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Sample records for hiv surveillance system

  1. HIV surveillance systems in the Asia Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Loo, Virginia; Saidel, Tobi; Reddy, Amala; Htin, Khin Cho Win; Shwe, Ye Yu; Verbruggen, Bob

    2012-07-01

    In 2011, the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Regional Support Team for Asia-Pacific conducted a stock-taking process of available strategic information in the Asia Pacific region. This paper summarizes the progress of HIV surveillance for 20 countries in the region, covering population size estimates of key populations at higher risk, HIV case reporting, HIV sentinel surveillance and probability surveys of behavioural and biological markers. Information on surveillance activities was obtained from publically available surveillance reports and protocols, supplemented by personal communication with the UNAIDS monitoring and evaluation advisers and surveillance experts in country. Key findings include substantial efforts in broadening the number and types of HIV surveillance components included in national HIV surveillance systems and adopting approaches to make surveillance more cost-efficient, such as integrating routine programme monitoring data and passive surveillance case reporting systems. More investment in regularly analysing and applying surveillance data to programme strengthening at the subnational level is needed but will require additional capacity-building and resources. The ability to triangulate multiple sources of surveillance data into a more comprehensive view of the HIV epidemic will be enhanced if more investment is made in better documentation and dissemination of surveillance activities and findings. PMID:23908915

  2. A national surveillance system for newly acquired HIV infection in Australia. National HIV Surveillance Committee.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, A M; Gertig, D M; Crofts, N; Kaldor, J M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to describe the establishment of a national surveillance system for newly acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and present the first 3 years' results. METHODS. All new cases of diagnosed HIV infection were reported to the national HIV surveillance center through state and territory health authorities. Information sought on each case included evidence of whether the infection had been newly acquired, defined by the diagnosis of HIV seroconversion illness or by the report of a negative or indeterminate HIV antibody test result occurring within the 12 months prior to diagnosis of infection. RESULTS. Of 3602 reported cases of HIV infection in adults and adolescents newly diagnosed in Australia between 1991 and 1993, 11.4% were identified as newly acquired. The majority (85%) of cases of newly diagnosed HIV infection occurred among men who reported homosexual contact, and 15% of these cases were identified as newly acquired. Average age at diagnosis was 31 years for cases of newly acquired infection and 34 years for other cases. CONCLUSIONS. Surveillance for newly acquired HIV infection has been established at a national level in Australia and provides valuable information for planning primary HIV prevention programs. PMID:7998631

  3. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    PubMed

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  4. Evaluation of a statewide non-name-based HIV surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Solomon, L; Flynn, C; Eldred, L; Caldeira, E; Wasserman, M P; Benjamin, G

    1999-11-01

    Recent advances in AIDS-related therapies have delayed the onset of AIDS-defining illnesses and reduced the usefulness of AIDS surveillance in assessing the incidence of early HIV disease and estimating future needs of the HIV-infected population. These changes have prompted renewed interest in expanding surveillance to include HIV and have engendered national debate on whether an HIV surveillance system should be based on reports of the names of infected individuals or employ non-name-based data codes. In 1994, the state of Maryland implemented a program to require HIV surveillance by unique identifier (UI) patient code. This evaluation of Maryland's program found that when complete, the 12-digit UI number provided a virtually unduplicated count 99.8% unique, was 99.9% unique with only the last four digits of the U.S. government Social Security Number (SSN), date of birth (DOB), and race, and 77.7% unique if the last four digits of the SSN were missing. Health care providers were willing to create the UI, with DOB and gender present 98.3% and 98.8% of the time, race was complete 84.1% and last four digits of SSN were complete 72.4%. The overall completeness of reporting for HIV tests was 87.8%.and 84.8%, respectively, using different methodologies. Evidence from the Maryland UI evaluation demonstrates that a non-name-based system can provide accurate, timely and valid data concerning the scope of the HIV epidemic, without the creation of state-wide name-based registry. PMID:10770348

  5. Innovations in health and demographic surveillance systems to establish the causal impacts of HIV policies

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Kobus; Law, Matthew; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Tanser, Frank; Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems (HDSS), in conjunction with HIV treatment cohorts, have made important contributions to our understanding of the impact of HIV treatment and treatment-related interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this review is to describe and discuss innovations in data collection and data linkage that will create new opportunities to establish the impacts of HIV treatment, as well as policies affecting the treatment cascade, on population health, economic and social outcomes. Recent Findings Novel approaches to routine collection of (i) biomarkers, (ii) behavioural data, (iii) spatial data, (iv) social network information, (v) migration events and (vi) mobile phone records can significantly strengthen the potential of HDSS to generate exposure and outcome data for causal analysis of HIV treatment impact and policies affecting the HIV treatment cascade. Additionally, by linking HDSS data to health service administration, education, and welfare service records, researchers can substantial broaden opportunities to establish how HIV treatment affects health and economic outcomes, when delivered through public-sector health systems and at scale. Summary As the HIV treatment scale-up in sub-Saharan Africa enters its second decade, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the long-term causal impacts of large-scale HIV treatment and related policies on broader population health outcomes, such as non-communicable diseases, as well as on economic and social outcomes, such as family welfare and children’s educational attainment. By collecting novel data and linking existing data to public-sector records, HDSS can create near-unique opportunities to contribute to this research agenda. PMID:26371462

  6. Access to HIV community services by vulnerable populations: evidence from an enhanced HIV/AIDS surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Madden, H C E; Phillips-Howard, P A; Hargreaves, S C; Downing, J; Bellis, M A; Vivancos, R; Morley, C; Syed, Q; Cook, P A

    2011-05-01

    HIV disproportionately affects vulnerable populations such as black and minority ethnic groups, men who have sex with men (MSM) and migrants, in many countries including those in the UK. Community organisations in the UK are charitable non-governmental organisations with a proportion of the workforce who volunteer, and provide invaluable additional support for people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Information on their contribution to HIV care in vulnerable groups is relatively sparse. Data generated from an enhanced HIV surveillance system in North West England, UK, was utilised for this study. We aimed to determine the characteristics of individuals who chose to access community services in addition to clinical services (1375 out of 4195 records of PLWHIV in clinical services). Demographic information, risk factors including residency status, uniquely gathered in this region, and deprivation scores were examined. Multivariate logistic regression modelling was conducted to predict the relative effect of patient characteristics on attendance at community services. Attendance at community services was highest in those living in the most, compared with least, deprived areas (p<0.001), and was most evident in MSM and heterosexuals. Compared to white UK nationals attendance was significantly higher in non-UK nationals of uncertain residency status (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 21.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.48-45.83; p<0.001), refugees (AOR = 5.75, 95% CI 3.3-10.03; p<0.001), migrant workers (AOR = 5.48, 95% CI 2.22-13.51; p<0.001) and temporary visitors (AOR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.68-7.05; p<0.001). Community services, initially established predominantly to support MSM, have responded to the changing demography of HIV and reach the most vulnerable members of society. Consequent to their support of migrant populations, community services are vital for the management of HIV in black and minority groups. Paradoxically, this coincides with increasing funding pressures on these

  7. Increases in HIV Testing among Men Who Have Sex with Men — National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, 20 U.S. Metropolitan Statistical Areas, 2008 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Laura A.; Oster, Alexandra M.; Rose, Charles E.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Le, Binh C.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, 62% of estimated new HIV diagnoses in the United States were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact (men who have sex with men, MSM); 39% of these MSM were black or African American. HIV testing, recommended at least annually by CDC for sexually active MSM, is an essential first step in HIV care and treatment for HIV-positive individuals. A variety of HIV testing initiatives, designed to reach populations disproportionately affected by HIV, have been developed at both national and local levels. We assessed changes in HIV testing behavior among MSM participating in the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System in 2008 and 2011. We compared the percentages tested in the previous 12 months in 2008 and 2011, overall and by race/ethnicity and age group. In unadjusted analyses, recent HIV testing increased from 63% in 2008 to 67% in 2011 overall (P<0.001), from 63% to 71% among black MSM (P<0.001), and from 63% to 75% among MSM of other/multiple races (P<0.001); testing did not increase significantly for white or Hispanic/Latino MSM. Multivariable model results indicated an overall increase in recent HIV testing (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.07, P<0.001). Increases were largest for black MSM (aPR = 1.12, P<0.001) and MSM of other/multiple races (aPR = 1.20, P<0.001). Among MSM aged 18–19 years, recent HIV testing was shown to increase significantly among black MSM (aPR = 1.20, P = 0.007), but not among MSM of other racial/ethnic groups. Increases in recent HIV testing among populations most affected by HIV are encouraging, but despite these increases, improved testing coverage is needed to meet CDC recommendations. PMID:25180514

  8. A Matter of Perspective: Comparison of the Characteristics of Persons with HIV Infection in the United States from the HIV Outpatient Study, Medical Monitoring Project, and National HIV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Buchacz, Kate; Frazier, Emma L; Hall, H Irene; Hart, Rachel; Huang, Ping; Franklin, Dana; Hu, Xiaohong; Palella, Frank J; Chmiel, Joan S; Novak, Richard M; Wood, Kathy; Yangco, Bienvenido; Armon, Carl; Brooks, John T; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analyses of the characteristics of persons living with HIV infection (PLWH) in the United States (US) captured in surveillance and other observational databases are few. To explore potential joint data use to guide HIV treatment and prevention in the US, we examined three CDC-funded data sources in 2012: the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS), a multisite longitudinal cohort; the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP), a probability sample of PLWH receiving medical care; and the National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS), a surveillance system of all PLWH. Overall, data from 1,697 HOPS, 4,901 MMP, and 865,102 NHSS PLWH were analyzed. Compared with the MMP population, HOPS participants were more likely to be older, non-Hispanic/Latino white, not using injection drugs, insured, diagnosed with HIV before 2009, prescribed antiretroviral therapy, and to have most recent CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count ≥500 cells/mm3 and most recent viral load test<2 00 copies/mL. The MMP population was demographically similar to all PLWH in NHSS, except it tended to be slightly older, HIV diagnosed more recently, and to have AIDS. Our comparative results provide an essential first step for combined epidemiologic data analyses to inform HIV care and prevention for PLWH in the US. PMID:26793282

  9. A Matter of Perspective: Comparison of the Characteristics of Persons with HIV Infection in the United States from the HIV Outpatient Study, Medical Monitoring Project, and National HIV Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Buchacz, Kate; Frazier, Emma L.; Hall, H. Irene; Hart, Rachel; Huang, Ping; Franklin, Dana; Hu, Xiaohong; Palella, Frank J.; Chmiel, Joan S.; Novak, Richard M.; Wood, Kathy; Yangco, Bienvenido; Armon, Carl; Brooks, John T.; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Comparative analyses of the characteristics of persons living with HIV infection (PLWH) in the United States (US) captured in surveillance and other observational databases are few. To explore potential joint data use to guide HIV treatment and prevention in the US, we examined three CDC-funded data sources in 2012: the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS), a multisite longitudinal cohort; the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP), a probability sample of PLWH receiving medical care; and the National HIV Surveillance System (NHSS), a surveillance system of all PLWH. Overall, data from 1,697 HOPS, 4,901 MMP, and 865,102 NHSS PLWH were analyzed. Compared with the MMP population, HOPS participants were more likely to be older, non-Hispanic/Latino white, not using injection drugs, insured, diagnosed with HIV before 2009, prescribed antiretroviral therapy, and to have most recent CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell count ≥500 cells/mm3 and most recent viral load test<2 00 copies/mL. The MMP population was demographically similar to all PLWH in NHSS, except it tended to be slightly older, HIV diagnosed more recently, and to have AIDS. Our comparative results provide an essential first step for combined epidemiologic data analyses to inform HIV care and prevention for PLWH in the US. PMID:26793282

  10. Effect of Recombination in the Evolutionary Dynamics of HIV under the Surveillance of Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Weiqun; Yang, Wenjing; Wang, Guanyu

    2009-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which has become one of the most destructive pandemics in history. The fact that HIV virus evolves very fast plays a central role in AIDS immunopathogenesis and the difficulty we face in finding a cure or a vaccine for AIDS. A distinguishing feature of HIV is its high frequency of recombination. The effect of recombination in the HIV evolution is not clear. We establish a mathematical model of the evolutionary dynamics. This model incorporates both point mutation and recombination for genetic diversity, and employs a fitness function developed by Wang and Deem (PRL 97, 188106, 2006) that accounts for the effect of immune system. Using this model, we explore the role of recombination in the battle between the virus population and the immune system, with a special focus on the condition under which recombination helps the virus population to escape from the immune system.

  11. HIV surveillance among injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, D C; Dehne, K; Casabona, J

    2001-04-01

    Injecting drug users (IDUs) should be considered a 'partially hidden population' at high risk for HIV infection. In almost all locations it should be possible to locate and conduct research with IDUs, but it will probably never be possible to enumerate or draw random samples from an IDU population. Surveillance research studies with IDUs should include risk behaviors, as surveillance of HIV infection only will not be sufficiently time sensitive, and be used to develop and refine HIV prevention programming for the population. Contacts with IDUs can be developed at multiple settings, including voluntary treatment programs, law enforcement settings, and through 'street outreach.' Each type of setting has different advantages, disadvantages and ethical concerns. HIV testing as part of surveillance also raises additional important ethical concerns. The primary risk behaviors that should be included in surveillance studies are 'sharing' of drug injection equipment, the potential for rapid partner change among risk partners, and sexual risk behavior. Additional important objectives for surveillance research include: (1) the size of the local IDU population, (2) patterns of drug use, (3) availability injection equipment, (4) participation in prevention activities, and (5) access to and use of anti-retroviral treatments. HIV incidence is an ultimate objective for surveillance research, but there are no currently available cost-efficient methods for studying HIV incidence, so estimation from indirect measurements is usually required. PMID:11421178

  12. HPV vaccine coverage among men who have sex with men – National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, United States, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Meites, Elissa; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Oster, Alexandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for disease associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). In late 2011, HPV vaccine was recommended for males through age 21 and MSM through age 26. Using data from the 2011 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, we assessed self-reported HPV vaccine uptake among MSM, using multivariate analysis to calculate adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among 3221 MSM aged 18–26, 157 (4.9%) reported ≥1 vaccine dose. Uptake was higher among men who visited a healthcare provider (aPR 2.3, CI: 1.2–4.2), disclosed same-sex sexual attraction/behavior to a provider (aPR 2.1, CI: 1.3–3.3), reported a positive HIV test (aPR 2.2, CI: 1.5–3.2), or received hepatitis vaccine (aPR 3.9, CI: 2.4–6.4). Of 3064 unvaccinated MSM, 2326 (75.9%) had visited a healthcare provider within 1 year. These national data on HPV vaccine uptake among MSM provide a baseline as vaccination recommendations are implemented. PMID:25258097

  13. HIV surveillance by testing saliva.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A M; Parry, J V; Best, S J; Smith, A M; de Silva, M; Mortimer, P P

    1988-10-01

    Saliva specimens were tested for HIV antibody (anti-HIV) by an immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody capture radioimmunoassay (GACRIA) and three sensitive commercial assays. In tests on 460 seronegative subjects and 196 seropositive subjects GACRIA was 99.8% specific and 100% sensitive. The Wellcome HIV monoclonal and Abbott recombinant DNA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were also highly specific (99.8%, 100%) but they were less sensitive (90.9%, 82.0%). The Fujirebio particle agglutination assay was sensitive (97.8%) but its specificity was poor (84.1%). In testing saliva specimens from populations with an anti-HIV prevalence greater than 0.5%, sampling by GACRIA alone could provide a good estimate of the true prevalence. For true prevalences less than 0.5% good estimates could only be obtained if positive GACRIA reactions were confirmed by another independent salivary assay. Salivary testing for anti HIV is a convenient and potentially an accurate epidemiological tool.

  14. HIV-1 subtype in Scotland: the establishment of a national surveillance system.

    PubMed Central

    Yirrell, D. L.; Shaw, L.; Burns, S. M.; Cameron, S. O.; Quigg, M.; Campbell, E.; Goldberg, D.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, subtype B viruses in men who have sex with men (MSM) and injecting drug users (IDU) dominated the HIV epidemic in the United Kingdom, whereas non-B heterosexual infections dominate globally. Heterosexual contact is now the most common route of transmission in the United Kingdom. Here we monitor HIV subtype in Scotland, and link it to origin of infection. HIV-1 sequence was generated from new diagnoses and the subtype thus obtained linked with demographic data. Virus was subtyped from 80% (137/171) of all new diagnoses in Scotland. Of 58 individuals infected by heterosexual contact, 74% (43) harboured non-B viruses, contrasting with 7% (5/68) of those infected by IDU or MSM. Eighty-four per cent of non-Bs (46/55) were probably acquired outside the United Kingdom, but nine individuals probably acquired their non-B infection in the United Kingdom. Non-B subtypes of HIV-1 predominate in recently diagnosed, heterosexually acquired infections in Scotland and are present in all risk groups, even those with no exposure outside the United Kingdom. PMID:15310171

  15. Assessing the Assumptions of Respondent-Driven Sampling in the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System among Injecting Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Lansky, Amy; Drake, Amy; Wejnert, Cyprian; Pham, Huong; Cribbin, Melissa; Heckathorn, Douglas D

    2012-01-01

    Several assumptions determine whether respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is an appropriate sampling method to use with a particular group, including the population being recruited must know one another as members of the group (i.e., injection drug users [IDUs] must know each other as IDUs) and be networked and that the sample size is small relative to the overall size of the group. To assess these three assumptions, we analyzed city-specific data collected using RDS through the US National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System among IDUs in 23 cities. Overall, 5% of non-seed participants reported that their recruiter was “a stranger.” 20 cities with multiple field sites had ≥1 cross-recruitment, a proxy for linked networks. Sample sizes were small in relation to the IDU population size (median = 2.3%; range: 0.6%- 8.0%). Researchers must evaluate whether these three assumptions were met to justify the basis for using RDS to sample specific populations. PMID:23049656

  16. Improving data management practices in the Portuguese HIV/AIDS surveillance system during a time of public sector austerity

    PubMed Central

    Shivaji, Tara; Cortes Martins, Helena

    2015-01-01

    In a climate of public sector austerity, the demand for accurate information about disease epidemiology rises as health program managers try to align spending to health needs. A policy of case re-notification to improve HIV information quality resulted in a nine-fold increase in the number of case reports received in 2013 by the Portuguese HIV surveillance office. We used value stream mapping to introduce improvements to data processing practices, identify and reduce waste. Two cycles of improvement were trialled. Before intervention, processing time was nine minutes and 28 seconds (95%CI 8:53–10:58) per report. Two months post intervention, it was six minutes and 34 seconds (95% CI 6:25–6:43). One year after the start of the project, processing time was five minutes and 20 seconds (95% CI 1:46–8:52). PMID:26734448

  17. Malawi: HIV surveillance in antenatal women.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    From October to December 1996, a surveillance for HIV among antenatal clinic attenders (ANC) was conducted in 19 hospitals serving as sentinel sites in Malawi. The sites consisted of 3 urban, 8 semiurban, and 8 rural hospitals drawn from all 3 regions of the country. Findings showed that of the 4163 samples, 793 were HIV positive, giving an overall prevalence of 19%, with a range from 27% in the urban areas to 18% in the semiurban areas and 10% in the rural areas. The age distribution of infection showed that seroprevalence was highest in the 25-29 age group. In terms of syphilis infection, the rate was more common in the southern than in the central or northern regions, but it did not vary according to urban, semiurban, or rural sites or according to age. Overall, the results showed that ANC HIV seroprevalence remained relatively stable from 1994 to 1996, increasing from 17.4% in 1994 to 18% in 1995 and 19% in 1996. Moreover, the national estimate for seroprevalence in the entire population was 6.4%, essentially the same as that for 1995 (6.6%), indicating that the level of HIV infection had been fairly stable since 1993. Continued close monitoring is required to assess whether the incidence of new infection is actually declining, particularly among young people, and to identify what interventions have the greatest impact.

  18. Second-generation HIV surveillance: better data for decision-making.

    PubMed Central

    Rehle, Thomas; Lazzari, Stefano; Dallabetta, Gina; Asamoah-Odei, Emil

    2004-01-01

    This paper seeks to outline the key elements of the expanded surveillance efforts recommended by the second-generation HIV surveillance approach. Second-generation systems focus on improving and expanding existing surveillance methods and combine them in ways that have the greatest explanatory power. The main elements of this approach include: considering biological surveillance - HIV, AIDS, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) - and behavioural surveillance as integral components, targeting surveillance efforts at segments of the population where most new infections are concentrated - which might differ depending on the stage and type of the epidemic - and providing the rationale for the optimal use of data generated for monitoring the HIV epidemic and evaluating national AIDS control programmes. The paper emphasizes improvements in existing surveillance methodologies and discusses in detail crucial issues such as the validity of HIV prevalence data measured in pregnant women and linking HIV surveillance and behavioural data collection. In addition, a strategic partnership between second-generation surveillance and AIDS programme evaluation is proposed that stresses the complementary roles of these data collection activities in determining the effectiveness of prevention and care programmes and explaining the epidemiological trend data collected by sentinel serosurveillance systems. In conclusion, second-generation HIV surveillance systems provide a comprehensive, cost-effective and appropriate response to the information needs of AIDS control programmes. The implementation of such systems, including a better use of the data generated by the system, will ensure that national programmes are in the best possible position to respond to the challenges of the epidemic. PMID:15042234

  19. A low-cost, sustainable, second generation system for surveillance of people living with HIV in Spain: 10-year trends in behavioural and clinical indicators, 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Diez, M; Diaz, A; Garriga, C; Pons, M; Ten, A; Marcos, H; Gutierrez, G; Moreno, S; Gonzalez-Garcia, J; Barrios, Am; Arponen, S; Garcia, Mt; Royo, Mc; Toledo, J; Gonzalez, G; Aranguren, R; Izquierdo, A; Viloria, Lj; Elizalde, L; Martinez, E; Castrillejo, D; Lopez, I; Redondo, C; Cano, A; The Hospital Survey Study Group, C

    2014-01-01

    A second-generation surveillance system of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been implemented in Spain. Behavioural and clinical data were collected between 2002 and 2011 through an annual one-day, cross-sectional survey in public hospitals, including all in- and outpatients receiving HIVrelated care on the survey day. Mean age increased over time (from 38.7 years in 2002 to 43.8 years in 2011) and 68.4% of the 7,205 subjects were male. The proportion of migrants increased from 6.1% to 15.9%, while people who inject or used to inject drugs (PWID and Ex-PWID) decreased and men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals increased. Unprotected intercourse at last sex increased among MSM and PWID/Ex-PWID. Patients receiving antiretroviral treatment increased significantly from 76.0% to 88.2% as did those with CD4 T-cell counts ≥350 (from 48.2% to 66.9%) and viral copies <200 (from 47.0% to 85.2%). HIV-infected people with hepatitis C virus RNA decreased from 36.0% in 2004 to 29.9% in 2011, while those with HBsAg remained stable at around 4.4%. Implementation of a low-cost, sustainable system for second-generation surveillance in people living with HIV is feasible. In Spain, the information obtained has helped to define and refine public health policy and document treatment effectiveness. PMID:24871758

  20. Improving HIV Surveillance Among Transgender Populations in Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Rebeiro, Peter F.; McGoy, Shanell L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: HIV prevalence and outcome disparities among sexual and gender minorities are profound in the United States. Tennessee HIV surveillance practices have not been uniform for transgender status, although data collection capabilities exist. We, therefore, describe current reporting of data on transgender individuals in Tennessee to identify targets for improvement. Methods: Data for all HIV-diagnosed individuals living in Tennessee as of December 31, 2013, were extracted from the Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System (eHARS). The birth_sex (“Male” or “Female”) and current_gender (“Male,” “Female,” “Male-to-Female,” “Female-to-Male,” or “Additional Gender Identity”) variables were examined, and proportion missing current_gender data by region was ascertained. Transgender individuals were defined as having different birth_sex and current_gender values. To ensure the protection of health information, data were cleaned, deidentified, and aggregated using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) Version 9.3 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC). Results: Among 16,063 HIV-diagnosed individuals in Tennessee, 27 were transgender: 52% (n = 14) with “Male-to-Female,” 26% (n = 7) with “Female,” and 22% (n = 6) with “Male” as their current_gender values. Proportions missing current_gender differed significantly by region across Tennessee (global, P < 0.01). Conclusion: While HIV-positive transgender individuals should be recognized as integral members of the LGBT community, they should also be acknowledged as a separate subgroup when appropriate. Collecting information about current self-identified gender identity should no longer be optional in Tennessee HIV surveillance. Although making efforts to collect both birth_sex and current_gender mandatory with each interview will improve surveillance, it is critical to train all staff properly on the correct way to inquire about gender identity in a culturally sensitive manner

  1. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir New ... Minority Data Released! The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six types of health-risk behaviors ...

  2. Collection of social determinant of health measures in U.S. national surveillance systems for HIV, viral hepatitis, STDs, and TB.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Victoria M; Harrison, Kathleen McDavid; Hall, H Irene; Dean, Hazel D

    2011-01-01

    Challenges exist in the study of social determinants of health (SDH) because of limited comparability of population-based U.S. data on SDH. This limitation is due to differences in disparity or equity measurements, as well as general data quality and availability. We reviewed the current SDH variables collected for HIV, viral hepatitis, sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through its population-based surveillance systems and assessed specific system attributes. Results were used to provide recommendations for a core set of SDH variables to collect that are both feasible and useful. We also conducted an environmental literature scan to determine the status of knowledge of SDH as underlying causes of disease and to inform the recommended core set of SDH variables.

  3. Mobile security surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolnikov, Andre

    2006-05-01

    The necessity to control certain areas from outside intrusion or, vice versa, preventing subjects/objects (e.g. prisoners) from leaving a controlled area has brought to life numerous designs of surveillance systems for the above-mentioned tasks. Fibers, laser beams, microwaves, etc have been used for decades to provide an alarm signal, should anyone or anything cross a light, radio beam or break a fiber. However, it is difficult to distinguish a stray animal from a human being, or even a snow ball from the first two using the conventional surveillance designs. False alarms render practically useless the above means, especially for field applications. It is possible, nonetheless, to set up an automatic system that discriminates objects/subjects crossing the control line/perimeter - a statistical approach which includes time series analysis is proposed as a solution for the problem.

  4. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  5. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  6. Systems for persistent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Keith

    2011-09-01

    The requirements for a persistent wide-area surveillance system are discussed in the context of evolving military operations. Significant emphasis has been placed on the development of new sensing technologies to meet the challenges posed by asymmetric threats. Within the UK, the Electro-Magnetic Remote Sensing Defence Technology Centre (EMRS DTC) has supported the research and development of new capabilities including radio-frequency (RF) and electro-optic (EO) systems, as well as work on sensor exploitation, with a goal of developing solutions for enhancing situational awareness. This activity has been supported by field trials to determine the efficacy of competing technologies in relation to realistic threat scenarios.

  7. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  8. HIV Surveillance and Epidemic Profile in the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shawky, Sherine; Soliman, Cherif; Kassak, Kassem M.; Oraby, Doaa; El-Khoury, Danielle; Kabore, Inoussa

    2011-01-01

    Summary HIV infection is the most devastating infection that has emerged in the recent history. The risk of being infected can be associated with both individual’s knowledge and behavior and community vulnerability influenced by cultural norms, laws, politics, and social practices. Despite that the countries in the Middle East and North Africa have succeeded in keeping low the HIV epidemic rates, the number of identified infected cases are increasing. Since the appearance of the first AIDS cases, all the national authorities devoted their efforts to abort the epidemic in its early stages. The rate of new HIV infections across the Middle East and North Africa region are not at an alarming level, but the need for a concerted effort from nation-states and nongovernmental organizations to stem the spread of the virus across the region is vital. Most countries of the region have put in place better information systems to track the HIV epidemic, yet the passive HIV/AIDS reporting remains the cornerstone in the HIV surveillance systems. Several countries still believe that their current strategies are optimal to the HIV status within their territories and that their national strategies are appropriate to their low epidemic status that is not expected to grow. Additionally, these countries fear that establishing an HIV national program to survey risk behaviors may be perceived as an approval of these behaviors that are culturally and religiously unacceptable. This background article aims to summarize the HIV surveillance strategies and epidemic profile in 17 Arab countries in the Middle East and North Africa. The article, also, displays the national surveillance system and the epidemic profile in Egypt and Lebanon as models for the region. This information aims to provide useful insights that may help the national authorities in finding out the best surveillance strategies that allow merging and collecting biological and risk data which is an integral part of their

  9. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  10. HIV/AIDS surveillance in Europe: update 2007.

    PubMed

    van de Laar, M J; Likatavicius, G; Stengaard, A R; Donoghoe, M C

    2008-12-11

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains of major public health importance in Europe, with evidence of increasing transmission of HIV in several countries. This article provides an overview of HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) surveillance data, and indicates that since 2000 the rate of newly reported cases of HIV per million population has almost doubled in Europe. In 2007, a total of 48,892 cases of HIV infection were reported from 49 of 53 countries in the Region, with the highest rates in Estonia, Ukraine, Portugal and the Republic of Moldova. In the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) countries, the predominant mode of transmission for HIV infection is sex between men followed by heterosexual contact. Injecting drug use is still the main mode of transmission in the eastern part of the WHO European region, while in the central part heterosexual contact is the predominant mode of transmission. In 2007, the reported number of AIDS cases diagnosed decreased in the Region overall, except in the eastern part. HIV/AIDS surveillance data are vital to monitor the trends of the HIV epidemic and evaluate public health responses. PMID:19087870

  11. Spatio-temporal modelling of the HIV epidemic in Japan based on the national HIV/AIDS surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Tomoki; Nakase, Katsumi; Osaka, Ken

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, we develop a multiregion epidemic model in order to provide the basic information on local HIV epidemic states in Japan. By considering the previous efforts of national epidemic projections in Japan, we statistically calibrate a model by employing an estimation method that allows the inclusion of geographically varying parameters. Using this model, we present a geographical projection of local epidemics until 2015 by examining geographical variations in future epidemic growth and spatial relationships in HIV transmission. We also discuss the implications of planning preventive measures and improvement in the Japanese HIV/AIDS surveillance system based on analytical results.

  12. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  13. Adjusting HIV prevalence estimates for non-participation: an application to demographic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Mark E.; Marra, Giampiero; Radice, Rosalba; Canning, David; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-01-01

    participated in testing, and 18% estimated with imputation. We provide new confidence intervals that correct for the fact that the relationship between testing and HIV status is unknown and requires estimation. Conclusions We confirm the feasibility and value of adopting selection models to account for missing data in population-based HIV surveys and surveillance systems. Elements of survey design, such as interviewer identity, present the opportunity to adopt this approach in routine applications. Where non-participation is high, true confidence intervals are much wider than those generated by standard approaches to dealing with missing data suggest. PMID:26613900

  14. Assessment of an outreach street-based HIV rapid testing programme as a strategy to promote early diagnosis: a comparison with two surveillance systems in Spain, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Belza, M J; Hoyos, J; Fernández-Balbuena, S; Diaz, A; Bravo, M J; de la Fuente, L

    2015-04-09

    We assess the added value of a multisite, street-based HIV rapid testing programme by comparing its results to pre-existing services and assessing its potential to reduce ongoing transmission. Between 2008 and 2011, 8,923 individuals underwent testing. We compare outcomes with those of a network of 20 sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV clinics (EPI-VIH) and the Spanish National HIV Surveillance System (SNHSS); evaluate whether good visibility prompts testing and assess whether it reaches under-tested populations. 89.2% of the new infections were in men who have sex with men (MSM) vs 78.0% in EPI-VIH and 56.0% in SNHSS. 83.6% of the MSM were linked to care and 20.9% had <350 CD4 HIV prevalence was substantially lower than in EPI-VIH. 56.5% of the HIV-positive MSM tested because they happened to see the programme, 18.4% were previously untested and 26.3% had their last test ≥2 years ago. The programme provided linkage to care and early diagnosis mainly to MSM but attendees presented a lower HIV prevalence than EPI-VIH. From a cost perspective it would benefit from being implemented in locations highly frequented by MSM. Conversely, its good visibility led to reduced periods of undiagnosed infection in a high proportion of MSM who were not testing with the recommended frequency.

  15. The Development of Surveillance Systems.

    PubMed

    Henderson, D A

    2016-03-01

    Surveillance systems in public health practice have increased in number and sophistication with advances in data collection, analysis, and communication. When the Communicable Disease Center (now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was founded some 70 years ago, surveillance referred to the close observation of individuals with suspected smallpox, plague, or cholera. Alexander Langmuir, head of the Epidemiology Branch, redefined surveillance as the epidemiology-based critical factor in infectious disease control. I joined Langmuir as assistant chief in 1955 and was appointed chief of the Surveillance Section in 1961. In this paper, I describe Langmuir's redefinition of surveillance. Langmuir asserted that its proper use in public health meant the systematic reporting of infectious diseases, the analysis and epidemiologic interpretation of data, and both prompt and widespread dissemination of results. I outline the Communicable Disease Center's first surveillance systems for malaria, poliomyelitis, and influenza. I also discuss the role of surveillance in the global smallpox eradication program, emphasizing that the establishment of systematic reporting systems and prompt action based on results were critical factors of the program. PMID:26928219

  16. Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System.

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, R B; Thunem, N Y; Anderson-Redick, S

    1989-01-01

    The Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System was started in 1966 in response to the thalidomide tragedy earlier in the decade. It was one of four provincial surveillance systems on which the federal government relied for baseline statistics of congenital anomalies. The government now collects data from six provinces and one territory. The Alberta Congenital Anomaly Surveillance System originally depended on three types of notification to the Division of Vital Statistics, Department of Health, Government of Alberta: birth notice and certificates of death and stillbirth; increased sources of ascertainment have greatly improved data quality. We present the data for 1980-86 and compare the prevalence rates of selected anomalies with the rates from three other surveillance systems. Surveillance systems do not guarantee that a new teratogen will be detected, but they are extremely valuable for testing hypotheses regarding causation. At the very least they provide baseline data with which to compare any deviation or trend. For many, if not most, congenital anomalies total prevention is not possible; however, surveillance systems can be used to measure progress in prevention. PMID:2819634

  17. [AIDS/HIV epidemiological surveillance in Navarra].

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of AIDS in the European Union has been declining since 1996 as a result, at least in part, of the use of more efficient treatments for HIV infection. The same tendency can be observed in Navarra. In 1998 the incidence of AIDS in Navarra, 75 cases per million inhabitants, was situated at an intermediate level in the ranking of Spanish autonomous communities. In the same year, the highest rates of incidence in Europe were recorded in Spain (93.3 cases per million inhabitants) and Portugal (81.8), and the lowest in Ireland and Finland, with less than 5 cases per million inhabitants. With respect to the incidence of HIV infection, 2,240 cases were diagnosed in Navarra between 1985 and December 1998. The available data indicate that at least 1,864 of these cases were resident in Navarra. The annual number of new diagnoses of HIV infection show two high points in the years 1987 and 1991, with over 200 annual cases. From 1993 onwards, a progressive decline can be observed in the annual number, with 171, 145, 19, 86 and 63 cases in the final year, 1998. The figure of over 2,000 cases of HIV infection contrast with the 694 cases of AIDS registered in this autonomous community in the same period and help to resituate the epidemic in more accurate terms. The development of AIDS in 40% of the persons with HIV infection and the death of 26% have been confirmed, although lethality has been declining in recent years. The use of intravenous drugs in 73.2% of the AIDS cases is the most frequent category of transmission. 13.4% are due to transmission by heterosexual contact and 6.1% to homosexual practices between males. Although the cases of AIDS have been declining in Navarra since 1996, the data from the microbiology laboratories and from the hospital services that treat persons with HIV infection indicate that a considerable number of new infections will continue to occur, which justifies the need for maintaining the prevention programs in order to avoid new cases

  18. SETI radio spectrum surveillance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, B.; Lokshin, A.; Marina, M.; Ching, L.

    1985-01-01

    The SETI Radio Spectrum Surveillance System (SRSSS) will provide a data base for assessing the radio frequency interference (RFI) environment for SETI and minimizing RFI disruptions during the search. The system's hardware and software are described and the sensitivity of the system is discussed.

  19. Participation Dynamics in Population-Based Longitudinal HIV Surveillance in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Larmarange, Joseph; Mossong, Joël; Bärnighausen, Till; Newell, Marie Louise

    2015-01-01

    Population-based HIV surveillance is crucial to inform understanding of the HIV pandemic and evaluate HIV interventions, but little is known about longitudinal participation patterns in such settings. We investigated the dynamics of longitudinal participation patterns in a high HIV prevalence surveillance setting in rural South Africa between 2003 and 2012, taking into account demographic dynamics. At any given survey round, 22,708 to 30,495 persons were eligible. Although the yearly participation rates were relatively modest (26% to 46%), cumulative rates increased substantially with multiple recruitment opportunities: 68% of eligible persons participated at least once, 48% at least twice and 31% at least three times after five survey rounds. We identified two types of study fatigue: at the individual level, contact and consent rates decreased with multiple recruitment opportunities and, at the population level, these rates also decreased over calendar time, independently of multiple recruitment opportunities. Using sequence analysis and hierarchical clustering, we identified three broad individual participation profiles: consenters (20%), switchers (43%) and refusers (37%). Men were over represented among refusers, women among consenters, and temporary non-residents among switchers. The specific subgroup of persons who were systemically not contacted or refusers constitutes a challenge for population-based surveillance and interventions. PMID:25875851

  20. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  1. Relationship between a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expanded HIV testing initiative and past-year testing by race/ethnicity: a multilevel analysis of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Tommi L; Caldwell, Julia T; Ford, Chandra L; Mulatu, Mesfin S; Godette, Dionne C

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) expanded testing initiative (ETI) aims to bolster HIV testing among populations disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic by providing additional funding to health departments serving these communities. ETI prioritizes testing in clinical settings; therefore, we examined the relationship between state-level ETI participation and past-year HIV testing among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adult respondents to the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System who accessed health services within the 12 months prior to being interviewed. Controlling for individual- and state-level characteristics in a multilevel logistic regression model, ETI participation was independently and positively associated with past-year testing, but this association varied by race/ethnicity. Hispanics had higher odds (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.11-2.02) and American Indian/Alaska Natives had lower odds (AOR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.43-0.99) of testing if they resided in states with (vs. without) ETI participation. State-level ETI participation did not significantly alter past-year testing among other racial/ethnic groups. Prioritizing public health resources in states most affected by HIV can improve testing patterns, but other mechanisms likely influence which racial/ethnic groups undergo testing.

  2. HIV incidence estimate combining HIV/AIDS surveillance, testing history information and HIV test to identify recent infections in Lazio, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The application of serological methods in HIV/AIDS routine surveillance systems to identify persons with recently acquired HIV infection has been proposed as a tool which may provide an accurate description of the current transmission patterns of HIV. Using the information about recent infection it is possible to estimate HIV incidence, according to the model proposed by Karon et al. in 2008, that accounts for the effect of testing practices on the number of persons detected as recently infected. Methods We used data from HIV/AIDS surveillance in the period 2004-2008 to identify newly diagnosed persons. These were classified with recent/non-recent infection on the basis of an avidity index result, or laboratory evidence of recently acquired infection (i.e., previous documented negative HIV test within 6 months; or presence of HIV RNA or p24 antigen with simultaneous negative/indeterminate HIV antibody test). Multiple imputation was used to impute missing information. The incidence estimate was obtained as the number of persons detected as recently infected divided by the estimated probability of detection. Estimates were stratified by calendar year, transmission category, gender and nationality. Results During the period considered 3,633 new HIV diagnoses were reported to the regional surveillance system. Applying the model, we estimated that in 2004-2008 there were 5,465 new infections (95%CI: 4,538-6,461); stratifying by transmission category, the estimated number of infections was 2,599 among heterosexual contacts, 2,208 among men-who-have-sex-with-men, and 763 among injecting-drug-users. In 2008 there were 952 (625-1,229) new HIV infections (incidence of 19.9 per 100,000 person-years). In 2008, for men-who-have-sex-with-men (691 per 100,000 person-years) and injecting drug users (577 per 100,000 person-years) the incidence remained comparatively high with respect to the general population, although a decreasing pattern during 2004-2008 was observed

  3. Trends in web-based HIV behavioural surveillance among gay and bisexual men in New Zealand: complementing location-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Peter J W; Dickson, Nigel P; Hughes, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Most HIV behavioural surveillance programmes for gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) sample from location-based (offline) or web-based (online) populations, but few combine these two streams. MSM sampled online have been found to differ demographically and behaviourally from those sampled offline, meaning trends identified in one system may not hold for the other. The aim was to examine trends among MSM responding to supplementary repeat online behavioural surveillance surveys who had not participated in offline surveillance earlier that year in the same city, to see whether trends were parallel, converged or diverged. We recruited a total of 1613 MSM from an Internet dating site in Auckland, New Zealand in 2006, 2008 and 2011 using identical questionnaires and eligibility criteria to offline surveillance. Condom use was stable over time, HIV testing rates rose, the proportion reporting over 20 recent male partners declined, and anal intercourse rates increased, consistent with trends in offline surveillance conducted concomitantly and reported elsewhere. Variant trends included greater stability in condom use with casual partners among online-recruited MSM, and a rise in regular fuckbuddy partnering not identified among offline-recruited MSM. Among MSM recruited online, the frequency of checking Internet dating profiles increased between 2008 and 2011. In conclusion, supplementary web-based behavioural surveillance among MSM generally corroborates trends identified in offline surveillance. There are however some divergent trends, that would have been overlooked if only one form of surveillance had been conducted. As MSM populations increasingly shift their socialising patterns online and diversify, multiple forms of HIV behavioural monitoring may be required. PMID:25599259

  4. Trends in web-based HIV behavioural surveillance among gay and bisexual men in New Zealand: complementing location-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Peter J W; Dickson, Nigel P; Hughes, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Most HIV behavioural surveillance programmes for gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) sample from location-based (offline) or web-based (online) populations, but few combine these two streams. MSM sampled online have been found to differ demographically and behaviourally from those sampled offline, meaning trends identified in one system may not hold for the other. The aim was to examine trends among MSM responding to supplementary repeat online behavioural surveillance surveys who had not participated in offline surveillance earlier that year in the same city, to see whether trends were parallel, converged or diverged. We recruited a total of 1613 MSM from an Internet dating site in Auckland, New Zealand in 2006, 2008 and 2011 using identical questionnaires and eligibility criteria to offline surveillance. Condom use was stable over time, HIV testing rates rose, the proportion reporting over 20 recent male partners declined, and anal intercourse rates increased, consistent with trends in offline surveillance conducted concomitantly and reported elsewhere. Variant trends included greater stability in condom use with casual partners among online-recruited MSM, and a rise in regular fuckbuddy partnering not identified among offline-recruited MSM. Among MSM recruited online, the frequency of checking Internet dating profiles increased between 2008 and 2011. In conclusion, supplementary web-based behavioural surveillance among MSM generally corroborates trends identified in offline surveillance. There are however some divergent trends, that would have been overlooked if only one form of surveillance had been conducted. As MSM populations increasingly shift their socialising patterns online and diversify, multiple forms of HIV behavioural monitoring may be required.

  5. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    1998-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  6. Industrial Process Surveillance System

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    2001-01-30

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  7. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

    1998-06-09

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

  8. Who is omitted from repeated offline HIV behavioural surveillance among MSM? Implications for interpreting trends.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Peter; Dickson, Nigel; Hughes, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    Repeated behavioural surveillance should sample all epidemiologically relevant subgroups to provide a complete picture of trends in HIV risk behaviours. Web-based recruitment has been mooted but little empirical data exist on country experiences. We describe who is omitted from three rounds of a conventional offline-only surveillance programme among men who have sex with men (MSM) 2006-2011, but recruited subsequently on Internet dating sites, and the implications of this for understanding trends. The latter were younger, less gay identified and less gay community attached. Importantly, they reported different partnering patterns, lower condom use with casual and fuckbuddy-type male partners, and lower rates of HIV testing, compared to MSM routinely captured in offline surveillance. The replacement of offline socio-sexual activity by the Internet among many MSM means that current venue-based surveillance systems may underestimate risk behaviours, overlook trends among unsampled online MSM, and misinterpret trends observed in sampled MSM due to "sample drift" of most-at-risk MSM.

  9. Who is omitted from repeated offline HIV behavioural surveillance among MSM? Implications for interpreting trends.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Peter; Dickson, Nigel; Hughes, Anthony

    2013-11-01

    Repeated behavioural surveillance should sample all epidemiologically relevant subgroups to provide a complete picture of trends in HIV risk behaviours. Web-based recruitment has been mooted but little empirical data exist on country experiences. We describe who is omitted from three rounds of a conventional offline-only surveillance programme among men who have sex with men (MSM) 2006-2011, but recruited subsequently on Internet dating sites, and the implications of this for understanding trends. The latter were younger, less gay identified and less gay community attached. Importantly, they reported different partnering patterns, lower condom use with casual and fuckbuddy-type male partners, and lower rates of HIV testing, compared to MSM routinely captured in offline surveillance. The replacement of offline socio-sexual activity by the Internet among many MSM means that current venue-based surveillance systems may underestimate risk behaviours, overlook trends among unsampled online MSM, and misinterpret trends observed in sampled MSM due to "sample drift" of most-at-risk MSM. PMID:23605157

  10. System for maritime surveillance aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yamada, Kimio; Kiriya, Nobuo

    1997-02-01

    A system to aid maritime surveillance is being studied to search for small floating objects like a life raft or to detect oil spill more reliably and efficiently. The system consists of sensors, an image processor and a display so as to reject unnecessary noise in the sea surface images, and then to detect and identify the objects to be searched. This paper describes the optical sensor system with an infrared camera and a TV camera. The infrared camera detects 3-5 micrometers waveband by 512 by 512 solid state sensing elements. The systems was used to gather images on different sea areas in summer and winter by aircraft and on the ground. Typical images are presented to demonstrate the validity of the sensor system to search for small flowing objects. The influences of air and water temperature, weather and observation altitude upon the images are discussed. Image processing techniques like filtering or image superposition are also described to suppress noise.

  11. Battlefield Optical Surveillance System (BOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Robert J.

    1997-02-01

    The battlefield optical surveillance system (BOSS) was developed for DARPA by the U.S. Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. BOSS is a HMMWV mounted laser surveillance and deterrence system. It is intended to be used to detect and to deter potentially hostile individuals, snipers and groups of agitators. The BOSS integrates the following: (1) a thermal camera (8-12 micrometer FLIR), that detects and cues to possible targets, (2) a 45 watt, 808 nm (near IR), air- cooled laser which provides covert illumination and designation for a day/night camera to acquire said target and attain a high-resolution image using night vision equipment, and (3) a 1 watt, 532 nm (green) laser that overtly illuminates and designates the target. It also has significant deterring effects both physiological and psychological on individuals and crowds. BOSS offers the potential capability to detect snipers before the first shot is fired. Detection of optical augmentations and the thermal characteristics of a sniper allows for this early detection. The integration of BOSS with acoustic sniper detection systems are being explored.

  12. HIV-Prevalence in Tuberculosis Patients in Germany, 2002–2009: An Estimation Based on HIV and Tuberculosis Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    Fiebig, Lena; Kollan, Christian; Hauer, Barbara; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; an der Heiden, Matthias; Hamouda, Osamah; Haas, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV comorbidity is a major challenge in TB prevention and control but difficult to assess in Germany as in other countries, where data confidentiality precludes notifying the HIV status of TB patients. We aimed to estimate the HIV-prevalence in TB patients in Germany, 2002–2009, and to characterize the HIV/TB patients demographically. Data from the long-term observational open multicentre cohort ClinSurv HIV were used to identify incident TB in HIV-positive individuals. We assessed the cohort’s coverage for the nationwide HIV-positive population by contrasting ClinSurv HIV patients under antiretroviral therapy (ART) with national HIV patient numbers derived from ART prescriptions (data by Insight Health; available for 2006–2009). The HIV-prevalence in TB patients was calculated as the number of HIV/TB cases projected for Germany over all culture-positive TB notifications. From 2002 to 2009, 298 of 15,531 HIV-positive patients enrolled in the ClinSurv HIV cohort were diagnosed with TB. A 21% cohort coverage was determined. The annual estimates of the HIV-prevalence in TB patients were on average 4.5% and ranged from 3.5% (95%CI 2.3–5.1%) in 2007 to 6.6% (95%CI 5.0–8.5%) in 2005. The most recent estimate for 2009 was 4.0% (95%CI 2.6–5.9%). The 298 HIV/TB patients were characterized by a male-to-female ratio of 2.1, by a median age of 38 years at TB diagnosis, and by 59% of the patients having a foreign origin, mainly from Subsahara Africa. We provide, to our knowledge, the first estimate of the HIV-prevalence in TB patients for Germany by joint evaluation of anonymous HIV and TB surveillance data sources. The identified level of HIV in TB patients approximates available surveillance data from neighbouring countries and indicates a non-negligible HIV/TB burden in Germany. Our estimation approach is valuable for epidemiological monitoring of HIV/TB within the current legal frameworks. PMID:23145087

  13. Sentinel hospital surveillance of HIV infection in Quebec. Quebec Sentinel Hospital HIV-Seroprevalence Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Alary, M; Joly, J R; Parent, R; Fauvel, M; Dionne, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the HIV seroprevalence rate in a surrogate sample of the general population in the province of Quebec, using a network of sentinel hospitals. DESIGN: Anonymous unlinked sentinel surveillance study. SETTING: Outpatient surgery units in 19 acute care hospitals throughout Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: All patients attending the outpatient surgery units from November 1990 to October 1992. A total of 61,547 plasma samples were obtained from leftover blood samples collected for cell counts. Fifty samples were excluded because of an insufficient amount of plasma and one because of an indeterminate result. INTERVENTION: HIV antibody testing with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; positive results confirmed with radioimmunoprecipitation assay. OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV antibody status, sex, year of birth and area of residence. RESULTS: The crude seroprevalence rate among the subjects aged 15 years or more was 0.4 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 0.7) among the women and 3.6 per 1000 population (95% CI 2.8 to 4.4) among the men (p < 0.001). The rate after adjustment for age, sex and geographic distribution of the study population was 2.3 per 1000 population (95% CI 1.9 to 2.7). The seroprevalence rate among the male patients in the City of Montreal was much higher than the rates elsewhere in the province. It increased progressively during each of the four 6-month intervals of the study: 8.1, 8.7, 13.9 and 18.3 per 1000 respectively (chi 2 linear trend = 4.76; p = 0.029). No similar trends were observed outside Montreal for the male patients. There were too few seropositive female patients to draw any solid conclusion. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the possible drawbacks of a nonrandomized sampling scheme, this study suggests that in the male population the HIV seroprevalence rate is increasing in Montreal and is stable in all other areas of the province. The continued surveillance of HIV infection through anonymous unlinked studies is useful to

  14. Revised surveillance case definition for HIV infection--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2014-04-11

    Following extensive consultation and peer review, CDC and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have revised and combined the surveillance case definitions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a single case definition for persons of all ages (i.e., adults and adolescents aged ≥13 years and children aged <13 years). The revisions were made to address multiple issues, the most important of which was the need to adapt to recent changes in diagnostic criteria. Laboratory criteria for defining a confirmed case now accommodate new multitest algorithms, including criteria for differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection and for recognizing early HIV infection. A confirmed case can be classified in one of five HIV infection stages (0, 1, 2, 3, or unknown); early infection, recognized by a negative HIV test within 6 months of HIV diagnosis, is classified as stage 0, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is classified as stage 3. Criteria for stage 3 have been simplified by eliminating the need to differentiate between definitive and presumptive diagnoses of opportunistic illnesses. Clinical (nonlaboratory) criteria for defining a case for surveillance purposes have been made more practical by eliminating the requirement for information about laboratory tests. The surveillance case definition is intended primarily for monitoring the HIV infection burden and planning for prevention and care on a population level, not as a basis for clinical decisions for individual patients. CDC and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists recommend that all states and territories conduct case surveillance of HIV infection using this revised surveillance case definition.

  15. Assessing the use of HIV surveillance data to help gauge patient retention-in-care

    PubMed Central

    Lubelchek, Ronald J.; Finnegan, Katelynne J.; Hotton, Anna L.; Hazen, Ronald; Murphy, Patricia; Prachand, Nikhil G.; Benbow, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Background Improved retention-in-care may enhance health outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). While laboratory surveillance data may be used to gauge retention, no previous reports have compared surveillance lab vs. clinic visit-based measures of retention-in-care. We compared lab surveillance vs. clinic visit-based approaches for identifying retention status for PLWHA. Methods We examined 2011 patient visit data from the Ruth M. Rothstein CORE Center, Cook County's HIV clinic. We defined retained patients as those with visits every 6 months over 2 years and matched patients classified via visit data against HIV surveillance labs reported to the Chicago Department of Health. We determined the sensitivity, specificity and receiver operator characteristics of varying lab surveillance vs. clinic visit measures of retention. Results Of patients classified via clinic visit data, 91% of 1,714 in-care vs. 22% of 200 out-of-care patients met our most stringent surveillance based retention definition – having ≥ 2 viral load/CD4s performed 90 days apart reported by the same laboratory in 2011. Of surveillance lab-based definitions for retention, having ≥ 2 HIV viral load and/or CD4 values at least 3 months apart reported from the same facility possessed the best receiver operator parameters and the receiver operator characteristics curve comparing several surveillance lab vs. clinic-visit based retention measures had an area under the curve of 0.95. Discussion Our findings demonstrate that surveillance laboratory data can be used to assess retention-in-care for PLWHA. These data suggest that bi-directional data sharing between public health entities and care providers could advance re-engagement efforts. PMID:25867775

  16. Community perspectives on HIV, violence and health surveillance in rural South Africa: a participatory pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hullur, Nitya; D’Ambruoso, Lucia; Edin, Kerstin; Wagner, Ryan G; Ngobeni, Sizzy; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen; Byass, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background South Africa faces a complex burden of disease consisting of infectious and non–communicable conditions, injury and interpersonal violence, and maternal and child mortality. Inequalities in income and opportunity push disease burdens towards vulnerable populations, a situation to which the health system struggles to respond. There is an urgent need for health planning to account for the needs of marginalized groups in this context. The study objectives were to develop a process to elicit the perspectives of local communities in the established Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site (HDSS) in rural north–east South Africa on two leading causes of death: HIV/AIDS and violent assault, and on health surveillance as a means to generate information on health in the locality. Methods Drawing on community–based participatory research (CBPR) methods, three village–based groups of eight participants were convened, with whom a series of discussions were held to identify and define the causes of, treatments for, and problems surrounding, deaths due to HIV/AIDS and violent assault. The surveillance system was also discussed and recommendations generated. The discussion narratives were the main data source, examined using framework analysis. Results The groups identified a range of social and health systems issues including risky sexual health behaviors, entrenched traditional practices, alcohol and substance abuse, unstable relationships, and debt as causative. Participants also explained how compromised patient confidentiality in clinics, insensitive staff, and a biased judicial system were problematic for the treatment and reporting of both conditions. Views on health surveillance were positive. Recommendations to strengthen an already well–functioning system related to maintaining confidentiality and sensitivity, and extending ancillary care obligations. Conclusion The discussions provided information not available from other sources on

  17. Sharply rising prevalence of HIV infection in Bali: a critical assessment of the surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Januraga, P P; Wulandari, L P L; Muliawan, P; Sawitri, S; Causer, L; Wirawan, D N; Kaldor, J M

    2013-08-01

    This study critically examines serological survey data for HIV infection in selected populations in Bali, Indonesia. Sero-survey data reported by the Bali Health Office between 2000 and 2010 were collated, and provincial health staff were interviewed to gain a detailed understanding of survey methods. Analysis of time series restricted to districts that have used the same sampling methods and sites each year indicates that there has been a steady decline in HIV prevalence among prisoners, from 18.7% in 2000 to 4.3% in 2010. In contrast, HIV prevalence among women engaged in sex work increased sharply: from 0.62% in 2000 to 20.2% in 2010 (brothel based), and from 0% in 2000 to 7.2% in 2010 (non-brothel based). The highest prevalence was recorded among people who injected drugs. Recent surveys of gay men and transvestites also found high prevalences, at 18.7% and 40.9%, respectively. Review of the methodology used in the surveys identified inconsistencies in the sampling technique, sample numbers and sites over time, and incomplete recording of individual information about survey participants. Attention to methodological aspects and incorporation of additional information on behavioural factors will ensure that the surveillance system is in the best position to support prevention activities.

