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Sample records for hiv-1 encoded peptide

  1. Specific binding of a basic peptide from HIV-1 Rev.

    PubMed Central

    Kjems, J; Calnan, B J; Frankel, A D; Sharp, P A

    1992-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) encodes a regulatory protein, Rev, which is required for cytoplasmic expression of incompletely spliced viral mRNA. Rev activity is mediated through specific binding to a cis-acting Rev responsive element (RRE) located within the env region of HIV-1. A monomer Rev binding site corresponding to 37 nucleotides of the RRE (IIB RNA) was studied by RNA footprinting, modification interference experiments and mutational analysis. Surprisingly, a 17 amino acid peptide, corresponding to the basic domain of Rev, binds specifically to this site at essentially identical nucleotides and probably induces additional base pairing. The Rev protein and related peptide interact primarily with two sets of nucleotides located at the junction of single and double stranded regions, and at an additional site located within a helix. This suggests that the domains of proteins responsible for specific RNA binding can be remarkably small and that the interaction between RNA and protein can probably induce structure in both constituents. Images PMID:1547776

  2. Quantification of the epitope diversity of HIV-1-specific binding antibodies by peptide microarrays for global HIV-1 vaccine development

    DOE PAGES

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Reimer, Ulf; ...

    2014-11-14

    An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6564 peptides from across the HIV-1 proteome and covers the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory global HIV-1 sequence database. Using this microarray, we quantified the magnitude, breadth, and depth ofmore » IgG binding to linear HIV-1 sequences in HIV-1-infected humans and HIV-1-vaccinated humans, rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs. The microarray measured potentially important differences in antibody epitope diversity, particularly regarding the depth of epitope variants recognized at each binding site. Our data suggest that the global HIV-1 peptide microarray may be a useful tool for both preclinical and clinical HIV-1 research.« less

  3. Quantification of the epitope diversity of HIV-1-specific binding antibodies by peptide microarrays for global HIV-1 vaccine development

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Reimer, Ulf; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Knaute, Tobias; Zerweck, Johannes; Korber, Bette T.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-11-14

    An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6564 peptides from across the HIV-1 proteome and covers the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory global HIV-1 sequence database. Using this microarray, we quantified the magnitude, breadth, and depth of IgG binding to linear HIV-1 sequences in HIV-1-infected humans and HIV-1-vaccinated humans, rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs. The microarray measured potentially important differences in antibody epitope diversity, particularly regarding the depth of epitope variants recognized at each binding site. Our data suggest that the global HIV-1 peptide microarray may be a useful tool for both preclinical and clinical HIV-1 research.

  4. Quantification of the epitope diversity of HIV-1-specific binding antibodies by peptide microarrays for global HIV-1 vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Kathryn E; Neubauer, George H; Reimer, Ulf; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Knaute, Tobias; Zerweck, Johannes; Korber, Bette T; Barouch, Dan H

    2015-01-01

    An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6564 peptides from across the HIV-1 proteome and covers the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory global HIV-1 sequence database. Using this microarray, we quantified the magnitude, breadth, and depth of IgG binding to linear HIV-1 sequences in HIV-1-infected humans and HIV-1-vaccinated humans, rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs. The microarray measured potentially important differences in antibody epitope diversity, particularly regarding the depth of epitope variants recognized at each binding site. Our data suggest that the global HIV-1 peptide microarray may be a useful tool for both preclinical and clinical HIV-1 research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Quantification of the Epitope Diversity of HIV-1-Specific Binding Antibodies by Peptide Microarrays for Global HIV-1 Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Reimer, Ulf; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Knaute, Tobias; Zerweck, Johannes; Korber, Bette T.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-01-01

    An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6,564 peptides from across the HIV-1 proteome and covers the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory global HIV-1 sequence database. Using this microarray, we quantified the magnitude, breadth, and depth of IgG binding to linear HIV-1 sequences in HIV-1-infected humans and HIV-1-vaccinated humans, rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs. The microarray measured potentially important differences in antibody epitope diversity, particularly regarding the depth of epitope variants recognized at each binding site. Our data suggest that the global HIV-1 peptide microarray may be a useful tool for both preclinical and clinical HIV-1 research. PMID:25445329

  6. Potent D-Peptide Inhibitors of HIV-1 Entry

    SciTech Connect

    Welch,B.; VanDemark, A.; Heroux, A.; Hill, C.; Kay, M.

    2007-01-01

    During HIV-1 entry, the highly conserved gp41 N-trimer pocket region becomes transiently exposed and vulnerable to inhibition. Using mirror-image phage display and structure-assisted design, we have discovered protease-resistant D-amino acid peptides (D-peptides) that bind the N-trimer pocket with high affinity and potently inhibit viral entry. We also report high-resolution crystal structures of two of these D-peptides in complex with a pocket mimic that suggest sources of their high potency. A trimeric version of one of these peptides is the most potent pocket-specific entry inhibitor yet reported by three orders of magnitude (IC50 = 250 pM). These results are the first demonstration that D-peptides can form specific and high-affinity interactions with natural protein targets and strengthen their promise as therapeutic agents. The D-peptides described here address limitations associated with current L-peptide entry inhibitors and are promising leads for the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS.

  7. Albumin-conjugated C34 Peptide HIV-1 Fusion Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Stoddart, Cheryl A.; Nault, Geneviève; Galkina, Sofiya A.; Thibaudeau, Karen; Bakis, Peter; Bousquet-Gagnon, Nathalie; Robitaille, Martin; Bellomo, Maryanne; Paradis, Véronique; Liscourt, Patricia; Lobach, Alexandra; Rivard, Marie-Ève; Ptak, Roger G.; Mankowski, Marie K.; Bridon, Dominique; Quraishi, Omar

    2008-01-01

    Entry inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) have been the focus of much recent research. C34, a potent fusion inhibitor derived from the HR2 region of gp41, was engineered into a 1:1 human serum albumin conjugate through stable covalent attachment of a maleimido-C34 analog onto cysteine 34 of albumin. This bioconjugate, PC-1505, was designed to require less frequent dosing and less peptide than T-20 and was assessed for its antifusogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo in the SCID-hu Thy/Liv mouse model. PC-1505 was essentially equipotent to the original C34 peptide and to T-20 in vitro. In HIV-1-infected SCID-hu Thy/Liv mice, T-20 lost activity with infrequent dosing, whereas the antiviral potency of PC-1505 was sustained, and PC-1505 was active against T-20-resistant (“DIV”) virus with a G36D substitution in gp41. The in vivo results are the direct result of a significantly improved pharmacokinetic profile for the C34 peptide following albumin conjugation. Contrary to previous reports that the gp41 NHR trimer is poorly accessible to C34 fused to protein cargoes of increasing size (Hamburger, A. E., Kim, S., Welch, B. D., and Kay, M. S. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 12567–12572), these results are the first demonstration of the capacity for a large, endogenous serum protein to gain unobstructed access to the transient gp41 intermediates that exist during the HIV fusion process, and it supports further development of albumin conjugation as a promising approach to inhibit HIV-1 entry. PMID:18809675

  8. Nucleic acids encoding mosaic clade M human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope immunogens

    DOEpatents

    Korber, Bette T; Fischer, William; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F; Letvin, Norman; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2015-04-21

    The present invention relates to nucleic acids encoding mosaic clade M HIV-1 Env polypeptides and to compositions and vectors comprising same. The nucleic acids of the invention are suitable for use in inducing an immune response to HIV-1 in a human.

  9. Design and Characterization of a Peptide Mimotope of the HIV-1 gp120 Bridging Sheet

    PubMed Central

    Schiavone, Marco; Fiume, Giuseppe; Caivano, Antonella; de Laurentiis, Annamaria; Falcone, Cristina; Masci, Francesca Fasanella; Iaccino, Enrico; Mimmi, Selena; Palmieri, Camillo; Pisano, Antonio; Pontoriero, Marilena; Rossi, Annalisa; Scialdone, Annarita; Vecchio, Eleonora; Andreozzi, Concetta; Trovato, Maria; Rafay, Jan; Ferko, Boris; Montefiori, David; Lombardi, Angela; Morsica, Giulia; Poli, Guido; Quinto, Ileana; Pavone, Vincenzo; de Berardinis, Piergiuseppe; Scala, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The Bridging Sheet domain of HIV-1 gp120 is highly conserved among the HIV-1 strains and allows HIV-1 binding to host cells via the HIV-1 coreceptors. Further, the bridging sheet domain is a major target to neutralize HIV-1 infection. We rationally designed four linear peptide epitopes that mimic the three-dimensional structure of bridging sheet by using molecular modeling. Chemically synthesized peptides BS3 and BS4 showed a fair degree of antigenicity when tested in ELISA with IgG purified from HIV+ broadly neutralizing sera while the production of synthetic peptides BS1 and BS2 failed due to their high degree of hydrophobicity. To overcome this limitation, we linked all four BS peptides to the COOH-terminus of GST protein to test both their antigenicity and immunogenicity. Only the BS1 peptide showed good antigenicity; however, no envelope specific antibodies were elicited upon mice immunization. Therefore we performed further analyses by linking BS1 peptide to the NH2-terminus of the E2 scaffold from the Geobacillus Stearothermophylus PDH complex. The E2-BS1 fusion peptide showed good antigenic results, however only one immunized rabbit elicited good antibody titers towards both the monomeric and oligomeric viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). In addition, moderate neutralizing antibodies response was elicited against two HIV-1 clade B and one clade C primary isolates. These preliminary data validate the peptide mimotope approach as a promising tool to obtain an effective HIV-1 vaccine. PMID:22754323

  10. Design and characterization of a peptide mimotope of the HIV-1 gp120 bridging sheet.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Marco; Fiume, Giuseppe; Caivano, Antonella; de Laurentiis, Annamaria; Falcone, Cristina; Masci, Francesca Fasanella; Iaccino, Enrico; Mimmi, Selena; Palmieri, Camillo; Pisano, Antonio; Pontoriero, Marilena; Rossi, Annalisa; Scialdone, Annarita; Vecchio, Eleonora; Andreozzi, Concetta; Trovato, Maria; Rafay, Jan; Ferko, Boris; Montefiori, David; Lombardi, Angela; Morsica, Giulia; Poli, Guido; Quinto, Ileana; Pavone, Vincenzo; de Berardinis, Piergiuseppe; Scala, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The Bridging Sheet domain of HIV-1 gp120 is highly conserved among the HIV-1 strains and allows HIV-1 binding to host cells via the HIV-1 coreceptors. Further, the bridging sheet domain is a major target to neutralize HIV-1 infection. We rationally designed four linear peptide epitopes that mimic the three-dimensional structure of bridging sheet by using molecular modeling. Chemically synthesized peptides BS3 and BS4 showed a fair degree of antigenicity when tested in ELISA with IgG purified from HIV(+) broadly neutralizing sera while the production of synthetic peptides BS1 and BS2 failed due to their high degree of hydrophobicity. To overcome this limitation, we linked all four BS peptides to the COOH-terminus of GST protein to test both their antigenicity and immunogenicity. Only the BS1 peptide showed good antigenicity; however, no envelope specific antibodies were elicited upon mice immunization. Therefore we performed further analyses by linking BS1 peptide to the NH2-terminus of the E2 scaffold from the Geobacillus Stearothermophylus PDH complex. The E2-BS1 fusion peptide showed good antigenic results, however only one immunized rabbit elicited good antibody titers towards both the monomeric and oligomeric viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). In addition, moderate neutralizing antibodies response was elicited against two HIV-1 clade B and one clade C primary isolates. These preliminary data validate the peptide mimotope approach as a promising tool to obtain an effective HIV-1 vaccine.

  11. Design of cell-permeable stapled peptides as HIV-1 integrase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Long, Ya-Qiu; Huang, Shao-Xu; Zawahir, Zahrah; Xu, Zhong-Liang; Li, Huiyuan; Sanchez, Tino W; Zhi, Ying; De Houwer, Stephanie; Christ, Frauke; Debyser, Zeger; Neamati, Nouri

    2013-07-11

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) catalyzes the integration of viral DNA into the host genome, involving several interactions with the viral and cellular proteins. We have previously identified peptide IN inhibitors derived from the α-helical regions along the dimeric interface of HIV-1 IN. Herein, we show that appropriate hydrocarbon stapling of these peptides to stabilize their helical structure remarkably improves the cell permeability, thus allowing inhibition of the HIV-1 replication in cell culture. Furthermore, the stabilized peptides inhibit the interaction of IN with the cellular cofactor LEDGF/p75. Cellular uptake of the stapled peptide was confirmed in four different cell lines using a fluorescein-labeled analogue. Given their enhanced potency and cell permeability, these stapled peptides can serve as not only lead IN inhibitors but also prototypical biochemical probes or "nanoneedles" for the elucidation of HIV-1 IN dimerization and host cofactor interactions within their native cellular environment.

  12. Cell-permeable stapled peptides based on HIV-1 integrase inhibitors derived from HIV-1 gene products.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Wataru; Aikawa, Haruo; Ohashi, Nami; Urano, Emiko; Métifiot, Mathieu; Fujino, Masayuki; Maddali, Kasthuraiah; Ozaki, Taro; Nozue, Ami; Narumi, Tetsuo; Hashimoto, Chie; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Pommier, Yves; Yamamoto, Naoki; Komano, Jun A; Murakami, Tsutomu; Tamamura, Hirokazu

    2013-10-18

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is an enzyme which is indispensable for the stable infection of host cells because it catalyzes the insertion of viral DNA into the genome and thus is an attractive target for the development of anti-HIV agents. Earlier, we found Vpr-derived peptides with inhibitory activity against HIV-1 IN. These Vpr-derived peptides are originally located in an α-helical region of the parent Vpr protein. Addition of an octa-arginyl group to the inhibitory peptides caused significant inhibition against HIV replication associated with an increase in cell permeability but also relatively high cytotoxicity. In the current study, stapled peptides, a new class of stabilized α-helical peptidomimetics were adopted to enhance the cell permeability of the above lead peptides. A series of stapled peptides, which have a hydrocarbon link formed by a ruthenium-catalyzed ring-closing metathesis reaction between successive turns of α-helix, were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for biological activity. In cell-based assays some of the stapled peptides showed potent anti-HIV activity comparable with that of the original octa-arginine-containing peptide (2) but with lower cytotoxicity. Fluorescent imaging experiments revealed that these stapled peptides are significantly cell permeable, and CD analysis showed they form α-helical structures, whereas the unstapled congeners form β-sheet structures. The application of this stapling strategy to Vpr-derived IN inhibitory peptides led to a remarkable increase in their potency in cells and a significant reduction of their cytotoxicity.

  13. Peptide Paratope Mimics of the Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibody b12.

    PubMed

    Haußner, Christina; Damm, Dominik; Nirschl, Sandra; Rohrhofer, Anette; Schmidt, Barbara; Eichler, Jutta

    2017-04-04

    The broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody b12 recognizes the CD4 binding site of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and efficiently neutralizes HIV-1 infections in vitro and in vivo. Based on the 3D structure of a b12⋅gp120 complex, we have designed an assembled peptide (b12-M) that presents the parts of the three heavy-chain complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of b12, which contain the contact sites of the antibody for gp120. This b12-mimetic peptide, as well as a truncated peptide presenting only two of the three heavy-chain CDRs of b12, were shown to recognize gp120 in a similar manner to b12, as well as to inhibit HIV-1 infection, demonstrating functional mimicry of b12 by the paratope mimetic peptides. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Antiviral Breadth and Combination Potential of Peptide Triazole HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Karyn; Fletcher, Patricia; Rossi, Fiorella; Kantharaju; Umashankara, Muddagowda; Pirrone, Vanessa; Rajagopal, Srivats; Gopi, Hosahudya; Krebs, Fred C.; Martin-Garcia, Julio; Shattock, Robin J.

    2012-01-01

    The first stage of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection involves the fusion of viral and host cellular membranes mediated by viral envelope glycoprotein gp120. Inhibitors that specifically target gp120 are gaining increased attention as therapeutics or preventatives to prevent the spread of HIV-1. One promising new group of inhibitors is the peptide triazoles, which bind to gp120 and simultaneously block its interaction with both CD4 and the coreceptor. In this study, we assessed the most potent peptide triazole, HNG-156, for inhibitory breadth, cytotoxicity, and efficacy, both alone and in combination with other antiviral compounds, against HIV-1. HNG-156 inhibited a panel of 16 subtype B and C isolates of HIV-1 in a single-round infection assay. Inhibition of cell infection by replication-competent clinical isolates of HIV-1 was also observed with HNG-156. We found that HNG-156 had a greater than predicted effect when combined with several other entry inhibitors or the reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir. Overall, we find that HNG-156 is noncytotoxic, has a broad inhibition profile, and provides a positive combination with several inhibitors of the HIV-1 life cycle. These results support the pursuit of efficacy and toxicity analyses in more advanced cell and animal models to develop peptide triazole family inhibitors of HIV-1 into antagonists of HIV-1 infection. PMID:22083481

  15. Enhancement of HIV-1 Infectivity by Simple, Self-Assembling Modular Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Easterhoff, David; DiMaio, John T.M.; Doran, Todd M.; Dewhurst, Stephen; Nilsson, Bradley L.

    2011-01-01

    Semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI), an amyloid fibril formed from a cationic peptide fragment of prostatic acidic phosphatase (PAP), dramatically enhances the infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Insoluble, sedimentable fibrils contribute to SEVI-mediated enhancement of virus infection. However, the SEVI-forming PAP(248–286) peptide is able to produce infection-enhancing structures much more quickly than it forms amyloid fibrils. This suggests that soluble supramolecular assemblies may enhance HIV-1 infection. To address this question, non-SEVI amyloid-like fibrils were derived from general amphipathic peptides of sequence Ac-Kn(XKXE)2-NH2. These cationic peptides efficiently self-assembled to form soluble, fibril-like structures that were, in some cases, able to enhance HIV-1 infection even more efficiently than SEVI. Experiments were also performed to determine whether agents that efficiently shield the charged surface of SEVI fibrils block SEVI-mediated infection-enhancement. To do this, we generated self-assembling anionic peptides of sequence Ac-En(XKXE)2-NH2. One of these peptides completely abrogated SEVI-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infection, without altering HIV-1 infectivity in the absence of SEVI. Collectively, these data suggest that soluble SEVI assemblies may mediate infection-enhancement, and that anionic peptide supramolecular assemblies have the potential to act as anti-SEVI microbicides. PMID:21354406

  16. Anti-HIV-1 Activity of a New Scorpion Venom Peptide Derivative Kn2-7

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaoqing; Cao, Luyang; Zhong, Maohua; Zhang, Yan; Han, Chen; Li, Qiaoli; Yang, Jingyi; Zhou, Dihan; Shi, Wei; He, Benxia; Liu, Fang; Yu, Jie; Sun, Ying; Cao, Yuan; Li, Yaoming; Li, Wenxin; Guo, Deying; Cao, Zhijian; Yan, Huimin

    2012-01-01

    For over 30 years, HIV/AIDS has wreaked havoc in the world. In the absence of an effective vaccine for HIV, development of new anti-HIV agents is urgently needed. We previously identified the antiviral activities of the scorpion-venom-peptide-derived mucroporin-M1 for three RNA viruses (measles viruses, SARS-CoV, and H5N1). In this investigation, a panel of scorpion venom peptides and their derivatives were designed and chosen for assessment of their anti-HIV activities. A new scorpion venom peptide derivative Kn2-7 was identified as the most potent anti-HIV-1 peptide by screening assays with an EC50 value of 2.76 µg/ml (1.65 µM) and showed low cytotoxicity to host cells with a selective index (SI) of 13.93. Kn2-7 could inhibit all members of a standard reference panel of HIV-1 subtype B pseudotyped virus (PV) with CCR5-tropic and CXCR4-tropic NL4-3 PV strain. Furthermore, it also inhibited a CXCR4-tropic replication-competent strain of HIV-1 subtype B virus. Binding assay of Kn2-7 to HIV-1 PV by Octet Red system suggested the anti-HIV-1 activity was correlated with a direct interaction between Kn2-7 and HIV-1 envelope. These results demonstrated that peptide Kn2-7 could inhibit HIV-1 by direct interaction with viral particle and may become a promising candidate compound for further development of microbicide against HIV-1. PMID:22536342

  17. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by synthetic peptides derived CCR5 fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Masaki; Baranyi, Lajos; Okada, Noriko; Okada, Hidechika; E-mail: hiokada@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp

    2007-02-23

    HIV-1 infection requires interaction of viral envelope protein gp160 with CD4 and a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4 as entry coreceptor. We designed HIV-inhibitory peptides targeted to CCR5 using a novel computer program (ANTIS), which searched all possible sense-antisense amino acid pairs between proteins. Seven AHBs were found in CCR5 receptor. All AHB peptides were synthesized and tested for their ability to prevent HIV-1 infection to human T cells. A peptide fragment (LC5) which is a part of the CCR5 receptor corresponding to the loop between the fifth and sixth transmembrane regions (amino acids 222-240) proved to inhibit HIV-1{sub IIIB} infection of MT-4 cells. Interaction of these antisense peptides could be involved in sustaining HIV-1 infectivity. LC5 effectively indicated dose-dependent manner, and the suppression was enhanced additively by T20 peptide, which inhibits infection in vitro by disrupting the gp41 conformational changes necessary for membrane fusion. Thus, these results indicate that CCR5-derived AHB peptides could provide a useful tool to define the mechanism(s) of HIV infection, and may provide insight which will contribute to the development of an anti-HIV-1 reagent.

  18. Stapled HIV-1 peptides recapitulate antigenic structures and engage broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bird, Gregory H; Irimia, Adriana; Ofek, Gilad; Kwong, Peter D; Wilson, Ian A; Walensky, Loren D

    2014-12-01

    Hydrocarbon stapling can restore bioactive α-helical structure to natural peptides, yielding research tools and prototype therapeutics to dissect and target protein interactions. Here we explore the capacity of peptide stapling to generate high-fidelity, protease-resistant mimics of antigenic structures for vaccine development. HIV-1 has been refractory to vaccine technologies thus far, although select human antibodies can broadly neutralize HIV-1 by targeting sequences of the gp41 juxtamembrane fusion apparatus. To develop candidate HIV-1 immunogens, we generated and characterized stabilized α-helices of the membrane-proximal external region (SAH-MPER) of gp41. SAH-MPER peptides were remarkably protease resistant and bound to the broadly neutralizing 4E10 and 10E8 antibodies with high affinity, recapitulating the structure of the MPER epitope when differentially engaged by the two anti-HIV Fabs. Thus, stapled peptides may provide a new opportunity to develop chemically stabilized antigens for vaccination.

  19. Stapled HIV-1 Peptides Recapitulate Antigenic Structures and Engage Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Gregory H.; Irimia, Adriana; Ofek, Gilad; Kwong, Peter D.; Wilson, Ian A.; Walensky, Loren D.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrocarbon stapling can restore bioactive, α-helical structure to natural peptides, yielding research tools and prototype therapeutics to dissect and target protein interactions. Here, we explore the capacity of peptide stapling to generate high fidelity, protease-resistant mimics of antigenic structures for vaccine development. HIV-1 has been refractory to vaccine technologies thus far, although select human antibodies can broadly neutralize HIV-1 by targeting sequences of the gp41 juxtamembrane fusion apparatus. To develop candidate HIV-1 immunogens, we generated and characterized stabilized α-helices of the membrane proximal external region (SAH-MPER) of gp41. SAH-MPER peptides were remarkably protease-resistant and bound to the broadly neutralizing 4E10 and 10E8 antibodies with high affinity, recapitulating the structure of the MPER epitope when differentially engaged by the two anti-HIV Fabs. Thus, stapled peptides may provide a new opportunity to develop chemically-stabilized antigens for vaccination. PMID:25420104

  20. Development and Identification of a Novel Anti-HIV-1 Peptide Derived by Modification of the N-Terminal Domain of HIV-1 Integrase

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Marina; Spensiero, Antonia; Esposito, Francesca; Scala, Maria C.; Vernieri, Ermelinda; Bertamino, Alessia; Manfra, Michele; Carotenuto, Alfonso; Grieco, Paolo; Novellino, Ettore; Cadeddu, Marta; Tramontano, Enzo; Schols, Dominique; Campiglia, Pietro; Gomez-Monterrey, Isabel M.

    2016-01-01

    The viral enzyme integrase (IN) is essential for the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and represents an important target for the development of new antiretroviral drugs. In this study, we focused on the N-terminal domain (NTD), which is mainly involved into protein oligomerization process, for the development and synthesis of a library of overlapping peptide sequences, with specific length and specific offset covering the entire native protein sequence NTD IN 1–50. The most potent fragment, VVAKEIVAH (peptide 18), which includes a His residue instead of the natural Ser at position 39, inhibits the HIV-1 IN activity with an IC50 value of 4.5 μM. Amino acid substitution analysis on this peptide revealed essential residues for activity and allowed us to identify two nonapeptides (peptides 24 and 25), that show a potency of inhibition similar to the one of peptide 18. Interestingly, peptide 18 does not interfere with the dynamic interplay between IN subunits, while peptides 24 and 25 modulated these interactions in different manners. In fact, peptide 24 inhibited the IN-IN dimerization, while peptide 25 promoted IN multimerization, with IC50 values of 32 and 4.8 μM, respectively. In addition, peptide 25 has shown to have selective anti-infective cell activity for HIV-1. These results confirmed peptide 25 as a hit for further development of new chemotherapeutic agents against HIV-1. PMID:27375570

  1. DNA and Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vaccines Encoding Multiple Cytotoxic and Helper T-Lymphocyte Epitopes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Are Safe but Weakly Immunogenic in HIV-1-Uninfected, Vaccinia Virus-Naive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Mark J.; deCamp, Allan; Hay, Christine Mhorag; De Rosa, Stephen C.; Noonan, Elizabeth; Livingston, Brian D.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Kalams, Spyros A.; Cassis-Ghavami, Farah L.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated a DNA plasmid-vectored vaccine and a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine (MVA-mBN32), each encoding cytotoxic and helper T-lymphocyte epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in 36 HIV-1-uninfected adults using a heterologous prime-boost schedule. HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses, measured as interleukin-2 and/or gamma interferon production, were induced in 1 (4%) of 28 subjects after the first MVA-mBN32 immunization and in 3 (12%) of 25 subjects after the second MVA-mBN32 immunization. Among these responders, polyfunctional T-cell responses, including the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and perforin, were detected. Vaccinia virus-specific antibodies were induced to the MVA vector in 27 (93%) of 29 and 26 (93%) of 28 subjects after the first and second immunizations with MVA-mBN32. These peptide-based vaccines were safe but were ineffective at inducing HIV-1-specific immune responses and induced much weaker responses than MVA vaccines expressing the entire open reading frames of HIV-1 proteins. PMID:22398243

  2. DNA and modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccines encoding multiple cytotoxic and helper T-lymphocyte epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are safe but weakly immunogenic in HIV-1-uninfected, vaccinia virus-naive adults.

    PubMed

    Gorse, Geoffrey J; Newman, Mark J; deCamp, Allan; Hay, Christine Mhorag; De Rosa, Stephen C; Noonan, Elizabeth; Livingston, Brian D; Fuchs, Jonathan D; Kalams, Spyros A; Cassis-Ghavami, Farah L

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated a DNA plasmid-vectored vaccine and a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine (MVA-mBN32), each encoding cytotoxic and helper T-lymphocyte epitopes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in 36 HIV-1-uninfected adults using a heterologous prime-boost schedule. HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses, measured as interleukin-2 and/or gamma interferon production, were induced in 1 (4%) of 28 subjects after the first MVA-mBN32 immunization and in 3 (12%) of 25 subjects after the second MVA-mBN32 immunization. Among these responders, polyfunctional T-cell responses, including the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and perforin, were detected. Vaccinia virus-specific antibodies were induced to the MVA vector in 27 (93%) of 29 and 26 (93%) of 28 subjects after the first and second immunizations with MVA-mBN32. These peptide-based vaccines were safe but were ineffective at inducing HIV-1-specific immune responses and induced much weaker responses than MVA vaccines expressing the entire open reading frames of HIV-1 proteins.

