complaint data are collected from all Boston acute care emergency departments every 24 hours. Costs were divided into three categories: development, operation, and upgrade. Within these categories, all fixed and variable costs incurred by both BPHC and CDC were assessed, including those associated with development of syndromic surveillance-related city regulations and system enhancements. The total estimated direct cost of system development and implementation during the study period was $422,899 ($396,716 invested by BPHC and $26,183 invested by CDC). Syndromic system enhancements to improve situational awareness accounted for $74,389. Development, implementation, and operation of a syndromic surveillance system accounted for a relatively small proportion of surveillance costs in a large urban health department. Funding made available for a future cost-benefit analysis, and an assessment of local epidemiologic capacity will help to guide decisions for local health departments. Although not a replacement for traditional surveillance, syndromic surveillance in Boston is an important and relatively inexpensive component of a comprehensive local public health

  2. Surveillance of HIV type 1 drug resistance among naive patients from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Julio; Comegna, Mario; Quijada, Wilmary; Jauvin, Valérie; Pinson, Patricia; Masquelier, Bernard; Fleury, Hervé; Castro, Erika

    2009-12-01

    We have studied 65 HIV-1-infected untreated patients recruited in Caracas, Venezuela with TCD4 counts > or =350/microl. The reverse transcriptase and protease sequences of the virus were sequenced, aligned with reference HIV-1 group M strains, and analyzed for drug resistance mutations. Most of the viruses were subtype B genotype in both the protease and RT genomic regions. Five of the 62 virus isolates successfully amplified showed evidence of recombination between protease and RT, with their protease region being non-B while their RT region was derived from subtype B. Four strains were found bearing resistance mutations either to NRTIs, NNRTIs, or PIs. The prevalence of HIV-1 isolates bearing resistance mutations was therefore above the 5% threshold of WHO.

  3. Molecular Surveillance of HIV-1 in Madrid, Spain: a Phylogeographic Analysis ▿

    PubMed Central

    González-Alba, José M.; Holguín, África; Garcia, Rosa; García-Bujalance, Silvia; Alonso, Roberto; Suárez, Avelina; Delgado, Rafael; Cardeñoso, Laura; González, Rosa; García-Bermejo, Isabel; Portero, Francisca; de Mendoza, Carmen; González-Candelas, Fernando; Galán, Juan-Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 is constantly changing, mainly as a result of human migratory flows and the high adaptive ability of the virus. In recent years, Spain has become one of Europe's main destinations for immigrants and one of the western European countries with the highest rates of HIV-positive patients. Using a phylogeographic approach, we have analyzed the relationship between HIV-1 variants detected in immigrant and native populations of the urban area of Madrid. Our project was based on two coincidental facts. First, resistance tests were extended to naïve and newly diagnosed patients, and second, the Spanish government legislated the provision of legal status to many immigrants. This allowed us to obtain a large data set (n = 2,792) from 11 Madrid hospitals of viral pol sequences from the two populations, and with this unique material, we explored the impact of immigration in the epidemiological trends of HIV-1 variants circulating in the largest Spanish city. The prevalence of infections by non-B HIV-1 variants in the studied cohort was 9%, rising to 25% among native Spanish patients. Multiple transmission events involving different lineages and subsubtypes were observed in all the subtypes and recombinant forms studied. Our results also revealed strong social clustering among the most recent immigrant groups, such as Russians and Romanians, but not in those groups who have lived in Madrid for many years. Additionally, we document for the first time the presence of CRF47_BF and CRF38_BF in Europe, and a new BG recombinant form found in Spaniards and Africans is tentatively proposed. These results suggest that the HIV-1 epidemic will evolve toward a more complex epidemiological landscape. PMID:21795343

  4. Lens Systems for Sky Surveys and Space Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.

    2013-09-01

    Since the early days of astrophotography, lens systems have played a key role in capturing images of the night sky. The first images were attempted with visual-refractors. These were soon followed with color-corrected refractors and finally specially designed photo-refractors. Being telescopes, these instruments were of long-focus and imaged narrow fields of view. Simple photographic lenses were soon put into service to capture wide-field images. These lenses also had the advantage of requiring shorter exposure times than possible using large refractors. Eventually, lenses were specifically designed for astrophotography. With the introduction of the Schmidt-camera and related catadioptric systems, the popularity of astrograph lenses declined, but surprisingly, a few remained in use. Over the last 30 years, as small CCDs have displaced large photographic plates, lens systems have again found favor for their ability to image great swaths of sky in a relatively small and simple package. In this paper, we follow the development of lens-based astrograph systems from their beginnings through the current use of both commercial and custom lens systems for sky surveys and space surveillance. Some of the optical milestones discussed include the early Petzval-type portrait lenses, the Ross astrographic lens and the current generation of optics such as the commercial 200mm camera lens by Canon, and the Russian VT-53e in service with ISON.

  5. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Fouillet, Anne; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors. Materials and Methods We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events. Results We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness. Conclusions We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings. PMID:27182731

  6. Low-Cost National Media-Based Surveillance System for Public Health Events, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Trong T.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Farhana; Chakraborty, Apurba; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Haider, Sabbir; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Sobel, Jeremy; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed a media-based public health surveillance system in Bangladesh during 2010–2011. The system is a highly effective, low-cost, locally appropriate, and sustainable outbreak detection tool that could be used in other low-income, resource-poor settings to meet the capacity for surveillance outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005. PMID:26981877

  7. Estimating HCV Prevalence at the State Level: A Call to Increase and Strengthen Current Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Carrascal, Alvaro; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Flanigan, Colleen; McClamroch, Kristi; Smith, Lou

    2013-01-01

    The degree to which case surveillance captures persons ever infected with HCV is unknown. We determined the discrepancy between HCV seroprevalence, estimated from national survey data, among adults in New York State in 2008 (n = 286 262, or 1.95%) and the number of infected persons reported to the state’s surveillance hepatitis registries (n = 144 015). Findings suggest the need to strengthen the existing surveillance system. PMID:23763407

  8. An autonomous surveillance system for blind sources localization and separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sean; Kulkarni, Raghavendra; Duraiswamy, Srikanth

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims at developing a new technology that will enable one to conduct an autonomous and silent surveillance to monitor sound sources stationary or moving in 3D space and a blind separation of target acoustic signals. The underlying principle of this technology is a hybrid approach that uses: 1) passive sonic detection and ranging method that consists of iterative triangulation and redundant checking to locate the Cartesian coordinates of arbitrary sound sources in 3D space, 2) advanced signal processing to sanitizing the measured data and enhance signal to noise ratio, and 3) short-time source localization and separation to extract the target acoustic signals from the directly measured mixed ones. A prototype based on this technology has been developed and its hardware includes six B and K 1/4-in condenser microphones, Type 4935, two 4-channel data acquisition units, Type NI-9234, with a maximum sampling rate of 51.2kS/s per channel, one NI-cDAQ 9174 chassis, a thermometer to measure the air temperature, a camera to view the relative positions of located sources, and a laptop to control data acquisition and post processing. Test results for locating arbitrary sound sources emitting continuous, random, impulsive, and transient signals, and blind separation of signals in various non-ideal environments is presented. This system is invisible to any anti-surveillance device since it uses the acoustic signal emitted by a target source. It can be mounted on a robot or an unmanned vehicle to perform various covert operations, including intelligence gathering in an open or a confined field, or to carry out the rescue mission to search people trapped inside ruins or buried under wreckages.

  9. Overview of infectious disease surveillance system in Japan, 1999-2005.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Hashimoto, Shuji; Kawado, Miyuki; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Izumida, Michiko; Ohta, Akiko; Tada, Yuki; Shigematsu, Mika; Yasui, Yoshinori; Nagai, Masaki

    2007-12-01

    In 1999 the Communicable Disease Prevention Law of Japan was completely revised into the "New" Infectious Disease Control Law, which reiterated the importance of surveillance and information dissemination and re-organized the surveillance system. This paper is an attempt to illustrate the potential impact of the new surveillance system through a description of the existing surveillance system and data before and after the revision. After a historical review of surveillance system in Japan, the current surveillance system is described. Data sets of actual case numbers reported and incidence rate per 1,000,000 population are compared before and after the revision. Comparison of the data between the 2 periods revealed that most of the diseases have had declining trends after the new law was enacted with several exceptions. However, although no major break in continuity is observed in seriously perceived disease, in milder diseases there are striking gaps between the numbers reported in the mandatory and sentinel reporting framework. Sentinel reporting framework maintained the continuity of data without major gaps. From this perspective, the new surveillance system with two different frameworks of mandatory reporting for severe diseases and sentinel reporting for milder diseases seems to be working well. But continuous efforts should be made for evaluation and improvement of surveillance system and risk communication through the research on data analysis and effective communication method.

  10. How a visual surveillance system hypothesizes how you behave.

    PubMed

    Micheloni, C; Piciarelli, C; Foresti, G L

    2006-08-01

    In the last few years, the installation of a large number of cameras has led to a need for increased capabilities in video surveillance systems. It has, indeed, been more and more necessary for human operators to be helped in the understanding of ongoing activities in real environments. Nowadays, the technology and the research in the machine vision and artificial intelligence fields allow one to expect a new generation of completely autonomous systems able to reckon the behaviors of entities such as pedestrians, vehicles, and so forth. Hence, whereas the sensing aspect of these systems has been the issue considered the most so far, research is now focused mainly on more newsworthy problems concerning understanding. In this article, we present a novel method for hypothesizing the evolution of behavior. For such purposes, the system is required to extract useful information by means of low-level techniques for detecting and maintaining track of moving objects. The further estimation of performed trajectories, together with objects classification, enables one to compute the probability distribution of the normal activities (e.g., trajectories). Such a distribution is defined by means of a novel clustering technique. The resulting clusters are used to estimate the evolution of objects' behaviors and to speculate about any intention to act dangerously. The provided solution for hypothesizing behaviors occurring in real environments was tested in the context of an outdoor parking lot

  11. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center: Global Emerging Infections Surveillance & Response System, FY 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus in Egypt Reveals Lack of Reassortment of Re -Introduction of New Viruses into the Region. Options for the Control...Collaborating Center for Emerging and Re - emerging Infectious Diseases in 2001 US NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH UNIT NO. 6 (NAMRU-6), LIMA, PERU...Electronic Disease Surveillance Initiative guided by the International Health Regulations (2005) Emerging and re - emerging diseases are a well-defined

  12. Public Health Surveillance Systems: Recent Advances in Their Use and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Groseclose, Samuel L; Buckeridge, David L

    2017-03-20

    Surveillance is critical for improving population health. Public health surveillance systems generate information that drives action, and the data must be of sufficient quality and with a resolution and timeliness that matches objectives. In the context of scientific advances in public health surveillance, changing health care and public health environments, and rapidly evolving technologies, the aim of this article is to review public health surveillance systems. We consider their current use to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the public health system, the role of system stakeholders, the analysis and interpretation of surveillance data, approaches to system monitoring and evaluation, and opportunities for future advances in terms of increased scientific rigor, outcomes-focused research, and health informatics.