  18. Acceptance of the Use of HIV Surveillance Data for Care Engagement: National and Local Community Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David; Van Gorder, Dana; Morin, Stephen F.; Steward, Wayne T.; Gaffney, Stuart; Charlebois, Edwin D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Use of surveillance data including laboratory results (e.g. CD4 and HIV RNA) by public health departments to facilitate linkage, retention, and re-engagement of HIV-infected individuals in health care is on the rise. This is part of the goal of increasing the proportion of infected persons achieving virologic suppression. However, this use of surveillance data is not without controversy, particularly among some providers and people living with HIV. Methods We conducted informal discussions with key stakeholders and a literature search, and held a national think tank in November 2012, bringing together 31 representatives of the federal government, county and state officials, health care providers, and community-based organizations. A follow-up community consultation specific to San Francisco was held January 24, 2014, with 10 participants. Notes from these activities were used as data for this analysis. Results The think tank identified three strategies utilizing HIV surveillance data to aid in care engagement: 1) provider-mediated – where health department staff work with the provider of record on re-engagement, 2) electronic linkages between surveillance databases and medical records databases, and 3) direct outreach – where trained health department staff reach out to persons out of care. Participants also developed recommendations for minimizing harm, guidance on meaningful stakeholder involvement, and a consensus statement in support of the use of HIV surveillance data in care engagement. Conclusions Acceptance of the use of surveillance data for HIV care linkage, retention, and re-engagement is achievable, particularly if stakeholders have been engaged in the design, conduct, and evaluation of programs. PMID:25867776

  19. Improving HIV Surveillance Data for Public Health Action in Washington, DC: A Novel Multiorganizational Data-Sharing Method

    PubMed Central

    Smart, JC

    2016-01-01

    Background The National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for active surveillance programs for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to more accurately measure access to and retention in care across the HIV care continuum for persons living with HIV within their jurisdictions and to identify persons who may need public health services. However, traditional public health surveillance methods face substantial technological and privacy-related barriers to data sharing. Objective This study developed a novel data-sharing approach to improve the timeliness and quality of HIV surveillance data in three jurisdictions where persons may often travel across the borders of the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia. Methods A deterministic algorithm of approximately 1000 lines was developed, including a person-matching system with Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System (eHARS) variables. Person matching was defined in categories (from strongest to weakest): exact, very high, high, medium high, medium, medium low, low, and very low. The algorithm was verified using conventional component testing methods, manual code inspection, and comprehensive output file examination. Results were validated by jurisdictions using internal review processes. Results Of 161,343 uploaded eHARS records from District of Columbia (N=49,326), Maryland (N=66,200), and Virginia (N=45,817), a total of 21,472 persons were matched across jurisdictions over various strengths in a matching process totaling 21 minutes and 58 seconds in the privacy device, leaving 139,871 uniquely identified with only one jurisdiction. No records matched as medium low or low. Over 80% of the matches were identified as either exact or very high matches. Three separate validation methods were conducted for this study, and they all found ≥90% accuracy between records matched by this novel method and traditional matching methods. Conclusions This study illustrated a novel data-sharing approach that may facilitate timelier and better

  20. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2003-04-22

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  1. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2006-02-14

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  2. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a SPRT sequential probability ratio test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  3. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2004-10-12

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  4. Laser Surveillance System for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M. S.; Bieber, Jr., A. M.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures.

  5. Light armored vehicle reconnaissance and surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbeau, Nicolas R.

    1994-10-01

    The Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) has established a requirement for a fleet of reconnaissance vehicles equipped with a modern surveillance system to be used in a wide variety of scenarios. This includes conventional operations within NATO, contingency operations in troubled areas as well as UN peacekeeping missions. As such, the Light Armored Vehicles Reconnaissance and Surveillance System will be the first 24 hour all- weather reconnaissance system integrated into a combat vehicle. This paper intends to describe how the operational requirements defined by DND were translated into sensor and system requirements. After a summary of the current configuration, it focuses on product pre-planned improvements and future needs.

  6. Are countries using global fund support to implement HIV drug resistance surveillance? A review of funded HIV grants.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Karen F; Caudwell, Emily; Xueref, Serge; Ha, Thuy Huong; Bertagnolio, Silvia

    2012-05-01

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) is the largest funder of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and treatment programs worldwide. Since 2002, the Global Fund has encouraged grant recipients to implement drug resistance surveillance (DRS) as part of treatment programs. We reviewed documentation of 147 grants funded in 2004-2008 (funding rounds 4-8) to assess grantees' use of funds to support HIV DRS. Overall, 94 grants (64%) described HIV DRS as part of the national treatment program. However, only 32 grants (22%) specifically documented DRS as a grant-funded activity. This review provides baseline information suggesting limited use by countries of Global Fund financing to support HIV DRS. Additional assessment is required to evaluate barriers to using Global Fund grants to support DRS.

  7. Self tuning system for industrial surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Stephan, Wegerich W; Jarman, Kristin K.; Gross, Kenneth C.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system for automatically establishing operational parameters of a statistical surveillance system. The method and system performs a frequency domain transition on time dependent data, a first Fourier composite is formed, serial correlation is removed, a series of Gaussian whiteness tests are performed along with an autocorrelation test, Fourier coefficients are stored and a second Fourier composite is formed. Pseudorandom noise is added, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed to establish SPRT missed alarm probabilities and tested with a synthesized signal. A false alarm test is then emperically evaluated and if less than a desired target value, then SPRT probabilities are used for performing surveillance.

  8. Four years of surveillance of recent HIV infections at country level, France, mid 2003 - 2006: experience and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Semaille, Caroline; Cazein, F; Pillonel, J; Lot, F; Le Vu, S; Pinget, R; Desenclos, Jc; Barin, F

    2008-09-01

    New systems of surveillance to better monitor the dynamics of HIV are needed. A national surveillance of new HIV diagnoses which included the collection of dried serum spots (DSS) to identify recent infections (<6 months) using an EIA-RI assay was implemented in 2003 in France. The collection of DSS is based on the voluntary participation by both patients and microbiologists. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with recent infection (RI). Between July 2003 and December 2006, 14,155 cases newly diagnosed for HIV were reported. A minority of patients refused the collection of DSS (3.3%) and the rate of participation of laboratories was 80%. The test was performed for 10,855 newly diagnosed HIV cases, the overall proportion of RI was 23.1% (95% CI, 22.3%-23.9%). The proportion of RI was higher among men who have sex with men (MSM) (42.8%) than among heterosexuals (16.3%). Among heterosexuals, it varied by current nationality: 27% among French versus 8.4% among Africans. The risk of RI was greater for MSM (aOR=1.8), those of French nationality (aOR=3.9), those with high-economic status (aOR=1.2), those tested after a risk exposure (aOR=1.4), those tested for HIV three or more times during their lifetime (aOR=2.5). The risk of RI decreased with age. A nation-wide implementation of RI monitoring is feasible. The information on RI is very useful for renewing prevention messages, particularly among population in which HIV transmission is on going, such as MSM. PMID:18775291

  9. An emergency response UAV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro A; Geckle, William J; Barton, Jeffrey D; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z; Martin, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs.

  10. Profile: The Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Crampin, Amelia C; Dube, Albert; Mboma, Sebastian; Price, Alison; Chihana, Menard; Jahn, Andreas; Baschieri, Angela; Molesworth, Anna; Mwaiyeghele, Elnaeus; Branson, Keith; Floyd, Sian; McGrath, Nuala; Fine, Paul E M; French, Neil; Glynn, Judith R; Zaba, Basia

    2012-01-01

    The Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Karonga HDSS) in northern Malawi currently has a population of more than 35 000 individuals under continuous demographic surveillance since completion of a baseline census (2002–2004). The surveillance system collects data on vital events and migration for individuals and for households. It also provides data on cause-specific mortality obtained by verbal autopsy for all age groups, and estimates rates of disease for specific presentations via linkage to clinical facility data. The Karonga HDSS provides a structure for surveys of socio-economic status, HIV sero-prevalence and incidence, sexual behaviour, fertility intentions and a sampling frame for other studies, as well as evaluating the impact of interventions, such as antiretroviral therapy and vaccination programmes. Uniquely, it relies on a network of village informants to report vital events and household moves, and furthermore is linked to an archive of biological samples and data from population surveys and other studies dating back three decades. PMID:22729235

  11. Sentinel Surveillance of HIV-1 Transmitted Drug Resistance, Acute Infection and Recent Infection

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Hong-Ha M.; Kellogg, Timothy A.; McFarland, Willi; Louie, Brian; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Philip, Susan S.; Grant, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV-1 acute infection, recent infection and transmitted drug resistance screening was integrated into voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) services to enhance the existing surveillance program in San Francisco. This study describes newly-diagnosed HIV cases and characterizes correlates associated with infection. Methodology/Principal Findings A consecutive sample of persons presenting for HIV VCT at the municipal sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic from 2004 to 2006 (N = 9,868) were evaluated by standard enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA). HIV antibody-positive specimens were characterized as recent infections using a less-sensitive EIA. HIV-RNA pooled testing was performed on HIV antibody-negative specimens to identify acute infections. HIV antibody-positive and acute infection specimens were evaluated for drug resistance by sequence analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations. The 380 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included 29 acute infections, 128 recent infections, and 47 drug-resistant cases, with no significant increases or decreases in prevalence over the three years studied. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 11.0% in 2004, 13.4% in 2005 and 14.9% in 2006 (p = 0.36). Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) was the most common pattern detected, present in 28 cases of resistance (59.6%). Among MSM, recent infection was associated with amphetamine use (AOR = 2.67; p<0.001), unprotected anal intercourse (AOR = 2.27; p<0.001), sex with a known HIV-infected partner (AOR = 1.64; p = 0.02), and history of gonorrhea (AOR = 1.62; p = 0.03). Conclusions New HIV diagnoses, recent infections, acute infections and transmitted drug resistance prevalence remained stable between 2004 and 2006. Resistance to NNRTI comprised more than half of the drug-resistant cases, a worrisome finding given its role as the backbone of first

  12. Routine feedback of test results to participants in clinic- and survey-based surveillance of HIV.

    PubMed

    Baggaley, Rachel; Johnson, Cheryl; Garcia Calleja, Jesus Maria; Sabin, Keith; Obermeyer, Carla; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Zaba, Basia; El-Hayek, Carol; Singh, Jerome Amir

    2015-05-01

    Surveillance for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in low- and middle-income countries started in the 1980s. However, the questions of whether the results of HIV tests should be given to participants, and if so how, has still not been resolved. In the absence of effective treatment, it was considered acceptable to withhold results from HIV-positive participants. However, when antiretroviral treatment is available, some argue for beneficence - that it is the researcher's duty to return the test results to all those who provide samples for surveillance. The corollary is that only participants who wish to receive their test results would be eligible to participate in surveys. Others argue for autonomy - that to obtain a more representative result for the general population, surveys should not exclude participants who do not wish to receive their test results. This round table discussion takes a closer look at those two arguments. We believe that the global community should work towards routine feedback of HIV surveillance while ensuring that participants receive and understand their test results.

  13. System specification for the integrated monitoring and surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This System Specification establishes the requirements for the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS). In this document, ``Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System`` is used to describe the concept of integrated sensors, computers, personnel, and systems that perform the functions of sensing conditions, acquiring data, monitoring environmental safety and health, controlling and accounting for materials, monitoring material stability, monitoring container integrity, transferring data, and analyzing, reporting, and storing data. This concept encompasses systems (e.g. sensors, personnel, databases, etc.) that are already in place at the sites but may require modifications or additions to meet all identified surveillance requirements. The purpose of this System Specification is to provide Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store plutonium materials with a consolidation of all known requirements for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides. This compilation may be used (1) as a baseline for surveillance system design specifications where 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides will be stored and monitored; (2) as a checklist for evaluating existing surveillance systems to ensure that all requirements are met for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides; and (3) as a baseline for preparing procurement specifications tailored for site specific storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides.

  14. Review of sampling hard-to-reach and hidden populations for HIV surveillance.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Robert; Sabin, Keith; Saidel, Tobi; Heckathorn, Douglas

    2005-05-01

    Adequate surveillance of hard-to-reach and 'hidden' subpopulations is crucial to containing the HIV epidemic in low prevalence settings and in slowing the rate of transmission in high prevalence settings. For a variety of reasons, however, conventional facility and survey-based surveillance data collection strategies are ineffective for a number of key subpopulations, particularly those whose behaviors are illegal or illicit. This paper critically reviews alternative sampling strategies for undertaking behavioral or biological surveillance surveys of such groups. Non-probability sampling approaches such as facility-based sentinel surveillance and snowball sampling are the simplest to carry out, but are subject to a high risk of sampling/selection bias. Most of the probability sampling methods considered are limited in that they are adequate only under certain circumstances and for some groups. One relatively new method, respondent-driven sampling, an adaptation of chain-referral sampling, appears to be the most promising for general applications. However, as its applicability to HIV surveillance in resource-poor settings has yet to be established, further field trials are needed before a firm conclusion can be reached.

  15. HIV/AIDS behavioral surveillance among Angolan military men.

    PubMed

    Bing, Eric G; Ortiz, Daniel J; Ovalle-Bahamón, Ricardo E; Cheng, Karen G; Huang, Fannie H; Ernesto, Francisco; Duan, Naihua

    2008-07-01

    To assess HIV-related risk behavior among military men in a post-conflict sub-Saharan African country with low HIV prevalence this study evaluated sexual risk taking and related behaviors among a stratified random sample of 1,710 military personnel in four regions of Angola. Over 90% were sexually active and 60% had two or more sexual partners within the past year. Condom use varied depending on partner type, from a low of 10% to a high of 54%. Factors independently predicting the number of sexual partners included younger age, younger age of sexual debut, being away from home, being in the eastern part of the country, higher military rank, higher education, alcohol before sex, and problem alcohol use. Independent predictors of sexually transmitted infection symptoms included age of sexual debut, lower education, higher rank, and having had sex with a casual partner or a commercial sex worker in the previous 12 months. These findings indicate high rates of HIV risk-taking behaviors among military personnel and the need for aggressive prevention campaigns to reduce HIV risk among military personnel and the populations they serve.

  16. Laser surveillance system for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S; Zucker, M S; Bieber, Jr, A M

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a laser system and have used it with a simulated BWR assembly. The reflected signal from the zircaloy rods depends on the position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of background with no assembly.

  17. Systems pharmacology augments drug safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lorberbaum, T; Nasir, M; Keiser, M J; Vilar, S; Hripcsak, G; Tatonetti, N P

    2015-02-01

    Small molecule drugs are the foundation of modern medical practice, yet their use is limited by the onset of unexpected and severe adverse events (AEs). Regulatory agencies rely on postmarketing surveillance to monitor safety once drugs are approved for clinical use. Despite advances in pharmacovigilance methods that address issues of confounding bias, clinical data of AEs are inherently noisy. Systems pharmacology-the integration of systems biology and chemical genomics-can illuminate drug mechanisms of action. We hypothesize that these data can improve drug safety surveillance by highlighting drugs with a mechanistic connection to the target phenotype (enriching true positives) and filtering those that do not (depleting false positives). We present an algorithm, the modular assembly of drug safety subnetworks (MADSS), to combine systems pharmacology and pharmacovigilance data and significantly improve drug safety monitoring for four clinically relevant adverse drug reactions.

  18. Systems pharmacology augments drug safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lorberbaum, T; Nasir, M; Keiser, M J; Vilar, S; Hripcsak, G; Tatonetti, N P

    2015-02-01

    Small molecule drugs are the foundation of modern medical practice, yet their use is limited by the onset of unexpected and severe adverse events (AEs). Regulatory agencies rely on postmarketing surveillance to monitor safety once drugs are approved for clinical use. Despite advances in pharmacovigilance methods that address issues of confounding bias, clinical data of AEs are inherently noisy. Systems pharmacology-the integration of systems biology and chemical genomics-can illuminate drug mechanisms of action. We hypothesize that these data can improve drug safety surveillance by highlighting drugs with a mechanistic connection to the target phenotype (enriching true positives) and filtering those that do not (depleting false positives). We present an algorithm, the modular assembly of drug safety subnetworks (MADSS), to combine systems pharmacology and pharmacovigilance data and significantly improve drug safety monitoring for four clinically relevant adverse drug reactions. PMID:25670520

  19. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan?

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Eireen; Pacho, Agnes; Galvan, Maria Adona; Corpuz, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR), Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR) and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). Methods A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results Two of 11 (18%) surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45%) surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91%) rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7%) considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27%) surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6%) surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR) were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other. PMID:26767139

  20. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  1. Future trends in compact TV surveillance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, K.; Heaysman, B.; Vodrazka, P.

    1985-01-01

    Up to now the IAEA's Safeguards Surveillance Program has been based upon 8 mm film camera systems. As this type of equipment availability is controlled by the needs of the amateur market, the Agency is forced to follow the changing world trend in replacing film with video. The eventual substitution of film with video systems should be influenced by two design approaches, namely integrated systems, resembling physically the present film cameras, and/or remote camera-control unit systems. This paper describes experiments being carried out on both types by some Member States as well as the Agency's activities in this field.

  2. 17 CFR 38.156 - Automated trade surveillance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated trade surveillance... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.156 Automated trade surveillance system. A designated contract market must maintain an automated trade surveillance system capable of detecting and...

  3. 17 CFR 38.156 - Automated trade surveillance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated trade surveillance... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.156 Automated trade surveillance system. A designated contract market must maintain an automated trade surveillance system capable of detecting and...

  4. An integrated national mortality surveillance system for death registration and mortality surveillance, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiwei; Wu, Xiaoling; Lopez, Alan D; Wang, Lijun; Cai, Yue; Page, Andrew; Yin, Peng; Liu, Yunning; Li, Yichong; Liu, Jiangmei; You, Jinling; Zhou, Maigeng

    2016-01-01

    In China, sample-based mortality surveillance systems, such as the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention's disease surveillance points system and the Ministry of Health's vital registration system, have been used for decades to provide nationally representative data on health status for health-care decision-making and performance evaluation. However, neither system provided representative mortality and cause-of-death data at the provincial level to inform regional health service needs and policy priorities. Moreover, the systems overlapped to a considerable extent, thereby entailing a duplication of effort. In 2013, the Chinese Government combined these two systems into an integrated national mortality surveillance system to provide a provincially representative picture of total and cause-specific mortality and to accelerate the development of a comprehensive vital registration and mortality surveillance system for the whole country. This new system increased the surveillance population from 6 to 24% of the Chinese population. The number of surveillance points, each of which covered a district or county, increased from 161 to 605. To ensure representativeness at the provincial level, the 605 surveillance points were selected to cover China's 31 provinces using an iterative method involving multistage stratification that took into account the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. This paper describes the development and operation of the new national mortality surveillance system, which is expected to yield representative provincial estimates of mortality in China for the first time.

  5. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Vilim, Richard B.; Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.

    1998-01-01

    A method and system for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process.

  6. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Vilim, R.B.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.

    1998-04-28

    A method and system are disclosed for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process. 33 figs.

  7. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Recently Infected Individuals at Men Who Have Sex with Men Sentinel Surveillance Points in Hebei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Chen, Suliang; Zhao, Hongru; Liu, Yongjian; Zhao, Cuiying; Zhang, Yuqi; Li, Jingyun; Cui, Ze; Wang, Xianfeng

    2015-10-01

    For this study, 50 HIV-1 plasma samples of recently infected men who have sex with men (MSM) were amplified and sequenced. Multiple subtypes were identified by phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 gag, env, and pol gene regions, including CRF01_AE (56.0%), CRF07_BC (30.0%), subtype B (12.0%), and unique recombinant forms (URFs, 6.0%). CRF01_AE was the most frequent genotype in the epidemic. Three recombination patterns of URFs were identified: 01BC, 01B, and 01C. The rate of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutation (M46L) was 2.08% (1/48). URFs and TDR first identified in this study suggest that HIV-1 prevalence is more and more complicated, and HIV-1 drug-resistant strains have begun to spread among at risk populations in Hebei. Our findings can provide vital information for an efficient surveillance system and strategic HIV prevention and control measures in China by revealing the evolutionary status and HIV-1 TDR of HIV-1 strains among recently infected MSM in Hebei Province.

  8. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Recently Infected Individuals at Men Who Have Sex with Men Sentinel Surveillance Points in Hebei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Chen, Suliang; Zhao, Hongru; Liu, Yongjian; Zhao, Cuiying; Zhang, Yuqi; Li, Jingyun; Cui, Ze; Wang, Xianfeng

    2015-10-01

    For this study, 50 HIV-1 plasma samples of recently infected men who have sex with men (MSM) were amplified and sequenced. Multiple subtypes were identified by phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 gag, env, and pol gene regions, including CRF01_AE (56.0%), CRF07_BC (30.0%), subtype B (12.0%), and unique recombinant forms (URFs, 6.0%). CRF01_AE was the most frequent genotype in the epidemic. Three recombination patterns of URFs were identified: 01BC, 01B, and 01C. The rate of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutation (M46L) was 2.08% (1/48). URFs and TDR first identified in this study suggest that HIV-1 prevalence is more and more complicated, and HIV-1 drug-resistant strains have begun to spread among at risk populations in Hebei. Our findings can provide vital information for an efficient surveillance system and strategic HIV prevention and control measures in China by revealing the evolutionary status and HIV-1 TDR of HIV-1 strains among recently infected MSM in Hebei Province. PMID:26200883

  9. Estimating the size of the MSM populations for 38 European countries by calculating the survey-surveillance discrepancies (SSD) between self-reported new HIV diagnoses from the European MSM internet survey (EMIS) and surveillance-reported HIV diagnoses among MSM in 2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Comparison of rates of newly diagnosed HIV infections among MSM across countries is challenging for a variety of reasons, including the unknown size of MSM populations. In this paper we propose a method of triangulating surveillance data with data collected in a pan-European MSM Internet Survey (EMIS) to estimate the sizes of the national MSM populations and the rates at which HIV is being diagnosed amongst them by calculating survey-surveillance discrepancies (SSD) as a measure of selection biases of survey participants. Methods In 2010, the first EMIS collected self-reported data on HIV diagnoses among more than 180,000 MSM in 38 countries of Europe. These data were compared with data from national HIV surveillance systems to explore possible sampling and reporting biases in the two approaches. The Survey-Surveillance Discrepancy (SSD) represents the ratio of survey members diagnosed in 2009 (HIVsvy) to total survey members (Nsvy), divided by the ratio of surveillance reports of diagnoses in 2009 (HIVpop) to the estimated total MSM population (Npop). As differences in household internet access may be a key component of survey selection biases, we analysed the relationship between household internet access and SSD in countries conducting consecutive MSM internet surveys at different time points with increasing levels of internet access. The empirically defined SSD was used to calculate the respective MSM population sizes (Npop), using the formula Npop = HIVpop*Nsvy*SSD/HIVsvy. Results Survey-surveillance discrepancies for consecutive MSM internet surveys between 2003 and 2010 with different levels of household internet access were best described by a potential equation, with high SSD at low internet access, declining to a level around 2 with broad access. The lowest SSD was calculated for the Netherlands with 1.8, the highest for Moldova with 9.0. Taking the best available estimate for surveillance reports of HIV diagnoses among MSM in 2009 (HIVpop

  10. The development of an evaluation framework for injury surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Williamson, Ann M; O'Connor, Rod

    2009-01-01

    Background Access to good quality information from injury surveillance is essential to develop and monitor injury prevention activities. To determine if information obtained from surveillance is of high quality, the limitations and strengths of a surveillance system are often examined. Guidelines have been developed to assist in evaluating certain types of surveillance systems. However, to date, no standard guidelines have been developed to specifically evaluate an injury surveillance system. The aim of this research is to develop a framework to guide the evaluation of injury surveillance systems. Methods The development of an Evaluation Framework for Injury Surveillance Systems (EFISS) involved a four stage process. First, a literature review was conducted to identify an initial set of characteristics that were recognised as important and/or had been recommended to be assessed in an evaluation of a surveillance system. Second, this set of characteristics was assessed using SMART criteria. Third, those surviving were presented to an expert panel using a two round modified-Delphi study to gain an alternative perspective on characteristic definitions, practicality of assessment, and characteristic importance. Finally, a rating system was created for the EFISS characteristics. Results The resulting EFISS consisted of 18 characteristics that assess three areas of an injury surveillance system – five characteristics assess data quality, nine characteristics assess the system's operation, and four characteristics assess the practical capability of an injury surveillance system. A rating system assesses the performance of each characteristic. Conclusion The development of the EFISS builds upon existing evaluation guidelines for surveillance systems and provides a framework tailored to evaluate an injury surveillance system. Ultimately, information obtained through an evaluation of an injury data collection using the EFISS would be useful for agencies to recommend how a

  11. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. Dale; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Gribble, R. Parks; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Prince, James M.; Reid, Larry D.

    1996-01-01

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm.

  12. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H.D.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Gribble, R.P.

    1995-10-03

    A holographic surveillance system is disclosed including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm. 21 figs.

  13. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; McMakin, D.L.; Gribble, R.P.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Reid, L.D.

    1996-09-17

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm. 28 figs.

  14. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Gribble, R. Parks

    1995-01-01

    A holographic surveillance system including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm.

  15. HIV/AIDS among African Immigrants in the U.S.: The Need for Disaggregating HIV Surveillance Data by Country of Birth.

    PubMed

    Koku, Emmanuel F; Rajab-Gyagenda, Wardah M; Korto, Margaret D; Morrison, Sharon D; Beyene, Yewoubdar; Mbajah, Joy; Ashton, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the United States' National HIV/AIDS Strategy are reducing HIV infections, increasing linkage to care, and reducing health disparities. To accomplish these, it is imperative to have accurate data about HIV prevalence, especially in high-burden populations, including immigrants, ethnic/racial minorities and other minority populations. However, recent increases in HIV prevalence among Black migrants from sub-Saharan Africa has drawn attention to the need to examine the epidemiological diversity of the Black population, and accurately account for HIV prevalence within it. In most HIV surveillance data, a single category, Black/African American, is used to combine data for U.S.-born and foreign-born Blacks, including migrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Such categorizations result in under-estimation of HIV prevalence in the African immigrant population, making it difficult to allocate resources appropriately for HIV prevention and treatment. This paper highlights and provides recommendations regarding the importance of disaggregating HIV surveillance data on Blacks by country of birth. PMID:27524770

  16. SCORPION II persistent surveillance system update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Michael; Hunt, Cassandra

    2011-06-01

    This paper highlights the most recently added features and benefits available in the latest generation of Northrop Grumman SCORPION II persistent surveillance and target recognition systems. By leveraging smaller, lighter, and more power efficient SCORPION II sensor and universal gateway components, with foliage penetrating ad-hoc network communications, persistent field programmable systems that are easier to conceal can be optimized for both image capture and data exfiltration. In addition to the SCORPION II suite of sensor components, a growing list of over sixty different sensor and camera types from a variety of manufacturers have been integrated with the SCORPION Gateway family. In addition to updating several different COP systems, SCORPION and SCORPION II data can be directly processed using a common sensor status graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from hundreds of SCORPION system gateways on single or multiple displays.

  17. Unattended digital video surveillance: A system prototype for EURATOM safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Chare, P.; Goerten, J.; Wagner, H.; Rodriguez, C.; Brown, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Ever increasing capabilities in video and computer technology have changed the face of video surveillance. From yesterday`s film and analog video tape-based systems, we now emerge into the digital era with surveillance systems capable of digital image processing, image analysis, decision control logic, and random data access features -- all of which provide greater versatility with the potential for increased effectiveness in video surveillance. Digital systems also offer other advantages such as the ability to ``compress`` data, providing increased storage capacities and the potential for allowing longer surveillance Periods. Remote surveillance and system to system communications are also a benefit that can be derived from digital surveillance systems. All of these features are extremely important in today`s climate Of increasing safeguards activity and decreasing budgets -- Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Safeguards Systems Group and the EURATOM Safeguards Directorate have teamed to design and implement a period surveillance system that will take advantage of the versatility of digital video for facility surveillance system that will take advantage of the versatility of digital video for facility surveillance and data review. In this Paper we will familiarize you with system components and features and report on progress in developmental areas such as image compression and region of interest processing.

  18. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases.

  19. Mass HIV Treatment and Sex Disparities in Life Expectancy: Demographic Surveillance in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bor, Jacob; Rosen, Sydney; Chimbindi, Natsayi; Haber, Noah; Herbst, Kobus; Mutevedzi, Tinofa; Tanser, Frank; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-01-01

    Background Women have better patient outcomes in HIV care and treatment than men in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed—at the population level—whether and to what extent mass HIV treatment is associated with changes in sex disparities in adult life expectancy, a summary metric of survival capturing mortality across the full cascade of HIV care. We also determined sex-specific trends in HIV mortality and the distribution of HIV-related deaths in men and women prior to and at each stage of the clinical cascade. Methods and Findings Data were collected on all deaths occurring from 2001 to 2011 in a large population-based surveillance cohort (52,964 women and 45,688 men, ages 15 y and older) in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Cause of death was ascertained by verbal autopsy (93% response rate). Demographic data were linked at the individual level to clinical records from the public sector HIV treatment and care program that serves the region. Annual rates of HIV-related mortality were assessed for men and women separately, and female-to-male rate ratios were estimated in exponential hazard models. Sex-specific trends in adult life expectancy and HIV-cause-deleted adult life expectancy were calculated. The proportions of HIV deaths that accrued to men and women at different stages in the HIV cascade of care were estimated annually. Following the beginning of HIV treatment scale-up in 2004, HIV mortality declined among both men and women. Female adult life expectancy increased from 51.3 y (95% CI 49.7, 52.8) in 2003 to 64.5 y (95% CI 62.7, 66.4) in 2011, a gain of 13.2 y. Male adult life expectancy increased from 46.9 y (95% CI 45.6, 48.2) in 2003 to 55.9 y (95% CI 54.3, 57.5) in 2011, a gain of 9.0 y. The gap between female and male adult life expectancy doubled, from 4.4 y in 2003 to 8.6 y in 2011, a difference of 4.3 y (95% CI 0.9, 7.6). For women, HIV mortality declined from 1.60 deaths per 100 person-years (95% CI 1.46, 1.75) in 2003 to 0.56 per 100 person

  20. Mental health surveillance and information systems.

    PubMed

    Gater, R; Chisholm, D; Dowrick, C

    2015-07-01

    Routine information systems for mental health in many Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are rudimentary or absent, making it difficult to understand the needs of local populations and to plan accordingly. Key components for mental health surveillance and information systems are: national commitment and leadership to ensure that relevant high quality information is collected and reported; a minimum data set of key mental health indicators; intersectoral collaboration with appropriate data sharing; routine data collection supplemented with periodic surveys; quality control and confidentiality; and technology and skills to support data collection, sharing and dissemination. Priority strategic interventions include: (1) periodically assessing and reporting the mental health resources and capacities available using standardized methodologies; (2) routine collection of information and reporting on service availability, coverage and continuity, for priority mental disorders disaggregated by age, sex and diagnosis; and (3) mandatory recording and reporting of suicides at the national level (using relevant ICD codes). PMID:26442892

  1. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System--2013.

    PubMed

    Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura; Shanklin, Shari; Kinchen, Steve; Eaton, Danice K; Hawkins, Joseph; Flint, Katherine H

    2013-03-01

    Priority health-risk behaviors (i.e., interrelated and preventable behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youths and adults) often are established during childhood and adolescence and extend into adulthood. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), established in 1991, monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youths and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) sexual behaviors that contribute to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, and unintended pregnancy; 3) tobacco use; 4) alcohol and other drug use; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma among this population. YRBSS data are obtained from multiple sources including a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as schoolbased state, territorial, tribal, and large urban school district surveys conducted by education and health agencies. These surveys have been conducted biennially since 1991 and include representative samples of students in grades 9-12. In 2004, a description of the YRBSS methodology was published (CDC. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. MMWR 2004;53 [No RR-12]). Since 2004, improvements have been made to YRBSS, including increases in coverage and expanded technical assistance.This report describes these changes and updates earlier descriptions of the system, including questionnaire content; operational procedures; sampling, weighting, and response rates; data-collection protocols; data-processing procedures; reports and publications; and data quality. This report also includes results of methods studies that systematically examined how different survey procedures affect prevalence estimates. YRBSS continues to evolve to meet the needs of CDC and other data users through the ongoing revision of the questionnaire

  2. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System--2013.

    PubMed

    Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura; Shanklin, Shari; Kinchen, Steve; Eaton, Danice K; Hawkins, Joseph; Flint, Katherine H

    2013-03-01

    Priority health-risk behaviors (i.e., interrelated and preventable behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youths and adults) often are established during childhood and adolescence and extend into adulthood. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS), established in 1991, monitors six categories of priority health-risk behaviors among youths and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) sexual behaviors that contribute to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases, and unintended pregnancy; 3) tobacco use; 4) alcohol and other drug use; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity. In addition, YRBSS monitors the prevalence of obesity and asthma among this population. YRBSS data are obtained from multiple sources including a national school-based survey conducted by CDC as well as schoolbased state, territorial, tribal, and large urban school district surveys conducted by education and health agencies. These surveys have been conducted biennially since 1991 and include representative samples of students in grades 9-12. In 2004, a description of the YRBSS methodology was published (CDC. Methodology of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. MMWR 2004;53 [No RR-12]). Since 2004, improvements have been made to YRBSS, including increases in coverage and expanded technical assistance.This report describes these changes and updates earlier descriptions of the system, including questionnaire content; operational procedures; sampling, weighting, and response rates; data-collection protocols; data-processing procedures; reports and publications; and data quality. This report also includes results of methods studies that systematically examined how different survey procedures affect prevalence estimates. YRBSS continues to evolve to meet the needs of CDC and other data users through the ongoing revision of the questionnaire

  3. Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  4. Asset surveillance system: apparatus and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    System and method for providing surveillance of an asset comprised of numerically fitting at least one mathematical model to obtained residual data correlative to asset operation; storing at least one mathematical model in a memory; obtaining a current set of signal data from the asset; retrieving at least one mathematical model from the memory, using the retrieved mathematical model in a sequential hypothesis test for determining if the current set of signal data is indicative of a fault condition; determining an asset fault cause correlative to a determined indication of a fault condition; providing an indication correlative to a determined fault cause, and an action when warranted. The residual data can be mode partitioned, a current mode of operation can be determined from the asset, and at least one mathematical model can be retrieved from the memory as a function of the determined mode of operation.

  5. Web surveillance system using platform-based design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shin-Yo; Tsai, Tsung-Han

    2004-04-01

    A revolutionary methodology of SOPC platform-based design environment for multimedia communications will be developed. We embed a softcore processor to perform the image compression in FPGA. Then, we plug-in an Ethernet daughter board in the SOPC development platform system. Afterward, a web surveillance platform system is presented. The web surveillance system consists of three parts: image capture, web server and JPEG compression. In this architecture, user can control the surveillance system by remote. By the IP address configures to Ethernet daughter board, the user can access the surveillance system via browser. When user access the surveillance system, the CMOS sensor presently capture the remote image. After that, it will feed the captured image with the embedded processor. The embedded processor immediately performs the JPEG compression. Afterward, the user receives the compressed data via Ethernet. To sum up of the above mentioned, the all system will be implemented on APEX20K200E484-2X device.

  6. Survey of Clostridium difficile infection surveillance systems in Europe, 2011.

    PubMed

    Kola, Axel; Wiuff, Camilla; Akerlund, Thomas; van Benthem, Birgit H; Coignard, Bruno; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Weitzel-Kage, Doris; Suetens, Carl; Wilcox, Mark H; Kuijper, Ed J; Gastmeier, Petra

    2016-07-21

    To develop a European surveillance protocol for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), existing national CDI surveillance systems were assessed in 2011. A web-based electronic form was provided for all national coordinators of the European CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of 35 national coordinators approached, 33 from 31 European countries replied. Surveillance of CDI was in place in 14 of the 31 countries, comprising 18 different nationwide systems. Three of 14 countries with CDI surveillance used public health notification of cases as the route of reporting, and in another three, reporting was limited to public health notification of cases of severe CDI. The CDI definitions published by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) were widely used, but there were differing definitions to distinguish between community- and healthcare-associated cases. All CDI surveillance systems except one reported annual national CDI rates (calculated as number of cases per patient-days). Only four surveillance systems regularly integrated microbiological data (typing and susceptibility testing results). Surveillance methods varied considerably between countries, which emphasises the need for a harmonised European protocol to allow consistent monitoring of the CDI epidemiology at European level. The results of this survey were used to develop a harmonised EU-wide hospital-based CDI surveillance protocol. PMID:27469420

  7. HIV genotypes and primary drug resistance among HIV seropositive blood donors in Brazil: role of infected blood donors as sentinel populations for molecular surveillance of HIV

    PubMed Central

    Alencar, CS; Sabino, EC; Carvalho, SMF; Leao, S; Carneiro- Proietti, AB; Capuani, L; Oliveira, CL; Carrick, D; Birch, RJ; Gonçalez, TT; Keating, S; Swanson, P; Hackett, J; Busch, MP

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few surveillance studies analyzing genotypes or primary (transmitted) drug resistance in HIV-infected blood donors in Brazil. The aim of this study was to characterize patterns of HIV genotypes and primary resistance among HIV seropositive donors identified at 4 geographically dispersed blood centers in Brazil. Methods All HIV-infected donors who returned for counseling at the 4 REDS-II Hemocenters in Brazil from January 2007–March 2011 were invited to participate in a case-control study involving a questionnaire on risk factors. Viral sequencing was also offered to positive cases to assign genotypes and to detect and characterize primary resistance to RT and protease inhibitors according to WHO guidelines. Results Of the 341 HIV seropositive donors who consented to participate in the risk-factor and genetics study, pol sequences were obtained for 331 (97%). Clade B was predominant (76%) followed by F (15%) and C (5%). Primary resistance was present in 36 (12.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 8.2,15.5) of the 303 individuals not exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART), varying from 8.2% (95%CI 2,7,13.6) in Recife to 19.4% in São Paulo (95%CI 9.5,29.2); there were no significant correlations with other demographics or risk factors. Conclusion Although subtype B remains the most prevalent genotype in all 4 areas, increasing rates of subtype C in Sao Paulo and F in Recife were documented relative to earlier reports. Transmitted drug resistance was relatively frequent, particularly in the city of Sao Paulo which showed an increase compared to previous HIV seropositive donor data from 10 years ago. PMID:23507660

  8. 75 FR 81512 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) Units AGENCY... identified in this proposed AD, contact Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems, LLC, 19810 North 7th... received reports of anomalies with the Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic...

  9. Respondent driven sampling for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Jane R; Johnston, Lisa G; Murrill, Christopher; Monterroso, Edgar

    2013-09-01

    Since 2005, respondent driven sampling (RDS) has been widely used for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance surveys (BBSS) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). In this manuscript, we provide a focused review of RDS among hard-to-reach high-risk populations in LAC and describe their principal operational, design, and analytical considerations. We reviewed published and unpublished reports, protocols, and manuscripts for RDS studies conducted in LAC between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011. We abstracted key operational information and generated summary statistics across all studies. Between 2005 and 2011, 87 RDS studies were conducted in 15 countries in LAC (68 % in South America, 18 % in Mexico and Central America, and 14 % in the Caribbean). The target populations were primarily men who have sex with men (43 %), sex workers (29 %), and drug users (26 %). Study considerations included establishing clear eligibility criteria, measuring social network sizes, collecting specimens for biological testing, among others. Most of the reviewed studies are the first in their respective countries to collect data on hard-to-reach populations and the first attempt to use a probability-based sampling method. These RDS studies allowed researchers and public health practitioners in LAC to access hard-to-reach HIV high-risk populations and collect valuable data on the prevalence of HIV and other infections, as well as related risk behaviors. PMID:23568227

  10. Respondent driven sampling for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Jane R; Johnston, Lisa G; Murrill, Christopher; Monterroso, Edgar

    2013-09-01

    Since 2005, respondent driven sampling (RDS) has been widely used for HIV biological and behavioral surveillance surveys (BBSS) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). In this manuscript, we provide a focused review of RDS among hard-to-reach high-risk populations in LAC and describe their principal operational, design, and analytical considerations. We reviewed published and unpublished reports, protocols, and manuscripts for RDS studies conducted in LAC between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011. We abstracted key operational information and generated summary statistics across all studies. Between 2005 and 2011, 87 RDS studies were conducted in 15 countries in LAC (68 % in South America, 18 % in Mexico and Central America, and 14 % in the Caribbean). The target populations were primarily men who have sex with men (43 %), sex workers (29 %), and drug users (26 %). Study considerations included establishing clear eligibility criteria, measuring social network sizes, collecting specimens for biological testing, among others. Most of the reviewed studies are the first in their respective countries to collect data on hard-to-reach populations and the first attempt to use a probability-based sampling method. These RDS studies allowed researchers and public health practitioners in LAC to access hard-to-reach HIV high-risk populations and collect valuable data on the prevalence of HIV and other infections, as well as related risk behaviors.

  11. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  12. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). PMID:23327375

  13. Profile: Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Clark, Benjamin D; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B; Wagner, Ryan G; Garenne, Michel L; Clark, Samuel J; Tollman, Stephen M

    2012-08-01

    The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observational work includes cohorts focusing on different stages along the life course, evaluation of national policy at population, household and individual levels and examination of household responses to shocks and stresses and the resulting pathways influencing health and well-being. Trials target children and adolescents, including promoting psycho-social well-being, preventing HIV transmission and reducing metabolic disease risk. Efforts to enhance the research platform include using automated measurement techniques to estimate cause of death by verbal autopsy, full 'reconciliation' of in- and out-migrations, follow-up of migrants departing the study area, recording of extra-household social connections and linkage of individual HDSS records with those from sub-district clinics. Fostering effective collaborations (including INDEPTH multi-centre work in adult health and ageing and migration and urbanization), ensuring cross-site compatibility of common variables and optimizing public access to HDSS data are priorities.

  14. Profile: Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Clark, Benjamin D; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B; Wagner, Ryan G; Garenne, Michel L; Clark, Samuel J; Tollman, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observational work includes cohorts focusing on different stages along the life course, evaluation of national policy at population, household and individual levels and examination of household responses to shocks and stresses and the resulting pathways influencing health and well-being. Trials target children and adolescents, including promoting psycho-social well-being, preventing HIV transmission and reducing metabolic disease risk. Efforts to enhance the research platform include using automated measurement techniques to estimate cause of death by verbal autopsy, full ‘reconciliation’ of in- and out-migrations, follow-up of migrants departing the study area, recording of extra-household social connections and linkage of individual HDSS records with those from sub-district clinics. Fostering effective collaborations (including INDEPTH multi-centre work in adult health and ageing and migration and urbanization), ensuring cross-site compatibility of common variables and optimizing public access to HDSS data are priorities. PMID:22933647

  15. Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) for unannounced safeguards inspections.

    SciTech Connect

    Galdoz, Erwin G. , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Pinkalla, Mark

    2010-09-01

    The Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The joint project addresses specific requirements of redundant surveillance systems installed in two South American nuclear facilities as a tool to support unannounced inspections conducted by ABACC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The surveillance covers the critical time (as much as a few hours) between the notification of an inspection and the access of inspectors to the location in facility where surveillance equipment is installed. ABACC and the IAEA currently use the EURATOM Multiple Optical Surveillance System (EMOSS). This outdated system is no longer available or supported by the manufacturer. The current EMOSS system has met the project objective; however, the lack of available replacement parts and system support has made this system unsustainable and has increased the risk of an inoperable system. A new system that utilizes current technology and is maintainable is required to replace the aging EMOSS system. ABACC intends to replace one of the existing ABACC EMOSS systems by the Secure Video Surveillance System. SVSS utilizes commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technologies for all individual components. Sandia National Laboratories supported the system design for SVSS to meet Safeguards requirements, i.e. tamper indication, data authentication, etc. The SVSS consists of two video surveillance cameras linked securely to a data collection unit. The collection unit is capable of retaining historical surveillance data for at least three hours with picture intervals as short as 1sec. Images in .jpg format are available to inspectors using various software review tools. SNL has delivered two SVSS systems for test and evaluation at the ABACC Safeguards Laboratory. An additional 'proto-type' system remains

  16. [Reporting system of Chinese food and nutrition surveillance in 1998].

    PubMed

    He, W; Fu, G; Wang, Y

    2000-09-01

    The software of reporting system for Chinese food and nutrition surveillance in 1998 is the key part of China Food and Nutrition Surveillance System (CFNSS) in 1998. By means of modern information technology to process the contents of questionnaires of CFNSS, and using professional software to conduct data analysis, useful information has been created. The software consists of 4 modules: data entry program for CFNSS, anthropometric calculation, data analysis and data transmission. It is also an open system, the users can use the tool offered by the system to conduct further analysis based on their own situation, and even developing a surveillance system.

  17. Increasing HIV-1 Drug Resistance Between 2010 and 2012 in Adults Participating in Population-Based HIV Surveillance in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Danaviah, Siva; Lessells, Richard; Elshareef, Muna; Tanser, Frank; Wilkinson, Eduan; Pillay, Sureshnee; Mthiyane, Hloniphile; Mwambi, Henry; Pillay, Deenan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As more human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients access combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), higher proportions of newly infected patients may be infected with drug-resistant viruses. Regular surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is required in southern Africa where high rates of transmission persist despite rapid expansion of ART. Dried blood spot samples from cART-naive participants from two rounds of an annual population-based HIV surveillance program in rural KwaZulu-Natal were tested for HIV RNA, and samples with HIV RNA >10,000 copies/ml were genotyped for drug resistance. The 2009 surveillance of drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list was used for drug resistance interpretation. The data were added to previously published data from the same program, and the χ2 test for trend was used to test for trend in estimated prevalence of any TDR. Seven hundred and one participants' data were analyzed: 67 (2010), 381 (2011), and 253 (2012). No TDR was detected in 2010. Years 2011 and 2012 had 18 participants with SDRMs 4.7% and 7.1%, respectively (p = .02, χ2 test for trend). The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation, K103N, was the most common mutation, occurring in 27 (3.8%) of the participants, while nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs were detected in 10 (1.4%) of the participants, of whom eight had only a single NRTI SDRM. The increase in levels of drug resistance observed in this population could be a signal of increasing transmission of drug-resistant HIV. Thus, continued surveillance is critical to inform public health policies around HIV treatment and prevention. PMID:27002368

  18. Increasing HIV-1 Drug Resistance Between 2010 and 2012 in Adults Participating in Population-Based HIV Surveillance in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Manasa, Justen; Danaviah, Siva; Lessells, Richard; Elshareef, Muna; Tanser, Frank; Wilkinson, Eduan; Pillay, Sureshnee; Mthiyane, Hloniphile; Mwambi, Henry; Pillay, Deenan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2016-08-01

    As more human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients access combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), higher proportions of newly infected patients may be infected with drug-resistant viruses. Regular surveillance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is required in southern Africa where high rates of transmission persist despite rapid expansion of ART. Dried blood spot samples from cART-naive participants from two rounds of an annual population-based HIV surveillance program in rural KwaZulu-Natal were tested for HIV RNA, and samples with HIV RNA >10,000 copies/ml were genotyped for drug resistance. The 2009 surveillance of drug resistance mutation (SDRM) list was used for drug resistance interpretation. The data were added to previously published data from the same program, and the χ(2) test for trend was used to test for trend in estimated prevalence of any TDR. Seven hundred and one participants' data were analyzed: 67 (2010), 381 (2011), and 253 (2012). No TDR was detected in 2010. Years 2011 and 2012 had 18 participants with SDRMs 4.7% and 7.1%, respectively (p = .02, χ(2) test for trend). The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation, K103N, was the most common mutation, occurring in 27 (3.8%) of the participants, while nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) SDRMs were detected in 10 (1.4%) of the participants, of whom eight had only a single NRTI SDRM. The increase in levels of drug resistance observed in this population could be a signal of increasing transmission of drug-resistant HIV. Thus, continued surveillance is critical to inform public health policies around HIV treatment and prevention. PMID:27002368

  19. Developing a Web-Based HIV Behavioral Surveillance Pilot Project Among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Travis; Smith, Amanda; Denson, Damian; DiNenno, Elizabeth; Lansky, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Background: A web-based HIV behavioral surveillance system (WHBS) has potential to collect behavioral data from men who have sex with men (MSM) not reached through traditional sampling methods. Six U.S. cities conducted a WHBS pilot in 2005-2007 to determine the feasibility to conduct a behavioral surveillance project entirely on the internet. Methods: Three sampling methods of adult MSM on the internet were explored: direct marketing (DM) using banner advertisements; respondent-driven sampling (RDS) using peer recruitment; and venue-based sampling (VBS) using internet venues. Results: A total of 8,434 complete MSM surveys were obtained: 8,109 through DM, 130 through RDS, and 195 through VBS. By methods, enrollment rates ranged from 70-90%; completion rates ranged from 67-95%. DM obtained the largest proportions of racial/ethnic minority MSM (36%) and MSM 18-20 years (19%). Conclusions: Only the DM method achieved a substantial number of complete MSM surveys. Successful implementation of an internet-based systematic sampling method may be problematic, but a convenience sample of MSM using banner advertisements is feasible and may produce useful and timely behavioral information from a large number of MSM. PMID:23091580

  20. Potential Impact of Integrating HIV Surveillance and Clinic Data on Retention-in-Care Estimates and Re-Engagement Efforts.

    PubMed

    Enns, Eva A; Reilly, Cavan S; Virnig, Beth A; Baker, Karen; Vogenthaler, Nicholas; Henry, Keith

    2016-09-01

    Retention in care is essential to the health of people living with HIV and also for their communities. We sought to quantify the value of integrating HIV surveillance data with clinical records for improving the accuracy of retention-in-care estimates and the efficiency of efforts to re-engage out-of-care patients. Electronic medical records (EMRs) of HIV+ patients ≥18 years old from a public, hospital-based clinic in Minneapolis, MN between 2008 and 2014 were merged with state surveillance data on HIV-related laboratory tests, out-of-state relocation, and mortality. We calculated levels of retention and estimated the number of required case investigations to re-engage patients who appeared to be out of care over the study period with and without surveillance data integration. Retention was measured as the proportion of years in compliance with Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) guidelines (two clinical encounters >90 days apart annually) and the proportion of patients experiencing a gap in care >12 months. With data integration, retention estimates improved from an average HRSA compliance of 70.3% using EMR data alone to 77.5% with surveillance data, whereas the proportion of patients experiencing a >12-month gap in care decreased from 45.0% to 34.4%. If case investigations to re-engage patients were initiated after a 12-month gap in care, surveillance data would avoid 330 (29.3%) investigations over the study period. Surveillance data integration improves the accuracy of retention-in-care estimates and would avert a substantial number of unnecessary case investigations for patients who appear to be out of care but, in fact, receive care elsewhere or have died. PMID:27610462

  1. Mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rosewell, Alexander; Ropa, Berry; Randall, Heather; Dagina, Rosheila; Hurim, Samuel; Bieb, Sibauk; Datta, Siddhartha; Ramamurthy, Sundar; Mola, Glen; Zwi, Anthony B; Ray, Pradeep; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2013-11-01

    The health care system in Papua New Guinea is fragile, and surveillance systems infrequently meet international standards. To strengthen outbreak identification, health authorities piloted a mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system and used established frameworks to evaluate whether the system was meeting objectives. Stakeholder experience was investigated by using standardized questionnaires and focus groups. Nine sites reported data that included 7 outbreaks and 92 cases of acute watery diarrhea. The new system was more timely (2.4 vs. 84 days), complete (70% vs. 40%), and sensitive (95% vs. 26%) than existing systems. The system was simple, stable, useful, and acceptable; however, feedback and subnational involvement were weak. A simple syndromic surveillance system implemented in a fragile state enabled more timely, complete, and sensitive data reporting for disease risk assessment. Feedback and provincial involvement require improvement. Use of mobile phone technology might improve the timeliness and efficiency of public health surveillance.

  2. Early Warning Expert System for Equipment Operability Surveillance

    1996-12-18

    EWES is an Al-based expert system for signal validation and sensor operability surveillance in industrial applications that require high-reliability, high-sensitivity annunciation of degraded sensors, discrepant signals, or the onset or incipience of system disturbances.

  3. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project.

  4. Flexible surveillance system architecture for prototyping video content analysis algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnhoven, R. G. J.; Jaspers, E. G. T.; de With, P. H. N.

    2006-01-01

    Many proposed video content analysis algorithms for surveillance applications are very computationally intensive, which limits the integration in a total system, running on one processing unit (e.g. PC). To build flexible prototyping systems of low cost, a distributed system with scalable processing power is therefore required. This paper discusses requirements for surveillance systems, considering two example applications. From these requirements, specifications for a prototyping architecture are derived. An implementation of the proposed architecture is presented, enabling mapping of multiple software modules onto a number of processing units (PCs). The architecture enables fast prototyping of new algorithms for complex surveillance applications without considering resource constraints.

  5. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  6. Use of penetration monitoring in safeguards systems. [Containment and surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, S.; Bleck, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the performance assessment of penetration monitoring systems has been developed within the Containment and Surveillance Subgroup of the International Working Group on Reprocessing Plant Safeguards. The paper examines the use of this method and concludes that the technique is extremely useful in containment and surveillance system design and could also be valuable in operational safeguards systems providing the information generated was used with the care appropriate to the inherent assumptions.

  7. Development and use of a population based injury surveillance system: the All Wales Injury Surveillance System (AWISS)

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, R; Jones, S; Kemp, A; Sibert, J; Shepherd, J; Richmond, P; Bartlett, C; Palmer, S

    2002-01-01

    This report details the development and use of a population based emergency room surveillance system in the UK. Despite some difficulties in accessing high quality data the system has stimulated a considerable number of research and intervention projects. While surveillance systems with high quality data collection and coding parameters remain the gold standard, imperfect systems, particularly if population based, can play a substantial part in stimulating injury prevention initiatives. PMID:11928983

  8. A comparison of active adverse event surveillance systems worldwide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Lin; Moon, Jinhee; Segal, Jodi B

    2014-08-01

    Post-marketing drug surveillance for adverse drug events (ADEs) has typically relied on spontaneous reporting. Recently, regulatory agencies have turned their attention to more preemptive approaches that use existing data for surveillance. We conducted an environmental scan to identify active surveillance systems worldwide that use existing data for the detection of ADEs. We extracted data about the systems' structures, data, and functions. We synthesized the information across systems to identify common features of these systems. We identified nine active surveillance systems. Two systems are US based-the FDA Sentinel Initiative (including both the Mini-Sentinel Initiative and the Federal Partner Collaboration) and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD); two are Canadian-the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES) and the Vaccine and Immunization Surveillance in Ontario (VISION); and two are European-the Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions by Integrative Mining of Clinical Records and Biomedical Knowledge (EU-ADR) Alliance and the Vaccine Adverse Event Surveillance and Communication (VAESCO). Additionally, there is the Asian Pharmacoepidemiology Network (AsPEN) and the Shanghai Drug Monitoring and Evaluative System (SDMES). We identified two systems in the UK-the Vigilance and Risk Management of Medicines (VRMM) Division and the Drug Safety Research Unit (DSRU), an independent academic unit. These surveillance systems mostly use administrative claims or electronic medical records; most conduct pharmacovigilance on behalf of a regulatory agency. Either a common data model or a centralized model is used to access existing data. The systems have been built using national data alone or via partnership with other countries. However, active surveillance systems using existing data remain rare. North America and Europe have the most population coverage; with Asian countries making good advances. PMID:25022829

  9. Surveillance of transmitted HIV drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive patients aged less than 25 years, in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sungkanuparph, Somnuek; Pasomsub, Ekawat; Chantratita, Wasun

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) is a concern after global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). World Health Organization had developed threshold survey method for surveillance of TDR in resource-limited countries. ART in Thailand has been scaling up for >10 years. To evaluate the current TDR in Thailand, a cross-sectional study was conducted among antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients aged <25 years who newly visited infectious disease clinic in a university hospital, in 2011. HIV genotypic-resistance test was performed. World Health Organization 2009 surveillance drug-resistance mutations were used to define TDR. Of 50 patients, the prevalence of TDR was 4%. Of 2 patients with TDR, 1 had K103N and the other had Y181C mutations. Transmitted HIV drug resistance is emerging in Thailand after a decade of rapid scale-up of ART. Interventions to prevent TDR at the population level are essentially needed in Thailand. Surveillance for TDR in Thailand has to be regularly performed.