  3. HIV-1 enhancing effect of prostatic acid phosphatase peptides is reduced in human seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Martellini, Julie A; Cole, Amy L; Svoboda, Pavel; Stuchlik, Olga; Chen, Li-Mei; Chai, Karl X; Gangrade, Bhushan K; Sørensen, Ole E; Pohl, Jan; Cole, Alexander M

    2011-01-20

    We recently reported that HIV-1 infection can be inhibited by innate antimicrobial components of human seminal plasma (SP). Conversely, naturally occurring peptidic fragments from the SP-derived prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) have been reported to form amyloid fibrils called "SEVI" and enhance HIV-1 infection in vitro. In order to understand the biological consequence of this proviral effect, we extended these studies in the presence of human SP. PAP-derived peptides were agitated to form SEVI and incubated in the presence or absence of SP. While PAP-derived peptides and SEVI alone were proviral, the presence of 1% SP ablated their proviral activity in several different anti-HIV-1 assays. The anti-HIV-1 activity of SP was concentration dependent and was reduced following filtration. Supraphysiological concentrations of PAP peptides and SEVI incubated with diluted SP were degraded within hours, with SP exhibiting proteolytic activity at dilutions as high as 1:200. Sub-physiological concentrations of two prominent proteases of SP, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and matriptase, could degrade physiological and supraphysiological concentrations of PAP peptides and SEVI. While human SP is a complex biological fluid, containing both antiviral and proviral factors, our results suggest that PAP peptides and SEVI may be subject to naturally occurring proteolytic components capable of reducing their proviral activity.

  4. HIV-1 Enhancing Effect of Prostatic Acid Phosphatase Peptides Is Reduced in Human Seminal Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Martellini, Julie A.; Cole, Amy L.; Svoboda, Pavel; Stuchlik, Olga; Chen, Li-Mei; Chai, Karl X.; Gangrade, Bhushan K.; Sørensen, Ole E.; Pohl, Jan; Cole, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported that HIV-1 infection can be inhibited by innate antimicrobial components of human seminal plasma (SP). Conversely, naturally occurring peptidic fragments from the SP-derived prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) have been reported to form amyloid fibrils called “SEVI” and enhance HIV-1 infection in vitro. In order to understand the biological consequence of this proviral effect, we extended these studies in the presence of human SP. PAP-derived peptides were agitated to form SEVI and incubated in the presence or absence of SP. While PAP-derived peptides and SEVI alone were proviral, the presence of 1% SP ablated their proviral activity in several different anti-HIV-1 assays. The anti-HIV-1 activity of SP was concentration dependent and was reduced following filtration. Supraphysiological concentrations of PAP peptides and SEVI incubated with diluted SP were degraded within hours, with SP exhibiting proteolytic activity at dilutions as high as 1∶200. Sub-physiological concentrations of two prominent proteases of SP, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and matriptase, could degrade physiological and supraphysiological concentrations of PAP peptides and SEVI. While human SP is a complex biological fluid, containing both antiviral and proviral factors, our results suggest that PAP peptides and SEVI may be subject to naturally occurring proteolytic components capable of reducing their proviral activity. PMID:21283773

  5. HIV-1 Fusion Is Blocked through Binding of GB Virus C E2D Peptides to the HIV-1 gp41 Disulfide Loop

    PubMed Central

    Eissmann, Kristin; Mueller, Sebastian; Sticht, Heinrich; Jung, Susan; Zou, Peng; Jiang, Shibo; Gross, Andrea; Eichler, Jutta; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Reil, Heide

    2013-01-01

    A strategy for antiviral drug discovery is the elucidation and imitation of viral interference mechanisms. HIV-1 patients benefit from a coinfection with GB Virus C (GBV-C), since HIV-positive individuals with long-term GBV-C viraemia show better survival rates than HIV-1 patients without persisting GBV-C. A direct influence of GBV-C on HIV-1 replication has been shown in coinfection experiments. GBV-C is a human non-pathogenic member of the flaviviridae family that can replicate in T and B cells. Therefore, GBV-C shares partly the same ecological niche with HIV-1. In earlier work we have demonstrated that recombinant glycoprotein E2 of GBV-C and peptides derived from the E2 N-terminus interfere with HIV entry. In this study we investigated the underlying mechanism. Performing a virus-cell fusion assay and temperature-arrested HIV-infection kinetics, we provide evidence that the HIV-inhibitory E2 peptides interfere with late HIV-1 entry steps after the engagement of gp120 with CD4 receptor and coreceptor. Binding and competition experiments revealed that the N-terminal E2 peptides bind to the disulfide loop region of HIV-1 transmembrane protein gp41. In conjunction with computational analyses, we identified sequence similarities between the N-termini of GBV-C E2 and the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120. This similarity appears to enable the GBV-C E2 N-terminus to interact with the HIV-1 gp41 disulfide loop, a crucial domain involved in the gp120-gp41 interface. Furthermore, the results of the present study provide initial proof of concept that peptides targeted to the gp41 disulfide loop are able to inhibit HIV fusion and should inspire the development of this new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors. PMID:23349893

  6. HIV-1 fusion is blocked through binding of GB Virus C E2-derived peptides to the HIV-1 gp41 disulfide loop [corrected].

    PubMed

    Eissmann, Kristin; Mueller, Sebastian; Sticht, Heinrich; Jung, Susan; Zou, Peng; Jiang, Shibo; Gross, Andrea; Eichler, Jutta; Fleckenstein, Bernhard; Reil, Heide

    2013-01-01

    A strategy for antiviral drug discovery is the elucidation and imitation of viral interference mechanisms. HIV-1 patients benefit from a coinfection with GB Virus C (GBV-C), since HIV-positive individuals with long-term GBV-C viraemia show better survival rates than HIV-1 patients without persisting GBV-C. A direct influence of GBV-C on HIV-1 replication has been shown in coinfection experiments. GBV-C is a human non-pathogenic member of the flaviviridae family that can replicate in T and B cells. Therefore, GBV-C shares partly the same ecological niche with HIV-1. In earlier work we have demonstrated that recombinant glycoprotein E2 of GBV-C and peptides derived from the E2 N-terminus interfere with HIV entry. In this study we investigated the underlying mechanism. Performing a virus-cell fusion assay and temperature-arrested HIV-infection kinetics, we provide evidence that the HIV-inhibitory E2 peptides interfere with late HIV-1 entry steps after the engagement of gp120 with CD4 receptor and coreceptor. Binding and competition experiments revealed that the N-terminal E2 peptides bind to the disulfide loop region of HIV-1 transmembrane protein gp41. In conjunction with computational analyses, we identified sequence similarities between the N-termini of GBV-C E2 and the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120. This similarity appears to enable the GBV-C E2 N-terminus to interact with the HIV-1 gp41 disulfide loop, a crucial domain involved in the gp120-gp41 interface. Furthermore, the results of the present study provide initial proof of concept that peptides targeted to the gp41 disulfide loop are able to inhibit HIV fusion and should inspire the development of this new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors.

  7. T-Tropic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)-Derived V3 Loop Peptides Directly Bind to CXCR-4 and Inhibit T-Tropic HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sakaida, Hitoshi; Hori, Toshiyuki; Yonezawa, Akihito; Sato, Akihiko; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Yoshie, Osamu; Hattori, Toshio; Uchiyama, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    Certain types of chemokine receptors have been identified as coreceptors for HIV-1 infection. The process of viral entry is initiated by the interaction between an envelope protein gp120 of HIV-1, CD4, and one of the relevant coreceptors. To understand the precise mechanism of the Env-mediated fusion and entry of HIV-1, we examined whether the V3 region of gp120 of T-cell line tropic (T-tropic) virus directly interacts with the coreceptor, CXCR-4, by using five synthetic V3 peptides: two cyclized V3 peptides (V3-BH10 and V3-ELI) which correspond to the V3 regions of the T-tropic HIV-1 IIIB and HIV-1 ELI strains, respectively, a linear V3 peptide (CTR36) corresponding to that of HIV-1 IIIB strain; and cyclized V3 peptides corresponding to that of the macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) HIV-1 ADA strain (V3-ADA) or the dualtropic HIV-1 89.6 strain (V3-89.6). FACScan analysis with a CXCR-4+ human B-cell line, JY, showed that V3-BH10, V3-ELI, and V3-89.6 but not CTR36 or V3-ADA blocked the binding of IVR7, an anti-CXCR-4 monoclonal antibody (MAb), to CXCR-4 with different magnitudes in a dose-dependent manner, while none of the V3 peptides influenced binding of an anti-CD19 MAb at all. Next, the effects of the V3 peptides on SDF-1β-induced transient increases in intracellular Ca2+ were investigated. Three V3 peptides (V3-BH10, V3-ELI, and V3-89.6) prevented Ca2+ mobilization. Furthermore, the three peptides inhibited infection by T-tropic HIV-1 in a dose-dependent manner as revealed by an MTT assay and a reverse transcriptase assay, while the other peptides had no effects. These results present direct evidence that the V3 loop of gp120 of T-tropic HIV-1 can interact with its coreceptor CXCR-4 independently of the V1/V2 regions of gp120 or cellular CD4. PMID:9811711

  8. Mechanism of multivalent nanoparticle encounter with HIV-1 for potency enhancement of peptide triazole virus inactivation.

    PubMed

    Rosemary Bastian, Arangassery; Nangarlia, Aakansha; Bailey, Lauren D; Holmes, Andrew; Kalyana Sundaram, R Venkat; Ang, Charles; Moreira, Diogo R M; Freedman, Kevin; Duffy, Caitlin; Contarino, Mark; Abrams, Cameron; Root, Michael; Chaiken, Irwin

    2015-01-02

    Entry of HIV-1 into host cells remains a compelling yet elusive target for developing agents to prevent infection. A peptide triazole (PT) class of entry inhibitor has previously been shown to bind to HIV-1 gp120, suppress interactions of the Env protein at host cell receptor binding sites, inhibit cell infection, and cause envelope spike protein breakdown, including gp120 shedding and, for some variants, virus membrane lysis. We found that gold nanoparticle-conjugated forms of peptide triazoles (AuNP-PT) exhibit substantially more potent antiviral effects against HIV-1 than corresponding peptide triazoles alone. Here, we sought to reveal the mechanism of potency enhancement underlying nanoparticle conjugate function. We found that altering the physical properties of the nanoparticle conjugate, by increasing the AuNP diameter and/or the density of PT conjugated on the AuNP surface, enhanced potency of infection inhibition to impressive picomolar levels. Further, compared with unconjugated PT, AuNP-PT was less susceptible to reduction of antiviral potency when the density of PT-competent Env spikes on the virus was reduced by incorporating a peptide-resistant mutant gp120. We conclude that potency enhancement of virolytic activity and corresponding irreversible HIV-1 inactivation of PTs upon AuNP conjugation derives from multivalent contact between the nanoconjugates and metastable Env spikes on the HIV-1 virus. The findings reveal that multispike engagement can exploit the metastability built into virus the envelope to irreversibly inactivate HIV-1 and provide a conceptual platform to design nanoparticle-based antiviral agents for HIV-1 specifically and putatively for metastable enveloped viruses generally.

  9. Selection of Peptide Mimics of HIV-1 Epitope Recognized by Neutralizing Antibody VRC01

    PubMed Central

    Chikaev, Anton N.; Bakulina, Anastasiya Yu.; Burdick, Ryan C.; Karpenko, Larisa I.; Pathak, Vinay K.; Ilyichev, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to induce anti-HIV-1 antibodies that can neutralize a broad spectrum of viral isolates from different subtypes seems to be a key requirement for development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. The epitopes recognized by the most potent broadly neutralizing antibodies that have been characterized are largely discontinuous. Mimetics of such conformational epitopes could be potentially used as components of a synthetic immunogen that can elicit neutralizing antibodies. Here we used phage display technology to identify peptide motifs that mimic the epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody VRC01, which is able to neutralize up to 91% of circulating primary isolates. Three rounds of biopanning were performed against 2 different phage peptide libraries for this purpose. The binding specificity of selected phage clones to monoclonal antibody VRC01 was estimated using dot blot analysis. The putative peptide mimics exposed on the surface of selected phages were analyzed for conformational and linear homology to the surface of HIV-1 gp120 fragment using computational analysis. Corresponding peptides were synthesized and checked for their ability to interfere with neutralization activity of VRC01 in a competitive inhibition assay. One of the most common peptides selected from 12-mer phage library was found to partially mimic a CD4-binding loop fragment, whereas none of the circular C7C-mer peptides was able to mimic any HIV-1 domains. However, peptides identified from both the 12-mer and C7C-mer peptide libraries showed rescue of HIV-1 infectivity in the competitive inhibition assay. The identification of epitope mimics may lead to novel immunogens capable of inducing broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies. PMID:25785734

  10. HIV-1 Drug Discovery: Targeting Folded RNA Structures With Branched Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is an RNA virus that is prone to high rates of mutation. While the disease is managed with current antiretroviral therapies, drugs with a new mode of action are needed. A strategy towards this goal is aimed at targeting the native three-dimensional fold of conserved RNA structures. This perspective highlights medium-sized peptides and peptidomimetics used to target two conserved RNA structures of HIV-1. In particular, branched peptides have the capacity to bind in a multivalent fashion, utilizing a large surface area to achieve the necessary affinity and selectivity toward the target RNA. PMID:25958855

  11. Design, synthesis and activity evaluation of novel peptide fusion inhibitors targeting HIV-1 gp41.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianjun; Su, Min; Zeng, Yi; Wang, Cunxin

    2016-01-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the pathogen of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), causes about 2 million people to death every year. Fusion inhibitors targeted the envelope protein (gp41) represent a novel and alternative approach for anti-AIDS therapy, which terminates the HIV-1 life cycle at an early stage. Using CP621-652 as a template, a series of peptides were designed, synthesized and evaluated in vitro assays. An interesting phenomenon was found that the substitution of hydrophobic residues at solvent accessible sites could increase the anti-HIV activity when the C-terminal sequence was extended with an enough numbers of amino acids. After the active peptides was synthesized and evaluated, peptide 8 showed the best anti-HIV-1 IIIB whole cell activity (MAGI IC50=53.02 nM). Further study indicated that peptide 8 bound with the gp41 NHR helix, and then blocked the conformation of 6-helix, thus inhibited virus-cell membrane fusion. The results would be helpful for the design of peptide fusion inhibitors against HIV-1 infection.

  12. Viroporin potential of the lentivirus lytic peptide (LLP) domains of the HIV-1 gp41 protein

    PubMed Central

    Costin, Joshua M; Rausch, Joshua M; Garry, Robert F; Wimley, William C

    2007-01-01

    Background Mechanisms by which HIV-1 mediates reductions in CD4+ cell levels in infected persons are being intensely investigated, and have broad implications for AIDS drug and vaccine development. Virally induced changes in membrane ionic permeability induced by lytic viruses of many families contribute to cytopathogenesis. HIV-1 induces disturbances in plasma membrane ion transport. The carboxyl terminus of TM (gp41) contains potential amphipathic α-helical motifs identified through their structural similarities to naturally occurring cytolytic peptides. These sequences have been dubbed lentiviral lytic peptides (LLP) -1, -2, and -3. Results Peptides corresponding to the LLP domains (from a clade B virus) partition into lipid membranes, fold into α-helices and disrupt model membrane permeability. A peptide corresponding to the LLP-1 domain of a clade D HIV-1 virus, LLP-1D displayed similar activity to the LLP-1 domain of the clade B virus in all assays, despite a lack of amino acid sequence identity. Conclusion These results suggest that the C-terminal domains of HIV-1 Env proteins may form an ion channel, or viroporin. Increased understanding of the function of LLP domains and their role in the viral replication cycle could allow for the development of novel HIV drugs. PMID:18028545

  13. Collection of phage-peptide probes for HIV-1 immunodominant loop-epitope.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Rodríguez, Yadira; Gazarian, Tatiana; Rowley, Merrill; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Gazarian, Karlen

    2007-02-01

    Early diagnosis and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection, which remains a serious public health threat, is inhibited by the lack of reagents that elicit antiviral responses in the immune system. To create mimotopes (peptide models of epitopes) of the most immunodominant epitope, CSGKLIC, that occurs as a loop on the envelope gp41 glycoprotein and is a key participant in infection, we used phage-display technology involving biopanning of large random libraries with IgG of HIV-1-infected patients. Under the conditions used, library screening with IgG from patient serum was directed to the CSGKLIC epitope. Three rounds of selection converted a 12 mer library of 10(9) sequences into a population in which up to 79% of phage bore a family of CxxKxxC sequences ("x" designates a non-epitope amino acid). Twenty-one phage clones displaying the most frequently selected peptides were obtained and were shown to display the principal structural (sequence and conformational), antigenic and immunogenic features of the HIV-1 immunodominant loop-epitope. Notably, when the mixture of the phage mimotopes was injected into mice, it induced 2- to 3-fold higher titers of antibody to the HIV-1 epitope than could be induced from individual mimotopes. The described approach could be applicable for accurately reproducing HIV-1 epitope structural and immunological patterns by generation of specialized viral epitope libraries for use in diagnosis and therapy.

  14. Synthesis of N-glyoxylyl peptides and their in vitro evaluation as HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Qasmi, D; de Rosny, E; René, L; Badet, B; Vergely, I; Boggetto, N; Reboud-Ravaux, M

    1997-04-01

    A series of novel synthetic peptides containing an N-terminal glyoxylyl function (CHOCO-) have been tested as inhibitors of HIV-1 protease. The N-glyoxylyl peptide CHOCO-Pro-Ile-Val-NH2, which fulfills the specificity requirements of the MA/CA protease cleavage site together with the criteria of transition state analogue of the catalyzed reaction, was found to be a moderate competitive inhibitor although favorable interactions were visualized between its hydrated form and the catalytic aspartates using molecular modeling. Increasing the length of the peptide sequence led to compounds acting only as substrates.

  15. Fusion peptide of HIV-1 as a site of vulnerability to neutralizing antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Rui; Xu, Kai; Zhou, Tongqing; Acharya, Priyamvada; Lemmin, Thomas; Liu, Kevin; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Taft, Justin D.; Bailer, Robert T.; Cale, Evan M.; Chen, Lei; Choi, Chang W.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Gorman, Jason; Huang, Jinghe; Joyce, M. Gordon; Louder, Mark K.; Ma, Xiaochu; McKee, Krisha; O'Dell, Sijy; Pancera, Marie; Yang, Yongping; Blanchard, Scott C.; Mothes, Walther; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Connors, Mark; Ward, Andrew B.; Mascola, John R.

    2016-05-13

    The HIV-1 fusion peptide, comprising 15 to 20 hydrophobic residues at the N terminus of the Env-gp41 subunit, is a critical component of the virus-cell entry machinery. In this paper, we report the identification of a neutralizing antibody, N123-VRC34.01, which targets the fusion peptide and blocks viral entry by inhibiting conformational changes in gp120 and gp41 subunits of Env required for entry. Crystal structures of N123-VRC34.01 liganded to the fusion peptide, and to the full Env trimer, revealed an epitope consisting of the N-terminal eight residues of the gp41 fusion peptide and glycan N88 of gp120, and molecular dynamics showed that the N-terminal portion of the fusion peptide can be solvent-exposed. Finally, these results reveal the fusion peptide to be a neutralizing antibody epitope and thus a target for vaccine design.

  16. Fusion peptide of HIV-1 as a site of vulnerability to neutralizing antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Rui; Xu, Kai; Zhou, Tongqing; Acharya, Priyamvada; Lemmin, Thomas; Liu, Kevin; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Taft, Justin D.; Bailer, Robert T.; Cale, Evan M.; Chen, Lei; Choi, Chang W.; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Doria-Rose, Nicole A.; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Gorman, Jason; Huang, Jinghe; Joyce, M. Gordon; Louder, Mark K.; Ma, Xiaochu; McKee, Krisha; O'Dell, Sijy; Pancera, Marie; Yang, Yongping; Blanchard, Scott C.; Mothes, Walther; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.; Connors, Mark; Ward, Andrew B.; Mascola, John R.

    2016-05-13

    The HIV-1 fusion peptide, comprising 15 to 20 hydrophobic residues at the N terminus of the Env-gp41 subunit, is a critical component of the virus-cell entry machinery. In this paper, we report the identification of a neutralizing antibody, N123-VRC34.01, which targets the fusion peptide and blocks viral entry by inhibiting conformational changes in gp120 and gp41 subunits of Env required for entry. Crystal structures of N123-VRC34.01 liganded to the fusion peptide, and to the full Env trimer, revealed an epitope consisting of the N-terminal eight residues of the gp41 fusion peptide and glycan N88 of gp120, and molecular dynamics showed that the N-terminal portion of the fusion peptide can be solvent-exposed. Finally, these results reveal the fusion peptide to be a neutralizing antibody epitope and thus a target for vaccine design.

  17. A Truncated Nef Peptide from SIVcpz Inhibits the Production of HIV-1 Infectious Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Sabino Cunha, Marcela; Lima Sampaio, Thatiane; Peterlin, B. Matija; Jesus da Costa, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Nef proteins from all primate Lentiviruses, including the simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz), increase viral progeny infectivity. However, the function of Nef involved with the increase in viral infectivity is still not completely understood. Nonetheless, until now, studies investigating the functions of Nef from SIVcpz have been conducted in the context of the HIV-1 proviruses. In an attempt to investigate the role played by Nef during the replication cycle of an SIVcpz, a Nef-defective derivative was obtained from the SIVcpzWTGab2 clone by introducing a frame shift mutation at a unique restriction site within the nef sequence. This nef-deleted clone expresses an N-terminal 74-amino acid truncated peptide of Nef and was named SIVcpz-tNef. We found that the SIVcpz-tNef does not behave as a classic nef-deleted HIV-1 or simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques SIVmac. Markedly, SIVcpz-tNef progeny from both Hek-293T and Molt producer cells were completely non-infectious. Moreover, the loss in infectivity of SIVcpz-tNef correlated with the inhibition of Gag and GagPol processing. A marked accumulation of Gag and very low levels of reverse transcriptase were detected in viral lysates. Furthermore, these observations were reproduced once the tNef peptide was expressed in trans both in SIVcpzΔNef and HIV-1WT expressing cells, demonstrating that the truncated peptide is a dominant negative for viral processing and infectivity for both SIVcpz and HIV-1. We demonstrated that the truncated Nef peptide binds to GagPol outside the protease region and by doing so probably blocks processing of both GagPol and Gag precursors at a very early stage. This study demonstrates for the first time that naturally-occurring Nef peptides can potently block lentiviral processing and infectivity. PMID:27399760

  18. Bacterial expression, correct membrane targeting and functional folding of the HIV-1 membrane protein Vpu using a periplasmic signal peptide.

    PubMed

    Deb, Arpan; Johnson, William A; Kline, Alexander P; Scott, Boston J; Meador, Lydia R; Srinivas, Dustin; Martin-Garcia, Jose M; Dörner, Katerina; Borges, Chad R; Misra, Rajeev; Hogue, Brenda G; Fromme, Petra; Mor, Tsafrir S

    2017-01-01

    Viral protein U (Vpu) is a type-III integral membrane protein encoded by Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV- 1). It is expressed in infected host cells and plays several roles in viral progeny escape from infected cells, including down-regulation of CD4 receptors. But key structure/function questions remain regarding the mechanisms by which the Vpu protein contributes to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Here we describe expression of Vpu in bacteria, its purification and characterization. We report the successful expression of PelB-Vpu in Escherichia coli using the leader peptide pectate lyase B (PelB) from Erwinia carotovora. The protein was detergent extractable and could be isolated in a very pure form. We demonstrate that the PelB signal peptide successfully targets Vpu to the cell membranes and inserts it as a type I membrane protein. PelB-Vpu was biophysically characterized by circular dichroism and dynamic light scattering experiments and was shown to be an excellent candidate for elucidating structural models.

  19. Bacterial expression, correct membrane targeting and functional folding of the HIV-1 membrane protein Vpu using a periplasmic signal peptide

    PubMed Central

    Deb, Arpan; Johnson, William A.; Kline, Alexander P.; Scott, Boston J.; Meador, Lydia R.; Srinivas, Dustin; Martin-Garcia, Jose M.; Dörner, Katerina; Borges, Chad R.; Misra, Rajeev; Hogue, Brenda G.; Fromme, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Viral protein U (Vpu) is a type-III integral membrane protein encoded by Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV- 1). It is expressed in infected host cells and plays several roles in viral progeny escape from infected cells, including down-regulation of CD4 receptors. But key structure/function questions remain regarding the mechanisms by which the Vpu protein contributes to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Here we describe expression of Vpu in bacteria, its purification and characterization. We report the successful expression of PelB-Vpu in Escherichia coli using the leader peptide pectate lyase B (PelB) from Erwinia carotovora. The protein was detergent extractable and could be isolated in a very pure form. We demonstrate that the PelB signal peptide successfully targets Vpu to the cell membranes and inserts it as a type I membrane protein. PelB-Vpu was biophysically characterized by circular dichroism and dynamic light scattering experiments and was shown to be an excellent candidate for elucidating structural models. PMID:28225803

  20. Antibody recognition of synthetic peptides mimicking immunodominant regions of HIV-1 p24 and p17 proteins.

    PubMed

    Lottersberger, J; Salvetti, J L; Beltramini, L M; Tonarelli, G

    2004-01-01

    The gag gene of HIV-1 encodes a single open reading frame of 55 kDa that contains three subdomains: the matrix domain (p17), the capsid domain (p24) and the nucleocapsid domain (p15). The p24 and p17 proteins have a predominant alpha-helical structure and perform important functions throughout the viral life-cycle. The determination of gag-specific antibodies is important because declining titers of these antibodies herald clinical deterioration. In this work we present the results obtained on immunoreactiviy of synthetic peptides that mimic immunogenic alpha-helical regions of p24 and p17. The influence on the immunoreactivity of structural modifications in native sequences, including the addition of non immunogenic side chains: AAAC- and -CAAA on both side of minimal epitopes was evaluated in indirect and competitive enzyme immunoassays. The conformational characteristcs to the peptides were analysed by circular dichroism and these results were correlated with that obtained in the immunoassays. It was shown that the reactivity of peptides mimicking short alpha-helical regions of p24 and p17 is improved by adding short non immunogenic chains on both N- and C-terminus. These modifications enhanced the immobilization of the peptides onto the solid support and allowed more accessibility to the minimal epitopes by specific antibodies, in solution.