  13. Description and validation of a new automated surveillance system for Clostridium difficile in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Chaine, M; Gubbels, S; Voldstedlund, M; Kristensen, B; Nielsen, J; Andersen, L P; Ellermann-Eriksen, S; Engberg, J; Holm, A; Olesen, B; Schønheyder, H C; Østergaard, C; Ethelberg, S; Mølbak, K

    2017-09-01

    The surveillance of Clostridium difficile (CD) in Denmark consists of laboratory based data from Departments of Clinical Microbiology (DCMs) sent to the National Registry of Enteric Pathogens (NREP). We validated a new surveillance system for CD based on the Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa). MiBa automatically collects microbiological test results from all Danish DCMs. We built an algorithm to identify positive test results for CD recorded in MiBa. A CD case was defined as a person with a positive culture for CD or PCR detection of toxin A and/or B and/or binary toxin. We compared CD cases identified through the MiBa-based surveillance with those reported to NREP and locally in five DCMs representing different Danish regions. During 2010-2014, NREP reported 13 896 CD cases, and the MiBa-based surveillance 21 252 CD cases. There was a 99·9% concordance between the local datasets and the MiBa-based surveillance. Surveillance based on MiBa was superior to the current surveillance system, and the findings show that the number of CD cases in Denmark hitherto has been under-reported. There were only minor differences between local data and the MiBa-based surveillance, showing the completeness and validity of CD data in MiBa. This nationwide electronic system can greatly strengthen surveillance and research in various applications.

  14. Development and Implementation of a Surveillance Network System for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Caribbean (ARICABA)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, WonGyu Lewis; AnneDucharme, Chelsea; Bucher, Bernard Jean-Marie Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever, including dengue hemorrhagic fever, has become a re-emerging public health threat in the Caribbean in the absence of a comprehensive regional surveillance system. In this deficiency, a project entitled ARICABA, strives to implement a pilot surveillance system across three islands: Martinique, St. Lucia, and Dominica. The aim of this project is to establish a network for epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases, utilizing information and communication technology. This paper describes the system design and development strategies of a “network of networks” surveillance system for infectious diseases in the Caribbean. Also described are benefits, challenges, and limitations of this approach across the three island nations identified through direct observation, open-ended interviews, and email communications with an on-site IT consultant, key informants, and the project director. Identified core systems design of the ARICABA data warehouse include a disease monitoring system and a syndromic surveillance system. Three components comprise the development strategy: the data warehouse server, the geographical information system, and forecasting algorithms; these are recognized technical priorities of the surveillance system. A main benefit of the ARICABA surveillance system is improving responsiveness and representativeness of existing health systems through automated data collection, process, and transmission of information from various sources. Challenges include overcoming technology gaps between countries; real-time data collection points; multiple language support; and “component-oriented” development approaches. PMID:23569607

  15. Development and Implementation of a Surveillance Network System for Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Caribbean (ARICABA).

    PubMed

    Kim, Wongyu Lewis; Anneducharme, Chelsea; Bucher, Bernard Jean-Marie Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Dengue fever, including dengue hemorrhagic fever, has become a re-emerging public health threat in the Caribbean in the absence of a comprehensive regional surveillance system. In this deficiency, a project entitled ARICABA, strives to implement a pilot surveillance system across three islands: Martinique, St. Lucia, and Dominica. The aim of this project is to establish a network for epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases, utilizing information and communication technology. This paper describes the system design and development strategies of a "network of networks" surveillance system for infectious diseases in the Caribbean. Also described are benefits, challenges, and limitations of this approach across the three island nations identified through direct observation, open-ended interviews, and email communications with an on-site IT consultant, key informants, and the project director. Identified core systems design of the ARICABA data warehouse include a disease monitoring system and a syndromic surveillance system. Three components comprise the development strategy: the data warehouse server, the geographical information system, and forecasting algorithms; these are recognized technical priorities of the surveillance system. A main benefit of the ARICABA surveillance system is improving responsiveness and representativeness of existing health systems through automated data collection, process, and transmission of information from various sources. Challenges include overcoming technology gaps between countries; real-time data collection points; multiple language support; and "component-oriented" development approaches.

  16. Evaluation of animal and public health surveillance systems: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Drewe, J A; Hoinville, L J; Cook, A J C; Floyd, T; Stärk, K D C

    2012-04-01

    Disease surveillance programmes ought to be evaluated regularly to ensure they provide valuable information in an efficient manner. Evaluation of human and animal health surveillance programmes around the world is currently not standardized and therefore inconsistent. The aim of this systematic review was to review surveillance system attributes and the methods used for their assessment, together with the strengths and weaknesses of existing frameworks for evaluating surveillance in animal health, public health and allied disciplines. Information from 99 articles describing the evaluation of 101 surveillance systems was examined. A wide range of approaches for assessing 23 different system attributes was identified although most evaluations addressed only one or two attributes and comprehensive evaluations were uncommon. Surveillance objectives were often not stated in the articles reviewed and so the reasons for choosing certain attributes for assessment were not always apparent. This has the potential to introduce misleading results in surveillance evaluation. Due to the wide range of system attributes that may be assessed, methods should be explored which collapse these down into a small number of grouped characteristics by focusing on the relationships between attributes and their links to the objectives of the surveillance system and the evaluation. A generic and comprehensive evaluation framework could then be developed consisting of a limited number of common attributes together with several sets of secondary attributes which could be selected depending on the disease or range of diseases under surveillance and the purpose of the surveillance. Economic evaluation should be an integral part of the surveillance evaluation process. This would provide a significant benefit to decision-makers who often need to make choices based on limited or diminishing resources.

  17. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L.; Moynihan, P.I.

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  18. The cerebrospinal fluid HIV risk score for assessing central nervous system activity in persons with HIV.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Edward R; Crum, Rosa M; Treisman, Glenn J; Mehta, Shruti H; Marra, Christina M; Clifford, David B; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M; Gelman, Benjamin B; Ellis, Ronald J; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L; McArthur, Justin C

    2014-08-01

    Detectable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with central nervous system (CNS) complications. We developed the CSF HIV risk score through prediction modeling to estimate the risk of detectable CSF HIV RNA (threshold >50 copies/mL) to help identify persons who might benefit most from CSF monitoring. We used baseline data from 1,053 participants receiving combination antiretroviral therapy who were enrolled in the 6-center, US-based CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) prospective cohort in 2004-2007. Plasma HIV RNA, CNS penetration effectiveness, duration of combination antiretroviral therapy, medication adherence, race, and depression status were retained correlates of CSF HIV RNA, displaying good discrimination (C statistic = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 0.93) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = 0.85). The CSF HIV risk score ranges from 0 to 42 points, with a mean of 15.4 (standard deviation, 7.3) points. At risk scores greater than 25, the probability of detecting CSF HIV RNA was at least 42.9% (95% CI: 36.6, 49.6). For each 1-point increase, the odds of detecting CSF HIV RNA increased by 26% (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.31; P < 0.01). The risk score correlates with detection of CSF HIV RNA. It represents an advance in HIV management and monitoring of CNS effects, providing a potentially useful tool for clinicians.

  19. The Cerebrospinal Fluid HIV Risk Score for Assessing Central Nervous System Activity in Persons With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Edward R.; Crum, Rosa M.; Treisman, Glenn J.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Marra, Christina M.; Clifford, David B.; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M.; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.; McArthur, Justin C.

    2014-01-01

    Detectable human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with central nervous system (CNS) complications. We developed the CSF HIV risk score through prediction modeling to estimate the risk of detectable CSF HIV RNA (threshold >50 copies/mL) to help identify persons who might benefit most from CSF monitoring. We used baseline data from 1,053 participants receiving combination antiretroviral therapy who were enrolled in the 6-center, US-based CNS HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) prospective cohort in 2004–2007. Plasma HIV RNA, CNS penetration effectiveness, duration of combination antiretroviral therapy, medication adherence, race, and depression status were retained correlates of CSF HIV RNA, displaying good discrimination (C statistic = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 0.93) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = 0.85). The CSF HIV risk score ranges from 0 to 42 points, with a mean of 15.4 (standard deviation, 7.3) points. At risk scores greater than 25, the probability of detecting CSF HIV RNA was at least 42.9% (95% CI: 36.6, 49.6). For each 1-point increase, the odds of detecting CSF HIV RNA increased by 26% (odds ratio = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.31; P < 0.01). The risk score correlates with detection of CSF HIV RNA. It represents an advance in HIV management and monitoring of CNS effects, providing a potentially useful tool for clinicians. PMID:24966216

  20. Inventory of surveillance systems assessing dietary, physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Europe: a DEDIPAC study.

    PubMed

    Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Huybrechts, Inge; Thumann, Barbara F; Hebestreit, Antje; Abuja, Peter M; de Henauw, Stefaan; Dubuisson, Carine; Heuer, Thorsten; Murrin, Celine M; Lazzeri, Giacomo; van Rossum, Caroline; Andersen, Lene F; Szeklicki, Robert; Vioque, Jesús; Berry, Rachel; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Slimani, Nadia

    2017-08-01

    There is a need for harmonized public health surveillance systems to monitor regional variations and temporal trends of health behaviours and health outcomes and to align policies, action plans and recommendations in terms of healthy diet and physical (in)activity within Europe. We provide an inventory of currently existing surveillance systems assessing diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviours in Europe as a tool to assist in the identification of gaps and needs and to contribute to the roadmap for an integrated pan-European surveillance system. An inventory questionnaire was completed by representatives of eleven European countries. Eligible surveillance systems were required to meet specific inclusion criteria. First, pre-screening of available surveillance systems in each country was conducted. Second, an in-depth appraisal of the retained surveillance systems complying with the pre-defined requirements was performed. Fifty surveillance systems met the inclusion criteria: six multinational European surveys and forty-four national surveys. Dietary intake and physical activity are the domains predominantly assessed and adults are the most frequently studied age group. Many on-going activities were identified at the national level focussing on adults, but fewer surveillance systems involving vulnerable groups such as infants and pre-school children. Assessment of sedentary and dietary behaviours should be more frequently considered. There is a need for harmonization of surveillance methodologies, indicators and target populations for between-country and over time comparisons. This inventory will serve to feed future discussions within the DEDIPAC-JPI major framework on how to optimize design and identify priorities within surveillance.

  1. Regulation and quality evaluation system for HIV diagnostics in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sihong; Huang, Weijin; Zhang, Li; An, Juanjuan; Li, Xiuhua; Song, Aijing; Nie, Jianhui; Zhang, Chuntao; Wang, Youchun

    2016-03-01

    A sophisticated regulatory framework has been constructed for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics in China, which have developed over the past 30 years. China National Institutes for Food and Drug Control acts as the legal institution in this regulatory framework, launching important activities to ensure the quality of HIV diagnostics. These include the analysis of the main problems faced in developing domestic HIV diagnostics, by investigating the quality of HIV diagnostics and their development; exploring the key factors affecting the quality of HIV diagnostics, to determine the criteria for screening national reference samples; the development of new technologies and methods for preparing reference samples; and the establishment of nine types of national reference panels and nine national standards to evaluate the quality of HIV diagnostics. Based on these researches, a quality evaluation system was established, including nine types of national reference panels, nine national standards for HIV diagnostics, and five sample banks (HIV-positive sample bank, HIV-negative sample bank, common international genotype sample bank, seroconversion series sample bank, HIV virus bank) to evaluate the quality of HIV diagnostics in China. The regulatory framework and the quality evaluation system are pivotal in ensuring the quality of the HIV diagnostics licensed in China.