  10. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Rufiji HDSS).

    PubMed

    Mrema, Sigilbert; Kante, Almamy M; Levira, Francis; Mono, Amaniel; Irema, Kahema; de Savigny, Don; Masanja, Honorati

    2015-04-01

    The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) was established in October 1998 to evaluate the impact on burden of disease of health system reforms based on locally generated data, prioritization, resource allocation and planning for essential health interventions. The Rufiji HDSS collects detailed information on health and survival and provides a framework for population-based health research of relevance to local and national health priorities.In December 2012 the population under surveillance was about 105,503 people, residing in 19,315 households. Monitoring of households and members within households is undertaken in regular 6-month cycles known as 'rounds'. Self reported information is collected on demographic, household, socioeconomic and geographical characteristics. Verbal autopsy is conducted using standardized questionnaires, to determine probable causes of death. In conjunction with core HDSS activities, the ongoing studies in Rufiji HDSS focus on maternal and new-born health, evaluation of safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) exposure in early pregnancy and the clinical safety of a fixed dose of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQP) in the community. Findings of studies conducted in Rufiji HDSS can be accessed at www.ihi.or.tz/IHI-Digital-Library. PMID:25747869

  11. HIV and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis in ethnic minorities in United Kingdom: is surveillance serving its purpose?

    PubMed Central

    De Cock, K. M.; Low, N.

    1997-01-01

    Experience of disease differs across ethnic groups, and ethnicity is a relevant personal characteristic for descriptive epidemiology. Information about ethnicity and country of birth is omitted from the routine notification of many diseases. HIV infection and AIDS, other sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis have different incidence rates in different ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Omission of ethnic data from surveillance activities allows such differences in incidence to go undetected and unaddressed. Surveillance data that included ethnic details could guide interventions to reduce inequalities in health between different subpopulations. PMID:9202508

  12. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health. PMID:26535737

  13. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health.

  14. HIV-1 transcriptional regulation in the central nervous system and implications for HIV cure research.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Melissa J; Cowley, Daniel J; Wesselingh, Steve L; Gorry, Paul R; Gray, Lachlan R

    2015-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) invades the central nervous system (CNS) during acute infection which can result in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in up to 50% of patients, even in the presence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Within the CNS, productive HIV-1 infection occurs in the perivascular macrophages and microglia. Astrocytes also become infected, although their infection is restricted and does not give rise to new viral particles. The major barrier to the elimination of HIV-1 is the establishment of viral reservoirs in different anatomical sites throughout the body and viral persistence during long-term treatment with cART. While the predominant viral reservoir is believed to be resting CD4(+) T cells in the blood, other anatomical compartments including the CNS, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, bone marrow, and genital tract can also harbour persistently infected cellular reservoirs of HIV-1. Viral latency is predominantly responsible for HIV-1 persistence and is most likely governed at the transcriptional level. Current clinical trials are testing transcriptional activators, in the background of cART, in an attempt to purge these viral reservoirs and reverse viral latency. These strategies aim to activate viral transcription in cells constituting the viral reservoir, so they can be recognised and cleared by the immune system, while new rounds of infection are blocked by co-administration of cART. The CNS has several unique characteristics that may result in differences in viral transcription and in the way latency is established. These include CNS-specific cell types, different transcription factors, altered immune surveillance, and reduced antiretroviral drug bioavailability. A comprehensive understanding of viral transcription and latency in the CNS is required in order to determine treatment outcomes when using transcriptional activators within the CNS. PMID:25060300

  15. HIV-1 transcriptional regulation in the central nervous system and implications for HIV cure research

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Melissa J.; Cowley, Daniel J.; Wesselingh, Steve L.; Gorry, Paul R.; Gray, Lachlan R.

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) invades the central nervous system (CNS) during acute infection which can result in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in up to 50% of patients, even in the presence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Within the CNS, productive HIV-1 infection occurs in the perivascular macrophages and microglia. Astrocytes also become infected, although their infection is restricted and does not give rise to new viral particles. The major barrier to the elimination of HIV-1 is the establishment of viral reservoirs in different anatomical sites throughout the body and viral persistence during long-term treatment with cART. While the predominant viral reservoir is believed to be resting CD4+ T-cells in the blood, other anatomical compartments including the CNS, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, bone marrow, and genital tract can also harbor persistently infected cellular reservoirs of HIV-1. Viral latency is predominantly responsible for HIV-1 persistence, and is most likely governed at the transcriptional level. Current clinical trials are testing transcriptional activators, in the background of cART, in an attempt to purge these viral reservoirs and reverse viral latency. These strategies aim to activate viral transcription in cells constituting the viral reservoir, so they can be recognized and cleared by the immune system, while new rounds of infection are blocked by co-administration of cART. The CNS has several unique characteristics that may result in differences in viral transcription and in the way latency is established. These include CNS-specific cell types, different transcription factors, altered immune surveillance, and reduced antiretroviral drug bioavailability. A comprehensive understanding of viral transcription and latency in the CNS is required in order to determine treatment outcomes when using transcriptional activators within the CNS. PMID:25060300

  16. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. PMID:24290841

  17. Laboratory for testing electro-optical surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2011-05-01

    A modern laboratory capable to carry out expanded tests of all types of electro-optical surveillance systems (thermal imagers, TV/LLLTV cameras, night vision devices, laser range finders/designators/illuminators, multi-sensor surveillance systems) and basic modules of such surveillance systems (IR FPA/CCD/CMOS/EBAPS sensors, image intensifier tubes, optical objectives) was developed and is presented in this paper. The laboratory can be treated as a both scientific and technical achievement due to its several features. First, all important parameters of modern electro-optical surveillance systems or parameters of basic modules of such systems can be measured. Second, the laboratory is built using a set of semi-independent modular test stations. This modular concept enables easy creations of many versions optimized for different applications. Third, interpretation of the measurement data is supported by a set of specialized computer simulation programs. Fourth, all tests stations in the laboratory were developed by the same design team and are based on similar test concepts.. Because of these features the laboratory of electro-optical surveillance technology presented in this paper can be an optimal solutions for scientific centers or industrial companies who plan to enter and make quick progress in all main areas of surveillance technology.

  18. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report: U.S. HIV and AIDS Cases Reported through December 2001. Year-End Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This report presents tables on: persons reported to be living with HIV infection and AIDS, by area and age group; AIDS cases and annual rates and HIV infection cases, by area and age group; male and female adult/adolescent annual AIDS and HIV infection rates; AIDS and HIV cases by age group, exposure category, and sex; male and female…

  19. Evaluation of the National Human Immunodeficiency Virus Surveillance System for the 2011 Diagnosis Year

    PubMed Central

    Karch, Debra L.; Chen, Mi; Tang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention completed migration of all 59 surveillance project areas (PAs) from the case-based HIV/AIDS Reporting System to the document-based Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System. Objectives We conducted a PA-level assessment of Enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System process and outcome standards for HIV infection cases. Design Process standards were reported by PAs and outcome standards were calculated using standardized Centers for Disease Control and Prevention SAS code. Setting A total of 59 PAs including 50 US states, the District of Columbia, 6 separately funded cities (Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles County, New York City, Philadelphia, and San Francisco), and 2 territories (Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands). Participants Cases diagnosed or reported to the PA surveillance system between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011, using data collected through December 2012. Main Outcome Measures Process standards for death ascertainment and intra- and interstate case de-duplication; outcome standards for completeness and timeliness of case reporting, data quality, intrastate duplication rate, risk factor ascertainment, and completeness of initial CD4 and viral load reporting. Results Fifty-five of 59 PAs (93%) reported linking cases to state vital records death certificates during 2012, 76% to the Social Security Death Master File, and 59% to the National Death Index. Seventy percent completed monthly intrastate, and 63% completed semiannual interstate de-duplication. Eighty-three percent met the 85% or more case ascertainment standard, and 92% met the 66% or more timeliness standard; 75% met the 97% or more data quality standard; all PAs met the 5% or less intrastate duplication rate; 41% met the 85% or more risk factor ascertainment standard; 90% met the 50% or more standard for initial CD4; and 93% met the same standard for viral load reporting. Overall, 7% of PAs met all 11 process and outcome standards

  20. Surveillance for quality assessment: IV. Surveillance using a hospital information system.

    PubMed

    Classen, D C; Burke, J P; Pestotnik, S L; Evans, R S; Stevens, L E

    1991-04-01

    Hospital surveillance for infection control purposes is a well-accepted method of following nosocomial infections in U.S. hospitals. However, hospital surveillance is being increasingly performed for nosocomial events in noninfectious areas, such as quality assurance and other areas of outcomes research. For the continued development of hospital surveillance in all these areas, dramatic growth in the amount of information collected will occur. To accommodate this growth and to validate new approaches in these areas, large amounts of data collection will be necessary. Collection of these data will be quite difficult without the creation of clinical hospital data bases in which large amounts of information are collected as a routine part of patient care, not as an elaborate addition to patient care. Automated hospital information systems, such as the HELP system, can facilitate the conduct of ongoing hospital surveillance not only in infection control but also in a broad range of areas, such as quality improvement outcomes research and cost-containment areas. PMID:2061582

  1. Conceptual framework for nutrition surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Mock, N B; Bertrand, W E

    1993-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of nutrition surveillance as an intervention strategy and presents a framework for improving the usefulness of nutrition surveillance programs. It seems clear that such programs' impact on nutritional well-being will depend increasingly on their ability to reach and influence decision-makers. Therefore, it is important to consider political and social forces, and also to realize that if a program is too decentralized or too far removed from key decision-makers, its ability to influence resource flows may be limited. It is of course important that the surveillance information provided be appropriate and of good quality. Therefore, the data collected should be analyzed to ensure they are accurate and representative. Once that has been done, relevant findings should be presented in a readily understandable form designed to meet the intended recipients' information needs. Such findings should also be disseminated to all important decision-maker constituencies, including external donors of nutrition assistance and the general public.

  2. Next Generation Space Surveillance System-of-Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McShane, B.

    2014-09-01

    International economic and military dependence on space assets is pervasive and ever-growing in an environment that is now congested, contested, and competitive. There are a number of natural and man-made risks that need to be monitored and characterized to protect and preserve the space environment and the assets within it. Unfortunately, today's space surveillance network (SSN) has gaps in coverage, is not resilient, and has a growing number of objects that get lost. Risks can be efficiently and effectively mitigated, gaps closed, resiliency improved, and performance increased within a next generation space surveillance network implemented as a system-of-systems with modern information architectures and analytic techniques. This also includes consideration for the newest SSN sensors (e.g. Space Fence) which are born Net-Centric out-of-the-box and able to seamlessly interface with the JSpOC Mission System, global information grid, and future unanticipated users. Significant opportunity exists to integrate legacy, traditional, and non-traditional sensors into a larger space system-of-systems (including command and control centers) for multiple clients through low cost sustainment, modification, and modernization efforts. Clients include operations centers (e.g. JSpOC, USSTRATCOM, CANSPOC), Intelligence centers (e.g. NASIC), space surveillance sensor sites (e.g. AMOS, GEODSS), international governments (e.g. Germany, UK), space agencies (e.g. NASA), and academic institutions. Each has differing priorities, networks, data needs, timeliness, security, accuracy requirements and formats. Enabling processes and technologies include: Standardized and type accredited methods for secure connections to multiple networks, machine-to-machine interfaces for near real-time data sharing and tip-and-queue activities, common data models for analytical processing across multiple radar and optical sensor types, an efficient way to automatically translate between differing client and

  3. Towards an electronic national injury surveillance system in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, F; Hussain, S A; Mandil, A; Alamro, N

    2015-02-01

    Given the need for a uniform, comprehensive, electronic nationwide surveillance system for injuries in Saudi Arabia, a system was designed with the objectives of establishing an epidemiologic profile of injuries in the country; evaluating injury indicators on an ongoing basis; identifying high-risk groups requiring specific interventions; monitoring and evaluating interventions for effectiveness; and producing reports to assist in planning and resource allocation. A special form for this purpose was designed, modified from validated forms used elsewhere for injury surveillance. This initiative of the Ministry of Health is also expected to help validate data collected by other sectors, such as the Ministry of Interior. This paper reviews the milestones of building the system and aims to prompt a debate within the scientific community, especially within the Eastern Mediterranean Region, about the best way to design injury surveillance systems for the Region in order to fine-tune the proposed system before its full-scale implementation. PMID:25876826

  4. Use of outcomes to evaluate surveillance systems for bioterrorist attacks

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Syndromic surveillance systems can potentially be used to detect a bioterrorist attack earlier than traditional surveillance, by virtue of their near real-time analysis of relevant data. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis using the area under the curve (AUC) as a comparison metric has been recommended as a practical evaluation tool for syndromic surveillance systems, yet traditional ROC curves do not account for timeliness of detection or subsequent time-dependent health outcomes. Methods Using a decision-analytic approach, we predicted outcomes, measured in lives, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs, for a series of simulated bioterrorist attacks. We then evaluated seven detection algorithms applied to syndromic surveillance data using outcomes-weighted ROC curves compared to simple ROC curves and timeliness-weighted ROC curves. We performed sensitivity analyses by varying the model inputs between best and worst case scenarios and by applying different methods of AUC calculation. Results The decision analytic model results indicate that if a surveillance system was successful in detecting an attack, and measures were immediately taken to deliver treatment to the population, the lives, QALYs and dollars lost could be reduced considerably. The ROC curve analysis shows that the incorporation of outcomes into the evaluation metric has an important effect on the apparent performance of the surveillance systems. The relative order of performance is also heavily dependent on the choice of AUC calculation method. Conclusions This study demonstrates the importance of accounting for mortality, morbidity and costs in the evaluation of syndromic surveillance systems. Incorporating these outcomes into the ROC curve analysis allows for more accurate identification of the optimal method for signaling a possible bioterrorist attack. In addition, the parameters used to construct an ROC curve should be given careful consideration. PMID

  5. HIV infection and the gastrointestinal immune system

    PubMed Central

    Brenchley, JM; Douek, DC

    2009-01-01

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in the gastrointestinal pathology observed in patients infected with HIV. The gastrointestinal tract is a major site of HIV replication, which results in massive depletion of lamina propria CD4 T cells during acute infection. Highly active antiretroviral therapy leads to incomplete suppression of viral replication and substantially delayed and only partial restoration of gastrointestinal CD4 T cells. The gastrointestinal pathology associated with HIV infection comprises significant enteropathy with increased levels of inflammation and decreased levels of mucosal repair and regeneration. Assessment of gut mucosal immune system has provided novel directions for therapeutic interventions that modify the consequences of acute HIV infection. PMID:19079157

  6. Information systems to support surveillance for malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y; Gosling, Roly D

    2015-07-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination. PMID:26013378

  7. Influenza Virus Surveillance in Coordinated Swine Production Systems, United States

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Bryan S.; DeBeauchamp, Jennifer; Stigger-Rosser, Evelyn; Franks, John; Crumpton, Jeri Carol; Turner, Jasmine; Darnell, Daniel; Jeevan, Trushar; Kayali, Ghazi; Harding, Abbey; Webby, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the epidemiology of influenza A viruses in coordinated swine production systems to which no animals from outside the system are introduced, we conducted virologic surveillance during September 2012–September 2013. Animal age, geographic location, and farm type were found to affect the prevalence of these viruses. PMID:26402228

  8. Information Systems to Support Surveillance for Malaria Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W.; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y.; Gosling, Roly D.

    2015-01-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination. PMID:26013378

  9. HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance Among Jamaican Men Who Have Sex with Men Should Be Prioritized for Reducing HIV Transmission.

    PubMed

    Collins-Fairclough, Aneisha M; Dennis, Ann M; Nelson, Julie A E; Weir, Sharon S; Figueroa, J Peter

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is highest among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica but no genotypic data are available on the virus strains that are responsible for the epidemic among this key population. HIV-1 polymerase (pol) genes from 65 MSM were sequenced and used to predict drug resistance mutations. An HIV drug resistance prevalence of 28% (minimum 13%) was observed among this cohort, with the most frequent mutations conferring resistance to efavirenz, nevirapine, and lamivudine. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed 10 times the number of linked HIV infections among this cohort than respondent reporting. HIV treatment and prevention efforts in Jamaica could benefit significantly from Pol genotyping of the HIV strains infecting socially vulnerable MSM prior to initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), as this would guide suppressive ART and unearth HIV transmission clusters to enable more effective delivery of treatment and prevention programs. PMID:26133540

  10. HIV Drug Resistance Surveillance Among Jamaican Men Who Have Sex with Men Should Be Prioritized for Reducing HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Ann M.; Nelson, Julie A.E.; Weir, Sharon S.; Figueroa, J. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is highest among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Jamaica but no genotypic data are available on the virus strains that are responsible for the epidemic among this key population. HIV-1 polymerase (pol) genes from 65 MSM were sequenced and used to predict drug resistance mutations. An HIV drug resistance prevalence of 28% (minimum 13%) was observed among this cohort, with the most frequent mutations conferring resistance to efavirenz, nevirapine, and lamivudine. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed 10 times the number of linked HIV infections among this cohort than respondent reporting. HIV treatment and prevention efforts in Jamaica could benefit significantly from Pol genotyping of the HIV strains infecting socially vulnerable MSM prior to initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), as this would guide suppressive ART and unearth HIV transmission clusters to enable more effective delivery of treatment and prevention programs. PMID:26133540

  11. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  12. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinlei; Yang, Bo; Huang, Jing; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan; Du, Zhanwei

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  13. Distributed visual-target-surveillance system in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Sheng; Bi, Daowei

    2009-10-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a powerful unattended distributed measurement system, which is widely used in target surveillance because of its outstanding performance in distributed sensing and signal processing. This paper introduces a multiview visual-target-surveillance system in WSN, which can autonomously implement target classification and tracking with collaborative online learning and localization. The proposed system is a hybrid system of single-node and multinode fusion. It is constructed on a peer-to-peer (P2P)-based computing paradigm and consists of some simple but feasible methods for target detection and feature extraction. Importantly, a support-vector-machine-based semisupervised learning method is used to achieve online classifier learning with only unlabeled samples. To reduce the energy consumption and increase the accuracy, a novel progressive data-fusion paradigm is proposed for online learning and localization, where a feasible routing method is adopted to implement information transmission with the tradeoff between performance and cost. Experiment results verify that the proposed surveillance system is an effective, energy-efficient, and robust system for real-world application. Furthermore, the P2P-based progressive data-fusion paradigm can improve the energy efficiency and robustness of target surveillance.

  14. 77 FR 6000 - Airworthiness Directives; Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) Units AGENCY... airworthiness directive (AD): 2012-02-08 Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems, LLC: Amendment 39-16931.... ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Aviation Communication &...

  15. Neural Network Based System for Equipment Startup Surveillance

    1996-12-18

    NEBSESS is a system for equipment surveillance and fault detection which relies on a neural-network based means for diagnosing disturbances during startup and for automatically actuating the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) as a signal validation means during steady-state operation.

  16. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

  17. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  18. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  19. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  20. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  1. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20...

  2. Considerations on a VXI based digital image surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, K.J.; Neumann, G.; Richter, B.

    1995-12-31

    In 1992 the International Atomic Energy Agency established the IAEA Integrated Safeguards Instrumentation Programme (I{sup 2}SIP) which provides a conceptual framework to guide new equipment development activities. One of the main goals of I{sup 2}SIP is to define the optimum structure of future safeguards equipment inventory that would enable the integration of containment, surveillance and unattended radiation monitoring modules for application in facilities with complex safeguards systems. This approach implies a modular equipment structure in both hardware and software. In December 1993, a Consultants Meeting concluded that the VXI instrument bus (VXIbus) standard does not appear to have any technical limitations that will inhibit the use of I{sup 2}SIP and should be considered the first choice for future safeguards equipment. The Agency`s development plan for Digital Image Surveillance (DIS) is part of the I{sup 2}SIP and has defined the need for `distributed systems`, i.e. for multichannel surveillance systems, which should accommodate the integration aspect and meet requirements for both mail-in of recorded information to the Agency and remote surveillance. The paper describes the basic considerations that have led to the selection of the VXI bus to be used for such a system including the different modules emphasizing the integration issue.

  3. Dengue surveillance in the French armed forces: a dengue sentinel surveillance system in countries without efficient local epidemiological surveillance.

    PubMed

    de Laval, Franck; Dia, Aissata; Plumet, Sébastien; Decam, Christophe; Leparc Goffart, Isabelle; Deparis, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance of travel-acquired dengue could improve dengue risk estimation in countries without ability. Surveillance in the French army in 2010 to 2011 highlighted 330 dengue cases, mainly in French West Indies and Guiana: DENV-1 circulated in Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, New Caledonia, Djibouti; DENV-3 in Mayotte and Djibouti; and DENV-4 in French Guiana.

  4. Dengue surveillance in the French armed forces: a dengue sentinel surveillance system in countries without efficient local epidemiological surveillance.

    PubMed

    de Laval, Franck; Dia, Aissata; Plumet, Sébastien; Decam, Christophe; Leparc Goffart, Isabelle; Deparis, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance of travel-acquired dengue could improve dengue risk estimation in countries without ability. Surveillance in the French army in 2010 to 2011 highlighted 330 dengue cases, mainly in French West Indies and Guiana: DENV-1 circulated in Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, New Caledonia, Djibouti; DENV-3 in Mayotte and Djibouti; and DENV-4 in French Guiana. PMID:23809078

  5. Design of natural user interface of indoor surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; Liu, Dan; Jiang, Mu-Jin; Cao, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Conventional optical video surveillance systems usually just record what they view, but they can't make sense of what they are viewing. With lots of useless video information stored and transmitted, waste of memory space and increasing the bandwidth are produced every day. In order to reduce the overall cost of the system, and improve the application value of the monitoring system, we use the Kinect sensor with CMOS infrared sensor, as a supplement to the traditional video surveillance system, to establish the natural user interface system for indoor surveillance. In this paper, the architecture of the natural user interface system, complex background monitoring object separation, user behavior analysis algorithms are discussed. By the analysis of the monitoring object, instead of the command language grammar, when the monitored object need instant help, the system with the natural user interface sends help information. We introduce the method of combining the new system and traditional monitoring system. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. It can satisfy the system requirements of non-contact, online, real time, higher precision and rapid speed to control the state of affairs at the scene.

  6. Surveillance of Traumatic Firefighter Fatalities: An Assessment of Four Systems

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Chris R.; Marsh, Suzanne M.; Castillo, Dawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Firefighters regularly respond to hazardous situations that put them at risk for fatal occupational injuries. Traumatic occupational fatality surveillance is a foundation for understanding the problem and developing prevention strategies. We assessed four surveillance systems for their utility in characterizing firefighter fatalities and informing prevention measures. Methods We examined three population-based systems (the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and systems maintained by the United States Fire Administration and the National Fire Protection Association) and one case-based system (data collected through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program). From each system, we selected traumatic fatalities among firefighters for 2003–2006. Then we compared case definitions, methods for case ascertainment, variables collected, and rate calculation methods. Results Overall magnitude of fatalities differed among systems. The population-based systems were effective in characterizing the circumstances of traumatic firefighter fatalities. The case-based surveillance system was effective in formulating detailed prevention recommendations, which could not be made based on the population-based data alone. Methods for estimating risk were disparate and limited fatality rate comparisons between firefighters and other workers. Conclusions The systems included in this study contribute toward a greater understanding of firefighter fatalities. Areas of improvement for these systems should continue to be identified as they are used to direct research and prevention efforts. PMID:21800748

  7. Declining HIV Prevalence in Parallel With Safer Sex Behaviors in Burkina Faso: Evidence From Surveillance and Population-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Nagot, Nicolas; Samadoulougou, Sekou; Sokey, Mamadou; Guiré, Abdoulaye; Sombié, Issiaka; Meda, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate trends in HIV prevalence and changes in reported sexual behaviors between 1998 and 2014 in Burkina Faso. Methods: We obtained data on HIV prevalence from antenatal care (ANC) surveillance sites (N = 9) that were consistently included in surveillance between 1998 and 2014. We also analyzed data on HIV prevalence and reported sex behaviors from 3 population-based surveys from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), conducted in 1998–99, 2003, and 2010. Sex behavior indicators comprised never-married youth who have never had sex; sex with more than 1 partner; sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; condom use at last sex with a nonmarital, non-cohabiting partner; and sex before age 15. We calculated survey-specific HIV prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used the chi-square test or chi-square test for trend to compare HIV prevalence across survey years and to analyze trends in reported sex behaviors. Results: HIV prevalence among pregnant women ages 15–49 decreased by 72% in urban areas, from 7.1% in 1998 to 2.0% in 2014, and by 75% in rural areas, from 2.0% in 2003 to 0.5% in 2014. HIV declined most in younger age groups, which is a good reflection of recent incidence, with declines of 55% among 15–19-year-olds, 72% among 20–24-year-olds, 40% among 25–29-year-olds, and 7% among those ≥30 years old (considering urban and rural data combined). Data reported in the DHS corroborated these declines in HIV prevalence: between 2003 and 2010, HIV prevalence dropped significantly—by 89% among girls ages 15–19, from 0.9% (95% CI, 0.2 to 1.6) to 0.1% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.4), and by 78% among young women ages 20–24, from 1.8% (95% CI, 1.6 to 3.0) to 0.4% (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.7). During the same time period, people reported safer sex behaviors. For example, significantly higher percentages of never-married youth reported they had never had sex, lower percentages of sexually active youth reported multiple

  8. Launching a National Surveillance System after an earthquake --- Haiti, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-08-01

    On January 12, 2010, Haiti experienced a magnitude-7.0 earthquake; Haitian government officials estimated that 230,000 persons died and 300,000 were injured. At the time, Haiti had no system capable of providing timely surveillance on a wide range of health conditions. Within 2 weeks, Haiti's Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP), the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), CDC, and other national and international agencies launched the National Sentinel Site Surveillance (NSSS) System. The objectives were to monitor disease trends, detect outbreaks, and characterize the affected population to target relief efforts. Fifty-one hospital and clinic surveillance sites affiliated with the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) were selected to report daily counts by e-mail or telephone for 25 specified reportable conditions. During January 25-April 24, 2010, a total of 42,361 persons had a reportable condition; of these, 54.5% were female, and 32.6% were aged <5 years. Nationally, the three most frequently reported specified conditions were acute respiratory infection (ARI) (16.3%), suspected malaria (10.3%), and fever of unknown cause (10.0%). Injuries accounted for 12.0% of reported conditions. No epidemics or disease clusters were detected. The number of reports decreased over time. NSSS is ongoing and currently transitioning into becoming a long-term national surveillance system for Haiti. NSSS data could assist decision makers in allocation of resources and identifying effective public health interventions. However, data reporting and quality could be improved by additional surveillance education for health-care providers, laboratory confirmation of cases of disease, and Internet-based weekly reporting.

  9. Millimeter-wave high-resolution holographic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, Thomas E.; Smith, Russell R.

    1994-03-01

    A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 X 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electronically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A 1D mechanical scan can be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05 m. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  10. An active vision system for multitarget surveillance in dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Bakhtari, Ardevan; Benhabib, Beno

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a novel agent-based method for the dynamic coordinated selection and positioning of active-vision cameras for the simultaneous surveillance of multiple objects-of-interest as they travel through a cluttered environment with a-priori unknown trajectories. The proposed system dynamically adjusts not only the orientation but also the position of the cameras in order to maximize the system's performance by avoiding occlusions and acquiring images with preferred viewing angles. Sensor selection and positioning are accomplished through an agent-based approach. The proposed sensing-system reconfiguration strategy has been verified via simulations and implemented on an experimental prototype setup for automated facial recognition. Both simulations and experimental analyses have shown that the use of dynamic sensors along with an effective online dispatching strategy may tangibly improve the surveillance performance of a sensing system.

  11. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  12. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, Jiangping; Buck, Peter; Sockett, Paul; Aramini, Jeff; Pollari, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS. PMID:16626490

  13. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.; Singer, Ralph M.; Humenik, Keith E.

    1993-01-01

    An expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  14. High-resolution full-panoramic imaging surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerbyson, Gerald M.

    2002-08-01

    This paper describes new class of high-resolution electro-optical imaging search and surveillance system (visual and/or IR). This new system uniquely provides continuous real-time situation-awareness and response, with immediate detection of approaching/ emerging threats, and rapid assessment of a situation, permitting immediate response/ reaction to counter the threat. As such it is uniquely suited for a very wide variety of diverse surveillance applications, especially in the areas of security and defense. The system provides an uninterrupted real-time, effectively live, imaging-display coverage of the entire 360 degree(s) panorama, all evaluated in real time at the full resolution of the imaging sensor. The image resolution for the full 360 degree(s) panorama collected by the sensor, and displayed by the display module, is unprecedentedly high, typically at least 20 megapixels (e.g., 2,000 pixels vertically by 20,000 pixels in circumference). The associated scene-scan cycle time is typically a second or less. This level of performance assures earliest detection of distant targets and highest-quality evaluation of the targets. Two alternative means of surveillance evaluation are available: the Direct-View (Observer) Surveillance Evaluation, and the Semi-Automated Surveillance Evaluation, with visual verification by the observer personnel. The resulting surveillance capability is unprecedented, simultaneously providing a) assured target detection anywhere within the 360 degree(s) panorama, b) classification, c) localization, d) tracking, and e) target status and activity monitoring, all without the need for any external tip-off or cueing inputs to the system. The greatest value of this unique situation-awareness capability is primarily in situations requiring high-confidence protection of high-value vehicles or installations located inside a relatively open and unobstructed region wherein hostile threats could quickly appear at any time and from any direction. An

  15. An intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahboub, Khalid; Gadgil, Neeraj; Ribera, Javier; Delgado, Blanca; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Video surveillance systems are of a great value for public safety. With an exponential increase in the number of cameras, videos obtained from surveillance systems are often archived for forensic purposes. Many automatic methods have been proposed to do video analytics such as anomaly detection and human activity recognition. However, such methods face significant challenges due to object occlusions, shadows and scene illumination changes. In recent years, crowdsourcing has become an effective tool that utilizes human intelligence to perform tasks that are challenging for machines. In this paper, we present an intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video that includes the video recorded as a part of search and rescue missions and large-scale investigation tasks. We describe a method to enhance crowdsourcing by incorporating human detection, re-identification and tracking. At the core of our system, we use a hierarchal pyramid model to distinguish the crowd members based on their ability, experience and performance record. Our proposed system operates in an autonomous fashion and produces a final output of the crowdsourcing analysis consisting of a set of video segments detailing the events of interest as one storyline.

  16. System integration and development for biological warfare agent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Jacob A.; Green, Lance D.; Deshpande, Alina; White, P. Scott

    2007-04-01

    A wide variety of technical needs exist for surveillance, monitoring, identifying, or detecting pathogens with potential use as biological terrorism or warfare agents. Because the needs vary greatly among diverse applications, tailored systems are needed that meet performance, information, and cost requirements. A systems perspective allows developers to identify chokepoints for each application, and focus R&D investments on the limiting factors. Surveillance and detection systems are comprised of three primary components: information (markers), chemistries (assays), and instrumentation for "readout". Careful consideration of these components within the context of each application will allow for increases in efficiency and performance not generally realized when researchers focus on a single component in isolation. In fact, many application requirements can be met with simple novel combinations of existing technologies, without the need for huge investments in basic research. Here we discuss some of the key parameters for surveillance, detection, and identification of biothreat agents, and provide examples of focused development that addresses key bottlenecks, and greatly improve system performance.

  17. Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyatikanto, Rhorom; Religia, Bahar; Rachman, Abdul; Dani, Tiar

    2015-09-01

    Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO & GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar scheme to establish an analysis pipeline for optical space surveillance system hosted in Indonesia.

  18. Health care system and policy factors influencing engagement in HIV medical care: piecing together the fragments of a fractured health care delivery system.

    PubMed

    Mugavero, Michael J; Norton, Wynne E; Saag, Michael S

    2011-01-15

    Grounded in a socio-ecological framework, we describe salient health care system and policy factors that influence engagement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinical care. The discussion emphasizes successful programs and models of service delivery and highlights the limitations of current, fragmented health care system components in supporting effective, efficient, and sustained patient engagement across a continuum of care. A fundamental need exists for improved synergies between funding and service agencies that provide HIV testing, prevention, treatment, and supportive services. We propose a feedback loop whereby actionable, patient-level surveillance of HIV testing and engagement in care activities inform educational outreach and resource allocation to support integrated "testing and linkage to care plus" service delivery. Ongoing surveillance of programmatic performance in achieving defined benchmarks for linkage of patients who have newly diagnosed HIV infection and retention of those patients in care is imperative to iteratively inform further educational efforts, resource allocation, and refinement of service delivery.

  19. Secure Video Surveillance System Acquisition Software

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-04

    The SVSS Acquisition Software collects and displays video images from two cameras through a VPN, and store the images onto a collection controller. The software is configured to allow a user to enter a time window to display up to 2 1/2, hours of video review. The software collects images from the cameras at a rate of 1 image per second and automatically deletes images older than 3 hours. The software code operates in a linux environment and can be run in a virtual machine on Windows XP. The Sandia software integrates the different COTS software together to build the video review system.

  20. Secure Video Surveillance System Acquisition Software

    2009-12-04

    The SVSS Acquisition Software collects and displays video images from two cameras through a VPN, and store the images onto a collection controller. The software is configured to allow a user to enter a time window to display up to 2 1/2, hours of video review. The software collects images from the cameras at a rate of 1 image per second and automatically deletes images older than 3 hours. The software code operates in amore » linux environment and can be run in a virtual machine on Windows XP. The Sandia software integrates the different COTS software together to build the video review system.« less

  1. HIV among Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS ... HIV infection—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2013 . HIV Surveillance Special Report 13 . Accessed January ...

  2. Reconciling surveillance systems with limited resources: an evaluation of passive surveillance for rabies in an endemic setting.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Laura; Gilbert, William; Subasinghe, Dynatra; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance systems for rabies in endemic regions are often subject to severe constraints in terms of resources. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) propose the use of an active surveillance system to substantiate claims of disease freedom, including rabies. However, many countries do not have the resources to establish active surveillance systems for rabies and the testing of dead dogs poses logistical challenges. This paper explores the potential of using a scenario tree model parameterised with data collected via questionnaires and interviews to estimate the sensitivity of passive surveillance, assessing its potential as a viable low-cost alternative to active surveillance systems. The results of this explorative study illustrated that given a large enough sample size, in this case the entire population of Colombo City, the sensitivity of passive surveillance can be 100% even at a low disease prevalence (0.1%), despite the low sensitivity of individual surveillance components (mean values in the range 4.077×10(-5)-1.834×10(-3) at 1% prevalence). In addition, logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with increased recognition of rabies in dogs and reporting of rabies suspect dogs. Increased recognition was observed amongst dog owners (OR 3.8 (CI, 1.3-10.8)), people previously bitten by dogs (OR 5.9 (CI, 2.2-15.9)) and people who believed they had seen suspect dogs in the past (OR 4.7 (CI, 1.8-12.9)). Increased likelihood of reporting suspect dogs was observed amongst dog owners (OR 5.3 (CI, 1.1-25)). Further work is required to validate the data collection tool and the assumptions made in the model with respect to sample size in order to develop a robust methodology for evaluating passive rabies surveillance.

  3. A novel surveillance system for rescue and military operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Win, Yin Thu; Ashraf, Muhammad Waseem; Afzulpurkar, Nitin; Tayyaba, Shahzadi; Htun, Hla Thar; Punyasai, Chumnarm

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a novel design of ultrasonic based surveillance system for rescue and military operations has been presented. The developed system consists of electronic module, transmitter, receiver, digital to analogue converter, liquid crystal display (LCD) and power supply. First, the mathematical model has been presented for the object detection system. Then the numerical simulation has been performed using Matlab plate form. The experiments have been conducted using ultrasonic frequencies. The thin cloth, thin curtain, thick curtain, paper and transparent plastic have been considered as a media during experiments. The presented system is highly accurate for object detection behind the obstacle.

  4. Demonstration of a noise-surveillance system at a PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The automated surveillance system has monitored the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant during its first fuel cycle. The system was able to acceptably adapt to different plant operating conditions. While evaluations are still ongoing, results indicate that the system was able to adapt to signals with different statistical character and that the discriminants are useful in detecting spectral changes. The system monitored long-term noise behavior, detected spectra that differ from what is considered normal, and provided concise storage of spectra together with the plant operating condition associated with the stored spectra.

  5. A Behavior Based Control System for Surveillance UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekan, John; Lu, Bowen; Li, Bo; Gu, Dongbing; Hu, Huosheng

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is required to carry out duties such as surveillance, reconnaissance, search and rescue and security patrol missions. Autonomous operation of UAVs is a key to the success of these missions. In this chapter, we propose to use a behavior based control architecture to implement autonomous operation for UAV surveillance missions. This control architecture consists of two layers: a low level control layer and a behavior layer. The low level control layer decomposes 3D motion of UAVs into several atomic actions, such as yaw, roll, pitch, altitude, and 2D position control. These atomic actions together serve as a basis for the behavior layer. The behavior layer consists of a number of necessary behaviors used for surveillance missions, including take-off, object tracking, hovering, landing, trajectory following, obstacle avoidance amongst other behaviors. These behaviors can be instantiated individually or collectively to fulfill the required missions issued by human operators. To evaluate the proposed control architecture, the commercially available DraganFlyer QuadRotor was used as the UAV platform. With the aid of an indoor positioning system, several atomic actions and a group of behaviors were developed for the DraganFlyer. Real testing experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed system.

  6. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor.

  7. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.

    1988-01-21

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil area of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor. 2 figs.

  8. Was the French clinical surveillance system of bovine brucellosis influenced by the occurrence and surveillance of other abortive diseases?

    PubMed

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Touratier, Anne; Gache, Kristel; Sala, Carole; Calavas, Didier

    2015-03-01

    The bovine brucellosis clinical surveillance system implemented in France aims to detect early any case of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification of every bovine abortion. Following the spread of the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in France in 2012 and 2013, and the implementation in 2012 of a clinical surveillance programme of Q fever based on abortion notifications in ten pilot départements, our objective was to study whether these two events influenced the brucellosis clinical surveillance system. The proportion of notifying farmers was analyzed over each semester from June 1, 2009 to June 30, 2013 according to the size and production type of herds, SBV status of départements and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance. Our analysis showed a slight increase in the proportion of notifying farmers as départements became infected by SBV, and after the implementation of Q fever surveillance (during the first semester of 2013). These variations might be explained by an increase in abortion occurrence (congenital deformities in newborns, due to SBV) and/or by an increase in farmers' and veterinarians' awareness (due to the spread of SBV and the implementation of the Q fever surveillance). These results highlight the difficulties in interpreting variations in the proportion of notifying farmers as a consequence of an increase in abortion occurrence. As bovine abortion surveillance can play an important role in the early warning for several diseases, there is a need to explore other ways to monitor abortions in cattle, such as syndromic surveillance using the dates of artificial insemination or calving data.

  9. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, D. L.; Sheen, D. M.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, T. E.; Smith, R. R.; Droppo, J. G., Jr.

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. Metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 (times) 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electronically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  10. Syndromic surveillance for health information system failures: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mei-Sing; Magrabi, Farah; Coiera, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the applicability of a syndromic surveillance method to the early detection of health information technology (HIT) system failures. Methods A syndromic surveillance system was developed to monitor a laboratory information system at a tertiary hospital. Four indices were monitored: (1) total laboratory records being created; (2) total records with missing results; (3) average serum potassium results; and (4) total duplicated tests on a patient. The goal was to detect HIT system failures causing: data loss at the record level; data loss at the field level; erroneous data; and unintended duplication of data. Time-series models of the indices were constructed, and statistical process control charts were used to detect unexpected behaviors. The ability of the models to detect HIT system failures was evaluated using simulated failures, each lasting for 24 h, with error rates ranging from 1% to 35%. Results In detecting data loss at the record level, the model achieved a sensitivity of 0.26 when the simulated error rate was 1%, while maintaining a specificity of 0.98. Detection performance improved with increasing error rates, achieving a perfect sensitivity when the error rate was 35%. In the detection of missing results, erroneous serum potassium results and unintended repetition of tests, perfect sensitivity was attained when the error rate was as small as 5%. Decreasing the error rate to 1% resulted in a drop in sensitivity to 0.65–0.85. Conclusions Syndromic surveillance methods can potentially be applied to monitor HIT systems, to facilitate the early detection of failures. PMID:23184193

  11. Evolution of an integrated public health surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Derek A; Ford, Nancy; Tlusty, Susan; Bodurtha, Joann N

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing recognition in maternal and child health of the importance of social, behavioral, biological, and genetic factors across the entire life course. Unfortunately, most state maternal and child health surveillance systems are not designed to readily address longitudinal research questions or track and follow children across multiple programs over time. The Virginia Department of Health (VDH) recently integrated its birth defects registry, newborn hearing screening tracking and management system, and electronic birth certificate (EBC) into a robust, Web-based surveillance system called the Virginia Vital Events and Screening Tracking System (VVESTS). Completely redesigning the existing birth defects and newborn hearing screening system (the Virginia Infant Screening and Infant Tracking System--VISITS I) with minimal disruption of ongoing reporting presented a number of challenges. Because VVESTS had different requirements such as required fields and data validations, extensive data preparation was required to ensure that existing VISITS I data would be included in the new system (VISITS II). Efforts included record deduplication, conversion of free text fields into discrete variables, dealing with missing/invalid data, and linkage with birth certificate data. VISITS II serves multiple program needs; improves data quality and security; automates linkages within families, across programs, and over time; and improves the ability of VDH to provide children with birth defects and their families necessary follow-up services and enhanced care coordination.

  12. Surveillance system and method having an adaptive sequential probability fault detection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor); Herzog, James P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  13. Surveillance system and method having an adaptive sequential probability fault detection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzog, James P. (Inventor); Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  14. Surveillance System and Method having an Adaptive Sequential Probability Fault Detection Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor); Herzog, James P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  15. Rotavirus Surveillance at a WHO-Coordinated Invasive Bacterial Disease Surveillance Site in Bangladesh: A Feasibility Study to Integrate Two Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, ASM Nawshad Uddin; Arumugam, Rajesh; Marzan, Mahfuza; Saha, Shampa; Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Black, Robert E.; Kang, Gagandeep; Saha, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently coordinates rotavirus diarrhea and invasive bacterial disease (IBD) surveillance at 178 sentinel sites in 60 countries. However, only 78 sites participate in both surveillance systems using a common sentinel site. Here, we explored the feasibility of extending a WHO-IBD surveillance platform to generate data on the burden of rotaviral diarrhea and its epidemiological characteristics to prepare the countries to measure the impact of rotaviral vaccine. A six-month (July to December, 2012) surveillance, managed by IBD team, collected stool samples and clinical data from under-five children with acute watery diarrhea at an IBD sentinel site. Samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA and genotyped by PCR at the regional reference laboratory (RRL). Specimens were collected from 79% (n = 297) of eligible cases (n = 375); 100% of which were tested for rotavirus by ELISA and 54% (159/297) of them were positive. At RRL, all the cases were confirmed by PCR and genotyped (99%; 158/159). The typing results revealed the predominance of G12 (40%; 64/159) genotype, followed by G1 (31%; 50/159) and G9 (19%; 31/159). All in all, this exploratory surveillance collected the desired demographic and epidemiological data and achieved almost all the benchmark indicators of WHO, starting from enrollment number to quality assurance through a number of case detection, collection, and testing of specimens and genotyping of strains at RRL. The success of this WHO-IBD site in achieving these benchmark indicators of WHO can be used by WHO as a proof-of-concept for considering integration of rotavirus surveillance with WHO-IBD platforms, specifically in countries with well performing IBD site and no ongoing rotavirus surveillance. PMID:27096958

  16. Rotavirus Surveillance at a WHO-Coordinated Invasive Bacterial Disease Surveillance Site in Bangladesh: A Feasibility Study to Integrate Two Surveillance Systems.

    PubMed

    Tanmoy, Arif Mohammad; Ahmed, Asm Nawshad Uddin; Arumugam, Rajesh; Hossain, Belal; Marzan, Mahfuza; Saha, Shampa; Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H; Black, Robert E; Kang, Gagandeep; Saha, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently coordinates rotavirus diarrhea and invasive bacterial disease (IBD) surveillance at 178 sentinel sites in 60 countries. However, only 78 sites participate in both surveillance systems using a common sentinel site. Here, we explored the feasibility of extending a WHO-IBD surveillance platform to generate data on the burden of rotaviral diarrhea and its epidemiological characteristics to prepare the countries to measure the impact of rotaviral vaccine. A six-month (July to December, 2012) surveillance, managed by IBD team, collected stool samples and clinical data from under-five children with acute watery diarrhea at an IBD sentinel site. Samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA and genotyped by PCR at the regional reference laboratory (RRL). Specimens were collected from 79% (n=297) of eligible cases (n=375); 100% of which were tested for rotavirus by ELISA and 54% (159/297) of them were positive. At RRL, all the cases were confirmed by PCR and genotyped (99%; 158/159). The typing results revealed the predominance of G12 (40%; 64/159) genotype, followed by G1 (31%; 50/159) and G9 (19%; 31/159). All in all, this exploratory surveillance collected the desired demographic and epidemiological data and achieved almost all the benchmark indicators of WHO, starting from enrollment number to quality assurance through a number of case detection, collection, and testing of specimens and genotyping of strains at RRL. The success of this WHO-IBD site in achieving these benchmark indicators of WHO can be used by WHO as a proof-of-concept for considering integration of rotavirus surveillance with WHO-IBD platforms, specifically in countries with well performing IBD site and no ongoing rotavirus surveillance.

  17. The Emerging HIV Epidemic on the Mexico-US Border: An International Case Study Characterizing the Role of Epidemiology in Surveillance and Response

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mays, Vickie M.; Jimenez, Richard; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose HIV/AIDS surveillance data are critical for monitoring epidemic trends, but can mask dynamic sub-epidemics, especially in vulnerable populations that under-utilize HIV testing. In this case study, we describe community-based epidemiologic data among injection drug users (IDU) and female sex workers (FSWs) in two northern Mexico-US Border States that identified an emerging HIV epidemic and generated a policy response. Methods We draw from quantitative and qualitative cross-sectional and prospective epidemiologic studies and behavioral intervention studies among IDUs and FSWs in Tijuana, Baja California and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua. Results Recognition that the HIV epidemic on Mexico’s northern border was already well established in subgroups where it had been presumed to be insignificant was met with calls for action and enhanced prevention efforts from researchers, NGOs and policy makers. Conclusions Successful policies and program outcomes included expansion of needle exchange programs, a nation-wide mobile HIV prevention program targeting marginalized populations, a successful funding bid from the Global Fund for HIV, TB and Malaria to scale up targeted HIV prevention programs and the establishment of binational training programs on prevention of HIV and substance use. We discuss how epidemiologic data informed HIV prevention policies and suggest how other countries may learn from Mexico’s experience. PMID:22626001

  18. [The main tasks concerning the organization of surveillance and prophylaxis of HIV-infection in Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    The main task concerning striving against HIV/AIDS epidemic is effective use of present political, financial, organizational, and informative possibilities. However, despite efforts, the epidemic situation with HIV/AIDS is constantly worsening. Approaches to and stereotypes of the organization of this work and its fulfillment cannot provide a complete solution to this problem. Among strategic tasks that should be fulfilled at the federal level are the following: strengthening of coordination of actions from the departmental level to interaction with Russian and international organizations and the community of people living with HIV/AIDS; determination of requirements and purchase of necessary diagnostic test systems for HIV-infection detection as well as pharmaceuticals, and providing subjects of Russian Federation with them. Tactical tasks that should be fulfilled at the level of subjects of Russian Federation are the following: medical aid to patients with HIV/AIDS should become more approachable; complete dispensary observation and treatment of these patients should be organized. Civil society and interaction between non-profit organizations and governmental structures play an important role in organization and fulfillment of striving against HIV epidemic.

  19. A multisensor system for airborne surveillance of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, A. T.; Ketchal, R.; Catoe, C.

    1973-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is developing a prototype airborne oil surveillance system for use in its Marine Environmental Protection Program. The prototype system utilizes an X-band side-looking radar, a 37-GHz imaging microwave radiometer, a multichannel line scanner, and a multispectral low light level system. The system is geared to detecting and mapping oil spills and potential pollution violators anywhere within a 25 nmi range of the aircraft flight track under all but extreme weather conditions. The system provides for false target discrimination and maximum identification of spilled materials. The system also provides an automated detection alarm, as well as a color display to achieve maximum coupling between the sensor data and the equipment operator.

  20. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS): purpose, production, and potential.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) developed the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) to assist all 192 WHO Member States in collecting data on youth and adult tobacco use. The flexible GTSS system includes common data items but allows countries to include important unique information at their discretion. It uses a common survey methodology, similar field procedures for data collection, and similar data management and processing techniques. The GTSS includes collection of data through three surveys: the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) for youth, and the Global School Personnel Survey (GSPS) and the Global Health Professional Survey (GHPS) for adults. GTSS data potentially can be applied in four ways. First, countries and research partners can disseminate data through publications, presentations, and an active GTSS web site. Second, countries can use GTSS data to inform politicians about the tobacco problem in their country, leading to new policy decisions to prevent and control tobacco use. Third, GTSS can provide countries with valuable feedback to evaluate and improve Country National Action Plans or develop new plans. Fourth, in response to the WHO FCTC call for countries to use consistent methods and procedures in their surveillance efforts, GTSS offers such consistency in sampling procedures, core questionnaire items, training infield procedures, and analysis of data across all survey sites. The GTSS represents the most comprehensive tobacco surveillance system ever developed and implemented. As an example, this paper describes development of the GYTS and discusses potential uses of the data. Sample data were drawn from 38 sites in 24 countries in the African Region, 82 sites in 35 countries in the Americas Region, 20 sites in 17 countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank region in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 25 sites in 22 countries in the European

  1. [Spatial orientation of pilot using a cockpit exterior surveillance system].

    PubMed

    Chuntul, A V; Lapa, V V; Davydov, V V

    2013-01-01

    Spatial orientation of pilots using a cockpit exterior surveillance system was tested in real nighttime helicopter flights. Major factors complicating adequate spatial orientation and provoking visual illusions in pilots are lack of information for spatial depth (relation) perception in two-dimensional TV images altering their position along the horizontal and vertical lines of trajectory and simultaneous piloting and target search-identification operations. Reliability of pilot's spatial orientation could be improved by displaying on the exterior imaging screen also relevant flight navigation parameters.

  2. Markov random fields for static foreground classification in surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, Jack K.; Lu, Thomas T.

    2014-09-01

    We present a novel technique for classifying static foreground in automated airport surveillance systems between abandoned and removed objects by representing the image as a Markov Random Field. The proposed algorithm computes and compares the net probability of the region of interest before and after the event occurs, hence finding which fits more naturally with their respective backgrounds. Having tested on a dataset from the PETS 2006, PETS 2007, AVSS20074, CVSG, VISOR, CANDELA and WCAM datasets, the algorithm has shown capable of matching the results of the state-of-the-art, is highly parallel and has a degree of robustness to noise and illumination changes.

  3. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Severtsen, Ronald H.

    1999-01-01

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image.

  4. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Severtsen, R.H.

    1999-01-12

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system is disclosed including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image. 13 figs.

  5. Situation exploration in a persistent surveillance system with multidimensional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad S.

    2013-03-01

    There is an emerging need for fusing hard and soft sensor data in an efficient surveillance system to provide accurate estimation of situation awareness. These mostly abstract, multi-dimensional and multi-sensor data pose a great challenge to the user in performing analysis of multi-threaded events efficiently and cohesively. To address this concern an interactive Visual Analytics (VA) application is developed for rapid assessment and evaluation of different hypotheses based on context-sensitive ontology spawn from taxonomies describing human/human and human/vehicle/object interactions. A methodology is described here for generating relevant ontology in a Persistent Surveillance System (PSS) and demonstrates how they can be utilized in the context of PSS to track and identify group activities pertaining to potential threats. The proposed VA system allows for visual analysis of raw data as well as metadata that have spatiotemporal representation and content-based implications. Additionally in this paper, a technique for rapid search of tagged information contingent to ranking and confidence is explained for analysis of multi-dimensional data. Lastly the issue of uncertainty associated with processing and interpretation of heterogeneous data is also addressed.

  6. Validation of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Sleep Questions

    PubMed Central

    Jungquist, Carla R.; Mund, Jaime; Aquilina, Alan T.; Klingman, Karen; Pender, John; Ochs-Balcom, Heather; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Dickerson, Suzanne S.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: Sleep problems may constitute a risk for health problems, including cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, poor work performance, and motor vehicle accidents. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the current Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) sleep questions by establishing the sensitivity and specificity for detection of sleep/ wake disturbance. Methods: Repeated cross-sectional assessment of 300 community dwelling adults over the age of 18 who did not wear CPAP or oxygen during sleep. Reliability and validity testing of the BRFSS sleep questions was performed comparing to BFRSS responses to data from home sleep study, actigraphy for 14 days, Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and PROMIS-57. Results: Only two of the five BRFSS sleep questions were found valid and reliable in determining total sleep time and excessive daytime sleepiness. Conclusions: Refinement of the BRFSS questions is recommended. Citation: Jungquist CR, Mund J, Aquilina AT, Klingman K, Pender J, Ochs-Balcom H, van Wijngaarden E, Dickerson SS. Validation of the behavioral risk factor surveillance system sleep questions. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(3):301–310. PMID:26446246

  7. Profile: The Niakhar Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Delaunay, Valerie; Douillot, Laetitia; Diallo, Aldiouma; Dione, Djibril; Trape, Jean-François; Medianikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Sokhna, Cheikh

    2013-01-01

    The Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Niakhar, a rural area of Senegal, is located 135 km east of Dakar. The HDSS was established in 1962 by the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) of Senegal to face the shortcomings of the civil registration system and provide demographic indicators. Some 65 villages in the Niakhar area were followed annually by the HDSS from 1962–1969. The study zone was reduced to 8 villages from 1969–1983, and from then on the HDSS was extended to include 22 other villages, covering a total of 30 villages for a population estimated at 43 000 in January 2012. Thus, 8 villages in the Niakhar area have been under demographic surveillance for almost 50 years and 30 villages for 30 years. Vital events, migrations, marital changes, pregnancies, and immunizations are routinely recorded every 4 months. The HDSS data base also includes epidemiological, economic, and environmental information obtained from specific surveys. Data were collected through annual rounds from 1962 to 1987. The rounds became weekly from 1987–1997, followed by routine visits conducted every 3 months between 1997 and 2007 and every 4 months since then. The data collected in the HDSS are not open to access, but can be fairly shared under conditions of collaboration and endowment. PMID:24062286

  8. Profile: The Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS).

    PubMed

    Scott, J Anthony G; Bauni, Evasius; Moisi, Jennifer C; Ojal, John; Gatakaa, Hellen; Nyundo, Christopher; Molyneux, Catherine S; Kombe, Francis; Tsofa, Benjamin; Marsh, Kevin; Peshu, Norbert; Williams, Thomas N

    2012-06-01

    The Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS), located on the Indian Ocean coast of Kenya, was established in 2000 as a record of births, pregnancies, migration events and deaths and is maintained by 4-monthly household visits. The study area was selected to capture the majority of patients admitted to Kilifi District Hospital. The KHDSS has 260 000 residents and the hospital admits 4400 paediatric patients and 3400 adult patients per year. At the hospital, morbidity events are linked in real time by a computer search of the population register. Linked surveillance was extended to KHDSS vaccine clinics in 2008. KHDSS data have been used to define the incidence of hospital presentation with childhood infectious diseases (e.g. rotavirus diarrhoea, pneumococcal disease), to test the association between genetic risk factors (e.g. thalassaemia and sickle cell disease) and infectious diseases, to define the community prevalence of chronic diseases (e.g. epilepsy), to evaluate access to health care and to calculate the operational effectiveness of major public health interventions (e.g. conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine). Rapport with residents is maintained through an active programme of community engagement. A system of collaborative engagement exists for sharing data on survival, morbidity, socio-economic status and vaccine coverage.

  9. Establishment, test and evaluation of a prototype volcano surveillance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. L.; Eaton, J. P.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D.; Marquez, D.; Allen, R.