  1. A Peptide Derived from the HIV-1 gp120 Coreceptor-Binding Region Promotes Formation of PAP248-286 Amyloid Fibrils to Enhance HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinquan; Ren, Ruxia; Tan, Suiyi; Zhang, Wanyue; Zhang, Xuanxuan; Yu, Fei; Xun, Tianrong; Jiang, Shibo; Liu, Shuwen; Li, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background Semen is a major vehicle for HIV transmission. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) fragments, such as PAP248-286, in human semen can form amyloid fibrils to enhance HIV infection. Other endogenous or exogenous factors present during sexual intercourse have also been reported to promote the formation of seminal amyloid fibrils. Methodology and Principal Findings Here, we demonstrated that a synthetic 15-residue peptide derived from the HIV-1 gp120 coreceptor-binding region, designated enhancing peptide 2 (EP2), can rapidly self-assemble into nanofibers. These EP2-derivated nanofibers promptly accelerated the formation of semen amyloid fibrils by PAP248-286, as shown by Thioflavin T (ThT) and Congo red assays. The amyloid fibrils presented similar morphology, assessed via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in the presence or absence of EP2. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy revealed that EP2 accelerates PAP248-286 amyloid fibril formation by promoting the structural transition of PAP248-286 from a random coil into a cross-β-sheet. Newly formed semen amyloid fibrils effectively enhanced HIV-1 infection in TZM-bl cells and U87 cells by promoting the binding of HIV-1 virions to target cells. Conclusions and Significance Nanofibers composed of EP2 promote the formation of PAP248-286 amyloid fibrils and enhance HIV-1 infection. PMID:26656730

  2. Peptides derived from the HIV-1 integrase promote HIV-1 infection and multi-integration of viral cDNA in LEDGF/p75-knockdown cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The presence of the cellular Lens Epithelium Derived Growth Factor p75 (LEDGF/p75) protein is essential for integration of the Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) cDNA and for efficient virus production. In the absence of LEDGF/p75 very little integration and virus production can be detected, as was demonstrated using LEDGF/p75-knokdown cells. Results Here we show that the failure to infect LEDGF/p75-knockdown cells has another reason aside from the lack of LEDGF/p75. It is also due to inhibition of the viral integrase (IN) enzymatic activity by an early expressed viral Rev protein. The formation of an inhibitory Rev-IN complex in virus-infected cells can be disrupted by the addition of three IN-derived, cell-permeable peptides, designated INr (IN derived-Rev interacting peptides) and INS (IN derived-integrase stimulatory peptide). The results of the present work confirm previous results showing that HIV-1 fails to infect LEDGF/p75-knockdown cells. However, in the presence of INrs and INS peptides, relatively high levels of viral cDNA integration as well as productive virus infection were obtained following infection by a wild type (WT) HIV-1 of LEDGF/p75-knockdown cells. Conclusions It appears that the lack of integration observed in HIV-1 infected LEDGF/p75-knockdown cells is due mainly to the inhibitory effect of Rev following the formation of a Rev-IN complex. Disruption of this inhibitory complex leads to productive infection in those cells. PMID:20678206

  3. Database-Guided Discovery of Potent Peptides to Combat HIV-1 or Superbugs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangshun

    2013-05-27

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), small host defense proteins, are indispensable for the protection of multicellular organisms such as plants and animals from infection. The number of AMPs discovered per year increased steadily since the 1980s. Over 2,000 natural AMPs from bacteria, protozoa, fungi, plants, and animals have been registered into the antimicrobial peptide database (APD). The majority of these AMPs (>86%) possess 11-50 amino acids with a net charge from 0 to +7 and hydrophobic percentages between 31-70%. This article summarizes peptide discovery on the basis of the APD. The major methods are the linguistic model, database screening, de novo design, and template-based design. Using these methods, we identified various potent peptides against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). While the stepwise designed anti-HIV peptide is disulfide-linked and rich in arginines, the ab initio designed anti-MRSA peptide is linear and rich in leucines. Thus, there are different requirements for antiviral and antibacterial peptides, which could kill pathogens via different molecular targets. The biased amino acid composition in the database-designed peptides, or natural peptides such as θ-defensins, requires the use of the improved two-dimensional NMR method for structural determination to avoid the publication of misleading structure and dynamics. In the case of human cathelicidin LL-37, structural determination requires 3D NMR techniques. The high-quality structure of LL-37 provides a solid basis for understanding its interactions with membranes of bacteria and other pathogens. In conclusion, the APD database is a comprehensive platform for storing, classifying, searching, predicting, and designing potent peptides against pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and cancer cells.

  4. Database-Guided Discovery of Potent Peptides to Combat HIV-1 or Superbugs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangshun

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), small host defense proteins, are indispensable for the protection of multicellular organisms such as plants and animals from infection. The number of AMPs discovered per year increased steadily since the 1980s. Over 2,000 natural AMPs from bacteria, protozoa, fungi, plants, and animals have been registered into the antimicrobial peptide database (APD). The majority of these AMPs (>86%) possess 11–50 amino acids with a net charge from 0 to +7 and hydrophobic percentages between 31–70%. This article summarizes peptide discovery on the basis of the APD. The major methods are the linguistic model, database screening, de novo design, and template-based design. Using these methods, we identified various potent peptides against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). While the stepwise designed anti-HIV peptide is disulfide-linked and rich in arginines, the ab initio designed anti-MRSA peptide is linear and rich in leucines. Thus, there are different requirements for antiviral and antibacterial peptides, which could kill pathogens via different molecular targets. The biased amino acid composition in the database-designed peptides, or natural peptides such as θ-defensins, requires the use of the improved two-dimensional NMR method for structural determination to avoid the publication of misleading structure and dynamics. In the case of human cathelicidin LL-37, structural determination requires 3D NMR techniques. The high-quality structure of LL-37 provides a solid basis for understanding its interactions with membranes of bacteria and other pathogens. In conclusion, the APD database is a comprehensive platform for storing, classifying, searching, predicting, and designing potent peptides against pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and cancer cells. PMID:24276259

  5. Fusion peptide of HIV-1 as a site of vulnerability to neutralizing antibody

    DOE PAGES

    Kong, Rui; Xu, Kai; Zhou, Tongqing; ...

    2016-05-13

    The HIV-1 fusion peptide, comprising 15 to 20 hydrophobic residues at the N terminus of the Env-gp41 subunit, is a critical component of the virus-cell entry machinery. In this paper, we report the identification of a neutralizing antibody, N123-VRC34.01, which targets the fusion peptide and blocks viral entry by inhibiting conformational changes in gp120 and gp41 subunits of Env required for entry. Crystal structures of N123-VRC34.01 liganded to the fusion peptide, and to the full Env trimer, revealed an epitope consisting of the N-terminal eight residues of the gp41 fusion peptide and glycan N88 of gp120, and molecular dynamics showedmore » that the N-terminal portion of the fusion peptide can be solvent-exposed. Finally, these results reveal the fusion peptide to be a neutralizing antibody epitope and thus a target for vaccine design.« less

  6. The Major Genetic Determinants of HIV-1 Control Affect HLA Class I Peptide Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Walker, Bruce D.; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J.; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J.; Pulit, Sara L.; Telenti, Amalio; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Heckerman, David; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Pereyra, Florencia; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Graham, Robert R.; Plenge, Robert M.; Deeks, Steven G.; Walker, Bruce D.; Gianniny, Lauren; Crawford, Gabriel; Sullivan, Jordan; Gonzalez, Elena; Davies, Leela; Camargo, Amy; Moore, Jamie M.; Beattie, Nicole; Gupta, Supriya; Crenshaw, Andrew; Burtt, Noël P.; Guiducci, Candace; Gupta, Namrata; Carrington, Mary; Gao, Xiaojiang; Qi, Ying; Yuki, Yuko; Pereyra, Florencia; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Cutrell, Emily; Rosenberg, Rachel; Moss, Kristin L.; Lemay, Paul; O’Leary, Jessica; Schaefer, Todd; Verma, Pranshu; Toth, Ildiko; Block, Brian; Baker, Brett; Rothchild, Alissa; Lian, Jeffrey; Proudfoot, Jacqueline; Alvino, Donna Marie L.; Vine, Seanna; Addo, Marylyn M.; Allen, Todd M.; Altfeld, Marcus; Henn, Matthew R.; Le Gall, Sylvie; Streeck, Hendrik; Walker, Bruce D.; Haas, David W.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Shafer, Robert W.; Gulick, Roy M.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Haubrich, Richard; Riddler, Sharon; Sax, Paul E.; Daar, Eric S.; Ribaudo, Heather J.; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Ahern, Richard L.; Allen, Brady L.; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric L.; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Anderson, Val; Andrady, Ushan; Antoniskis, Diana; Bangsberg, David; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrie, William; Bartczak, J.; Barton, Simon; Basden, Patricia; Basgoz, Nesli; Bazner, Suzane; Bellos, Nicholaos C.; Benson, Anne M.; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Nicole F.; Bernard, Annette M.; Birch, Christopher; Bodner, Stanley J.; Bolan, Robert K.; Boudreaux, Emilie T.; Bradley, Meg; Braun, James F.; Brndjar, Jon E.; Brown, Stephen J.; Brown, Katherine; Brown, Sheldon T.; Burack, Jedidiah; Bush, Larry M.; Cafaro, Virginia; Campbell, Omobolaji; Campbell, John; Carlson, Robert H.; Carmichael, J. Kevin; Casey, Kathleen K.; Cavacuiti, Chris; Celestin, Gregory; Chambers, Steven T.; Chez, Nancy; Chirch, Lisa M.; Cimoch, Paul J.; Cohen, Daniel; Cohn, Lillian E.; Conway, Brian; Cooper, David A.; Cornelson, Brian; Cox, David T.; Cristofano, Michael V.; Cuchural, George; Czartoski, Julie L.; Dahman, Joseph M.; Daly, Jennifer S.; Davis, Benjamin T.; Davis, Kristine; Davod, Sheila M.; Deeks, Steven G.; DeJesus, Edwin; Dietz, Craig A.; Dunham, Eleanor; Dunn, Michael E.; Ellerin, Todd B.; Eron, Joseph J.; Fangman, John J.W.; Farel, Claire E.; Ferlazzo, Helen; Fidler, Sarah; Fleenor-Ford, Anita; Frankel, Renee; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; French, Neel K.; Fuchs, Jonathan D.; Fuller, Jon D.; Gaberman, Jonna; Gallant, Joel E.; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Garcia, Efrain; Garmon, Donald; Gathe, Joseph C.; Gaultier, Cyril R.; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Gilman, Frank D.; Gilson, Ian; Goepfert, Paul A.; Gottlieb, Michael S.; Goulston, Claudia; Groger, Richard K.; Gurley, T. Douglas; Haber, Stuart; Hardwicke, Robin; Hardy, W. David; Harrigan, P. Richard; Hawkins, Trevor N.; Heath, Sonya; Hecht, Frederick M.; Henry, W. Keith; Hladek, Melissa; Hoffman, Robert P.; Horton, James M.; Hsu, Ricky K.; Huhn, Gregory D.; Hunt, Peter; Hupert, Mark J.; Illeman, Mark L.; Jaeger, Hans; Jellinger, Robert M.; John, Mina; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Kristin L.; Johnson, Heather; Johnson, Kay; Joly, Jennifer; Jordan, Wilbert C.; Kauffman, Carol A.; Khanlou, Homayoon; Killian, Robert K.; Kim, Arthur Y.; Kim, David D.; Kinder, Clifford A.; Kirchner, Jeffrey T.; Kogelman, Laura; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Korthuis, P. Todd; Kurisu, Wayne; Kwon, Douglas S.; LaMar, Melissa; Lampiris, Harry; Lanzafame, Massimiliano; Lederman, Michael M.; Lee, David M.; Lee, Jean M.L.; Lee, Marah J.; Lee, Edward T.Y.; Lemoine, Janice; Levy, Jay A.; Llibre, Josep M.; Liguori, Michael A.; Little, Susan J.; Liu, Anne Y.; Lopez, Alvaro J.; Loutfy, Mono R.; Loy, Dawn; Mohammed, Debbie Y.; Man, Alan; Mansour, Michael K.; Marconi, Vincent C.; Markowitz, Martin; Marques, Rui; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Martin, Harold L.; Mayer, Kenneth Hugh; McElrath, M. Juliana; McGhee, Theresa A.; McGovern, Barbara H.; McGowan, Katherine; McIntyre, Dawn; Mcleod, Gavin X.; Menezes, Prema; Mesa, Greg; Metroka, Craig E.; Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Miller, Andy O.; Montgomery, Kate; Mounzer, Karam C.; Nagami, Ellen H.; Nagin, Iris; Nahass, Ronald G.; Nelson, Margret O.; Nielsen, Craig; Norene, David L.; O’Connor, David H.; Ojikutu, Bisola O.; Okulicz, Jason; Oladehin, Olakunle O.; Oldfield, Edward C.; Olender, Susan A.; Ostrowski, Mario; Owen, William F.; Pae, Eunice; Parsonnet, Jeffrey; Pavlatos, Andrew M.; Perlmutter, Aaron M.; Pierce, Michael N.; Pincus, Jonathan M.; Pisani, Leandro; Price, Lawrence Jay; Proia, Laurie; Prokesch, Richard C.; Pujet, Heather Calderon; Ramgopal, Moti; Rathod, Almas; Rausch, Michael; Ravishankar, J.; Rhame, Frank S.; Richards, Constance Shamuyarira; Richman, Douglas D.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Rodes, Berta; Rodriguez, Milagros; Rose, Richard C.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Rosenthal, Daniel; Ross, Polly E.; Rubin, David S.; Rumbaugh, Elease; Saenz, Luis; Salvaggio, Michelle R.; Sanchez, William C.; Sanjana, Veeraf M.; Santiago, Steven; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sestak, Philip M.; Shalit, Peter; Shay, William; Shirvani, Vivian N.; Silebi, Vanessa I.; Sizemore, James M.; Skolnik, Paul R.; Sokol-Anderson, Marcia; Sosman, James M.; Stabile, Paul; Stapleton, Jack T.; Starrett, Sheree; Stein, Francine; Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen; Sterman, F. Lisa; Stone, Valerie E.; Stone, David R.; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Taplitz, Randy A.; Tedaldi, Ellen M.; Telenti, Amalio; Theisen, William; Torres, Richard; Tosiello, Lorraine; Tremblay, Cecile; Tribble, Marc A.; Trinh, Phuong D.; Tsao, Alice; Ueda, Peggy; Vaccaro, Anthony; Valadas, Emilia; Vanig, Thanes J.; Vecino, Isabel; Vega, Vilma M.; Veikley, Wenoah; Wade, Barbara H.; Walworth, Charles; Wanidworanun, Chingchai; Ward, Douglas J.; Warner, Daniel A.; Weber, Robert D.; Webster, Duncan; Weis, Steve; Wheeler, David A.; White, David J.; Wilkins, Ed; Winston, Alan; Wlodaver, Clifford G.; Wout, Angelique van’t; Wright, David P.; Yang, Otto O.; Yurdin, David L.; Zabukovic, Brandon W.; Zachary, Kimon C.; Zeeman, Beth; Zhao, Meng

    2011-01-01

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA–viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection. PMID:21051598

  7. The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation.

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Florencia; Jia, Xiaoming; McLaren, Paul J; Telenti, Amalio; de Bakker, Paul I W; Walker, Bruce D; Ripke, Stephan; Brumme, Chanson J; Pulit, Sara L; Carrington, Mary; Kadie, Carl M; Carlson, Jonathan M; Heckerman, David; Graham, Robert R; Plenge, Robert M; Deeks, Steven G; Gianniny, Lauren; Crawford, Gabriel; Sullivan, Jordan; Gonzalez, Elena; Davies, Leela; Camargo, Amy; Moore, Jamie M; Beattie, Nicole; Gupta, Supriya; Crenshaw, Andrew; Burtt, Noël P; Guiducci, Candace; Gupta, Namrata; Gao, Xiaojiang; Qi, Ying; Yuki, Yuko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Cutrell, Emily; Rosenberg, Rachel; Moss, Kristin L; Lemay, Paul; O'Leary, Jessica; Schaefer, Todd; Verma, Pranshu; Toth, Ildiko; Block, Brian; Baker, Brett; Rothchild, Alissa; Lian, Jeffrey; Proudfoot, Jacqueline; Alvino, Donna Marie L; Vine, Seanna; Addo, Marylyn M; Allen, Todd M; Altfeld, Marcus; Henn, Matthew R; Le Gall, Sylvie; Streeck, Hendrik; Haas, David W; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Robbins, Gregory K; Shafer, Robert W; Gulick, Roy M; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Haubrich, Richard; Riddler, Sharon; Sax, Paul E; Daar, Eric S; Ribaudo, Heather J; Agan, Brian; Agarwal, Shanu; Ahern, Richard L; Allen, Brady L; Altidor, Sherly; Altschuler, Eric L; Ambardar, Sujata; Anastos, Kathryn; Anderson, Ben; Anderson, Val; Andrady, Ushan; Antoniskis, Diana; Bangsberg, David; Barbaro, Daniel; Barrie, William; Bartczak, J; Barton, Simon; Basden, Patricia; Basgoz, Nesli; Bazner, Suzane; Bellos, Nicholaos C; Benson, Anne M; Berger, Judith; Bernard, Nicole F; Bernard, Annette M; Birch, Christopher; Bodner, Stanley J; Bolan, Robert K; Boudreaux, Emilie T; Bradley, Meg; Braun, James F; Brndjar, Jon E; Brown, Stephen J; Brown, Katherine; Brown, Sheldon T; Burack, Jedidiah; Bush, Larry M; Cafaro, Virginia; Campbell, Omobolaji; Campbell, John; Carlson, Robert H; Carmichael, J Kevin; Casey, Kathleen K; Cavacuiti, Chris; Celestin, Gregory; Chambers, Steven T; Chez, Nancy; Chirch, Lisa M; Cimoch, Paul J; Cohen, Daniel; Cohn, Lillian E; Conway, Brian; Cooper, David A; Cornelson, Brian; Cox, David T; Cristofano, Michael V; Cuchural, George; Czartoski, Julie L; Dahman, Joseph M; Daly, Jennifer S; Davis, Benjamin T; Davis, Kristine; Davod, Sheila M; DeJesus, Edwin; Dietz, Craig A; Dunham, Eleanor; Dunn, Michael E; Ellerin, Todd B; Eron, Joseph J; Fangman, John J W; Farel, Claire E; Ferlazzo, Helen; Fidler, Sarah; Fleenor-Ford, Anita; Frankel, Renee; Freedberg, Kenneth A; French, Neel K; Fuchs, Jonathan D; Fuller, Jon D; Gaberman, Jonna; Gallant, Joel E; Gandhi, Rajesh T; Garcia, Efrain; Garmon, Donald; Gathe, Joseph C; Gaultier, Cyril R; Gebre, Wondwoosen; Gilman, Frank D; Gilson, Ian; Goepfert, Paul A; Gottlieb, Michael S; Goulston, Claudia; Groger, Richard K; Gurley, T Douglas; Haber, Stuart; Hardwicke, Robin; Hardy, W David; Harrigan, P Richard; Hawkins, Trevor N; Heath, Sonya; Hecht, Frederick M; Henry, W Keith; Hladek, Melissa; Hoffman, Robert P; Horton, James M; Hsu, Ricky K; Huhn, Gregory D; Hunt, Peter; Hupert, Mark J; Illeman, Mark L; Jaeger, Hans; Jellinger, Robert M; John, Mina; Johnson, Jennifer A; Johnson, Kristin L; Johnson, Heather; Johnson, Kay; Joly, Jennifer; Jordan, Wilbert C; Kauffman, Carol A; Khanlou, Homayoon; Killian, Robert K; Kim, Arthur Y; Kim, David D; Kinder, Clifford A; Kirchner, Jeffrey T; Kogelman, Laura; Kojic, Erna Milunka; Korthuis, P Todd; Kurisu, Wayne; Kwon, Douglas S; LaMar, Melissa; Lampiris, Harry; Lanzafame, Massimiliano; Lederman, Michael M; Lee, David M; Lee, Jean M L; Lee, Marah J; Lee, Edward T Y; Lemoine, Janice; Levy, Jay A; Llibre, Josep M; Liguori, Michael A; Little, Susan J; Liu, Anne Y; Lopez, Alvaro J; Loutfy, Mono R; Loy, Dawn; Mohammed, Debbie Y; Man, Alan; Mansour, Michael K; Marconi, Vincent C; Markowitz, Martin; Marques, Rui; Martin, Jeffrey N; Martin, Harold L; Mayer, Kenneth Hugh; McElrath, M Juliana; McGhee, Theresa A; McGovern, Barbara H; McGowan, Katherine; McIntyre, Dawn; Mcleod, Gavin X; Menezes, Prema; Mesa, Greg; Metroka, Craig E; Meyer-Olson, Dirk; Miller, Andy O; Montgomery, Kate; Mounzer, Karam C; Nagami, Ellen H; Nagin, Iris; Nahass, Ronald G; Nelson, Margret O; Nielsen, Craig; Norene, David L; O'Connor, David H; Ojikutu, Bisola O; Okulicz, Jason; Oladehin, Olakunle O; Oldfield, Edward C; Olender, Susan A; Ostrowski, Mario; Owen, William F; Pae, Eunice; Parsonnet, Jeffrey; Pavlatos, Andrew M; Perlmutter, Aaron M; Pierce, Michael N; Pincus, Jonathan M; Pisani, Leandro; Price, Lawrence Jay; Proia, Laurie; Prokesch, Richard C; Pujet, Heather Calderon; Ramgopal, Moti; Rathod, Almas; Rausch, Michael; Ravishankar, J; Rhame, Frank S; Richards, Constance Shamuyarira; Richman, Douglas D; Rodes, Berta; Rodriguez, Milagros; Rose, Richard C; Rosenberg, Eric S; Rosenthal, Daniel; Ross, Polly E; Rubin, David S; Rumbaugh, Elease; Saenz, Luis; Salvaggio, Michelle R; Sanchez, William C; Sanjana, Veeraf M; Santiago, Steven; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sestak, Philip M; Shalit, Peter; Shay, William; Shirvani, Vivian N; Silebi, Vanessa I; Sizemore, James M; Skolnik, Paul R; Sokol-Anderson, Marcia; Sosman, James M; Stabile, Paul; Stapleton, Jack T; Starrett, Sheree; Stein, Francine; Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen; Sterman, F Lisa; Stone, Valerie E; Stone, David R; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Taplitz, Randy A; Tedaldi, Ellen M; Telenti, Amalio; Theisen, William; Torres, Richard; Tosiello, Lorraine; Tremblay, Cecile; Tribble, Marc A; Trinh, Phuong D; Tsao, Alice; Ueda, Peggy; Vaccaro, Anthony; Valadas, Emilia; Vanig, Thanes J; Vecino, Isabel; Vega, Vilma M; Veikley, Wenoah; Wade, Barbara H; Walworth, Charles; Wanidworanun, Chingchai; Ward, Douglas J; Warner, Daniel A; Weber, Robert D; Webster, Duncan; Weis, Steve; Wheeler, David A; White, David J; Wilkins, Ed; Winston, Alan; Wlodaver, Clifford G; van't Wout, Angelique; Wright, David P; Yang, Otto O; Yurdin, David L; Zabukovic, Brandon W; Zachary, Kimon C; Zeeman, Beth; Zhao, Meng

    2010-12-10

    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA-viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection.

  8. Analysis of a subclass-restricted HIV-1 gp41 epitope by omission peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Mathiesen, T; Chiodi, F; Broliden, P A; Albert, J; Houghten, R A; Utter, G; Wahren, B; Norrby, E

    1989-01-01

    To define the amino acids involved in IgG subclass reactivity to two overlapping HIV-1 gp41 (E34/32; amino acid positions 582-613) peptides, sera from 18 HIV-infected individuals were studied. Peptides mimicking E34 but with single amino acid deletions or glycine substitutions were used to define the amino acid residues necessary for antibody binding. Two dominating immunogenic epitopes, containing highly hydrophilic amino acids, were found on the original peptide. Further analysis was undertaken with two corresponding omission sets of dodecapeptides representing halves of the complete E34 plus a terminal cystein peptide. The subclass reactivities usually differed between the patients with regard to the epitopes with which the different IgG subclasses reacted and also to the importance of different amino acids in antibody binding. The 600 glycine and the 601 lysine were involved in the binding of all IgG1, 2 and 4 and most IgG3. The development of E34/32-reactive IgM and IgG subclasses showed different patterns in four patients with primary HIV infections, contradicting the existence of a general pattern for the development of IgG subclasses to this peptide. The findings suggest that different progenitor clones are selected for synthesis of the different subclasses. PMID:2472353

  9. Tat-dependent production of an HIV-1 TAR-encoded miRNA-like small RNA

    PubMed Central

    Harwig, Alex; Jongejan, Aldo; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that retroviruses can produce microRNAs (miRNAs). To prevent cleavage of their RNA genome, retroviruses have to use an alternative RNA source as miRNA precursor. The transacting responsive (TAR) hairpin structure in HIV-1 RNA has been suggested as source for miRNAs, but how these small RNAs are produced without impeding virus replication remained unclear. We used deep sequencing analysis of AGO2-bound HIV-1 RNAs to demonstrate that the 3′ side of the TAR hairpin is processed into a miRNA-like small RNA. This ∼21 nt RNA product is able to repress the expression of mRNAs bearing a complementary target sequence. Analysis of the small RNAs produced by wild-type and mutant HIV-1 variants revealed that non-processive transcription from the HIV-1 LTR promoter results in the production of short TAR RNAs that serve as precursor. These TAR RNAs are cleaved by Dicer and processing is stimulated by the viral Tat protein. This biogenesis pathway differs from the canonical miRNA pathway and allows HIV-1 to produce the TAR-encoded miRNA-like molecule without cleavage of the RNA genome. PMID:26984525

  10. A survey of synthetic HIV-1 peptides with natural and chimeric sequences for differential reactivity with Zimbabwean, Tanzanian and Swedish HIV-1-positive sera.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, J; Lawoko, A; Pipkorn, R; Moyo, S; Malmvall, B E; Shao, J; Dash, R; Tswana, S

    1993-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the known sequence differences between African and non-African HIV-1 strains are reflected in the serological response. The authors investigated the antibody reactivity of 34 Swedish, 30 Tanzanian, and 42 Zimbabwean HIV-1 positive sera to 67 synthetic peptides with sequences from North American and African HIV-1 isolates, mostly derived from regions of gag and env known to be antigenic. Not all sera were tested against all peptides. The authors noted several results. Differences in frequency of reactivity were noted with peptides covering the entire third variable domain (V3), which is a primary neutralization determinant, and the carboxyl terminus of gp120, in 2 regions of gp41, and the carboxyl terminus of p24. In env, Tanzanian sera reacted preferentially with a V3 peptide from the strain JY1 (Zaire). Gradual substitutions in the central motif in V3 of ELI from GLGQ to GPGR, typical of many non-African strains, led to a gradual increase in reactivity of many Swedish sera, but did not affect Tanzanian and Zimbabwean sera, suggesting that the major epitopes recognized by these African sera are outside GPGR. V3 peptides from the MN and Z3 strains reacted with most sera, but missed 30% of those of Tanzanian origin. In the carboxyl terminus of gp120, both sets of African sera reacted preferentially with peptides from strains JY1 and MAL. Swedish sera reacted strongest with analogues from strains Z321 and HXB2. In gp41, Swedish sera showed a weak preference for reactivity with HXB2-derived peptides in the immunodominant region (amino acids 620-665). The differences in serological reactivity were as great between Zimbabwe and Tanzania as between the 2 African sets and the Swedish. The geographical differences in the pattern of reactivity with HIV peptides probably depend on both host and viral variation and may be developed into a seroepidemiological tool, useful for optimization of future HIV vaccines.