  2. Mechanisms of HIV Neuropathogenesis: Role of Cellular Communication Systems.

    PubMed

    Malik, Shaily; Eugenin, Eliseo A

    2016-01-01

    One of the major complications of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is the development of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HANDs) in approximately 50-60% of HIV infected individuals. Despite undetectable viral loads in the periphery owing to anti-retroviral therapy, neuroinflammation and neurocognitive impairment are still prevalent in HIV infected individuals. Several studies indicate that the central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities observed in HIV infected individuals are not a direct effect of viral replication in the CNS, rather these neurological abnormalities are associated with amplification of HIV specific signals by unknown mechanisms. We propose that some of these mechanisms of damage amplification are mediated by gap junction channels, pannexin and connexin hemichannels, tunneling nanotubes and microvesicles/exosomes. Our laboratory and others have demonstrated that HIV infection targets cell to cell communication by altering all these communication systems resulting in enhanced bystander apoptosis of uninfected cells, inflammation and viral infection. Here we discuss the role of these communication systems in HIV neuropathogenesis. In the current manuscript, we have described the mechanisms by which HIV "hijacks" these host cellular communication systems, leading to exacerbation of HIV neuropathogenesis, and to simultaneously promote the survival of HIV infected cells, resulting in the establishment of viral reservoirs.

  3. Profile: the Mbita health and demographic surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Wanyua, Sheru; Ndemwa, Morris; Goto, Kensuke; Tanaka, Junichi; K'opiyo, James; Okumu, Silas; Diela, Paul; Kaneko, Satoshi; Karama, Mohamed; Ichinose, Yoshio; Shimada, Masaaki

    2013-12-01

    The Mbita Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Mbita HDSS), located on the shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya, was established in 2006. The main objective of the HDSS is to provide a platform for population-based research on relationships between diseases and socio-economic and environmental factors, and for the evaluation of disease control interventions. The Mbita HDSS had a population of approximately 54 014 inhabitants from 11 576 households in June 2013. Regular data are collected using personal digital assistants (PDAs) every 3 months, which includes births, pregnancies, migration events and deaths. Coordinates are taken using geographical positioning system (GPS) units to map all dwelling units during data collection. Cause of death is inferred from verbal autopsy questionnaires. In addition, other health-related data such as vaccination status, socio-economic status, water sources, acute illness and bed net distribution are collected. The HDSS has also provided a platform for conducting various other research activities such as entomology studies, research on neglected tropical diseases, and environmental health projects which have benefited the organization as well as the HDSS community residents. Data collected are shared with the community members, health officials, local administration and other relevant organizations. Opportunities for collaboration and data sharing with the wider research community are available and those interested should contact shimadam@nagasaki-u.ac.jp or mhmdkarama@yahoo.com.

  4. Evolution of Mosquito-Based Arbovirus Surveillance Systems in Australia

    PubMed Central

    van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Warrilow, David; Ritchie, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in northern Australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. A sentinel pig programme detected JEV activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. A system was developed which detected viral RNA in mosquitoes collected by solar or propane powered CO2-baited traps. However, this method was hampered by trap-component malfunction, microbial contamination and large mosquito numbers which overwhelmed diagnostic capabilities. A novel approach involves allowing mosquitoes within a box trap to probe a sugar-baited nucleic-acid preservation card that is processed for expectorated arboviruses. In a longitudinal field trial, both Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses were detected numerous times from multiple traps over different weeks. Further refinements, including the development of unpowered traps and use of yeast-generated CO2, could enhance the applicability of this system to remote locations. New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data. PMID:22505808

  5. The conundrum of harmonizing resistance surveillance systems on a global level

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Surveillance systems, particularly those involving complex data over time, provide unique challenges. They are as varied in design, intent, funding and function as the countries in which they exist. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention define surveillance as ‘the ongoing systematic colle...

  6. Work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam: a national reporting system model.

    PubMed

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen; Wegman, David H; Leamon, Tom B; Binh, Ta Thi Tuyet; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Kriebel, David

    2013-11-01

    Developing nations bear a substantial portion of the global burden of injury. Public health surveillance models in developing countries should recognize injury risks for all levels of society and all causes and should incorporate various groups of workers and industries, including subsistence agriculture. However, many developing nations do not have an injury registration system; current data collection methods result in gross national undercounts of injuries, failing to distinguish injuries that occur during work. In 2006, we established an active surveillance system in Vietnam's Xuan Tien commune and investigated potential methods for surveillance of work-related injuries. On the basis of our findings, we recommend a national model for work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam that builds on the existing health surveillance system.

  7. Work-Related Injury Surveillance in Vietnam: A National Reporting System Model

    PubMed Central

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen; Wegman, David H.; Leamon, Tom B.; Tuyet Binh, Ta Thi; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Kriebel, David

    2013-01-01

    Developing nations bear a substantial portion of the global burden of injury. Public health surveillance models in developing countries should recognize injury risks for all levels of society and all causes and should incorporate various groups of workers and industries, including subsistence agriculture. However, many developing nations do not have an injury registration system; current data collection methods result in gross national undercounts of injuries, failing to distinguish injuries that occur during work. In 2006, we established an active surveillance system in Vietnam’s Xuan Tien commune and investigated potential methods for surveillance of work-related injuries. On the basis of our findings, we recommend a national model for work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam that builds on the existing health surveillance system. PMID:24028255

  8. Surveillance system using the CCTV at the fuel transfer pond in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, T.; Fukuhara, J.; Ochiai, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Ogata, Y.; Okamoto, H. )

    1991-01-01

    The Fuel Transfer Pond (FTP) in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) is a strategic point for safeguards. Spent fuels, therefore, in the FTP have been surveyed by the surveillance system using the underwater CCTV. This system was developed through the improvement of devices composed of cameras and VCRs and the provision of tamper resistance function as one of the JASPAS (Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards) program. The purpose of this program is to realize the continuous surveillance of the slanted tunnel through which the spent fuel on the conveyor is moved from the FTP to the Mechanical Processing Cell (MPC). This paper reports that, when this surveillance system is applied to an inspection device, the following requirements are needed: To have the ability of continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel on the conveyor path from the FTP to the MPC; To have the tamper resistance function for continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel.

  9. Surveillance and response systems for elimination of tropical diseases: summary of a thematic series in Infectious Diseases of Poverty.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Yap, Peiling; Tanner, Marcel; Bergquist, Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-05-14

    The peer-reviewed journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty provides a new platform to engage with, and disseminate in an open-access format, science outside traditional disciplinary boundaries. The current piece reviews a thematic series on surveillance-response systems for elimination of tropical diseases. Overall, 22 contributions covering a broad array of diseases are featured - i.e. clonorchiasis, dengue, hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), H7N9 avian influenza, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), rabies, schistosomiasis and tuberculosis (TB). There are five scoping reviews, a commentary, a letter to the editor, an opinion piece and an editorial pertaining to the theme "Elimination of tropical disease through surveillance and response". The remaining 13 articles are original contributions mainly covering (i) drug resistance; (ii) innovation and validation in the field of mathematical modelling; (iii) elimination of infectious diseases; and (iv) social media reports on disease outbreak notifications released by national health authorities. Analysis of the authors' affiliations reveals that scientists from the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) are prominently represented. Possible explanations include the fact that the 2012 and 2014 international conferences pertaining to surveillance-response mechanisms were both hosted by the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD) in Shanghai, coupled with P.R. China's growing importance with regard to the control of infectious diseases. Within 4 to 22 months of publication, three of the 22 contributions were viewed more than 10 000 times each. With sustained efforts focusing on relevant and strategic information towards control and elimination of infectious diseases, Infectious Diseases of Poverty has become a leading journal in the field of surveillance and response systems in infectious diseases and beyond.

  10. Epidemiological surveillance of the HIV/AIDS complex through the analysis of trends in the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in Cali, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Saldarriaga-Cantillo, Alejandra; Londoño, Óscar; García, Luz Stella; Collazos, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) incidence has markedly changed in the general population since the onset of the AIDS epidemic in the eighties and after the introduction of the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in the nineties. Objective: To investigate incidence rate trends for Kaposi's sarcoma before and during the (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in Cali, Colombia. Methods: Exploratory ecological study that included all Kaposi's sarcoma cases identified by the Cali Cancer Registry from 1962-2007, and 12,887 cases of HIV/AIDS recorded in the Municipal Health Secretariat of Cali between 1986 and 2010. The joinpoint regression model was used to conduct the incidence rate analyses between the years 1962 and 2010. Results: A total of 349 KS cases were identified during the study period. Only 5.3% of the cases (n=20) were diagnosed in the pre-epidemic era (1963-1987), of these, 35% were women, and 90% of the tumors were located on the skin. In contrast, 94.7% of KS cases (n=329) were discovered after the emergence of HIV-AIDS. There was a significant decrease in the proportion of women (10.9%, p <0.001) and an increase in the frequency of tumors with an extra-cutaneous location (19.1%, p <0.01) compared to those cases diagnosed in the pre-epidemic era. Notification rates of HIV/AIDS have decreased since 2002 in both genders but KS incidence rates have decreased since 2004 in men only. Conclusion: The downward trend in the incidence of these diseases may be associated with factors that prevent the transmission of HIV infection or limit the spread of HIV in the community. Cancer registries represent a resource for timely, population-based surveil-lance of HIV-associated malignancies in Cali, Colombia. PMID:24893300

  11. Functions and Requirements and Specifications for Replacement of the Computer Automated Surveillance System (CASS)

    SciTech Connect

    SCAIEF, C.C.

    1999-12-16

    This functions, requirements and specifications document defines the baseline requirements and criteria for the design, purchase, fabrication, construction, installation, and operation of the system to replace the Computer Automated Surveillance System (CASS) alarm monitoring.

  12. Evaluation of an Active Surveillance System for Stillbirths in Metropolitan Atlanta

    PubMed Central

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Duke, C. Wes; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2005, a pilot project was started at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to expand an existing birth defects surveillance program, the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP), to conduct active surveillance of stillbirth. This pilot project was evaluated using CDC’s current guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Methods We conducted stakeholder interviews with the staff of MACDP’s stillbirth surveillance system. We reviewed the published literature on stillbirth ascertainment including 4 previous publications about the MACDP stillbirth surveillance system. Using fetal death certificates (FDC) as a second, independent data source, we estimated the total number and prevalence of stillbirths in metropolitan Atlanta using capture-recapture methods, and calculated the sensitivity of the MACDP stillbirth surveillance system. Results The MACDP stillbirth surveillance system is useful, flexible, acceptable, and stable. The system’s data quality is improved because it uses multiple sources for case ascertainment. Based on 2006 data, estimated sensitivities of FDCs, MACDP, and both sources combined for identifying a stillbirth were 78.5%, 76.8%, and 95.0%, respectively. The prevalence of stillbirths per 1,000 live births and stillbirths was 8.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.5-9.0) based on FDC data alone and 9.9 (95% CI: 9.1-10.8) when combined with MACDP data. Conclusion Use of MACDP as an additional data source for stillbirth surveillance resulted in higher levels of case ascertainment, better data quality, and a higher estimate of stillbirth prevalence than using FDC data alone. MACDP could be considered as a model to enhance stillbirth surveillance by other active birth defects surveillance programs. PMID:23270086

  13. Surveillance of occupational skin disease using the Supplementary Data System.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, M; Thun, M; Morrison, J; Mathias, C G; Halperin, W E

    1988-01-01

    The utility of the Supplementary Data System (SDS) compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in conducting surveillance of occupational skin disease was evaluated by examining 14,703 workers' compensation cases reported to the SDS for the year 1981. Combined with state employment denominators obtained from the BLS Employment and Earnings Program, rates of illness (cases of dermatitis/10,000 employed) calculated for eight major industrial divisions varied significantly according to the criteria used for reporting cases. Despite quantitative variations in the rate of skin disease that depended on specific reporting criteria, the relative ranking of the major industrial divisions remained unchanged, with highest rates of skin disease consistently found in three major industry divisions: agriculture, manufacturing, and construction. This ranking of major industry divisions by rate of dermatitis corresponded extremely well with rankings generated from the 1981 Annual Survey (Spearman rank correlation = .98, p less than .01). At the two-digit level of the Standard Industrial Classification, the rankings based on the SDS had a 77% rank correlation with those from the Annual Survey. Two-digit SIC codes identified from the top 10 in both sets of rankings included crop and livestock production from the agricultural division and leather products, food products, rubber and plastic products from the manufacturing division.