    1973-01-01

    A volcano-surveillance system utilizing 23 multilevel earthquake counters and 6 biaxial borehole tiltmeters is being installed and tested on 15 volcanoes in 4 States and 4 foreign countries. The purpose of this system is to give early warning when apparently dormant volcanoes are becoming active. The data are relayed through the ERTS-Data Collection System to Menlo Park for analysis. Installation was completed in 1972 on the volcanoes St. Augustine and Iliamna in Alaska, Kilauea in Hawaii, Baker, Rainier and St. Helens in Washington, Lassen in California, and at a site near Reykjavik, Iceland. Installation continues and should be completed in April 1973 on the volcanoes Santiaguito, Fuego, Agua and Pacaya in Guatemala, Izalco in El Salvador and San Cristobal, Telica and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua.

  10. Application of infrared uncooled cameras in surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulski, R.; Bareła, J.; Trzaskawka, P.; PiÄ tkowski, T.

    2013-10-01

    The recent necessity to protect military bases, convoys and patrols gave serious impact to the development of multisensor security systems for perimeter protection. One of the most important devices used in such systems are IR cameras. The paper discusses technical possibilities and limitations to use uncooled IR camera in a multi-sensor surveillance system for perimeter protection. Effective ranges of detection depend on the class of the sensor used and the observed scene itself. Application of IR camera increases the probability of intruder detection regardless of the time of day or weather conditions. It also simultaneously decreased the false alarm rate produced by the surveillance system. The role of IR cameras in the system was discussed as well as technical possibilities to detect human being. Comparison of commercially available IR cameras, capable to achieve desired ranges was done. The required spatial resolution for detection, recognition and identification was calculated. The simulation of detection ranges was done using a new model for predicting target acquisition performance which uses the Targeting Task Performance (TTP) metric. Like its predecessor, the Johnson criteria, the new model bounds the range performance with image quality. The scope of presented analysis is limited to the estimation of detection, recognition and identification ranges for typical thermal cameras with uncooled microbolometer focal plane arrays. This type of cameras is most widely used in security systems because of competitive price to performance ratio. Detection, recognition and identification range calculations were made, and the appropriate results for the devices with selected technical specifications were compared and discussed.

  11. The integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibin; Yatawara, Mahendra; Huang, Shao-Chi; Dudley, Kevin; Szekely, Christine; Holden, Stuart; Piantadosi, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer (PASS-PC). The integrated PASS-PC is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed at collecting a variety of data on prostate cancer patients in a standardized and efficient way. The integrated PASS-PC was commissioned by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) and built through the joint of efforts by a group of experts in medical oncology, genetics, pathology, nutrition, and cancer research informatics. Their main goal is facilitating the efficient and uniform collection of critical demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, dietary and clinical information to be used in developing new strategies in diagnosing, preventing and treating prostate cancer.The integrated PASS-PC is designed based on common industry standards - a three tiered architecture and a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA). It utilizes open source software and programming languages such as HTML, PHP, CSS, JQuery, Drupal and MySQL. We also use a commercial database management system - Oracle 11g. The integrated PASS-PC project uses a "confederation model" that encourages participation of any interested center, irrespective of its size or location. The integrated PASS-PC utilizes a standardized approach to data collection and reporting, and uses extensive validation procedures to prevent entering erroneous data. The integrated PASS-PC controlled vocabulary is harmonized with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thesaurus. Currently, two cancer centers in the USA are participating in the integrated PASS-PC project.THE FINAL SYSTEM HAS THREE MAIN COMPONENTS: 1. National Prostate Surveillance Network (NPSN) website; 2. NPSN myConnect portal; 3. Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer (PASS-PC). PASS-PC is a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) compatible product. The integrated PASS-PC provides a foundation for collaborative prostate cancer research. It has been built to

  12. Systems Approaches to Animal Disease Surveillance and Resource Allocation: Methodological Frameworks for Behavioral Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rich, Karl M.; Denwood, Matthew J.; Stott, Alistair W.; Mellor, Dominic J.; Reid, Stuart W. J.; Gunn, George J.

    2013-01-01

    While demands for animal disease surveillance systems are growing, there has been little applied research that has examined the interactions between resource allocation, cost-effectiveness, and behavioral considerations of actors throughout the livestock supply chain in a surveillance system context. These interactions are important as feedbacks between surveillance decisions and disease evolution may be modulated by their contextual drivers, influencing the cost-effectiveness of a given surveillance system. This paper identifies a number of key behavioral aspects involved in animal health surveillance systems and reviews some novel methodologies for their analysis. A generic framework for analysis is discussed, with exemplar results provided to demonstrate the utility of such an approach in guiding better disease control and surveillance decisions. PMID:24348922

  13. A community based surveillance system for perinatal and neonatal care.

    PubMed

    Dyal Chand, A; Khale, M

    1989-11-01

    The impact of maternal health services on perinatal and neonatal mortality depends on both the quantitative and qualitative coverage of pregnant women with obstetric services. In rural areas this becomes all the more difficult because of the requirement of a large decentralized infrastructure extending from village based health workers and subcentres to the Primary Health Centre and tertiary levels of referral. An effective introduction of socio-cultural, biomedical and managerial interventions is required to reduce perinatal and neonatal mortality. A community based surveillance and monitoring system is central to and facilitates the introduction of all other interventions. Finally, the system operated by grass-root level workers is a motivational tool for achieving expected levels of performance. PMID:2630471

  14. Complement - a key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ricklin, Daniel; Hajishengallis, George; Yang, Kun; Lambris, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly a century after the significance of the human complement system was recognized we have come to realize that its versatile functions extend far beyond the elimination of microbes. Indeed, complement acts as a rapid and efficient immune surveillance system that has distinct effects on healthy and altered host cells and foreign intruders. By eliminating cellular debris and infectious microbes, orchestrating immune responses, and sending `danger' signals, complement contributes substantially to homeostasis, but it may also take action against healthy cells if not properly controlled. This review describes our updated view of the function, structure, and dynamics of the complement network, highlights its interconnection with immunity at large and with other endogenous pathways, and illustrates its dual role in homeostasis and disease. PMID:20720586

  15. A system safety approach to the FAA surveillance process

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, P.W.; Olson, D.R.

    1997-08-08

    As commercial air travel grows in terms of the number of passenger miles flown, there is expected to be a corresponding dramatic increase in the absolute number of accidents. This despite an enviable safety record and a very low accident rate. The political environment is such that an increase in the absolute number of accidents is not acceptable, with a stated goal of a factor of five reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate within ten years. The objective of this project is to develop an improved surveillance process that will provide measurements of the current state-of-health and predictions of future state of health of aircraft, operators, facilities, and personnel. Methodologies developed for nuclear weapon safety, in addition to more well known system safety and high-consequence engineering techniques, will be used in this approach.

  16. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system. PMID:26489602

  17. Health surveillance: proposal for a tool to evaluate technological arrangements in local health systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gerluce Alves Pontes da; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2008-11-01

    In order to identify the various meanings ascribed to health surveillance, the authors conducted a systematic review of articles published from January 1990 to August 2005 in the following databases: LILACS, SciELO, CAPES, MEDLINE, and Web of Science. A total of 144 abstracts were read and 18 full texts of Brazilian articles were selected for in-depth analysis, leading to the design of a typology for technological arrangements related to the various meanings: (i) traditional epidemiological surveillance, with communicable diseases as the main object; (ii) public health surveillance, as the municipal component of the national health surveillance system; and (iii) health surveillance, a technological mode of organizing health practices in a given territory. The proposed typology can contribute to research on surveillance practices in local health systems. It can also serve as a template for data collection and analysis. The meanings ascribed to the three types are discussed in light of public health's historical development as a field. PMID:19009127

  18. The return of thalidomide: are birth defects surveillance systems ready?

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Khoury, M J; James, L M; Olney, R S; Paulozzi, L J; Erickson, J D

    1997-12-19

    In the 1960s, thalidomide caused limb deficiencies in thousands of infants worldwide. The limb deficiencies were frequently of the intercalary type. As a result, numerous countries started birth defect surveillance programs. In 1967, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) started the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP), a population-based surveillance system, to provide early warning against new teratogens. Recent studies have shown that thalidomide may be beneficial for a range of conditions, including cancer and AIDS, and it may once again become widely available. Here, we examine the ability of MACDP to detect an increase in the birth prevalence of limb deficiency as an early warning of fetal exposure to thalidomide. We calculated base rates for all limb deficiencies, for bilateral nonsyndromic intercalary or preaxial deficiencies, and for all nonsyndromic intercalary limb deficiencies among Atlanta infants born from 1968 through 1993. We used relative risk estimates from previous studies and a range of pregnancy exposure rates for thalidomide. We tested the statistical power of MACDP to detect subtle changes in the birth prevalence of these defects using Poisson and cumulative sum (CUSUM) techniques. The base rates for all limb deficiencies, for bilateral intercalary or preaxial deficiencies, and for all intercalary limb deficiencies, were 0.53, 0.035, and 0.022/1,000, and the estimated relative risks were 175, 4,570, and 8,180, respectively. We varied the assumed rate of exposure to thalidomide from 1/10,000 to 5/100. With a 1/1,000 exposure rate, both Poisson and CUSUM techniques will detect a rate change in intercalary limb deficiency in about 6 months of monitoring, and a rate change in bilateral intercalary or preaxial deficiencies in about 12 months of monitoring. When monitoring all limb deficiencies, a pregnancy exposure rate of 3.5% or less would go unnoticed by the Poisson method and would take more than 50 years for the CUSUM

  19. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Fouillet, Anne; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors. Materials and Methods We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events. Results We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness. Conclusions We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings. PMID:27182731

  20. 77 FR 52742 - Public Meeting-Strengthening the National Medical Device Postmarket Surveillance System; Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the following public meeting entitled ``Public Meeting--Strengthening the National Medical Device Postmarket Surveillance System.'' The purpose of the meeting is to solicit public feedback regarding the medical device postmarket surveillance system in the United...

  1. Low-Cost National Media-Based Surveillance System for Public Health Events, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Trong T.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Farhana; Chakraborty, Apurba; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Haider, Sabbir; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Sobel, Jeremy; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed a media-based public health surveillance system in Bangladesh during 2010–2011. The system is a highly effective, low-cost, locally appropriate, and sustainable outbreak detection tool that could be used in other low-income, resource-poor settings to meet the capacity for surveillance outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005. PMID:26981877

  2. Low-Cost National Media-Based Surveillance System for Public Health Events, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ao, Trong T; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Farhana; Chakraborty, Apurba; Hossain, M Jahangir; Haider, Sabbir; Alamgir, A S M; Sobel, Jeremy; Luby, Stephen P; Gurley, Emily S

    2016-04-01

    We assessed a media-based public health surveillance system in Bangladesh during 2010-2011. The system is a highly effective, low-cost, locally appropriate, and sustainable outbreak detection tool that could be used in other low-income, resource-poor settings to meet the capacity for surveillance outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005.

  3. An autonomous surveillance system for blind sources localization and separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sean; Kulkarni, Raghavendra; Duraiswamy, Srikanth

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims at developing a new technology that will enable one to conduct an autonomous and silent surveillance to monitor sound sources stationary or moving in 3D space and a blind separation of target acoustic signals. The underlying principle of this technology is a hybrid approach that uses: 1) passive sonic detection and ranging method that consists of iterative triangulation and redundant checking to locate the Cartesian coordinates of arbitrary sound sources in 3D space, 2) advanced signal processing to sanitizing the measured data and enhance signal to noise ratio, and 3) short-time source localization and separation to extract the target acoustic signals from the directly measured mixed ones. A prototype based on this technology has been developed and its hardware includes six B and K 1/4-in condenser microphones, Type 4935, two 4-channel data acquisition units, Type NI-9234, with a maximum sampling rate of 51.2kS/s per channel, one NI-cDAQ 9174 chassis, a thermometer to measure the air temperature, a camera to view the relative positions of located sources, and a laptop to control data acquisition and post processing. Test results for locating arbitrary sound sources emitting continuous, random, impulsive, and transient signals, and blind separation of signals in various non-ideal environments is presented. This system is invisible to any anti-surveillance device since it uses the acoustic signal emitted by a target source. It can be mounted on a robot or an unmanned vehicle to perform various covert operations, including intelligence gathering in an open or a confined field, or to carry out the rescue mission to search people trapped inside ruins or buried under wreckages.

  4. How a visual surveillance system hypothesizes how you behave.

    PubMed

    Micheloni, C; Piciarelli, C; Foresti, G L

    2006-08-01

    In the last few years, the installation of a large number of cameras has led to a need for increased capabilities in video surveillance systems. It has, indeed, been more and more necessary for human operators to be helped in the understanding of ongoing activities in real environments. Nowadays, the technology and the research in the machine vision and artificial intelligence fields allow one to expect a new generation of completely autonomous systems able to reckon the behaviors of entities such as pedestrians, vehicles, and so forth. Hence, whereas the sensing aspect of these systems has been the issue considered the most so far, research is now focused mainly on more newsworthy problems concerning understanding. In this article, we present a novel method for hypothesizing the evolution of behavior. For such purposes, the system is required to extract useful information by means of low-level techniques for detecting and maintaining track of moving objects. The further estimation of performed trajectories, together with objects classification, enables one to compute the probability distribution of the normal activities (e.g., trajectories). Such a distribution is defined by means of a novel clustering technique. The resulting clusters are used to estimate the evolution of objects' behaviors and to speculate about any intention to act dangerously. The provided solution for hypothesizing behaviors occurring in real environments was tested in the context of an outdoor parking lot

  5. Traffic flow wide-area surveillance system definition

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.; Carnal, C.L.; Moynihan, P.I.

    1994-11-01

    Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) is a system for assessing the state of traffic flow over a wide area for enhanced traffic control and improved traffic management and planning. The primary purpose of a TFWAS system is to provide a detailed traffic flow description and context description to sophisticated traffic management and control systems being developed or envisioned for the future. A successful TFWAS system must possess the attributes of safety, reconfigurability, reliability, and expandability. The primary safety premise of TFWAS is to ensure that no action or failure of the TFWAS system or its components can result in risk of injury to humans. A wide variety of communication techniques is available for use with TFWAS systems. These communication techniques can be broken down into two categories, landlines and wireless. Currently used and possible future traffic sensing technologies have been examined. Important criteria for selecting TFWAS sensors include sensor capabilities, costs, operational constraints, sensor compatibility with the infrastructure, and extent. TFWAS is a concept that can take advantage of the strengths of different traffic sensing technologies, can readily adapt to newly developed technologies, and can grow with the development of new traffic control strategies. By developing innovative algorithms that will take information from a variety of sensor types and develop descriptions of traffic flows over a wide area, a more comprehensive understanding of the traffic state can be provided to the control system to perform the most reasonable control actions over the entire wide area. The capability of characterizing the state of traffic over an entire region should revolutionize developments in traffic control strategies.

  6. Surveillance and response systems for elimination of tropical diseases: summary of a thematic series in Infectious Diseases of Poverty.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Yap, Peiling; Tanner, Marcel; Bergquist, Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-01-01

    The peer-reviewed journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty provides a new platform to engage with, and disseminate in an open-access format, science outside traditional disciplinary boundaries. The current piece reviews a thematic series on surveillance-response systems for elimination of tropical diseases. Overall, 22 contributions covering a broad array of diseases are featured - i.e. clonorchiasis, dengue, hepatitis, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), H7N9 avian influenza, lymphatic filariasis, malaria, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), rabies, schistosomiasis and tuberculosis (TB). There are five scoping reviews, a commentary, a letter to the editor, an opinion piece and an editorial pertaining to the theme "Elimination of tropical disease through surveillance and response". The remaining 13 articles are original contributions mainly covering (i) drug resistance; (ii) innovation and validation in the field of mathematical modelling; (iii) elimination of infectious diseases; and (iv) social media reports on disease outbreak notifications released by national health authorities. Analysis of the authors' affiliations reveals that scientists from the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) are prominently represented. Possible explanations include the fact that the 2012 and 2014 international conferences pertaining to surveillance-response mechanisms were both hosted by the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD) in Shanghai, coupled with P.R. China's growing importance with regard to the control of infectious diseases. Within 4 to 22 months of publication, three of the 22 contributions were viewed more than 10 000 times each. With sustained efforts focusing on relevant and strategic information towards control and elimination of infectious diseases, Infectious Diseases of Poverty has become a leading journal in the field of surveillance and response systems in infectious diseases and beyond. PMID:27179509

  7. Evolution of mosquito-based arbovirus surveillance systems in Australia.

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Johansen, Cheryl A; Warrilow, David; Ritchie, Scott A

    2012-01-01

    Control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in northern Australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. A sentinel pig programme detected JEV activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. A system was developed which detected viral RNA in mosquitoes collected by solar or propane powered CO₂-baited traps. However, this method was hampered by trap-component malfunction, microbial contamination and large mosquito numbers which overwhelmed diagnostic capabilities. A novel approach involves allowing mosquitoes within a box trap to probe a sugar-baited nucleic-acid preservation card that is processed for expectorated arboviruses. In a longitudinal field trial, both Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses were detected numerous times from multiple traps over different weeks. Further refinements, including the development of unpowered traps and use of yeast-generated CO₂, could enhance the applicability of this system to remote locations. New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data.

  8. Work-Related Injury Surveillance in Vietnam: A National Reporting System Model

    PubMed Central

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen; Wegman, David H.; Leamon, Tom B.; Tuyet Binh, Ta Thi; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Kriebel, David

    2013-01-01

    Developing nations bear a substantial portion of the global burden of injury. Public health surveillance models in developing countries should recognize injury risks for all levels of society and all causes and should incorporate various groups of workers and industries, including subsistence agriculture. However, many developing nations do not have an injury registration system; current data collection methods result in gross national undercounts of injuries, failing to distinguish injuries that occur during work. In 2006, we established an active surveillance system in Vietnam’s Xuan Tien commune and investigated potential methods for surveillance of work-related injuries. On the basis of our findings, we recommend a national model for work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam that builds on the existing health surveillance system. PMID:24028255

  9. Work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam: a national reporting system model.

    PubMed

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen; Wegman, David H; Leamon, Tom B; Binh, Ta Thi Tuyet; Diep, Nguyen Bich; Kriebel, David

    2013-11-01

    Developing nations bear a substantial portion of the global burden of injury. Public health surveillance models in developing countries should recognize injury risks for all levels of society and all causes and should incorporate various groups of workers and industries, including subsistence agriculture. However, many developing nations do not have an injury registration system; current data collection methods result in gross national undercounts of injuries, failing to distinguish injuries that occur during work. In 2006, we established an active surveillance system in Vietnam's Xuan Tien commune and investigated potential methods for surveillance of work-related injuries. On the basis of our findings, we recommend a national model for work-related injury surveillance in Vietnam that builds on the existing health surveillance system.

  10. Functions and Requirements and Specifications for Replacement of the Computer Automated Surveillance System (CASS)

    SciTech Connect

    SCAIEF, C.C.

    1999-12-16

    This functions, requirements and specifications document defines the baseline requirements and criteria for the design, purchase, fabrication, construction, installation, and operation of the system to replace the Computer Automated Surveillance System (CASS) alarm monitoring.

  11. Assessment of national systems for the surveillance and monitoring of animal health.

    PubMed

    Hueston, W D

    1993-12-01

    Continued growth in international trade and the developing concepts of zoning and risk assessment demand effective assessment of national surveillance and monitoring systems for animal health. The ideal national epidemiological delivery system incorporates surveillance for disease agents, host monitoring and environmental assessment. An extensive veterinary infrastructure is necessary to support the ideal epidemiological delivery system. While the full spectrum of epidemiological services is represented worldwide, a standardized approach to assessing national surveillance and monitoring systems is proposed, in order to meet the emerging demand for scientifically-based import regulations.

  12. Surveillance of hazardous substances releases due to system interruptions, 2002.

    PubMed

    Orr, Maureen F; Ruckart, Perri Zeitz

    2007-04-11

    The Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system collected information on 9014 acute hazardous substance releases in 15 participating states in 2002. There were 3749 fixed-facility manufacturing events, of which 2100 involved "interruptions" to normal processing and 1649 "comparisons" that did not involve interruption. Equipment failure (69%) or intentional acts (20%) were the main root factor. Many events occurred in October and November in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and New Jersey), in three manufacturing industries (industrial and miscellaneous chemicals; petroleum refining; and plastics, synthetics, and resins). In interruption events, the substance categories most often released were mixtures, other inorganic substances, and volatile organic compounds and those most often causing injury were acids, chlorine, bases, and ammonia. Comparison events resulted in more acutely injured persons (408 versus 59) and more evacuees (11,318 versus 335) than interruption events and therefore may receive more public health attention. Because of the large number of interruption events, targeted prevention activities, including management of change procedures, lessons-learned implementation, process hazards analysis, and appropriate protection for workers could be economically advantageous and improve environmental quality. Efforts should focus on the identified areas of greater occurrence. The relationship of weather and equipment failure with interruption events needs further investigation.

  13. HIV heterogeneity and proximity of homestead to roads in rural South Africa: an exploration using a geographical information system.

    PubMed

    Tanser, F; Lesueur, D; Solarsh, G; Wilkinson, D

    2000-01-01

    objective To describe heterogeneity of HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Hlabisa health district, South Africa and to correlate this with proximity of homestead to roads. methods HIV prevalence measured through anonymous surveillance among pregnant women and stratified by local village clinic. Polygons were created around each clinic, assuming women attend the clinic nearest their home. A geographical information system (GIS) calculated the mean distance from homesteads in each clinic catchment to nearest primary (1 degrees ) and to nearest primary or secondary (2 degrees ) road. results We found marked HIV heterogeneity by clinic catchment (range 19-31% (P < 0.001). A polygon plot demonstrated lower HIV prevalence in catchments remote from 1 degrees roads. Mean distance from homesteads to nearest 1 degrees or 2 degrees road varied by clinic catchment from 1623 to 7569 m. The mean distance from homesteads to a 1 degrees or 2 degrees road for each clinic catchment was strongly correlated with HIV prevalence (r = 0.66; P = 0.002). conclusions The substantial HIV heterogeneity in this district is closely correlated with proximity to a 1 degrees or 2 degrees road. GIS is a powerful tool to demonstrate and to start to analyse this observation. Further research is needed to better understand this relationship both at ecological and individual levels, and to develop interventions to reduce the spread of HIV infection.

  14. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Al Qaseer, Bashir; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system.

  15. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Qaseer, Bashir Al; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system. PMID:26878763

  16. Surveillance of HIV Transmitted Drug Resistance in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Rios, Santiago; Sued, Omar; Rhee, Soo-Yon; Shafer, Robert W.; Reyes-Teran, Gustavo; Ravasi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV transmitted drug resistance (TDR) remains at moderate level in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). However, different epidemiologic scenarios could influence national and sub-regional TDR levels and trends. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review of currently available publications on TDR in antiretroviral treatment-naïve adults in LAC. Ninety-eight studies published between January 2000 and June 2015 were included according to critical appraisal criteria and classified by sub-region: Brazil (50), Mesoamerica (17), Southern Cone (16), Andean (8) and Caribbean (7). From these, 81 studies encompassing 11,441 individuals with data on DR mutation frequency were included in a meta-analysis. Overall TDR prevalence in LAC was 7.7% (95% CI: 7.2%-8.2%). An increasing trend was observed for overall TDR when comparing 2000–2005 (6.0%) and 2006–2015 (8.2%) (p<0.0001), which was associated with significant NNRTI TDR increase (p<0.0001). NRTI TDR decreased (4.5% vs. 2.3%, p<0.0001). NNRTI TDR increase was associated mainly with K101E, K103N and G190A. NRTI TDR decrease was associated mainly with M184V, K70R and T215Y. All sub-regions reached moderate overall TDR levels. The rapid increase in TDR to all antiretroviral classes in the Caribbean is notable, as well as the significant increase in NNRTI TDR reaching moderate levels in the Southern Cone. NRTI TDR was dominant in 2000–2005, mainly in the Caribbean, Mesoamerica and Brazil. This dominance was lost in 2006–2015 in all sub-regions, with the Southern Cone and the Caribbean switching to NNRTI dominance. PI TDR remained mostly constant with a significant increase only observed in the Caribbean. Conclusions Given the high conceptual and methodological heterogeneity of HIV TDR studies, implementation of surveys with standardized methodology and national representativeness is warranted to generate reliable to inform public health policies. The observed increasing trend in NNRTI TDR

  17. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica✩

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, C.M.; Vijayaraghavan, M.; Salazar-Bolaños, H.M.; Bolaños-Acuña, H.M.; Ruiz-González, A.I.; Barrantes-Solis, T.; Fernández-Vargas, I.; Panero, M.S.; de Oliveira, L.H.; Hyde, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. Objectives We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. Methods We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. Results During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Conclusions Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and

  18. A global survey of adverse event following immunization surveillance systems for pregnant women and their infants

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Christine; MacDonald, Noni E.; Steenbeek, Audrey; Ortiz, Justin R.; Zuber, Patrick L. F.; Top, Karina A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Strengthening antenatal care as a platform for maternal immunization is a priority of the World Health Organization (WHO). Systematic surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in pregnancy is needed to identify vaccine safety events. We sought to identify active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants. Representatives from all National Pharmacovigilance Centers and a convenience sample of vaccine safety experts were invited to complete a 14-item online survey in English, French or Spanish. The survey captured maternal immunization policies, and active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants in respondents' countries. The analysis was descriptive. We received responses from 51/185 (28%) invited persons from 47/148 (32%) countries representing all WHO regions, and low, middle and high-income countries. Thirty countries had national immunization policies targeting pregnant women. Eleven countries had active surveillance systems to detect serious AEFI in pregnant women and/or their infants, including six low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Thirty-nine countries had passive surveillance systems, including 23 LMIC. These active and passive surveillance programs cover approximately 8% and 56% of the worldwide annual birth cohort, respectively. Data from one active and four passive systems have been published. We identified 50 active and passive AEFI surveillance systems for pregnant women and infants, but few have published their findings. AEFI surveillance appears to be feasible in low and high resource settings. Further expansion of AEFI surveillance for pregnant women and sharing of vaccine safety information will provide additional evidence in support of maternal immunization policies. PMID:27159639

  19. Development of an Electronic Notification System for Influenza-Like Illness Sentinel Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Mehnaz; Peterkin, Donald; Mackereth, Graham

    2016-01-01

    An electronic Influenza like Illness surveillance system developed to support general practices to electronically notify the cases of influenza like illness (ILI) for national sentinel surveillance in New Zealand. Content analysis was performed to capture the information necessary for ILI surveillance. An online form was implemented within the patient management system to record the details of ILI cases. A middleware framework was developed to manage the information flow between GPs and national influenza surveillance coordinators. The framework used an HL7 version 2.4 messaging standard to receive the notification data and Rhapsody integration engines to parse the message and store the information in national ILI data base. This paper presents the system design and implementation details of electronic ILI notification system. It presents data model designed to capture information for ILI case along with the HL7 messages structure implemented in the system. PMID:27440281

  20. Health disparities experienced by people with disabilities in the United States: a Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System study.

    PubMed

    Pharr, Jennifer R; Bungum, Tim

    2012-09-09

    The Americans with Disabilities Act became law in 1990; since then research has shown that people with disabilities continue to experience barriers to health care. The purpose of this study was to compare utilization of preventive services, chronic disease rates, and engagement in health risk behaviors of participants with differing severities of disabilities to those without disabilities. This study was a secondary analysis of 2010 data collected in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System national survey in the United States. Rao Chi square test and logistic regression were employed. Participants with disabilities had significantly higher adjusted odds ratios for all chronic diseases, for physical inactivity, obesity and smoking. They were significantly more likely to participate in some preventive services (flu/pneumonia vaccination, HIV test) and significantly less likely to participate in other preventive services (mammogram, Pap test). Our findings suggest that people with disabilities are less able to fully participate in all preventive services offered.

  1. Low-cost active optical system for fire surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utkin, A. B.; Lavrov, A. V.; Vilar, R. M.

    2009-06-01

    Detection of smoke plumes using active optical sensors provides many advantages with respect to passive methods of fire surveillance. However, the price of these sensors is often too high as compared to passive fire detection instruments, such as infrared and video cameras. This article describes robust and cost effective diode-laser optical sensor for automatic fire surveillance in industrial environment. Physical aspects of the sensing process allowing to simplify the hardware and software design, eventually leading to significant reduction of manufacturing and maintenance costs, are discussed.

  2. Surveillance and Datalink Communication Performance Analysis for Distributed Separation Assurance System Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W.; Linse, Dennis J.; Alaverdi, Omeed; Ifarraguerri, Carlos; Seifert, Scott C.; Salvano, Dan; Calender, Dale

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two technical enablers: Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and digital datalink communication, of the Federal Aviation Administration s Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) under two separation assurance (SA) system architectures: ground-based SA and airborne SA, on overall separation assurance performance. Datalink performance such as successful reception probability in both surveillance and communication messages, and surveillance accuracy are examined in various operational conditions. Required SA performance is evaluated as a function of subsystem performance, using availability, continuity, and integrity metrics to establish overall required separation assurance performance, under normal and off-nominal conditions.

  3. Burden and Correlates of HIV Risk among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Nagaland, India: Analysis of Sentinel Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Malay Kumar; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Biswas, Subrata; Ghosh, Piyali; Kire, Medo

    2015-01-01

    Background Dynamics of HIV epidemic are largely understudied among men having sex with men (MSM) in India, while their potentially critical role in HIV spread is often stressed. Unfortunately, the epidemic has probably concentrated in this hard-to-reach population in the north-eastern high HIV-prevalent areas, especially in the bordering state of Nagaland, where HIV prevalence among MSM was found to be 2nd highest in the whole country. Dearth of information regarding the socio-behavioral correlates of HIV acquisition among MSM in this remote hilly region thus called for detailed analyses of the HIV Sentinel Surveillance (HSS) data. Methods During the first ever conducted HSS among MSM in Nagaland, between March and May, 2011, as per the operational guideline of Indian National AIDS Control Program, 243 MSM were recruited, interviewed and tested for HIV. Anonymous data on socio-demographics, sexual behavior and laboratory results were analyzed using SAS version-9.2 to conduct descriptive and logistic regression analyses. Results Among the recruited MSM, mean age was 28.30 years, 46.09% were illiterate, 27.16% were unemployed, 57.02% identified them as Kothi (predominantly receptive anal sex partner), 14.81% were bisexual, 19.75% exchanged money for sex (within last 1 year) with men and 13.58% were HIV sero-positive. Increasing age (for 25–34yrs, adjusted odds ratio: AOR = 3.89, p = 0.046; reference = <25yrs), middle school (AOR = 3.44, p = 0.046) or higher (AOR = 4.47, p = 0.034) education (reference = illiterate), being Kothi [AOR = 3.60, p = 0.026; reference = double-decker: (involved in both insertive and receptive roles)] and having paid and received money for sex with a man (AOR = 7.32, p = 0.026; reference = didn’t exchange money) were strongly associated with higher risk of HIV in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusion HIV burden was found to be alarmingly high among MSM in Nagaland. Targeted interventions for high-risk MSM, especially those

  4. Applied learning-based color tone mapping for face recognition in video surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yew, Chuu Tian; Suandi, Shahrel Azmin

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we present an applied learning-based color tone mapping technique for video surveillance system. This technique can be applied onto both color and grayscale surveillance images. The basic idea is to learn the color or intensity statistics from a training dataset of photorealistic images of the candidates appeared in the surveillance images, and remap the color or intensity of the input image so that the color or intensity statistics match those in the training dataset. It is well known that the difference in commercial surveillance cameras models, and signal processing chipsets used by different manufacturers will cause the color and intensity of the images to differ from one another, thus creating additional challenges for face recognition in video surveillance system. Using Multi-Class Support Vector Machines as the classifier on a publicly available video surveillance camera database, namely SCface database, this approach is validated and compared to the results of using holistic approach on grayscale images. The results show that this technique is suitable to improve the color or intensity quality of video surveillance system for face recognition.

  5. Survey of Communicable Diseases Surveillance System in Hospitals of Iran: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dehcheshmeh, Nayeb Fadaei; Arab, Mohammad; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi; Farzianpour, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Communicable Disease Surveillance and reporting is one of the key elements to combat against diseases and their control. Fast and timely recognition of communicable diseases can be helpful in controlling of epidemics. One of the main sources of management of communicable diseases reporting is hospitals that collect communicable diseases’ reports and send them to health authorities. One of the focal problems and challenges in this regard is incomplete and imprecise reports from hospitals. In this study, while examining the implementation processes of the communicable diseases surveillance in hospitals, non-medical people who were related to the program have been studied by a qualitative approach. Methods: This study was conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Participants in the study included 36 informants, managers, experts associated with health and surveillance of communicable diseases that were selected using targeted sampling and with diverse backgrounds and work experience (different experiences in primary health surveillance and treatment, Ministry levels, university staff and operations (hospitals and health centers) and sampling was continued until arrive to data saturation. Results: Interviews were analyzed after the elimination of duplicate codes and integration of them. Finally, 73 codes were acquired and categorized in 6 major themes and 21 levels. The main themes included: policy making and planning, development of resources, organizing, collaboration and participation, surveillance process, and monitoring and evaluation of the surveillance system. In point of interviewees, attention to these themes is necessary to develop effective and efficient surveillance system for communicable diseases. Conclusion: Surveillance system in hospitals is important in developing proper macro - policies in health sector, adoption of health related decisions and preventive plans appropriate to the existing situation. Compilation, changing

  6. New method for height estimation of subjects represented in photograms taken from video surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Sala, Remo; Cantatore, Angela; Poppa, Pasquale; Dufour, Michele; Grandi, Marco; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2007-11-01

    The article describes a method developed and applied by the authors for the purpose of determining the height of subjects taped on video surveillance systems. The determination of height is obtained by developing a virtual telecamera having the same characteristics of the video surveillance system with which the images have been shot. The results demonstrate that height is a parameter that can be accurately estimated with the method proposed, in the experimental conditions described, and consequently, can be utilized in probatory inquiry.

  7. Correlates of HIV Testing among Female Sex Workers in Iran: Findings of a National Bio-Behavioural Surveillance Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shokoohi, Mostafa; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Khajekazemi, Razieh; Osooli, Mehdi; Sharifi, Hamid; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Kamali, Kianoush; Mirzazadeh, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Female sex workers (FSWs) are the second most affected population by HIV in Iran. However, their HIV testing practices are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate testing and its associated factors among HIV negative FSWs. Materials and Methods Using facility based sampling, 1005 FSWs were recruited in 14 cities of Iran in 2010. Biological and survey data were collected through dried blood spot testing and standardized risk assessment questionnaire, respectively. In this paper, the prevalence of HIV testing and its correlates were explored among 714 HIV-negative FSWs using descriptive statistics and logistic regression models. Results Overall 65.4% had not tested in the past year. Only 27.5% had tested in the past year and received their results. FSWs who perceived themselves at risk of HIV (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 8.35, 95% CI: 1.46, 47.6), had received free condom during past year (AOR = 3.90, 95% CI: 1.67, 9.14), started sex work at an older age (AOR18–24 = 2.83, 95% CI: 1.14, 7.0; AOR >24 = 2.76, 95% CI: 1.11, 6.84), and knew an HIV testing site (AOR = 5.67, 95% CI: 2.60, 12.4) had a significantly higher chance of having a recent HIV test result. Conclusions Less than one third of FSWs in Iran knew their recent HIV status. Interventions to help FSWs evaluate their potential risk for HIV and integrate HIV testing services in condom distribution programs, could be viable strategies in increasing HIV testing uptake among FSWs. Health policy makers should also try to de-stigmatize HIV testing, identify the barriers to HIV testing, and make HIV testing sites more visible to FSWs. PMID:26807584

  8. The Establishment and Function of Schistosomiasis Surveillance System Towards Elimination in The People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L-J; Li, S-Z; Wen, L-Y; Lin, D-D; Abe, E M; Zhu, R; Du, Y; Lv, S; Xu, J; Webster, B L; Rollinson, D; Zhou, X-N

    2016-01-01

    Schistosoma japonicum is the main schistosome species in The People's Republic of China, causing intestinal schistosomiasis, a debilitating disease of public health importance. The People's Republic of China used to be heavily endemic with schistosomiasis, but great progress has been made through the vigorous efforts of the national control programmes in the last six decades. Presently, efforts are geared towards eliminating schistosomiasis from The People's Republic of China by the end of 2025 through effective schistosomiasis surveillance, an important component in the drive towards schistosomiasis elimination. Therefore, this article explicitly outlines the development and progress made in schistosomiasis surveillance since 1990 with a special focus on the new surveillance system in use. Although the surveillance system has steadily improved over the years, it is faced with many challenges. Hence, more efforts are needed to establish an effective and sensitive evaluation system for the national schistosomiasis elimination programme in The People's Republic of China. PMID:27137445

  9. Southern African Treatment Resistance Network (SATuRN) RegaDB HIV drug resistance and clinical management database: supporting patient management, surveillance and research in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Manasa, Justen; Lessells, Richard; Rossouw, Theresa; Naidu, Kevindra; Van Vuuren, Cloete; Goedhals, Dominique; van Zyl, Gert; Bester, Armand; Skingsley, Andrew; Stott, Katharine; Danaviah, Siva; Chetty, Terusha; Singh, Lavanya; Moodley, Pravi; Iwuji, Collins; McGrath, Nuala; Seebregts, Christopher J; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2014-01-01

    Substantial amounts of data have been generated from patient management and academic exercises designed to better understand the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and design interventions to control it. A number of specialized databases have been designed to manage huge data sets from HIV cohort, vaccine, host genomic and drug resistance studies. Besides databases from cohort studies, most of the online databases contain limited curated data and are thus sequence repositories. HIV drug resistance has been shown to have a great potential to derail the progress made thus far through antiretroviral therapy. Thus, a lot of resources have been invested in generating drug resistance data for patient management and surveillance purposes. Unfortunately, most of the data currently available relate to subtype B even though >60% of the epidemic is caused by HIV-1 subtype C. A consortium of clinicians, scientists, public health experts and policy markers working in southern Africa came together and formed a network, the Southern African Treatment and Resistance Network (SATuRN), with the aim of increasing curated HIV-1 subtype C and tuberculosis drug resistance data. This article describes the HIV-1 data curation process using the SATuRN Rega database. The data curation is a manual and time-consuming process done by clinical, laboratory and data curation specialists. Access to the highly curated data sets is through applications that are reviewed by the SATuRN executive committee. Examples of research outputs from the analysis of the curated data include trends in the level of transmitted drug resistance in South Africa, analysis of the levels of acquired resistance among patients failing therapy and factors associated with the absence of genotypic evidence of drug resistance among patients failing therapy. All these studies have been important for informing first- and second-line therapy. This database is a free password-protected open source database available on

  10. Development and application of a broadly sensitive dried-blood-spot-based genotyping assay for global surveillance of HIV-1 drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunfu; McNulty, Amanda; Diallo, Karidia; Zhang, Jing; Titanji, Boghuma; Kassim, Sidibe; Wadonda-Kabondo, Nellie; Aberle-Grasse, John; Kibuka, Tabitha; Ndumbe, Peter M; Vedapuri, Shanmugam; Zhou, Zhiyong; Chilima, Benson; Nkengasong, John N

    2010-09-01

    As antiretroviral therapy (ART) is scaled up in resource-limited countries, surveillance for HIV drug resistance (DR) is vital to ensure sustained effectiveness of first-line ART. We have developed and applied a broadly sensitive dried-blood-spot (DBS)-based genotyping assay for surveillance of HIV-1 DR in international settings. In 2005 and 2006, 171 DBS samples were collected under field conditions from newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected individuals from Malawi (n = 58), Tanzania (n = 60), and China (n =53). In addition, 30 DBS and 40 plasma specimens collected from ART patients in China and Cameroon, respectively, were also tested. Of the 171 DBS analyzed at the protease and RT regions, 149 (87.1%) could be genotyped, including 49 (81.7%) from Tanzania, 47 (88.7%) from China, and 53 (91.4%) from Malawi. Among the 70 ART patient samples analyzed, 100% (30/30) of the Chinese DBS and 90% (36/40) of the Cameroonian plasma specimens were genotyped, including 8 samples with a viral load of <400 copies/ml. The results of phylogenetic analyses indicated that the subtype, circulating recombinant form (CRF), and unique recombinant form (URF) distribution was as follows: 73 strains were subtype C (34%), 37 were subtype B (17.2%), 24 each were CRF01_AE or CRF02_AG (11.2% each), 22 were subtype A1 (10.2%), and 9 were unclassifiable (UC) (4.2%). The remaining samples were minor strains comprised of 6 that were CRF07_BC (2.8%), 5 that were CRF10_CD (2.3%), 3 each that were URF_A1C and CRF08_BC (1.4%), 2 each that were G, URF_BC, and URF_D/UC (0.9%), and 1 each that were subtype F1, subtype F2, and URF_A1D (0.5%). Our results indicate that this broadly sensitive genotyping assay can be used to genotype DBS collected from areas with diverse HIV-1 group M subtypes and CRFs. Thus, the assay is likely to become a useful screening tool in the global resistance surveillance and monitoring of HIV-1 where multiple subtypes and CRFs are found.

  11. High HIV Burden in Men Who Have Sex with Men across Colombia’s Largest Cities: Findings from an Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Mendoza, Martha Lucía; Jacobson, Jerry Owen; Morales-Miranda, Sonia; Sierra Alarcón, Clara Ángela; Luque Núñez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Among Latin America’s concentrated HIV epidemics, little is known about men who have sex with men (MSM) in Colombia, the region’s third largest country. To date, surveillance studies have been limited to Bogota, while 80% of HIV cases and deaths originate from Colombia’s other cities and departments. The extent to which interventions should prioritize MSM outside of Bogota is unknown. Methods We recruited 2603 MSM using respondent-driven sampling from seven of Colombia’s largest cities. HIV prevalence was estimated by site from dried blood spot samples. Behavioral data were collected through face-to-face interviews and risk factors for HIV infection analyzed using weighted, multi-level logistical regression models accounting for recruitment patterns. Results Across cities, HIV prevalence averaged 15%, varied from 6% to 24% and was highest in Cali, Bogota, and Barranquilla. In the past 12 months, 65% of MSM had ≥ 5 casual male partners and 23% had a female partner. Across partnerships (i.e., casual, stable, and commercial), the proportion of MSM engaging in unprotected sex was ≥ 52% with male partners and ≥ 66% with female partners. Self-reported history of STI (24%) and past-year illicit drug use (38%) were also common. In multivariate analysis, age ≥ 35 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 19.2) and 25–39 (AOR, 5.6) relative to ≤ 18–24 years, identifying as homosexual relative to heterosexual (AOR 0.1), meeting casual partners on the Internet (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.1) and age of sexual debut of ≤ 13 years (AOR, 3.1) predicted HIV infection. HIV testing and prevention messaging reached just 24% of MSM in the past year. Conclusions Findings support consistently elevated HIV burden among MSM throughout Colombia’s largest cities and a need for enhanced behavioral prevention and HIV testing, emphasizing men who use the Internet as well as physical venues to meet sex partners. PMID:26252496

  12. A review of the surveillance systems of influenza in selected countries in the tropical region

    PubMed Central

    Sanicas, Melvin; Forleo, Eduardo; Pozzi, Gianni; Diop, Doudou

    2014-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics of respiratory tract disease that affect all age groups. Many developing countries do not have an influenza surveillance system or adequate laboratory capacity for virus detection. The objective of this study was to describe the influenza surveillance systems in the different countries in the tropics and to identify outstanding research needs. A questionnaire was designed and sent to 52 NICs and MoHs in the different countries in tropical Asia and Africa to gather information on the surveillance systems, sentinel sites, specimen and data collection, and laboratory testing. Replies were received from 32 NICs and MoHs (61.5% response) – 17 were located in tropical Asia and 15 in Africa. There are 20 WHO recognized NICs in tropical Asia and 14 in tropical Africa, all with virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing capacity. Of the Asian countries, only Hong Kong and Singapore reported that the patient population from the sites represents the broader community. In tropical Africa, only Senegal has sentinel sites distributed all over the country contributing to the geographic representativeness of the surveillance system. The rest of the countries in Africa have just established their influenza surveillance system in the past decade and are working toward geographic expansion of the ILI and SARI sites. Limited laboratory capacity or infrastructure to perform influenza surveillance makes difficult to justify the importance of influenza vaccine or other influenza control measures as a strategy for improving population health in the tropical region. PMID:25745529

  13. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  14. Development of the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C.; Lias, Courtney; Beck, Stayce; Parkes, Joan Lee; Kovatchev, Boris; Vigersky, Robert A.; Arreaza-Rubin, Guillermo; Burk, Robert D.; Kowalski, Aaron; Little, Randie; Nichols, James; Petersen, Matt; Rawlings, Kelly; Sacks, David B.; Sampson, Eric; Scott, Steve; Seley, Jane Jeffrie; Slingerland, Robbert; Vesper, Hubert W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inaccurate blood glucsoe monitoring systems (BGMSs) can lead to adverse health effects. The Diabetes Technology Society (DTS) Surveillance Program for cleared BGMSs is intended to protect people with diabetes from inaccurate, unreliable BGMS products that are currently on the market in the United States. The Surveillance Program will provide an independent assessment of the analytical performance of cleared BGMSs. Methods: The DTS BGMS Surveillance Program Steering Committee included experts in glucose monitoring, surveillance testing, and regulatory science. Over one year, the committee engaged in meetings and teleconferences aiming to describe how to conduct BGMS surveillance studies in a scientifically sound manner that is in compliance with good clinical practice and all relevant regulations. Results: A clinical surveillance protocol was created that contains performance targets and analytical accuracy-testing studies with marketed BGMS products conducted by qualified clinical and laboratory sites. This protocol entitled “Protocol for the Diabetes Technology Society Blood Glucose Monitor System Surveillance Program” is attached as supplementary material. Conclusion: This program is needed because currently once a BGMS product has been cleared for use by the FDA, no systematic postmarket Surveillance Program exists that can monitor analytical performance and detect potential problems. This protocol will allow identification of inaccurate and unreliable BGMSs currently available on the US market. The DTS Surveillance Program will provide BGMS manufacturers a benchmark to understand the postmarket analytical performance of their products. Furthermore, patients, health care professionals, payers, and regulatory agencies will be able to use the results of the study to make informed decisions to, respectively, select, prescribe, finance, and regulate BGMSs on the market. PMID:26481642

  15. Systems mapping of HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wei; Sui, Yihan; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Yaqun; Wang, Ningtao; Liu, Jingyuan; Li, Yao; Goodenow, Maureen; Yin, Li; Wang, Zuoheng; Wu, Rongling

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models of viral dynamics in vivo provide incredible insights into the mechanisms for the nonlinear interaction between virus and host cell populations, the dynamics of viral drug resistance, and the way to eliminate virus infection from individual patients by drug treatment. The integration of these mathematical models with high-throughput genetic and genomic data within a statistical framework will raise a hope for effective treatment of infections with HIV virus through developing potent antiviral drugs based on individual patients' genetic makeup. In this opinion article, we will show a conceptual model for mapping and dictating a comprehensive picture of genetic control mechanisms for viral dynamics through incorporating a group of differential equations that quantify the emergent properties of a system. PMID:23092371

  16. Visual surveillance system for detection of moving objects by scene modelization in uncontrolled robotic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Ahmad

    1997-06-01

    There is a growing demand for an automatic surveillance system for road traffic data and industrial workroom environments. These data are required for surveillance and control. The problem of diagnostic intruders in a dangerous areas, knocks generally to the illumination changes. From the beginning of this work, it was stated that, the device had to supervise a robotic environment, in real time, in order to detect the abnormal situations. This paper describes implementation of a fast algorithm of surveillance system that performs tracking of robot's manipulator arm and detection of moving objects. The aim of this work is to avoid collision between human and moving machines. This paper presents a new approach of surveillance allowing unpredictable robotics tasks and tolerant independent illumination changes. We present in our paper an original method to modelize the scene by an image spatial sampling and an algorithm to detect moving objects. The detection is based on the observation of changes between a reference and the current images.

  17. Infectious disease surveillance in the 21st century: an integrated web-based surveillance and case management system.

    PubMed

    Troppy, Scott; Haney, Gillian; Cocoros, Noelle; Cranston, Kevin; DeMaria, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    The Massachusetts Virtual Epidemiologic Network (MAVEN) was deployed in 2006 by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Bureau of Infectious Disease to serve as an integrated, Web-based disease surveillance and case management system. MAVEN replaced program-specific, siloed databases, which were inaccessible to local public health and unable to integrate electronic reporting. Disease events are automatically created without human intervention when a case or laboratory report is received and triaged in real time to state and local public health personnel. Events move through workflows for initial notification, case investigation, and case management. Initial development was completed within 12 months and recent state regulations mandate the use of MAVEN by all 351 jurisdictions. More than 300 local boards of health are using MAVEN, there are approximately one million events, and 70 laboratories report electronically. MAVEN has demonstrated responsiveness and flexibility to emerging diseases while also streamlining routine surveillance processes and improving timeliness of notifications and data completeness, although the long-term resource requirements are significant.

  18. Simulation of HIV infection in artificial immune systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieburg, Hans B.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Clay, Oliver K.; Cabalerro, Lisa; Ostlund, James J.

    1990-09-01

    Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes a multi-faceted disease process which ultimately leads to severe degenerative conditions in the immune and nervous systems. The complexity of the virus/host-system interaction has brought into sharp focus the need for alternative efforts by which to overcome the limitations of available animal models. This article reports on the dynamics of HIV infection in an artificial immune system (AIS), a novel in silico tool for bio-medical research. Using a method of graphical programming, the HIV/AIS interactions are described at the cellular level and then transferred into the setting of an asynchronous cellular automaton simulation. A specific problem in HIV pathogenesis is addressed: To determine the extent by which the physiological connectivity of a normal B-cell, T-cell, macrophage immune system supports persistence of infection and disease progression to AIDS. Several observations are discussed which will be presented in four categories: (a) the major known manifestations of HIV infection and AIDS; (b) the predictability of latency and sudden progression to disease; (c) the predictability of HIV-dependent alterations of cytokine secretion patterns, and (d) secondary infections, which are found to be a critical element in establishing and maintaining a progressive disease dynamics. The effects of exogenously applied cytokine Interleukin 2 are considered. All results are summarized in a phase-graph model of the global HIV/AIS dynamical system.

  19. Communicable Diseases Surveillance System in East Azerbaijan Earthquake: Strengths and Weaknesses

    PubMed Central

    Babaie, Javad; Fatemi, Farin; Ardalan, Ali; Mohammadi, Hamed; Soroush, Mahmood

    2014-01-01

    Background: A Surveillance System was established for 19 diseases/syndromes in order to prevent and control communicable diseases after 2012 East Azerbaijan earthquakes. This study was conducted to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of the established SS. Methods: This study was carried out on an interview-based qualitative study using content analysis in 2012. Data was collected by semi-structured deep interviews and surveillance data. Fifteen interviews were conducted with experts and health system managers who were engaged in implementing the communicable disease surveillance system in the affected areas. The selection of participants was purposeful. Data saturation supported the sample size. The collected data was analyzed using the principles suggested by Strauss and Corbin. Results: Establishment of the disease surveillance system was rapid and inexpensive. It collected the required data fast. It also increased confidence in health authorities that the diseases would be under control in earthquake-stricken regions. Non estimated denominator for calculating the rates (incidence & prevalence), non-participation of the private sector and hospitals, rapid turnover of health staff and unfamiliarity with the definitions of the diseases were the weak points of the established disease SS. Conclusion: During the time when surveillance system was active, no significant outbreak of communicable diseases was reported. However, the surveillance system had some weaknesses. Thus, considering Iran’s susceptibility to various natural hazards, repeated exercises should be conducted in the preparedness phase to decrease the weaknesses. In addition, other types of surveillance system such as web-based or mobile-based systems should be piloted in disaster situations for future. PMID:25685619

  20. Repeat Confirmatory Testing for Persons with Discordant Whole Blood and Oral Fluid Rapid HIV Test Results: Findings from Post Marketing Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Wesolowski, Laura G.; MacKellar, Duncan A.; Ethridge, Steven F.; Zhu, Julia H.; Owen, S. Michele; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Reactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB), immunofluorescent assay (IFA) or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)). When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result), repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen. Previous reports have not described whether repeat testing adequately resolves the HIV-infection status of persons with discordant results. Methodology Post-marketing surveillance was conducted in 368 testing sites affiliated with 14 state and 2 city health departments from August 11, 2004 to June 30, 2005 and one health department through December 31, 2005. For persons with discordant results, data were collected on demographics, risk behaviors, HIV test results and specimen types. Persons with repeat confirmatory results were classified as HIV-infected or uninfected. Regression models were created to assess risk factors for not having repeat testing. Principal Findings Of 167,371 rapid tests conducted, 2589 (1.6%) were reactive: of these, 2417 (93%) had positive WB/IFA, 172 (7%) had negative or indeterminate WB/IFA. Of 89/172 (52%) persons with a repeat confirmatory test: 17 (19%) were HIV-infected, including 3 with indeterminate WB and positive NAAT; 72 (81%) were uninfected, including 12 with repeat indeterminate WB. Factors associated with HIV-infection included having an initial indeterminate WB/IFA (vs. negative) (p<0.001) and having an initial oral fluid WB (vs. serum) (p<0.001). Persons who had male-female sex (vs. male-male sex) were at increased risk for not having a repeat test [adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI (1.3, 4.9)]. Conclusions Though only half of persons with discordant results had repeat confirmatory testing, of those who did, nearly one in five were HIV-infected. These findings underscore the need for rapid HIV testing programs to increase repeat confirmatory testing for persons

  1. Sexual inactivity and sexual satisfaction among women living with HIV in Canada in the context of growing social, legal and public health surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Kaida, Angela; Carter, Allison; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Patterson, Sophie; Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Nohpal, Adriana; Sereda, Paul; Colley, Guillaume; O'Brien, Nadia; Thomas-Pavanel, Jamie; Beaver, Kerrigan; Nicholson, Valerie J; Tharao, Wangari; Fernet, Mylène; Otis, Joanne; Hogg, Robert S; Loutfy, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Women represent nearly one-quarter of the 71,300 people living with HIV in Canada. Within a context of widespread HIV-related stigma and discrimination and on-going risks to HIV disclosure, little is known about the influence of growing social, legal and public health surveillance of HIV on sexual activity and satisfaction of women living with HIV (WLWH). Methods We analyzed baseline cross-sectional survey data for WLWH (≥16 years, self-identifying as women) enrolled in the Canadian HIV Women's Sexual and Reproductive Health Cohort Study (CHIWOS), a multisite, longitudinal, community-based research study in British Columbia (BC), Ontario (ON) and Quebec (QC). Sexual inactivity was defined as no consensual sex (oral or penetrative) in the prior six months, excluding recently postpartum women (≤6 months). Satisfaction was assessed using an item from the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women. Multivariable logistic regression analysis examined independent correlates of sexual inactivity. Results Of 1213 participants (26% BC, 50% ON, 24% QC), median age was 43 years (IQR: 35, 50). 23% identified as Aboriginal, 28% as African, Caribbean and Black, 41% as White and 8% as other ethnicities. Heterosexual orientation was reported by 87% of participants and LGBTQ by 13%. In total, 82% were currently taking antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 77% reported an undetectable viral load (VL<40 copies/mL). Overall, 49% were sexually inactive and 64% reported being satisfied with their current sex lives, including 49% of sexually inactive and 79% of sexually active women (p<0.001). Sexually inactive women had significantly higher odds of being older (AOR=1.06 per year increase; 95% CI=1.05–1.08), not being in a marital or committed relationship (AOR=4.34; 95% CI=3.13–5.88), having an annual household income below $20,000 CAD (AOR: 1.44; 95% CI=1.08–1.92), and reporting high (vs. low) HIV-related stigma (AOR=1.81; 95% CI=1.09–3.03). No independent association was

  2. Surveillance of HIV/AIDS-related attitudes and perceptions among the general public in Hong Kong from 1994 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Lau, Joseph T F; Tsui, H Y

    2002-10-01

    The present study monitored the trends of HIV/AIDS-related attitudes and perceptions including awareness, knowledge, self-perceived risk of HIV infection, and program evaluation among the general public in Hong Kong over a period of 7 years. Six cross-sectional telephone surveys were conducted. A total of 6,795 respondents aged 18-50 randomly selected from the general population participated in the study. Over the study period, the level of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge has improved slightly for most of the studied items. Condom use has been more widely accepted as an efficacious means of HIV prevention. However, the public seemed to be losing interest in HIV/AIDS-related issues and were not satisfied with the efficacy and adequacy of HIV/AIDS programs in Hong Kong. Sustaining efforts to remove misconceptions and to raise the public's interest, formulation of more effective programs, and ongoing evaluation are necessary. PMID:12413187

  3. [Automated fertility and health surveillance systems in dairy cows. A review].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Lisa; Martin, Rainer; Zerbe, Holm

    2016-08-17

    Automated surveillance systems have become increasingly important in dairy farming. This can be attributed to an increasing farm size with unaltered employee numbers, higher susceptibility of high-yielding animals to diseases and a general constraint to work more cost effectively. A variety of surveillance systems for different areas of application in dairy cow management are currently available. However, their applicability has not always been supported by scientific validation. With regards to the considerable costs in installing and running surveillance systems and to evaluate their practical aspects, further analyses are desirable. Considering the progress in computer-based systems in recent years, we are anticipating rapid developments in automated animal surveillance in the near future. Consequently, the need arises for veterinarians to understand the principles underlying such systems, to be able to assess their efficacy and to be capable of evaluating data derived from these systems in order to advise farmers appropriately. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits and limitations of current surveillance systems for oestrus-detection, partus-alarm and monitoring health status mainly with regards to metabolic disorders in dairy cows, but also for other selected areas of health monitoring. PMID:27465067

  4. Evaluation of Hologic Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay on the Panther System on HIV Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Manak, Mark M; Hack, Holly R; Nair, Sangeetha V; Worlock, Andrew; Malia, Jennifer A; Peel, Sheila A; Jagodzinski, Linda L

    2016-10-01

    Quantitation of the HIV-1 viral load in plasma is the current standard of care for clinical monitoring of HIV-infected individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Hologic, San Diego, CA) for monitoring viral load by using 277 well-characterized subtype samples, including 171 cultured virus isolates and 106 plasma samples from 35 countries, representing all major HIV subtypes, recombinants, and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) currently in circulation worldwide. Linearity of the Aptima assay was tested on each of 6 major HIV-1 subtypes (A, B, C, D, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG) and demonstrated an R(2) value of ≥0.996. The performance of the Aptima assay was also compared to those of the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 v.2 (CAP/CTM) and Abbott m2000 RealTime HIV-1 (RealTime) assays on all subtype samples. The Aptima assay values averaged 0.21 log higher than the CAP/CTM values and 0.30 log higher than the RealTime values, and the values were >0.4 log higher than CAP/CTM values for subtypes F and G and than RealTime values for subtypes C, F, and G and CRF02_AG. Two samples demonstrated results with >1-log differences from RealTime results. When the data were adjusted by the average difference, 94.9% and 87.0% of Aptima results fell within 0.5 log of the CAP/CTM and RealTime results, respectively. The linearity and accuracy of the Aptima assay in correctly quantitating all major HIV-1 subtypes, coupled with the completely automated format and high throughput of the Panther system, make this system well suited for reliable measurement of viral load in the clinical laboratory. PMID:27510829

  5. Evaluation of Hologic Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay on the Panther System on HIV Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Manak, Mark M; Hack, Holly R; Nair, Sangeetha V; Worlock, Andrew; Malia, Jennifer A; Peel, Sheila A; Jagodzinski, Linda L

    2016-10-01

    Quantitation of the HIV-1 viral load in plasma is the current standard of care for clinical monitoring of HIV-infected individuals undergoing antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of the Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx assay (Hologic, San Diego, CA) for monitoring viral load by using 277 well-characterized subtype samples, including 171 cultured virus isolates and 106 plasma samples from 35 countries, representing all major HIV subtypes, recombinants, and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) currently in circulation worldwide. Linearity of the Aptima assay was tested on each of 6 major HIV-1 subtypes (A, B, C, D, CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG) and demonstrated an R(2) value of ≥0.996. The performance of the Aptima assay was also compared to those of the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 v.2 (CAP/CTM) and Abbott m2000 RealTime HIV-1 (RealTime) assays on all subtype samples. The Aptima assay values averaged 0.21 log higher than the CAP/CTM values and 0.30 log higher than the RealTime values, and the values were >0.4 log higher than CAP/CTM values for subtypes F and G and than RealTime values for subtypes C, F, and G and CRF02_AG. Two samples demonstrated results with >1-log differences from RealTime results. When the data were adjusted by the average difference, 94.9% and 87.0% of Aptima results fell within 0.5 log of the CAP/CTM and RealTime results, respectively. The linearity and accuracy of the Aptima assay in correctly quantitating all major HIV-1 subtypes, coupled with the completely automated format and high throughput of the Panther system, make this system well suited for reliable measurement of viral load in the clinical laboratory.