  11. Evolution and Recombination of Genes Encoding HIV-1 Drug Resistance and Tropism during Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Binshan; Kitchen, Christina; Weiser, Barbara; Mayers, Douglas; Foley, Brian; Kemal, Kimdar; Anastos, Kathryn; Suchard, Marc; Parker, Monica; Brunner, Cheryl; Burger, Harold

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of residual plasma virus during antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a high priority to improve understanding of HIV-1 pathogenesis and therapy. To understand the evolution of HIV-1 pol and env genes in viremic patients under selective pressure of ART, we performed longitudinal analyses of plasma-derived pol and env sequences from single HIV-1 genomes. We tested the hypotheses that drug resistance in pol was unrelated to changes in coreceptor usage (tropism), and that recombination played a role in evolution of viral strains. Recombinants were identified by using Bayesian and other computational methods. High-level genotypic resistance was seen in ~70% of X4 and R5 strains during ART. There was no significant association between resistance and tropism. Each patient displayed at least one recombinant encompassing env and representing a change in predicted tropism. These data suggest that, in addition to mutation, recombination can play a significant role in shaping HIV-1 evolution. PMID:20451945

  12. Ribosomally encoded cyclic peptide toxins from mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Walton, Jonathan D; Luo, Hong; Hallen-Adams, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic peptide toxins of poisonous Amanita mushrooms are chemically unique among known natural products. Furthermore, they differ from other fungal cyclic peptides in being synthesized on ribosomes instead of by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. Because of their novel structures and biogenic origins, elucidation of the biosynthetic pathway of the Amanita cyclic peptides presents both challenges and opportunities. In particular, a full understanding of the pathway should lead to the ability to direct synthesis of a large number of novel cyclic peptides based on the Amanita toxin scaffold by genetic engineering of the encoding genes. Here, we highlight some of the principal methods for working with the Amanita cyclic peptides and the known steps in their biosynthesis.

  13. The HIV-1 gp41 ectodomain is cleaved by matriptase to produce a chemotactic peptide that acts through FPR2.

    PubMed

    Wood, Matthew P; Cole, Amy L; Eade, Colleen R; Chen, Li-Mei; Chai, Karl X; Cole, Alexander M

    2014-07-01

    Several aspects of HIV-1 virulence and pathogenesis are mediated by the envelope protein gp41. Additionally, peptides derived from the gp41 ectodomain have been shown to induce chemotaxis in monocytes and neutrophils. Whereas this chemotactic activity has been reported, it is not known how these peptides could be produced under biological conditions. The heptad repeat 1 (HR1) region of gp41 is exposed to the extracellular environment and could therefore be susceptible to proteolytic processing into smaller peptides. Matriptase is a serine protease expressed at the surface of most epithelia, including the prostate and mucosal surfaces. Here, we present evidence that matriptase efficiently cleaves the HR1 portion of gp41 into a 22-residue chemotactic peptide MAT-1, the sequence of which is highly conserved across HIV-1 clades. We found that MAT-1 induced migration of primary neutrophils and monocytes, the latter of which act as a cellular reservoir of HIV during early stage infection. We then used formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) and FPR2 inhibitors, along with HEK 293 cells, to demonstrate that MAT-1 can induce chemotaxis specifically using FPR2, a receptor found on the surface of monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils. These findings are the first to identify a proteolytic cleavage product of gp41 with chemotactic activity and highlight a potential role for matriptase in HIV-1 transmission and infection at epithelial surfaces and within tissue reservoirs of HIV-1. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Genetically Encoded Libraries of Nonstandard Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Takashi; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The presence of a nonproteinogenic moiety in a nonstandard peptide often improves the biological properties of the peptide. Non-standard peptide libraries are therefore used to obtain valuable molecules for biological, therapeutic, and diagnostic applications. Highly diverse non-standard peptide libraries can be generated by chemically or enzymatically modifying standard peptide libraries synthesized by the ribosomal machinery, using posttranslational modifications. Alternatively, strategies for encoding non-proteinogenic amino acids into the genetic code have been developed for the direct ribosomal synthesis of non-standard peptide libraries. In the strategies for genetic code expansion, non-proteinogenic amino acids are assigned to the nonsense codons or 4-base codons in order to add these amino acids to the universal genetic code. In contrast, in the strategies for genetic code reprogramming, some proteinogenic amino acids are erased from the genetic code and non-proteinogenic amino acids are reassigned to the blank codons. Here, we discuss the generation of genetically encoded non-standard peptide libraries using these strategies and also review recent applications of these libraries to the selection of functional non-standard peptides. PMID:23097693

  15. Interactions of peptide triazole thiols with Env gp120 induce irreversible breakdown and inactivation of HIV-1 virions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the underlying mechanism of action of the peptide triazole thiol, KR13 that has been shown previously to specifically bind gp120, block cell receptor site interactions and potently inhibit HIV-1 infectivity. Results KR13, the sulfhydryl blocked KR13b and its parent non-sulfhydryl peptide triazole, HNG156, induced gp120 shedding but only KR13 induced p24 capsid protein release. The resulting virion post virolysis had an altered morphology, contained no gp120, but retained gp41 that bound to neutralizing gp41 antibodies. Remarkably, HIV-1 p24 release by KR13 was inhibited by enfuvirtide, which blocks formation of the gp41 6-helix bundle during membrane fusion, while no inhibition of p24 release occurred for enfuvirtide-resistant virus. KR13 thus appears to induce structural changes in gp41 normally associated with membrane fusion and cell entry. The HIV-1 p24 release induced by KR13 was observed in several clades of HIV-1 as well as in fully infectious HIV-1 virions. Conclusions The antiviral activity of KR13 and its ability to inactivate virions prior to target cell engagement suggest that peptide triazole thiols could be highly effective in inhibiting HIV transmission across mucosal barriers and provide a novel probe to understand biochemical signals within envelope that are involved in membrane fusion. PMID:24330857

  16. Interactions of peptide triazole thiols with Env gp120 induce irreversible breakdown and inactivation of HIV-1 virions.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Arangassery Rosemary; Contarino, Mark; Bailey, Lauren D; Aneja, Rachna; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhaes; Freedman, Kevin; McFadden, Karyn; Duffy, Caitlin; Emileh, Ali; Leslie, George; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Hoxie, James A; Chaiken, Irwin

    2013-12-13

    We examined the underlying mechanism of action of the peptide triazole thiol, KR13 that has been shown previously to specifically bind gp120, block cell receptor site interactions and potently inhibit HIV-1 infectivity. KR13, the sulfhydryl blocked KR13b and its parent non-sulfhydryl peptide triazole, HNG156, induced gp120 shedding but only KR13 induced p24 capsid protein release. The resulting virion post virolysis had an altered morphology, contained no gp120, but retained gp41 that bound to neutralizing gp41 antibodies. Remarkably, HIV-1 p24 release by KR13 was inhibited by enfuvirtide, which blocks formation of the gp41 6-helix bundle during membrane fusion, while no inhibition of p24 release occurred for enfuvirtide-resistant virus. KR13 thus appears to induce structural changes in gp41 normally associated with membrane fusion and cell entry. The HIV-1 p24 release induced by KR13 was observed in several clades of HIV-1 as well as in fully infectious HIV-1 virions. The antiviral activity of KR13 and its ability to inactivate virions prior to target cell engagement suggest that peptide triazole thiols could be highly effective in inhibiting HIV transmission across mucosal barriers and provide a novel probe to understand biochemical signals within envelope that are involved in membrane fusion.

  17. Identification of peptides from human pathogens able to cross-activate an HIV-1-gag-specific CD4+ T cell clone.

    PubMed

    Venturini, Sara; Allicotti, Gina; Zhao, Yindong; Simon, Richard; Burton, Dennis R; Pinilla, Clemencia; Poignard, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Antigen recognition by T cells is degenerate both at the MHC and the TCR level. In this study, we analyzed the cross-reactivity of a human HIV-1 gag p24-specific CD4(+) T cell clone obtained from an HIV-1-seronegative donor using a positional scanning synthetic combinatorial peptide library (PS-SCL)-based biometrical analysis. A number of decapeptides able to activate the HIV-1 gag-specific clone were identified and shown to correspond to sequences found in other human pathogens. Two of these peptides activated the T cell clone with the same stimulatory potency as the original HIV-1 gag p24 peptide. These findings show that an HIV-1-specific human T helper clone can react efficiently with peptides from other pathogens and suggest that cellular immune responses identified as being specific for one human pathogen (HIV-1) could arise from exposure to other pathogens.

  18. A novel bispecific peptide HIV-1 fusion inhibitor targeting the N-terminal heptad repeat and fusion peptide domains in gp41.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xifeng; Jia, Qiyan; Lu, Lu; Yu, Fei; Zheng, Jishen; Shi, Weiguo; Cai, Lifeng; Jiang, Shibo; Liu, Keliang

    2016-12-01

    HIV-1 fusion with the target cell is initiated by the insertion of the gp41 fusion peptide (FP) into the target cell membrane and the interaction between the gp41 N- and C-terminal heptad repeats (NHR and CHR), followed by the formation of the six-helix bundle (6-HB) fusion core. Therefore, both FP and NHR are important targets for HIV-1 fusion inhibitors. Here, we designed and synthesized a dual-target peptidic HIV-1 fusion inhibitor, 4HR-LBD-VIRIP, in which 4HR-LBD is able to bind to the gp41 NHR domain, while VIRIP is able to interact with gp41 FP. We found that 4HR-LBD-VIRIP is about tenfold more potent than 4HR-LBD and VIRIP in inhibiting HIV-1IIIB infection and HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env)-mediated cell-cell fusion, suggesting that this dual-target HIV-1 fusion inhibitor possesses a strong synergistic antiviral effect. A biophysical analysis indicates that 4HR-LBD-VIRIP can interact with N70 peptide that contains the gp41 NHR and FP domains and binds with lipid membrane. This study provides a new approach for designing novel viral fusion inhibitors against HIV and other enveloped viruses with class I membrane fusion proteins.

  19. Effect of promoter strength on protein expression and immunogenicity of an HSV-1 amplicon vector encoding HIV-1 Gag

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Kathlyn; Duke, Cindy M.P.; Rodriguez-Colon, Sol M.; Dakwar, Anthony; Fan, Shongshan; Keefer, Michael C.; Federoff, Howard J.; Frelinger, John G.; Bowers, William J.; Dewhurst., Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Helper-free herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) amplicon vectors elicit robust immune responses to encoded proteins, including human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) antigens. To improve this vaccine delivery system, seven amplicon vectors were constructed, each encoding HIV-1 Gag under the control of a different promoter. Gag expression levels were analyzed in murine and human cell lines, as well as in biopsied tissue samples from injected mice; these data were then compared with Gag-specific T cell responses in BALB/c mice. The magnitude of the amplicon-induced immune response was found to correlate strongly with the level of Gag production both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, the best correlation of the strength of the amplicon-induced immune response was with antigen expression in cultured DC rather than expression at the tissue site of injection or in cultured cell lines. These findings may have implications for the generation of improved HSV-1 amplicon vectors for HIV-1 vaccine delivery. PMID:17145123

  20. Encoded libraries of chemically modified peptides.

    PubMed

    Heinis, Christian; Winter, Greg

    2015-06-01

    The use of powerful technologies for generating and screening DNA-encoded protein libraries has helped drive the development of proteins as pharmaceutical ligands. However the development of peptides as pharmaceutical ligands has been more limited. Although encoded peptide libraries are typically several orders of magnitude larger than classical chemical libraries, can be more readily screened, and can give rise to higher affinity ligands, their use as pharmaceutical ligands is limited by their intrinsic properties. Two of the intrinsic limitations include the rotational flexibility of the peptide backbone and the limited number (20) of natural amino acids. However these limitations can be overcome by use of chemical modification. For example, the libraries can be modified to introduce topological constraints such as cyclization linkers, or to introduce new chemical entities such as small molecule ligands, fluorophores and photo-switchable compounds. This article reviews the chemistry involved, the properties of the peptide ligands, and the new opportunities offered by chemical modification of DNA-encoded peptide libraries.

  1. An Optimally constrained V3 peptide is a better immunogen than its linear homolog or HIV-1 gp120

    PubMed Central

    Moseri, Adi; Tantry, Subramanyam; Sagi, Yael; Arshava, Boris; Naider, Fred; Anglister, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic peptides offer an attractive option for development of a V3-directed vaccine. However, immunization with flexible linear peptides may result in an immune response to multiple conformations, many of which differ from the native conformation of the corresponding region in the protein. Here we show that optimization of the location of a disulfide bond in peptides constrained to mimic the β-hairpin conformation of the V3, yields an immunogen that elicits a 30-fold stronger HIV-1 neutralizing response in rabbits compared with the homologous linear V3 peptide. The HIV-1 neutralizing response elicited by the optimally constrained peptide is also significantly stronger than that elicited by a gp120 construct in which the V3 is exposed. Neutralization of an HIV-1 strain that shares only 72% identity with the immunizing peptide was demonstrated. The most effective immunogen was also able to neutralize primary isolates that are more resistant to neutralization such as SS1196 and 6535. PMID:20347111

  2. The gp41659 - 671 HIV-1 antibody epitope: a structurally challenging small peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuan; Sagui, Celeste

    2014-03-01

    We present the results of extensive Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of the tridecapeptide corresponding to residues 659-671 of the envelope glycoprotein gp41 of HIV-1, which spans the 2F5 monoclonal antibody epitope ELDKWA. The most recent AMBER force fields ff99SB and ff12SB in both implicit and explicit solvents have been used for a cumulative time longer than 7.2 μs . We have analyzed the conformational ensembles of the peptide both with and without applied tensile restraints, and found that: (1) The amount of helical populations is important in aqueous solution, but this structure forms part of a flexible conformational ensemble with a rugged free energy landscape with shallow minima, which agrees well with the bulk of the experimental observations; (2) our results are more consistent with the experimental results than those from previous simulations; (3) under uniaxial tension, the disordered peptide first becomes fully helical before melting into turns, loops and 310-helices.

  3. QSAR, DFT and molecular modeling studies of peptides from HIV-1 to describe their recognition properties by MHC-I.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Ochoa, S; García-Machorro, J; Bello, Martiniano; Rodríguez-Valdez, L M; Flores-Sandoval, C A; Correa-Basurto, J

    2017-08-03

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) has infected more than 40 million people around the world. HIV-1 treatment still has several side effects, and the development of a vaccine, which is another potential option for decreasing human infections, has faced challenges. This work presents a computational study that includes a quantitative structure activity relationship(QSAR) using density functional theory(DFT) for reported peptides to identify the principal quantum mechanics descriptors related to peptide activity. In addition, the molecular recognition properties of these peptides are explored on major histocompatibility complex I (MHC-I) through docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations accompanied by the Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area (MMGBSA) approach for correlating peptide activity reported elsewhere vs. theoretical peptide affinity. The results show that the carboxylic acid and hydroxyl groups are chemical moieties that have an inverse relationship with biological activity. The number of sulfides, pyrroles and imidazoles from the peptide structure are directly related to biological activity. In addition, the HOMO orbital energy values of the total absolute charge and the Ghose-Crippen molar refractivity of peptides are descriptors directly related to the activity and affinity on MHC-I. Docking and MD simulation studies accompanied by an MMGBSA analysis show that the binding free energy without considering the entropic contribution is energetically favorable for all the complexes. Furthermore, good peptide interaction with the most affinity is evaluated experimentally for three proteins. Overall, this study shows that the combination of quantum mechanics descriptors and molecular modeling studies could help describe the immunogenic properties of peptides from HIV-1.

  4. Administration of nucleoside-modified mRNA encoding broadly neutralizing antibody protects humanized mice from HIV-1 challenge

    PubMed Central

    Pardi, Norbert; Secreto, Anthony J.; Shan, Xiaochuan; Debonera, Fotini; Glover, Joshua; Yi, Yanjie; Muramatsu, Hiromi; Ni, Houping; Mui, Barbara L.; Tam, Ying K.; Shaheen, Farida; Collman, Ronald G.; Karikó, Katalin; Danet-Desnoyers, Gwenn A.; Madden, Thomas D.; Hope, Michael J.; Weissman, Drew

    2017-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are one of the fastest growing classes of pharmaceutical products, however, their potential is limited by the high cost of development and manufacturing. Here we present a safe and cost-effective platform for in vivo expression of therapeutic antibodies using nucleoside-modified mRNA. To demonstrate feasibility and protective efficacy, nucleoside-modified mRNAs encoding the light and heavy chains of the broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibody VRC01 are generated and encapsulated into lipid nanoparticles. Systemic administration of 1.4 mg kg−1 of mRNA into mice results in ∼170 μg ml−1 VRC01 antibody concentrations in the plasma 24 h post injection. Weekly injections of 1 mg kg−1 of mRNA into immunodeficient mice maintain trough VRC01 levels above 40 μg ml−1. Most importantly, the translated antibody from a single injection of VRC01 mRNA protects humanized mice from intravenous HIV-1 challenge, demonstrating that nucleoside-modified mRNA represents a viable delivery platform for passive immunotherapy against HIV-1 with expansion to a variety of diseases. PMID:28251988

  5. Covalent Conjugation of a Peptide Triazole to HIV-1 gp120 Enables Intramolecular Binding Site Occupancy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The HIV-1 gp120 glycoprotein is the main viral surface protein responsible for initiation of the entry process and, as such, can be targeted for the development of entry inhibitors. We previously identified a class of broadly active peptide triazole (PT) dual antagonists that inhibit gp120 interactions at both its target receptor and coreceptor binding sites, induce shedding of gp120 from virus particles prior to host–cell encounter, and consequently can prevent viral entry and infection. However, our understanding of the conformational alterations in gp120 by which PT elicits its dual receptor antagonism and virus inactivation functions is limited. Here, we used a recently developed computational model of the PT–gp120 complex as a blueprint to design a covalently conjugated PT–gp120 recombinant protein. Initially, a single-cysteine gp120 mutant, E275CYU-2, was expressed and characterized. This variant retains excellent binding affinity for peptide triazoles, for sCD4 and other CD4 binding site (CD4bs) ligands, and for a CD4-induced (CD4i) ligand that binds the coreceptor recognition site. In parallel, we synthesized a PEGylated and biotinylated peptide triazole variant that retained gp120 binding activity. An N-terminally maleimido variant of this PEGylated PT, denoted AE21, was conjugated to E275C gp120 to produce the AE21–E275C covalent conjugate. Surface plasmon resonance interaction analysis revealed that the PT–gp120 conjugate exhibited suppressed binding of sCD4 and 17b to gp120, signatures of a PT-bound state of envelope protein. Similar to the noncovalent PT–gp120 complex, the covalent conjugate was able to bind the conformationally dependent mAb 2G12. The results argue that the PT–gp120 conjugate is structurally organized, with an intramolecular interaction between the PT and gp120 domains, and that this structured state embodies a conformationally entrapped gp120 with an altered bridging sheet but intact 2G12 epitope. The similarities of

  6. Elucidation of New Binding Interactions with the Tumor Susceptibility Gene 101 (Tsg101) Protein Using Modified HIV-1 Gag-p6 Derived Peptide Ligands.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Liu, Fa; Im, Young Jun; Stephen, Andrew G; Fivash, Matthew J; Waheed, Abdul A; Freed, Eric O; Fisher, Robert J; Hurley, James H; Burke, Terrence R

    2011-05-12

    Targeting protein-protein interactions is gaining greater recognition as an attractive approach to therapeutic development. An example of this may be found with the human cellular protein encoded by the tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101), where interaction with the p6 C-terminal domain of the nascent viral Gag protein is required for HIV-1 particle budding and release. This association of Gag with Tsg101 is highly dependent on a "Pro-Thr-Ala-Pro" ("PTAP") peptide sequence within the p6 protein. Although p6-derived peptides offer potential starting points for developing Tsg101-binding inhibitors, the affinities of canonical peptides are outside the useful range (K(d) values greater than 50 μM). Reported herein are crystal structures of Tsg101 in complex with two structurally-modified PTAP-derived peptides. This data define new regions of ligand interaction not previously identified with canonical peptide sequences. This information could be highly useful in the design of Tsg101-binding antagonists.

  7. Comparative studies on neutralisation of primary HIV-1 isolates by human sera and rabbit anti-V3 peptide sera.

    PubMed

    Lawoko, A L; Johansson, B; Hjalmarsson, S; Christensson, B; Ljungberg, B; Al-Khalili, L; Sjölund, M; Pipkorn, R; Fenyö, E M; Blomberg, J

    1999-10-01

    IgG binding to V3 peptides and serum neutralising responses were studied in four HIV-1 infected individuals with progressive disease over a period of 31-70 months. The 18-20 mer peptides comprised residues 299-317 (numbering of HIV1 MN) in the N-terminal half of the V3 loop of the envelope glycoprotein gp120 and were derived from the sequences of autologous, as well as heterologous isolates. All four individuals studied lacked anti-V3 IgG binding to at least one autologous V3 sequence. V3 peptides to which autologous sera lacked binding IgG were all immunogenic in rabbits and induced antisera that were broadly cross-reactive by EIA and broadly cross-neutralising to primary HIV-1 isolates. This indicates that the peptides are immunogenic per se and that the respective human hosts have selective defects in recognising the corresponding V3 sequences. Despite the absence of antibody binding to autologous V3 peptides, the human sera had neutralising antibodies to autologous (three out of four cases), as well as heterologous isolates (all cases). Moreover, in vitro exposure of the patients' isolates to autologous neutralising serum or the homologous rabbit antiserum selected for variants with amino acid substitutions close to the crown of the V3 loop or in regions outside the sequence corresponding to peptides used for immunisation. The amino acid exchanges affected V3 positions known to be antigenic and which are also prone to change successively in infected persons. It is likely that neutralising antibodies recognise both linear and conformational epitopes in the V3 loop. Apparently, there are several, but restricted, numbers of ways for this structure to change its conformation and thereby give rise to neutralisation resistant viruses.

  8. Human anti-V3 HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies encoded by the VH5-51/VL lambda genes define a conserved antigenic structure.

    PubMed

    Gorny, Miroslaw K; Sampson, Jared; Li, Huiguang; Jiang, Xunqing; Totrov, Maxim; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Williams, Constance; O'Neal, Timothy; Volsky, Barbara; Li, Liuzhe; Cardozo, Timothy; Nyambi, Phillipe; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Kong, Xiang-Peng

    2011-01-01

    Preferential usage of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes that encode antibodies (Abs) against various pathogens is rarely observed and the nature of their dominance is unclear in the context of stochastic recombination of Ig genes. The hypothesis that restricted usage of Ig genes predetermines the antibody specificity was tested in this study of 18 human anti-V3 monoclonal Abs (mAbs) generated from unrelated individuals infected with various subtypes of HIV-1, all of which preferentially used pairing of the VH5-51 and VL lambda genes. Crystallographic analysis of five VH5-51/VL lambda-encoded Fabs complexed with various V3 peptides revealed a common three dimensional (3D) shape of the antigen-binding sites primarily determined by the four complementarity determining regions (CDR) for the heavy (H) and light (L) chains: specifically, the H1, H2, L1 and L2 domains. The CDR H3 domain did not contribute to the shape of the binding pocket, as it had different lengths, sequences and conformations for each mAb. The same shape of the binding site was further confirmed by the identical backbone conformation exhibited by V3 peptides in complex with Fabs which fully adapted to the binding pocket and the same key contact residues, mainly germline-encoded in the heavy and light chains of five Fabs. Finally, the VH5-51 anti-V3 mAbs recognized an epitope with an identical 3D structure which is mimicked by a single mimotope recognized by the majority of VH5-51-derived mAbs but not by other V3 mAbs. These data suggest that the identification of preferentially used Ig genes by neutralizing mAbs may define conserved epitopes in the diverse virus envelopes. This will be useful information for designing vaccine immunogen inducing cross-neutralizing Abs.

  9. HbAHP-25, an In-Silico Designed Peptide, Inhibits HIV-1 Entry by Blocking gp120 Binding to CD4 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Tahir; Patgaonkar, Mandar; Kumar C, Selvaa; Pasi, Achhelal; Reddy, Kudumula Venkata Rami

    2015-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) poses a serious threat to the developing world and sexual transmission continues to be the major source of new infections. Therefore, the development of molecules, which prevent new HIV-1 infections, is highly warranted. In the present study, a panel of human hemoglobin (Hb)-α subunit derived peptides and their analogues, with an ability to bind gp120, were designed in-silico and their anti-HIV-1 activity was evaluated. Of these peptides, HbAHP-25, an analogue of Hb-α derived peptide, demonstrated significant anti-HIV-1 activity. HbAHP-25 was found to be active against CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains (ADA5 and BaL) and CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 strains (IIIB and NL4-3). Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and ELISA revealed direct interaction between HbAHP-25 and HIV-1 envelope protein, gp120. The peptide prevented binding of CD4 to gp120 and blocked subsequent steps leading to entry and/or fusion or both. Anti-HIV activity of HbAHP-25 appeared to be specific as it failed to inhibit the entry of HIV-1 pseudotyped virus (HIV-1 VSV). Further, HbAHP-25 was found to be non-cytotoxic to TZM-bl cells, VK2/E6E7 cells, CEM-GFP cells and PBMCs, even at higher concentrations. Moreover, HbAHP-25 retained its anti-HIV activity in presence of seminal plasma and vaginal fluid. In brief, the study identified HbAHP-25, a novel anti-HIV peptide, which directly interacts with gp120 and thus has a potential to inhibit early stages of HIV-1 infection. PMID:25915507

  10. [HIV-1 serotyping of V3-mimicking peptides circulating in the Republic of Tajikistan among intravenous drug users].

    PubMed

    Burunova, V V; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Tishkova, F Kh; Starikov, N S; Pazilin, A S; Belobrova, E A; Petrenko, M S; Iudin, A N; Samuilov, V D; Garaev, M M; L'vov, D K

    2004-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of HIV-1 serotyping by using 56 positive sera collected in the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan (RT) from intravenous drug users (IVDU). It was made by solid-phase ELISA based on synthetic peptides, mimicking different variants of the apical epitope of the HIV-1 gp120 V3-loop. Two types of conjugates, those specific to human IgG and IgA, were used to detect the immune complexes. Serotypes, as determined according to IgG and IgA-based ELISA, coincided, however, the latter were proven to be more suitable for serotyping. There is a high level of HIV-1 serotype heterogeneity among IVDU in RT; altogether, 4 serotypes were identified, i.e. B (10%), B+A/C (18%), A/C (20%) and A/C+B (52%). The modern serotype HIV-1 diversity in RT resembles the epidemiologic situation in the territory of the former USSR as observed in the late 80-ies-early 90-ies of the last century.

  11. Combination of the CCL5-Derived Peptide R4.0 with Different HIV-1 Blockers Reveals Wide Target Compatibility and Synergic Cobinding to CCR5

    PubMed Central

    Secchi, Massimiliano; Vassena, Lia; Morin, Sébastien; Schols, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    R4.0, a synthetic CCL5/RANTES-derived peptide, exerts potent anti-HIV-1 activity via its nonactivating interaction with CCR5, the major HIV-1 coreceptor. CCR5 chronic activation may promote undesirable inflammatory effects and enhance viral infection; thus, receptor antagonism is a necessary requisite. HIV-1 gp120, CCL5, and maraviroc dock on CCR5 by sharing two receptor sites: the N terminus and the second extracellular loop. In combination studies, R4.0, CCL5, and maraviroc exhibited concomitant interactions with CCR5 and promoted synergic inhibition of HIV-1 in acute-infection assays. Furthermore, various degrees of additive/synergic HIV-1 inhibition were observed when R4.0 was tested in combination with drugs and lead compounds directed toward different viral targets (gp120, gp41, reverse transcriptase, and protease). In combination with tenofovir, R4.0 provides cross-clade synergic inhibition of primary HIV-1 isolates. Remarkably, an in vitro-generated maraviroc-resistant R5 HIV-1 strain was inhibited by R4.0 comparably to the wild-type strain, suggesting the presence of viral resistance barriers similar to those reported for CCL5. Overall, R4.0 appears to be a promising lead peptide with potential for combination in anti-HIV-1 therapy and in microbicide development to prevent sexual HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25114130

  12. Combination of the CCL5-derived peptide R4.0 with different HIV-1 blockers reveals wide target compatibility and synergic cobinding to CCR5.