  14. Electromagnetic field strength levels surrounding electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems.

    PubMed

    Harris, C; Boivin, W; Boyd, S; Coletta, J; Kerr, L; Kempa, K; Aronow, S

    2000-01-01

    Electronic article surveillance (EAS) is used in many applications throughout the world to prevent theft. EAS systems produce electromagnetic (EM) energy around exits to create an EM interrogation zone through which protected items must pass before leaving the establishment. Specially designed EAS tags are attached to these items and must either be deactivated or removed prior to passing through the EAS EM interrogation zone to prevent the alarm from sounding. Recent reports in the scientific literature have noted the possibility that EM energy transmitted by EAS systems may interfere with the proper operation of sensitive electronic medical devices. The Food and Drug Administration has the regulatory responsibility to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medical devices. Because of the possibility of electromagnetic interference (EMI) between EAS systems and electronic medical devices, in situ measurements of the electric and magnetic fields were made around various types of EAS systems. Field strength levels were measured around four types of EAS systems: audio frequency magnetic, pulsed magnetic resonant, radio frequency, and microwave. Field strengths from these EAS systems varied with magnetic fields as high as 1073.6 Am(-1) (in close proximity to the audio frequency magnetic EAS system towers), and electric fields up to 23.8 Vm(-1) (in close proximity to the microwave EAS system towers). Medical devices are only required to withstand 3 Vm(-1) by the International Electrotechnical Commission's current medical device standards. The modulation scheme of the signal transmitted by some types of EAS systems (especially the pulsed magnetic resonant) has been shown to be more likely to cause EMI with electronic medical devices. This study complements other work in the field by attaching specific characteristics to EAS transmitted EM energy. The quantitative data could be used to relate medical device EMI with specific field strength levels and signal waveforms

  15. Increasing Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Coverage Among Men Who Have Sex With Men-National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Sara E; Hoots, Brooke E; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Markowitz, Lauri E; Meites, Elissa

    2017-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause oropharyngeal and anogenital cancers among men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) extended HPV vaccine recommendations to males through age 21 and MSM through age 26. Because of this distinction, vaccination for some MSM might rely on sexual behavior disclosure to health care providers. Receipt of ≥1 HPV vaccination among MSM aged 18-26 in National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) was 4.9% in 2011. We evaluated HPV vaccine coverage and associated factors among MSM in 2014. Twenty US metropolitan statistical areas in 2014. Coverage was calculated as percentage of MSM self-reporting ≥1 HPV vaccination. Adjusted prevalence ratios were calculated from Poisson regression models to estimate associations of demographic and behavioral characteristics with HPV vaccination. Among 2892 MSM aged 18-26 years, HPV vaccine coverage was 17.2%. Overall, 2326 (80.4%) reported a health care visit within 12 months, and 2095 (72.4%) disclosed MSM attraction or behavior to a health care provider. Factors associated with vaccination included self-reported HIV infection; having a health care visit within 12 months, health insurance, or a usual place of care; and disclosing MSM attraction or behavior to a health care provider. Since the 2011 recommendation for vaccination of males, HPV vaccine coverage among MSM increased, but remains low. Most MSM reported a recent health care visit and disclosed sexual behavior, indicating opportunities for vaccination. Potential strategies for increasing MSM coverage include improving access to recommended care, and offering education for providers and patients.

  16. Survey of Communicable Diseases Surveillance System in Hospitals of Iran: A Qualitative Approach.

    PubMed

    Fadaei Dehcheshmeh, Nayeb; Arab, Mohammad; Rahimi Fouroshani, Abbas; Farzianpour, Fereshteh

    2016-09-01

    Communicable Disease Surveillance and reporting is one of the key elements to combat against diseases and their control. Fast and timely recognition of communicable diseases can be helpful in controlling of epidemics. One of the main sources of management of communicable diseases reporting is hospitals that collect communicable diseases' reports and send them to health authorities. One of the focal problems and challenges in this regard is incomplete and imprecise reports from hospitals. In this study, while examining the implementation processes of the communicable diseases surveillance in hospitals, non-medical people who were related to the program have been studied by a qualitative approach. This study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Participants in the study included 36 informants, managers, experts associated with health and surveillance of communicable diseases that were selected using targeted sampling and with diverse backgrounds and work experience (different experiences in primary health surveillance and treatment, Ministry levels, university staff and operations (hospitals and health centers) and sampling was continued until  arrive to data saturation. Interviews were analyzed after the elimination of duplicate codes and integration of them. Finally, 73 codes were acquired and categorized in 6 major themes and 21 levels. The main themes included: policy making and planning, development of resources, organizing, collaboration and participation, surveillance process, and monitoring and evaluation of the surveillance system. In point of interviewees, attention to these themes is necessary to develop effective and efficient surveillance system for communicable diseases. Surveillance system in hospitals is important in developing proper macro - policies in health sector, adoption of health related decisions and preventive plans appropriate to the existing situation. Compilation, changing, improving, monitoring and continuous

  17. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Qaseer, Bashir Al; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system. PMID:26878763

  18. Measuring Transitions in Sexual Risk Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: The Novel Use of Latent Class and Latent Transition Analysis in HIV Sentinel Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Anna L; El-Hayek, Carol; Fairley, Christopher K; Roth, Norm; Tee, B K; McBryde, Emma; Hellard, Margaret; Stoové, Mark

    2017-03-10

    New combination human acquired deficiency (HIV) prevention strategies that include biomedical and primary prevention approaches add complexity to the task of measuring sexual risk. Latent transition models are beneficial for understanding complex phenomena; therefore, we trialed the application of latent class and latent transition models to HIV surveillance data. Our aims were to identify sexual risk states and model individuals' transitions between states. A total of 4,685 HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) completed behavioral questionnaires alongside tests for HIV and sexually transmissible infections at one of 2 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, general practices (2007-2013). We found 4 distinct classes of sexual risk, which we labeled "monogamous" (n = 1,224), "risk minimizer" (n = 1,443), "risk potential" (n = 1,335), and "risk taker" (n = 683). A positive syphilis, gonorrhea, or chlamydia test was significantly associated with class membership. Among a subset of 516 MSM who had at least 3 clinic visits, there was general stability across risk classes; MSM had on average a 0.70 (i.e., 70%) probability of remaining in the same class between visits 1 and 2 and between visits 2 and 3. Monogamous MSM were one exception; the probability of remaining in the monogamous class was 0.51 between visits 1 and 2. Latent transition analyses identified unobserved risk patterns in surveillance data, characterized high-risk MSM, and quantified transitions over time.

  19. Sexual inactivity and sexual satisfaction among women living with HIV in Canada in the context of growing social, legal and public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kaida, Angela; Carter, Allison; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Patterson, Sophie; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Nohpal, Adriana; Sereda, Paul; Colley, Guillaume; O'Brien, Nadia; Thomas-Pavanel, Jamie; Beaver, Kerrigan; Nicholson, Valerie J; Tharao, Wangari; Fernet, Mylène; Otis, Joanne; Hogg, Robert S; Loutfy, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Women represent nearly one-quarter of the 71,300 people living with HIV in Canada. Within a context of widespread HIV-related stigma and discrimination and on-going risks to HIV disclosure, little is known about the influence of growing social, legal and public health surveillance of HIV on sexual activity and satisfaction of women living with HIV (WLWH). We analyzed baseline cross-sectional survey data for WLWH (≥16 years, self-identifying as women) enrolled in the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), a multisite, longitudinal, community-based research study in British Columbia (BC), Ontario (ON) and Quebec (QC). Sexual inactivity was defined as no consensual sex (oral or penetrative) in the prior six months, excluding recently postpartum women (≤6 months). Satisfaction was assessed using an item from the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women. Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined independent correlates of sexual inactivity. Of 1213 participants (26% BC, 50% ON, 24% QC), median age was 43 years (IQR: 35, 50). 23% identified as Aboriginal, 28% as African, Caribbean and Black, 41% as White and 8% as other ethnicities. Heterosexual orientation was reported by 87% of participants and LGBTQ by 13%. In total, 82% were currently taking antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 77% reported an undetectable viral load (VL<40 copies/mL). Overall, 49% were sexually inactive and 64% reported being satisfied with their current sex lives, including 49% of sexually inactive and 79% of sexually active women (p<0.001). Sexually inactive women had significantly higher odds of being older (AOR=1.06 per year increase; 95% CI=1.05-1.08), not being in a marital or committed relationship (AOR=4.34; 95% CI=3.13-5.88), having an annual household income below $20,000 CAD (AOR: 1.44; 95% CI=1.08-1.92), and reporting high (vs. low) HIV-related stigma (AOR=1.81; 95% CI=1.09-3.03). No independent association was found with ART use or undetectable

  20. HIV and aging: effects on the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Cañizares, Silvia; Cherner, Mariana; Ellis, Ronald J

    2014-02-01

    With the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, many human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) individuals are reaching advanced age. The proportion of people living with HIV older than 50 years already exceeds 50% in many communities, and is expected to reach this level nationally by 2015. HIV and aging are independently associated with neuropathological changes, but their concurrence may have a more deleterious effect on the central nervous system (CNS). Published data about neurocognitive and neuroimaging markers of HIV and aging are reviewed. Putative factors contributing to neurocognitive impairment and neuroimaging changes in the aging HIV+ brain, such as metabolic disturbances, cardiovascular risk factors, immune senescence, and neuroinflammation, are described. The possible relationship between HIV and some markers of Alzheimer's disease is presented. Current research findings emphasize multiple mechanisms related to HIV and combination antiretroviral therapy that compromise CNS structure and function with advancing age.

  1. HIV and Aging: Effects on the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Cañizares, Silvia; Cherner, Mariana; Ellis, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, many human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) individuals are reaching advanced age. The proportion of people living with HIV older than 50 years already exceeds 50% in many communities, and is expected to reach this level nationally by 2015. HIV and aging are independently associated with neuropathological changes, but their concurrence may have a more deleterious effect on the central nervous system (CNS). Published data about neurocognitive and neuroimaging markers of HIV and aging are reviewed. Putative factors contributing to neurocognitive impairment and neuroimaging changes in the aging HIV+ brain, such as metabolic disturbances, cardiovascular risk factors, immune senescence, and neuroinflammation, are described. The possible relationship between HIV and some markers of Alzheimer’s disease is presented. Current research findings emphasize multiple mechanisms related to HIV and combination antiretroviral therapy that compromise CNS structure and function with advancing age. PMID:24715486

  2. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica✩

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, C.M.; Vijayaraghavan, M.; Salazar-Bolaños, H.M.; Bolaños-Acuña, H.M.; Ruiz-González, A.I.; Barrantes-Solis, T.; Fernández-Vargas, I.; Panero, M.S.; de Oliveira, L.H.; Hyde, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. Objectives We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. Methods We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. Results During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Conclusions Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and

  3. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Toscano, C M; Vijayaraghavan, M; Salazar-Bolaños, H M; Bolaños-Acuña, H M; Ruiz-González, A I; Barrantes-Solis, T; Fernández-Vargas, I; Panero, M S; de Oliveira, L H; Hyde, T B

    2013-07-02

    Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and investigation. Our findings will be valuable for

  4. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Ifakara Rural and Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Ifakara HDSS).