  6. Effectiveness of Implementation of Electronic Malaria Information System as the National Malaria Surveillance System in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In moving toward malaria elimination, one strategy is to implement an active surveillance system for effective case management. Thailand has developed and implemented the electronic Malaria Information System (eMIS) capturing individualized electronic records of suspected or confirmed malaria cases. Objective The main purpose of this study was to determine how well the eMIS improves the quality of Thailand’s malaria surveillance system. In particular, the focus of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the eMIS in terms of the system users’ perception and the system outcomes (ie, quality of data) regarding the management of malaria patients. Methods A mixed-methods technique was used with the framework based on system effectiveness attributes: data quality, timeliness, simplicity, acceptability, flexibility, stability, and usefulness. Three methods were utilized: data records review, survey of system users, and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. From the two highest endemic provinces, paper forms matching electronic records of 4455 noninfected and 784 malaria-infected cases were reviewed. Web-based anonymous questionnaires were distributed to all 129 eMIS data entry staff throughout Thailand, and semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 management-level officers. Results The eMIS is well accepted by system users at both management and operational levels. The data quality has enabled malaria personnel to perform more effective prevention and control activities. There is evidence of practices resulting in inconsistencies and logical errors in data reporting. Critical data elements were mostly completed, except for a few related to certain dates and area classifications. Timeliness in reporting a case to the system was acceptable with a delay of 3-4 days. The evaluation of quantitative and qualitative data confirmed that the eMIS has high levels of simplicity, acceptability, stability, and flexibility. Conclusions Overall, the

  7. Analysis of malaria surveillance data in Ethiopia: what can be learned from the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Routine malaria surveillance data is useful for assessing incidence and trends over time, and in stratification for targeting of malaria control. The reporting completeness and potential bias of such data needs assessment. Methods Data on 17 malaria indicators were extracted from the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System database for July 2004 to June 2009 (Ethiopian calendar reporting years 1997 to 2001). Reporting units were standardized over time with 2007 census populations. The data were analysed to show reporting completeness, variation in risk by reporting unit, and incidence trends for malaria indicators. Results Reporting completeness, estimated as product of unit-month and health facility reporting, was over 80% until 2009, when it fell to 56% during a period of reorganization in the Ministry of Health. Nationally the average estimated annual incidence of reported total malaria for the calendar years 2005 to 2008 was 23.4 per 1000 persons, and of confirmed malaria was 7.6 per 1,000, with no clear decline in out-patient cases over the time period. Reported malaria in-patient admissions and deaths (averaging 6.4 per 10,000 and 2.3 per 100,000 per year respectively) declined threefold between 2005 and 2009, as did admissions and deaths reported as malaria with severe anaemia. Only 8 of 86 reporting units had average annual estimated incidence of confirmed malaria above 20 per 1,000 persons, while 26 units were consistently below five reported cases per 1,000 persons per year. Conclusion The Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response System functioned well over the time period mid 2004 to the end of 2008. The data suggest that the scale up of interventions has had considerable impact on malaria in-patient cases and mortality, as reported from health centres and hospitals. These trends must be regarded as relative (over space and time) rather than absolute. The data can be used to stratify areas for improved targeting of control

  8. NASA Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Atlanta Demonstration: Surveillance Systems Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassell, Rick; Evers, Carl; Hicok, Dan; Lee, Derrick

    1999-01-01

    NASA conducted a series of flight experiments at Hartsfield Atlanta International Airport as part of the Low Visibility Landing and Surface Operations (LVLASO) Program. LVLASO is one of the subelements of the NASA Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) Program, which is focused on providing technology and operating procedures for achieving clear-weather airport capacity in instrument-weather conditions, while also improving safety. LVLASO is investigating various technologies to be applied to airport surface operations, including advanced flight deck displays and surveillance systems. The purpose of this report is to document the performance of the surveillance systems tested as part of the LVLASO flight experiment. There were three surveillance sensors tested: primary radar using Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS), Multilateration using the Airport Surface Target Identification System (ATIDS), and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) operating at 1090 MHz. The performance was compared to the draft requirements of the ICAO Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and Control System (A-SMGCS). Performance parameters evaluated included coverage, position accuracy, and update rate. Each of the sensors was evaluated as a stand alone surveillance system.

  9. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    PubMed

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles.

  10. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project

    PubMed Central

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents’ obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data. The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have. This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries’ needs and priorities. The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries’ Health Services for monitoring adolescents’ obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  11. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    PubMed

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  12. Life and times: The development of a digital video surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Over the past few years Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Safeguards Systems Group has been working to develop an image-based digital surveillance system designed to provide continuous monitoring of nuclear materials in storage or process. The goal of such a system is to provide automated technologies that will ensure the security of the nuclear materials and ultimately reduce the frequency of required physical inventories. This paper discusses the highlights and low-lights we have encountered while designing, developing, and field-testing a digital video surveillance system.

  13. Low-cost inflatable lighter-than-air surveillance system for civilian applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiddy, Jason S.; Chen, Peter C.; Niemczuk, John B.

    2002-08-01

    Today's society places an extremely high price on the value of human life and injury. Whenever possible, police and paramilitary actions are always directed towards saving as many lives as possible, whether it is the officer, perpetrator, or innocent civilians. Recently, the advent of robotic systems has enable law enforcement agencies to perform many of the most dangerous aspects of their jobs from relative safety. This is especially true to bomb disposal units but it is also gaining acceptance in other areas. An area where small, remotely operated machines may prove effective is in local aerial surveillance. Currently, the only aerial surveillance assets generally available to law enforcement agencies are costly helicopters. Unfortunately, most of the recently developed unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) are directed towards military applications and have limited civilian use. Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) has conceived and performed a preliminary analysis of a low-cost, inflatable, lighter- than-air surveillance system that may be used in a number of military and law enforcement surveillance situations. The preliminary analysis includes the concept definition, a detailed trade study to determine the optimal configuration of the surveillance system, high-pressure inflation tests, and a control analysis. This paper will provide the details in these areas of the design and provide an insight into the feasibility of such a system.

  14. Real-Time Microbiology Laboratory Surveillance System to Detect Abnormal Events and Emerging Infections, Marseille, France.

    PubMed

    Abat, Cédric; Chaudet, Hervé; Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and accurate surveillance is essential. We describe how to implement a laboratory data-based surveillance system in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Two historical Microsoft Excel databases were implemented. The data were then sorted and used to execute the following 2 surveillance systems in Excel: the Bacterial real-time Laboratory-based Surveillance System (BALYSES) for monitoring the number of patients infected with bacterial species isolated at least once in our laboratory during the study periodl and the Marseille Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (MARSS), which surveys the primary β-lactam resistance phenotypes for 15 selected bacterial species. The first historical database contained 174,853 identifications of bacteria, and the second contained 12,062 results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. From May 21, 2013, through June 4, 2014, BALYSES and MARSS enabled the detection of 52 abnormal events for 24 bacterial species, leading to 19 official reports. This system is currently being refined and improved.

  15. Big data for population-based cancer research: the integrated cancer information and surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Anne-Marie; Olshan, Andrew F; Green, Laura; Meyer, Adrian; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Basch, Ethan; Carpenter, William R

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Cancer Information and Surveillance System (ICISS) facilitates population-based cancer research by developing extensive information technology systems that can link and manage large data sets. Taking an interdisciplinary 'team science' approach, ICISS has developed data, systems, and methods that allow researchers to better leverage the power of big data to improve population health.

  16. 77 FR 52317 - Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active Sonar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Record of Decision for Surveillance Towed Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active... Array Sensor System Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) sonar systems with certain...

  17. Community-based surveillance and case management for suicide prevention: an American Indian tribally initiated system.

    PubMed

    Cwik, Mary F; Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Larzelere-Hinton, Francene; Tingey, Lauren; Craig, Mariddie; Lupe, Ronnie; Walkup, John

    2014-06-01

    The National Strategy for Suicide Prevention highlights the importance of improving the timeliness, usefulness, and quality of national suicide surveillance systems, and expanding local capacity to collect relevant data. This article describes the background, methods, process data, and implications from the first-of-its-kind community-based surveillance system for suicidal and self-injurious behavior developed by the White Mountain Apache Tribe with assistance from Johns Hopkins University. The system enables local, detailed, and real-time data collection beyond clinical settings, with in-person follow-up to facilitate connections to care. Total reporting and the proportion of individuals seeking treatment have increased over time, suggesting that this innovative surveillance system is feasible, useful, and serves as a model for other communities and the field of suicide prevention.

  18. A life-course approach to measuring socioeconomic position in population health surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Chittleborough, C R; Baum, F E; Taylor, A W; Hiller, J E

    2006-11-01

    Measuring socioeconomic position (SEP) in population chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems is essential for monitoring socioeconomic inequalities in health over time. Life-course measures are an innovative way to supplement other SEP indicators in surveillance systems. A literature review examined the indicators of early-life SEP that could potentially be used in population health surveillance systems. The criteria of validity, relevance, reliability and deconstruction were used to determine the value of potential indicators. Early-life SEP indicators used in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies included education level, income, occupation, living conditions, family structure and residential mobility. Indicators of early-life SEP should be used in routine population health surveillance to monitor trends in the health and SEP of populations over time, and to analyse long-term effects of policies on the changing health of populations. However, these indicators need to be feasible to measure retrospectively, and relevant to the historical, geographical and sociocultural context in which the surveillance system is operating. PMID:17053288

  19. iWearSA: an intelligent wearable surveillance assistant system for perception of moving object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lu; Li, Zushu; Chen, Dongyi

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, we propose iWearSA, an intelligent wearable surveillance assistant system for detecting moving object based on wearable computing technology. The chief objective of iWearSA is to help human complete the surveillance tasks. The research presented here addresses some special challenges and correlative modules in system design, and the block diagram of the iWearSA system is explained in detail. The hardware components used in iWearSA are mentioned. The availability of iWearSA is verified by guarding the kid's activity in public grassplot scenario.

  20. HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a clinical fellow in the department of neurology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). " ... early [HIV] infection." Valcour is a professor of neurology at UCSF. "Additionally, the ubiquity of symptoms in ...

  1. Surveillance of Legionella species in hospital water systems: the significance of detection method for environmental surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Asghari, Farzaneh Baghal; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Hatamzadeh, Maryam; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring of hospital water systems to prevent and control nosocomial legionellosis is important from a public health perspective. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of Legionella contamination of hospital waters. A total of 44 water samples from the hot-water system of 11 hospitals were tested for Legionella by a culture method and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with Legionella-specific primers to identify the more sensitive method. Some physicochemical parameters and heterotrophic plate counts of water samples for possible association with Legionella contamination were also determined. The contamination rate of hospitals in our study varied between 64% (eight of 11)-100% based on culture method and nested PCR, respectively. Of the 44 water samples examined, 23% were positive for Legionella spp. by the culture method, while the nested PCR assay using the primers LEG448-JRP revealed 66% of the water samples being positive. Given the importance of monitoring hospital water systems for the presence of Legionella spp., the present PCR assay proved highly applicable for practical and sensitive surveillance of Legionella in such water systems. In addition, rapid monitoring of Legionella contamination could eliminate the potential exposure of high-risk patients through effective control measures.

  2. Quality of health care surveillance systems: review and implementation in the Swiss setting.

    PubMed

    Luthi, Jean-Christophe; McClellan, William M; Flanders, W Dana; Pitts, Stephen; Burnand, Bernard

    2002-08-24

    Quality of health care has been a subject of attention for many years in the USA and in Europe. Since the introduction of the new federal law on insurance in 1996 it has evolved to a progressively more important issue within the Swiss health care system. In this review, some theoretical concepts of quality of health care, variations, and surveillance systems are explored. Examples of quality of health care surveillance systems that have been developed successfully in the USA, in Canada, in Australia, and in Europe are discussed. They all demonstrate the interest in creating a large range of quality indicators in the surveillance system and in evaluating hospital performance using a benchmark approach. Currently, the measurement of quality with appropriate indicators is a subject of intense debate between the Swiss Hospitals Association (H+) and the Swiss Health Insurance Consortium (Santésuisse). Examples of existing surveillance systems in Switzerland are the Outcome Verein in Zurich and the quality of care program of the Canton of Valais. The FoQual association has also contributed to the debate by reviewing six indicators, which could be used nationally for a healthcare surveillance system. In this debate it is important to stress that ideal quality indicators intended for use as measures of quality in Swiss hospitals need to be both appropriate and valid. Only indicators that fulfil these conditions should be integrated in a Swiss health care surveillance system. Priority needs to be given to quality indicators and methods with the highest level of evidence and with a solid scientific basis. PMID:12458446

  3. Twitter web-service for soft agent reporting in persistent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rababaah, Haroun; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2010-04-01

    Persistent surveillance is an intricate process requiring monitoring, gathering, processing, tracking, and characterization of many spatiotemporal events occurring concurrently. Data associated with events can be readily attained by networking of hard (physical) sensors. Sensors may have homogeneous or heterogeneous (hybrid) sensing modalities with different communication bandwidth requirements. Complimentary to hard sensors are human observers or "soft sensors" that can report occurrences of evolving events via different communication devices (e.g., texting, cell phones, emails, instant messaging, etc.) to the command control center. However, networking of human observers in ad-hoc way is rather a difficult task. In this paper, we present a Twitter web-service for soft agent reporting in persistent surveillance systems (called Web-STARS). The objective of this web-service is to aggregate multi-source human observations in hybrid sensor networks rapidly. With availability of Twitter social network, such a human networking concept can not only be realized for large scale persistent surveillance systems (PSS), but also, it can be employed with proper interfaces to expedite rapid events reporting by human observers. The proposed technique is particularly suitable for large-scale persistent surveillance systems with distributed soft and hard sensor networks. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed technique is measured experimentally by conducting several simulated persistent surveillance scenarios. It is demonstrated that by fusion of information from hard and soft agents improves understanding of common operating picture and enhances situational awareness.

  4. Remote-Reading Safety and Safeguards Surveillance System for 3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Lechelt, W. M.; Skorpik, J. R.; Silvers, K. L.; Szempruch, R. W.; Douglas, D. G.; Fein, K. O.

    2002-02-26

    At Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), plutonium oxide is being loaded into stainless steel containers for long-term storage on the Hanford Site. These containers consist of two weld-sealed stainless steel cylinders nested one within the other. A third container holds the plutonium within the inner cylinder. This design meets the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) storage standard, DOE-STD- 3013-2000, which anticipates a 50-year storage lifetime. The 3013 standard also requires a container surveillance program to continuously monitor pressure and to assure safeguards are adequate. However, the configuration of the container system makes using conventional measurement and monitoring methods difficult. To better meet the 3013 monitoring requirements, a team from Fluor Hanford (who manages the PFP), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC, developed a safer, cost-efficient, remote PFP 3013 container surveillance system. This new surveillance system is a combination of two successfully deployed technologies: (1) a magnetically coupled pressure gauge developed by Vista Engineering and (2) a radio frequency (RF) tagging device developed by PNNL. This system provides continuous, 100% monitoring of critical parameters with the containers in place, as well as inventory controls. The 3013 container surveillance system consists of three main elements: (1) an internal magnetic pressure sensor package, (2) an instrument pod (external electronics package), and (3) a data acquisition storage and display computer. The surveillance system described in this paper has many benefits for PFP and DOE in terms of cost savings and reduced personnel exposure. In addition, continuous safety monitoring (i.e., internal container pressure and temperature) of every container is responsible nuclear material stewardship and fully meets and exceeds DOE's Integrated Surveillance Program requirements.

  5. Planning a food and nutrition surveillance system: the example of Honduras.

    PubMed Central

    Aranda-Pastor, J; Menchu, M T; Palma, R; Kevany, J P

    1978-01-01

    A description of the preliminary steps in establishing a food and nutrition surveillance system in a country of Central America is presented in outline. The system will provide the basis for policy formulation, program planning, and evaluation. It is organized on the basis of the participation and resources of seven national agencies and will operate at the local, regional, and central level. PMID:686199

  6. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-09-15

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control.

  7. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-09-15

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control. PMID:27684046

  8. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control. PMID:27684046

  9. West Nile virus transmission: results from the integrated surveillance system in Italy, 2008 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Caterina; Napoli, Christian; Venturi, Giulietta; Pupella, Simonetta; Lombardini, Letizia; Calistri, Paolo; Monaco, Federica; Cagarelli, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Tamba, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Chiari, Mario; Lavazza, Antonio; Bella, Antonino

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i.e. provinces during the vector activity period from June to October. WNV continues to cause severe illnesses in Italy during every transmission season, albeit cases are sporadic and the epidemiology varies by virus lineage and geographic area. The integration of surveillance activities and a multidisciplinary approach made it possible and have been fundamental in supporting implementation of and/or strengthening preventive measures aimed at reducing the risk of transmission of WNV trough blood, tissues and organ donation and to implementing further measures for vector control.

  10. The surveillant assemblage.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy. PMID:11140886

  11. Canadian Influenza Surveillance First Report: Methods of the National Recording System

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Because of the possibility of an influenza pandemic during the 1976-77 season or at least of a major new epidemic, a national surveillance project for influenza in Canada was established in the autumn of 1976 under the auspices of the College of Family Physicians of Canada and the Fédération des médecins omnipraticiens du Québec. The project augmented surveillance activities of the federal and provincial governments, explicitly avoiding duplication of effort and methods. An extensive network of sentinel physicians was recruited from among family doctors in all provinces, forming the National Recording System (NaReS). The emphasis of the plan was to generate the kind of information which family physicians are in a uniquely advantageous position to provide. The influenza surveillance project was the first one for the National Recording System.

  12. HIV Testing Rates and Testing Locations, by Race and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rountree, Michele A.; Chen Lynn; Brown Adama; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the HIV testing rates among white Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans and to identify the frequency of use of HIV testing locations according to a variety of sociodemographic variables. Data for this study came from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Participants in…

  13. Detection of HIV type 1 env subtypes A, B, C, and E in Asia using dried blood spots: a new surveillance tool for molecular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Cassol, S; Weniger, B G; Babu, P G; Salminen, M O; Zheng, X; Htoon, M T; Delaney, A; O'Shaughnessy, M; Ou, C Y

    1996-10-10

    Global surveillance of HIV-1 subtypes for genetic characterization is hampered by the biohazard of processing and the difficulties of shipping whole blood or cells from many developing country regions. We developed a technique for the direct automated sequencing of viral DNA from dried blood spot (DBS) specimens collected on absorbent paper, which can be mailed unrefrigerated in sturdy paper envelopes with low biohazard risk. DBS were collected nonrandomly from HIV-1-infected, mostly asymptomatic, patients in five Asian countries in 1991, and shipped via airmail or hand carried without refrigeration to Bangkok, and then transshipped to North America for processing. After more than 2 years of storage, including 6 months at ambient temperatures, proviral DNA in the DBS was amplified by nested PCR, and a 389-nucleotide segment of the C2-V3 env gene region was sequenced, from which 287 base pairs were aligned and subtyped by phylogenetic analysis with neighbor-joining and other methods. From southern India, there were 25 infections with subtype C and 2 with subtype A. From Myanmar (Burma), we identified the first subtype E infection, as well as six subtype BB, a distinct cluster within subtype B that was first discovered in Thailand and that has now appeared in China, Malaysia, and Japan. From southwest China, one BB was identified, while a "classical" B typical of North American and European strains was found in Indonesia. From Thailand, five DBS of ambiguous serotype were identified as three B, one BB, and one E. A blinded control serotype E specimen was correctly identified, but a serotype BB control was not tested. Most HIV-1 in southern India appears to be env subtype C, with rare A, as others have reported in western and northern India. The subtypes BB and E in Myanmar, and the BB in China, suggest epidemiological linkage with these subtypes in neighboring Thailand. DBS are a practical, economical technique for conducting large-scale molecular epidemiological

  14. Adding Industry and Occupation Questions to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: New Opportunities in Public Health Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Tolliver, Rickey; Bui, Alison Grace; Warner, Amy; Van Dyke, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Industry and occupation variables are overlooked in many public health surveillance efforts, yet they are useful for describing the burden and distribution of various public health diseases, behaviors, and conditions. This study is the first ever analysis of the Colorado Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to describe chronic conditions and risk behaviors by occupation. It is intended to provide a new perspective on this existing data source and demonstrate the value of occupation as a core demographic variable for public health research, policy, and practice. Methods Two standardized employment questions were included in the 2012 Colorado BRFSS survey and administered to eligible survey respondents who were employed, self-employed, or out of work for less than one year. Occupation data were coded using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Industry and Occupation Computerized Coding System. We analyzed health behaviors and conditions by major occupation groups. We calculated prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The prevalence of chronic conditions, health statuses, and risk behaviors (e.g., smoking and seatbelt use) varied significantly by occupation. For example, compared with all workers (93.6%, 95% CI 92.7, 94.5), significantly fewer workers in farming, forestry, fishing and construction, extraction jobs (87.0%, 95% CI 82.0, 92.0) reported always or nearly always wearing a seatbelt while driving. Additionally, significantly more office and administrative support workers (27.5%, 95% CI 22.5, 32.4) compared with all workers (20.6%, 95% CI 19.3, 22.0) were obese. Further observation and research is needed to understand the effects of occupation on health outcomes and behaviors. Conclusion There are no other Colorado state-level datasets that link health behaviors and chronic conditions with occupation. This study shows that the prevalence of chronic conditions and risk behaviors

  15. Significance of the development of a cardiovascular disease surveillance and reporting system in India.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Ken Russell

    2013-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single largest cause of global morbidity and mortality and is the leading cause of death in the Indian subcontinent projected to contribute to deaths expected to double by 2015. The social and economic impact of these staggering projections highlight the need for a centralized effort to monitor and evaluate behavioral and physiological risk factors for CVD. Limited evidence on existing surveillance systems suggest that the key to an effective monitoring and evaluation (M and E) program for CVD surveillance in India relies upon the World Health Organization's STEP-wise model. Key recommendations for the Ministry of Health include the development of a national CVD surveillance program with expertise and a quality-improvement mechanism to receive continuous input from similar surveillance programs in likeminded countries. Structure of the surveillance system would include; (1) the development of process measures for CVD risk factor' based surveillance M and E systems for early detection of CVD at the local-level, (2) the development of trigger based data reporting responsibilities to State-based monitoring teams including incentives for accuracy in data reporting and the use of data-driven evidence to target risk specific intervention and prevention on Central Government monitoring teams with reporting feedback to the State and local-levels and (3) the creation of health policy to require the use of data to target risk specific prevention for intervention and developing local technical capacity. Such a system would provide significant cost and social benefits, presenting an evidence based data driven cost-effective business case for scale-up and potential use in areas comprising similar demographics. Future research should focus on the inclusion of a systematic critique of the reported data for the challenges to surveillance systems in India and the examination of the effect of an incentivized reporting system on the states. Further

  16. DXBC: a long distance wireless broadband communication system for coastal maritime surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastianos, George E.; Argyreas, Nick D.; Xilouris, Chris K.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-05-01

    The field of Homeland Security focuses on the air, land, and sea borders surveillance in order to prevent illegal activities while facilitating lawful travel and trade. The achievement of this goal requires collaboration of complex decentralized systems and services, and transfer of huge amount of information between the remote surveillance areas and the command & control centers. It becomes obvious that the effectiveness of the provided security depends highly on the available communication capabilities between the interconnected areas. Although nowadays the broadband communication between remote places is presumed easy because of the extensive infrastructure inside residential areas, it becomes a real challenge when the required information should be acquired from locations where no infrastructure is available such as mountain or sea areas. The Integrated Systems Lab of NCSR Demokritos within the PERSEUS FP7- SEC-2011-261748 project has developed a wireless broadband telecommunication system that combines different communication channels from subGHz to microwave frequencies and provides secure IP connectivity between sea surveillance vessels and the Command and Control Centers (C3). The system was deployed in Fast Patrol Boats of the Hellenic Coast Guard that are used for maritime surveillance in sea boarders and tested successfully in two demonstration exercises for irregular migration and smuggling scenarios in the Aegean Archipelagos. This paper describes in detail the system architecture in terms of hardware and software and the evaluation measurements of the system communication capabilities.

  17. Object detection by optical correlator and intelligence recognition surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Yunlong

    2013-09-01

    We report a recent work on robust object detection in high-resolution aerial imagery in urban environment for Intelligence, Surveillance and Recognition (ISR) missions. Our approaches used the simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) algorithm, which combines regional and edge information to form the superpixels. The irregularity in size and shape of the superpixels measured with the Hausdorff distance served to determine the salient regions in the very large aerial images. Then, the car detection was performed with both the component-based approach and the featurebased approaches. We merged the superpixels with the statistical region merging (SRM) algorithm. The regions were described by the radiometric, geometrical moments and shape features, and classified using the Support Vector Machine (SVM). The cast shadow were detected and removed by a radiometry based tricolor attenuation model (TAM). Detection of object parts is less sensitive to occlusion, rotation, and changes in scale, view angle and illumination than detection of the object as whole. The object parts were combined to the object according to their unique spatial relations. On the other hand, we used the invariant scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features to describe superpixels and classed them by the SVM as belong or not to the object. All along our recent work we still trace the brilliant ideas in early days by H. John Caulfield and other pioneers of optical pattern recognition, for improving the discrimination of the matched spatial filter with linear combinations of cross-correlations, which have been inherited transformed and reinvented to achieve tremendous progress.

  18. Privacy-aware access control for video data in intelligent surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagts, Hauke; Jakoby, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Surveillance systems became powerful. Objects can be identified and intelligent surveillance services can generate events when a specific situation occurs. Such surveillance services can be organized in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) to fulfill surveillance tasks for specific purposes. Therefore the services process information on a high level, e.g., just the position of an object. Video data is still required to visualize a situation to an operator and is required as evidence in court. Processing of personal related and sensitive information threatens privacy. To protect the user and to be compliant with legal requirements it must be ensured that sensitive information can only be processed for a defined propose by specific users or services. This work proposes an architecture for Access Control that enforces the separation of data between different surveillance tasks. Access controls are enforced at different levels: for the users starting the tasks, for the services within the tasks processing data stored in central store or calculated by other services and for sensor related services that extract information out of the raw data and provide them.

  19. Autonomous real-time ground ubiquitous surveillance-imaging system (ARGUS-IS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leininger, Brian; Edwards, Jonathan; Antoniades, John; Chester, David; Haas, Dan; Liu, Eric; Stevens, Mark; Gershfield, Charlie; Braun, Mike; Targove, James D.; Wein, Steve; Brewer, Paul; Madden, Donald G.; Shafique, Khurram Hassan

    2008-04-01

    Finding, tracking and monitoring events and activities of interest on a continuous basis remains one of our highest Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) requirements. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) serve as one of the warfighter's primary and most responsive means for surveillance and gathering intelligence information and are becoming vital assets in military operations. This is demonstrated by their significant use in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom and in Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom. Lessons learned from these operations indicate that UAVs provide critical capabilities for enhancing situational awareness, intelligence gathering and force protection for our military forces. Current UAS high resolution electro-optics offers a small high resolution field of view (FOV). This narrow FOV is a limiting factor on the utility of the EO system. The UAS that are available offer persistence; however, the effectiveness of the EO system is limited by the sensors and available processing. DARPA is addressing this developing the next generation of persistent, very wide area surveillance with the Autonomous Real-time Ground Ubiquitous Surveillance - Imaging System (ARGUS-IS). The system will be capable of imaging an area of greater than 40 square kilometers with a Ground Space Distance (GSD) of 15 cm at video rates of greater than 12 Hz. This paper will discuss the elements of the ARGUS-IS program.

  20. Surveillance of aseptic central nervous system infections in Poland: is it meeting its objectives?

    PubMed

    Stefanoff, P; Rogalska, J; Zajkowska, J; Czerska, M; Seroka, W; Czarkowski, M P

    2011-01-01

    In Poland, a surveillance system capturing generic information on both diagnosed and undiagnosed aseptic central nervous system infections (ACI) has been in operation since 1966. This study evaluates to what extent the ACI surveillance is able to meet its objectives to monitor ACI trends and to detect signals of public health importance such as enteroviral outbreaks, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) endemic foci, poliovirus appearance or emergence of new neurotropic viruses. Between 2004 and 2008, aetiology was established for 17% of ACI cases. Of the 1,994 reported ACI cases, 232 (11.6%) were diagnosed with TBE virus, 46 (2.3%) with enterovirus, 35 (1.8%) with herpesvirus, and 32 (1.6%) had other viral causes such as Epstein Barr virus or adenovirus. The system's performance varied between the provinces, with the frequency of suspected ACI cases referred for viral aetiology investigation in 2008 ranging from 1.98 to 285.4 samples per million inhabitants. The sensitivity of physicians' reporting, estimated as the proportion of hospitalised ACI cases reported to the surveillance system, was 48% nationally, with vast regional differences (range 30–91%). To conclude, the ACI surveillance system in Poland does currently not meet its objectives, due to limited availability of aetiological diagnosis and microbiological confirmation and to regional differences in reporting sensitivity. PMID:21801691

  1. Sensitivity of the Dengue Surveillance System in Brazil for Detecting Hospitalized Cases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the dengue surveillance system in detecting hospitalized cases in ten capital cities in Brazil from 2008 to 2013 using a probabilistic record linkage of two independent information systems hospitalization (SIH-SUS) adopted as the gold standard and surveillance (SINAN). Sensitivity was defined as the proportion of cases reported to the surveillance system amid the suspected hospitalized cases registered in SIH-SUS. Of the 48,174 hospitalizations registered in SIH-SUS, 24,469 (50.7%) were reported and registered in SINAN, indicating an overall sensitivity of 50.8% (95%CI 50.3–51.2). The observed sensitivity for each of the municipalities included in the study ranged from 22.0% to 99.1%. The combination of the two data sources identified 71,161 hospitalizations, an increase of 97.0% over SINAN itself. Our results allowed establishing the proportion of underreported dengue hospitalizations in the public health system in Brazil, highlighting the use of probabilistic record linkage as a valuable tool for evaluating surveillance systems. PMID:27192405

  2. Community systems strengthening for HIV care: experiences from Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mburu, Gitau; Oxenham, Danielle; Hodgson, Ian; Nakiyemba, Alice; Seeley, Janet; Bermejo, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    The growing HIV burden on families and health systems is exerting a shift toward community caregivers, and is increasing the demand for functional community systems. In Uganda, where the number of people with HIV is increasing against a background of weak health systems, the role of community systems is poorly understood. We investigated the role of community systems in palliative care and the system elements required for an effective community response in Uganda. Qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted among providers and recipients of palliative care, their family members, and governmental and community stakeholders in Mbale and Jinja, Uganda. Results showed that community systems play an important role in many aspects of palliative care--including personal, livelihood, nutritional and bereavement support--and often strengthen care linkages and referrals. For community systems to fulfill these roles effectively, multiple system elements--including leadership, training, partnerships, and enabling policies--are essential. Strengthening community systems could be an effective strategy to alleviate HIV burden on families and health systems. A systems approach could be a potent mechanism for determining which community structures to strengthen in order to maximize the impact of palliative care programs, and for guiding investments in HIV and health. PMID:24295101

  3. Usage and data collection patterns for a novel web-based foodborne-disease surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Wethington, Holly; Bartlett, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper discusses the traditional system of foodborne-illness surveillance and provides a justification for increased syndromic surveillance of foodborne illness. A new Internet-based method for reporting foodborne disease is explained, and data entered by 7,500 visitors to the pilot Web site are described with respect to completeness and basic demographic factors. Data entry patterns show that visitors are willing to report a suspected case of foodborne illness online and do so in greater detail than is commonly obtained from traditional reports made over the telephone. PMID:16583551

  4. Application of an injury surveillance system to injuries at an industrial facility.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C S; Cloeren, M; Schwartz, B S

    1993-08-01

    We developed a computerized surveillance database employing the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and sampled three months of nonfatal injuries at a large industrial facility. Data from 197 injury visits to the plant medical department were collected. With the addition of some new AIS codes for injuries specific to the workplace, most injuries could be coded and severity scores calculated with good interrater reliability. Neither Maximum AIS nor Injury Severity Score (ISS) predicted restricted or lost work time. Because of its ease of automation and reliability, the AIS can serve as a useful tool for occupational injury surveillance, but its current severity scoring system is not predictive of disability.

  5. [Chronic diseases as a priority for the public health surveillance system in Spain].

    PubMed

    Mayoral Cortes, José María; Aragonés Sanz, Nuria; Godoy, Pere; Sierra Moros, María José; Cano Portero, Rosa; González Moran, Francisco; Pousa Ortega, Ánxela

    2016-01-01

    At present, epidemiological surveillance in Spain remains focused on the communicable diseases included in the list of notifiable diseases. However, there has been a change in epidemiological pattern that predominated until the last few decades of the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, which used to be the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, have given way to a predominance of chronic diseases. In this regard, progress has been made in the drafting and adoption of specific legal regulations on public health monitoring. However, Spain has yet to develop this legislation which, among other elements, includes the mandate to organize the surveillance of non-communicable diseases in Spain. This article aims to describe some points that should be considered in the development of a national surveillance system linked to existing strategies for the prevention and control of chronic diseases. PMID:26832857

  6. Comment: Toward a coordinated system for the surveillance of environmental health hazards.

    PubMed Central

    Hertz-Picciotto, I

    1996-01-01

    The rapid increases in the numbers and quantities of chemicals released into the environment have been accompanied by a lack of adequate prerelease testing for adverse health outcomes. Environmental health surveillance is used both to track changes in exposures that are known to have adverse health effects and to identify previously unrecognized hazards. Surveillance data can directly aid in the design of interventions to reduce the level of hazardous agents in the environment or the opportunities for human contact with them. Components of an ideal environmental health surveillance system are discussed. For well-recognized hazards, databases related to exposure alone are adequate. However, for uncovering previously unrecognized associations, linkage between exposure and outcome databases that are collected or aggregated at the same geographic scale and for regions of relatively homogeneous exposures are needed. PMID:8629713

  7. [Chronic diseases as a priority for the public health surveillance system in Spain].

    PubMed

    Mayoral Cortes, José María; Aragonés Sanz, Nuria; Godoy, Pere; Sierra Moros, María José; Cano Portero, Rosa; González Moran, Francisco; Pousa Ortega, Ánxela

    2016-01-01

    At present, epidemiological surveillance in Spain remains focused on the communicable diseases included in the list of notifiable diseases. However, there has been a change in epidemiological pattern that predominated until the last few decades of the twentieth century. Infectious diseases, which used to be the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, have given way to a predominance of chronic diseases. In this regard, progress has been made in the drafting and adoption of specific legal regulations on public health monitoring. However, Spain has yet to develop this legislation which, among other elements, includes the mandate to organize the surveillance of non-communicable diseases in Spain. This article aims to describe some points that should be considered in the development of a national surveillance system linked to existing strategies for the prevention and control of chronic diseases.

  8. Current trends from the USDA influenza a virus in swine surveillance system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A U.S. national surveillance system for influenza A viruses (IAV) in swine was initiated in 2009 with increasing participation to the present day. The objectives are to monitor genetic evolution of IAV in swine, make isolates available for research, diagnostic reagents, and vaccine development throu...

  9. Surveillance system and method having an operating mode partitioned fault classification model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A system and method which partitions a parameter estimation model, a fault detection model, and a fault classification model for a process surveillance scheme into two or more coordinated submodels together providing improved diagnostic decision making for at least one determined operating mode of an asset.

  10. Race, Ethnicity, and Self-Rated Health Status in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrell, Luisa N.; Crawford, Natalie D.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the association between race and self-rated health status among Hispanic and non-Hispanic adults in the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey (N = 241,038). Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of self-rated health as fair/poor for Hispanic Blacks, Hispanic Whites, and non-Hispanic Blacks as…

  11. Reassessing the WIC Effect: Evidence from the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Ted; Racine, Andrew; Yunzal-Butler, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Recent analyses differ on how effective the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) is at improving infant health. We use data from nine states that participate in the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System to address limitations in previous work. With information on the mother's timing of WIC enrollment, we…

  12. Innovation of High-risk Infants Follow-up Surveillance System in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jodeiry, Behzad; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Mirnia, Kayvan; Akrami, Forouzan; Heidarabadi, Seifoallah; Ebadi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early childhood development is one of the most social determinants of health that must be notified in order to reducing social gap and inequity. In spite of increasingly developing intensive neonatal care wards and decreasing neonatal mortality rate, there is no follow-up surveillance system to identify high-risk infants (HRI) and their health problems for timely intervention after discharge. This study was carried out to design and pilot high-risk infant follow-ups (HRIFs) surveillance system, in Alzahra Hospital, a tertiary level center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUOMS), in 2012–2013. Methods: In this qualitative research after studying international documents, consensus about criteria of HRIs accomplished by focus group discussion. Then, Delphi agreement technique was used to finalizing assessment timetable. In the second phase, we piloted the designed surveillance system in Alzahra Hospital, a tertiary level center of TUOMS. Pilot study was implemented by follow-up team organized in designed model at the first phase of the study. Then, the findings of the pilot study were being assessed by an expert panel. If the members agreed on made decisions, they were being placed on the agenda of the national committee of development care of newborns for final approval. Results: High-risk infants follow-up surveillance system was designed in following steps: Defining of evidence-based criteria of HRIs, organizing the follow-up team, regulating the organs and neurodevelopment assessment timetable, publishing a health certificate notebook for HRIs, and designing Access database software for data collection, report and evaluation. Conclusions: We designed and piloted HRIFs surveillance system, so this system was institutionalized in Alzahra Hospital, finally. It can be prepared to apply in the whole country, after detecting the quantitative outcomes and developing the program in East Azarbijan. PMID:25969705

  13. An Expert System And Simulation Approach For Sensor Management & Control In A Distributed Surveillance Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Barbara D.; Heller, Paul R.

    1987-05-01

    A surveillance network is a group of multiplatform sensors cooperating to improve network performance. Network control is distributed as a measure to decrease vulnerability to enemy threat. The network may contain diverse sensor types such as radar, ESM (Electronic Support Measures), IRST (Infrared search and track) and E-0 (Electro-Optical). Each platform may contain a single sensor or suite of sensors. In a surveillance network it is desirable to control sensors to make the overall system more effective. This problem has come to be known as sensor management and control (SM&C). Two major facets of network performance are surveillance and survivability. In a netted environment, surveillance can be enhanced if information from all sensors is combined and sensor operating conditions are controlled to provide a synergistic effect. In contrast, when survivability is the main concern for the network, the best operating status for all sensors would be passive or off. Of course, improving survivability tends to degrade surveillance. Hence, the objective of SM&C is to optimize surveillance and survivability of the network. Too voluminous data of various formats and the quick response time are two characteristics of this problem which make it an ideal application for Artificial Intelligence. A solution to the SM&C problem, presented as a computer simulation, will be presented in this paper. The simulation is a hybrid production written in LISP and FORTRAN. It combines the latest conventional computer programming methods with Artificial Intelligence techniques to produce a flexible state-of-the-art tool to evaluate network performance. The event-driven simulation contains environment models coupled with an expert system. These environment models include sensor (track-while-scan and agile beam) and target models, local tracking, and system tracking. These models are used to generate the environment for the sensor management and control expert system. The expert system

  14. Sentinel surveillance of sexually transmitted infections/HIV and risk behaviors in vulnerable populations in 5 Central American countries.

    PubMed

    Soto, Ramon J; Ghee, Annette E; Nunez, Cesar A; Mayorga, Ruben; Tapia, Kenneth A; Astete, Sabina G; Hughes, James P; Buffardi, Anne L; Holte, Sarah E; Holmes, King K

    2007-09-01

    In El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama, we recruited 2466 female sex workers (FSWs) by probabilistic or comprehensive sampling and 1418 men who have sex with men (MSM) by convenience sampling to measure sociobehavioral risk and sexually transmitted infections. For MSM, HIV seroprevalence ranged from 7.6% in Nicaragua to 15.3% in El Salvador, and estimated HIV seroincidence per 100 person-years ranged from 2.7 in Panama to 14.4 in Nicaragua; 61% reported using condoms consistently with casual male partners, 29% reported exposure to behavioral interventions, and 22% reported recent sex with male and female partners. For FSWs, HIV seroprevalence ranged from 0.2% in Nicaragua and Panama to 9.6% in Honduras, where estimated HIV seroincidence was also highest (3.2 per 100 person-years); 77% and 72% of FSWs reported using condoms consistently with new and regular clients. Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 seroprevalence averaged 85.3% in FSWs and 48.2% in MSM, and syphilis seropositivity averaged 9.6% in FSWs and 8.3% in MSM. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae prevalences in FSWs averaged 20.1% and 8.1%, and Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis prevalences averaged 11.0% and 54.8%. An ongoing HIV epidemic involves Central American MSM with potential bridging to women. In FSWs, HSV-2 infection was associated with HIV infection (odds ratio = 11.0, 95% confidence interval: 2.9 to 7.9). For these vulnerable populations, prevention must incorporate acceptable and effective sexual health services, including improved condom access and promotion.

  15. Wisconsin's environmental public health tracking network: information systems design for childhood cancer surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hanrahan, Lawrence P; Anderson, Henry A; Busby, Brian; Bekkedal, Marni; Sieger, Thomas; Stephenson, Laura; Knobeloch, Lynda; Werner, Mark; Imm, Pamela; Olson, Joseph

    2004-10-01

    In this article we describe the development of an information system for environmental childhood cancer surveillance. The Wisconsin Cancer Registry annually receives more than 25,000 incident case reports. Approximately 269 cases per year involve children. Over time, there has been considerable community interest in understanding the role the environment plays as a cause of these cancer cases. Wisconsin's Public Health Information Network (WI-PHIN) is a robust web portal integrating both Health Alert Network and National Electronic Disease Surveillance System components. WI-PHIN is the information technology platform for all public health surveillance programs. Functions include the secure, automated exchange of cancer case data between public health-based and hospital-based cancer registrars; web-based supplemental data entry for environmental exposure confirmation and hypothesis testing; automated data analysis, visualization, and exposure-outcome record linkage; directories of public health and clinical personnel for role-based access control of sensitive surveillance information; public health information dissemination and alerting; and information technology security and critical infrastructure protection. For hypothesis generation, cancer case data are sent electronically to WI-PHIN and populate the integrated data repository. Environmental data are linked and the exposure-disease relationships are explored using statistical tools for ecologic exposure risk assessment. For hypothesis testing, case-control interviews collect exposure histories, including parental employment and residential histories. This information technology approach can thus serve as the basis for building a comprehensive system to assess environmental cancer etiology.

  16. Statistical Model For Pseudo-Moving Objects Recognition In Video Surveillance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakov, B.; Egorov, A.; Sidyakin, S.; Malin, I.; Vizilter, Y.

    2014-08-01

    This paper considers a statistical approach to define pseudo-moving (false) objects in video surveillance systems by constructing systems of hypothesis with the criteria based on statistical behavioral particularities. The obtained results are integrated in two ways: using the Bayes' theorem or the logistic regression. FAR-FRR curves are plotted for each system of hypothesis and also for the decision rule. The results of the proposed methods are obtained on test video databases.

  17. Poliomyelitis surveillance.

    PubMed

    1998-04-01

    Attention to the 4 poliomyelitis surveillance indicators approved by the International Commission for the Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (ICCPE) in 1994, has deteriorated since the Americas were declared free from wild poliovirus. The indicators are designed to measure the performance of health services and the sensitivity of the surveillance system to detect wild poliovirus circulating in the community. Sensitivity is the most important characteristic of the poliomyelitis surveillance system and it is measured by the rate of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) per 100,000 under age 15 years. As of March 21, 1998, the AFP rate reached its lowest level yet in the Americas, with only Bolivia, Chile, and Honduras presenting an acceptable rate (the analysis does not include the US and Canada). The other countries in the Caribbean region and Latin America had rates under 1 AFP case per 100,000 children under age 15. It follows that only 6% of children under age 15 in the region are currently protected by a sensitive AFP surveillance system. Poliovirus may therefore be circulating silently in the region. Renewed attention must be given to the AFP surveillance indicators. PMID:12321498

  18. Antiretroviral Therapy and Central Nervous System HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Price, Richard W.; Spudich, Serena

    2008-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) HIV-1 infection begins during primary viremia and continues throughout the course of untreated systemic infection. While frequently accompanied by local inflammatory reactions detectable in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), CNS HIV-1 infection is not usually clinically apparent. In a minority of patients, CNS HIV-1 infection evolves late in the course of systemic infection into encephalitis, which compromises brain function and presents clinically as AIDS dementia complex (ADC). Combination highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a major impact on all aspects of HIV-1 CNS infection and disease. In those with asymptomatic infection, HAART usually effectively suppresses CSF HIV-1 and markedly reduces the incidence of symptomatic ADC. In those presenting with ADC, HAART characteristically prevents neurological progression and leads to variable, and at times substantial, recovery. Treatment has similarly reduced CNS opportunistic infections. With better control of these severe disorders, attention has turned to the possible consequences of chronic silent infection, and the issue of whether indolent, low-grade brain injury might require earlier treatment intervention. PMID:18447615

  19. Technical Description of the Distribute Project: A Community-based Syndromic Surveillance System Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Lober, William B.; Reeder, Blaine; Painter, Ian; Revere, Debra; Goldov, Kim; Bugni, Paul F.; McReynolds, Justin; Olson, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a syndromic surveillance system implemented for community-based monitoring of influenza-like illness. The system began as collaboration between colleagues from state and large metropolitan area health jurisdictions, academic institutions, and the non-profit, International Society for Disease Surveillance. Over the six influenza seasons from 2006 to 2012, the system was automated and enhanced, with new features and infrastructure, and the resulting, reliable, enterprise grade system supported peer comparisons between 44 state and local public health jurisdictions who voluntarily contributed summarized data on influenza-like illness and gastrointestinal syndromes. The system was unusual in that it addressed the needs of a widely distributed, voluntary, community engaged in real-time data integration to support operational public health. PMID:24678377

  20. Technical Description of the Distribute Project: A Community-based Syndromic Surveillance System Implementation.

    PubMed

    Lober, William B; Reeder, Blaine; Painter, Ian; Revere, Debra; Goldov, Kim; Bugni, Paul F; McReynolds, Justin; Olson, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a syndromic surveillance system implemented for community-based monitoring of influenza-like illness. The system began as collaboration between colleagues from state and large metropolitan area health jurisdictions, academic institutions, and the non-profit, International Society for Disease Surveillance. Over the six influenza seasons from 2006 to 2012, the system was automated and enhanced, with new features and infrastructure, and the resulting, reliable, enterprise grade system supported peer comparisons between 44 state and local public health jurisdictions who voluntarily contributed summarized data on influenza-like illness and gastrointestinal syndromes. The system was unusual in that it addressed the needs of a widely distributed, voluntary, community engaged in real-time data integration to support operational public health. PMID:24678377

  1. Lessons Learned from More than Two Decades of HIV/AIDS Prevention Efforts: Implications for People Who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winningham, April; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Galletly, Carol; Seal, David; Thornton, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    In contrast with the nearly 30 years of HIV/AIDS research with the hearing community, data on HIV infection among persons who are deaf and hard of hearing is primarily anecdotal. Although the few available estimates suggest that deaf and hard of hearing persons are disproportionately affected by HIV infection, no surveillance systems are in place…

  2. Increases in Recent HIV Testing Among Men Who Have Sex With Men Coincide With the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Expanded Testing Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Laura A.; Wejnert, Cyprian; Rose, Charles E.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Taussig, Jennifer; Gern, Robert; Hoyte, Tamika; Salazar, Laura; White, Jianglan; Todd, Jeff; Bautista, Greg; Flynn, Colin; Sifakis, Frangiscos; German, Danielle; Isenberg, Debbie; Driscoll, Maura; Hurwitz, Elizabeth; Doherty, Rose; Wittke, Chris; Prachand, Nikhil; Benbow, Nanette; Melville, Sharon; Pannala, Praveen; Yeager, Richard; Sayegh, Aaron; Dyer, Jim; Sheu, Shane; Novoa, Alicia; Thrun, Mark; Al-Tayyib, Alia; Wilmoth, Ralph; Higgins, Emily; Griffin, Vivian; Mokotoff, Eve; MacMaster, Karen; Wolverton, Marcia; Risser, Jan; Rehman, Hafeez; Padgett, Paige; Bingham, Trista; Sey, Ekow Kwa; LaLota, Marlene; Metsch, Lisa; Forrest, David; Beck, Dano; Cardenas, Gabriel; Nemeth, Chris; Anderson, Bridget J.; Watson, Carol-Ann; Smith, Lou; Robinson, William T.; Gruber, DeAnn; Barak, Narquis; Murrill, Chris; Neaigus, Alan; Jenness, Samuel; Hagan, Holly; Reilly, Kathleen H.; Wendel, Travis; Cross, Helene; Bolden, Barbara; D'Errico, Sally; Wogayehu, Afework; Godette, Henry; Brady, Kathleen A.; Kirkland, Althea; Sifferman, Andrea; Miguelino-Keasling, Vanessa; Velasco, Al; Tovar, Veronica; Raymond, H. Fisher; De León, Sandra Miranda; Rolón-Colón, Yadira; Marzan, Melissa; Courogen, Maria; Jaenicke, Tom; Thiede, Hanne; Burt, Richard; Jia, Yujiang; Opoku, Jenevieve; Sansone, Marie; West, Tiffany; Magnus, Manya; Kuo, Irene

    2015-01-01

    According to National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system data, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing increased among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men from 2008 to 2011 in cities funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Expanded Testing Initiative, suggesting that focused HIV testing initiatives might have positive effects. PMID:25352589

  3. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the procedures described in § 15.521. (f) Imaging systems operating under the provisions of this... bandwidth of an imaging system operating under the provisions of this section must be contained between...

  4. HIV/AIDS Community Health Information System.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Christopher L; Kaukinen, Catherine E

    2003-01-01

    Given changes in the faces of AIDS over the last decade, it is crucial that disparities in health and access to healthcare are addressed. An Internet-based GIS was developed using ESRI's Arc Internet Map Server (Arc IMS) to provide users with a suite of tools to interact with geographic data and conduct spatial analyses related to the characteristics that promote or impede the provision of HIV-related services. Internet Mapping allows those engaged in local decision-making to: (1) geographically visualize information via the Internet; (2) Assess the relationship between the distribution of HIV services and spatially referenced socio-economic data; and (3) generate "what if" scenarios" that may direct the allocation of healthcare resources. PMID:14728567

  5. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System State-Added Questions: Leveraging an Existing Surveillance System to Improve Knowledge of Women's Reproductive Health.

    PubMed

    Boulet, Sheree L; Warner, Lee; Adamski, Alys; Smith, Ruben A; Burley, Kim; Grigorescu, Violanda

    2016-06-01

    As the prevalence of chronic conditions among women of reproductive age continues to rise, studies assessing the intersection of chronic disease and women's reproductive health status are increasingly needed. However, many data systems collect only limited information on women's reproductive health, thereby hampering the appraisal of risk and protective factors across the life span. One way to expand the study of women's health with minimal investment in time and resources is to integrate questions on reproductive health into existing surveillance systems. In 2013, previously validated questions on women's self-reported reproductive history, use of contraception, and infertility were added to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) by seven states (Connecticut, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Ohio, Texas, and Utah); all female respondents aged 18-50 years were included in the pool of respondents for these state-added questions. Of 8691 women who completed the questions, 13.2% reported ever experiencing infertility and 59.8% of those at risk for unintended pregnancy reported using contraception at last intercourse. The information garnered from the state-added reproductive health questions can be augmented with the BRFSS core questions on health-related risk behaviors, chronic conditions, and use of preventive services. Expanding existing data collection systems with supplemental questions on women's reproductive health can provide important information on risk factors and outcomes that may not be available from other sources. PMID:27227657

  6. The meningeal lymphatic system: a route for HIV brain migration?

    PubMed

    Lamers, Susanna L; Rose, Rebecca; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Nolan, David J; Salemi, Marco; Maidji, Ekaterina; Stoddart, Cheryl A; McGrath, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    Two innovative studies recently identified functional lymphatic structures in the meninges that may influence the development of HIV-associated neurological disorders (HAND). Until now, blood vessels were assumed to be the sole transport system by which HIV-infected monocytes entered the brain by bypassing a potentially hostile blood-brain barrier through inflammatory-mediated semi-permeability. A cascade of specific chemokine signals promote monocyte migration from blood vessels to surrounding brain tissues via a well-supported endothelium, where the cells differentiate into tissue macrophages capable of productive HIV infection. Lymphatic vessels on the other hand are more loosely organized than blood vessels. They absorb interstitial fluid from bodily tissues where HIV may persist and exchange a variety of immune cells (CD4(+) T cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells) with surrounding tissues through discontinuous endothelial junctions. We propose that the newly discovered meningeal lymphatics are key to HIV migration among viral reservoirs and brain tissue during periods of undetectable plasma viral loads due to suppressive combinational antiretroviral therapy, thus redefining the migration process in terms of a blood-lymphatic transport system.