    PubMed

    Secchi, Massimiliano; Vassena, Lia; Morin, Sébastien; Schols, Dominique; Vangelista, Luca

    2014-10-01

    R4.0, a synthetic CCL5/RANTES-derived peptide, exerts potent anti-HIV-1 activity via its nonactivating interaction with CCR5, the major HIV-1 coreceptor. CCR5 chronic activation may promote undesirable inflammatory effects and enhance viral infection; thus, receptor antagonism is a necessary requisite. HIV-1 gp120, CCL5, and maraviroc dock on CCR5 by sharing two receptor sites: the N terminus and the second extracellular loop. In combination studies, R4.0, CCL5, and maraviroc exhibited concomitant interactions with CCR5 and promoted synergic inhibition of HIV-1 in acute-infection assays. Furthermore, various degrees of additive/synergic HIV-1 inhibition were observed when R4.0 was tested in combination with drugs and lead compounds directed toward different viral targets (gp120, gp41, reverse transcriptase, and protease). In combination with tenofovir, R4.0 provides cross-clade synergic inhibition of primary HIV-1 isolates. Remarkably, an in vitro-generated maraviroc-resistant R5 HIV-1 strain was inhibited by R4.0 comparably to the wild-type strain, suggesting the presence of viral resistance barriers similar to those reported for CCL5. Overall, R4.0 appears to be a promising lead peptide with potential for combination in anti-HIV-1 therapy and in microbicide development to prevent sexual HIV-1 transmission.

  13. Direct activation of protein phosphatase-2A0 by HIV-1 encoded protein complex NCp7:vpr.

    PubMed

    Tung, H Y; De Rocquigny, H; Zhao, L J; Cayla, X; Roques, B P; Ozon, R

    1997-01-20

    The effects of HIV-1 encoded proteins NCp7, vpr and NCp7:vpr complex on the activity of protein phosphatase-2A0 have been tested. We report that NCp7 is an activator of protein phosphatase-2A0 and that vpr activated protein phosphatase-2A0 only slightly. We also report that NCp7 and vpr form a tight complex which becomes a more potent activator of protein phosphatase-2A0 than NCp7 alone. The ability of NCp7 to activate protein phosphatase-2A0 is regulated by vpr. The C-terminal portion of vpr prevents NCp7 from activating protein phosphatase-2A0 while the N-terminal portion of vpr potentiates the effect of NCp7 on the activity of protein phosphatase-2A0. Our findings indicate that vpr may be acting as a targeting subunit which directs NCp7 to activate protein phosphatase-2A0. In view of the fact that protein phosphatase-2A functions as an inhibitor of G0 to M transition of the cell cycle and is involved in other key cellular processes such as the control of RNA transcription, the results presented in this report may explain how HIV-1 causes cell cycle arrest which may lead to CD4+ T cell depletion and also how it disturbs normal cellular processes of its host cell.

  14. Construction of peptides with nucleobase amino acids: design and synthesis of the nucleobase-conjugated peptides derived from HIV-1 Rev and their binding properties to HIV-1 RRE RNA.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, T; Hamasaki, K; Ueno, A; Mihara, H

    2001-04-01

    In order to develop a novel molecule that recognizes a specific structure of RNA, we have attempted to design peptides having L-alpha-amino acids with a nucleobase at the side chain (nucleobase amino acid (NBA)), expecting that the function of a nucleobase which can specifically recognize a base in RNA is regulated in a peptide conformation. In this study, to demonstrate the applicability of the NBA units in the peptide to RNA recognition, we designed and synthesized a variety of NBA-conjugated peptides, derived from HIV-1 Rev. Circular dichroism study revealed that the conjugation of the Rev peptide with an NBA unit did not disturb the peptide conformation. RNA-binding affinities of the designed peptides with RRE IIB RNA were dependent on the structure of the nucleobase moieties in the peptides. The peptide having the cytosine NBA at the position of the Asn40 site in the Rev showed a higher binding ability for RRE IIB RNA, despite the diminishing the Asn40 function. Furthermore, the peptide having the guanine NBA at the position of the Arg44 site, which is the most important residue for the RNA binding in the Rev, bound to RRE IIB RNA in an ability similar to Rev34-50 with native sequence. These results demonstrate that an appropriate NBA unit in the peptide plays an important role in the RNA binding with a specific contact such as hydrogen bonding, and the interaction between the nucleobase in the peptide and the base in the RNA can enhance the RNA-binding affinity and specificity.

  15. Peptide ligands selected with CD4-induced epitopes on native dualtropic HIV-1 envelope proteins mimic extracellular coreceptor domains and bind to HIV-1 gp120 independently of coreceptor usage.

    PubMed

    Dervillez, Xavier; Klaukien, Volker; Dürr, Ralf; Koch, Joachim; Kreutz, Alexandra; Haarmann, Thomas; Stoll, Michaela; Lee, Donghan; Carlomagno, Teresa; Schnierle, Barbara; Möbius, Kalle; Königs, Christoph; Griesinger, Christian; Dietrich, Ursula

    2010-10-01

    During HIV-1 entry, binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the cellular CD4 receptor triggers conformational changes resulting in exposure of new epitopes, the highly conserved CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes that are essential for subsequent binding to chemokine receptor CCR5 or CXCR4. Due to their functional conservation, CD4i epitopes represent attractive viral targets for HIV-1 entry inhibition. The aim of the present study was to select peptide ligands for CD4i epitopes on native dualtropic (R5X4) HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoproteins by phage display. Using CD4-activated retroviral particles carrying Env from the R5X4 HIV-1 89.6 strain as the target, we performed screenings of random peptide phage libraries under stringent selection conditions. Selected peptides showed partial identity with amino acids in the extracellular domains of CCR5/CXCR4, including motifs rich in tyrosines and aspartates at the N terminus known to be important for gp120 binding. A synthetic peptide derivative (XD3) corresponding to the most frequently selected phages was optimized for Env binding on peptide arrays. Interestingly, the optimized peptide could bind specifically to gp120 derived from HIV-1 strains with different coreceptor usage, competed with binding of CD4i-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) 17b, and interfered with entry of both a CCR5 (R5)-tropic and a CXCR4 (X4)-tropic Env pseudotyped virus. This peptide ligand therefore points at unique properties of CD4i epitopes shared by gp120 with different coreceptor usage and could thus serve to provide new insight into the conserved structural details essential for coreceptor binding for further drug development.

  16. Reorientation of the helix of the tryptophan-rich gp41W peptide from HIV-1 at interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matar, Gladys; Benichou, Emmanuel; Nasir, Mehmet Nail; Harfouch, Yara El; Brevet, Pierre-François; Besson, Françoise

    2013-12-01

    The glycoprotein gp41 from the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) has an amino acid sequence enriched in tryptophan residues, the so-called gp41W peptide (i.e., KWASLWNWFNITNWLWYIK) and plays a crucial role in HIV-1 host cell infection. Using the coupling of Second Harmonic Generation targeting the tryptophan residues with lateral surface tension measurements, we investigate the interaction of gp41W with a neat air/water and a lipid/water interfaces. At the air/water interface, gp41W presents a well-defined orientation and this orientation is strongly modified at the lipid/water interface, depending on the surface pressure. These results show that this strategy is well suited to monitor tryptophan containing α-helices orientation at lipid/water interfaces.

  17. Detection of the HIV-1 Minus-Strand-Encoded Antisense Protein and Its Association with Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Torresilla, Cynthia; Larocque, Émilie; Landry, Sébastien; Halin, Marilène; Coulombe, Yan; Masson, Jean-Yves; Mesnard, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 proteins are synthesized from a single transcript in an unspliced form or following splicing, but the existence of an antisense protein (ASP) expressed from an antisense polyadenylated transcript has been suggested. Difficulties linked to the detection of this protein in mammalian cells led us to codon optimize its cDNA. Codon-optimized ASP was indeed efficiently detected in various transfected cell lines following flow cytometry and confocal microscopy analyses. Western blot analyses also led to the detection of optimized ASP in transfected cells but also provided evidence of its instability and high multimerization potential. ASP was mainly distributed in the cytoplasm in a punctate manner, which was reminiscent of autophagosomes. In agreement with this observation, a significant increase in ASP-positive cells and loss of its punctate distribution was observed in transfected cells when autophagy was inhibited at early steps. Induction of autophagy was confirmed by Western blot analyses that showed an ASP-mediated increase in levels of LC3b-II and Beclin 1, as well as colocalization and interaction between ASP and LC3. Interestingly, Myc-tagged ASP was detected in the context of proviral DNA following autophagy inhibition with a concomitant increase in the level and punctate distribution of LC3b-II. Finally, 3-methyladenine treatment of transfected or infected U937 cells decreased extracellular p24 levels in wild-type proviral DNA and to a much lesser extent in ASP-mutated proviral DNA. This study provides the first detection of ASP in mammalian cells by Western blotting. ASP-induced autophagy might explain the inherent difficulty in detecting this viral protein and might justify its presumed low abundance in infected cells. PMID:23427159

  18. Nucleic acids encoding modified human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M consensus envelope glycoproteins

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Barton F [Durham, NC; Gao, Feng [Durham, NC; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos, NM; Hahn, Beatrice H [Birmingham, AL; Shaw, George M [Birmingham, AL; Kothe, Denise [Birmingham, AL; Li, Ying Ying [Hoover, AL; Decker, Julie [Alabaster, AL; Liao, Hua-Xin [Chapel Hill, NC

    2011-12-06

    The present invention relates, in general, to an immunogen and, in particular, to an immunogen for inducing antibodies that neutralizes a wide spectrum of HIV primary isolates and/or to an immunogen that induces a T cell immune response. The invention also relates to a method of inducing anti-HIV antibodies, and/or to a method of inducing a T cell immune response, using such an immunogen. The invention further relates to nucleic acid sequences encoding the present immunogens.

  19. Solution structure of a hydrocarbon stapled peptide inhibitor in complex with monomeric C-terminal domain of HIV-1 capsid.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Shibani; Zhang, Hongtao; Debnath, Asim K; Cowburn, David

    2008-06-13

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid protein plays a critical role in virus core particle assembly and is an important target for novel therapeutic strategies. In a previous study, we characterized the binding affinity of a hydrocarbon stapled helical peptide, NYAD-1, for the capsid protein (K(d) approximately 1 mum) and demonstrated its ability to penetrate the cell membrane (Zhang, H., Zhao, Q., Bhattacharya, S., Waheed, A. A., Tong, X., Hong, A., Heck, S., Goger, M., Cowburn, D., Freed, E. O., and Debnath, A. K. (2008) J. Mol. Biol. 378, 565-580). In cell-based assays, NYAD-1 colocalized with the Gag polyprotein during traffic to the plasma membrane and disrupted the formation of mature and immature virus particles in vitro systems. Here, we complement the cellular and biochemical data with structural characterization of the interactions between the capsid and a soluble peptide analogue, NYAD-13. Solution NMR methods were used to determine a high resolution structure of the complex between the inhibitor and a monomeric form of the C-terminal domain of the capsid protein (mCA-CTD). The intermolecular interactions are mediated by the packing of hydrophobic side chains at the buried interface and unperturbed by the presence of the olefinic chain on the solvent-exposed surface of the peptide. The results of the structural analysis provide valuable insight into the determinants for high affinity and selective inhibitors for HIV-1 particle assembly.

  20. Inhibition of HIV-1 enhancer-controlled transcription by artificial enhancer-binding peptides derived from bacteriophage 434 repressor.

    PubMed

    Caderas, G; Klauser, S; Liu, N; Bienz, A; Gutte, B

    1999-12-01

    An artificial HIV-1 enhancer-binding 42-residue peptide (R42) that had been derived from bacteriophage 434 repressor inhibited the cell-free in vitro transcription of HIV-1 enhancer-containing plasmids [Hehlgans, T., Stolz, M., Klauser, S., Cui, T., Salgam, P., Brenz Verca, S., Widmann, M., Leiser, A., Städler, K. & Gutte, B. (1993) FEBS Lett. 315, 51-55; Caderas, G. (1997) PhD Thesis, University of Zürich]. Here we show that, after N-terminal extension of R42 with a viral nuclear localization signal, the resulting nucR42 peptide was active in intact cells. NucR42 could be detected immunologically in nuclear extracts and produced a 60-70% reduction of the rate of transcription of an HIV-1 enhancer-carrying plasmid in COS-1 cells that had been cotransfected with the HIV enhancer plasmid, an expression plasmid for nucR42, and a control. NucR42 was also synthesized chemically and the synthetic product characterized by HPLC, mass spectrometry, and quantitative amino acid analysis. Band shift, footprint, and in vitro transcription assays in the presence of exogenous NF-kappaBp50 indicated that the binding sites of nucR42 and NF-kappaB on the HIV enhancers overlapped and that a relatively small excess of nucR42 sufficed to displace NF-kappaBp50. Band shift and in vitro transcription experiments showed also that exchange of the 434 repressor-derived nine-residue recognition helix of nucR42 for four glycines abolished the HIV enhancer binding specificity whereas leucine zipper- or retro-leucine zipper-mediated dimerization of R42 analogues increased it suggesting the potential application of such dimeric HIV enhancer-binding peptides as intracellular inhibitors of HIV replication.

  1. Potent and Broad Inhibition of HIV-1 by a Peptide from the gp41 Heptad Repeat-2 Domain Conjugated to the CXCR4 Amino Terminus

    PubMed Central

    Haggarty, Beth S.; Duong, Jennifer; Jordon, Andrea P. O.; Romano, Josephine; DeClercq, Joshua J.; Gregory, Philip D.; Riley, James L.; Holmes, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 entry can be inhibited by soluble peptides from the gp41 heptad repeat-2 (HR2) domain that interfere with formation of the 6-helix bundle during fusion. Inhibition has also been seen when these peptides are conjugated to anchoring molecules and over-expressed on the cell surface. We hypothesized that potent anti-HIV activity could be achieved if a 34 amino acid peptide from HR2 (C34) were brought to the site of virus-cell interactions by conjugation to the amino termini of HIV-1 coreceptors CCR5 or CXCR4. C34-conjugated coreceptors were expressed on the surface of T cell lines and primary CD4 T cells, retained the ability to mediate chemotaxis in response to cognate chemokines, and were highly resistant to HIV-1 utilization for entry. Notably, C34-conjugated CCR5 and CXCR4 each exhibited potent and broad inhibition of HIV-1 isolates from diverse clades irrespective of tropism (i.e., each could inhibit R5, X4 and dual-tropic isolates). This inhibition was highly specific and dependent on positioning of the peptide, as HIV-1 infection was poorly inhibited when C34 was conjugated to the amino terminus of CD4. C34-conjugated coreceptors could also inhibit HIV-1 isolates that were resistant to the soluble HR2 peptide inhibitor, enfuvirtide. When introduced into primary cells, CD4 T cells expressing C34-conjugated coreceptors exhibited physiologic responses to T cell activation while inhibiting diverse HIV-1 isolates, and cells containing C34-conjugated CXCR4 expanded during HIV-1 infection in vitro and in a humanized mouse model. Notably, the C34-conjugated peptide exerted greater HIV-1 inhibition when conjugated to CXCR4 than to CCR5. Thus, antiviral effects of HR2 peptides can be specifically directed to the site of viral entry where they provide potent and broad inhibition of HIV-1. This approach to engineer HIV-1 resistance in functional CD4 T cells may provide a novel cell-based therapeutic for controlling HIV infection in humans. PMID:27855210

  2. The RNA annealing mechanism of the HIV-1 Tat peptide: conversion of the RNA into an annealing-competent conformation

    PubMed Central

    Doetsch, Martina; Fürtig, Boris; Gstrein, Thomas; Stampfl, Sabine; Schroeder, Renée

    2011-01-01

    The annealing of nucleic acids to (partly) complementary RNA or DNA strands is involved in important cellular processes. A variety of proteins have been shown to accelerate RNA/RNA annealing but their mode of action is still mainly uncertain. In order to study the mechanism of protein-facilitated acceleration of annealing we selected a short peptide, HIV-1 Tat(44–61), which accelerates the reaction efficiently. The activity of the peptide is strongly regulated by mono- and divalent cations which hints at the importance of electrostatic interactions between RNA and peptide. Mutagenesis of the peptide illustrated the dominant role of positively charged amino acids in RNA annealing—both the overall charge of the molecule and a precise distribution of basic amino acids within the peptide are important. Additionally, we found that Tat(44–61) drives the RNA annealing reaction via entropic rather than enthalpic terms. One-dimensional-NMR data suggest that the peptide changes the population distribution of possible RNA structures to favor an annealing-prone RNA conformation, thereby increasing the fraction of colliding RNA molecules that successfully anneal. PMID:21297117

  3. [Antibodies against the 15 amino acid sequence 599-613 of HIV-1 glycoprotein 41 in subjects at risk of HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Nardi, G; Zanchetta, N; Maiolani, M; Berlusconi, A; Salvaggio, L

    1989-01-01

    A peptide (called A-15) composed of 15 amino acids of the gp41 (from position 599 to position 613 of the sequence encoded by the env gene) of HIV-1 has been used as an antigen to search for antibodies in 347 sera of at-risk for HIV-1 infection subjects. The purpose was of comparing the prevalence of these antibodies with that of HIV-1 total EIA antibodies and HIV-1 immunoblotting antibodies. Assuming immunoblotting test as reference test for detecting a HIV-1 infection, the antibodies against peptide A-15 show the same sensitivity and specificity when compared with other HIV-1 total EIA antibodies tests.

  4. Structure and topology around the cleavage site regulate post-translational cleavage of the HIV-1 gp160 signal peptide

    PubMed Central

    Quandte, Matthias; Cabartova, Zuzana; Bontjer, Ilja; Källgren, Carolina; Nilsson, IngMarie; Land, Aafke; von Heijne, Gunnar; Sanders, Rogier W

    2017-01-01

    Like all other secretory proteins, the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp160 is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by its signal peptide during synthesis. Proper gp160 folding in the ER requires core glycosylation, disulfide-bond formation and proline isomerization. Signal-peptide cleavage occurs only late after gp160 chain termination and is dependent on folding of the soluble subunit gp120 to a near-native conformation. We here detail the mechanism by which co-translational signal-peptide cleavage is prevented. Conserved residues from the signal peptide and residues downstream of the canonical cleavage site form an extended alpha-helix in the ER membrane, which covers the cleavage site, thus preventing cleavage. A point mutation in the signal peptide breaks the alpha helix allowing co-translational cleavage. We demonstrate that postponed cleavage of gp160 enhances functional folding of the molecule. The change to early cleavage results in decreased viral fitness compared to wild-type HIV. PMID:28753126

  5. Site-Specific Polymer Attachment to HR2 Peptide Fusion Inhibitors against HIV-1 Decreases Binding Association Rates and Dissociation Rates Rather Than Binding Affinity.

    PubMed

    Danial, Maarten; Stauffer, Angela N; Wurm, Frederik R; Root, Michael J; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2017-03-15

    A popular strategy for overcoming the limited plasma half-life of peptide heptad repeat 2 (HR2) fusion inhibitors against HIV-1 is conjugation with biocompatible polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). However, despite improved resistance to proteolysis and reduced renal elimination, covalent attachment of polymers often causes a loss in therapeutic potency. In this study, we investigated the molecular origins of the loss in potency upon conjugation of linear, midfunctional, and hyperbranched PEG-like polymers to peptides that inhibit HIV-1-host cell membrane fusion. Fluorescence binding assays revealed that polymer conjugation imparted mass transport limitations that manifested as coexistent slower association and dissociation rates from the gp41 target on HIV-1. Furthermore, reduced association kinetics rather than affinity disruption was responsible for the loss in antiviral potency. Finally, the binding assays indicated that the unmodified HR2-derived peptide demonstrated diffusion-limited binding. The observed high potency of the unmodified peptide in HIV-1 inhibition assays was therefore attributed to rapid peptide conformational changes upon binding to the gp41 prehairpin structure. This study emphasizes that the view in which polymer ligation to therapeutic peptides inadvertently leads to loss in potency due to a loss in binding affinity requires scientific verification on a case-by-case basis and that high peptide potency may be due to rapid target-binding events.

  6. Studies on in vivo induction of HIV-1 envelope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by synthetic peptides from the V3 loop region of HIV-1 IIIB gp 120.

    PubMed

    Nehete, P N; Casement, K S; Arlinghaus, R B; Sastry, K J

    1995-02-01

    We have previously reported the induction of MHC class I-restricted, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in mice by a 15-amino acid peptide (R15K) from the V3 loop in gp120. We now present evidence showing that CTL activity induced by R15K was stable for 8-10 weeks after a single injection and that as little as 20 micrograms peptide was sufficient for efficient CTL induction in vivo. While induction of CTLs was efficient with R15K emulsified in either complete or incomplete Freund's adjuvant, only a low-level CTL response was observed in mice immunized with R15K in either alum or saline. We analyzed a series of carrier-free synthetic peptides ranging in length from 8 to 24 amino acids from the V3 loop region and observed that peptide R10I consisting of 10 amino acids from the middle portion of R15K was more efficient for CTL induction. Additionally, lymph node cells from mice immunized with 24 and 15 amino acid peptides (N24G and R15K, respectively) when restimulated in vitro with R10I exhibited greater HIV-1 env-specific CTL activity than when either of the longer peptides was used for restimulation. A peptide consisting of only 8 amino acids (R8K) was sufficient neither for inducing primary CTLs nor for in vitro restimulation of lymph node CTL precursors. These results establish that a carrier-free 10-amino acid synthetic peptide from the V3 loop region in HIV-1 gp120 has the optimal sequence for efficient induction of HIV env-specific CTLs in mice.

  7. HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Freed, E O

    2001-11-01

    In general terms, the replication cycle of lentiviruses, including HIV-1, closely resembles that of other retroviruses. There are, however, a number of unique aspects of HIV replication; for example, the HIVs and SIVs target receptors and coreceptors distinct from those used by other retroviruses. Lentiviruses encode a number of regulatory and accessory proteins not encoded by the genomes of the prototypical "simple" retroviruses. Of particular interest from the gene therapy perspective, lentiviruses possess the ability to productively infect some types of non-dividing cells. This chapter, while reiterating certain points discussed in Chapter 1, will attempt to focus on issues unique to HIV-1 replication. The HIV-1 genome encodes the major structural and non-structural proteins common to all replication-competent retroviruses (Fig. 1, and Chapter 1). From the 5'- to 3'-ends of the genome are found the gag (for group-specific antigen), pol (for polymerase), and env (for envelope glycoprotein) genes. The gag gene encodes a polyprotein precursor whose name, Pr55Gag, is based on its molecular weight. Pr55Gag is cleaved by the viral protease (PR) to the mature Gag proteins matrix (also known as MA or p17), capsid (CA or p24), nucleocapsid (NC or p7), and p6. Two spacer peptides, p2 and p1, are also generated upon Pr55Gag processing. The pol-encoded enzymes are initially synthesized as part of a large polyprotein precursor, Pr160GagPol, whose synthesis results from a rare frameshifting event during Pr55Gag translation. The individual pol-encoded enzymes, PR, reverse transcriptase (RT), and integrase (IN), are cleaved from Pr160GagPol by the viral PR. The envelope (Env) glycoproteins are also synthesized as a polyprotein precursor (Fig. 1). Unlike the Gag and Pol precursors, which are cleaved by the viral PR, the Env precursor, known as gp160, is processed by a cellular protease during Env trafficking to the cell surface, gp160 processing results in the generation of the

  8. Secretion modification region-derived peptide disrupts HIV-1 Nef's interaction with mortalin and blocks virus and Nef exosome release.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Martin N; Huang, Ming-Bo; Ali, Syed A; Powell, Michael D; Bond, Vincent C

    2012-01-01

    Nef is secreted from infected cells in exosomes and is found in abundance in the sera of HIV-infected individuals. Secreted exosomal Nef (exNef) induces apoptosis in uninfected CD4⁺ T cells and may be a key component of HIV pathogenesis. The exosomal pathway has been implicated in HIV-1 virus release, suggesting a possible link between these two viral processes. However, the underlying mechanisms and cellular components of exNef secretion have not been elucidated. We have previously described a Nef motif, the secretion modification region (SMR; amino acids 66 to 70), that is required for exNef secretion. In silico modeling data suggest that this motif can form a putative binding pocket. We hypothesized that the Nef SMR binds a cellular protein involved in protein trafficking and that inhibition of this interaction would abrogate exNef secretion. By using tandem mass spectrometry and coimmunoprecipitation with a novel SMR-based peptide (SMRwt) that blocks exNef secretion and HIV-1 virus release, we identified mortalin as an SMR-specific cellular protein. A second set of coimmunoprecipitation experiments with full-length Nef confirmed that mortalin interacts with Nef via Nef's SMR motif and that this interaction is disrupted by the SMRwt peptide. Overexpression and microRNA knockdown of mortalin revealed a positive correlation between exNef secretion levels and mortalin protein expression. Using antibody inhibition we demonstrated that the Nef/mortalin interaction is necessary for exNef secretion. Taken together, this work constitutes a significant step in understanding the underlying mechanism of exNef secretion, identifies a novel host-pathogen interaction, and introduces an HIV-derived peptide with antiviral properties.

  9. Synthetic long peptide booster immunization in rhesus macaques primed with replication-competent NYVAC-C-KC induces a balanced CD4/CD8 T-cell and antibody response against the conserved regions of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Mooij, Petra; Koopman, Gerrit; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; Nieuwenhuis, Ivonne G; Beenhakker, Niels; Koestler, Josef; Bogers, Willy M J M; Wagner, Ralf; Esteban, Mariano; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Heeney, Jonathan L; Jacobs, Bertram L; Melief, Cornelis J M

    2015-06-01

    The Thai trial (RV144) indicates that a prime-boost vaccine combination that induces both T-cell and antibody responses may be desirable for an effective HIV vaccine. We have previously shown that immunization with synthetic long peptides (SLP), covering the conserved parts of SIV, induced strong CD4 T-cell and antibody responses, but only modest CD8 T-cell responses. To generate a more balanced CD4/CD8 T-cell and antibody response, this study evaluated a pox-vector prime/SLP boost strategy in rhesus macaques. Priming with a replication-competent NYVAC, encoding HIV-1 clade C gag, pol and nef, induced modest IFNγ T-cell immune responses, predominantly directed against HIV-1 Gag. Booster immunization with SLP, covering the conserved parts of HIV-1 Gag, Pol and Env, resulted in a more than 10-fold increase in IFNγ ELISpot responses in four of six animals, which were predominantly HIV-1 Pol-specific. The animals showed a balanced polyfunctional CD4 and CD8 T-cell response and high Ab titres. © 2015 The Authors.