    PubMed

    Geubbels, Eveline; Amri, Shamte; Levira, Francis; Schellenberg, Joanna; Masanja, Honorati; Nathan, Rose

    2015-06-01

    The Ifakara Rural HDSS (125,000 people) was set up in 1996 for a trial of the effectiveness of social marketing of bed nets on morbidity and mortality of children aged under 5 years, whereas the Ifakara Urban HDSS (45,000 people) since 2007 has provided demographic indicators for a typical small urban centre setting. Jointly they form the Ifakara HDSS (IHDSS), located in the Kilombero valley in south-east Tanzania. Socio-demographic data are collected twice a year. Current malaria work focuses on phase IV studies for antimalarials and on determinants of fine-scale variation of pathogen transmission risk, to inform malaria elimination strategies. The IHDSS is also used to describe the epidemiology and health system aspects of maternal, neonatal and child health and for intervention trials at individual and health systems levels. More recently, IHDSS researchers have studied epidemiology, health-seeking and national programme effectiveness for chronic health problems of adults and older people, including for HIV, tuberculosis and non-communicable diseases. A focus on understanding vulnerability and designing methods to enhance equity in access to services are cross-cutting themes in our work. Unrestricted access to core IHDSS data is in preparation, through INDEPTH iSHARE [www.indepth-ishare.org] and the IHI data portal [http://data.ihi.or.tz/index.php/catalog/central].

  5. A global survey of adverse event following immunization surveillance systems for pregnant women and their infants

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Christine; MacDonald, Noni E.; Steenbeek, Audrey; Ortiz, Justin R.; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Top, Karina A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strengthening antenatal care as a platform for maternal immunization is a priority of the World Health Organization (WHO). Systematic surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in pregnancy is needed to identify vaccine safety events. We sought to identify active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants. Representatives from all National Pharmacovigilance Centers and a convenience sample of vaccine safety experts were invited to complete a 14-item online survey in English, French or Spanish. The survey captured maternal immunization policies, and active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants in respondents' countries. The analysis was descriptive. We received responses from 51/185 (28%) invited persons from 47/148 (32%) countries representing all WHO regions, and low, middle and high-income countries. Thirty countries had national immunization policies targeting pregnant women. Eleven countries had active surveillance systems to detect serious AEFI in pregnant women and/or their infants, including six low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Thirty-nine countries had passive surveillance systems, including 23 LMIC. These active and passive surveillance programs cover approximately 8% and 56% of the worldwide annual birth cohort, respectively. Data from one active and four passive systems have been published. We identified 50 active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants, but few have published their findings. AEFI surveillance appears to be feasible in low and high resource settings. Further expansion of AEFI surveillance for pregnant women and sharing of vaccine safety information will provide additional evidence in support of maternal immunization policies. PMID:27159639

  6. A global survey of adverse event following immunization surveillance systems for pregnant women and their infants.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Christine; MacDonald, Noni E; Steenbeek, Audrey; Ortiz, Justin R; Zuber, Patrick L F; Top, Karina A

    2016-08-02

    Strengthening antenatal care as a platform for maternal immunization is a priority of the World Health Organization (WHO). Systematic surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in pregnancy is needed to identify vaccine safety events. We sought to identify active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants. Representatives from all National Pharmacovigilance Centers and a convenience sample of vaccine safety experts were invited to complete a 14-item online survey in English, French or Spanish. The survey captured maternal immunization policies, and active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants in respondents' countries. The analysis was descriptive. We received responses from 51/185 (28%) invited persons from 47/148 (32%) countries representing all WHO regions, and low, middle and high-income countries. Thirty countries had national immunization policies targeting pregnant women. Eleven countries had active surveillance systems to detect serious AEFI in pregnant women and/or their infants, including six low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Thirty-nine countries had passive surveillance systems, including 23 LMIC. These active and passive surveillance programs cover approximately 8% and 56% of the worldwide annual birth cohort, respectively. Data from one active and four passive systems have been published. We identified 50 active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants, but few have published their findings. AEFI surveillance appears to be feasible in low and high resource settings. Further expansion of AEFI surveillance for pregnant women and sharing of vaccine safety information will provide additional evidence in support of maternal immunization policies.

  7. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Fiore, Lucia; Amato, Concetta; Fiore, Stefano; Bubba, Laura; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Barbi, Maria; Binda, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    An Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system was set up in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in 1997 in the framework of the national AFP surveillance system, as part of the polio eradication initiative by the World Health Organization (WHO). This surveillance system can now be used to detect Poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study aimed at describing the results of the AFP surveillance in Lombardy, from 1997 to 2011. Overall, 131 AFP cases in Lombardy were reported with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.7/100 000 children <15 years of age (range: 0.3/100 000–1.1/100 000). The sensitivity of the surveillance system was optimal from 2001–2003. The monthly distribution of AFP cases was typical with peaks in November, in January, and in March. The major clinical diagnoses associated with AFP were Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS, 40%) and encephalomyelitis/myelitis (13%). According to the virological results, no poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, but two Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Paralysis (VAPP) cases were reported in 1997 when the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) was still being administered in Italy. Since a surveillance system is deemed sensitive if at least one case of AFP per 100,000 children <15 years of age is detected each year, our surveillance system needs some improvement and must be maintained until global poliovirus eradication will be declared. PMID:25483546

  8. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Fiore, Lucia; Amato, Concetta; Fiore, Stefano; Bubba, Laura; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Barbi, Maria; Binda, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    An Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system was set up in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in 1997 in the framework of the national AFP surveillance system, as part of the polio eradication initiative by the World Health Organization (WHO). This surveillance system can now be used to detect Poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study aimed at describing the results of the AFP surveillance in Lombardy, from 1997 to 2011.   Overall, 131 AFP cases in Lombardy were reported with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.7/100 000 children <15 years of age (range: 0.3/100 000-1.1/100 000). The sensitivity of the surveillance system was optimal from 2001-2003. The monthly distribution of AFP cases was typical with peaks in November, in January, and in March. The major clinical diagnoses associated with AFP were Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS, 40%) and encephalomyelitis/myelitis (13%). According to the virological results, no poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, but two Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Paralysis (VAPP) cases were reported in 1997 when the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) was still being administered in Italy. Since a surveillance system is deemed sensitive if at least one case of AFP per 100,000 children <15 years of age is detected each year, our surveillance system needs some improvement and must be maintained until global poliovirus eradication will be declared.

  9. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Lombardy, Northern Italy, from 1997 to 2011 in the context of the national AFP surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Fiore, Lucia; Amato, Concetta; Fiore, Stefano; Bubba, Laura; Pariani, Elena; Amendola, Antonella; Barbi, Maria; Binda, Sandro

    2014-08-28

    An Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance system was set up in Lombardy (Northern Italy) in 1997 in the framework of the national AFP surveillance system, as part of the polio eradication initiative by the World Health Organization (WHO). This surveillance system can now be used to detect Poliovirus (PV) reintroductions from endemic countries. This study aimed at describing the results of the AFP surveillance in Lombardy, from 1997 to 2011.   Overall, 131 AFP cases in Lombardy were reported with a mean annual incidence rate of 0.7/100 000 children<15 years of age (range: 0.3/100 000-1.1/100 000). The sensitivity of the surveillance system was optimal from 2001-2003. The monthly distribution of AFP cases was typical with peaks in November, in January, and in March. The major clinical diagnoses associated with AFP were Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS, 40%) and encephalomyelitis/myelitis (13%). According to the virological results, no poliomyelitis cases were caused by wild PV infections, but two Vaccine-Associated Paralytic Paralysis (VAPP) cases were reported in 1997 when the Sabin oral polio vaccine (OPV) was still being administered in Italy. Since a surveillance system is deemed sensitive if at least one case of AFP per 100,000 children<15 years of age is detected each year, our surveillance system needs some improvement and must be maintained until global poliovirus eradication will be declared.

  10. Surveillance and Datalink Communication Performance Analysis for Distributed Separation Assurance System Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W.; Linse, Dennis J.; Alaverdi, Omeed; Ifarraguerri, Carlos; Seifert, Scott C.; Salvano, Dan; Calender, Dale

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two technical enablers: Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and digital datalink communication, of the Federal Aviation Administration s Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) under two separation assurance (SA) system architectures: ground-based SA and airborne SA, on overall separation assurance performance. Datalink performance such as successful reception probability in both surveillance and communication messages, and surveillance accuracy are examined in various operational conditions. Required SA performance is evaluated as a function of subsystem performance, using availability, continuity, and integrity metrics to establish overall required separation assurance performance, under normal and off-nominal conditions.

  11. HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance in Honduras after a Decade of Widespread Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Trejo, Daniela; Meza, Rita I.; Nuñez, Sandra M.; Parham, Leda; Flores, Norma A.; Valladares, Diana; Pineda, Luisa M.; Flores, Dixiana; Motiño, Roxana; Umanzor, Víctor; Carbajal, Candy; Murillo, Wendy; Lorenzana, Ivette; Palou, Elsa Y.; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We assessed HIV drug resistance (DR) in individuals failing ART (acquired DR, ADR) and in ART-naïve individuals (pre-ART DR, PDR) in Honduras, after 10 years of widespread availability of ART. Methods 365 HIV-infected, ART-naïve, and 381 ART-experienced Honduran individuals were enrolled in 5 reference centres in Tegucigalpa, San Pedro Sula, La Ceiba, and Choluteca between April 2013 and April 2015. Plasma HIV protease-RT sequences were obtained. HIVDR was assessed using the WHO HIVDR mutation list and the Stanford algorithm. Recently infected (RI) individuals were identified using a multi-assay algorithm. Results PDR to any ARV drug was 11.5% (95% CI 8.4–15.2%). NNRTI PDR prevalence (8.2%) was higher than NRTI (2.2%) and PI (1.9%, p<0.0001). No significant trends in time were observed when comparing 2013 and 2014, when using a moving average approach along the study period or when comparing individuals with >500 vs. <350 CD4+ T cells/μL. PDR in recently infected individuals was 13.6%, showing no significant difference with PDR in individuals with longstanding infection (10.7%). The most prevalent PDR mutations were M46IL (1.4%), T215 revertants (0.5%), and K103NS (5.5%). The overall ADR prevalence in individuals with <48 months on ART was 87.8% and for the ≥48 months on ART group 81.3%. ADR to three drug families increased in individuals with longer time on ART (p = 0.0343). M184V and K103N were the most frequent ADR mutations. PDR mutation frequency correlated with ADR mutation frequency for PI and NNRTI (p<0.01), but not for NRTI. Clusters of viruses were observed suggesting transmission of HIVDR both from ART-experienced to ART-naïve individuals and between ART-naïve individuals. Conclusions The global PDR prevalence in Honduras remains at the intermediate level, after 10 years of widespread availability of ART. Evidence of ADR influencing the presence of PDR was observed by phylogenetic analyses and ADR/PDR mutation frequency correlations

  12. Cost and schedule control systems criteria for contract performance measurement. Systems review/surveillance guide

    SciTech Connect

    1986-06-01

    When the Department of Energy (DOE) Cost and Schedule Control Systems Criteria (CSCSC) are applied to a contract in accordance with DOE 2250.1B, the contractor's management control systems are reviewed by DOE to determine their initial and continuing compliance with the CSCSC. This document provides guidance to DOE personnel responsible for applying the CSCSC requirements on contracts, reviewing contractor implementation of the requirements, and surveillance to assure continuing compliance with the CSCSC.