  7. A Master-Slave Surveillance System to Acquire Panoramic and Multiscale Videos

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a master-slave visual surveillance system that uses stationary-dynamic camera assemblies to achieve wide field of view and selective focus of interest. In this system, the fish-eye panoramic camera is capable of monitoring a large area, and the PTZ dome camera has high mobility and zoom ability. In order to achieve the precise interaction, preprocessing spatial calibration between these two cameras is required. This paper introduces a novel calibration approach to automatically calculate a transformation matrix model between two coordinate systems by matching feature points. In addition, a distortion correction method based on Midpoint Circle Algorithm is proposed to handle obvious horizontal distortion in the captured panoramic image. Experimental results using realistic scenes have demonstrated the efficiency and applicability of the system with real-time surveillance. PMID:24729750

  8. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program: a dynamic and innovative injury surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Crain, J.; McFaull, S.; Thompson, W.; Skinner, R.; Do, M. T.; Fréchette, M.; Mukhi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This status report on the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), an emergency department-based injury and poisoning surveillance system, describes the result of migrating from a centralized data entry and coding process to a decentralized process, the web-based eCHIRPP system, in 2011. This secure system is improving the CHIRPP’s overall flexibility and timeliness, which are key attributes of an effective surveillance system. The integrated eCHIRPP platform enables near real-time data entry and access, has user-friendly data management and analysis tools, and allows for easier communication and connectivity across the CHIRPP network through an online collaboration centre. Current pilot testing of automated data monitoring and trend analysis tools—designed to monitor and flag incoming data according to predefined criteria (for example, a new consumer product)—is revealing eCHIRPP’s potential for providing early warnings of new hazards, issues and trends. PMID:27284703

  9. The potential capability of social media as a component of food safety and food terrorism surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Newkirk, Ryan W; Bender, Jeff B; Hedberg, Craig W

    2012-02-01

    Social media (i.e., internet applications and platforms that allow users to create and share content) are a potentially rich data source for foodborne disease surveillance. This commentary qualitatively evaluates social media as a foodborne disease surveillance system component and discusses novel ways that social media may facilitate the detection of intentional and unintentional food contamination. PMID:22217109

  10. A 24-hour remote surveillance system for terrestrial wildlife studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W.; Ryman, W.E.; Kepler, C.B.; Hardy, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The configuration, components, specifications and costs of a state-of-the-art closed-circuit television system with wide application for wildlife research and management are described. The principal system components consist of color CCTV camera with zoom lens, pan/tilt system, infrared illuminator, heavy duty tripod, coaxial cable, coaxitron system, half-duplex equalizing video/control amplifier, timelapse video cassette recorder, color video monitor, VHS video cassettes, portable generator, fuel tank and power cable. This system was developed and used in a study of Mississippi sandhiIl Crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) behaviors during incubation, hatching and fledging. The main advantages of the system are minimal downtime where a complete record of every event, its time of occurrence and duration, are permanently recorded and can be replayed as many times as necessary thereafter to retrieve the data. The system is particularly applicable for studies of behavior and predation, for counting individuals, or recording difficult to observe activities. The system can be run continuously for several weeks by two people, reducing personnel costs. This paper is intended to provide biologists who have litte knowledge of electronics with a system that might be useful to their specific needs. The disadvantages of this system are the initial costs (about $9800 basic, 1990-1991 U.S. dollars) and the time required to playback video cassette tapes for data retrieval, but the playback can be sped up when litte or no activity of interest is taking place. In our study, the positive aspects of the system far outweighed the negative.

  11. A review of HIV/AIDS system-level interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bauermeister, José A.; Tross, Susan; Ehrhardt, Anke A.

    2010-01-01

    The escalating HIV/AIDS epidemic worldwide demands that on-going prevention efforts be strengthened, disseminated, and scaled-up. System-level interventions refer to programs aiming to improve the functioning of an agency as well as the delivery of its services to the community. System-level interventions are a promising approach to HIV/AIDS prevention because they focus on (a) improving the agency’s ability to adopt evidence-based HIV prevention and care programs; (b) develop and establish policies and procedures that maximize the sustainability of on-going prevention and care efforts; and (c) improve decision-making processes such as incorporating the needs of communities into their tailored services. We reviewed studies focusing on system-level interventions by searching multiple electronic abstracting indices, including PsycInfo, PubMed, and ProQuest. Twenty-three studies out of 624 peer-reviewed studies (published from January 1985 to February 2007) met study criteria. Most of the studies focused on strengthening agency infrastructure, while other studies included collaborative partnerships and technical assistance programs. Our findings suggest that system-level interventions are promising in strengthening HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment efforts. Based on our findings, we propose recommendations for future work in developing and evaluating system-level interventions. PMID:18369722

  12. Assessment of the core and support functions of the Integrated Disease Surveillance system in Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Monitoring the progress of the Integrated Disease Surveillance (IDS) strategy is an important component to ensure its sustainability in the state of Maharashtra in India. The purpose of the study was to document the baseline performance of the system on its core and support functions and to understand the challenges for its transition from an externally funded “project” to a state owned surveillance “program”. Methods Multi-centre, retrospective cross-sectional evaluation study to assess the structure, core and support surveillance functions using modified WHO generic questionnaires. All 34 districts in the state and randomly identified 46 facilities and 25 labs were included in the study. Results Case definitions were rarely used at the periphery. Limited laboratory capacity at all levels compromised case and outbreak confirmation. Only 53% districts could confirm all priority diseases. Stool sample processing was the weakest at the periphery. Availability of transport media, trained staff, and rapid diagnostic tests were main challenges at the periphery. Data analysis was weak at both district and facility levels. Outbreak thresholds were better understood at facility level (59%) than at the district (18%). None of the outbreak indicator targets were met and submission of final outbreak report was the weakest. Feedback and training was significantly better (p < 0.0001) at district level (65%; 76%) than at facility level (15%; 37%). Supervision was better at the facility level (37%) than at district (18%) and so were coordination, communication and logistic resources. Contractual part time positions, administrative delays in recruitment, and vacancies (30%) were main human resource issues that hampered system performance. Conclusions Significant progress has been made in the core and support surveillance functions in Maharashtra, however some challenges exist. Support functions (laboratory, transport and communication equipment, training

  13. Design and implementation of a wireless video surveillance system based on ARM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yucheng; Han, Dantao; Yan, Juanli

    2011-06-01

    A wireless video surveillance system based on ARM was designed and implemented in this article. The newest ARM11 S3C6410 was used as the main monitoring terminal chip with the embedded Linux operating system. The video input was obtained by the analog CCD and transferred from analog to digital by the video chip TVP5150. The video was packed by RTP and transmitted by the wireless USB TL-WN322G+ after being compressed by H.264 encoders in S3C6410. Further more, the video images were preprocessed. It can detect the abnormities of the specified scene and the abnormal alarms. The video transmission definition is the standard definition 480P. The video stream can be real-time monitored. The system has been used in the real-time intelligent video surveillance of the specified scene.

  14. Image enhancement on the INVIS integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijk, Judith; Schutte, Klamer; Toet, Alexander; Hogervorst, Maarten

    2010-04-01

    We present the design and first field trial results of the INVIS integrated night vision surveillance and observation system, in particular for the image enhancement techniques implemented. The INVIS is an all-day-andnight all-weather navigation and surveillance tool, combining three-band cameras. We present a processing pipeline for this system. The image quality of all individual sensor signals is enhanced through Dynamic Noise Reduction and Dynamic Super Resolution. The quality of the thermal image can be enhanced through Scene-Based Non-Uniformity Correction (SBNUC). The images are fused using natural tone mapping techniques. The contrast in the image can be improved using Local Adaptive Contrast Enhancement, applied before or after the tone mapping. These results show that the image enhancement techniques have an added value for image fusion systems.

  15. Web-Based Surveillance Systems for Human, Animal, and Plant Diseases.

    PubMed

    Madoff, Lawrence C; Li, Annie

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of infectious diseases, caused by novel pathogens or the spread of existing ones to new populations and regions, represents a continuous threat to humans and other species. The early detection of emerging human, animal, and plant diseases is critical to preventing the spread of infection and protecting the health of our species and environment. Today, more than 75% of emerging infectious diseases are estimated to be zoonotic and capable of crossing species barriers and diminishing food supplies. Traditionally, surveillance of diseases has relied on a hierarchy of health professionals that can be costly to build and maintain, leading to a delay or interruption in reporting. However, Internet-based surveillance systems bring another dimension to epidemiology by utilizing technology to collect, organize, and disseminate information in a more timely manner. Partially and fully automated systems allow for earlier detection of disease outbreaks by searching for information from both formal sources (e.g., World Health Organization and government ministry reports) and informal sources (e.g., blogs, online media sources, and social networks). Web-based applications display disparate information online or disperse it through e-mail to subscribers or the general public. Web-based early warning systems, such as ProMED-mail, the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), and Health Map, have been able to recognize emerging infectious diseases earlier than traditional surveillance systems. These systems, which are continuing to evolve, are now widely utilized by individuals, humanitarian organizations, and government health ministries. PMID:26082109

  16. A web-based video annotation system for crowdsourcing surveillance videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Neeraj J.; Tahboub, Khalid; Kirsh, David; Delp, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Video surveillance systems are of a great value to prevent threats and identify/investigate criminal activities. Manual analysis of a huge amount of video data from several cameras over a long period of time often becomes impracticable. The use of automatic detection methods can be challenging when the video contains many objects with complex motion and occlusions. Crowdsourcing has been proposed as an effective method for utilizing human intelligence to perform several tasks. Our system provides a platform for the annotation of surveillance video in an organized and controlled way. One can monitor a surveillance system using a set of tools such as training modules, roles and labels, task management. This system can be used in a real-time streaming mode to detect any potential threats or as an investigative tool to analyze past events. Annotators can annotate video contents assigned to them for suspicious activity or criminal acts. First responders are then able to view the collective annotations and receive email alerts about a newly reported incident. They can also keep track of the annotators' training performance, manage their activities and reward their success. By providing this system, the process of video analysis is made more efficient.

  17. Web-Based Surveillance Systems for Human, Animal, and Plant Diseases.

    PubMed

    Madoff, Lawrence C; Li, Annie

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of infectious diseases, caused by novel pathogens or the spread of existing ones to new populations and regions, represents a continuous threat to humans and other species. The early detection of emerging human, animal, and plant diseases is critical to preventing the spread of infection and protecting the health of our species and environment. Today, more than 75% of emerging infectious diseases are estimated to be zoonotic and capable of crossing species barriers and diminishing food supplies. Traditionally, surveillance of diseases has relied on a hierarchy of health professionals that can be costly to build and maintain, leading to a delay or interruption in reporting. However, Internet-based surveillance systems bring another dimension to epidemiology by utilizing technology to collect, organize, and disseminate information in a more timely manner. Partially and fully automated systems allow for earlier detection of disease outbreaks by searching for information from both formal sources (e.g., World Health Organization and government ministry reports) and informal sources (e.g., blogs, online media sources, and social networks). Web-based applications display disparate information online or disperse it through e-mail to subscribers or the general public. Web-based early warning systems, such as ProMED-mail, the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), and Health Map, have been able to recognize emerging infectious diseases earlier than traditional surveillance systems. These systems, which are continuing to evolve, are now widely utilized by individuals, humanitarian organizations, and government health ministries.

  18. An automated system for public health surveillance of school absenteeism.

    PubMed

    Baer, Atar; Rodriguez, Carla V; Duchin, Jeffrey S

    2011-01-01

    Public Health-Seattle & King County established an automated system for monitoring school absenteeism data from 18 of 19 public school districts in King County, Washington. The system receives a daily aggregate count of the number of students enrolled and absent, stratified by school district, school name, and grade. A name and unique identifier are provided for each school and district, as well as the level (eg, elementary, middle, high, alternative, other) and zip code of each school. Files are transmitted to the health department daily and include data from the previous school day. Public Health-Seattle & King County developed a series of visualizations that summarize the data by day, week, and month for each level of stratification. The automated system for collecting and monitoring school absenteeism data was more acceptable, simple, timely, complete, and useful relative to traditional manual data collection methods. PMID:21135662

  19. HIV

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sumit; Sahoo, Soumya Swaroop; Jain, Rambilas; Khanna, Pardeep; Mehta, Bharti; Singh, Inderjeet

    2014-01-01

    Getting to zero: zero new HIV infections, zero deaths from AIDS-related illness, zero discrimination is the theme of World AIDS Day 2012. Given the spread of the epidemic today, getting to zero may sound difficult, but significant progress is underway. The total annual loss for the entire country due to HIV is 7% of GDP, which exceeds India’s annual health expenditure in 2004. The additional loss due to loss of labor income and increased medical expenditure as measured by the external transfers, account for 5% of the country’s health expenditure and 0.23% of GDP. Given that the HIV incidence rate is only 0.27% in India, these losses are quite staggering. Despite the remarkable achievements in development of anti-retroviral therapies against HIV and the recent advances in new prevention technologies, the rate of new HIV infections continue to outpace efforts on HIV prevention and control. Thus, the development of a safe and effective vaccine for prevention and control of AIDS remains a global public health priority and the greatest opportunity to eventually end the AIDS pandemic. PMID:24056755

  20. Surveillance-response systems: the key to elimination of tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Tropical diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although combined health efforts brought about significant improvements over the past 20 years, communities in resource-constrained settings lack the means of strengthening their environment in directions that would provide less favourable conditions for pathogens. Still, the impact of infectious diseases is declining worldwide along with progress made regarding responses to basic health problems and improving health services delivery to the most vulnerable populations. The London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), initiated by the World Health Organization’s NTD roadmap, set out the path towards control and eventual elimination of several tropical diseases by 2020, providing an impetus for local and regional disease elimination programmes. Tropical diseases are often patchy and erratic, and there are differing priorities in resources-limited and endemic countries at various levels of their public health systems. In order to identify and prioritize strategic research on elimination of tropical diseases, the ‘First Forum on Surveillance-Response System Leading to Tropical Diseases Elimination’ was convened in Shanghai in June 2012. Current strategies and the NTD roadmap were reviewed, followed by discussions on how to identify and critically examine prevailing challenges and opportunities, including inter-sectoral collaboration and approaches for elimination of several infectious, tropical diseases. A priority research agenda within a ‘One Health-One World’ frame of global health was developed, including (i) the establishment of a platform for resource-sharing and effective surveillance-response systems for Asia Pacific and Africa with an initial focus on elimination of lymphatic filariasis, malaria and schistosomiasis; (ii) development of new strategies, tools and approaches, such as improved diagnostics and antimalarial therapies; (iii) rigorous

  1. Surveillance-response systems: the key to elimination of tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest; Ai, Lin; Zhou, Xia; Chen, Jun-Hu; Hu, Wei; Bergquist, Robert; Guo, Jia-Gang; Utzinger, Jürg; Tanner, Marcel; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2014-01-01

    Tropical diseases remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although combined health efforts brought about significant improvements over the past 20 years, communities in resource-constrained settings lack the means of strengthening their environment in directions that would provide less favourable conditions for pathogens. Still, the impact of infectious diseases is declining worldwide along with progress made regarding responses to basic health problems and improving health services delivery to the most vulnerable populations. The London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), initiated by the World Health Organization's NTD roadmap, set out the path towards control and eventual elimination of several tropical diseases by 2020, providing an impetus for local and regional disease elimination programmes. Tropical diseases are often patchy and erratic, and there are differing priorities in resources-limited and endemic countries at various levels of their public health systems. In order to identify and prioritize strategic research on elimination of tropical diseases, the 'First Forum on Surveillance-Response System Leading to Tropical Diseases Elimination' was convened in Shanghai in June 2012. Current strategies and the NTD roadmap were reviewed, followed by discussions on how to identify and critically examine prevailing challenges and opportunities, including inter-sectoral collaboration and approaches for elimination of several infectious, tropical diseases. A priority research agenda within a 'One Health-One World' frame of global health was developed, including (i) the establishment of a platform for resource-sharing and effective surveillance-response systems for Asia Pacific and Africa with an initial focus on elimination of lymphatic filariasis, malaria and schistosomiasis; (ii) development of new strategies, tools and approaches, such as improved diagnostics and antimalarial therapies; (iii) rigorous validation of

  2. A semantic based video indexing and retrieval system for maritime surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hieu T.; Ramu, Prakash; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wei, Hai; Yadegar, Jacob

    2009-05-01

    Content-based video retrieval from archived image/video is a very attractive capability of modern intelligent video surveillance systems. This paper presents an innovative Semantic-Based Video Indexing and Retrieval (SBVIR) software toolkit to help users of intelligent video surveillance to easily and rapidly search the content of large video archives to conduct video-based forensic and image intelligence. Tailored for maritime environment, SBVIR is suited for surveillance applications in harbor, sea shores, or around ships. The system comprises two major modules: a video analytic module that performs automatic target detection, tracking, classification, activities recognition, and a retrieval module that performs data indexing, and information retrieval. SBVIR is capable of detecting and tracking objects from multiple cameras robustly in condition of dynamic water background and illumination changes. The system provides hierarchical target classification among a large ontology of watercraft classes, and is capable of recognizing a variety of boat activities. Video retrieval is achieved with both query-by-keyword and query-by-example. Users can query video content using semantic concepts selected from a large dictionary of objects and activities, display the history linked to a given target/activity, and search for anomalies. The user can interact with the system and provide feedbacks to tune the system for improved accuracy and relevance of retrieved data. SBVIR has been tested for real maritime surveillance scenarios and shown to be able to generate highly-semantic metadata tags that can be used during the retrieval to provide user with relevant and accurate data in real-time.

  3. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School‐Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for disease and injury in Pacific Island countries and territories (PICT). This paper examines drinking patterns across 20 PICTs. Design and Methods We synthesised published data from the STEPwise approach to surveillance or similar surveys for adults 25–64 years, and from the Global School‐Based Student Health surveys and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) for youth. We examined current and heavy drinking, and for adults also frequency of consumption. Using YRBSS, we studied trends in youth alcohol use in US‐affiliated PICTs between 2001 and 2013. Results Alcohol consumption in adults and youth varied considerably across PICTs. In eight PICT populations, over 60% of male adults were current drinkers. Male adults consumed alcohol more frequently and engaged in heavy drinking more than female adults. Similar gender differences occurred in current and heavy drinking among youth. Across 10 PICTs, current drinking prevalence in males 13–15 years ranged from 10% to over 40%. Declines in alcohol use among grade 9–12 students were observed in YRBSS, although the magnitude differed by island and sex. Discussion and Conclusions Alcohol consumption varies widely between PICTs. There are marked gender differences in use and abstention. There is scope in PICTs for implementation of best practice strategies to reduce alcohol‐related harm. These need to be gender responsive and cognisant of concerning patterns of youth drinking. Strengthening surveillance of alcohol use and its consequences is vital to inform and monitor the impact of national and regional policies. [Kessaram T, McKenzie J, Girin N, Roth A, Vivili P, Williams G, Hoy D. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School‐Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:412–423] PMID:26358376

  4. Validation of a syndromic surveillance system using a general practitioner house calls network, Bordeaux, France.

    PubMed

    Flamand, C; Larrieu, S; Couvy, F; Jouves, B; Josseran, L; Filleul, L

    2008-06-19

    A new syndromic surveillance system has been developed in Bordeaux City, South West France, using a general practitioners' house calls network. Routinely collected, sociodemographic data, patients' complaints and medical diagnoses made at the end of the visit were monitored using syndrome groups such as influenza syndromes, bronchiolitis, gastrointestinal, respiratory syndromes and others, based on International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC)-2 codes. A process control chart was implemented in order to distinguish signals of interest from "background noise". In 2005 and 2006, a total of 303,936 visits were recorded. Seasonal epidemics of influenza-like illness, bronchiolitis or gastrointestinal were identified. The automated and real time nature of the system also allowed the early detection of unusual events such as an acute increase in the number of heat syndromes during the heat-wave that occurred in France in July 2006. This new system complements existing surveillance programs by assessing a large part of episodes of illness that do not require hospital admissions or the identification of an etiologic agent. Attributes and advantages of the system, such as timeliness and diagnostic specificity, demonstrated its utility and validity in term of syndromic surveillance purposes, and its extension at the national level is in process. PMID:18761939

  5. Applications of a sugar-based surveillance system to track arboviruses in wild mosquito populations.

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Townsend, Michael; Kurucz, Nina; Edwards, Jim; Ehlers, Gerhard; Rodwell, Chris; Moore, Frederick A; McMahon, Jamie L; Northill, Judith A; Simmons, Russell J; Cortis, Giles; Melville, Lorna; Whelan, Peter I; Ritchie, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Effective arbovirus surveillance is essential to ensure the implementation of control strategies, such as mosquito suppression, vaccination, or dissemination of public warnings. Traditional strategies employed for arbovirus surveillance, such as detection of virus or virus-specific antibodies in sentinel animals, or detection of virus in hematophagous arthropods, have limitations as an early-warning system. A system was recently developed that involves collecting mosquitoes in CO2-baited traps, where the insects expectorate virus on sugar-baited nucleic acid preservation cards. The cards are then submitted for virus detection using molecular assays. We report the application of this system for detecting flaviviruses and alphaviruses in wild mosquito populations in northern Australia. This study was the first to employ nonpowered passive box traps (PBTs) that were designed to house cards baited with honey as the sugar source. Overall, 20/144 (13.9%) of PBTs from different weeks contained at least one virus-positive card. West Nile virus Kunjin subtype (WNVKUN), Ross River virus (RRV), and Barmah Forest virus (BFV) were detected, being identified in 13/20, 5/20, and 2/20 of positive PBTs, respectively. Importantly, sentinel chickens deployed to detect flavivirus activity did not seroconvert at two Northern Territory sites where four PBTs yielded WNVKUN. Sufficient WNVKUN and RRV RNA was expectorated onto some of the honey-soaked cards to provide a template for gene sequencing, enhancing the utility of the sugar-bait surveillance system for investigating the ecology, emergence, and movement of arboviruses.

  6. Visual Sensor Technology for Advanced Surveillance Systems: Historical View, Technological Aspects and Research Activities in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Foresti, Gian Luca; Micheloni, Christian; Piciarelli, Claudio; Snidaro, Lauro

    2009-01-01

    The paper is a survey of the main technological aspects of advanced visual-based surveillance systems. A brief historical view of such systems from the origins to nowadays is given together with a short description of the main research projects in Italy on surveillance applications in the last twenty years. The paper then describes the main characteristics of an advanced visual sensor network that (a) directly processes locally acquired digital data, (b) automatically modifies intrinsic (focus, iris) and extrinsic (pan, tilt, zoom) parameters to increase the quality of acquired data and (c) automatically selects the best subset of sensors in order to monitor a given moving object in the observed environment. PMID:22574011

  7. Reemerging Rabies and Lack of Systemic Surveillance in People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rongliang; Zhang, Yongzhen; Dong, Guanmu; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    Rabies is a reemerging disease in China. The high incidence of rabies leads to numerous concerns: a potential carrier-dog phenomenon, undocumented transmission of rabies virus from wildlife to dogs, counterfeit vaccines, vaccine mismatching, and seroconversion testing in patients after their completion of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). These concerns are all scientifically arguable given a modern understanding of rabies. Rabies reemerges periodically in China because of high dog population density and low vaccination coverage in dogs. Mass vaccination campaigns rather than depopulation of dogs should be a long-term goal for rabies control. Seroconversion testing after vaccination is not necessary in either humans or animals. Human PEP should be initiated on the basis of diagnosis of biting animals. Reliable national systemic surveillance of rabies-related human deaths and of animal rabies prevalence is urgently needed. A laboratory diagnosis–based epidemiologic surveillance system can provide substantial information about disease transmission and effective prevention strategies. PMID:19751575

  8. The Immune System of HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Raya, Bahaa; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Marchant, Arnaud; MacGillivray, Duncan M.

    2016-01-01

    Infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women are HIV-exposed but the majority remains uninfected [i.e., HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU)]. HEU infants suffer greater morbidity and mortality from infections compared to HIV-unexposed (HU) peers. The reason(s) for these worse outcomes are uncertain, but could be related to an altered immune system state. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature investigating the adaptive and innate immune system of HEU infants. HEU infants have altered cell-mediated immunity, including impaired T-cell maturation with documented hypo- as well as hyper-responsiveness to T-cell activation. And although prevaccination vaccine-specific antibody levels are often lower in HEU than HU, most HEU infants mount adequate humoral immune response following primary vaccination with diphtheria toxoid, haemophilus influenzae type b, whole cell pertussis, measles, hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, HEU infants are often found to have lower absolute neutrophil counts as compared to HU infants. On the other hand, an increase of innate immune cytokine production and expression of co-stimulatory markers has been noted in HEU infants, but this increase appears to be restricted to the first few weeks of life. The immune system of HEU children beyond infancy remains largely unexplored. PMID:27733852

  9. Epidemiological Surveillance of HIV-1 Transmitted Drug Resistance in Spain in 2004-2012: Relevance of Transmission Clusters in the Propagation of Resistance Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Yolanda; Delgado, Elena; Fernández-García, Aurora; Cuevas, Maria Teresa; Thomson, Michael M.; Montero, Vanessa; Sánchez, Monica; Sánchez, Ana Maria; Pérez-Álvarez, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Our objectives were to carry out an epidemiological surveillance study on transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among individuals newly diagnosed of HIV-1 infection during a nine year period in Spain and to assess the role of transmission clusters (TC) in the propagation of resistant strains. An overall of 1614 newly diagnosed individuals were included in the study from January 2004 through December 2012. Individuals come from two different Spanish regions: Galicia and the Basque Country. Resistance mutations to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI) and protease inhibitors (PI) were analyzed according to mutations included in the surveillance drug-resistance mutations list updated in 2009. TC were defined as those comprising viruses from five or more individuals whose sequences clustered in maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees with a bootstrap value ≥90%. The overall prevalence of TDR to any drug was 9.9%: 4.9% to nucleoside RTIs (NRTIs), 3.6% to non-nucleoside RTIs (NNRTIs), and 2.7% to PIs. A significant decrease of TDR to NRTIs over time was observed [from 10% in 2004 to 2% in 2012 (p=0.01)]. Sixty eight (42.2%) of 161 sequences with TDR were included in 25 TC composed of 5 or more individuals. Of them, 9 clusters harbored TDR associated with high level resistance to antiretroviral drugs. T215D revertant mutation was transmitted in a large cluster comprising 25 individuals. The impact of epidemiological networks on TDR frequency may explain its persistence in newly diagnosed individuals. The knowledge of the populations involved in TC would facilitate the design of prevention programs and public health interventions. PMID:26010948

  10. The development of a surveillance system to monitor emergency food relief in New York State.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C C; Weber, J; Pelletier, D; Dodds, J M

    1987-10-01

    A representative sample of emergency food relief (EFR) programs was selected on the basis of a census of 1,488 EFR programs in New York State. The census was a two-stage telephone survey. EFR was provided in every county although there was considerable variation in the amount of EFR per county. The soup kitchen and food pantry components of EFR had to be differentiated. The surveillance system was operational one year after the census began.

  11. Cell phone-based system (Chaak) for surveillance of immatures of dengue virus mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Wedyan, Fadi; Hernandez-Garcia, Edgar; Sadhu, Devadatta; Ghosh, Sudipto; Bieman, James M; Tep-Chel, Diana; García-Rejón, Julián E; Eisen, Lars

    2013-07-01

    Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mérida, Mexico, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network.

  12. Cell Phone-Based System (Chaak) for Surveillance of Immatures of Dengue Virus Mosquito Vectors

    PubMed Central

    LOZANO–FUENTES, SAUL; WEDYAN, FADI; HERNANDEZ–GARCIA, EDGAR; SADHU, DEVADATTA; GHOSH, SUDIPTO; BIEMAN, JAMES M.; TEP-CHEL, DIANA; GARCÍA–REJÓN, JULIÁN E.; EISEN, LARS

    2014-01-01

    Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mérida, México, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network. PMID:23926788

  13. Global Ocean Surveillance With Electronic Intelligence Based Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatramanan, Haritha

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this proposal is to design our own ELINT based satellite system to detect and locate the target by using satellite Trilateration Principle. The target position can be found by measuring the radio signals arrived at three satellites using Time Difference of Arrival(TDOA) technique. To locate a target it is necessary to determine the satellite position. The satellite motion and its position is obtained by using Simplified General Perturbation Model(SGP4) in MATLAB. This SGP4 accepts satellite Two Line Element(TLE) data and returns the position in the form of state vectors. These state vectors are then converted into observable parameters and then propagated in space. This calculations can be done for satellite constellation and non - visibility periods can be calculated. Satellite Trilateration consists of three satellites flying in formation with each other. The satellite constellation design consists of three satellites with an inclination of 61.3° maintained at equal distances between each other. The design is performed using MATLAB and simulated to obtain the necessary results. The target's position can be obtained using the three satellites ECEF Coordinate system and its position and velocity can be calculated in terms of Latitude and Longitude. The target's motion is simulated to obtain the Speed and Direction of Travel.

  14. Canadian forces evaluation of the EPINATO Health Surveillance System in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jean L; Carew, Maureen T; Strauss, Barbara A

    2006-10-01

    The Canadian Forces (CF) adopted the EPINATO surveillance system in 1996 to monitor disease and injury morbidity in deployed settings. The Directorate of Force Health Protection, CF Health Services Group initiated an evaluation of EPINATO in Task Force Bosnia-Herzegovina in August 2003. Two methods were used to assess coding reliability: a chart audit and Sick Parade Register review. Stakeholder interviews were conducted evaluating data flow, reporting structure, and key system attributes. Reliability (K, 95% confidence interval) was good in 4 of 24 categories--sexually transmitted diseases, K = 0.75 (0.50, 1.00); eye disorders, K = 0.51 (0.15, 0.88); ears/nose/ throat, K = 0.51 (0.33, 0.69); lower respiratory infections, K = 0.49 (95% confidence interval 0.34, 0.65)-but otherwise was poor. EPINATO is not an effective, reliable tool for CF deployment health surveillance. An improved health surveillance system is required to ensure disease and injury aberrations are detected and optimal preventive programs and policies are in place for deployed CF military members.

  15. A national syndromic surveillance system for England and Wales using calls to a telephone helpline.

    PubMed

    Smith, G E; Cooper, D L; Loveridge, P; Chinemana, F; Gerard, E; Verlander, N

    2006-01-01

    Routine primary care data provide the means to monitor a variety of syndromes which could give early warning of health protection issues. In the United Kingdom, a national syndromic surveillance system, operated jointly by the UK Health Protection Agency (HPA) and NHS Direct (a national telephone health helpline), examines symptoms reported to NHS Direct. The aim of the system is to identify an increase in syndromes indicative of common infections and diseases, or the early stages of illness caused by the deliberate release of a biological or chemical agent. Data relating to 11 key symptoms/syndromes are received electronically from all 22 NHS Direct call centres covering England and Wales and analysed by the HPA on a daily basis. Statistically significant excesses in calls are automatically highlighted and assessed by a multi-disciplinary team. Although the surveillance system has characterised many sudden rises in syndromes reported to NHS Direct, no evidence of a biological or chemical attack has been detected. Benefits of this work, however, are early warning and tracking of rises in community morbidity (e.g. influenza-like illness, heatstroke); providing reassurance during times of perceived high risk (e.g. after the 7 July 2005 London bombs and December 2005 Buncefield oil depot fire); and timely surveillance data for influenza pandemic planning and epidemic modeling. PMID:17370968

  16. Characteristics and Behaviors Associated With HIV Infection Among Inmates in the North Carolina Prison System

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, David L.; Wohl, David A.; White, Becky L.; Stewart, Paul W.; Golin, Carol E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We identified factors associated with testing HIV positive in a prison system performing voluntary HIV testing on inmates and estimated the number of undetected HIV cases to evaluate the efficacy of risk-factor–based HIV testing. Methods. We used logistic regression to estimate associations between HIV serostatus and HIV risk behaviors, mental health, coinfection status, and sociodemographic characteristics for prisoners entering the North Carolina Department of Correction from January 2004 through May 2006. We estimated the number of undetected HIV cases on the basis of age-, gender-, and race-specific HIV prevalences among prisoners and in the state. Results. Nearly 3.4% (718/21 419) of tested prisoners were HIV positive. The strongest risk factors for infection among men were having sex with men (odds ratio [OR] = 8.0), Black race (OR = 6.2), other non-White race (OR = 7.4), and being aged 35 to 44 years (OR = 4.1). The strongest risk factor among women was Black race (OR = 3.8). Among HIV-positive prisoners, 65% were coinfected with HCV. We estimated that between 24% (223) and 61% (1101) of HIV cases remained undetected. Conclusions. The associations between HIV serostatus and a variety of factors highlight the potential limitations of risk-factor–based HIV testing in prisons, as do the high number of potential undetected HIV cases. PMID:19372527

  17. Context switching system and architecture for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershey, Paul C.; Graham, Christopher J.; Ledda, Leslie; Wang, Mu-Cheng

    2012-06-01

    Given the increasing utilization and dependence on ISR information, operators and imagery analysts monitoring intelligence feeds seek a capability to reduce processing overload in transformation of ISR data to actionable information. The objective they seek is improvement in time critical targeting (TCT) and response time for mission events. Existing techniques addressing this problem are inflexible and lack a dynamic environment for adaptation to changing mission events. This paper presents a novel approach to ISR information collection, processing, and response, called the ISR Context Switching System (ISR-CSS). ISR-CSS enables ground, sea, and airborne sensors to perform preliminary analysis and processing of data automatically at the platform before transferring actionable information back to ground-base operators and intelligence analysts. The on-platform processing includes a catalogue of filtering algorithms concatenated with associated compression algorithms that are automatically selected based on dynamic mission events. The filtering algorithms employ tunable parameters and sensitivities based on the original mission plan along with associated Essential Elements of Information (EEI), data type, and analyst/user preferences. As a mission progresses, ISR-CSS incorporates adaptive parameter updates (model-based, statistics-based, learning-based, and event-driven), providing increased tactical relevant data. If a mission transforms dramatically, where unexpected manual guidance is required, then ISR-CSS allows tactical end-user direct-to-sensor tasking. To address information overload, ISR-CSS provides the provision to filters and prioritize data according to end-user preferences. ISR-CSS dispenses mission-critical and timely actionable information for end-user utilization, enabling faster response to a greater range of threats across the mission spectrum.

  18. An opportunity analysis system for space surveillance experiments with the MSX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Ramaswamy; Duff, Gary; Hayes, Tony; Wiseman, Andy

    1994-01-01

    The Mid-Course Space Experiment consists of a set of payloads on a satellite being designed and built under the sponsorship of Ballistic Missile Defense Office. The MSX satellite will conduct a series of measurements of phenomenology of backgrounds, missile targets, plumes and resident space objects (RSO's); and will engage in functional demonstrations in support of detection, acquisition and tracking for ballistic missile defense and space-based space surveillance missions. A complex satellite like the MSX has several constraints imposed on its operation by the sensors, the supporting instrumentation, power resources, data recording capability, communications and the environment in which all these operate. This paper describes the implementation of an opportunity and feasibility analysis system, developed at Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, specifically to support the experiments of the Principal Investigator for space-based surveillance.

  19. Sex and gender in the US health surveillance system: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Conron, Kerith J; Landers, Stewart J; Reisner, Sari L; Sell, Randall L

    2014-06-01

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data have exposed significant sexual orientation disparities in health. Interest in examining the health of transgender youths, whose gender identities or expressions are not fully congruent with their assigned sex at birth, highlights limitations of the YRBS and the broader US health surveillance system. In 2009, we conducted the mixed-methods Massachusetts Gender Measures Project to develop and cognitively test measures for adolescent health surveillance surveys. A promising measure of transgender status emerged through this work. Further research is needed to produce accurate measures of assigned sex at birth and several dimensions of gender to further our understanding of determinants of gender disparities in health and enable strategic responses to address them.

  20. Sex and Gender in the US Health Surveillance System: A Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    Landers, Stewart J.; Reisner, Sari L.; Sell, Randall L.

    2014-01-01

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data have exposed significant sexual orientation disparities in health. Interest in examining the health of transgender youths, whose gender identities or expressions are not fully congruent with their assigned sex at birth, highlights limitations of the YRBS and the broader US health surveillance system. In 2009, we conducted the mixed-methods Massachusetts Gender Measures Project to develop and cognitively test measures for adolescent health surveillance surveys. A promising measure of transgender status emerged through this work. Further research is needed to produce accurate measures of assigned sex at birth and several dimensions of gender to further our understanding of determinants of gender disparities in health and enable strategic responses to address them. PMID:24825193

  1. Sex and gender in the US health surveillance system: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Conron, Kerith J; Landers, Stewart J; Reisner, Sari L; Sell, Randall L

    2014-06-01

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data have exposed significant sexual orientation disparities in health. Interest in examining the health of transgender youths, whose gender identities or expressions are not fully congruent with their assigned sex at birth, highlights limitations of the YRBS and the broader US health surveillance system. In 2009, we conducted the mixed-methods Massachusetts Gender Measures Project to develop and cognitively test measures for adolescent health surveillance surveys. A promising measure of transgender status emerged through this work. Further research is needed to produce accurate measures of assigned sex at birth and several dimensions of gender to further our understanding of determinants of gender disparities in health and enable strategic responses to address them. PMID:24825193

  2. Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vella, Anthony; Li, Heng; Zhao, Yang; Trumper, Isaac; Gandara-Montano, Gustavo A.; Xu, Di; Nikolov, Daniel K.; Chen, Changchen; Brown, Nicolas S.; Guevara-Torres, Andres; Jung, Hae Won; Reimers, Jacob; Bentley, Julie

    2015-09-01

    *avella@ur.rochester.edu Design study for a 16x zoom lens system for visible surveillance camera Anthony Vella*, Heng Li, Yang Zhao, Isaac Trumper, Gustavo A. Gandara-Montano, Di Xu, Daniel K. Nikolov, Changchen Chen, Nicolas S. Brown, Andres Guevara-Torres, Hae Won Jung, Jacob Reimers, Julie Bentley The Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Wilmot Building, 275 Hutchison Rd, Rochester, NY, USA 14627-0186 ABSTRACT High zoom ratio zoom lenses have extensive applications in broadcasting, cinema, and surveillance. Here, we present a design study on a 16x zoom lens with 4 groups (including two internal moving groups), designed for, but not limited to, a visible spectrum surveillance camera. Fifteen different solutions were discovered with nearly diffraction limited performance, using PNPX or PNNP design forms with the stop located in either the third or fourth group. Some interesting patterns and trends in the summarized results include the following: (a) in designs with such a large zoom ratio, the potential of locating the aperture stop in the front half of the system is limited, with ray height variations through zoom necessitating a very large lens diameter; (b) in many cases, the lens zoom motion has significant freedom to vary due to near zero total power in the middle two groups; and (c) we discuss the trade-offs between zoom configuration, stop location, packaging factors, and zoom group aberration sensitivity.

  3. Technical Description of RODS: A Real-time Public Health Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Espino, Jeremy U.; Dato, Virginia M.; Gesteland, Per H.; Hutman, Judith; Wagner, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of the Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) system, a computer-based public health surveillance system for early detection of disease outbreaks. Hospitals send RODS data from clinical encounters over virtual private networks and leased lines using the Health Level 7 (HL7) message protocol. The data are sent in real time. RODS automatically classifies the registration chief complaint from the visit into one of seven syndrome categories using Bayesian classifiers. It stores the data in a relational database, aggregates the data for analysis using data warehousing techniques, applies univariate and multivariate statistical detection algorithms to the data, and alerts users of when the algorithms identify anomalous patterns in the syndrome counts. RODS also has a Web-based user interface that supports temporal and spatial analyses. RODS processes sales of over-the-counter health care products in a similar manner but receives such data in batch mode on a daily basis. RODS was used during the 2002 Winter Olympics and currently operates in two states—Pennsylvania and Utah. It has been and continues to be a resource for implementing, evaluating, and applying new methods of public health surveillance. PMID:12807803

  4. Short Communication: Population-Based Surveillance of HIV-1 Drug Resistance in Cameroonian Adults Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy According to the World Health Organization Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Fokam, Joseph; Takou, Désiré; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Akonie, Haniel Ze; Kouanfack, Charles; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Colizzi, Vittorio; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Ndjolo, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    With ongoing earlier enrollment on and rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Cameroon, there are increasing risks of transmitted HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) at population levels. We, therefore, evaluated the threshold of HIVDR in a population initiating ART, to inform on the effectiveness of first-line regimens, considering HIV-1 diversity, plasma viral load (PVL), and CD4-based disease progression. A total of 53 adults [median (interquartile range, IQR) CD4: 162 cell/mm(3) (48-284); median (IQR) PVL: 5.34 log10 RNA (4.17-6.42) copies/ml] initiating ART in 2014 at the Yaoundé Central Hospital were enrolled for HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase sequencing. Drug resistance mutations (DRMs) were interpreted using the 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) list versus the Stanford HIVdb algorithm version 7.0. Level of DRMs was low (3.77%) versus moderate (7.55%), respectively, following the WHO list (T69D, K103N) versus Stanford HIVdb (T69D, A98G, K103N, K238T), respectively. Prevailing clade was CRF02_AG (71.70%). Based on Stanford HIVdb, a slightly higher proportion of patients with DRMs were found among ones infected with CRF02_AG than in those non-CRF02_AG infected (7.89% vs. 6.67%, p = 1.000), with lower PVL (7.69% <5.5 vs. 0% ≥5.5 log10 RNA copies/ml, p = .488) and with higher CD4 counts (9.52% CD4 ≥200 vs. 3.33% CD4 <200 cells/mm(3), p = .749). Thresholds of DRMs suggest that standard first-line regimens currently used in Cameroon may remain effective at population levels, despite scale-up of ART in the country, pending adherence, and closed virological monitoring. With an intent-to-diagnose approach, the discrepant levels of DRMs support using Stanford HIVdb to evaluate initial ART, while revising the WHO list for surveillance.

  5. Short Communication: Population-Based Surveillance of HIV-1 Drug Resistance in Cameroonian Adults Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy According to the World Health Organization Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Fokam, Joseph; Takou, Désiré; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Akonie, Haniel Ze; Kouanfack, Charles; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Colizzi, Vittorio; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Ndjolo, Alexis

    2016-04-01

    With ongoing earlier enrollment on and rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Cameroon, there are increasing risks of transmitted HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) at population levels. We, therefore, evaluated the threshold of HIVDR in a population initiating ART, to inform on the effectiveness of first-line regimens, considering HIV-1 diversity, plasma viral load (PVL), and CD4-based disease progression. A total of 53 adults [median (interquartile range, IQR) CD4: 162 cell/mm(3) (48-284); median (IQR) PVL: 5.34 log10 RNA (4.17-6.42) copies/ml] initiating ART in 2014 at the Yaoundé Central Hospital were enrolled for HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase sequencing. Drug resistance mutations (DRMs) were interpreted using the 2009 World Health Organization (WHO) list versus the Stanford HIVdb algorithm version 7.0. Level of DRMs was low (3.77%) versus moderate (7.55%), respectively, following the WHO list (T69D, K103N) versus Stanford HIVdb (T69D, A98G, K103N, K238T), respectively. Prevailing clade was CRF02_AG (71.70%). Based on Stanford HIVdb, a slightly higher proportion of patients with DRMs were found among ones infected with CRF02_AG than in those non-CRF02_AG infected (7.89% vs. 6.67%, p = 1.000), with lower PVL (7.69% <5.5 vs. 0% ≥5.5 log10 RNA copies/ml, p = .488) and with higher CD4 counts (9.52% CD4 ≥200 vs. 3.33% CD4 <200 cells/mm(3), p = .749). Thresholds of DRMs suggest that standard first-line regimens currently used in Cameroon may remain effective at population levels, despite scale-up of ART in the country, pending adherence, and closed virological monitoring. With an intent-to-diagnose approach, the discrepant levels of DRMs support using Stanford HIVdb to evaluate initial ART, while revising the WHO list for surveillance. PMID:26602836

  6. HIV/AIDS, Drug Abuse Treatment, and the Correctional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Douglas S.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses in-prison prevalence and transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Focuses on epidemiology in prison settings, the role of ethnicity and gender in transmission, screening for HIV, segregating the HIV-positive inmate, condom distribution, medical treatment for HIV-positive inmates, HIV education and prevention, and tuberculosis…

  7. System and technology considerations for space-based air traffic surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisnys, A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the system trade-offs examined in a recent study of space-based air traffic surveillance. Three system options, each satisfying a set of different constraints, were considered. The main difference in the technology needed to implement the three systems was determined to be the size of the spacecraft antenna aperture. It was found that essentially equivalent position location accuracy could be achieved with apertures from 50 meters down to less than a meter in diameter, depending on the choice of signal structure and on the desired user update rate.

  8. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS): Software requirements specification (SRS). Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.

    1995-03-08

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) database, an Impact Level 3Q system. SACS stores information on tank temperatures, surface levels, and interstitial liquid levels. This information is retrieved by the customer through a PC-based interface and is then available to a number of other software tools. The software requirements specification (SRS) describes the system requirements for the SACS Project, and follows the Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Software Practices (WHC-CM-3-10) and Quality Assurance (WHC-CM-4-2, QR 19.0) policies.

  9. Towards a global antibiotic resistance surveillance system: a primer for a roadmap

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The need for global data about the scale of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in a geographical explicit and timely manner has been identified by many stakeholders, including the World Health Organization. This primer should help defining the objectives, scale, scope, and structure of possible future efforts. Stakeholders and their expected information demands were identified to generate an inventory of surveillance objectives. For simplification, an original approach was chosen to bundle sets of objectives that represent common demands and can be addressed by common subject areas, which fall into three areas. Subject area I addresses clinical demands and focuses on patients; subject area II addresses public health demands by focusing on meta-populations; subject area III addresses infection control demands and focuses on pathogens. A division into these areas leads to a separation of surveillance activities suggesting a modular approach which can provide complementary information. Moreover, the modules address the conundrum of ABR at the complementary levels of 1) patient, 2) population, and 3) pathogen, which—rather conventionally—follow the operational and professional fault-lines of the main disciplines involved, namely clinical medicine, public health, and biology. Essential features that define different surveillance systems have been listed and taken into consideration when suggesting templates for future efforts. Putting ABR on the global health map is a daunting task as it requires acceptance, agreements, and engagement but also concessions at many different levels. Given the existing gaps in the global diagnostic service landscape only a step-wise approach which defines achievable aims, objectives, and milestones will succeed to produce a sustainable system of international co-operative surveillance of ABR. PMID:24694024

  10. HIV among African American Gay and Bisexual Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS ... with men—National HIV Behavioral Surveillance, 20 U.S. cities, 2014 . HIV Surveillance Special Report 2016;15. Accessed ...

  11. Affordable Options for Ground-Based, Large-Aperture Optical Space Surveillance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Beason, J. D.; Kiziah, R.; Spillar, E.; Vestrand, W. T.; Cox, D.; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.; Holland, C.

    2013-09-01

    The Space Surveillance Telescope (SST) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) - has demonstrated significant capability improvements over legacy ground-based optical space surveillance systems. To fulfill better the current and future space situational awareness (SSA) requirements, the Air Force would benefit from a global network of such telescopes, but the high cost to replicate the SST makes such an acquisition decision difficult, particularly in an era of fiscal austerity. Ideally, the Air Force needs the capabilities provided by the SST, but at a more affordable price. To address this issue, an informal study considered a total of 67 alternative optical designs, with each being evaluated for cost, complexity and SSA performance. One promising approach identified in the study uses a single mirror at prime focus with a small number of corrective lenses. This approach results in telescopes that are less complex and estimated to be less expensive than replicated SSTs. They should also be acquirable on shorter time scales. Another approach would use a modest network of smaller telescopes for space surveillance. This approach provides significant cost advantages but faces some challenges with very dim objects. In this paper, we examine the cost and SSA utility for each of the 67 designs considered.

  12. Behavioral surveillance of premarital sex among never married young adults in a high HIV prevalence district in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, G Anil; Dandona, Rakhi; Kumar, S G Prem; Dandona, Lalit

    2011-01-01

    In a population-based representative sample of 2,475 never married persons aged 15-24 years from Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh state in India, 21.7% (95% CI 18.7-24.7) males and 4.6% (95% CI 2.2-7.0) females reported having had sex. Only 22.3% males and 6.3% females reported consistent condom use for premarital sex in the last 6 months. The strongest associations with premarital sex for males were current use of alcohol and tobacco, and for females were not living with parents currently and being an income earner. These findings can inform HIV prevention efforts among young adults in India. PMID:20625924

  13. Improving National Data Systems for Surveillance of Suicide-related Events

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Robin; Hedegaard, Holly; Bossarte, Robert; Crosby, Alexander E.; Hanzlick, Randy; Roesler, Jon; Seider, Regina; Smith, Patricia; Warner, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Background Describing the characteristics and patterns of suicidal behavior is an essential component in developing successful prevention efforts. The Data and Surveillance Task Force (DSTF) of the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention was charged with making recommendations for improving national data systems for public health surveillance of suicide-related problems, including suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts and deaths due to suicide. Data from the national systems can be used to draw attention to the magnitude of the problem and are useful for establishing national health priorities. National data can also be used to examine differences in rates across groups (e.g., sex, racial/ethnic, and age groups) and geographic regions, and are useful in identifying patterns in the mechanism of suicide, including those that rarely occur. Methods Using evaluation criteria from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization, and the U.S.-based Safe States Alliance, the DSTF reviewed 28 national data systems for feasibility of use in the surveillance of suicidal behavior, including deaths, non-fatal attempts and suicidal thoughts. The review criteria included such attributes as the aspects of the suicide-related spectrum (e.g., thoughts, attempts, deaths) covered by the system, how the data are collected (e.g., census, sample, survey, administrative data files, self-report, reporting by care providers), and the strengths and limitations of the survey or data system. Results The DSTF identified common strengths and challenges among the data systems based on the underlying data source (e.g., death records, health care provider records, population-based surveys, health insurance claims). From these findings, the DSTF proposed several recommendations for improving existing data systems, such as using standard language and definitions, adding new variables to existing surveys, expanding the geographic scope of surveys to include areas

  14. Design and prospective evaluation of a risk-based surveillance system for shrimp grow-out farms in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana Rita; Pereira, Marcelo; Ferreira Neto, Jose Soares; Ferreira, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The farming of Pacific white shrimp Litopennaeus vannamei in northeast Brazil, has proven to be a promising sector. However, the farming of Pacific white shrimp in Brazil has been affected negatively by the occurrence of viral diseases, threatening this sector's expansion and sustainability. For this reason, the drafting of a surveillance system for early detection and definition of freedom from viral diseases, whose occurrence could result in high economic loses, is of the utmost importance. The stochastic model AquaVigil was implemented to prospectively evaluate different surveillance strategies to determine freedom from disease and identify the strategy with the lowest sampling efforts, making the best use of available resources through risk-based surveillance. The worked example presented was designed for regional application for the state of Ceará and can easily be applied to other Brazilian states. The AquaVigil model can analyse any risk-based surveillance system that considers a similar outline to the strategy here presented.

  15. Investigating combination HIV prevention: isolated interventions or complex system

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Graham; Reeders, Daniel; Dowsett, Gary W.; Ellard, Jeanne; Carman, Marina; Hendry, Natalie; Wallace, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Treatment as prevention has mobilized new opportunities in preventing HIV transmission and has led to bold new UNAIDS targets in testing, treatment coverage and transmission reduction. These will require not only an increase in investment but also a deeper understanding of the dynamics of combining behavioural, biomedical and structural HIV prevention interventions. High-income countries are making substantial investments in combination HIV prevention, but is this investment leading to a deeper understanding of how to combine interventions? The combining of interventions involves complexity, with many strategies interacting with non-linear and multiplying rather than additive effects. Discussion Drawing on a recent scoping study of the published research evidence in HIV prevention in high-income countries, this paper argues that there is a gap between the evidence currently available and the evidence needed to guide the achieving of these bold targets. The emphasis of HIV prevention intervention research continues to look at one intervention at a time in isolation from its interactions with other interventions, the community and the socio-political context of their implementation. To understand and evaluate the role of a combination of interventions, we need to understand not only what works, but in what circumstances, what role the parts need to play in their relationship with each other, when the combination needs to adapt and identify emergent effects of any resulting synergies. There is little development of evidence-based indicators on how interventions in combination should achieve that strategic advantage and synergy. This commentary discusses the implications of this ongoing situation for future research and the required investment in partnership. We suggest that systems science approaches, which are being increasingly applied in other areas of public health, could provide an expanded vocabulary and analytic tools for understanding these

  16. The temporal relationship between drug supply indicators: an audit of international government surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Werb, Dan; Kerr, Thomas; Nosyk, Bohdan; Strathdee, Steffanie; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Illegal drug use continues to be a major threat to community health and safety. We used international drug surveillance databases to assess the relationship between multiple long-term estimates of illegal drug price and purity. Design We systematically searched for longitudinal measures of illegal drug supply indicators to assess the long-term impact of enforcement-based supply reduction interventions. Setting Data from identified illegal drug surveillance systems were analysed using an a priori defined protocol in which we sought to present annual estimates beginning in 1990. Data were then subjected to trend analyses. Main outcome measures Data were obtained from government surveillance systems assessing price, purity and/or seizure quantities of illegal drugs; systems with at least 10 years of longitudinal data assessing price, purity/potency or seizures were included. Results We identified seven regional/international metasurveillance systems with longitudinal measures of price or purity/potency that met eligibility criteria. In the USA, the average inflation-adjusted and purity-adjusted prices of heroin, cocaine and cannabis decreased by 81%, 80% and 86%, respectively, between 1990 and 2007, whereas average purity increased by 60%, 11% and 161%, respectively. Similar trends were observed in Europe, where during the same period the average inflation-adjusted price of opiates and cocaine decreased by 74% and 51%, respectively. In Australia, the average inflation-adjusted price of cocaine decreased 14%, while the inflation-adjusted price of heroin and cannabis both decreased 49% between 2000 and 2010. During this time, seizures of these drugs in major production regions and major domestic markets generally increased. Conclusions With few exceptions and despite increasing investments in enforcement-based supply reduction efforts aimed at disrupting global drug supply, illegal drug prices have generally decreased while drug purity has generally

  17. Dynamic region-of-interest acquisition and face tracking for intelligent surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Ouk; Kim, Sangjin; Park, Chang-Woo; Sung, Ha-Gyeong; Paik, Joonki

    2004-05-01

    Recently, surveillance systems gain more attraction than simple CCTV systems, especially for complicated security environment. The major purpose of the proposed system is to monitor and track intruders. More specifically, accurate identification of each intruder is more important than simply recording what they are doing. Most existing surveillance systems simply keep recording the fixed viewing area, and some others adopt the tracking technique for wider coverage. Although panning and tilting the camera can extend the viewing area, only a few automatic zoom control techniques for acquiring the optimum ROI has been proposed. This paper describes a system for tracking multiple faces from input video sequences using facial convex hull-based facial segmentation and robust hausdorff distance. The proposed algorithm adapts skin color reference map in the YCbCr color space and hair color reference map in the RGB color space for classifying face region. Then, we obtain an initial face model with preprocessing and convex hull. For tracking, this algorithm computes displacement of the point set between frames using a robust hausdorff distance and the best possible displacement is selected. Finally, the initial face model is updated using the displacement. We provide experimental result to demonstrate the performance of the proposed tracking algorithm, which efficiently tracks rotating, and zooming faces as well as multiple faces in video sequences obtained from at CCD camera.