  10. An extended CCR5-ECL2 peptide forms a helix that binds HIV-1 gp120 through non-specific hydrophobic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Naama; Arshava, Boris; Naider, Fred; Scherf, Tali; Anglister, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR5 serves as a co-receptor for the Human Immunodefficiency Virus type-1, HIV-1. The CCR5 N-terminal segment, the second extracellular loop (ECL2) and the transmembrane helices have been implicated in binding the envelope glycoprotein gp120. Peptides corresponding to the sequence of the putative ECL2 as well as peptides containing the ECL1 and ECL3 were found to inhibit HIV-1 infection. The aromatic residues in the C-terminal half of an ECL2 peptide were shown to interact with gp120. In the present study we determined that in aqueous buffer the segment Q188-Q194 in an elongated ECL2 peptide (R168 to K197) forms an amphiphilic helix, which corresponds to the beginning of the fifth transmembrane helix in the crystal structure of CCR5. Two dimensional Saturation Transfer Difference NMR spectroscopy and dynamic filtering studies revealed the involvement of Y187, F189, W190 and F193 of the helical segment, in the interaction with gp120. The crystal structure of CCR5 shows that the aromatic side chains of F189, W190 and F193 point away from the binding pocket and interact with the membrane or with an adjacent CCR5 molecule and therefore, could not interact with gp120 in the intact CCR5 receptor. We conclude that these three aromatic residues of ECL2 peptides interact with gp120 through hydrophobic interactions not representative of the interactions of the intact CCR5 receptor. The HIV-1 inhibition by ECL2 peptides as well as by ECL1 and ECL3 peptides and peptides corresponding to ECL2 of CXCR4, which serves as an alternative HIV-1 co-receptor, suggests that there is a hydrophobic surface in the envelope spike that could be a target for HIV-1 entry inhibitors. PMID:25703038

  11. Sequence conservation, HLA-E-Restricted peptide, and best-defined CTL/CD8+ epitopes in gag P24 (capsid) of HIV-1 subtype B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Dharmawan, Ruben; Sari, Yulia; Sariyatun, Ratna

    2017-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a cause of global health problem. Continuous studies of HIV-1 genetic and immunological profiles are important to find strategies against the virus. This study aimed to conduct analysis of sequence conservation, HLA-E-restricted peptide, and best-defined CTL/CD8+ epitopes in p24 (capsid) of HIV-1 subtype B worldwide. The p24-coding sequences from 3,557 HIV subtype B isolates were aligned using MUSCLE and analysed. Some highly conserved regions (sequence conservation ≥95%) were observed. Two considerably long series of sequences with conservation of 100% was observed at base 349-356 and 550-557 of p24 (HXB2 numbering). The consensus from all aligned isolates was precisely the same as consensus B in the Los Alamos HIV Database. The HLA-E-restricted peptide in amino acid (aa) 14-22 of HIV-1 p24 (AISPRTLNA) was found in 55.9% (1,987/3,557) of HIV-1 subtype B worldwide. Forty-four best-defined CTL/CD8+ epitopes were observed, in which VKNWMTETL epitope (aa 181-189 of p24) restricted by B*4801 was the most frequent, as found in 94.9% of isolates. The results of this study would contribute information about HIV-1 subtype B and benefits for further works willing to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies against the virus.

  12. Effects of sequence changes in the HIV-1 gp41 fusion peptide on CCR5 inhibitor resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Anastassopoulou, Cleo G.; Ketas, Thomas J.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Johan Klasse, Per; Moore, John P.

    2012-07-05

    A rare pathway of HIV-1 resistance to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors such as Vicriviroc (VCV) involves changes solely in the gp41 fusion peptide (FP). Here, we show that the G516V change is critical to VCV resistance in PBMC and TZM-bl cells, although it must be accompanied by either M518V or F519I to have a substantial impact. Modeling VCV inhibition data from the two cell types indicated that G516V allows both double mutants to use VCV-CCR5 complexes for entry. The model further identified F519I as an independent determinant of preference for the unoccupied, high-VCV affinity form of CCR5. From inhibitor-free reversion cultures, we also identified a substitution in the inner domain of gp120, T244A, which appears to counter the resistance phenotype created by the FP substitutions. Examining the interplay of these changes will enhance our understanding of Env complex interactions that influence both HIV-1 entry and resistance to CCR5 inhibitors.

  13. An HIV-1 antibody from an elite neutralizer implicates the fusion peptide as a site of vulnerability.

    PubMed

    van Gils, Marit J; van den Kerkhof, Tom L G M; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Cottrell, Christopher A; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Pallesen, Jesper; de Val, Natalia; Yasmeen, Anila; de Taeye, Steven W; Schorcht, Anna; Gumbs, Stephanie; Johanna, Inez; Saye-Francisco, Karen; Liang, Chi-Hui; Landais, Elise; Nie, Xiaoyan; Pritchard, Laura K; Crispin, Max; Kelsoe, Garnett; Wilson, Ian A; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Klasse, Per Johan; Moore, John P; Burton, Dennis R; Ward, Andrew B; Sanders, Rogier W

    2016-11-14

    The induction by vaccination of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) capable of neutralizing various HIV-1 viral strains is challenging, but understanding how a subset of HIV-infected individuals develops bNAbs may guide immunization strategies. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the bNAb ACS202 from an elite neutralizer that recognizes a new, trimer-specific and cleavage-dependent epitope at the gp120-gp41 interface of the envelope glycoprotein (Env), involving the glycan N88 and the gp41 fusion peptide. In addition, an Env trimer, AMC011 SOSIP.v4.2, based on early virus isolates from the same elite neutralizer, was constructed, and its structure by cryo-electron microscopy at 6.2 Å resolution reveals a closed, pre-fusion conformation similar to that of the BG505 SOSIP.664 trimer. The availability of a native-like Env trimer and a bNAb from the same elite neutralizer provides the opportunity to design vaccination strategies aimed at generating similar bNAbs against a key functional site on HIV-1.

  14. An HIV-1 antibody from an elite neutralizer implicates the fusion peptide as a site of vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    van Gils, Marit J.; van den Kerkhof, Tom L.G.M.; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Cottrell, Christopher A.; Sok, Devin; Pauthner, Matthias; Pallesen, Jesper; de Val, Natalia; Yasmeen, Anila; de Taeye, Steven W.; Schorcht, Anna; Gumbs, Stephanie; Johanna, Inez; Saye-Francisco, Karen; Liang, Chi-Hui; Landais, Elise; Nie, Xiaoyan; Pritchard, Laura K.; Crispin, Max; Kelsoe, Garnett; Wilson, Ian A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Klasse, Per Johan; Moore, John P.; Burton, Dennis R.; Ward, Andrew B.; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY The induction of broadly HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), capable of neutralizing various viral strains, by vaccination is challenging, but understanding how a subset of HIV-infected individuals develops bNAbs may guide immunization strategies. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the bNAb ACS202 from an elite neutralizer that recognizes a new, trimer-specific and cleavage-dependent epitope at the gp120-gp41 interface of the envelope glycoprotein (Env), involving the glycan N88 and the gp41 fusion peptide. In addition, an Env trimer, AMC011 SOSIP.v4.2, based on early virus isolates from the same elite neutralizer, was constructed and its structure by cryo-EM at 6.2 Å resolution reveals a closed, pre-fusion conformation similar to that of the BG505 SOSIP.664 trimer. The availability of a native-like Env trimer and a bNAb from the same elite neutralizer provides the opportunity to design vaccination strategies aimed at generating similar bNAbs against a key functional site on HIV-1. PMID:27841852

  15. Neutron encoded labeling for peptide identification.

    PubMed

    Rose, Christopher M; Merrill, Anna E; Bailey, Derek J; Hebert, Alexander S; Westphall, Michael S; Coon, Joshua J

    2013-05-21

    Metabolic labeling of cells using heavy amino acids is most commonly used for relative quantitation; however, partner mass shifts also detail the number of heavy amino acids contained within the precursor species. Here, we use a recently developed metabolic labeling technique, NeuCode (neutron encoding) stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), which produces precursor partners spaced ~40 mDa apart to enable amino acid counting. We implement large scale counting of amino acids through a program, "Amino Acid Counter", which determines the most likely combination of amino acids within a precursor based on NeuCode SILAC partner spacing and filters candidate peptide sequences during a database search using this information. Counting the number of lysine residues for precursors selected for MS/MS decreases the median number of candidate sequences from 44 to 14 as compared to an accurate mass search alone (20 ppm). Furthermore, the ability to co-isolate and fragment NeuCode SILAC partners enables counting of lysines in product ions, and when the information is used, the median number of candidates is reduced to 7. We then demonstrate counting leucine in addition to lysine results in a 6-fold decrease in search space, 43 to 7, when compared to an accurate mass search. We use this scheme to analyze a nanoLC-MS/MS experiment and demonstrate that accurate mass plus lysine and leucine counting reduces the number of candidate sequences to one for ~20% of all precursors selected, demonstrating an ability to identify precursors without MS/MS analysis.

  16. Neutron Encoded Labeling for Peptide Identification

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Christopher M.; Merrill, Anna E.; Bailey, Derek J.; Hebert, Alexander S.; Westphall, Michael S.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic labeling of cells using heavy amino acids is most commonly used for relative quantitation; however, partner mass shifts also detail the number of heavy amino acids contained within the precursor species. Here, we use a recently developed metabolic labeling technique, NeuCode (neutron encoding) stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), which produces precursor partners spaced ~40 mDa apart to enable amino acid counting. We implement large scale counting of amino acids through a program, “Amino Acid Counter”, which determines the most likely combination of amino acids within a precursor based on NeuCode SILAC partner spacing and filters candidate peptide sequences during a database search using this information. Counting the number of lysine residues for precursors selected for MS/MS decreases the median number of candidate sequences from 44 to 14 as compared to an accurate mass search alone (20 ppm). Furthermore, the ability to co-isolate and fragment NeuCode SILAC partners enables counting of lysines in product ions, and when the information is used, the median number of candidates is reduced to 7. We then demonstrate counting leucine in addition to lysine results in a 6-fold decrease in search space, 43 to 7, when compared to an accurate mass search. We use this scheme to analyze a nanoLC-MS/MS experiment and demonstrate that accurate mass plus lysine and leucine counting reduces the number of candidate sequences to one for ~20% of all precursors selected, demonstrating an ability to identify precursors without MS/MS analysis. PMID:23638792

  17. Durable cytotoxic immune responses against gp120 elicited by recombinant SV40 vectors encoding HIV-1 gp120 +/- IL-15.

    PubMed

    McKee, Hayley J; T'sao, Patricia Y; Vera, Maria; Fortes, Puri; Strayer, David S

    2004-08-23

    BACKGROUND: A vaccine that elicits durable, powerful anti-HIV immunity remains an elusive goal. In these studies we tested whether multiple treatments with viral vector-delivered HIV envelope antigen (gp120), with and without IL-15, could help to approach that goal. For this purpose, we used recombinant Tag-deleted SV40-derived vectors (rSV40s), since they do not elicit neutralizing antibody responses, and so can be given multiply without loss of transduction efficiency. METHODS: SV(gp120) carried the coding sequences for HIV-1NL4-3 Env, and SV(mIL-15) carried the cDNA for mouse IL-15. Singly, and in combination, these two vectors were given monthly to BALB/cJ mice. Cytotoxic immunity and cytotoxic memory were tested in direct cytotoxicity assays using unselected effector cells. Antibody vs. gp120 was measured in a binding assay. In both cases, targets were P815 cells that were stably transfected with gp120. RESULTS: Multiple injections of SV(gp120) elicited powerful anti-gp120 cytolytic activity (>70% specific lysis) by unselected spleen cells. Cells from multiply-immunized mice that were rested 1 year after their last injections still showed >60% gp120-specific lysis. Anti-gp120 antibody was first detected after 2 monthly injections of SV(gp120) and remained elevated thereafter. Adding SV(mIL-15) to the immunization regimen dramatically accelerated the development of memory cytolytic responses, with >/= 50% specific lysis seen 1 month after two treatments. IL-15 did not alter the development of antibody responses. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, rSV40s encoding antigens and immunostimulatory cytokines may be useful tools for priming and/or boosting immune responses against HIV.

  18. Structure and Immunogenicity of a Peptide Vaccine, Including the Complete HIV-1 gp41 2F5 Epitope

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Soraya; Araujo, Aitziber; Apellániz, Beatriz; Bryson, Steve; Carravilla, Pablo; de la Arada, Igor; Huarte, Nerea; Rujas, Edurne; Pai, Emil F.; Arrondo, José L. R.; Domene, Carmen; Jiménez, María Angeles; Nieva, José L.

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 harbors the epitope recognized by the broadly neutralizing anti-HIV 2F5 antibody, a research focus in HIV-1 vaccine development. In this work, we analyze the structure and immunogenic properties of MPERp, a peptide vaccine that includes the following: (i) the complete sequence protected from proteolysis by the 2F5 paratope; (ii) downstream residues postulated to establish weak contacts with the CDR-H3 loop of the antibody, which are believed to be crucial for neutralization; and (iii) an aromatic rich anchor to the membrane interface. MPERp structures solved in dodecylphosphocholine micelles and 25% 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (v/v) confirmed folding of the complete 2F5 epitope within continuous kinked helices. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) measurements demonstrated the retention of main helical conformations in immunogenic formulations based on alum, Freund's adjuvant, or two different types of liposomes. Binding to membrane-inserted MPERp, IR, molecular dynamics simulations, and characterization of the immune responses further suggested that packed helical bundles partially inserted into the lipid bilayer, rather than monomeric helices adsorbed to the membrane interface, could encompass effective MPER peptide vaccines. Together, our data constitute a proof-of-concept to support MPER-based peptides in combination with liposomes as stand-alone immunogens and suggest new approaches for structure-aided MPER vaccine development. PMID:24429284

  19. Simultaneous recognition of HIV-1 TAR RNA bulge and loop sequences by cyclic peptide mimics of Tat protein

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Amy; Leeper, Thomas C.; Athanassiou, Zafiria; Patora-Komisarska, Krystyna; Karn, Jonathan; Robinson, John A.; Varani, Gabriele

    2009-07-21

    The interaction of the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat with its transactivation response (TAR) RNA is an essential step in viral replication and therefore an attractive target for developing antivirals with new mechanisms of action. Numerous compounds that bind to the 3-nt bulge responsible for binding Tat have been identified in the past, but none of these molecules had sufficient potency to warrant pharmaceutical development. We have discovered conformationally-constrained cyclic peptide mimetics of Tat that are specific nM inhibitors of the Tat-TAR interaction by using a structure-based approach. The lead peptides are nearly as active as the antiviral drug nevirapine against a variety of clinical isolates in human lymphocytes. The NMR structure of a peptide–RNA complex reveals that these molecules interfere with the recruitment to TAR of both Tat and the essential cellular cofactor transcription elongation factor-b (P-TEFb) by binding simultaneously at the RNA bulge and apical loop, forming an unusually deep pocket. This structure illustrates additional principles in RNA recognition: RNA-binding molecules can achieve specificity by interacting simultaneously with multiple secondary structure elements and by inducing the formation of deep binding pockets in their targets. It also provides insight into the P-TEFb binding site and a rational basis for optimizing the promising antiviral activity observed for these cyclic peptides.

  20. Gene therapy with plasmids encoding IFN-β or IFN-α14 confers long-term resistance to HIV-1 in humanized mice

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sojan; Choi, Jang-Gi; Ortega, Nora M.; Zhang, Junli; Shankar, Premlata; Swamy, N. Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Because endogenous interferon type I (IFN-I) produced by HIV-1 infection might complicate the analysis of therapeutically administered IFN-I, we tested different humanized mouse models for induction of IFN-I during HIV-1 infection. While HIV-1 induced high levels of IFN-α in BLT mice, IFN-I was undetectable following infection in the Hu-PBL mouse model, in which only T cells expand. We therefore tested the effect of treatment with Pegylated IFN-2 (pegasys), in Hu-PBL mice. Pegasys prevented CD4 T cell depletion and reduced the viral load for 10 days, but the effect waned thereafter. We next expressed IFN-I subsets (IFN-α2, −α6, −α8, −α14, and −β) in Hu-PBL mice by hydrodynamic injection of plasmids encoding them and 2 days later infected the mice with HIV-1. CD4 T cell depletion was prevented in all subtypes of IFN-I-expressing mice by day 10. However, at day 40 post-infection, protection was seen in IFN-β- and IFN-α14-expressing mice, but not the others. The viral load followed an inverse pattern and was highest in control mice and lowest in IFN-β- and IFN-α14-expressing mice until day 40 after infection. These results show that gene therapy with plasmids encoding IFN-β and −α14, but not the commonly used −α2, confers long-term suppression of HIV-1 replication. PMID:27729616

  1. Immunogenicity and virulence of attenuated vaccinia virus Tian Tan encoding HIV-1 muti-epitope genes, p24 and cholera toxin B subunit in mice.

    PubMed

    Du, Shouwen; Wang, Yuhang; Liu, Cunxia; Wang, Maopeng; Zhu, Yilong; Tan, Peng; Ren, Dayong; Li, Xiao; Tian, Mingyao; Yin, Ronglan; Li, Chang; Jin, Ningyi

    2015-07-01

    No effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine against HIV-1 in humans is currently available. This study analyzes the immunogenicity and safety of a recombinant attenuated vaccinia virus. A chimeric gene of HIV-1 multi-epitope genes containing CpG ODN and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) was inserted into Chinese vaccinia virus Tian Tan strain (VTT) mutant strain. The recombinant virus rddVTT(-CCMp24) was assessed for immunogenicity and safety in mice. Results showed that the protein CCMp24 was expressed stably in BHK-21 infected with rddVTT(-CCMp24). And the recombinant virus induced the production of HIV-1 p24 specific immunoglobulin G (IgG), IL-2 and IL-4. The recombinant vaccine induced γ-interferon secretion against HIV peptides, and elicited a certain levels of immunological memory. Results indicated that the recombinant virus had certain immunogenicity to HIV-1. Additionally, the virulence of the recombinant virus was been attenuated in vivo of mice compared with wild type VTT (wtVTT), and the introduction of CTB and HIV Mp24 did not alter the infectivity and virulence of defective vaccinia virus.

  2. Development of CD8+ T cells expressing two distinct receptors specific for MTB and HIV-1 peptides

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Pei-Pei; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Luo, Wei; Zhou, Chao-Ying; Wen, Qian; Yang, Zhi; Liu, Su-Dong; Jiang, Zhen-Min; Zhou, Ming-Qian; Jin, Qi; Ma, Li

    2013-01-01

    The immune response in individuals co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and the human immunodeficiency virus (MTB/HIV) gradually deteriorates, particularly in the cellular compartment. Adoptive transfer of functional effector T cells can confer protective immunity to immunodeficient MTB/HIV co-infected recipients. However, few such effector T cells exist in vivo, and their isolation and amplification to sufficient numbers is difficult. Therefore, enhancing immune responses against both pathogens is critical for treating MTB/HIV co-infected patients. One approach is adoptive transfer of T cell receptor (TCR) gene-modified T cells for the treatment of MTB/HIV co-infections because lymphocyte numbers and their functional avidity is significantly increased by TCR gene transfer. To generate bispecific CD8+ T cells, MTB Ag85B199–207 peptide-specific TCRs (MTB/TCR) and HIV-1 Env120–128 peptide-specific TCRs (HIV/TCR) were isolated and introduced into CD8+ T cells simultaneously using a retroviral vector. To avoid mispairing among exogenous and endogenous TCRs, and to improve the function and stability of the introduced TCRs, several strategies were employed, including introducing mutations in the MTB/TCR constant (C) regions, substituting part of the HIV/TCR C regions with CD3ζ, and linking gene segments with three different 2A peptides. Results presented in this report suggest that the engineered T cells possessed peptide-specific specificity resulting in cytokine production and cytotoxic activity. This is the first report describing the generation of engineered T cells specific for two different pathogens and provides new insights into TCR gene therapy for the treatment of immunocompromised MTB/HIV co-infected patients.

  3. A peptide nucleic acid-aminosugar conjugate targeting transactivation response element of HIV-1 RNA genome shows a high bioavailability in human cells and strongly inhibits tat-mediated transactivation of HIV-1 transcription.

    PubMed

    Das, Indrajit; Désiré, Jérôme; Manvar, Dinesh; Baussanne, Isabelle; Pandey, Virendra N; Décout, Jean-Luc

    2012-07-12

    The 6-aminoglucosamine ring of the aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin B (ring II) was conjugated to a 16-mer peptide nucleic acid (PNA) targeting HIV-1 TAR RNA. For this purpose, we prepared the aminoglucosamine monomer 15 and attached it to the protected PNA prior to its cleavage from the solid support. We found that the resulting PNA-aminoglucosamine conjugate is stable under acidic conditions, efficiently taken up by the human cells and fairly distributed in both cytosol and nucleus without endosomal entrapment because cotreatment with endosome-disrupting agent had no effect on its cellular distribution. The conjugate displayed very high target specificity in vitro and strongly inhibited Tat mediated transactivation of HIV-1 LTR transcription in a cell culture system. The unique properties of this new class of PNA conjugate suggest it to be a potential candidate for therapeutic application.

  4. A Peptide Nucleic Acid-Aminosugar Conjugate Targeting Transactivation Response Element of HIV-1 RNA Genome Shows a High Bioavailability in Human Cells and Strongly Inhibits Tat-mediated Transactivation of HIV-1 Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Das, Indrajit; Désiré, Jérôme; Manvar, Dinesh; Baussanne, Isabelle; Pandey, Virendra N.; Décout, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    The 6-aminoglucosamine ring of the aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin B (ring II) was conjugated to a 16 mer peptide nucleic acid (PNA) targeting HIV-1 TAR RNA. For this purpose we prepared the aminoglucosamine monomer 15 and attached it to the protected PNA prior to its cleavage from the solid support. We found that the resulting PNA-aminoglucosamine conjugate is stable under acidic condition, efficiently taken up by the human cells and fairly distributed in both cytosol and nucleus without endosomal entrapment since co-treatment with endosome-disrupting agent had no effect on its cellular distribution. The conjugate displayed very high target specificity in vitro and strongly inhibited Tat mediated transactivation of HIV-1 LTR transcription in cell culture system. The unique properties of this new class of PNA conjugate suggest it to be a potential candidate for therapeutic application. PMID:22698070

  5. Robust antigen-specific humoral immune responses to sublingually delivered adenoviral vectors encoding HIV-1 Env: association with mucoadhesion and efficient penetration of the sublingual barrier.

    PubMed

    Domm, William; Brooks, Lauren; Chung, Hung Li; Feng, Changyong; Bowers, William J; Watson, Gene; McGrath, James L; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2011-09-16

    The efficient induction of virus-specific mucosal antibodies is an important unmet objective in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine research. One promising approach is sublingual (SL) immunization. We examined the effectiveness of SL delivery of two different viral vectors: (i) a recombinant adenovirus (rAd5), and (ii) a Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 amplicon vector (HSV-1). Initial in vitro videomicroscopy experiments showed that rAd5 particles were trapped in saliva (i.e., that Ad5 was mucoadhesive) - unlike HSV-1 virions, which migrated freely in both saliva and water. In vivo imaging studies in mice revealed that only the rAd5 vector efficiently transduced the SL epithelium. Consistent with this, SL delivery of an rAd5 encoding HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) resulted in robust antigen-specific antibody responses in plasma and in vaginal washes, whereas SL delivery of a HSV-1 amplicon vector encoding HIV-1 Env failed to elicit Env-specific antibodies. In contrast, both vectors elicited equivalent humoral responses following intramuscular (IM) delivery. Finally, SL delivery of the rAd5:Env vector resulted in elevated levels of Env-specific serum IgA, and vaginal IgA and IgG, when compared to IM delivery of the same vector. These results findings shed light on vector properties (mucoadhesion, penetration of the sublingual barrier) which may be important for the induction of potent humoral immune responses following sublingual vector administration. Our data also show that SL delivery of an Env-encoding rAd5 vector can elicit a potent antigen-specific mucosal antibody response in the absence of adjuvant. Overall, these findings support the further exploration of the SL delivery route for HIV-1 vaccine delivery.

  6. Robust Antigen-Specific Humoral Immune Responses to Sublingually Delivered Adenoviral Vectors Encoding HIV-1 Env: Association with Mucoadhesion and Efficient Penetration of the Sublingual Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Domm, William; Brooks, Lauren; Chung, Hung Li; Feng, Changyong; Bowers, William J.; Watson, Gene; McGrath, James L.; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The efficient induction of virus-specific mucosal antibodies is an important unmet objective in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine research. One promising approach is sublingual (SL) immunization. We examined the effectiveness of SL delivery of two different viral vectors: (i) a recombinant adenovirus (rAd5), and (ii) a Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 amplicon vector (HSV-1). Initial in vitro videomicroscopy experiments showed that rAd5 particles were trapped in saliva (i.e., that Ad5 was mucoadhesive) - unlike HSV-1 virions, which migrated freely in both saliva and water. In vivo imaging studies in mice revealed that only the rAd5 vector efficiently transduced the SL epithelium. Consistent with this, SL delivery of an rAd5 encoding HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) resulted in robust antigen-specific antibody responses in plasma and in vaginal washes, whereas SL delivery of a HSV-1 amplicon vector encoding HIV-1 Env failed to elicit Env-specific antibodies. In contrast, both vectors elicited equivalent humoral responses following intramuscular (IM) delivery. Finally, SL delivery of the rAd5:Env vector resulted in elevated levels of Env-specific serum IgA, and vaginal IgA and IgG, when compared to IM delivery of the same vector. These results findings shed light on vector properties (mucoadhesion, penetration of the sublingual barrier) which may be important for the induction of potent humoral immune responses following sublingual vector administration. Our data also show that SL delivery of an Env-encoding rAd5 vector can elicit a potent antigen-specific mucosal antibody response in the absence of adjuvant. Overall, these findings support the further exploration of the SL delivery route for HIV-1 vaccine delivery. PMID:21801777

  7. Peptide-Derivatized SB105-A10 Dendrimer Inhibits the Infectivity of R5 and X4 HIV-1 Strains in Primary PBMCs and Cervicovaginal Histocultures

    PubMed Central

    Bon, Isabella; Lembo, David; Rusnati, Marco; Clò, Alberto; Morini, Silvia; Miserocchi, Anna; Bugatti, Antonella; Grigolon, Sonia; Musumeci, Giuseppina; Landolfo, Santo; Re, Maria Carla; Gibellini, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Peptide dendrimers are a class of molecules that exhibit a large array of biological effects including antiviral activity. In this report, we analyzed the antiviral activity of the peptide-derivatized SB105-A10 dendrimer, which is a tetra-branched dendrimer synthetized on a lysine core, in activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) that were challenged with reference and wild-type human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains. SB105-A10 inhibited infections by HIV-1 X4 and R5 strains, interfering with the early phases of the viral replication cycle. SB105-A10 targets heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and, importantly, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay revealed that SB105-A10 strongly binds gp41 and gp120, most likely preventing HIV-1 attachment/entry through multiple mechanisms. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of SB105-A10 was also detectable in an organ-like structure of human cervicovaginal tissue, in which SB105-A10 inhibited the HIV-1ada R5 strain infection without altering the tissue viability. These results demonstrated the strong antiviral activity of SB105-A10 and suggest a potential microbicide use of this dendrimer to prevent the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1. PMID:24116111

  8. Genetic mapping in human and mouse of the locus encoding TRBP, a protein that binds the TAR region of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, C.A.; Gatignol, A.; Graham, K.