  13. Multifaceted syndromic surveillance in a public health department using the early aberration reporting system.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Brian M; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Hall, Stephanie P; Franklin, Chad; Hutwagner, Lori C; Seeman, G Matthew; Craig, Allen S

    2005-01-01

    Local health departments concerned with early detection of potential terrorist threats are beginning to explore novel approaches to syndromic surveillance. Using the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS) developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a metropolitan health department in Tennessee and five community partners have agreed to exchange data in order to implement a multifaceted syndromic surveillance system for early detection of a biological attack. This article describes how we used EARS as the foundation for implementing a surveillance system that encompasses a rich variety of data sources. We address technical requirements for operating EARS, recommend staffing and training prerequisites, describe the involvement of our data partners, and provide details related to data transfer and analysis, review, and response protocol. Other health departments may find this information useful as a general model for implementing EARS-based syndromic surveillance systems in their own jurisdictions.

  14. Rates of HIV, syphilis, and HCV infections among different demographic groups of female sex workers in Guangxi China: evidence from 2010 national sentinel surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuejiao; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chen; Tan, Guangjie; Stanton, Bonita; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Cui, Yan

    2013-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections by demographic characteristics and identify the subgroups of female sex workers (FSW) who are at a higher risk of the infections. Secondary analysis of the 2010 National Sentinel Surveillance (NSS) data was conducted in the current study. A total of 12,622 FSW recruited from 35 NSS sites in Guangxi, China were included in the analysis. FSW were tested for HIV, syphilis, and HCV. The overall prevalence of HIV, syphilis, and HCV infections were 1.0, 6.1, and 1.0%, respectively. The prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections was significantly higher among women who were 40 years of age or older, worked in small commercial sex venues or on the street, were divorced or widowed, or had no formal schooling. A very high HIV infection prevalence (8.2%) was observed among a small number of cross-border foreign FSW (n=49). The prevalence of HCV infection did not differ by most of the demographic characteristics. Living in other provinces or being a Zhuang-ethnic served as protective factors for HCV. The multivariable analyses confirmed the bivariate results suggesting higher prevalence of HIV and syphilis infections among FSW who were older, divorced or widowed, or had no formal schooling. Future HIV intervention prevention efforts among FSW need to pay particular attention to these women in order to effectively curtail the infections among this most-at-risk population as well as to prevent the further spread of HIV and syphilis to other populations.

  15. Performance of premarket rapid hepatitis C virus antibody assays in 4 national human immunodeficiency virus behavioral surveillance system sites.

    PubMed

    Smith, Bryce D; Teshale, Eyasu; Jewett, Amy; Weinbaum, Cindy M; Neaigus, Alan; Hagan, Holly; Jenness, Sam M; Melville, Sharon K; Burt, Richard; Thiede, Hanne; Al-Tayyib, Alia; Pannala, Praveen R; Miles, Iisa W; Oster, Alexa M; Smith, Amanda; Finlayson, Teresa; Bowles, Kristina E; Dinenno, Elizabeth A

    2011-10-01

    Performance characteristics of rapid assays for hepatitis C virus antibody were evaluated in 4 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System injection drug use sites. The highest assay-specific sensitivities achieved for the Chembio, MedMira and OraSure tests were 94.0%, 78.9%, and 97.4%, respectively; the highest specificities were 97.7%, 83.3%, and 100%, respectively. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 4.1 million Americans have been infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and 75%-80% of them are living with chronic HCV infection, many unaware of their infection. Persons who inject drugs (PWID) account for 57.5% of all persons with HCV antibody (anti-HCV) in the United States. Currently no point-of-care tests for HCV infection are approved for use in the United States. Surveys and testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and anti-HCV were conducted among persons who reported injection drug use in the past 12 months as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in 2009. The sensitivity and specificity of point-of-care tests (finger-stick and 2 oral fluid rapid assays) from 3 manufacturers (Chembio, MedMira, and OraSure) were evaluated in field settings in 4 US cities. Sensitivity (78.9%-97.4%) and specificity (80.0%-100.0%) were variable across assays and sites. The highest assay-specific sensitivities achieved for the Chembio, MedMira, and OraSure tests were 94.0%, 78.9% and 97.4%, respectively; the highest specificities were 97.7%, 83.3%, and 100%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, false-negative anti-HCV results were associated with HIV positivity for the Chembio oral assay (adjusted odds ratio, 8.4-9.1; P < .01) in 1 site (New York City). Sensitive rapid anti-HCV assays are appropriate and feasible for high-prevalence, high-risk populations such as PWID, who can be reached through social service settings such as syringe exchange programs and methadone maintenance treatment programs.

  16. Health disparities experienced by people with disabilities in the United States: a Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System study.

    PubMed

    Pharr, Jennifer R; Bungum, Tim

    2012-09-09

    The Americans with Disabilities Act became law in 1990; since then research has shown that people with disabilities continue to experience barriers to health care. The purpose of this study was to compare utilization of preventive services, chronic disease rates, and engagement in health risk behaviors of participants with differing severities of disabilities to those without disabilities. This study was a secondary analysis of 2010 data collected in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System national survey in the United States. Rao Chi square test and logistic regression were employed. Participants with disabilities had significantly higher adjusted odds ratios for all chronic diseases, for physical inactivity, obesity and smoking. They were significantly more likely to participate in some preventive services (flu/pneumonia vaccination, HIV test) and significantly less likely to participate in other preventive services (mammogram, Pap test). Our findings suggest that people with disabilities are less able to fully participate in all preventive services offered.

  17. Health Disparities Experienced by People with Disabilities in the United States: A Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Study

    PubMed Central

    Pharr, Jennifer R.; Bungum, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act became law in 1990; since then research has shown that people with disabilities continue to experience barriers to health care. The purpose of this study was to compare utilization of preventive services, chronic disease rates, and engagement in health risk behaviors of participants with differing severities of disabilities to those without disabilities. This study was a secondary analysis of 2010 data collected in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System national survey in the United States. Rao Chi square test and logistic regression were employed. Participants with disabilities had significantly higher adjusted odds ratios for all chronic diseases, for physical inactivity, obesity and smoking. They were significantly more likely to participate in some preventive services (flu/pneumonia vaccination, HIV test) and significantly less likely to participate in other preventive services (mammogram, Pap test). Our findings suggest that people with disabilities are less able to fully participate in all preventive services offered. PMID:23121746

  18. Survey of Communicable Diseases Surveillance System in Hospitals of Iran: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dehcheshmeh, Nayeb Fadaei; Arab, Mohammad; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Farzianpour, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Communicable Disease Surveillance and reporting is one of the key elements to combat against diseases and their control. Fast and timely recognition of communicable diseases can be helpful in controlling of epidemics. One of the main sources of management of communicable diseases reporting is hospitals that collect communicable diseases’ reports and send them to health authorities. One of the focal problems and challenges in this regard is incomplete and imprecise reports from hospitals. In this study, while examining the implementation processes of the communicable diseases surveillance in hospitals, non-medical people who were related to the program have been studied by a qualitative approach. Methods: This study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Participants in the study included 36 informants, managers, experts associated with health and surveillance of communicable diseases that were selected using targeted sampling and with diverse backgrounds and work experience (different experiences in primary health surveillance and treatment, Ministry levels, university staff and operations (hospitals and health centers) and sampling was continued until arrive to data saturation. Results: Interviews were analyzed after the elimination of duplicate codes and integration of them. Finally, 73 codes were acquired and categorized in 6 major themes and 21 levels. The main themes included: policy making and planning, development of resources, organizing, collaboration and participation, surveillance process, and monitoring and evaluation of the surveillance system. In point of interviewees, attention to these themes is necessary to develop effective and efficient surveillance system for communicable diseases. Conclusion: Surveillance system in hospitals is important in developing proper macro - policies in health sector, adoption of health related decisions and preventive plans appropriate to the existing situation. Compilation, changing

  19. Cost Analysis of Various Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Surveillance Systems in the Dutch Egg Layer Sector

    PubMed Central

    Rutten, Niels; Gonzales, José L.; Elbers, Armin R. W.; Velthuis, Annet G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background As low pathogenic avian influenza viruses can mutate into high pathogenic viruses the Dutch poultry sector implemented a surveillance system for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) based on blood samples. It has been suggested that egg yolk samples could be sampled instead of blood samples to survey egg layer farms. To support future decision making about AI surveillance economic criteria are important. Therefore a cost analysis is performed on systems that use either blood or eggs as sampled material. Methodology/Principal Findings The effectiveness of surveillance using egg or blood samples was evaluated using scenario tree models. Then an economic model was developed that calculates the total costs for eight surveillance systems that have equal effectiveness. The model considers costs for sampling, sample preparation, sample transport, testing, communication of test results and for the confirmation test on false positive results. The surveillance systems varied in sampled material (eggs or blood), sampling location (farm or packing station) and location of sample preparation (laboratory or packing station). It is shown that a hypothetical system in which eggs are sampled at the packing station and samples prepared in a laboratory had the lowest total costs (i.e. € 273,393) a year. Compared to this a hypothetical system in which eggs are sampled at the farm and samples prepared at a laboratory, and the currently implemented system in which blood is sampled at the farm and samples prepared at a laboratory have 6% and 39% higher costs respectively. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that surveillance for avian influenza on egg yolk samples can be done at lower costs than surveillance based on blood samples. The model can be used in future comparison of surveillance systems for different pathogens and hazards. PMID:22523543

  20. The Stevens Integrated Maritime Surveillance and Forecast System: Expansion and Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    The Stevens Integrated Maritime Surveillance and Forecast System: Expansion and Enhancement Michael S. Bruno and Alan F. Blumberg Center for...system of oceanographic, meteorological, and vessel surveillance sensors and littoral ocean forecasting models to allow for the real-time assessment...of ocean, weather, environmental, and vessel traffic conditions throughout the New York Harbor region, and forecast of conditions in the near and

  1. New method for height estimation of subjects represented in photograms taken from video surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Sala, Remo; Cantatore, Angela; Poppa, Pasquale; Dufour, Michele; Grandi, Marco; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2007-11-01

    The article describes a method developed and applied by the authors for the purpose of determining the height of subjects taped on video surveillance systems. The determination of height is obtained by developing a virtual telecamera having the same characteristics of the video surveillance system with which the images have been shot. The results demonstrate that height is a parameter that can be accurately estimated with the method proposed, in the experimental conditions described, and consequently, can be utilized in probatory inquiry.