  18. Evaluation of the Acute Flacid Paralysis (AFP) Surveillance System in Bikita District Masvingo Province 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background AFP is a rare syndrome and serves as a proxy for poliomyelitis. The main objective of AFP surveillance is to detect circulating wild polio virus and provide data for developing effective prevention and control strategies as well planning and decision making. Bikita district failed to detect a case for the past two years. Findings A total of 31 health workers from 14 health centres were interviewed. Health worker knowledge on AFP was low in Bikita. The system was acceptable, flexible, and representative but not stable and not sensitive since it missed1 AFP case. The system was not useful to the district since data collected was not locally used in anyway. The cost of running the system was high. The district had no adequate resources to run the system. Reasons for not reporting cases was that the mothers were not bringing children with AFP and ignorance of health workers on syndromes captured under AFP. Conclusion Health worker’s knowledge on AFP was low and all interviewed workers needed training surveillance. The system was found to be flexible but unacceptable. Reasons for failure to detect AFP cases could be, no cases reporting to the centres, lack of knowledge on health workers hence failure to recognise symptoms, high staff turnover. PMID:24742014

  19. Enrichment of intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in a dual infection system using HIV-1 strain-specific siRNAs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants in the form of unique or stable circulating recombinants forms (CRFs) are responsible for over 20% of infections in the worldwide epidemic. Mechanisms controlling the generation, selection, and transmission of these intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants still require further investigation. All intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants are generated and evolve from initial dual infections, but are difficult to identify in the human population. In vitro studies provide the most practical system to study mechanisms, but the recombination rates are usually very low in dual infections with primary HIV-1 isolates. This study describes the use of HIV-1 isolate-specific siRNAs to enrich intersubtype HIV-1 recombinants and inhibit the parental HIV-1 isolates from a dual infection. Results Following a dual infection with subtype A and D primary HIV-1 isolates and two rounds of siRNA treatment, nearly 100% of replicative virus was resistant to a siRNA specific for an upstream target sequence in the subtype A envelope (env) gene as well as a siRNA specific for a downstream target sequence in the subtype D env gene. Only 20% (10/50) of the replicating virus had nucleotide substitutions in the siRNA-target sequence whereas the remaining 78% (39/50) harbored a recombination breakpoint that removed both siRNA target sequences, and rendered the intersubtype D/A recombinant virus resistant to the dual siRNA treatment. Since siRNAs target the newly transcribed HIV-1 mRNA, the siRNAs only enrich intersubtype env recombinants and do not influence the recombination process during reverse transcription. Using this system, a strong bias is selected for recombination breakpoints in the C2 region, whereas other HIV-1 env regions, most notably the hypervariable regions, were nearly devoid of intersubtype recombination breakpoints. Sequence conservation plays an important role in selecting for recombination breakpoints, but the lack of breakpoints in many conserved

  20. Occupational injuries identified by an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Noe, R; Rocha, J; Clavel-Arcas, C; Aleman, C; Gonzales, M; Mock, C

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and describe the work related injuries in both the formal and informal work sectors captured in an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Managua, Nicaragua. Setting: Urban emergency department in Managua, Nicaragua serving 200–300 patients per day. Methods: Secondary analysis from the surveillance system data. All cases indicating an injury while working and seen for treatment at the emergency department between 1 August 2001 and 31 July 2002 were included. There was no exclusion based on place of occurrence (home, work, school), age, or gender. Results: There were 3801 work related injuries identified which accounted for 18.6% of the total 20 425 injures captured by the surveillance system. Twenty seven work related fatalities were recorded, compared with the 1998 International Labor Organization statistic of 25 occupational fatalities for all of Nicaragua. Injuries occurring outside of a formal work location accounted for more than 60% of the work related injuries. Almost half of these occurred at home, while 19% occurred on the street. The leading mechanisms for work related injuries were falls (30%), blunt objects (28%), and stabs/cuts (23%). Falls were by far the most severe mechanism in the study, causing 37% of the work related deaths and more than half of the fractures. Conclusions: Occupational injuries are grossly underreported in Nicaragua. This study demonstrated that an emergency department can be a data source for work related injuries in developing countries because it captures both the formal and informal workforce injuries. Fall prevention initiatives could significantly reduce the magnitude and severity of occupational injuries in Managua, Nicaragua. PMID:15314050

  1. How Much Does a Verbal Autopsy Based Mortality Surveillance System Cost in Rural India?

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rohina; Praveen, Deversetty; Jan, Stephen; Raju, Krishnam; Maulik, Pallab; Jha, Vivekanand; Lopez, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper aims to determine the cost of establishing and sustaining a verbal-autopsy based mortality surveillance system in rural India. Materials and Methods Deaths occurring in 45 villages (population 185,629) were documented over a 4-year period from 2003–2007 by 45 non-physician healthcare workers (NPHWs) trained in data collection using a verbal autopsy tool. Causes of death were assigned by 2 physicians for the first year and by one physician for the subsequent years. Costs were calculated for training of interviewers and physicians, data collection, verbal autopsy analysis, project management and infrastructure. Costs were divided by the number of deaths and the population covered in the year. Results Verbal-autopsies were completed for 96.7% (5786) of all deaths (5895) recorded. The annual cost in year 1 was INR 1,133,491 (USD 24,943) and the total cost per death was INR 757 (USD 16.66). These costs included training of NPHWs and physician reviewers Rs 67,025 (USD 1474), data collection INR 248,400 (USD 5466), dual physician review for cause of death assignment INR 375,000 (USD 8252), and project management INR 341,724 (USD 7520). The average annual cost to run the system each year was INR 822,717 (USD18104) and the cost per death was INR 549 (USD 12) for the next 3 years. Costs were reduced by using single physician review and shortened re-training sessions. The annual cost of running a surveillance system was INR 900,410 (USD 19814). Discussion This study provides detailed empirical evidence of the costs involved in running a mortality surveillance site using verbal-autopsy. PMID:25955389

  2. Evaluating the feasibility and participants' representativeness of an online nationwide surveillance system for influenza in France.

    PubMed

    Debin, Marion; Turbelin, Clément; Blanchon, Thierry; Bonmarin, Isabelle; Falchi, Alessandra; Hanslik, Thomas; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Poletto, Chiara; Colizza, Vittoria

    2013-01-01

    The increasing Internet coverage and the widespread use of digital devices offer the possibility to develop new digital surveillance systems potentially capable to provide important aid to epidemiological and public health monitoring and research. In France, a new nationwide surveillance system for influenza-like illness, GrippeNet.fr, was introduced since the 2011/2012 season based on an online participatory mechanism and open to the general population. We evaluate the recruitment and participation of users to the first pilot season with respect to similar efforts in Europe to assess the feasibility of establishing a participative network of surveillance in France. We further investigate the representativeness of the GrippeNet.fr population along a set of indicators on geographical, demographic, socio-economic and health aspects. Participation was widespread in the country and with rates comparable to other European countries with partnered projects running since a longer time. It was not representative of the general population in terms of age and gender, however all age classes were represented, including the older classes (65+ years old), generally less familiar with the digital world, but considered at high risk for influenza complications. Once adjusted on demographic indicators, the GrippeNet.fr population is found to be more frequently employed, with a higher education level and vaccination rate with respect to the general population. A similar propensity to commute for work to different regions was observed, and no significant difference was found for asthma and diabetes. Results show the feasibility of the system, provide indications to inform adjusted epidemic analyses, and highlight the presence of specific population groups that need to be addressed by targeted communication strategies to achieve a higher representativeness in the following seasons. PMID:24040020

  3. HIV after 40 in rural South Africa: A life course approach to HIV vulnerability among middle aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Mojola, Sanyu A; Williams, Jill; Angotti, Nicole; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier

    2015-10-01

    South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV in the world (over 6 million) as well as a rapidly aging population, with 15% of the population aged 50 and over. High HIV prevalence in rural former apartheid homeland areas suggests substantial aging with HIV and acquisition of HIV at older ages. We develop a life course approach to HIV vulnerability, highlighting the rise and fall of risk and protection as people age, as well as the role of contextual density in shaping HIV vulnerability. Using this approach, we draw on an innovative multi-method data set collected within the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa, combining survey data with 60 nested life history interviews and 9 community focus group interviews. We examine HIV risk and protective factors among adults aged 40-80, as well as how and why these factors vary among people at older ages.

  4. A practical indoor context-aware surveillance system with multi-Kinect sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; You, Ying; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Shun

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we develop a novel practical application, which give scalable services to the end users when abnormal actives are happening. Architecture of the application has been presented consisting of network infrared cameras and a communication module. In this intelligent surveillance system we use Kinect sensors as the input cameras. Kinect is an infrared laser camera which its user can access the raw infrared sensor stream. We install several Kinect sensors in one room to track the human skeletons. Each sensor returns the body positions with 15 coordinates in its own coordinate system. We use calibration algorithms to calibrate all the body positions points into one unified coordinate system. With the body positions points, we can infer the surveillance context. Furthermore, the messages from the metadata index matrix will be sent to mobile phone through communication module. User will instantly be aware of an abnormal case happened in the room without having to check the website. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. And the application method introduced in this paper is not only to discourage the criminals and assist police in the apprehension of suspects, but also can enabled the end-users monitor the indoor environments anywhere and anytime by their phones.

  5. Evaluation of the enterovirus laboratory surveillance system in Denmark, 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Condell, Orla; Midgley, Sofie; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Chen, Ming; Chen Nielsen, Xiaohui; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend; Mølvadgaard, Mette; Schønning, Kristian; Vermedal Hoegh, Silje; Andersen, Peter Henrik; Voldstedlund, Marianne; Kølsen Fischer, Thea

    2016-05-01

    The primary aim of the Danish enterovirus (EV) surveillance system is to document absence of poliovirus infection. The conflict in Syria has left many children unvaccinated and movement from areas with polio cases to Europe calls for increased awareness to detect and respond to virus-transmission in a timely manner. We evaluate the national EV laboratory surveillance, to generate recommendations for system strengthening. The system was analysed for completeness of viral typing analysis and clinical information and timeliness of specimen collection, laboratory results and reporting of clinical information. Of 23,720 specimens screened, 2,202 (9.3%) were EV-positive. Submission of cerebrospinal fluid and faecal specimens from primary diagnostic laboratories was 79.5% complete (845/1,063), and varied by laboratory and patient age. EV genotypes were determined in 68.5% (979/1,430) of laboratory-confirmed cases, clinical information was available for 63.1% (903/1,430). Primary diagnostic results were available after a median of 1.4 days, typing results after 17 days, detailed clinical information after 33 days. The large number of samples typed demonstrated continued monitoring of EV-circulation in Denmark. The system could be strengthened by increasing the collection of supplementary faecal specimens, improving communication with primary diagnostic laboratories, adapting the laboratory typing methodology and collecting clinical information with electronic forms. PMID:27173593

  6. Improved hypertension control using a surveillance system in a neighborhood health center.

    PubMed

    Smith, D A; Schnall, P L

    1980-07-01

    The Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Health Center has developed a simple inexpensive McBee Card Surveillance System for following approximately 2,000 registered patients with hypertension. The system has been in use for the past two years by three health teams. On a quarterly basis teams and physicians are given reports on the percentage of their hypertensive patients with controlled blood pressure (bp) (bp less than or equal to 140/90 for patients younger than 50; bp less than or equal to 160/95 for 50 or older). In addition, patients not seen in the past 4 months are identified for follow-up by family health workers. During the 2-year period that the system has been in operation, the three teams have increased their percentage of patients under control by 50%. Of 929 patients with hypertension, 411 were controlled at the inception of the study and 617 were controlled 2 years later. Such a simple surveillance and self-evaluaton system is readily applicable to all ambulatory care settings.

  7. The Evolving Demographic and Health Transition in Four Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Evidence from Four Sites in the INDEPTH Network of Longitudinal Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bawah, Ayaga; Houle, Brian; Alam, Nurul; Razzaque, Abdur; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Debpuur, Cornelius; Welaga, Paul; Oduro, Abraham; Hodgson, Abraham; Tollman, Stephen; Collinson, Mark; Kahn, Kathleen; Toan, Tran Khan; Phuc, Ho Dang; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Sankoh, Osman; Clark, Samuel J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes evidence documenting the continued decline in all-cause mortality and changes in the cause of death distribution over time in four developing country populations in Africa and Asia. We present levels and trends in age-specific mortality (all-cause and cause-specific) from four demographic surveillance sites: Agincourt (South Africa), Navrongo (Ghana) in Africa; Filabavi (Vietnam), Matlab (Bangladesh) in Asia. We model mortality using discrete time event history analysis. This study illustrates how data from INDEPTH Network centers can provide a comparative, longitudinal examination of mortality patterns and the epidemiological transition. Health care systems need to be reconfigured to deal simultaneously with continuing challenges of communicable disease and increasing incidence of non-communicable diseases that require long-term care. In populations with endemic HIV, long-term care of HIV patients on ART will add to the chronic care needs of the community. PMID:27304429

  8. Syndromic surveillance system based on near real-time cattle mortality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Torres, G; Ciaravino, V; Ascaso, S; Flores, V; Romero, L; Simón, F

    2015-05-01

    Early detection of an infectious disease incursion will minimize the impact of outbreaks in livestock. Syndromic surveillance based on the analysis of readily available data can enhance traditional surveillance systems and allow veterinary authorities to react in a timely manner. This study was based on monitoring the number of cattle carcasses sent for rendering in the veterinary unit of Talavera de la Reina (Spain). The aim was to develop a system to detect deviations from expected values which would signal unexpected health events. Historical weekly collected dead cattle (WCDC) time series stabilized by the Box-Cox transformation and adjusted by the minimum least squares method were used to build the univariate cycling regression model based on a Fourier transformation. Three different models, according to type of production system, were built to estimate the baseline expected number of WCDC. Two types of risk signals were generated: point risk signals when the observed value was greater than the upper 95% confidence interval of the expected baseline, and cumulative risk signals, generated by a modified cumulative sum algorithm, when the cumulative sums of reported deaths were above the cumulative sum of expected deaths. Data from 2011 were used to prospectively validate the model generating seven risk signals. None of them were correlated to infectious disease events but some coincided, in time, with very high climatic temperatures recorded in the region. The harvest effect was also observed during the first week of the study year. Establishing appropriate risk signal thresholds is a limiting factor of predictive models; it needs to be adjusted based on experience gained during the use of the models. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the predictions epidemiological interpretation of non-specific risk signals should be complemented by other sources of information. The methodology developed in this study can enhance other existing early detection

  9. Radon awareness and testing behavior: Findings from the behavioral risk factor surveillance system, 1989-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, E.S.; Eheman, C.R.; Garbe, P.L.

    1996-03-01

    Radon is considered an important environmental risk factor for lung cancer. Previous studies have shown that relatively few homes have been tested for radon. Results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System from 1989-1992 show significant interstate and demographic variation in levels of radon awareness and home testing. There was evidence that levels of radon awareness and testing homes for radon have increased from 1989 through 1992. Although these trends in the data are encouraging, the data also suggest that continued education and other interventions may be necessary to reach the Public Health Service`s testing and mitigating objectives for residential radon. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Vitamin A deficiency in the Sudan: a call for a surveillance system.

    PubMed

    el Bushra, H E

    1992-05-01

    This short review summarizes all the published and unpublished reports on vitamin A deficiency in the Sudan in the last four decades. Different local terms used by people to indicate vitamin A deficiency were enlisted. There is evidence that vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in eastern Sudan and among communities from western and southern Sudan living around Greater Khartoum, who were displaced from their homelands because of drought, famine conditions and civil unrest. There are reports indicative of vitamin A deficiency problem in the central and the far western provinces. There were no reports from the northern provinces. The need for a surveillance system was discussed.

  11. False positive results for antibody to HIV in two men with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Esteva, M H; Blasini, A M; Ogly, D; Rodríguez, M A

    1992-01-01

    False positive results were obtained for HIV tests in two men with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who were suspected of being infected with HIV because of fever, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, and inflammatory myopathy. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for HIV were twice positive when tested three times over a period of six months. Western blot analysis showed reactivity against the gp41 band in patient 1. False positive results for HIV tests can occur in patients with SLE, potentially leading to an erroneous diagnosis of HIV infection. PMID:1417140

  12. Integrated Disease Investigations and Surveillance planning: a systems approach to strengthening national surveillance and detection of events of public health importance in support of the International Health Regulations.

    PubMed

    Taboy, Celine H; Chapman, Will; Albetkova, Adilya; Kennedy, Sarah; Rayfield, Mark A

    2010-12-03

    The international community continues to define common strategic themes of actions to improve global partnership and international collaborations in order to protect our populations. The International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]) offer one of these strategic themes whereby World Health Organization (WHO) Member States and global partners engaged in biosecurity, biosurveillance and public health can define commonalities and leverage their respective missions and resources to optimize interventions. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) works with partner countries across clinical, veterinary, epidemiological, and laboratory communities to enhance national disease surveillance, detection, diagnostic, and reporting capabilities. CBEP, like many other capacity building programs, has wrestled with ways to improve partner country buy-in and ownership and to develop sustainable solutions that impact integrated disease surveillance outcomes. Designing successful implementation strategies represents a complex and challenging exercise and requires robust and transparent collaboration at the country level. To address this challenge, the Laboratory Systems Development Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and CBEP have partnered to create a set of tools that brings together key leadership of the surveillance system into a deliberate system design process. This process takes into account strengths and limitations of the existing system, how the components inter-connect and relate to one another, and how they can be systematically refined within the local context. The planning tools encourage cross-disciplinary thinking, critical evaluation and analysis of existing capabilities, and discussions across organizational and departmental lines toward a shared course of action and purpose. The underlying concepts and methodology of these tools are presented here.

  13. HIV-Associated Neurologic Disorders and Central Nervous System Opportunistic Infections in HIV.

    PubMed

    Le, Leah T; Spudich, Serena S

    2016-08-01

    Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV has transformed from a fatal disease to a chronic illness that often presents with milder central nervous system (CNS) symptoms laced with related confounders. The immune recovery associated with access to cART has led to a new spectrum of immune-mediated presentations of infection, phenotypically distinct from the conditions observed in advanced disease.HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) entails a categorized continuum of disorders reflecting an array of clinical presentation, outcome, and increasing level of severity: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD). HAND is defined through an assessment of neurocognitive abilities and functional performance. Progressive neurologic symptoms detected in patients on cART with detectable CSF viral load and a suppressed plasma viral load, or CSF viral load 1 log10 greater than low detectable plasma viral load, characterize a phenomenon termed symptomatic CSF "escape." CD8+ T-cell encephalitis, possibly a form of CNS immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, resembles CNS "escape" as it presents in patients despite viral suppression with cART. Cerebral toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, are AIDS defining conditions with associated high mortality risk. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and cryptococcal meningitis typically manifest in immunosuppressed patients (<200 CD4+ T-cells/μL), while PML can occur in patients with higher CD4+ T-cell counts.Neurologic conditions are increasingly interconnected with chronic diseases, and classic opportunistic infections may have altered phenotypes in the cART era. However, there exist promising diagnostic methods and therapeutic approaches, as well as associated pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment.

  14. HIV-Associated Neurologic Disorders and Central Nervous System Opportunistic Infections in HIV.

    PubMed

    Le, Leah T; Spudich, Serena S

    2016-08-01

    Since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV has transformed from a fatal disease to a chronic illness that often presents with milder central nervous system (CNS) symptoms laced with related confounders. The immune recovery associated with access to cART has led to a new spectrum of immune-mediated presentations of infection, phenotypically distinct from the conditions observed in advanced disease.HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) entails a categorized continuum of disorders reflecting an array of clinical presentation, outcome, and increasing level of severity: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), mild neurocognitive disorder (MND), and HIV-associated dementia (HAD). HAND is defined through an assessment of neurocognitive abilities and functional performance. Progressive neurologic symptoms detected in patients on cART with detectable CSF viral load and a suppressed plasma viral load, or CSF viral load 1 log10 greater than low detectable plasma viral load, characterize a phenomenon termed symptomatic CSF "escape." CD8+ T-cell encephalitis, possibly a form of CNS immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, resembles CNS "escape" as it presents in patients despite viral suppression with cART. Cerebral toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, are AIDS defining conditions with associated high mortality risk. Cerebral toxoplasmosis and cryptococcal meningitis typically manifest in immunosuppressed patients (<200 CD4+ T-cells/μL), while PML can occur in patients with higher CD4+ T-cell counts.Neurologic conditions are increasingly interconnected with chronic diseases, and classic opportunistic infections may have altered phenotypes in the cART era. However, there exist promising diagnostic methods and therapeutic approaches, as well as associated pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27643907

  15. Establishment of a viral hepatitis surveillance system--Pakistan, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    2011-10-14

    Hepatitis A is thought to infect almost all persons living in Pakistan by age 15 years, and hepatitis E is responsible for sporadic infections and outbreaks. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is estimated at 2.5% and the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, estimated at 4.8%, is one of the highest rates in the world. Hepatitis surveillance in Pakistan has been syndromic, failing to confirm infection, distinguish among viruses, or collect information on risk factors. To understand the epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Pakistan more clearly, the Ministry of Health (MOH) asked the Pakistan Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP) to establish a hepatitis sentinel surveillance system in five large public hospitals in four provinces and Islamabad Capital Territory. This report describes the implementation of the viral hepatitis surveillance system in Pakistan and summarizes major findings from June 2010 through March 2011. A total of 712 cases of viral hepatitis were reported; newly reported HCV infection accounted for 53.2% of reported cases, followed by acute hepatitis A (19.8%), acute hepatitis E (12.2%), and newly reported HBV infection (10.8%). A history of health-care--related exposures, particularly receipt of therapeutic injections and infusions, commonly were reported by persons infected with HBV and HCV, and most patients reported drinking unboiled water. These findings point to the need for improved provider and community education about risks associated with unsafe injections, strengthening infection control practices in health facilities, increasing hepatitis B vaccination coverage, and improving access to clean drinking water in Pakistan.

  16. The pediatric disease spectrum in emergency departments across Pakistan: data from a pilot surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an increasing number of urgently ill and injured children being seen in emergency departments (ED) of developing countries. The pediatric disease burden in EDs across Pakistan is generally unknown. Our main objective was to determine the spectrum of disease and injury among children seen in EDs in Pakistan through a nationwide ED-based surveillance system. Methods Through the Pakistan National Emergency Department Surveillance (Pak-NEDS), data were collected from November 2010 to March 2011 in seven major tertiary care centers representing all provinces of Pakistan. These included five public and two private hospitals, with a collective annual census of over one million ED encounters. Results Of 25,052 children registered in Pak-NEDS (10% of all patients seen): 61% were male, 13% under 5 years, while almost 65% were between 10 to < 16 years. The majority (90%) were seen in public hospital EDs. About half the patients were discharged from the EDs, 9% admitted to hospitals and only 1.3% died in the EDs. Injury (39%) was the most common presenting complaint, followed by fever/malaise (19%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (18%). Injury was more likely in males vs. females (43% vs. 33%; p < 0.001), with a peak presentation in the 5-12 year age group (45%). Conclusions Pediatric patients constitute a smaller proportion among general ED users in Pakistan. Injury is the most common presenting complaint for children seen in the ED. These data will help in resource allocation for cost effective pediatric ED service delivery systems. Prospective longer duration surveillance is needed in more representative pediatric EDs across Pakistan. PMID:26691052

  17. Internet-based remote health self-checker symptom data as an adjuvant to a national syndromic surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Elliot, A J; Kara, E O; Loveridge, P; Bawa, Z; Morbey, R A; Moth, M; Large, S; Smith, G E

    2015-12-01

    Syndromic surveillance is an innovative surveillance tool used to support national surveillance programmes. Recent advances in the use of internet-based health data have demonstrated the potential usefulness of these health data; however, there have been limited studies comparing these innovative health data to existing established syndromic surveillance systems. We conducted a retrospective observational study to assess the usefulness of a national internet-based 'symptom checker' service for use as a syndromic surveillance system. NHS Direct online data were extracted for 1 August 2012 to 1 July 2013; a time-series analysis on the symptom categories self-reported by online users was undertaken and compared to existing telehealth syndromic data. There were 3·37 million online users of the internet-based self-checker compared to 1·43 million callers to the telephone triage health service. There was a good correlation between the online and telephone triage data for a number of syndromic indicators including cold/flu, difficulty breathing and eye problems; however, online data appeared to provide additional early warning over telephone triage health data. This assessment has illustrated some potential benefit of using internet-based symptom-checker data and provides the basis for further investigating how these data can be incorporated into national syndromic surveillance programmes.

  18. The Importance of Camera Calibration and Distortion Correction to Obtain Measurements with Video Surveillance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, C.; Mainetti, G.; Sala, R.

    2015-11-01

    Video surveillance systems are commonly used as important sources of quantitative information but from the acquired images it is possible to obtain a large amount of metric information. Yet, different methodological issues must be considered in order to perform accurate measurements using images. The most important one is the camera calibration, which is the estimation of the parameters defining the camera model. One of the most used camera calibration method is the Zhang's method, that allows the estimation of the linear parameters of the camera model. This method is very diffused as it requires a simple setup and it allows to calibrate cameras using a simple and fast procedure, but it does not consider lenses distortions, that must be taken into account with short focal lenses, commonly used in video surveillance systems. In order to perform accurate measurements, the linear camera model and the Zhang's method are improved in order to take nonlinear parameters into account and compensate the distortion contribute. In this paper we first describe the pinhole camera model that considers cameras as central projection systems. After a brief introduction to the camera calibration process and in particular the Zhang's method, we give a description of the different types of lens distortions and the techniques used for the distortion compensation. At the end some numerical example are shown in order to demonstrate the importance of the distortion compensation to obtain accurate measurements.

  19. A Semantic Autonomous Video Surveillance System for Dense Camera Networks in Smart Cities

    PubMed Central

    Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M.; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal of an intelligent video surveillance system able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The system is designed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a large number of cameras to be deployed on the system, and therefore making it suitable for its usage as an integrated safety and security solution in Smart Cities. Alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. This means that the system employs a high-level conceptual language easy to understand for human operators, capable of raising enriched alarms with descriptions of what is happening on the image, and to automate reactions to them such as alerting the appropriate emergency services using the Smart City safety network. PMID:23112607

  20. Development and test of video systems for airborne surveillance of oil spills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, J. P.; Arvesen, J. C.; Lewis, P. L.

    1975-01-01

    Five video systems - potentially useful for airborne surveillance of oil spills - were developed, flight tested, and evaluated. The systems are: (1) conventional black and white TV, (2) conventional TV with false color, (3) differential TV, (4) prototype Lunar Surface TV, and (5) field sequential TV. Wavelength and polarization filtering were utilized in all systems. Greatly enhanced detection of oil spills, relative to that possible with the unaided eye, was achieved. The most practical video system is a conventional TV camera with silicon-diode-array image tube, filtered with a Corning 7-54 filter and a polarizer oriented with its principal axis in the horizontal direction. Best contrast between oil and water was achieved when winds and sea states were low. The minimum detectable oil film thickness was about 0.1 micrometer.

  1. A semantic autonomous video surveillance system for dense camera networks in Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal of an intelligent video surveillance system able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The system is designed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a large number of cameras to be deployed on the system, and therefore making it suitable for its usage as an integrated safety and security solution in Smart Cities. Alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. This means that the system employs a high-level conceptual language easy to understand for human operators, capable of raising enriched alarms with descriptions of what is happening on the image, and to automate reactions to them such as alerting the appropriate emergency services using the Smart City safety network.

  2. A semantic autonomous video surveillance system for dense camera networks in Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal of an intelligent video surveillance system able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The system is designed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a large number of cameras to be deployed on the system, and therefore making it suitable for its usage as an integrated safety and security solution in Smart Cities. Alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. This means that the system employs a high-level conceptual language easy to understand for human operators, capable of raising enriched alarms with descriptions of what is happening on the image, and to automate reactions to them such as alerting the appropriate emergency services using the Smart City safety network. PMID:23112607

  3. HIV-1 and hijacking of the host immune system: the current scenario.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Manzoor, Sobia; Saalim, Muhammad; Resham, Saleha; Ashraf, Javed; Javed, Aneela; Waqar, Ahmed Bilal

    2016-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major health burden across the world which leads to the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This review article discusses the prevalence of HIV, its major routes of transmission, natural immunity, and evasion from the host immune system. HIV is mostly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa and low income countries. It is mostly transmitted by sharing syringe needles, blood transfusion, and sexual routes. The host immune system is categorized into three main types; the innate, the adaptive, and the intrinsic immune system. Regarding the innate immune system against HIV, the key players are mucosal membrane, dendritic cells (DCs), complement system, interferon, and host Micro RNAs. The major components of the adaptive immune system exploited by HIV are T cells mainly CD4+ T cells and B cells. The intrinsic immune system confronted by HIV involves (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G) APOBEC3G, tripartite motif 5-α (TRIM5a), terherin, and (SAM-domain HD-domain containing protein) SAMHD1. HIV-1 efficiently interacts with the host immune system, exploits the host machinery, successfully replicates and transmits from one cell to another. Further research is required to explore evasion strategies of HIV to develop novel therapeutic approaches against HIV.

  4. Methods for establishing a surveillance system for cardiovascular diseases in Indian industrial populations.

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, K. S.; Prabhakaran, D.; Chaturvedi, V.; Jeemon, P.; Thankappan, K. R.; Ramakrishnan, L.; Mohan, B. V. M.; Pandav, C. S.; Ahmed, F. U.; Joshi, P. P.; Meera, R.; Amin, R. B.; Ahuja, R. C.; Das, M. S.; Jaison, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish a surveillance network for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in industrial settings and estimate the risk factor burden using standardized tools. METHODS: We conducted a baseline cross-sectional survey (as part of a CVD surveillance programme) of industrial populations from 10 companies across India, situated in close proximity to medical colleges that served as study centres. The study subjects were employees (selected by age and sex stratified random sampling) and their family members. Information on behavioural, clinical and biochemical determinants was obtained through standardized methods (questionnaires, clinical measurements and biochemical analysis). Data collation and analyses were done at the national coordinating centre. FINDINGS: We report the prevalence of CVD risk factors among individuals aged 20-69 years (n = 19 973 for the questionnaire survey, n = 10 442 for biochemical investigations); mean age was 40 years. The overall prevalence of most risk factors was high, with 50.9% of men and 51.9% of women being overweight, central obesity was observed among 30.9% of men and 32.8% of women, and 40.2% of men and 14.9% of women reported current tobacco use. Self-reported prevalence of diabetes (5.3%) and hypertension (10.9%) was lower than when measured clinically and biochemically (10.1% and 27.7%, respectively). There was marked heterogeneity in the prevalence of risk factors among the study centres. CONCLUSION: There is a high burden of CVD risk factors among industrial populations across India. The surveillance system can be used as a model for replication in India as well as other developing countries. PMID:16799730

  5. Systems Biology and Ratio-Based, Real-Time Disease Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Fair, J M; Rivas, A L

    2015-08-01

    Most infectious disease surveillance methods are not well fit for early detection. To address such limitation, here we evaluated a ratio- and Systems Biology-based method that does not require prior knowledge on the identity of an infective agent. Using a reference group of birds experimentally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) and a problem group of unknown health status (except that they were WNV-negative and displayed inflammation), both groups were followed over 22 days and tested with a system that analyses blood leucocyte ratios. To test the ability of the method to discriminate small data sets, both the reference group (n = 5) and the problem group (n = 4) were small. The questions of interest were as follows: (i) whether individuals presenting inflammation (disease-positive or D+) can be distinguished from non-inflamed (disease-negative or D-) birds, (ii) whether two or more D+ stages can be detected and (iii) whether sample size influences detection. Within the problem group, the ratio-based method distinguished the following: (i) three (one D- and two D+) data classes; (ii) two (early and late) inflammatory stages; (iii) fast versus regular or slow responders; and (iv) individuals that recovered from those that remained inflamed. Because ratios differed in larger magnitudes (up to 48 times larger) than percentages, it is suggested that data patterns are likely to be recognized when disease surveillance methods are designed to measure inflammation and utilize ratios.

  6. Comparison of Statistical Algorithms for the Detection of Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Large Multiple Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Farrington, C. Paddy; Noufaily, Angela; Andrews, Nick J.; Charlett, Andre

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in England and Wales since the early 1990s. Changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. Test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. The time series of each disease is separated into one series giving the baseline (background) disease incidence and a second series giving disease outbreaks. One series is shifted forward by twelve months and the two are then recombined, giving a realistic series in which it is known where outbreaks have been added. The metrics used to evaluate performance include a scoring rule that appropriately balances sensitivity against specificity and is sensitive to variation in probabilities near 1. In the context of disease surveillance, a scoring rule can be adapted to reflect the size of outbreaks and this was done. Results indicate that the two new algorithms are comparable to each other and better than the algorithm they were designed to replace. PMID:27513749

  7. The Validation of a Novel Surveillance System for Monitoring Bloodstream Infections in the Calgary Zone.

    PubMed

    Leal, Jenine R; Gregson, Daniel B; Church, Deirdre L; Henderson, Elizabeth A; Ross, Terry; Laupland, Kevin B

    2016-01-01

    Background. Electronic surveillance systems (ESSs) that utilize existing information in databases are more efficient than conventional infection surveillance methods. The objective was to assess an ESS for bloodstream infections (BSIs) in the Calgary Zone for its agreement with traditional medical record review. Methods. The ESS was developed by linking related data from regional laboratory and hospital administrative databases and using set definitions for excluding contaminants and duplicate isolates. Infections were classified as hospital-acquired (HA), healthcare-associated community-onset (HCA), or community-acquired (CA). A random sample of patients from the ESS was then compared with independent medical record review. Results. Among the 308 patients selected for comparative review, the ESS identified 318 episodes of BSI of which 130 (40.9%) were CA, 98 (30.8%) were HCA, and 90 (28.3%) were HA. Medical record review identified 313 episodes of which 136 (43.4%) were CA, 97 (30.9%) were HCA, and 80 (25.6%) were HA. Episodes of BSI were concordant in 304 (97%) cases. Overall, there was 85.5% agreement between ESS and medical record review for the classification of where BSIs were acquired (kappa = 0.78, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.75-0.80). Conclusion. This novel ESS identified and classified BSIs with a high degree of accuracy. This system requires additional linkages with other related databases. PMID:27375749

  8. Non-uniformity correction of infrared focal plane array in point target surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Xu, Zhenzhen; Wan, Qinqin

    2014-09-01

    We discuss the influence of non-uniformity and non-uniformity correction on point target detection in infrared surveillance system, and propose a non-uniformity correction approach which is based on signal intensity and sensor characteristics. Theoretical models are used to derive the combined effect of background clutter, sensor random noise, target, non-uniformity and correction error on the signal-to-noise-and-clutter ratio. From our analysis, it can be noted that background clutter intensity is successively modulated by sensor non-uniformity and non-uniformity correction, while sensor random noise is modulated by the non-uniformity correction process only. Furthermore, background clutter and sensor random noise are the key factors that affect the performance of a surveillance system, when it is used to detect point targets. The method presented in this paper takes all of the above into account, moreover, it considers the difference between scanning and staring focal plane array. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Immune surveillance of the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis– Relevance for therapy and experimental models

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Rehana Z.; Hayardeny, Liat; Cravens, Petra C.; Yarovinsky, Felix; Eagar, Todd N.; Arellano, Benjamine; Deason, Krystin; Castro-Rojas, Cyd; Stüve, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disorders frequently involves the reduction, or depletion of immune-competent cells. Alternatively, immune cells are being sequestered away from the target organ by interfering with their movement from secondary lymphoid organs, or their migration into tissues. These therapeutic strategies have been successful in multiple sclerosis (MS), the most prevalent autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the CNS. However, many of the agents that are currently approved or in clinical development also have severe potential adverse effects that stem from the very mechanisms that mediate their beneficial effects by interfering with CNS immune surveillance. This review will outline the main cellular components of the innate and adaptive immune system that participate in host defense and maintain immune surveillance of the CNS. Their pathogenic role in MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is also discussed. Furthermore, an experimental model is introduced that may assist in evaluating the effect of therapeutic interventions on leukocyte homeostasis and function within the CNS. This model or similar models may become a useful tool in the repertoire of pre-clinical tests of pharmacological agents to better explore their potential for adverse events. PMID:25282087

  10. Health system reform and the role of field sites based upon demographic and health surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Tollman, S. M.; Zwi, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    Field sites for demographic and health surveillance have made well-recognized contributions to the evaluation of new or untested interventions, largely through efficacy trials involving new technologies or the delivery of selected services, e.g. vaccines, oral rehydration therapy and alternative contraceptive methods. Their role in health system reform, whether national or international, has, however, proved considerably more limited. The present article explores the characteristics and defining features of such field sites in low-income and middle-income countries and argues that many currently active sites have a largely untapped potential for contributing substantially to national and subnational health development. Since the populations covered by these sites often correspond with the boundaries of districts or subdistricts, the strategic use of information generated by demographic surveillance can inform the decentralization efforts of national and provincial health authorities. Among the areas of particular importance are the following: making population-based information available and providing an information resource; evaluating programmes and interventions; and developing applications to policy and practice. The question is posed as to whether their potential contribution to health system reform justifies arguing for adaptations to these field sites and expanded investment in them. PMID:10686747

  11. Epidemic dengue 1 in Brazil, 1986: evaluation of a clinically based dengue surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Dietz, V J; Gubler, D J; Rigau-Pérez, J G; Pinheiro, F; Schatzmayr, H G; Bailey, R; Gunn, R A

    1990-04-01

    In the last 15 years, dengue fever has emerged as a major health problem in tropical America. Prevention and control of epidemic disease are enhanced by the rapid identification of new or increased dengue activity. Most surveillance systems, however, identify cases by clinical case reports and, therefore, lack the sensitivity needed for early detection. During the 1986 dengue 1 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, the authors evaluated the usefulness of a clinical case definition by comparing it with laboratory-confirmed infection status of residents in two cities. The case definition had a sensitivity of 64% and a false-positive rate of 57%. Thus, for every 100 laboratory-confirmed dengue infections, 230 cases were reported. Both infected and noninfected residents who used medical services and who lived in the city with the highest transmission were more likely to meet the case definition. Thus, factors unrelated to actual infection influenced the sensitivity. With the use of stepwise logistic regression, the authors analyzed combinations of patient symptoms and produced nine new hypothetical case definitions. However, none of the new definitions had a false-positive rate lower than 38%. This study emphasizes the need for laboratory-based dengue surveillance systems.

  12. Integrated Food Chain Surveillance System for Salmonella spp. in Mexico1

    PubMed Central

    Calva, Juan Jose; Estrada-Garcia, Maria Teresa; Leon, Veronica; Vazquez, Gabriela; Figueroa, Gloria; Lopez, Estela; Contreras, Jesus; Abbott, Jason; Zhao, Shaohua; McDermott, Patrick; Tollefson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Few developing countries have foodborne pathogen surveillance systems, and none of these integrates data from humans, food, and animals. We describe the implementation of a 4-state, integrated food chain surveillance system (IFCS) for Salmonella spp. in Mexico. Significant findings were 1) high rates of meat contamination (21.3%–36.4%), 2) high rates of ceftriaxone-resistant S. Typhimurium in chicken, ill humans, and swine (77.3%, 66.3%, and 40.4% of S. Typhimurium T isolates, respectively), and 3) the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in S. Heidelberg (10.4%) and S. Typhimurium (1.7%) from swine. A strong association between Salmonella spp. contamination in beef and asymptomatic Salmonella spp. infection was only observed in the state with the lowest poverty level (Pearson r = 0.91, p<0.001). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of 311 S. Typhimurium isolates showed 14 clusters with 102 human, retail meat, and food-animal isolates with indistinguishable patterns. An IFCS is technically and economically feasible in developing countries and can effectively identify major public health priorities. PMID:18325258

  13. Self-monitoring surveillance system for prestressing tendons. Phase I small business innovation research

    SciTech Connect

    Tabatabai, H.

    1995-12-01

    Assured safety and operational reliability of post-tensioned concrete components of nuclear power plants are of great significance to the public, electric utilities, and regulatory agencies. Prestressing tendons provide principal reinforcement for containment and other structures. In this phase of the research effort, the feasibility of developing a passive surveillance system for identification of ruptures in tendon wires was evaluated and verified. The concept offers high potential for greatly increasing effectiveness of presently-utilized periodic tendon condition surveillance programs. A one-tenth scale ring model of the Palo Verde nuclear containment structure was built inside the Structural Laboratory. Dynamic scaling (similitude) relationships were used to relate measured sensor responses recorded during controlled wire breakages to the expected prototype containment tendon response. Strong and recognizable signatures were detected by the accelerometers used. It was concluded that the unbonded prestressing tendons provide an excellent path for transmission of stress waves resulting from wire breaks. Accelerometers placed directly on the bearing plates at the ends of tendons recorded high-intensity waveforms. Accelerometers placed elsewhere on concrete surfaces of the containment model revealed substantial attenuation and reduced intensities of captured waveforms. Locations of wire breaks could be determined accurately through measurement of differences in arrival times of the signal at the sensors. Pattern recognition systems to be utilized in conjunction with the proposed concept will provide a basis for an integrated and automated tool for identification of wire breaks.

  14. Comparison of Statistical Algorithms for the Detection of Infectious Disease Outbreaks in Large Multiple Surveillance Systems.

    PubMed

    Enki, Doyo G; Garthwaite, Paul H; Farrington, C Paddy; Noufaily, Angela; Andrews, Nick J; Charlett, Andre

    2016-01-01

    A large-scale multiple surveillance system for infectious disease outbreaks has been in operation in England and Wales since the early 1990s. Changes to the statistical algorithm at the heart of the system were proposed and the purpose of this paper is to compare two new algorithms with the original algorithm. Test data to evaluate performance are created from weekly counts of the number of cases of each of more than 2000 diseases over a twenty-year period. The time series of each disease is separated into one series giving the baseline (background) disease incidence and a second series giving disease outbreaks. One series is shifted forward by twelve months and the two are then recombined, giving a realistic series in which it is known where outbreaks have been added. The metrics used to evaluate performance include a scoring rule that appropriately balances sensitivity against specificity and is sensitive to variation in probabilities near 1. In the context of disease surveillance, a scoring rule can be adapted to reflect the size of outbreaks and this was done. Results indicate that the two new algorithms are comparable to each other and better than the algorithm they were designed to replace. PMID:27513749

  15. An update of the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking/Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS) collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambery, R. J.; Helin, E. F.; Pravdo, S. H.; Lawrence, K. J.; Hicks, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) program has two simultaneously-operating, autonomous search systems on two geographically-separated 1.2-m telescopes; one at the Maui Space Surveillance System (NEAT/MSSS) and the other on the Palomar Observatory's Oschin telescope (NEAT/Palomar). This paper will focus exclusively on the NEAT/MSSS system.

  16. Establishing a nationwide emergency department-based syndromic surveillance system for better public health responses in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tsung-Shu Joseph; Shih, Fuh-Yuan Frank; Yen, Muh-Yong; Wu, Jiunn-Shyan Julian; Lu, Shiou-Wen; Chang, Kevin Chi-Ming; Hsiung, Chao; Chou, Jr-How; Chu, Yu-Tseng; Chang, Hang; Chiu, Chan-Hsien; Tsui, Fu-Chiang Richard; Wagner, Michael M; Su, Ih-Jen; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2008-01-01

    Background With international concern over emerging infectious diseases (EID) and bioterrorist attacks, public health is being required to have early outbreak detection systems. A disease surveillance team was organized to establish a hospital emergency department-based syndromic surveillance system (ED-SSS) capable of automatically transmitting patient data electronically from the hospitals responsible for emergency care throughout the country to the Centers for Disease Control in Taiwan (Taiwan-CDC) starting March, 2004. This report describes the challenges and steps involved in developing ED-SSS and the timely information it provides to improve in public health decision-making. Methods Between June 2003 and March 2004, after comparing various surveillance systems used around the world and consulting with ED physicians, pediatricians and internal medicine physicians involved in infectious disease control, the Syndromic Surveillance Research Team in Taiwan worked with the Real-time Outbreak and Disease Surveillance (RODS) Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh to create Taiwan's ED-SSS. The system was evaluated by analyzing daily electronic ED data received in real-time from the 189 hospitals participating in this system between April 1, 2004 and March 31, 2005. Results Taiwan's ED-SSS identified winter and summer spikes in two syndrome groups: influenza-like illnesses and respiratory syndrome illnesses, while total numbers of ED visits were significantly higher on weekends, national holidays and the days of Chinese lunar new year than weekdays (p < 0.001). It also identified increases in the upper, lower, and total gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome groups starting in November 2004 and two clear spikes in enterovirus-like infections coinciding with the two school semesters. Using ED-SSS for surveillance of influenza-like illnesses and enteroviruses-related infections has improved Taiwan's pandemic flu preparedness and disease control capabilities. Conclusion

  17. [The ideation of the Emilia-Romagna surveillance system for arbovirosis following the experience from the Chikungunya outbreak 2007].

    PubMed

    Angelini, Paola; Mattivi, Andrea; Cagarelli, Roberto; Bellini, Romeo; Finarelli, Alba Carola

    2014-01-01

    Since 2008 the Emilia-Romagna Regional public health authority activated a regional Plan for arbovirosis surveillance and control, focused on Chikungunya, Dengue and West Nile. The Plan integrates sanitary, entomological and veterinary surveillance allowing a prompt adoption of efficient measures, aiming at the prevention and reduction of arbovirosis transmission risk. Following the 2007 Chikungunya outbreak, no autochthonous Chikungunya or Dengue cases has been registered, while an increase of confirmed imported cases of Dengue and Chikungunya has been observed. The integrated surveillance system allowed a prompt, appropriate and efficient intervention in 98.2% of imported suspected cases. The humanWNND (West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease) surveillance reported confirmed cases in 2008, 2009 and then in 2013 and 2014. In all cases the entomological and ornithological surveillance detected WNV circulation well in advance respect to the appearance of the first human case. The integration of information provided by different surveillance sources allows to evaluate, even through the vector index (VI) calculation, the risk of transmission, to optimize preventive measures on blood, tissues and organs donation and to implement further measures of vector fight.

  18. Occlusion detection for highway traffic analysis with vision-based surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneyama, Akio; Yeh, Chia-Hung; Kuo, C.-C. Jay J.

    2003-08-01

    The vision-based traffic monitoring system provides an attractive solution in extracting various traffic parameters such as the count, speed, flow and concentration from the processing of video data captured by a camera system. The detection accuracy is however affected by various environment factors such as shadow, occlusion, and lighting. Among these, the occurrence of occlusion is one of the major problems. In this work, a new scheme is proposed to detect the occlusion and determine the exact location of each vehicle. The proposed algorithm is based on the matching of images from multiple cameras. In the proposed scheme, we do not need edge detection, region segmentation, and camera calibration operations, which often suffer from the variation of environmental conditions. Experimental results are given to verify that the proposed technique is effective for vision-based highway surveillance systems.

  19. Vehicular ad hoc network for a surveillance system using multifrequency band enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunruangses, Montree; Sunat, Khamron; Mitatha, Somsak; Yupapin, Preecha P.

    2010-09-01

    We present a new design of a surveillance system via a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) integrated by a 3-G or 4-G cellular wireless network. We propose dense wavelength division multiplexing wavelength enhancement for increasing the channel capacity and signal security. Increase in the number of channels can be obtained by increasing the wavelength density. Signal security is introduced by a specific wavelength filter controlled by the central operator. Optical communication wavelength enhancement is reviewed. The advantage of this proposed system is that it can easily be implemented and incorporated into the existing communication link in either a cellular or ad hoc wireless system, where signal security and hence privacy can be provided.

  20. [Protocol and quality control for Chinese food and nutrition surveillance system in 1998 (1998 CFNSS)].

    PubMed

    He, W

    2000-09-01

    Establishment of Chinese Food and Nutrition Surveillance System is of great importance in providing information on food consumption behavior and nutrition status of the people which is essential for health, economic planning and agriculture development. Sampling of CFNSS is based on the 145 sites Disease Surveillance Point (DSP) System built by Ministry of Health, and in conjunction with the 600 sites Household Social Economic Survey System founded by State Statistics Bureau. According to indicator system developed by the Ministry of Health for stratification, strata of urban, general rural and less-developed rural were defined and 40 sites were randomly sampled as national sample. The CFNSS sample was the common sub-sample of DSP system and the SSB Household Survey System that makes sharing of information resources possible. The 40 sites are distributed in 26 Provinces/Municipalities/Autonomous Regions. All the sites information was collected on body weight and height of children under 6 years of age, and questionnaire covering the basic family information, feeding practice and disease, health conditions of the households were surveyed by interviews. Whole year food consumption data collected at the sampled households by SSB Urban Household Survey Team and Rural Household Survey Team in the previous year was provided. Comprehensive data analysis was done to formulate the information on the relationship of food, nutrition and health. The protocol, methodologies and principles for the survey are described. 5 sites of CFNSS were selected for quality evaluation on the anthropometric measurement and questionnaire interview. The body weight and length of 20 children of 3-5 years of age in each of 5 sites was measured again. The result showed that the completeness of questionnaires interview was 96%, the rate of logic error was zero. There was no significant difference between the results measured by supervisor and investigator and no significant error on repeated

  1. A new omni-directional multi-camera system for high resolution surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogal, Omer; Akin, Abdulkadir; Seyid, Kerem; Popovic, Vladan; Schmid, Alexandre; Ott, Beat; Wellig, Peter; Leblebici, Yusuf

    2014-05-01

    Omni-directional high resolution surveillance has a wide application range in defense and security fields. Early systems used for this purpose are based on parabolic mirror or fisheye lens where distortion due to the nature of the optical elements cannot be avoided. Moreover, in such systems, the image resolution is limited to a single image sensor's image resolution. Recently, the Panoptic camera approach that mimics the eyes of flying insects using multiple imagers has been presented. This approach features a novel solution for constructing a spherically arranged wide FOV plenoptic imaging system where the omni-directional image quality is limited by low-end sensors. In this paper, an overview of current Panoptic camera designs is provided. New results for a very-high resolution visible spectrum imaging and recording system inspired from the Panoptic approach are presented. The GigaEye-1 system, with 44 single cameras and 22 FPGAs, is capable of recording omni-directional video in a 360°×100° FOV at 9.5 fps with a resolution over (17,700×4,650) pixels (82.3MP). Real-time video capturing capability is also verified at 30 fps for a resolution over (9,000×2,400) pixels (21.6MP). The next generation system with significantly higher resolution and real-time processing capacity, called GigaEye-2, is currently under development. The important capacity of GigaEye-1 opens the door to various post-processing techniques in surveillance domain such as large perimeter object tracking, very-high resolution depth map estimation and high dynamicrange imaging which are beyond standard stitching and panorama generation methods.

  2. A Web-Based, Hospital-Wide Health Care-Associated Bloodstream Infection Surveillance and Classification System: Development and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yi-Ju; Wu, Jung-Hsuan; Lin, Hui-Chi; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Ping, Xiao-Ou; Sun, Chun-Chuan; Shang, Rung-Ji; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Lai, Feipei; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-01-01

    Background Surveillance of health care-associated infections is an essential component of infection prevention programs, but conventional systems are labor intensive and performance dependent. Objective To develop an automatic surveillance and classification system for health care-associated bloodstream infection (HABSI), and to evaluate its performance by comparing it with a conventional infection control personnel (ICP)-based surveillance system. Methods We developed a Web-based system that was integrated into the medical information system of a 2200-bed teaching hospital in Taiwan. The system automatically detects and classifies HABSIs. Results In this study, the number of computer-detected HABSIs correlated closely with the number of HABSIs detected by ICP by department (n=20; r=.999 P<.001) and by time (n=14; r=.941; P<.001). Compared with reference standards, this system performed excellently with regard to sensitivity (98.16%), specificity (99.96%), positive predictive value (95.81%), and negative predictive value (99.98%). The system enabled decreasing the delay in confirmation of HABSI cases, on average, by 29 days. Conclusions This system provides reliable and objective HABSI data for quality indicators, improving the delay caused by a conventional surveillance system. PMID:26392229

  3. Detection and Tracking of Dynamic Objects by Using a Multirobot System: Application to Critical Infrastructures Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Canosa, Gonzalo; Giner, Jaime del Cerro; Barrientos, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The detection and tracking of mobile objects (DATMO) is progressively gaining importance for security and surveillance applications. This article proposes a set of new algorithms and procedures for detecting and tracking mobile objects by robots that work collaboratively as part of a multirobot system. These surveillance algorithms are conceived of to work with data provided by long distance range sensors and are intended for highly reliable object detection in wide outdoor environments. Contrary to most common approaches, in which detection and tracking are done by an integrated procedure, the approach proposed here relies on a modular structure, in which detection and tracking are carried out independently, and the latter might accept input data from different detection algorithms. Two movement detection algorithms have been developed for the detection of dynamic objects by using both static and/or mobile robots. The solution to the overall problem is based on the use of a Kalman filter to predict the next state of each tracked object. Additionally, new tracking algorithms capable of combining dynamic objects lists coming from either one or various sources complete the solution. The complementary performance of the separated modular structure for detection and identification is evaluated and, finally, a selection of test examples discussed. PMID:24526305

  4. Combining Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies in a dengue surveillance system for developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Aileen Y; Parrales, Maria E; Jimenez, Javier; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena E; Hammer, Scott M; Copenhaver, David J; Kulkarni, Rajan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne illness that places significant burden on tropical developing countries with unplanned urbanization. A surveillance system using Google Earth and GIS mapping technologies was developed in Nicaragua as a management tool. Methods and Results Satellite imagery of the town of Bluefields, Nicaragua captured from Google Earth was used to create a base-map in ArcGIS 9. Indices of larval infestation, locations of tire dumps, cemeteries, large areas of standing water, etc. that may act as larval development sites, and locations of the homes of dengue cases collected during routine epidemiologic surveying were overlaid onto this map. Visual imagery of the location of dengue cases, larval infestation, and locations of potential larval development sites were used by dengue control specialists to prioritize specific neighborhoods for targeted control interventions. Conclusion This dengue surveillance program allows public health workers in resource-limited settings to accurately identify areas with high indices of mosquito infestation and interpret the spatial relationship of these areas with potential larval development sites such as garbage piles and large pools of standing water. As a result, it is possible to prioritize control strategies and to target interventions to highest risk areas in order to eliminate the likely origin of the mosquito vector. This program is well-suited for resource-limited settings since it utilizes readily available technologies that do not rely on Internet access for daily use and can easily be implemented in many developing countries for very little cost. PMID:19627614

  5. Social determinants and risk factors for tuberculosis in national surveillance systems in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hovhannesyan, A.

    2015-01-01

    Setting: National tuberculosis programmes (NTPs) of the 53 Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. Objectives: To identify the social determinants and underlying risk factors for tuberculosis (TB) as routinely monitored by NTPs and to identify those feasible and appropriate to be included in the annual reporting to the joint European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) WHO reporting platform. Design: A semi-structured questionnaire sent to 53 national TB surveillance correspondents. Results: A total of 47 countries submitted questionnaires; most of the countries collect a number of social determinants and risk factors that are not requested for reporting to the Joint ECDC-WHO Reporting Platform. Occupation/employment, homelessness, diabetes mellitus and use of alcohol are collected by the majority of countries, but without standardised definitions. Conclusions: Four social determinants/risk factors are already included in the national TB surveillance systems of the majority of countries and could be incorporated in the annual reporting to the Joint ECDC/WHO Reporting Platform. Standardised epidemiological case definitions need to be adopted. PMID:26399291

  6. Monitoring the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines into West Africa: design and implementation of a population-based surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Grant A; Plumb, Ian D; Sambou, Sana; Saha, Debasish; Uchendu, Uchendu; Akinsola, Bolanle; Ikumapayi, Usman N; Baldeh, Ignatius; Usuf, Effua; Touray, Kebba; Jasseh, Momodou; Howie, Stephen R C; Wattiaux, Andre; Lee, Ellen; Knoll, Maria Deloria; Levine, Orin S; Greenwood, Brian M; Adegbola, Richard A; Hill, Philip C

    2012-01-01

    Routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in developing countries is expected to lead to a significant reduction in childhood deaths. However, PCVs have been associated with replacement disease with non-vaccine serotypes. We established a population-based surveillance system to document the direct and indirect impact of PCVs on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and radiological pneumonia in those aged 2 months and older in The Gambia, and to monitor changes in serotype-specific IPD. Here we describe how this surveillance system was set up and is being operated as a partnership between the Medical Research Council Unit and the Gambian Government. This surveillance system is expected to provide crucial information for immunisation policy and serves as a potential model for those introducing routine PCV vaccination in diverse settings.