    1995-01-01

    Productive infection with HIV-1, the virus responsible for AIDS, requires the involvement of host cell factors for completion of the replicative cycle, but the identification of these factors and elucidation of their specific functions has been difficult. A human cDNA, TRBP, was recently cloned and characterized as a positive regulator of gene expression that binds to the TAR region of the HIV-1 genome. Here we demonstrate that this factor is encoded by a gene, TARBP2, that maps to human chromosome 12 and mouse chromosome 15, and we also identify and map one human pseudogene (TARBP2P) and two mouse TRBP-related sequences. The map location of the expressed gene identifies it as a candidate for the previously identified factor encoded on human chromosome 12 that has been shown to be important for expression of HIV-1 genes. Western blotting indicates that despite high sequence conservation in human and mouse, the TARBP2 protein differs in apparent size in primate and rodent cells. 41 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Peptide and protein-based inhibitors of HIV-1 co-receptors

    PubMed Central

    von Recum, Horst A; Pokorski, Jonathan K

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) afflicts an estimated 30 million people globally, making it a continuing pandemic. Despite major research efforts, the rate of new infections has remained relatively static over time. This article reviews an emerging strategy for the treatment of HIV, the inhibition of the co-receptors necessary for HIV entry, CCR5 and CXCR4. The aim of this article is to highlight potential therapeutics derived from peptides and proteins that show particular promise in HIV treatment. Molecules that act on CCR5, CXCR4 or on both receptors will be discussed herein. PMID:23856897

  10. Specificity of RSG-1.2 Peptide Binding to RRE-IIB RNA Element of HIV-1 over Rev Peptide Is Mainly Enthalpic in Origin

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Bose, Debojit; Suryawanshi, Hemant; Sabharwal, Harshana; Mapa, Koyeli; Maiti, Souvik

    2011-01-01

    Rev is an essential HIV-1 regulatory protein which binds to the Rev responsive element (RRE) present within the env gene of HIV-1 RNA genome. This binding facilitates the transport of the RNA to the cytoplasm, which in turn triggers the switch between viral latency and active viral replication. Essential components of this complex have been localized to a minimal arginine rich Rev peptide and stem IIB region of RRE. A synthetic peptide known as RSG-1.2 binds with high binding affinity and specificity to the RRE-IIB than the Rev peptide, however the thermodynamic basis of this specificity has not yet been addressed. The present study aims to probe the thermodynamic origin of this specificity of RSG-1.2 over Rev Peptide for RRE-IIB. The temperature dependent melting studies show that RSG-1.2 binding stabilizes the RRE structure significantly (ΔTm = 4.3°C), in contrast to Rev binding. Interestingly the thermodynamic signatures of the binding have also been found to be different for both the peptides. At pH 7.5, RSG-1.2 binds RRE-IIB with a Ka = 16.2±0.6×107 M−1 where enthalpic change ΔH = −13.9±0.1 kcal/mol is the main driving force with limited unfavorable contribution from entropic change TΔS = −2.8±0.1 kcal/mol. A large part of ΔH may be due to specific stacking between U72 and Arg15. In contrast binding of Rev (Ka = 3.1±0.4×107 M−1) is driven mainly by entropy (ΔH = 0 kcal/mol and TΔS = 10.2±0.2 kcal/mol) which arises from major conformational changes in the RNA upon binding. PMID:21853108

  11. Specificity of RSG-1.2 peptide binding to RRE-IIB RNA element of HIV-1 over Rev peptide is mainly enthalpic in origin.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Bose, Debojit; Suryawanshi, Hemant; Sabharwal, Harshana; Mapa, Koyeli; Maiti, Souvik

    2011-01-01

    Rev is an essential HIV-1 regulatory protein which binds to the Rev responsive element (RRE) present within the env gene of HIV-1 RNA genome. This binding facilitates the transport of the RNA to the cytoplasm, which in turn triggers the switch between viral latency and active viral replication. Essential components of this complex have been localized to a minimal arginine rich Rev peptide and stem IIB region of RRE. A synthetic peptide known as RSG-1.2 binds with high binding affinity and specificity to the RRE-IIB than the Rev peptide, however the thermodynamic basis of this specificity has not yet been addressed. The present study aims to probe the thermodynamic origin of this specificity of RSG-1.2 over Rev Peptide for RRE-IIB. The temperature dependent melting studies show that RSG-1.2 binding stabilizes the RRE structure significantly (ΔT(m) = 4.3°C), in contrast to Rev binding. Interestingly the thermodynamic signatures of the binding have also been found to be different for both the peptides. At pH 7.5, RSG-1.2 binds RRE-IIB with a K(a) = 16.2±0.6×10(7) M(-1) where enthalpic change ΔH = -13.9±0.1 kcal/mol is the main driving force with limited unfavorable contribution from entropic change TΔS = -2.8±0.1 kcal/mol. A large part of ΔH may be due to specific stacking between U72 and Arg15. In contrast binding of Rev (K(a) = 3.1±0.4×10(7) M(-1)) is driven mainly by entropy (ΔH = 0 kcal/mol and TΔS = 10.2±0.2 kcal/mol) which arises from major conformational changes in the RNA upon binding.

  12. HIV-1 fusion peptide decreases bending energy and promotes curved fusion intermediates.

    PubMed

    Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Nagle, John F

    2007-09-15

    A crucial step in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is fusion between the viral envelope and the T-cell membrane, which must involve intermediate membrane states with high curvature. Our main result from diffuse x-ray scattering is that the bending modulus K(C) is greatly reduced upon addition of the HIV fusion peptide FP-23 to lipid bilayers. A smaller bending modulus reduces the free energy barriers required to achieve and pass through the highly curved intermediate states and thereby facilitates fusion and HIV infection. The reduction in K(C) is by a factor of 13 for the thicker, stiffer 1,2-sn-dierucoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers and by a factor of 3 for 1,2-sn-dioleoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers. The reduction in K(C) decays exponentially with concentration of FP-23, and the 1/e concentration is <1 mol % peptide/lipid, which is well within the physiological range for a fusion site. A secondary result is, when FP-23 is added to the samples which consist of stacks of membranes, that the distance between membranes increases and eventually becomes infinite at full hydration (unbinding); we attribute this both to electrostatic repulsion of the positively charged arginine in the FP-23 and to an increase in the repulsive fluctuation interaction brought about by the smaller K(C). Although this latter interaction works against membrane fusion, our results show that the energy that it requires of the fusion protein machinery to bring the HIV envelope membrane and the target T-cell membrane into close contact is negligible.

  13. Characterization of Gp41 polymorphisms in the fusion peptide domain and T-20 (Enfuvirtide) resistance-associated regions in Korean HIV-1 isolates.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dai-Ho; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Chung, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Hye-Young; Chi, Sung-Gil; Kim, Sung Soon

    2014-03-01

    HIV-1 gp41 is an envelope protein that plays an essential role in virus entry. The mutation of gp41 affects HIV-1 entry and susceptibility to the fusion inhibitor T-20. Therefore, we analyzed the natural polymorphism of gp41 of 163 HIV-1 isolates from T-20-naïve Koreans infected with HIV-1. This study of gp41 polymorphisms showed that insertions in the fourth threonine (74.8%) and L7M substitutions (85.3%) were more frequent in the fusion peptide motif in Korean HIV-1 isolates compared with those from other countries. Minor T-20 resistance mutations such as L45M (1.2%), N126K (1.2%), and E137K (6.7%) were detected, but the critical T-20 resistance mutations were not detected in the gp41 HR1 and HR2 regions. In addition, the N42S mutation (12.9%) associated with T-20 hypersusceptibility was detected at a high frequency. These results may serve as useful data for studies considering T-20 for use in the development of a more effective anti-retroviral treatment in Korea.

  14. An extended CCR5 ECL2 peptide forms a helix that binds HIV-1 gp120 through non-specific hydrophobic interactions.

    PubMed

    Abayev, Meital; Moseri, Adi; Tchaicheeyan, Oren; Kessler, Naama; Arshava, Boris; Naider, Fred; Scherf, Tali; Anglister, Jacob

    2015-05-01

    C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) serves as a co-receptor for HIV-1. The CCR5 N-terminal segment, the second extracellular loop (ECL2) and the transmembrane helices have been implicated in binding the envelope glycoprotein gp120. Peptides corresponding to the sequence of the putative ECL2 as well as peptides containing extracellular loops 1 and 3 (ECL1 and ECL3) were found to inhibit HIV-1 infection. The aromatic residues in the C-terminal half of an ECL2 peptide were shown to interact with gp120. In the present study, we found that, in aqueous buffer, the segment Q188-Q194 in an elongated ECL2 peptide (R168-K197) forms an amphiphilic helix, which corresponds to the beginning of the fifth transmembrane helix in the crystal structure of CCR5. Two-dimensional saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy and dynamic filtering studies revealed involvement of Y187, F189, W190 and F193 of the helical segment in the interaction with gp120. The crystal structure of CCR5 shows that the aromatic side chains of F189, W190 and F193 point away from the binding pocket and interact with the membrane or with an adjacent CCR5 molecule, and therefore could not interact with gp120 in the intact CCR5 receptor. We conclude that these three aromatic residues of ECL2 peptides interact with gp120 through hydrophobic interactions that are not representative of the interactions of the intact CCR5 receptor. The HIV-1 inhibition by ECL2 peptides, as well as by ECL1 and ECL3 peptides and peptides corresponding to ECL2 of CXCR4, which serves as an alternative HIV-1 co-receptor, suggests that there is a hydrophobic surface in the envelope spike that could be a target for HIV-1 entry inhibitors. The structures and NMR data of ECL2S (Q186-T195) were deposited under Protein Data Bank ID 2mzx and BioMagResBank ID 25505. © 2015 FEBS.

  15. Cellular antisense activity of peptide nucleic acid (PNAs) targeted to HIV-1 polypurine tract (PPT) containing RNA

    PubMed Central

    Boutimah-Hamoudi, Fatima; Leforestier, Erwan; Sénamaud-Beaufort, Catherine; Nielsen, Peter E.; Giovannangeli, Carine; Saison-Behmoaras, Tula Ester

    2007-01-01

    DNA and RNA oligomers that contain stretches of guanines can associate to form stable secondary structures including G-quadruplexes. Our study shows that the (UUAAAAGAAAAGGGGGGAU) RNA sequence, from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 polypurine tract or PPT sequence) forms in vitro a stable folded structure involving the G-run. We have investigated the ability of pyrimidine peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomers targeted to the PPT sequence to invade the folded RNA and exhibit biological activity at the translation level in vitro and in cells. We find that PNAs can form stable complexes even with the structured PPT RNA target at neutral pH. We show that T-rich PNAs, namely the tridecamer-I PNA (C4T4CT4) forms triplex structures whereas the C-rich tridecamer-II PNA (TC6T4CT) likely forms a duplex with the target RNA. Interestingly, we find that both C-rich and T-rich PNAs arrested in vitro translation elongation specifically at the PPT target site. Finally, we show that T-rich and C-rich tridecamer PNAs that have been identified as efficient and specific blockers of translation elongation in vitro, specifically inhibit translation in streptolysin-O permeabilized cells where the PPT target sequence has been introduced upstream the reporter luciferase gene. PMID:17537815

  16. Cellular antisense activity of peptide nucleic acid (PNAs) targeted to HIV-1 polypurine tract (PPT) containing RNA.

    PubMed

    Boutimah-Hamoudi, Fatima; Leforestier, Erwan; Sénamaud-Beaufort, Catherine; Nielsen, Peter E; Giovannangeli, Carine; Saison-Behmoaras, Tula Ester

    2007-01-01

    DNA and RNA oligomers that contain stretches of guanines can associate to form stable secondary structures including G-quadruplexes. Our study shows that the (UUAAAAGAAAAGGGGGGAU) RNA sequence, from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 polypurine tract or PPT sequence) forms in vitro a stable folded structure involving the G-run. We have investigated the ability of pyrimidine peptide nucleic acid (PNA) oligomers targeted to the PPT sequence to invade the folded RNA and exhibit biological activity at the translation level in vitro and in cells. We find that PNAs can form stable complexes even with the structured PPT RNA target at neutral pH. We show that T-rich PNAs, namely the tridecamer-I PNA (C4T4CT4) forms triplex structures whereas the C-rich tridecamer-II PNA (TC6T4CT) likely forms a duplex with the target RNA. Interestingly, we find that both C-rich and T-rich PNAs arrested in vitro translation elongation specifically at the PPT target site. Finally, we show that T-rich and C-rich tridecamer PNAs that have been identified as efficient and specific blockers of translation elongation in vitro, specifically inhibit translation in streptolysin-O permeabilized cells where the PPT target sequence has been introduced upstream the reporter luciferase gene.

  17. Structure-Related Roles for the Conservation of the HIV-1 Fusion Peptide Sequence Revealed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Soraya; Huarte, Nerea; Rujas, Edurne; Andreu, David; Nieva, José L; Jiménez, María Angeles

    2017-09-29

    Despite extensive characterization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) hydrophobic fusion peptide (FP), the structure-function relationships underlying its extraordinary degree of conservation remain poorly understood. Specifically, the fact that the tandem repeat of the FLGFLG tripeptide is absolutely conserved suggests that high hydrophobicity may not suffice to unleash FP function. Here, we have compared the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures adopted in nonpolar media by two FP surrogates, wtFP-tag and scrFP-tag, which had equal hydrophobicity but contained wild-type and scrambled core sequences LFLGFLG and FGLLGFL, respectively. In addition, these peptides were tagged at their C-termini with an epitope sequence that folded independently, thereby allowing Western blot detection without interfering with FP structure. We observed similar α-helical FP conformations for both specimens dissolved in the low-polarity medium 25% (v/v) 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP), but important differences in contact with micelles of the membrane mimetic dodecylphosphocholine (DPC). Thus, whereas wtFP-tag preserved a helix displaying a Gly-rich ridge, the scrambled sequence lost in great part the helical structure upon being solubilized in DPC. Western blot analyses further revealed the capacity of wtFP-tag to assemble trimers in membranes, whereas membrane oligomers were not observed in the case of the scrFP-tag sequence. We conclude that, beyond hydrophobicity, preserving sequence order is an important feature for defining the secondary structures and oligomeric states adopted by the HIV FP in membranes.

  18. Ion channel activation by SPC3, a peptide derived from the HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop.

    PubMed

    Carlier, E; Mabrouk, K; Moulard, M; Fajloun, Z; Rochat, H; De Waard, M; Sabatier, J M

    2000-12-01

    SPC3 is a multibranched peptide containing eight identical GPGRAF motifs which are derived from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 gp120 V3 loop consensus sequence. This molecule was reported to prevent the infection of CD4+ cells by various HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains. However, the molecular mode of action of SPC3 remains unclear. Here, we investigated the possibility that SPC3 could interact with alpha/beta-chemokine receptors following observations that, first, the V3 loop is likely to be involved in alpha/beta-chemokine receptor-dependent HIV entry and, second, natural ligands of these receptors are potent inhibitors of cell infection. To address this point, we examined the effects of SPC3 on Xenopus oocytes either uninjected or expressing exogenous human CXCR4 alpha-chemokine receptors. Extracellular applications of micromolar concentrations of SPC3 onto Xenopus oocytes trigger potent inward chloride currents which can be inhibited by increasing extracellular Ca2+ concentration. This effect can be blocked by chloride channel antagonists and is highly specific to SPC3 as it is not triggered by structural analogs of SPC3. The SPC3-induced chloride conductance in oocytes is alpha/beta-chemokine receptor dependent because: (i) SPC3 alters the sensitivity of this channel to external applications of human recombinant MIP-1alpha, a natural ligand of human CCR5 receptor, and (ii) the amplitude of the inward current could be increased by the expression of exogenous human CXCR4 chemokine receptor. The effect of SPC3 appears to rely on the activation of a phospholipase A2 signaling pathway, but is not affected by changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, or by alterations in Gi/Go protein, adenylate cyclase, phospholipase C or protein kinase C activity. Altogether, the data indicate that SPC3 is capable of activating a surface alpha/beta-chemokine-like receptor-mediated signaling pathway in competent cells, thereby triggering, either directly or indirectly, a Ca2

  19. Definition of an 18-mer Synthetic Peptide Derived from the GB virus C E1 Protein as a New HIV-1 Entry Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Gómara, M J; Sánchez-Merino, V; Paús, A; Merino-Mansilla, A; Gatell, J M; Yuste, E; Haro, I

    2016-06-01

    A slower progression of AIDS and increased survival in GBV-C positive individuals, compared with GBV-C negative individuals has been demonstrated; while the loss of GBV-C viremia was closely associated with a rise in mortality and increased progression of AIDS. Following on from the previous reported studies that support the thesis that GBV-C E2 interferes with HIV-1 entry, in this work we try to determine the role of the GBV-C E1 protein in HIV-1 inhibition. The present work involves the construction of several overlapping peptide libraries scanning the GBV-C E1 protein and the evaluation of their anti-HIV activity. Specifically, an 18-mer synthetic peptide from the GBV-C E1 protein, E1(139-156), showed similar antiviral activity against HIVs from viruses from clades A, B, C, D and AE. Competitive ELISA using specific gp41-targeting mAbs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer as well as haemolysis assays demonstrated that this E1 peptide sequence interacts with the highly conserved N-terminal region of the HIV-1 gp41 (the fusion peptide) which is essential for viral entry. We have defined a novel peptide lead compound and described the inhibitory role of a highly conserved fragment of the E1 protein. The results together allow us to consider the non-pathogenic E1 GBV-C protein as an attractive source of peptides for the development of novel anti-HIV therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Human Endogenous Retrovirus K(HML-2) Gag- and Env-Specific T-Cell Responses Are Infrequently Detected in HIV-1-Infected Subjects Using Standard Peptide Matrix-Based Screening

    PubMed Central

    John, Vivek M.; Hunter, Diana V.; Martin, Eric; Mujib, Shariq; Mihajlovic, Vesna; Burgers, Peter C.; Luider, Theo M.; Gyenes, Gabor; Sheppard, Neil C.; SenGupta, Devi; Tandon, Ravi; Yue, Feng-Yun; Benko, Erika; Kovacs, Colin; Nixon, Douglas F.; Ostrowski, Mario A.

    2012-01-01

    T-cell responses to human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) K(HML-2) Gag and Env were mapped in HIV-1-infected subjects using 15mer peptides. Small peptide pools and high concentrations were used to maximize sensitivity. In the 23 subjects studied, only three bona fide HERV-K(HML-2)-specific responses were detected. At these high peptide concentrations, we detected false-positive responses, three of which were mapped to an HIV-1 Gag peptide contaminant. Thus, HERV-K(HML-2) Gag- and Env-specific T-cell responses are infrequently detected by 15mer peptide mapping. PMID:22205657

  1. Inhibition of HIV-1 Env-Mediated Cell-Cell Fusion by Lectins, Peptide T-20, and Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Michael; Konopka, Krystyna; Balzarini, Jan; Düzgüneş, Nejat

    2011-01-01

    Background: Broadly cross-reactive, neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies, including 2F5, 2G12, 4E10 and IgG1 b12, can inhibit HIV-1 infection in vitro at very low concentrations. We examined the ability of these antibodies to inhibit cell-cell fusion between Clone69TRevEnv cells induced to express the viral envelope proteins, gp120/gp41 (Env), and highly CD4-positive SupT1 cells. The cells were loaded with green and red-orange cytoplasmic fluorophores, and fusion was monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Results: Cell-cell fusion was inhibited completely by the carbohydrate binding proteins (CBPs), Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) agglutinin (HHA), and Galanthus nivalis (Snowdrop) agglutinin (GNA), and by the peptide, T-20, at relatively low concentrations. Anti-gp120 and anti-gp41 antibodies, at concentrations much higher than those required for neutralization, were not particularly effective in inhibiting fusion. Monoclonal antibodies b12, m14 IgG and 2G12 had moderate inhibitory activity; the IC50 of 2G12 was about 80 µg/ml. Antibodies 4E10 and 2F5 had no inhibitory activity at the concentrations tested. Conclusions: These observations raise concerns about the ability of neutralizing antibodies to inhibit the spread of viral genetic material from infected cells to uninfected cells via cell-cell fusion. The interaction of gp120/gp41 with cell membrane CD4 may be different in cell-cell and virus-cell membrane fusion reactions, and may explain the differential effects of antibodies in these two systems. The fluorescence assay described here may be useful in high throughput screening of potential HIV fusion inhibitors. PMID:21660189

  2. Inhibition of HIV-1 Env-Mediated Cell-Cell Fusion by Lectins, Peptide T-20, and Neutralizing Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yee, Michael; Konopka, Krystyna; Balzarini, Jan; Düzgüneş, Nejat

    2011-01-01

    Broadly cross-reactive, neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies, including 2F5, 2G12, 4E10 and IgG1 b12, can inhibit HIV-1 infection in vitro at very low concentrations. We examined the ability of these antibodies to inhibit cell-cell fusion between Clone69TRevEnv cells induced to express the viral envelope proteins, gp120/gp41 (Env), and highly CD4-positive SupT1 cells. The cells were loaded with green and red-orange cytoplasmic fluorophores, and fusion was monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Cell-cell fusion was inhibited completely by the carbohydrate binding proteins (CBPs), Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) agglutinin (HHA), and Galanthus nivalis (Snowdrop) agglutinin (GNA), and by the peptide, T-20, at relatively low concentrations. Anti-gp120 and anti-gp41 antibodies, at concentrations much higher than those required for neutralization, were not particularly effective in inhibiting fusion. Monoclonal antibodies b12, m14 IgG and 2G12 had moderate inhibitory activity; the IC(50) of 2G12 was about 80 µg/ml. Antibodies 4E10 and 2F5 had no inhibitory activity at the concentrations tested. These observations raise concerns about the ability of neutralizing antibodies to inhibit the spread of viral genetic material from infected cells to uninfected cells via cell-cell fusion. The interaction of gp120/gp41 with cell membrane CD4 may be different in cell-cell and virus-cell membrane fusion reactions, and may explain the differential effects of antibodies in these two systems. The fluorescence assay described here may be useful in high throughput screening of potential HIV fusion inhibitors.

  3. Studies on the intermolecular forces involved in the antibody-antigen interactions, using V3 synthetic peptides and sera from HIV1 seropositive patients.

    PubMed

    Măgureanu, C G; Diaconu, C; Alexandrescu, R; Tirdei, G; Cernescu, C

    1994-01-01

    The nature of physical forces responsible for the antibody-antigen (Ab-Ag) reaction was analyzed in an original system, represented by synthetic peptides derived from the V3 consensus sequences of some HIV1 subtypes gp 120 and HIV1 positive human serum. For locating antigenic determines, flexibility, hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity profiles of the V3 peptides were analysed. The hydrophilicity indicates that V3 apex borders are involved in the first stage of the reaction. The flexibility and hydrophobicity suggest that the apex of the V3 loop (GPGR/Q) is involved in the stabilization of the complex by hydrophobic interactions. Further, we followed up the influence of the dielectric constant and of the pH upon the forces established between Ab and Ag. Modifications in the dielectric constant and pH reveal a significant contribution of electrostatic and van der Waals forces in securing the intermolecular complementarity. D2O produces the highest augmentation of the antibody affinity for the most hydrophilic peptides, while a very slight one was recorded for the most hydrophobic sequence. A high affinity of antibodies for the peptides MN, R and Z was registered at an acid pH, when their His residue was protonated. On the contrary, no influence was recorded in the case of the peptide A, which does not contain any His residue.

  4. Structural Basis for Species Selectivity in the HIV-1 gp120-CD4 Interaction: Restoring Affinity to gp120 in Murine CD4 Mimetic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kassler, Kristin; Meier, Julia; Eichler, Jutta; Sticht, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    The first step of HIV-1 infection involves interaction between the viral glycoprotein gp120 and the human cellular receptor CD4. Inhibition of the gp120-CD4 interaction represents an attractive strategy to block HIV-1 infection. In an attempt to explore the known lack of affinity of murine CD4 to gp120, we have investigated peptides presenting the putative gp120-binding site of murine CD4 (mCD4). Molecular modeling indicates that mCD4 protein cannot bind gp120 due to steric clashes, while the larger conformational flexibility of mCD4 peptides allows an interaction. This finding is confirmed by experimental binding assays, which also evidenced specificity of the peptide-gp120 interaction. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the mCD4-peptide stably interacts with gp120 via an intermolecular β-sheet, while an important salt-bridge formed by a C-terminal lysine is lost. Fixation of the C-terminus by introducing a disulfide bridge between the N- and C-termini of the peptide significantly enhanced the affinity to gp120. PMID:22312332

  5. Structural and Functional Properties of Peptides Based on the N-terminus of HIV-1 gp41 and the C-terminus of the Amyloid-Beta Protein

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Larry M.; Nisthal, Alex; Lee, Andy B.; Eskandari, Sepehr; Ruchala, Piotr; Jung, Chun-Ling; Waring, Alan J.; Mobley, Patrick W.

    2008-01-01

    Given their high alanine and glycine levels, plaque formation, α-helix to β-sheet interconversion and fusogenicity, FP (i.e., the N-terminal fusion peptide of HIV-1 gp41; 23 residues) and amyloids were proposed as belonging to the same protein superfamily. Here, we further test whether FP may exhibit ‘amyloid-like’ characteristics, by contrasting its structural and functional properties with those of Aβ(26–42), a 17-residue peptide from the C-terminus of the amyloid-beta protein responsible for Alzheimer’s. FTIR spectroscopy, electron microscopy, light scattering and predicted amyloid structure aggregation (PASTA) indicated that aqueous FP and Aβ(26–42) formed similar networked β-sheet fibrils, although the FP fibril interactions were weaker. FP and Aβ(26–42) both lysed and aggregated human erythrocytes, with the hemolysis-onsets correlated with the conversion of α-helix to β-sheet for each peptide in liposomes. Congo red (CR), a marker of amyloid plaques in situ, similarly inhibited either FP- or Aβ(26–42)-induced hemolysis, and surface plasmon resonance indicated that this may be due to direct CR-peptide binding. These findings suggest that membrane-bound β-sheets of FP may contribute to the cytopathicity of HIV in vivo through an amyloid-type mechanism, and support the classification of HIV-1 FP as an ‘amyloid homolog’ (or ‘amylog’). PMID:18515070

  6. Peptide library synthesis on spectrally encoded beads for multiplexed protein/peptide bioassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Huy Q.; Brower, Kara; Harink, Björn; Baxter, Brian; Thorn, Kurt S.; Fordyce, Polly M.

    2017-02-01

    Protein-peptide interactions are essential for cellular responses. Despite their importance, these interactions remain largely uncharacterized due to experimental challenges associated with their measurement. Current techniques (e.g. surface plasmon resonance, fluorescence polarization, and isothermal calorimetry) either require large amounts of purified material or direct fluorescent labeling, making high-throughput measurements laborious and expensive. In this report, we present a new technology for measuring antibody-peptide interactions in vitro that leverages spectrally encoded beads for biological multiplexing. Specific peptide sequences are synthesized directly on encoded beads with a 1:1 relationship between peptide sequence and embedded code, thereby making it possible to track many peptide sequences throughout the course of an experiment within a single small volume. We demonstrate the potential of these bead-bound peptide libraries by: (1) creating a set of 46 peptides composed of 3 commonly used epitope tags (myc, FLAG, and HA) and single amino-acid scanning mutants; (2) incubating with a mixture of fluorescently-labeled antimyc, anti-FLAG, and anti-HA antibodies; and (3) imaging these bead-bound libraries to simultaneously identify the embedded spectral code (and thus the sequence of the associated peptide) and quantify the amount of each antibody bound. To our knowledge, these data demonstrate the first customized peptide library synthesized directly on spectrally encoded beads. While the implementation of the technology provided here is a high-affinity antibody/protein interaction with a small code space, we believe this platform can be broadly applicable to any range of peptide screening applications, with the capability to multiplex into libraries of hundreds to thousands of peptides in a single assay.

  7. Changes in lipid bilayer structure caused by the helix-to-sheet transition of an HIV-1 gp41 fusion peptide derivative

    DOE PAGES

    Heller, William T.; Rai, Durgesh K.