  2. An international survey of cerebral palsy registers and surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Shona; McIntyre, Sarah; Smithers-Sheedy, Hayley; Blair, Eve; Cans, Christine; Watson, Linda; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2016-01-01

    AIM To describe cerebral palsy (CP) surveillance programmes and identify similarities and differences in governance and funding, aims and scope, definition, inclusion/exclusion criteria, ascertainment and data collection, to enhance the potential for research collaboration. METHOD Representatives from 38 CP surveillance programmes were invited to participate in an online survey and submit their data collection forms. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize information submitted. RESULTS Twenty-seven surveillance programmes participated (25 functioning registers, two closed owing to lack of funding). Their aims spanned five domains: resource for CP research, surveillance, aetiology/prevention, service planning, and information provision (in descending order of frequency). Published definitions guided decision making for the definition of CP and case eligibility for most programmes. Consent, case identification, and data collection methods varied widely. Ten key data items were collected by all programmes and a further seven by at least 80% of programmes. All programmes reported an interest in research collaboration. INTERPRETATION Despite variability in methodologies, similarities exist across programmes in terms of their aims, definitions, and data collected. These findings will facilitate harmonization of data and collaborative research efforts, which are so necessary on account of the heterogeneity and relatively low prevalence of CP. PMID:26781543

  3. A Surveillance Model for Human Avian Influenza with a Comprehensive Surveillance System for Local-Priority Communicable Diseases in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hanafusa, Shigeki; Muhadir, Andi; Santoso, Hari; Tanaka, Kohtaroh; Anwar, Muhammad; Sulistyo, Erwan Tri; Hachiya, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    The government of Indonesia and the Japan International Cooperation Agency launched a three-year project (2008–2011) to strengthen the surveillance of human avian influenza cases through a comprehensive surveillance system of local-priority communicable diseases in South Sulawesi Province. Based on findings from preliminary and baseline surveys, the project developed a technical protocol for surveillance and response activities in local settings, consistent with national guidelines. District surveillance officers (DSOs) and rapid-response-team members underwent training to improve surveillance and response skills. A network-based early warning and response system for weekly reports and a short message service (SMS) gateway for outbreak reports, both encompassing more than 20 probable outbreak diseases, were introduced to support existing paper-based systems. Two further strategies were implemented to optimize project outputs: a simulation exercise and a DSO-centered model. As a result, the timeliness of weekly reports improved from 33% in 2009 to 82% in 2011. In 2011, 65 outbreaks were reported using the SMS, with 64 subsequent paper-based reports. All suspected human avian influenza outbreaks up to September 2011 were reported in the stipulated format. A crosscutting approach using human avian influenza as the core disease for coordinating surveillance activities improved the overall surveillance system for communicable diseases. PMID:23532690

  4. A surveillance model for human avian influenza with a comprehensive surveillance system for local-priority communicable diseases in South sulawesi, indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hanafusa, Shigeki; Muhadir, Andi; Santoso, Hari; Tanaka, Kohtaroh; Anwar, Muhammad; Sulistyo, Erwan Tri; Hachiya, Masahiko

    2012-12-01

    The government of Indonesia and the Japan International Cooperation Agency launched a three-year project (2008-2011) to strengthen the surveillance of human avian influenza cases through a comprehensive surveillance system of local-priority communicable diseases in South Sulawesi Province. Based on findings from preliminary and baseline surveys, the project developed a technical protocol for surveillance and response activities in local settings, consistent with national guidelines. District surveillance officers (DSOs) and rapid-response-team members underwent training to improve surveillance and response skills. A network-based early warning and response system for weekly reports and a short message service (SMS) gateway for outbreak reports, both encompassing more than 20 probable outbreak diseases, were introduced to support existing paper-based systems. Two further strategies were implemented to optimize project outputs: a simulation exercise and a DSO-centered model. As a result, the timeliness of weekly reports improved from 33% in 2009 to 82% in 2011. In 2011, 65 outbreaks were reported using the SMS, with 64 subsequent paper-based reports. All suspected human avian influenza outbreaks up to September 2011 were reported in the stipulated format. A crosscutting approach using human avian influenza as the core disease for coordinating surveillance activities improved the overall surveillance system for communicable diseases.

  5. Infectious Disease Surveillance in the Big Data Era: Towards Faster and Locally Relevant Systems.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Lone; Gog, Julia R; Olson, Don; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-12-01

    While big data have proven immensely useful in fields such as marketing and earth sciences, public health is still relying on more traditional surveillance systems and awaiting the fruits of a big data revolution. A new generation of big data surveillance systems is needed to achieve rapid, flexible, and local tracking of infectious diseases, especially for emerging pathogens. In this opinion piece, we reflect on the long and distinguished history of disease surveillance and discuss recent developments related to use of big data. We start with a brief review of traditional systems relying on clinical and laboratory reports. We then examine how large-volume medical claims data can, with great spatiotemporal resolution, help elucidate local disease patterns. Finally, we review efforts to develop surveillance systems based on digital and social data streams, including the recent rise and fall of Google Flu Trends. We conclude by advocating for increased use of hybrid systems combining information from traditional surveillance and big data sources, which seems the most promising option moving forward. Throughout the article, we use influenza as an exemplar of an emerging and reemerging infection which has traditionally been considered a model system for surveillance and modeling. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. A review of the surveillance systems of influenza in selected countries in the tropical region.

    PubMed

    Sanicas, Melvin; Forleo, Eduardo; Pozzi, Gianni; Diop, Doudou

    2014-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics of respiratory tract disease that affect all age groups. Many developing countries do not have an influenza surveillance system or adequate laboratory capacity for virus detection. The objective of this study was to describe the influenza surveillance systems in the different countries in the tropics and to identify outstanding research needs. A questionnaire was designed and sent to 52 NICs and MoHs in the different countries in tropical Asia and Africa to gather information on the surveillance systems, sentinel sites, specimen and data collection, and laboratory testing. Replies were received from 32 NICs and MoHs (61.5% response)--17 were located in tropical Asia and 15 in Africa. There are 20 WHO recognized NICs in tropical Asia and 14 in tropical Africa, all with virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing capacity. Of the Asian countries, only Hong Kong and Singapore reported that the patient population from the sites represents the broader community. In tropical Africa, only Senegal has sentinel sites distributed all over the country contributing to the geographic representativeness of the surveillance system. The rest of the countries in Africa have just established their influenza surveillance system in the past decade and are working toward geographic expansion of the ILI and SARI sites. Limited laboratory capacity or infrastructure to perform influenza surveillance makes difficult to justify the importance of influenza vaccine or other influenza control measures as a strategy for improving population health in the tropical region.

  7. A System for Surveillance Directly from the EMR

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Richard F.; Morin, Jason; Bhatia, Ramanjot S.; de Bruijn, Lambertus

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to conduct surveillance of nosocomial infections directly from multiple EMR data streams in a large multi-location Canadian health care facility. The system developed automatically triggers bed-day-level-location-aware reports and detects and tracks the incidents of nosocomial infections in hospital by ward. Introduction Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of morbidity, mortality and increased resource utilization. CDC estimates that in the US alone, over 2 million patients are affected by nosocomial infections costing approximately $34.7 billion to $45 billion annually (1). The existing process of detection and reporting relies on time consuming manual processing of records and generation of alerts based on disparate definitions that are not comparable across institutions or even physicians. Methods A multi-stakeholder team consisting of experts from medicine, infection control, epidemiology, privacy, computing, artificial intelligence, data fusion and public health conducted a proof of concept from four complete years of admission records of all patients at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute. Figure 1 lists the data elements investigated. Our system uses an open source enterprise bus ‘Mirth Connect’ to receive and store data in HL7 format. The processing of information is handled by individual components and alerts are pushed back to respective locations. The free text components were classified using natural language processing. Negation detection was performed using NegEx (2). Data-fusion algorithms were used to merge information to make it meaningful and allow complex syndrome definitions to be mapped onto the data. Results The system monitors: Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP), Central Line Infections (CLI), Methicillin Resistant Staph Aureus (MRSA), Clostridium difficile (C. Diff) and Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE). 21452 hospital admissions occurred in 17670 unique patients over four years. There

  8. Surveillance of HIV Transmitted Drug Resistance in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Rios, Santiago; Sued, Omar; Rhee, Soo-Yon; Shafer, Robert W.; Reyes-Teran, Gustavo; Ravasi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR) remains at moderate level in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). However, different epidemiologic scenarios could influence national and sub-regional TDR levels and trends. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review of currently available publications on TDR in antiretroviral treatment-naïve adults in LAC. Ninety-eight studies published between January 2000 and June 2015 were included according to critical appraisal criteria and classified by sub-region: Brazil (50), Mesoamerica (17), Southern Cone (16), Andean (8) and Caribbean (7). From these, 81 studies encompassing 11,441 individuals with data on DR mutation frequency were included in a meta-analysis. Overall TDR prevalence in LAC was 7.7% (95% CI: 7.2%-8.2%). An increasing trend was observed for overall TDR when comparing 2000–2005 (6.0%) and 2006–2015 (8.2%) (p<0.0001), which was associated with significant NNRTI TDR increase (p<0.0001). NRTI TDR decreased (4.5% vs. 2.3%, p<0.0001). NNRTI TDR increase was associated mainly with K101E, K103N and G190A. NRTI TDR decrease was associated mainly with M184V, K70R and T215Y. All sub-regions reached moderate overall TDR levels. The rapid increase in TDR to all antiretroviral classes in the Caribbean is notable, as well as the significant increase in NNRTI TDR reaching moderate levels in the Southern Cone. NRTI TDR was dominant in 2000–2005, mainly in the Caribbean, Mesoamerica and Brazil. This dominance was lost in 2006–2015 in all sub-regions, with the Southern Cone and the Caribbean switching to NNRTI dominance. PI TDR remained mostly constant with a significant increase only observed in the Caribbean. Conclusions Given the high conceptual and methodological heterogeneity of HIV TDR studies, implementation of surveys with standardized methodology and national representativeness is warranted to generate reliable to inform public health policies. The observed increasing trend in NNRTI TDR

  9. Short communication: immunogenicity of an inactivated influenza vaccine and postvaccination influenza surveillance in HIV-infected and noninfected children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Machado, Alessandra Aparecida; Machado, Clarisse Martins; Boas, Lucy Santos Vilas; Lopes, Mariana Corniani; Gouvêa, Aída de Fátima Barbosa; Succi, Regina Célia de Menezes; Mendoza, Tânia Regina Tozetto; Kanashiro, Tatiana Mitiko; Machado, Daisy Maria

    2011-09-01

    Individuals infected with HIV are at higher risk for severe cases of seasonal influenza infection and should receive annual doses of vaccine. Our objectives were to evaluate the immunogenicity of an influenza vaccine in 37 HIV-infected patients (HIV group) compared to 29 uninfected individuals (control group) and to carry out a clinical and virological surveillance of influenza during a 6-month follow-up. Both groups received the vaccine recommended for the southern hemisphere in 2008. Antibody responses to antigens H1N1, H3N2, and B were measured in blood samples at vaccination (T0) and after 1 month (T1). Influenza surveillance was performed by weekly telephone calls for a follow-up period of 6 months. Nasal washes were taken from subjects with respiratory symptoms. The direct immunofluorescence assay in house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR were used for the detection of different respiratory viruses. The median age of the participants was 13.3 years (sd = 2.2) and 12.1 years (sd = 1.3) for the HIV group and control group, respectively. One month after vaccination (T1), both groups showed significant increases in the antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) for all antigens. However, healthy controls showed higher values for antigens A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 (p = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). There was a higher increase in the percentage of HIV-uninfected subjects with protective A/H1N1 antibodies (96.6%) compared to HIV-infected vaccinees (67.6%) at T1 (p = 0.004). Rhinovirus (27.7%) and coronavirus (22.5%) were the most prevalent agents identified in HIV-infected individuals. In the control group, the viruses most frequently found were rhinovirus (24.2%) and adenovirus (21.2%). The seroprotection rate for the H1N1 antigen was higher in the control group, which also showed a greater increase in GMTs for H1N1 and H3N2 antigens after immunization. Viral agents were identified in 39/60 (65%) episodes of respiratory infections from the HIV-infected group

  10. Visual surveillance system for detection of moving objects by scene modelization in uncontrolled robotic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Ahmad

    1997-06-01

    There is a growing demand for an automatic surveillance system for road traffic data and industrial workroom environments. These data are required for surveillance and control. The problem of diagnostic intruders in a dangerous areas, knocks generally to the illumination changes. From the beginning of this work, it was stated that, the device had to supervise a robotic environment, in real time, in order to detect the abnormal situations. This paper describes implementation of a fast algorithm of surveillance system that performs tracking of robot's manipulator arm and detection of moving objects. The aim of this work is to avoid collision between human and moving machines. This paper presents a new approach of surveillance allowing unpredictable robotics tasks and tolerant independent illumination changes. We present in our paper an original method to modelize the scene by an image spatial sampling and an algorithm to detect moving objects. The detection is based on the observation of changes between a reference and the current images.