  7. HIV Testing for At-Risk Adolescents at Rhode Island Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, Hyeon-Ju; Nazareth, Kristina; Chan, Philip A; Reinert, Steven E; Koster, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Early detection of HIV has great potential to reduce transmission, especially when newly diagnosed individuals are treated early. Early treatment and suppression of viral loads is known to effectively attenuate HIV transmission. However, little is known about whether persons at high risk for HIV are being appropriately tested during healthcare encounters according to national guidelines. Specifically, the at-risk adolescent population may be under tested and are not routinely monitored by state-level surveillance system. This study reviewed HIV testing rates for at-risk adolescents from 2005-2012 at the main tertiary care and pediatric center in Rhode Island. While the absolute number of HIV tests for at-risk adolescents continued to increase, the HIV testing rates for this population decreased during the seven year period. Increasing awareness of HIV testing for patients, their families, and physicians may improve the HIV testing rate among at-risk adolescents in Rhode Island. PMID:26230109

  8. HIV-1 proteins, Tat and gp120, target the developing dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Fitting, Sylvia; Booze, Rosemarie M; Mactutus, Charles F

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, 3.2 million children (< 15 years of age) were estimated to be living with HIV and AIDS worldwide, with the 240,000 newly infected children in the past year, i.e., another child infected approximately every two minutes [1]. The primary mode of HIV infection is through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), occurring either in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding. The effects of HIV-1 on the central nervous system (CNS) are putatively accepted to be mediated, in part, via viral proteins, such as Tat and gp120. The current review focuses on the targets of HIV-1 proteins during the development of the dopamine (DA) system, which appears to be specifically susceptible in HIV-1-infected children. Collectively, the data suggest that the DA system is a clinically relevant target in chronic HIV-1 infection, is one of the major targets in pediatric HIV-1 CNS infection, and may be specifically susceptible during development. The present review discusses the development of the DA system, follows the possible targets of the HIV-1 proteins during the development of the DA system, and suggests potential therapeutic approaches. By coupling our growing understanding of the development of the CNS with the pronounced age-related differences in disease progression, new light may be shed on the neurological and neurocognitive deficits that follow HIV-1 infection. PMID:25613135

  9. HIV-1 Proteins, Tat and gp120, Target the Developing Dopamine System

    PubMed Central

    Fitting, Sylvia; Booze, Rosemarie M.; Mactutus, Charles F.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, 3.2 million children (< 15 years of age) were estimated to be living with HIV and AIDS worldwide, with the 240,000 newly infected children in the past year, i.e., another child infected approximately every two minutes [1]. The primary mode of HIV infection is through mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), occurring either in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding. The effects of HIV-1 on the central nervous system (CNS) are putatively accepted to be mediated, in part, via viral proteins, such as Tat and gp120. The current review focuses on the targets of HIV-1 proteins during the development of the dopamine (DA) system, which appears to be specifically susceptible in HIV-1-infected children. Collectively, the data suggest that the DA system is a clinically relevant target in chronic HIV-1 infection, is one of the major targets in pediatric HIV-1 CNS infection, and may be specifically susceptible during development. The present review discusses the development of the DA system, follows the possible targets of the HIV-1 proteins during the development of the DA system, and suggests potential therapeutic approaches. By coupling our growing understanding of the development of the CNS with the pronounced age-related differences in disease progression, new light may be shed on the neurological and neurocognitive deficits that follow HIV-1 infection. PMID:25613135

  10. Thermal surveillance of volcanoes of the Cascade Range and Iceland utilizing ERTS DCP systems and imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, J. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results of the thermal surveillance of volcanoes experiment during 1972 included the design, construction, emplacement, and successful operation at volcanic sites in the Cascade Range, North America and on Surtsey, Iceland, of automated thermistor arrays which transmit ground and fumarole temperatures via the ERTS-1 data communication system to Goddard Space Flight Center. Temperature, radiance, and anomalous heat flow variations are being plotted by a U.S. Geological Survey IBM 360/65 computer program to show daily fluctuations at each of the sites. Results are being compiled in conjunction with NASA and USGS aircraft infrared survey data to provide thermal energy yield estimates during the current repose period of several Cascade Range volcanic systems. ERTS-1 MSS images have provided new information on the extent of structural elements controlling thermal emission at Lassen Volcanic National Park.

  11. Intelligent Surveillance System Design Based on Independent Component Analysis and Wireless Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Long; Ogawa, Masatoshi; Kigawa, Youichi; Ogai, Harutoshi

    This paper explores the development of a real time intelligent surveillance system using the technology of pattern recognition based on independent component analysis (ICA) and a novel matching method as a reaction to perceptions of insecurity in sensitive spaces. An array of motion images of people are caught by micro digital cameras on board and transferred through wireless network to FPGA board. The feature points of the shot image and the image in database are extracted out using ICA algorithm in embedded PowerPC. The most similar images are picked up from the image database, which is classified to different clusters, and the potential insecurity level of invaders is detected. Furthermore the respective locations are connected by wireless network. The system of hardware and software co-design is implemented on Xilinx FPGA with the performance of high efficiency, low power consumption and easy integration with other devices.

  12. Towards an intelligent decision support system for public health surveillance - a qualitative analysis of information needs.

    PubMed

    Mera, Maritza; González, Carolina; López, Diego M

    2014-01-01

    Public health information systems are often implemented considering the functionalities and requirements established by administrative staff or researchers, but sometimes ignoring the particular needs of decision makers. This paper describes a proposal to support the design of a Decision Support System for Public Health Surveillance in Colombia, by conducting a qualitative study to identify the real needs of people involved in decision making processes. Based on the study results, an intelligent computational component that supports Data Analysis Automation, Prediction of future scenarios and the identification of new Behavioral Patterns is proposed. The component will be implemented using the Case Based Reasoning methodology, which will be integrated as a new component of the Open Source DHIS2 Platform, enabling public health decision-making.

  13. System and Patient Barriers to Care among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Houston/Harris County, Texas: HIV Medical Care Providers' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mgbere, Osaro; Khuwaja, Salma; Bell, Tanvir K; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Arafat, Raouf; Essien, Ekere James; Singh, Mamta; Aguilar, Jonathan; Roland, Eric

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, a considerable number of people diagnosed with HIV are not receiving HIV medical care due to some barriers. Using data from the Medical Monitoring Project survey of HIV medical care providers in Houston/Harris County, Texas, we assessed the HIV medical care providers' perspectives of the system and patient barriers to HIV care experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The study findings indicate that of the 14 HIV care barriers identified, only 1 system barrier and 7 patient barriers were considered of significant (P ≤ .05) importance, with the proportion of HIV medical care providers' agreement to these barriers ranging from 73.9% (cost of health care) to 100% (lack of social support systems and drug abuse problems). Providers' perception of important system and patient barriers varied significantly (P ≤ .05) by profession, race/ethnicity, and years of experience in HIV care. To improve access to and for consistent engagement in HIV care, effective intervention programs are needed to address the barriers identified especially in the context of the new health care delivery system.

  14. The Validity of Injury Surveillance System Measures of Assault: A Lesson from the Study of Violence in Alaska

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Darryl S.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the validity of estimates of intentional violence using a statewide injury recording system: the Alaska Trauma Registry (ATR). One benefit of using data from an injury surveillance system is that its records are generated without police involvement, thereby reducing the likelihood of undercounting. However, there is reason…

  15. Two New Real-Time PCR-based Surveillance Systems for “Candidatus Liberibacter” Species Detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We developed two novel surveillance systems for “Candidatus Liberibacter” (CL) species detection and identification. The first system is called “single tube dual primer Taq-Man PCR” (STDP). The procedure involves two sequential rounds of PCR using the CL asiaticus species-specific outer and inner pr...

  16. Commentary on the interactions of HIV and alcohol in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Nair, Madhavan P; Agudelo, Marisela

    2014-03-01

    This commentary is to highlight the relevance and public interest of the review published by Silverstein and Kumar, which focuses on the mechanisms by which alcohol and HIV-1 infection cause increased in central nervous system (CNS) damage. The overall review is based on previous literature with cell culture systems and animal models that have demonstrated that exposure to alcohol and HIV infection or HIV viral proteins result in synergistic up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress. The authors discuss the effects of alcohol on cells in the CNS, followed by a brief discussion on the impact of HIV-1 and HIV proteins on the CNS, and the final section focuses on the combined effects of HIV and alcohol on the CNS as determined by in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies.

  17. Enhanced communication and coordination in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System.

    PubMed

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam; Simon, Katie

    2012-03-01

    Effective communication and coordination are critical when investigating a possible drinking water contamination incident. A contamination warning system is designed to detect water contamination by initiating a coordinated, effective response to mitigate significant public health and economic consequences. This article describes historical communication barriers during water contamination incidents and discusses how these barriers were overcome through the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Drinking Water Contamination Warning System, referred to as the "Cincinnati Pilot." By enhancing partnerships in the public health surveillance component of the Cincinnati Pilot, information silos that existed in each organization were replaced with interagency information depots that facilitated effective decision making.

  18. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Gonorrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... and 44.1% among women. Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project Antimicrobial resistance remains an important consideration in the ... 4–9 In 1986, the Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP), a national sentinel surveillance system, was established ...

  19. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance.

  20. Autonomous surveillance for biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Jurdak, Raja; Elfes, Alberto; Kusy, Branislav; Tews, Ashley; Hu, Wen; Hernandez, Emili; Kottege, Navinda; Sikka, Pavan

    2015-04-01

    The global movement of people and goods has increased the risk of biosecurity threats and their potential to incur large economic, social, and environmental costs. Conventional manual biosecurity surveillance methods are limited by their scalability in space and time. This article focuses on autonomous surveillance systems, comprising sensor networks, robots, and intelligent algorithms, and their applicability to biosecurity threats. We discuss the spatial and temporal attributes of autonomous surveillance technologies and map them to three broad categories of biosecurity threat: (i) vector-borne diseases; (ii) plant pests; and (iii) aquatic pests. Our discussion reveals a broad range of opportunities to serve biosecurity needs through autonomous surveillance. PMID:25744760

  1. HIV / AIDS: trends of the pandemic.

    PubMed

    Mertens, T

    1995-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Global Programme on AIDS (GPA)has organized HIV/AIDS surveillance systems worldwide and has analyzed and interpreted global trends of the pandemic. With 4.5 million cases of AIDS estimated by the middle of 1995 and a further 14-15 million adults believed to be infected with HIV, the epidemic continues to evolve. Not only is it spreading geographically into western and southern Africa, India, and other Asian countries, the number of women infected has risen to narrow the gap between the sexes. This increase in AIDS among women has led to a tandem increase in the number of mother-to-child transmissions of HIV. In some populations, however, prevalence appears to be stabilizing (among pregnant women in southern Zaire, in parts of Uganda, among military recruits in Thailand, in Australia, in northern Europe, in the US, and in Canada). This stabilization is partly due to prevention efforts. Proper surveillance is necessary to shed light on such hopeful signs and to discern their cause. Thus, the GPA will shortly publish country-specific estimates of HIV prevalence to insure that adequate prevention and care programs are instituted and to act as a monitoring tool. The GPA's prototype HIV incidence model can aid understanding of underlying trends when it is linked with surveillance data. Such a model can also allow measurements of the potential impact of vaccines when administered according to various vaccination strategies.

  2. Rethinking HIV prevalence determination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan A; Oyediran, Kolawole A

    2015-01-01

    The process for HIV prevalence determination using antenatal clinic (ANC) sentinel surveillance data has been plagued by criticisms of its biasness. Exploring other means of HIV prevalence determination is necessary to validate that estimates are near actual values or to replace the current system. We propose a data collection model that leverages the increasing adoption and penetration of the Internet and mobile technology to collect and archive routine data from HIV counseling and testing (HCT) client intake forms from all HCT centers and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) sites in a country. These data will then be mined to determine prevalence rates and risk factors at the community level. The need to improve the method for the generation of HIV prevalence rates has been repeatedly echoed by researchers though no one has been able to fashion out a better and more reliable way to the current ANC sentinel surveillance method at a reasonable cost. The chance of using routinely generated data during HCT and PMTCT is appealing and needs to be envisioned as the technology to achieve this is increasingly becoming available and affordable in countries worst hit by the pandemic. Triangulating data generated from routine HCT and PMTCT sites with data from sentinel surveillance and where the confidence of its quality is assured, as the sole source of HIV prevalence rate determination and behavioral risk assessment will improve the acceptance by communities and drive evidence-based interventions at the community level. PMID:25174731

  3. Insurance claims data: a possible solution for a national sports injury surveillance system? An evaluation of data information against ASIDD and consensus statements on sports injury surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Åman, Malin; Forssblad, Magnus; Henriksson-Larsén, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Background Before preventive actions can be suggested for sports injuries at the national level, a solid surveillance system is required in order to study their epidemiology, risk factors and mechanisms. There are guidelines for sports injury data collection and classifications in the literature for that purpose. In Sweden, 90% of all athletes (57/70 sports federations) are insured with the same insurance company and data from their database could be a foundation for studies on acute sports injuries at the national level. Objective To evaluate the usefulness of sports injury insurance claims data in sports injury surveillance at the national level. Method A database with 27 947 injuries was exported to an Excel file. Access to the corresponding text files was also obtained. Data were reviewed on available information, missing information and dropouts. Comparison with ASIDD (Australian Sports Injury Data Dictionary) and existing consensus statements in the literature (football (soccer), rugby union, tennis, cricket and thoroughbred horse racing) was performed in a structured manner. Result Comparison with ASIDD showed that 93% of the suggested data items were present in the database to at least some extent. Compliance with the consensus statements was generally high (13/18). Almost all claims (83%) contained text information concerning the injury. Conclusions Relatively high-quality sports injury data can be obtained from a specific insurance company at the national level in Sweden. The database has the potential to be a solid base for research on acute sports injuries in different sports at the national level. PMID:24928588

  4. HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vol. 30, No. 21; June 1981. ← Return to text CDC. HIV Surveillance Report, Diagnoses of HIV Infection ... Columbia, and 6 U.S. dependent areas. ← Return to text CDC. HIV in the United States: At a ...

  5. Systemic and Mucosal Differences in HIV Burden, Immune and Therapeutic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Sharon M.; Redford, Maryann; Christensen, Shawna; Mack, Wendy; Cohn, Jon; Janoff, Edward N.; Mestecky, Jiri; Jenson, Hal B.; Navazesh, Mahvash; Cohen, Mardge; Reichelderfer, Patricia; Kovacs, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Background Mucosal tissues represent major targets for HIV transmission, but differ in susceptibility and reservoir function by unknown mechanisms. Methods In a cross-sectional study, HIV RNA and infectious virus were compared between oral and genital compartments and blood in HIV-infected women, in association with clinical parameters, co-pathogens and putative innate and adaptive HIV inhibitors. Results HIV RNA was detectable in 24.5% of women from all 3 compartments, whereas 45% had RNA in only one or two sites. By comparison, infectious HIV, present in blood of the majority, was rare in mucosal sites. Innate mediators, SLPI and TSP, were highest in mucosae. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was associated with an 80% decreased probability of shedding. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that mucosal HIV RNA was associated with higher plasma RNA, infectious virus, and total mucosal IgA, but not IgG. There was a 37-fold increased probability of detecting RNA in both genital and oral specimens (P=0.008;P=0.02, respectively) among women in highest vs lowest IgA tertiles. Conclusions Mucosal sites exhibit distinct characteristics of infectious HIV, viral shedding and responses to therapy, dependent upon both systemic and local factors. Of the putative innate and adaptive mucosal defense factors examined, only IgA was associated with HIV RNA shedding. However, rather than being protective, there was a striking increase in probability of detectable HIV RNA shedding in women with highest total IgA. PMID:21239996

  6. Implementation of a Dual Containment/Surveillance System utilizing scene-change detection and radio frequency technology

    SciTech Connect

    FITZGERALD, ERIC; KOENIG, RICHARD

    2005-06-27

    This paper will examine the implementation of scene-change detection and radio frequency technology within a Dual Containment/Surveillance (C/S) System. Additionally, this paper will examine the human performance factors in the operation of these systems. Currently, Westinghouse Savannah River Company utilizes the Continuous Item Monitoring and Surveillance System (CIMS) in the performance of Dual C/S to monitor special nuclear materials within International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards and Domestic Safeguards. CIMS is comprised of the Material Monitoring System (MMS) (R), a multi-media electronic surveillance system developed by Sandia National Laboratory which incorporates the use of active seals commonly called Radio Frequency Tamper Indicating Devices (RFTIDs), NT Vision (R) as developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, a Microsoft Windows NT (R) based operating system providing for domestic scene-change detection and the Digital Multi-Camera Optical Surveillance System (DMOS) (R) which provides scene-change detection for IAEA. Although this paper will focus on the implementation of Dual C/S utilizing the Continuous Item Monitoring and Surveillance System, the necessity for a thorough review of Safeguards and Security requirements with organizations and personnel having minimal to no prior MPC&A training will also be covered. Successful Dual C/S implementation plans must consider not only system design and failure modes, but must also be accompanied with the appropriate ''mind shift'' within operations and technical personnel. This is required to ensure completion of both physical and electronic activities, and system design changes are performed conscientiously and with full awareness of MPC&A requirements.

  7. Establishing a web-based integrated surveillance system for early detection of infectious disease epidemic in rural China: a field experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A crucial goal of infectious disease surveillance is the early detection of epidemics, which is essential for disease control. In China, the current surveillance system is based on confirmed case reports. In rural China, it is not practical for health units to perform laboratory tests to confirm disease and people are more likely to get 'old' and emerging infectious diseases due to poor living conditions and closer contacts with wild animals and poultry. Syndromic surveillance, which collects non-specific syndromes before diagnosis, has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation. It will be especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. Methods/Design This is a field experimental study. The experimental tool is an innovative electronic surveillance system, combining syndromic surveillance with the existing case report surveillance in four selected counties in China. In the added syndromic surveillance, three types of data are collected including patients' major symptoms from health clinics, pharmaceutical sales from pharmacies and absenteeism information from primary school. In order to evaluate the early warning capability of the new added syndromic surveillance, the timelines and validity of the alert signals will be analyzed in comparison with the traditional case reporting system. The acceptability, feasibility and economic evaluation of the whole integrated surveillance system will be conducted in a before and after study design. Discussions Although syndromic surveillance system has mostly been established in developed areas, there are opportunities and advantages of developing it in rural China. The project will contribute to knowledge, experience and evidence on the establishment of an integrated surveillance system, which aims to provide early warning of disease epidemics in developing countries. PMID:22305256

  8. Oral and Systemic Health Correlates of HIV-1 Shedding in Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Navazesh, M.; Mulligan, R.; Kono, N.; Kumar, S.K.S.; Nowicki, M.; Alves, M.; Mack, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship among oral and systemic health and HIV shedding in saliva is not well-understood. We hypothesized that oral and systemic health are associated with HIV shedding in saliva of HIV-infected women. Saliva from 127 participants enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) was collected at repeated visits over a 5½-year study period (October 1998 through March 2004) and was evaluated for HIV-1 RNA. Demographic, lifestyle, and systemic and oral health characteristics were evaluated as possible correlates of salivary HIV-1 shedding. Multivariate models showed significantly increased risk of HIV-1 shedding in saliva as blood levels of CD4 cell counts decreased (p < 0.0001) and HIV RNA increased (p < 0.0001). Diabetes (p = 0.002) and a high proportion of gingival bleeding sites (p = 0.01) were associated with increased likelihood, while anti-retroviral therapy (p = 0.0003) and higher levels of stimulated saliva flow rates (p = 0.02) were associated with a lower likelihood of HIV-1 RNA shedding in saliva. PMID:20671205

  9. Oral and systemic health correlates of HIV-1 shedding in saliva.

    PubMed

    Navazesh, M; Mulligan, R; Kono, N; Kumar, S K S; Nowicki, M; Alves, M; Mack, W J

    2010-10-01

    The relationship among oral and systemic health and HIV shedding in saliva is not well-understood. We hypothesized that oral and systemic health are associated with HIV shedding in saliva of HIV-infected women. Saliva from 127 participants enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) was collected at repeated visits over a 5½-year study period (October 1998 through March 2004) and was evaluated for HIV-1 RNA. Demographic, lifestyle, and systemic and oral health characteristics were evaluated as possible correlates of salivary HIV-1 shedding. Multivariate models showed significantly increased risk of HIV-1 shedding in saliva as blood levels of CD4 cell counts decreased (p < 0.0001) and HIV RNA increased (p < 0.0001). Diabetes (p = 0.002) and a high proportion of gingival bleeding sites (p = 0.01) were associated with increased likelihood, while anti-retroviral therapy (p = 0.0003) and higher levels of stimulated saliva flow rates (p = 0.02) were associated with a lower likelihood of HIV-1 RNA shedding in saliva.

  10. Development and piloting of an exposure database and surveillance system for DOE cleanup operations. Department of Energy.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Van Dyke, Michael V; Martyny, John W; Simpson, Mark W; Holwager, Lee Ann; Clausen, Bret M; Ruttenber, A James

    2002-01-01

    An industrial hygiene exposure database and surveillance system was developed in partnership between National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded independent investigators and practicing industrial hygienists at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Golden, Colo. RFETS is a former U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons plant that is now in cleanup phase. This project is presented as a case study in the development of an exposure database and surveillance system in terms that are generalizable to most other industries and work contexts. Steps include gaining organizational support; defining system purpose and scope; defining database elements and coding; planning practical and efficient analysis strategies; incorporating reporting capabilities; and anticipating communication strategies that maximize the probability that surveillance findings will feed back to preventive applications. For each of these topics, the authors describe both general considerations as well as the specific choices made for this system. An important feature of the system is a two-tier task-coding scheme comprising 33 categories of task groups. Examples of grouped analyses of exposure data captured during the system pilot period demonstrate applications to exposure control, medical surveillance, and other preventive measures. PMID:11975659

  11. Development and piloting of an exposure database and surveillance system for DOE cleanup operations. Department of Energy.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, Anthony D; Van Dyke, Michael V; Martyny, John W; Simpson, Mark W; Holwager, Lee Ann; Clausen, Bret M; Ruttenber, A James

    2002-01-01

    An industrial hygiene exposure database and surveillance system was developed in partnership between National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded independent investigators and practicing industrial hygienists at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Golden, Colo. RFETS is a former U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons plant that is now in cleanup phase. This project is presented as a case study in the development of an exposure database and surveillance system in terms that are generalizable to most other industries and work contexts. Steps include gaining organizational support; defining system purpose and scope; defining database elements and coding; planning practical and efficient analysis strategies; incorporating reporting capabilities; and anticipating communication strategies that maximize the probability that surveillance findings will feed back to preventive applications. For each of these topics, the authors describe both general considerations as well as the specific choices made for this system. An important feature of the system is a two-tier task-coding scheme comprising 33 categories of task groups. Examples of grouped analyses of exposure data captured during the system pilot period demonstrate applications to exposure control, medical surveillance, and other preventive measures.

  12. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Paik, Joonki

    2016-06-25

    This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i) automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii) object depth estimation; and (iii) detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB) camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems.

  13. The anatomical and cellular basis of immune surveillance in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Ransohoff, Richard M; Engelhardt, Britta

    2012-09-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) comprises the brain, spinal cord, optic nerves and retina, and contains post-mitotic, delicate cells. As the rigid coverings of the CNS render swelling dangerous and destructive, inflammatory reactions must be carefully controlled in CNS tissues. Nevertheless, effector immune responses that protect the host during CNS infection still occur in the CNS. Here, we describe the anatomical and cellular basis of immune surveillance in the CNS, and explain how this shapes the unique immunology of these tissues. The Review focuses principally on insights gained from the study of autoimmune responses in the CNS and to a lesser extent on models of infectious disease. Furthermore, we propose a new model to explain how antigen-specific T cell responses occur in the CNS.

  14. The classification of AIDS cases: concordance between two AIDS surveillance systems in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Serraino, D; Franceschi, S; Dal Maso, L; Lepri, A C; Tirelli, U; Rezza, G

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed the concordance between the transmission classification of 725 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases by the Italian AIDS Registry (the national surveillance system) and the classification of the same cases by the Italian Cooperative Group on AIDS-Related Tumors. A high degree of concordance emerged for intravenous drug users in both sexes (kappa = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84, 0.92), for homosexual men (kappa = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.79, 0.87), and for persons infected through contaminated blood or blood derivatives (kappa = 1.00). The concordance was lower among heterosexual men (kappa = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.37, 0.65) and especially among men whose risk group was not determined (kappa = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.12, 0.44). The discrepancies observed among heterosexual men indicate a need for continuing and accurate monitoring of AIDS reporting by transmission category. PMID:7625506

  15. Australia's notifiable disease status, 2010: annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Milton, Alison; Stirzaker, Stefan; Trungove, Mark; Knuckey, Dougald; Martin, Nicolee; Hastie, Chris; Pennington, Kate; Sloan-Gardner, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Gerard; Knope, Katrina; Martinek, Samantha; Mills, Lucas; Barry, Christina; Wright, Phil; Power, Mark

    2012-03-01

    In 2010, 65 diseases and conditions were nationally notifiable in Australia. States and territories reported a total of 209,079 notifications of communicable diseases to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, a decrease of 12% on the number of notifications in 2009. This decrease was largely due to a reduction of influenza compared with the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic 2009. In 2010, the most frequently notified diseases were sexually transmissible infections (86,620 notifications, 41.4% of total notifications), vaccine preventable diseases (61,964 notifications, 29.6% of total notifications), and gastrointestinal diseases (31,548 notifications, 15.1% of total notifications). There were 18,302 notifications of bloodborne diseases; 8,244 notifications of vectorborne diseases; 1,866 notifications of other bacterial infections; 532 notifications of zoonoses and 3 notifications of quarantinable diseases. PMID:23153082

  16. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Paik, Joonki

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i) automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii) object depth estimation; and (iii) detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB) camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems. PMID:27347978

  17. Surveillance system and method having parameter estimation and operating mode partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an apparatus or process asset including creating a process model comprised of a plurality of process submodels each correlative to at least one training data subset partitioned from an unpartitioned training data set and each having an operating mode associated thereto; acquiring a set of observed signal data values from the asset; determining an operating mode of the asset for the set of observed signal data values; selecting a process submodel from the process model as a function of the determined operating mode of the asset; calculating a set of estimated signal data values from the selected process submodel for the determined operating mode; and determining asset status as a function of the calculated set of estimated signal data values for providing asset surveillance and/or control.

  18. Surveillance system and method having parameter estimation and operating mode partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an apparatus or process asset including partitioning an unpartitioned training data set into a plurality of training data subsets each having an operating mode associated thereto; creating a process model comprised of a plurality of process submodels each trained as a function of at least one of the training data subsets; acquiring a current set of observed signal data values from the asset; determining an operating mode of the asset for the current set of observed signal data values; selecting a process submodel from the process model as a function of the determined operating mode of the asset; calculating a current set of estimated signal data values from the selected process submodel for the determined operating mode; and outputting the calculated current set of estimated signal data values for providing asset surveillance and/or control.

  19. A blind signal separation method for single-channel electromagnetic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Lihui; Qi, Zhilong; Li, Shuai; Tang, Bin

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a blind signal separation (BSS) methodology for simultaneously received multisystem frequency-overlapped signals in a single-channel (SC) electromagnetic surveillance system is proposed using fast independent component analysis (FastICA) in a dynamical embedding (DE) framework. Firstly, an appropriate DE matrix is constructed out of a series of delay vectors from the SC recording. The lag-time and the dimensional of embedding matrix setting principal are introduced in details. Next, multiple independent components (ICs) are calculated by decomposing the embedding matrix through FastICA algorithm, and ICs can be regarded as a convenient expansion basis of the original signals. Then, these ICs are projected back into the measurement space. After that, these projected ICs are classified and used for recovering the sources of interest based on their independent nature and their power density spectrum. Numerical simulation results obtained in evaluating the proposed methodology's performance confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  20. Object Occlusion Detection Using Automatic Camera Calibration for a Wide-Area Video Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Inhye; Paik, Joonki

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an object occlusion detection algorithm using object depth information that is estimated by automatic camera calibration. The object occlusion problem is a major factor to degrade the performance of object tracking and recognition. To detect an object occlusion, the proposed algorithm consists of three steps: (i) automatic camera calibration using both moving objects and a background structure; (ii) object depth estimation; and (iii) detection of occluded regions. The proposed algorithm estimates the depth of the object without extra sensors but with a generic red, green and blue (RGB) camera. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to improve the performance of object tracking and object recognition algorithms for video surveillance systems. PMID:27347978

  1. A Methodological Approach to Small Area Estimation for the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Pierannunzi, Carol; Xu, Fang; Wallace, Robyn C; Garvin, William; Greenlund, Kurt J; Bartoli, William; Ford, Derek; Eke, Paul; Town, G Machell

    2016-07-14

    Public health researchers have used a class of statistical methods to calculate prevalence estimates for small geographic areas with few direct observations. Many researchers have used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data as a basis for their models. The aims of this study were to 1) describe a new BRFSS small area estimation (SAE) method and 2) investigate the internal and external validity of the BRFSS SAEs it produced. The BRFSS SAE method uses 4 data sets (the BRFSS, the American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample, Nielsen Claritas population totals, and the Missouri Census Geographic Equivalency File) to build a single weighted data set. Our findings indicate that internal and external validity tests were successful across many estimates. The BRFSS SAE method is one of several methods that can be used to produce reliable prevalence estimates in small geographic areas.

  2. A Methodological Approach to Small Area Estimation for the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fang; Wallace, Robyn C.; Garvin, William; Greenlund, Kurt J.; Bartoli, William; Ford, Derek; Eke, Paul; Town, G. Machell

    2016-01-01

    Public health researchers have used a class of statistical methods to calculate prevalence estimates for small geographic areas with few direct observations. Many researchers have used Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data as a basis for their models. The aims of this study were to 1) describe a new BRFSS small area estimation (SAE) method and 2) investigate the internal and external validity of the BRFSS SAEs it produced. The BRFSS SAE method uses 4 data sets (the BRFSS, the American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample, Nielsen Claritas population totals, and the Missouri Census Geographic Equivalency File) to build a single weighted data set. Our findings indicate that internal and external validity tests were successful across many estimates. The BRFSS SAE method is one of several methods that can be used to produce reliable prevalence estimates in small geographic areas. PMID:27418213

  3. Drug delivery strategies and systems for HIV/AIDS pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Antoinette G; Zhang, Xiaoping; Ganapathi, Usha; Szekely, Zoltan; Flexner, Charles W; Owen, Andrew; Sinko, Patrick J

    2015-12-10

    The year 2016 will mark an important milestone - the 35th anniversary of the first reported cases of HIV/AIDS. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) including Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) drug regimens is widely considered to be one of the greatest achievements in therapeutic drug research having transformed HIV infection into a chronically managed disease. Unfortunately, the lack of widespread preventive measures and the inability to eradicate HIV from infected cells highlight the significant challenges remaining today. Moving forward there are at least three high priority goals for anti-HIV drug delivery (DD) research: (1) to prevent new HIV infections from occurring, (2) to facilitate a functional cure, i.e., when HIV is present but the body controls it without drugs and (3) to eradicate established infection. Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) represents a significant step forward in preventing the establishment of chronic HIV infection. However, the ultimate success of PrEP will depend on achieving sustained antiretroviral (ARV) tissue concentrations and will require strict patient adherence to the regimen. While first generation long acting/extended release (LA/ER) DD Systems (DDS) currently in development show considerable promise, significant DD treatment and prevention challenges persist. First, there is a critical need to improve cell specificity through targeting in order to selectively achieve efficacious drug concentrations in HIV reservoir sites to control/eradicate HIV as well as mitigate systemic side effects. In addition, approaches for reducing cellular efflux and metabolism of ARV drugs to prolong effective concentrations in target cells need to be developed. Finally, given the current understanding of HIV pathogenesis, next generation anti-HIV DDS need to address selective DD to the gut mucosa and lymph nodes. The current review focuses on the DDS technologies, critical challenges, opportunities, strategies, and approaches by which novel

  4. Surveillance of a Ventilated Rack System for Corynebacterium bovis by Sampling Exhaust-Air Manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Christopher A; Pugazhenthi, Umarani; Leszczynski, Jori K

    2016-01-01

    Corynebacterium bovis causes an opportunistic infection of nude (Foxn1, nu/nu) mice, leading to nude mouse hyperkeratotic dermatitis (scaly skin disease). Enzootic in many nude mouse colonies, C. bovis spreads rapidly to naive nude mice, despite modern husbandry practices, and is very difficult to eradicate. To facilitate rapid detection in support of eradication efforts, we investigated a surveillance method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) evaluation of swabs collected from the horizontal exhaust manifold (HEM) of an IVC rack system. We first evaluated the efficacy of rack sanitation methods for removing C. bovis DNA from the HEM of racks housing endemic colonies of infected nude mice. Pressurized water used to flush the racks’ air exhaust system followed by a standard rack-washer cycle was ineffective in eliminating C. bovis DNA. Only after autoclaving did all sanitized racks test negative for C. bovis DNA. We then measured the effects of stage of infection (early or established), cage density, and cage location on the rack on time-to-detection at the HEM. Stage of infection significantly affected time-to-detection, independent of cage location. Early infections required 7.3 ± 1.2 d whereas established infections required 1 ± 0 d for detection of C. bovis at the HEM. Cage density influenced the quantity of C. bovis DNA detected but not time-to-detection. The location of the cage on the rack affected the time-to-detection only during early C. bovis infections. We suggest that qPCR swabs of HEM are useful during the routine surveillance of nude mouse colonies for C. bovis infection. PMID:26817981

  5. Australia's notifiable diseases status, 2001: annual report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Blumer, Charlie; Roche, Paul; Spencer, Jenean; Lin, Ming; Milton, Alison; Bunn, Chris; Gidding, Heather; Kaldor, John; Kirk, Martyn; Hall, Rob; Della-Porta, Tony; Leader, Robyn; Wright, Phil

    2003-01-01

    In 2001 there were 104,187 notifications of communicable diseases in Australia reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). The number of notifications in 2001 was an increase of 16 per cent of those reported in 2000 (89,740) and the largest annual total since the NNDSS commenced in 1991. In 2001, nine new diseases were added to the list of diseases reported to NNDSS and four diseases were removed. The new diseases were cryptosporidiosis, laboratory-confirmed influenza, invasive pneumococcal disease, Japanese encephalitis, Kunjin virus infection, Murray Valley encephalitis virus infection, anthrax, Australian bat lyssavirus, and other lyssaviruses (not elsewhere classified). Bloodborne virus infections remained the most frequently notified disease (29,057 reports, 27.9% of total), followed by sexually transmitted infections (27,647, 26.5%), gastrointestinal diseases (26,086, 25%), vaccine preventable diseases (13,030 (12.5%), vectorborne diseases (5,294, 5.1%), other bacterial infections (1,978, 1.9%), zoonotic infections (1,091, 1%) and four cases of quarantinable diseases. In 2001 there were increases in the number of notifications of incident hepatitis C, chlamydial infections, pertussis, Barmah Forest virus infection and ornithosis. There were decreases in the number of notifications of hepatitis A, Haemophilus influenzae type b infections, measles, rubella, Ross River virus infections and brucellosis. This report also summarises data on communicable diseases from other surveillance systems including the Laboratory Virology and Serology Reporting Scheme and sentinel general practitioner schemes. In addition, this report comments on other important developments in communicable disease control in Australia in 2001. PMID:12725505

  6. Syndromic Surveillance System for Korea-US Joint Biosurveillance Portal: Design and Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Chulwoo; Burkom, Howard; Yoon, Chang-Gyo; Stewart, Miles; Elbert, Yevgeniy; Katz, Aaron; Tak, Sangwoo

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the growing importance of situational awareness of bioterrorism threats, the Republic of Korea (ROK) and the United States have constructed a joint military capability, called the Biosurveillance Portal (BSP), to enhance biosecurity. As one component of the BSP, we developed the Military Active Real-time Syndromic Surveillance (MARSS) system to detect and track natural and deliberate disease outbreaks. This article describes the ROK military health data infrastructure and explains how syndromic data are derived and made available to epidemiologists. Queries corresponding to 8 syndromes, based on published clinical effects of weaponized pathogens, were used to classify military hospital patient records to form aggregated daily syndromic counts. A set of ICD-10 codes for each syndrome was defined through literature review and expert panel discussion. A study set of time series of national daily counts for each syndrome was extracted from the Defense Medical Statistical Information System between January 1, 2011, and May 31, 2014. A stratified, adjusted cumulative summation algorithm was implemented for each syndrome group to signal alerts prompting investigation. The algorithm was developed by calculating sensitivity to sets of 1,000 artificial outbreak signals randomly injected in the dataset, with each signal injected in a separate trial. Queries and visualizations were adapted from the Suite for Automated Global bioSurveillance. Findings indicated that early warning of outbreaks affecting fewer than 50 patients will require analysis at subnational levels, especially for common syndrome groups. Developing MARSS to improve sensitivity will require modification of underlying syndromic diagnosis codes, engineering to coordinate alerts among subdivisions, and enhanced algorithms. The bioterrorist threat in the Korean peninsula mandates these efforts. PMID:27314655

  7. The evolution of the federal funding policies for the public health surveillance component of Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS).

    PubMed

    Pinto, Vitor Laerte; Cerbino Neto, José; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Health surveillance (HS) is one of the key components of the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS). This article describes recent changes in health surveillance funding models and the role these changes have had in the reorganization and decentralization of health actions. Federal law no. 8.080 of 1990 defined health surveillance as a fundamental pillar of the SUS, and an exclusive fund with equitable distribution criteria was created in the Basic Operational Norm of 1996 to pay for health surveillance actions. This step facilitated the decentralization of health care at the municipal level, giving local authorities autonomy to plan and provide services. The Health Pact of 2006 and its regulation under federal decree No. 3252 in 2009 bolstered the processes of decentralization, regionalization and integration of health care. Further changes in the basic concepts of health surveillance around the world and in the funding policies negotiated by different spheres of government in Brazil have been catalysts for the process of HS institutionalization in recent years. PMID:25388192

  8. GeoMedStat: an integrated spatial surveillance system to track air pollution and associated healthcare events.

    PubMed

    Faruque, Fazlay S; Li, Hui; Williams, Worth B; Waller, Lance A; Brackin, Bruce T; Zhang, Lei; Grimes, Kim A; Finley, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    Air pollutants, such as particulate matter with a diameter ≤2.5 microns (PM2.5) and ozone (O3), are known to exacerbate asthma and other respiratory diseases. An integrated surveillance system that tracks such air pollutants and associated disease incidence can assist in risk assessment, healthcare preparedness and public awareness. However, the implementation of such an integrated environmental health surveillance system is a challenge due to the disparate sources of many types of data and the implementation becomes even more complicated for a spatial and real-time system due to lack of standardised technological components and data incompatibility. In addition, accessing and utilising health data that are considered as Protected Health Information (PHI) require maintaining stringent protocols, which have to be supported by the system. This paper aims to illustrate the development of a spatial surveillance system (GeoMedStat) that is capable of tracking daily environmental pollutants along with both daily and historical patient encounter data. It utilises satellite data and the groundmonitor data from the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the US Environemental Protection Agenecy (EPA), rspectively as inputs estimating air pollutants and is linked to hospital information systems for accessing chief complaints and disease classification codes. The components, developmental methods, functionality of GeoMedStat and its use as a real-time environmental health surveillance system for asthma and other respiratory syndromes in connection with with PM2.5 and ozone are described. It is expected that the framework presented will serve as an example to others developing real-time spatial surveillance systems for pollutants and hospital visits. PMID:25599635

  9. Characterization and use of a recombinant retroviral system for the analysis of drug resistant HIV.

    PubMed

    Medina, D J; Tung, P P; Nelson, C J; Sathya, B; Casareale, D; Strair, R K

    1998-04-01

    A recombinant retroviral system was used for the analysis of early HIV breakthrough infection in the presence of antiviral drugs. The use of replication-defective HIV allowed a quantitative analysis of a single cycle of infection. This report characterizes this recombinant HIV system and demonstrates it's validity in comparison to standard assays. It is demonstrated that the protease inhibitor XM323 inhibits both early and late events in the HIV life-cycle, while dextran sulphate inhibits only early events. In addition, it is shown that this system can be used for detecting and quantitating drug resistant HIV. Thus, the use of this system may provide both novel information about the stage of the viral life-cycle inhibited and a preliminary assessment of the mechanism(s) responsible for breakthrough infection in the presence of antiretroviral drugs. PMID:9626950

  10. An early warning surveillance programme for detecting upper limb deterioration after treatment for breast cancer: A novel technology supported system.

    PubMed

    Shamley, Delva; Robb, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Upper limb morbidity is a well-recognised consequence of treatment for breast cancer that can develop for up to 6 years after treatment. However, the capacity to fully integrate evidence-based rehabilitation pathways into routine care for all patients is questionable due to limited resources. A long term surveillance programme must therefore be accessible to all patients, should identify those at risk of developing morbidity and target the interventions at the high risk population of patients. The proposed model uses a surrogate marker for assessing risk of morbidity, incorporated into an Early Warning System (EWS), to produce a technology-lead, prospective surveillance programme. PMID:26370571

  11. Relationship between psychiatric status and frontal–subcortical systems in HIV-infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    COLE, MICHAEL A.; CASTELLON, STEVEN A.; PERKINS, ADAM C.; URENO, OSCAR S.; ROBINET, MARTA B.; REINHARD, MATTHEW J.; BARCLAY, TERRY R.; HINKIN, CHARLES H.

    2010-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults frequently evidence both neurocognitive and psychiatric dysfunction. It was hypothesized that apathy and irritability, but not anxiety and depression, are related to HIV effects on frontal–subcortical systems. This hypothesis was evaluated by determining the degree to which these psychiatric features are associated with neurocognitive functioning that is dependent upon frontal–subcortical circuitry and, therefore, thought to be sensitive to the central nervous system effects of HIV. Rating scales assessing irritability, apathy, depression, and anxiety and a dual-task paradigm were administered to 189 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 53 HIV-seronegative participants. Deficits in dual-task performance and greater anxiety, depression, apathy, and irritability were observed in HIV+ participants. Simultaneous multivariate regression and communality analyses revealed that only apathy and irritability were associated with dual-task performance in HIV+ participants. Thus, these findings suggest that apathy and irritability, but not depression and anxiety, are likely associated with the effects of HIV on frontal–subcortical circuitry. PMID:17445305

  12. Introduction to an airborne remote sensing system equipped onboard the Chinese marine surveillance plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Fang; Wang, Difeng; Pan, Delu; Hao, Zengzhou

    2008-10-01

    The airborne remote sensing system onboard the Chinese Marine Surveillance Plane have three scanners including marine airborne multi-spectrum scanner(MAMS), airborne hyper spectral system(AISA+) and optical-electric platform(MOP) currently. MAMS is developed by Shanghai Institute of Technology and Physics CAS with 11 bands from ultraviolet to infrared and mainly used for inversion of oceanic main factors and pollution information, like chlorophyll, sea surface temperature, red tide, etc. The AISA+ made by Finnish Specim company is a push broom system, consist of a high spectrum scanner head, a miniature GPS/INS sensor and data collecting PC. It is a kind of aviation imaging spectrometer and has the ability of ground target imaging and measuring target spectrum characteristic. The MOP mainly supports for object watching, recording and track. It mainly includes 3 equipments: digital CCD with Sony-DXC390, CANON EOS film camera and digital camera Sony F717. This paper mainly introduces these three remote sensing instruments as well as the ground processing information system, involving the system's hardware and software design, related algorithm research, etc.

  13. Postmarketing surveillance for drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Cicero, Theodore J

    2003-06-01

    Assessing actual abuse of prescribed medications requires postmarketing surveillance. In this article we discuss general systems of postmarketing surveillance that exist as of the end of 2002 in the United States and two medication-specific surveillance systems that were devised and tested. The two specific surveillance systems are compared with limitations highlighted. Postmarketing surveillance is in its infancy and requires more research on ways to improve its validity without inducing illicit experimentation. Information on comparator medications is highly recommended both to validate the system and to place the results in context.

  14. HIV after 40 in Rural South Africa1: A Life Course Approach to HIV Vulnerability among Middle Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jill; Angotti, Nicole; Gómez-Olivé, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV in the world (over 6 million) as well as a rapidly aging population, with 15% of the population aged 50 and over. High HIV prevalence in rural former apartheid homeland areas suggests substantial aging with HIV and acquisition of HIV at older ages. We develop a life course approach to HIV vulnerability, highlighting the rise and fall of risk and protection as people age, as well as the role of contextual density in shaping HIV vulnerability. Using this approach, we draw on an innovative multi-method data set collected within the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa, combining survey data with 60 nested life history interviews and 9 community focus group interviews. We examine HIV risk and protective factors among adults aged 40–80, as well as how and why these vary among people at older ages. PMID:26364007

  15. The Relationship between Rural Status, Individual Characteristics, and Self-Rated Health in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethea, Traci N.; Lopez, Russell P.; Cozier, Yvette C.; White, Laura F.; McClean, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine rural status and social factors as predictors of self-rated health in community-dwelling adults in the United States. Methods: This study uses multinomial logistic and cumulative logistic models to evaluate the associations of interest in the 2006 US Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a cross-sectional survey of…

  16. Malaria mortality in Africa and Asia: evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance system sites

    PubMed Central

    Streatfield, P. Kim; Khan, Wasif A.; Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, Syed M.A.; Alam, Nurul; Diboulo, Eric; Sié, Ali; Yé, Maurice; Compaoré, Yacouba; Soura, Abdramane B.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Jaeger, Fabienne; Ngoran, Eliezer K.; Utzinger, Juerg; Melaku, Yohannes A.; Mulugeta, Afework; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Gomez, Pierre; Jasseh, Momodou; Hodgson, Abraham; Oduro, Abraham; Welaga, Paul; Williams, John; Awini, Elizabeth; Binka, Fred N.; Gyapong, Margaret; Kant, Shashi; Misra, Puneet; Srivastava, Rahul; Chaudhary, Bharat; Juvekar, Sanjay; Wahab, Abdul; Wilopo, Siswanto; Bauni, Evasius; Mochamah, George; Ndila, Carolyne; Williams, Thomas N.; Hamel, Mary J.; Lindblade, Kim A.; Odhiambo, Frank O.; Slutsker, Laurence; Ezeh, Alex; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Wamukoya, Marylene; Delaunay, Valérie; Diallo, Aldiouma; Douillot, Laetitia; Sokhna, Cheikh; Gómez-Olivé, F. Xavier; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Mee, Paul; Herbst, Kobus; Mossong, Joël; Chuc, Nguyen T.K.; Arthur, Samuelina S.; Sankoh, Osman A.; Tanner, Marcel; Byass, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria continues to be a major cause of infectious disease mortality in tropical regions. However, deaths from malaria are most often not individually documented, and as a result overall understanding of malaria epidemiology is inadequate. INDEPTH Network members maintain population surveillance in Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites across Africa and Asia, in which individual deaths are followed up with verbal autopsies. Objective To present patterns of malaria mortality determined by verbal autopsy from INDEPTH sites across Africa and Asia, comparing these findings with other relevant information on malaria in the same regions. Design From a database covering 111,910 deaths over 12,204,043 person-years in 22 sites, in which verbal autopsy data were handled according to the WHO 2012 standard and processed using the InterVA-4 model, over 6,000 deaths were attributed to malaria. The overall period covered was 1992–2012, but two-thirds of the observations related to 2006–2012. These deaths were analysed by site, time period, age group and sex to investigate epidemiological differences in malaria mortality. Results Rates of malaria mortality varied by 1:10,000 across the sites, with generally low rates in Asia (one site recording no malaria deaths over 0.5 million person-years) and some of the highest rates in West Africa (Nouna, Burkina Faso: 2.47 per 1,000 person-years). Childhood malaria mortality rates were strongly correlated with Malaria Atlas Project estimates of Plasmodium falciparum parasite rates for the same locations. Adult malaria mortality rates, while lower than corresponding childhood rates, were strongly correlated with childhood rates at the site level. Conclusions The wide variations observed in malaria mortality, which were nevertheless consistent with various other estimates, suggest that population-based registration of deaths using verbal autopsy is a useful approach to understanding the details of malaria

  17. Rapid establishment of an internally displaced persons disease surveillance system after an earthquake --- Haiti, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-08-01

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0-magnitude earthquake in Haiti disrupted infrastructure and displaced approximately 2 million persons, causing increased risk for communicable diseases from overcrowding and poor living conditions. Hundreds of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) established health-care clinics in camps of internally displaced persons (IDPs). To monitor conditions of outbreak potential identified at NGO camp clinics, on February 18, the Haiti Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP), the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), and CDC implemented the IDP Surveillance System (IDPSS). The Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) "cluster approach" was used to coordinate the Haiti humanitarian response. One of 11 clusters, the Global Health Cluster (GHC), builds global capacity, whereas the country-level cluster (in this case, the Haitian Health Cluster [HHC], led by PAHO) responds locally. During the Haiti response, HHC engaged NGOs serving large camps, established IDPSS, followed trends of reportable conditions, undertook epidemiologic and laboratory investigations, and fostered implementation of control measures. This report describes the design and implementation of IDPSS in the post-earthquake period. The primary challenges to implementing IDPSS were communication difficulties with an ever-changing group of NGO partners and limitations to the utility of IDPSS data because of lack of reliable camp population denominator estimates. The IDPSS experience reinforces the need to improve local communication and coordination strategies. Improving future humanitarian response requires advance development and distribution of easily adaptable standard surveillance tools, development of an interdisciplinary strategy for an early and reliable population census, and development of communication strategies using locally available Internet and cellular networks.

  18. Spatial Distributions of HIV Infection in an Endemic Area of Western Kenya: Guiding Information for Localized HIV Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Fuji, Yoshito; Nzou, Samson Muuo; Tanigawa, Chihiro; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Karama, Mohamed; Hirayama, Kenji; Goto, Kensuke; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to collect 1,957 blood samples from 42,617 individuals registered in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Mbita, which is located on the shore of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. We used these samples to evaluate existing antibody detection assays for several infectious diseases, including HIV antibody titers. Based on the results of the assays, we evaluated the prevalence of HIV infection according to sex, age, and altitude of participating households. We also used Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic to test for HIV clustering in the study area. The prevalence of HIV at our study site was 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15-19 years), adults aged 30-34 years were 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women was 1.43 times larger than among men. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic detected one marginally significant (P = 0.055) HIV-positive and one significant HIV-negative cluster (P = 0.047) in the study area. These results suggest a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages. In addition to individual behavior, more complex and diverse factors related to the social and cultural environment can contribute to a homogeneous distribution pattern of HIV infection outside of African fishing villages. To reduce rates of transmission in HIV-endemic areas, HIV prevention and control programs optimized for the local environment need to be developed.

  19. Spatial Distributions of HIV Infection in an Endemic Area of Western Kenya: Guiding Information for Localized HIV Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Fuji, Yoshito; Nzou, Samson Muuo; Tanigawa, Chihiro; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Karama, Mohamed; Hirayama, Kenji; Goto, Kensuke; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to collect 1,957 blood samples from 42,617 individuals registered in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Mbita, which is located on the shore of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. We used these samples to evaluate existing antibody detection assays for several infectious diseases, including HIV antibody titers. Based on the results of the assays, we evaluated the prevalence of HIV infection according to sex, age, and altitude of participating households. We also used Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic to test for HIV clustering in the study area. The prevalence of HIV at our study site was 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15-19 years), adults aged 30-34 years were 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women was 1.43 times larger than among men. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic detected one marginally significant (P = 0.055) HIV-positive and one significant HIV-negative cluster (P = 0.047) in the study area. These results suggest a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages. In addition to individual behavior, more complex and diverse factors related to the social and cultural environment can contribute to a homogeneous distribution pattern of HIV infection outside of African fishing villages. To reduce rates of transmission in HIV-endemic areas, HIV prevention and control programs optimized for the local environment need to be developed. PMID:26862764

  20. Spatial Distributions of HIV Infection in an Endemic Area of Western Kenya: Guiding Information for Localized HIV Control and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Fuji, Yoshito; Nzou, Samson Muuo; Tanigawa, Chihiro; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Karama, Mohamed; Hirayama, Kenji; Goto, Kensuke; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to collect 1,957 blood samples from 42,617 individuals registered in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Mbita, which is located on the shore of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. We used these samples to evaluate existing antibody detection assays for several infectious diseases, including HIV antibody titers. Based on the results of the assays, we evaluated the prevalence of HIV infection according to sex, age, and altitude of participating households. We also used Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic to test for HIV clustering in the study area. The prevalence of HIV at our study site was 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15–19 years), adults aged 30–34 years were 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women was 1.43 times larger than among men. Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic detected one marginally significant (P = 0.055) HIV-positive and one significant HIV-negative cluster (P = 0.047) in the study area. These results suggest a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages. In addition to individual behavior, more complex and diverse factors related to the social and cultural environment can contribute to a homogeneous distribution pattern of HIV infection outside of African fishing villages. To reduce rates of transmission in HIV-endemic areas, HIV prevention and control programs optimized for the local environment need to be developed. PMID:26862764

  1. Technology evaluation of a USA-Mexico health information system for epidemiological surveillance of Mexican migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Mondragón, H E; Martin, J; Chacón-Sosa, F

    2000-03-01

    From 1994 through 1996, federal, state, and nongovernmental organizations in Mexico and in the United States of America developed and piloted a Binational Health Information System for Epidemiological Surveillance of Mexican migrant workers. The system allowed data exchange for epidemiological surveillance between the state of Guanajuato in Mexico and the Commonwealth (state) of Pennsylvania in the United States, for case detection, prevention, and treatment, through shared contact investigation and case management of communicable diseases. The target population consisted of migrant workers traveling between Guanajuato and Pennsylvania to work mainly in the mushroom industry, and their sexual partners in their Mexican communities of origin. Computerized migrant health information modules were set up in Guanajuato and in Pennsylvania. Patient information and epidemiological surveillance data were encrypted and communicated electronically between the modules, using the WONDER communications system of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Evaluation of the Guanajuato-Pennsylvania Binational Health Information System showed that major barriers to binational epidemiological surveillance and control are: a) lack of communication binationally; b) interrupted medical care due to migration; c) inconsistent diagnosis and treatment criteria between the two countries; d) lack of referral clinical records from one country to the other; and e) deficient legal regulations concerning binational clinical data transfer. To our knowledge, this is the first project that has successfully demonstrated the technological feasibility of a binational disease control system linking a state in the interior of one country with a state in the interior of another country, rather than just states in the border region. The project also advanced the understanding of health service organizational issues that facilitate or hinder communication, outreach, disease prevention, and

  2. Why AIDS? The Mystery of How HIV Attacks the Immune System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Damaris

    1999-01-01

    Reviews differing theories surrounding the mystery of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system. Claims that understanding how HIV triggers immune-cell depletion may enable researchers to block its effects. New knowledge could reveal strategies for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapies that go beyond the drugs…

  3. Youths' HIV Risk in the Justice System: A Critical but Neglected Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Larry K.; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Whiteley, Laura Brave

    2008-01-01

    Preventive measures that can help in the juvenile system to address HIV risk and psychiatric disorders among detained youths are discussed. Early holistic interventions concluded by incorporating relevant family, peer, school and community factors could decrease later HIV risk behavior is presented.

  4. HIV Treatment in the Criminal Justice System: Critical Knowledge and Intervention Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jaimie P.; Chen, Nadine E.; Springer, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    The criminal justice system bears a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. Continuity of care is critical for HAART-based prevention of HIV-related morbidity and mortality. This paper describes four major challenges to successful management of HIV in the criminal justice system: relapse to substance use, homelessness, mental illness, and loss of medical and social benefits. Each of these areas constitutes a competing priority upon release that demands immediate attention and diverts time, energy, and valuable resources away from engagement in care and adherence to HAART. Numerous gaps exist in scientific knowledge about these issues and potential solutions. In illuminating these knowledge deficits, we present a contemporary research agenda for the management of HIV in correctional systems. Future empirical research should focus on these critical issues in HIV-infected prisoners and releasees while interventional research should incorporate evidence-based solutions into the criminal justice setting. PMID:21776379