  11. High-fidelity injection detectability experiments: a tool for evaluating syndromic surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Wallstrom, Garrick L; Wagner, M; Hogan, W

    2005-08-26

    When public health surveillance systems are evaluated, CDC recommends that the expected sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness of surveillance systems be characterized for outbreaks of different sizes, etiologies, and geographic or demographic scopes. High-Fidelity Injection Detectability Experiments (HiFIDE) is a tool that health departments can use to compute these metrics for detection algorithms and surveillance data that they are using in their surveillance system. The objective of this study is to develop a tool that allows health departments to estimate the expected sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness of outbreak detection. HiFIDE extends existing semisynthetic injection methods by replacing geometrically shaped injects with injects derived from surveillance data collected during real outbreaks. These injects maintain the known relation between outbreak size and effect on surveillance data, which allows inferences to be made regarding the smallest outbreak that can be expected to be detectable. An example illustrates the use of HiFIDE to analyze detectability of a waterborne Cryptosporidium outbreak in Washington, DC. HiFIDE enables public health departments to perform system validations recommended by CDC. HiFIDE can be obtained for no charge for noncommercial use (http://www.hifide.org).

  12. High-Fidelity Injection Detectability Experiments: a Tool for Evaluating Syndromic Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Wallstrom, Garrick L.; Wagner, M.; Hogan, W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction When public health surveillance systems are evaluated, CDC recommends that the expected sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness of surveillance systems be characterized for outbreaks of different sizes, etiologies, and geographic or demographic scopes. High-Fidelity Injection Detectability Experiments (HiFIDE) is a tool that health departments can use to compute these metrics for detection algorithms and surveillance data that they are using in their surveillance system. Objective The objective of this study is to develop a tool that allows health departments to estimate the expected sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness of outbreak detection. Methods HiFIDE extends existing semisynthetic injection methods by replacing geometrically shaped injects with injects derived from surveillance data collected during real outbreaks. These injects maintain the known relation between outbreak size and effect on surveillance data, which allows inferences to be made regarding the smallest outbreak that can be expected to be detectable. Results An example illustrates the use of HiFIDE to analyze detectability of a waterborne Cryptosporidium outbreak in Washington, DC. Conclusion HiFIDE enables public health departments to perform system validations recommended by CDC. HiFIDE can be obtained for no charge for noncommercial use (http://www.hifide.org). PMID:16177698

  13. ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE FOR PAPILLARY THYROID MICROCARCINOMA: NEW CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM.

    PubMed

    Haser, Grace C; Tuttle, R Michael; Su, Henry K; Alon, Eran E; Bergman, Donald; Bernet, Victor; Brett, Elise; Cobin, Rhoda; Dewey, Eliza H; Doherty, Gerard; Dos Reis, Laura L; Harris, Jeffrey; Klopper, Joshua; Lee, Stephanie L; Levine, Robert A; Lepore, Stephen J; Likhterov, Ilya; Lupo, Mark A; Machac, Josef; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Mehra, Saral; Milas, Mira; Orloff, Lisa A; Randolph, Gregory; Revenson, Tracey A; Roberts, Katherine J; Ross, Douglas S; Rowe, Meghan E; Smallridge, Robert C; Terris, David; Tufano, Ralph P; Urken, Mark L

    2016-05-01

    The dramatic increase in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is primarily a result of early diagnosis of small cancers. Active surveillance is a promising management strategy for papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs). However, as this management strategy gains traction in the U.S., it is imperative that patients and clinicians be properly educated, patients be followed for life, and appropriate tools be identified to implement the strategy. We review previous active surveillance studies and the parameters used to identify patients who are good candidates for active surveillance. We also review some of the challenges to implementing active surveillance protocols in the U.S. and discuss how these might be addressed. Trials of active surveillance support nonsurgical management as a viable and safe management strategy. However, numerous challenges exist, including the need for adherence to protocols, education of patients and physicians, and awareness of the impact of this strategy on patient psychology and quality of life. The Thyroid Cancer Care Collaborative (TCCC) is a portable record keeping system that can manage a mobile patient population undergoing active surveillance. With proper patient selection, organization, and patient support, active surveillance has the potential to be a long-term management strategy for select patients with PTMC. In order to address the challenges and opportunities for this approach to be successfully implemented in the U.S., it will be necessary to consider psychological and quality of life, cultural differences, and the patient's clinical status.

  14. Development concerns for satellite-based air traffic control surveillance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. D.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation directed toward the configuration of a practical system design which can form the baseline for assessing the applications and value of a satellite based air traffic surveillance system for future use in the National Airspace System (NAS) are described. This work initially studied the characteristics and capabilities of a satellite configuration which would operate compatibly with the signal structure and avionics of the next generation air traffic control secondary surveillance radar system, the Mode S system. A compatible satellite surveillance system concept is described and an analysis is presented of the link budgets for the various transmission paths. From this, the satellite characteristics are established involving a large multiple feed L band antenna of approximately 50 meter aperture dimension. Trade offs involved in several of the alternative large aperture antennas considered are presented as well as the influence of various antenna configurations on the performance capabilities of the surveillance system. The features and limitations of the use of large aperture antenna systems for air traffic surveillance are discussed. Tentative results of this continuing effort are summarized with a brief description of follow on investigations involving other space based antenna systems concepts.

  15. Evaluation of Syndromic Surveillance Systems in 6 US State and Local Health Departments.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mathew J; Yoon, Paula W; Collins, James M; Davidson, Arthur J; Mac Kenzie, William R

    2017-09-28

    Evaluating public health surveillance systems is critical to ensuring that conditions of public health importance are appropriately monitored. Our objectives were to qualitatively evaluate 6 state and local health departments that were early adopters of syndromic surveillance in order to (1) understand the characteristics and current uses, (2) identify the most and least useful syndromes to monitor, (3) gauge the utility for early warning and outbreak detection, and (4) assess how syndromic surveillance impacted their daily decision making. We adapted evaluation guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and gathered input from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention subject matter experts in public health surveillance to develop a questionnaire. We interviewed staff members from a convenience sample of 6 local and state health departments with syndromic surveillance programs that had been in operation for more than 10 years. Three of the 6 interviewees provided an example of using syndromic surveillance to identify an outbreak (ie, cluster of foodborne illness in 1 jurisdiction) or detect a surge in cases for seasonal conditions (eg, influenza in 2 jurisdictions) prior to traditional, disease-specific systems. Although all interviewees noted that syndromic surveillance has not been routinely useful or efficient for early outbreak detection or case finding in their jurisdictions, all agreed that the information can be used to improve their understanding of dynamic disease control environments and conditions (eg, situational awareness) in their communities. In the jurisdictions studied, syndromic surveillance may be useful for monitoring the spread and intensity of large outbreaks of disease, especially influenza; enhancing public health awareness of mass gatherings and natural disasters; and assessing new, otherwise unmonitored conditions when real-time alternatives are unavailable. Future studies should explore opportunities to

  16. Effectiveness of Implementation of Electronic Malaria Information System as the National Malaria Surveillance System in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In moving toward malaria elimination, one strategy is to implement an active surveillance system for effective case management. Thailand has developed and implemented the electronic Malaria Information System (eMIS) capturing individualized electronic records of suspected or confirmed malaria cases. Objective The main purpose of this study was to determine how well the eMIS improves the quality of Thailand’s malaria surveillance system. In particular, the focus of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the eMIS in terms of the system users’ perception and the system outcomes (ie, quality of data) regarding the management of malaria patients. Methods A mixed-methods technique was used with the framework based on system effectiveness attributes: data quality, timeliness, simplicity, acceptability, flexibility, stability, and usefulness. Three methods were utilized: data records review, survey of system users, and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. From the two highest endemic provinces, paper forms matching electronic records of 4455 noninfected and 784 malaria-infected cases were reviewed. Web-based anonymous questionnaires were distributed to all 129 eMIS data entry staff throughout Thailand, and semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 management-level officers. Results The eMIS is well accepted by system users at both management and operational levels. The data quality has enabled malaria personnel to perform more effective prevention and control activities. There is evidence of practices resulting in inconsistencies and logical errors in data reporting. Critical data elements were mostly completed, except for a few related to certain dates and area classifications. Timeliness in reporting a case to the system was acceptable with a delay of 3-4 days. The evaluation of quantitative and qualitative data confirmed that the eMIS has high levels of simplicity, acceptability, stability, and flexibility. Conclusions Overall, the

  17. Motion and ranging sensor system for through-the-wall surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Jeffrey D.

    2002-08-01

    A portable Through-the-Wall Surveillance System is being developed for law enforcement, counter-terrorism, and military use. The Motion and Ranging Sensor is a radar that operates in a frequency band that allows for surveillance penetration of most non-metallic walls. Changes in the sensed radar returns are analyzed to detect the human motion that would typically be present during a hostage or barricaded suspect scenario. The system consists of a Sensor Unit, a handheld Remote Display Unit, and an optional laptop computer Command Display Console. All units are battery powered and a wireless link provides command and data communication between units. The Sensor Unit is deployed close to the wall or door through which the surveillance is to occur. After deploying the sensor the operator may move freely as required by the scenario. Up to five Sensor Units may be deployed at a single location. A software upgrade to the Command Display Console is also being developed. This software upgrade will combine the motion detected by multiple Sensor Units and determine and track the location of detected motion in two dimensions.

  18. Burden and Correlates of HIV among Men Who Have Sex with Men in West Bengal, India: Analysis of Sentinel Surveillance Data.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Tanmay; Biswas, Subrata; Nandi, Srijita; Ghosh, Piyali; Ghosh, Mallika; Mondal, Soumya; Saha, Malay K

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the socio-behavioral risk factors for HIV acquisition among hard-to-reach men who have sex with men (MSM) population in India, particularly from the densely populated eastern part. Thus to measure the burden and correlates of HIV among MSM in West Bengal state of eastern India, a cross-sectional analysis of the national HIV Sentinel Surveillance (HSS) data was conducted. In 2011, between July and September, involving all sentinel sites of the state, 1237 consenting MSM were anonymously interviewed and tested for HIV following national guidelines. Using a short, structured questionnaire, information was collected on socio-behavioral factors along with sexual practices and was analyzed to determine burden of HIV and the role of its socio-behavioral correlates on HIV acquisition. Among participants, mean age was 23.4 years, 44.55% were "Kothis" (usually receptive partner) and 25.1% admitted receiving money for sex with man. HIV sero-positivity was 5.09%. Using logistic regression method, for both bivariate and multivariate (with saturated model) analyses, transport-workers [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=8.95, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.09-73.71), large business-owners/self-employed (AOR=8.46, 95%CI: 1.25-57.49), small business-owners/cultivators (AOR=7.90, 95%CI: 1.67-37.38), those who visited the sentinel site for official purposes (AOR=7.60, 95%CI: 1.21-47.83) and paying money for having sex with men (AOR=3.03, 95%CI: 1.10-8.33) were strongly associated with higher