    2017-01-16

    HIV-1, like other enveloped viruses, undergoes fusion with the cell membrane to infect it. Viral coat proteins are thought to bind the virus to the membrane and actively fuse the viral and cellular membranes together. The actual molecular mechanism of fusion is challenging to visualize, resulting in the use of model systems. In this paper, the bilayer curvature modifying properties of a synthetic variant of the HIV-1 gp41 fusion peptide with lipid bilayer vesicles composed of a mixture of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine (DMPS) were studied. In 7:3 DMPC:DMPS vesicles made with deuterium-labeled DMPC, the peptide was observedmore » to undergo a concentration-dependent conformational transition between an α-helix and an antiparallel β-sheet. Through the use of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and selective deuterium labeling, it was revealed that conformational transition of the peptide is also accompanied by a transition in the structure of the lipid bilayer. In addition to changes in the distribution of the lipid between the leaflets of the vesicle, the SANS data are consistent with two regions having different thicknesses. Finally, of the two different bilayer structures, the one corresponding to the smaller area fraction, being ~8% of the vesicle area, is much thicker than the remainder of the vesicle, which suggests that there are regions of localized negative curvature similar to what takes place at the point of contact between two membranes immediately preceding fusion.« less

  8. Changes in lipid bilayer structure caused by the helix-to-sheet transition of an HIV-1 gp41 fusion peptide derivative.

    PubMed

    Heller, William T; Rai, Durgesh K

    2017-03-01

    HIV-1, like other enveloped viruses, undergoes fusion with the cell membrane to infect it. Viral coat proteins are thought to bind the virus to the membrane and actively fuse the viral and cellular membranes together. The actual molecular mechanism of fusion is challenging to visualize, resulting in the use of model systems. Here, the bilayer curvature modifying properties of a synthetic variant of the HIV-1 gp41 fusion peptide with lipid bilayer vesicles composed of a mixture of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dimyristoyl phosphatidylserine (DMPS) were studied. In 7:3 DMPC:DMPS vesicles made with deuterium-labeled DMPC, the peptide was observed to undergo a concentration-dependent conformational transition between an α-helix and an antiparallel β-sheet. Through the use of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and selective deuterium labeling, it was revealed that conformational transition of the peptide is also accompanied by a transition in the structure of the lipid bilayer. In addition to changes in the distribution of the lipid between the leaflets of the vesicle, the SANS data are consistent with two regions having different thicknesses. Of the two different bilayer structures, the one corresponding to the smaller area fraction, being ∼8% of the vesicle area, is much thicker than the remainder of the vesicle, which suggests that there are regions of localized negative curvature similar to what takes place at the point of contact between two membranes immediately preceding fusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus encoding HIV-1 reverse transcriptase persists in macaques despite antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Mary; Spindler, Jon; Shao, Wei; Maldarelli, Frank; Palmer, Sarah; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Lifson, Jeffrey D; KewalRamani, Vineet N; Mellors, John W; Coffin, John M; Ambrose, Zandrea

    2011-01-01

    The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the genetics of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) populations has been incompletely characterized. We analyzed SIV genetic variation before, during, and after ART in a macaque model. Six pigtail macaques were infected with an SIV/HIV chimeric virus, RT-SHIV(mne), in which SIV reverse transcriptase (RT) was replaced by HIV-1 RT. Three animals received a short course of efavirenz (EFV) monotherapy before combination ART was started. All macaques received 20 weeks of tenofovir, emtricitabine, and EFV. Plasma virus populations were analyzed by single-genome sequencing. Population diversity was measured by average pairwise difference, and changes in viral genetics were assessed by phylogenetic and panmixia analyses. After 20 weeks of ART, viral diversity was not different from pretherapy viral diversity despite more than 10,000-fold declines in viremia, indicating that, within this range, there is no relationship between diversity and plasma viremia. In two animals with consistent SIV RNA suppression to <15 copies/ml during ART, there was no evidence of viral evolution. In contrast, in the four macaques with viremias >15 copies/ml during therapy, there was divergence between pre- and during-ART virus populations. Drug resistance mutations emerged in two of these four animals, resulting in virologic failure in the animal with the highest level of pretherapy viremia. Taken together, these findings indicate that viral diversity does not decrease with suppressive ART, that ongoing replication occurs with viremias >15 copies/ml, and that in this macaque model of ART drug resistance likely emerges as a result of incomplete suppression and preexisting drug resistance mutations.

  10. Peptide Triazole Inactivators of HIV-1 Utilize a Conserved Two-Cavity Binding Site at the Junction of the Inner and Outer Domains of Env gp120

    PubMed Central

    Aneja, Rachna; Rashad, Adel A.; Li, Huiyuan; Sundaram, Ramalingam Venkat Kalyana; Duffy, Caitlin; Bailey, Lauren D.; Chaiken, Irwin

    2015-01-01

    We used coordinated mutagenesis, synthetic design, and flexible docking to investigate the structural mechanism of Env gp120 encounter by peptide triazole (PT) inactivators of HIV-1. Prior results demonstrated that the PT class of inhibitors suppresses binding at both CD4 and coreceptor sites on Env and triggers gp120 shedding, leading to cell-independent irreversible virus inactivation. Despite these enticing anti-HIV-1 phenotypes, structural understanding of the PT–gp120 binding mechanism has been incomplete. Here we found that PT engages two inhibitor ring moieties at the junction between the inner and outer domains of the gp120 protein. The results demonstrate how combined occupancy of two gp120 cavities can coordinately suppress both receptor and coreceptor binding and conformationally entrap the protein in a destabilized state. The two-cavity model has common features with small molecule gp120 inhibitor binding sites and provides a guide for further design of peptidomimetic HIV-1 inactivators based on the PT pharmacophore. PMID:25860784

  11. Structure of Antibody F425-B4e8 in Complex With a V3 Peptide Reveals a New Binding Mode for Hiv-1 Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, C.H.; Pantophlet, R.; Schiefner, A.; Cavacini, L.A.; Stanfield, R.L.; Burton, D.R.; Wilson, I.A.

    2009-05-11

    F425-B4e8 (B4e8) is a monoclonal antibody isolated from a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individual that recognizes the V3 variable loop on the gp120 subunit of the viral envelope spike. B4e8 neutralizes a subset of HIV-1 primary isolates from subtypes B, C and D, which places this antibody among the very few human anti-V3 antibodies with notable cross-neutralizing activity. Here, the crystal structure of the B4e8 Fab fragment in complex with a 24-mer V3 peptide (RP142) at 2.8 A resolution is described. The complex structure reveals that the antibody recognizes a novel V3 loop conformation, featuring a five-residue alpha-turn around the conserved GPGRA apex of the beta-hairpin loop. In agreement with previous mutagenesis analyses, the Fab interacts primarily with V3 through side-chain contacts with just two residues, Ile(P309) and Arg(P315), while the remaining contacts are to the main chain. The structure helps explain how B4e8 can tolerate a certain degree of sequence variation within V3 and, hence, is able to neutralize an appreciable number of different HIV-1 isolates.

  12. Induction of cross clade reactive specific antibodies in mice by conjugates of HGP-30 (peptide analog of HIV-1(SF2) p17) and peptide segments of human beta-2-microglobulin or MHC II beta chain.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, D H; Lloyd, J P; Heisey, D; Winship, M D; Siwek, M; Talor, E; Sarin, P S

    2001-09-14

    HGP-30, a 30 amino acid synthetic peptide homologous to a conserved region of HIV-1(SF2) p17 (aa86-115), has previously been shown to elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses when conjugated to KLH and adsorbed to alum. However, the free HGP-30 peptide is not immunogenic in animals. In order to improve the immunogenicity of HGP-30, peptide conjugates consisting of a modified HGP-30 sequence (m-HGP-30/aa82-111) and a peptide segment, residues 38-50, of the MHC I accessory molecule, human beta-2-microglobulin (beta-2-M), referred to as Peptide J, or a peptide from the MHC II beta chain (peptide G) were evaluated in mice. The effects of carriers and adjuvants on serum antibody titers, specificities to various HIV-1 clade peptides similar to HGP-30 and isotype patterns were examined. Peptides J or especially G conjugated to modified-HGP-30 (LEAPS 102 and LEAPS 101, respectively) generated comparable or better immune responses to modified HGP-30 than KLH conjugates as judged by the induction of: (1) similar antibody titers; (2) broader HIV clade antigen binding; and (3) antibody isotype response patterns indicative of a TH1 pathway (i.e. increased amounts of IgG2a and IgG2b antibodies). The ISA 51 and MPL(R)-SE adjuvants induced higher antibody responses than alum, with the ISA 51 being more potent. Immune responses to LEAPS 102, as compared to LEAPS 101, were weaker and slower to develop as determined by antibody titers and cross clade reactivity of the antibodies induced. Compared to KLH conjugates which induced significant anti-KLH antibody titers, minimal antibody responses were observed to peptide G, the more immunogenic conjugate, and peptide J. These results suggest that modified HGP-30 L.E.A.P.S. constructs may be useful as HIV vaccine candidates for preferential induction of TH1 directed cell mediated immune responses.

  13. Enhanced Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Nef-Specific T Cells Recognizing Multiple Variants in Early HIV-1 Infection▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Uma; Li, Fusheng; Nolin, Jessica; Allison, Megan; Zhao, Hong; Mullins, James I.; Self, Steve; McElrath, M. Juliana

    2007-01-01

    A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-preventive vaccine will likely need to induce broad immunity that can recognize antigens expressed within circulating strains. To understand the potentially relevant responses that T-cell based vaccines should elicit, we examined the ability of T cells from early infected persons to recognize a broad spectrum of potential T-cell epitopes (PTE) expressed by the products encoded by the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) nef gene, which is commonly included in candidate vaccines. T cells were evaluated for gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion using two peptide panels: subtype B consensus (CON) peptides and a novel peptide panel providing 70% coverage of PTE in subtype B HIV-1 Nef. Eighteen of 23 subjects’ T cells recognized HIV-1 Nef. In one subject, Nef-specific T cells were detected with the PTE but not with the CON peptides. The greatest frequency of responses spanned Nef amino acids 65 to 103 and 113 to 147, with multiple epitope variants being recognized. Detection of both the epitope domain number and the response magnitude was enhanced using the PTE peptides. On average, we detected 2.7 epitope domains with the PTE peptides versus 1.7 domains with the CON peptides (P = 0.0034). The average response magnitude was 2,169 spot-forming cells (SFC)/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with the PTE peptides versus 1,010 SFC/106 PBMC with CON peptides (P = 0.0046). During early HIV-1 infection, Nef-specific T cells capable of recognizing multiple variants are commonly induced, and these responses are readily detected with the PTE peptide panel. Our findings suggest that Nef responses induced by a given vaccine strain before HIV-1 exposure may be sufficiently broad to recognize most variants within subtype B HIV-1. PMID:17329342

  14. Design of a modular tetrameric scaffold for the synthesis of membrane-localized D-peptide inhibitors of HIV-1 entry

    PubMed Central

    Francis, J. Nicholas; Redman, Joseph S.; Eckert, Debra M.; Kay, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    The highly conserved HIV-1 gp41 “pocket” region is a promising target for inhibiting viral entry. PIE12-trimer is a protease-resistant trimeric D-peptide inhibitor that binds to this pocket and potently blocks HIV entry. PIE12-trimer also possesses a reserve of binding energy that provides it with a strong genetic barrier to resistance (“resistance capacitor”). Here we report the design of a modular scaffold employing PEGs of discrete lengths for the efficient optimization and synthesis of PIE12-trimer. This scaffold also allows us to conjugate PIE12-trimer to several membrane-localizing cargoes, resulting in dramatically improved potency and retention of PIE12-trimer’s ability to absorb the impact of resistance mutations. This scaffold design strategy should be of broad utility for the rapid prototyping of multimeric peptide inhibitors attached to potency- or pharmacokinetic-enhancing groups. PMID:22545664

  15. Induction of rapid apoptosis for class I MHC molecule-restricted CD8(+) HIV-1 gp160-specific murine activated CTLs by free antigenic peptide in vivo.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yohko; Shimizu, Masumi; Norose, Yoshihiko; Takahashi, Megumi; Takahashi, Hidemi

    2013-01-01

    We have previously reported that the cytotoxic activity of murine CD8(+) CTLs specific for HIV-1 gp160 envelope protein was markedly inhibited in vitro by brief exposure to a free epitope peptide P18-I10 (aa: RGPGRAFVTI) using the epitope-specific CTL line (LINE-IIIB) or a clone (RT-1). We have also shown that recently stimulated P18-I10-specific murine CTLs rapidly fell into apoptosis in vitro after brief exposure to the free epitope peptide. In the present study, we examined whether similar inactivation or apoptosis of recently stimulated CTLs occurred in vivo by exposure to the free epitope peptide using TCR transgenic (Tg-RT-1) mice expressing TCRαβ genes of CTL clone RT-1. When the Tg mice were inoculated with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing HIV-1-IIIB gp160 genes followed by injection of P18-I10 epitope peptide, apparent reduction in the number of CTLs determined by flow cytometry using H-2D(d)/P18-I10 pentamer was observed within a few hours after the injection. Most of the H-2D(d)/P18-I10 pentamer-stained cells were positive for Annexin V and apoptosis was confirmed by microscopic analyses. Moreover, when mice were pretreated with immunosuppressive agents, such as cyclosporin A and tacrolimus (FK506), induction of apoptosis by P18-I10 was significantly inhibited and CTL cytotoxicity was maintained. These results suggest that the rapid loss of virus-specific CD8(+) CTLs might occur in vivo through apoptosis in the early stages of viral infection when activated CTLs may encounter viral epitope(s) released from virus-infected cells attacked by CTLs and we can prevent the loss by pretreatment with immunosuppressive agents.

  16. Depicting Binding-Mediated Translocation of HIV-1 Tat Peptides in Living Cells with Nanoscale Pens of Tat-Conjugated Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chien Y.; Huang, Jung Y.; Lo, Leu-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can translocate across cell membranes, and thus have great potential for the cellular delivery of macromolecular cargoes. However, the mechanism of this cellular uptake process is not yet fully understood. In this study, a time-lapse single-particle light-sheet microscopy technique was implemented to obtain a parallel visualization of the translocating process of individual human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) transactivator of transcription (Tat) peptide conjugated quantum dots (TatP-QDs) in complex cellular terrains. Here, TatP-QDs served as nanoscale dynamic pens, which depict remarkable trajectory aggregates of TatP-QDs on the cell surface. Spectral-embedding analysis of the trajectory aggregates revealed a manifold formed by isotropic diffusion and a fraction of directed movement, possibly caused by interaction between the Tat peptides and heparan sulfate groups on the plasma membrane. Further analysis indicated that the membrane deformation induced by Tat-peptide attachment increased with the disruption of the actin framework in cytochalasin D (cyto D)-treated cells, yielding higher interactions on the TatP-QDs. In native cells, the Tat peptides can remodel the actin framework to reduce their interaction with the local membrane environment. Characteristic hot spots for interaction were detected on the membrane, suggesting that a funnel passage may have formed for the Tat-coated particles. This finding offers valuable insight into the cellular delivery of nanoscale cargo, suggesting an avenue for direct therapeutic delivery. PMID:28208588

  17. Role of lipid structure in the humoral immune response in mice to covalent lipid-peptides from the membrane proximal region of HIV-1 gp41

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Douglas S.; Szoka, Francis C.

    2009-01-01

    The membrane proximal region (MPR) of HIV-1 gp41 is a desirable target for development of a vaccine that elicits neutralizing antibodies since the patient-derived monoclonal antibodies, 2F5 and 4E10, bind to the MPR and neutralize primary HIV isolates. The 2F5 and 4E10 antibodies cross-react with lipids and structural studies suggest that MPR immunogens may be presented in a membrane environment. We hypothesized that covalent attachment of lipid anchors would enhance the humoral immune response to MPR-derived peptides presented in liposomal bilayers. In a comparison of eight lipids conjugated to an extended 2F5 epitope peptide, a sterol, cholesterol hemisuccinate (CHEMS), was found to promote the strongest anti-peptide IgG titers (6.4 × 104) in sera of BALB/C mice. Two lipid anchors, palmitic acid and phosphatidylcholine, failed to elicit a detectable serum anti-peptide IgG response. Association with the liposomal vehicle contributed to the ability of a lipopeptide to elicit anti-peptide antibodies, but no other single factor, such as position of the lipid anchor, peptide helical content, lipopeptide partition coefficient, or presence of phosphate on the anchor clearly determined lipopeptide potency. Conjugation to CHEMS also rendered a 4E10 epitope peptide immunogenic (5.6 × 102 IgG titer in serum). Finally, attachment of CHEMS to a peptide spanning both the 2F5 and 4E10 epitopes elicited serum IgG antibodies that bound to each of the individual epitopes as well as to recombinant gp140. Further research into the mechanism of how structure influences the immune response to the MPR may lead to immunogens that could be useful in prime-boost regimens for focusing the immune response in an HIV vaccine. PMID:19520200

  18. Conformational mapping of the N-terminal peptide of HIV-1 gp41 in lipid detergent and aqueous environments using 13C-enhanced Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Larry M.; Mobley, Patrick W.; Lee, William; Eskandari, Sepehr; Kaznessis, Yiannis N.; Sherman, Mark A.; Waring, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    The N-terminal domain of HIV-1 glycoprotein 41,000 (gp41) participates in viral fusion processes. Here, we use physical and computational methodologies to examine the secondary structure of a peptide based on the N terminus (FP; residues 1–23) in aqueous and detergent environments. 12C-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy indicated greater α-helix for FP in lipid-detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and aqueous phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) than in only PBS. 12C-FTIR spectra also showed disordered FP conformations in these two environments, along with substantial β-structure for FP alone in PBS. In experiments that map conformations to specific residues, isotope-enhanced FTIR spectroscopy was performed using FP peptides labeled with 13C-carbonyl. 13C-FTIR results on FP in SDS at low peptide loading indicated α-helix (residues 5 to 16) and disordered conformations (residues 1–4). Because earlier 13C-FTIR analysis of FP in lipid bilayers demonstrated α-helix for residues 1–16 at low peptide loading, the FP structure in SDS micelles only approximates that found for FP with membranes. Molecular dynamics simulations of FP in an explicit SDS micelle indicate that the fraying of the first three to four residues may be due to the FP helix moving to one end of the micelle. In PBS alone, however, electron microscopy of FP showed large fibrils, while 13C-FTIR spectra demonstrated antiparallel β-sheet for FP (residues 1–12), analogous to that reported for amyloid peptides. Because FP and amyloid peptides each exhibit plaque formation, α-helix to β-sheet interconversion, and membrane fusion activity, amyloid and N-terminal gp41 peptides may belong to the same superfamily of proteins. PMID:15044732

  19. HIV-1 encoded virus protein U (Vpu) solution structure of the 41-62 hydrophilic region containing the phosphorylated sites Ser52 and Ser56.

    PubMed

    Coadou, Gaël; Evrard-Todeschi, Nathalie; Gharbi-Benarous, Josyane; Benarous, Richard; Girault, Jean Pierre

    2002-03-08

    Degradation of the HIV receptor CD4 by the proteasome, mediated by the HIV-1 protein Vpu, is crucial for the release of fully infectious virions. To promote CD4 degradation Vpu has to be phosphorylated on a motif DSGXXS, which is conserved in several signalling proteins known to be degraded by the proteasome upon phosphorylation. Such phosphorylation is required for the interaction of Vpu with the ubiquitin ligase SCF-beta-TrCP that triggers CD4 degradation by the proteasome. In the present work, we used two peptides of 22 amino acids between residues 41 and 62 of Vpu. Vpu41-62 was predicted to form an alpha-helix-flexible-alpha-helix including the phosphorylation motif DS52GNES56 and Vpu_P41-62 was phosphorylated at the two sites Ser52 and Ser56. We analysed the conformational change induced by the phosphorylation of this peptide on the residues Ser52 and Ser56. Homo- and heteronuclear NMR techniques were used to assess the structural influence of phosphorylation. The spectra of the free peptides, Vpu_P41-62 and Vpu41-62, in both H2O (at pH 3.5 and 7.2) and a 1:1 mixture of H2O and trifluoroethanol were completely assigned by a combined application of several two-dimensional proton NMR methods. Analysis of the short- and medium-range NOE connectivities and of the secondary chemical shifts indicated that the peptide segment (42-49) shows a less well-defined helix propensity. The Vpu_P41-62 domain of residues 50-62 forms a loop with the phosphate group pointing away, a short beta-strand and a flexible extended 'tail' of residues 60-62. Residues 50-60 exhibit alpha-proton NMR secondary chemical shift changes from random coil toward more beta-like structure with the combined (temperature, solvent and pH) NMR and molecular calculation experiments. Differences in this molecular region 50-62 suggest that conformational changes of Vpu_P play an important role in Vpu_P-induced degradation of CD4 molecules.

  20. C-terminal HIV-1 transframe p6* tetra-peptide blocks enhanced Gag cleavage incurred by leucine zipper replacement of a deleted p6* domain.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fu-Hsien; Huang, Kuo-Jung; Wang, Chin-Tien

    2017-03-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) functions as a homodimer mediating virus maturation following virus budding. Gag-Pol dimerization is believed to trigger embedded PR activation by promoting PR dimer formation. Early PR activation can lead to markedly reduced virus yields due to premature Gag cleavage. The p6* peptide, located between Gag and PR, is believed to ensure virus production by preventing early PR maturation. Studies aimed at finding supporting evidence for this proposal are limited due to a reading frame overlap between p6* and the p6gag budding domain. To determine if p6* affects virus production via the modulation of PR activation, we engineered multiple constructs derived from Dp6*PR (an assembly- and processing-competent construct with Pol fused at the inactivated PR C-terminus). The data indicate that a p6* deletion adjacent to active PR significantly impaired virus processing. We also observed that the insertion of a leucine zipper (LZ) dimerization motif in the deleted region eliminated virus production in a PR activity-dependent manner, suggesting that the LZ insertion triggered premature PR activation by facilitating PR dimer formation. As few as four C-terminal p6* residues remaining at the p6*/PR junction were sufficient to restore virus yields, with a Gag processing profile similar to that of the wild type. Our study provides supporting evidence in a virus assembly context that the C-terminal p6* tetra-peptide plays a role in preventing premature PR maturation.IMPORTANCE Supporting evidence is lacking for the assumption that p6* retards PR maturation in the context of virus assembly. We found that replacing p6* with a leucine-zipper peptide abolished virus assembly due to the significant enhancement of Gag cleavage. However, as few as four C-terminal p6* residues remaining in the deleted region were sufficient for significant PR release, as well as for counteracting leucine zipper-incurred premature Gag cleavage. Our data provide evidence that (a) p6

  1. Recombinant production of influenza hemagglutinin and HIV-1 GP120 antigenic peptides using a cleavable self-aggregating tag

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wanghui; Zhao, Qing; Xing, Lei; Lin, Zhanglin

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for antigenic peptides in the development of novel serologic diagnostics and epitope-based vaccines requires rapid and reliable peptide synthesis techniques. Here we investigated a method for efficient recombinant expression and purification of medium- to large-sized antigenic peptides in E. coli. Previously we devised a streamlined protein expression and purification scheme based on a cleavable self-aggregating tag (cSAT), which comprised an intein molecule and a self-aggregating peptide ELK16. In this scheme, the target proteins were fused in the C-termini with cSAT and expressed as insoluble aggregates. After intein self-cleavage, target proteins were released into the soluble fraction with high yield and reasonable purity. We demonstrated the applicability of this scheme by preparing seven model viral peptides, with lengths ranging from 32 aa to 72 aa. By adding an N-terminal thioredoxin tag, we enhanced the yield of target peptides released from the aggregates. The purified viral peptides demonstrated high antigenic activities in ELISA and were successfully applied to dissecting the antigenic regions of influenza hemagglutinin. The cSAT scheme described here allows for the rapid and low-cost preparation of multiple antigenic peptides for immunological screening of a broad range of viral antigens. PMID:27808126

  2. Unique functional properties of conserved arginine residues in the lentivirus lytic peptide domains of the C-terminal tail of HIV-1 gp41.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Anne-Sophie; Steckbeck, Jonathan D; Sturgeon, Timothy J; Craigo, Jodi K; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2014-03-14

    A previous study from our laboratory reported a preferential conservation of arginine relative to lysine in the C-terminal tail (CTT) of HIV-1 envelope (Env). Despite substantial overall sequence variation in the CTT, specific arginines are highly conserved in the lentivirus lytic peptide (LLP) motifs and are scarcely substituted by lysines, in contrast to gp120 and the ectodomain of gp41. However, to date, no explanation has been provided to explain the selective incorporation and conservation of arginines over lysines in these motifs. Herein, we address the functions in virus replication of the most conserved arginines by performing conservative mutations of arginine to lysine in the LLP1 and LLP2 motifs. The presence of lysine in place of arginine in the LLP1 motif resulted in significant impairment of Env expression and consequently virus replication kinetics, Env fusogenicity, and incorporation. By contrast, lysine exchanges in LLP2 only affected the level of Env incorporation and fusogenicity. Our findings demonstrate that the conservative lysine substitutions significantly affect Env functional properties indicating a unique functional role for the highly conserved arginines in the LLP motifs. These results provide for the first time a functional explanation to the preferred incorporation of arginine, relative to lysine, in the CTT of HIV-1 Env. We propose that these arginines may provide unique functions for Env interaction with viral or cellular cofactors that then influence overall Env functional properties.

  3. Assessment of antibody responses against gp41 in HIV-1-infected patients using soluble gp41 fusion proteins and peptides derived from M group consensus envelope

    PubMed Central

    Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Han, Dong P.; Kim, Soon J.; Park, Hanna; Ansari, Rais; Montefiori, David C.; Cho, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 is targeted by broadly-reactive neutralizing antibodies 2F5 and 4E10, making it an attractive target for vaccine development. To better assess immunogenic properties of gp41, we generated five soluble glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins encompassing C-terminal 30, 64, 100, 142, or 172 (full-length) amino acids of gp41 ectodomain from M group consensus envelope sequence. Antibody responses in HIV-1-infected patients were evaluated using these proteins and overlapping peptides. We found (i) antibody responses against different regions of gp41 varied tremendously among individual patients, (ii) patients with stronger antibody responses against membrane-proximal external region exhibit broader and more potent neutralizing activity, and (iii) several patients mounted antibodies against epitopes that are near, or overlap with, those targeted by 2F5 or 4E10. These soluble gp41 fusion proteins could be an important source of antigens for future vaccine development efforts. PMID:18068750

  4. Assessment of antibody responses against gp41 in HIV-1-infected patients using soluble gp41 fusion proteins and peptides derived from M group consensus envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Penn-Nicholson, Adam; Han, Dong P.; Kim, Soon J.; Park, Hanna; Ansari, Rais; Montefiori, David C.; Cho, Michael W.

    2008-03-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 is targeted by broadly-reactive neutralizing antibodies 2F5 and 4E10, making it an attractive target for vaccine development. To better assess immunogenic properties of gp41, we generated five soluble glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins encompassing C-terminal 30, 64, 100, 142, or 172 (full-length) amino acids of gp41 ectodomain from M group consensus envelope sequence. Antibody responses in HIV-1-infected patients were evaluated using these proteins and overlapping peptides. We found (i) antibody responses against different regions of gp41 varied tremendously among individual patients, (ii) patients with stronger antibody responses against membrane-proximal external region exhibit broader and more potent neutralizing activity, and (iii) several patients mounted antibodies against epitopes that are near, or overlap with, those targeted by 2F5 or 4E10. These soluble gp41 fusion proteins could be an important source of antigens for future vaccine development efforts.

  5. HIV-1 Reverse Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei-Shau; Hughes, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    Reverse transcription and integration are the defining features of the Retroviridae; the common name “retrovirus” derives from the fact that these viruses use a virally encoded enzyme, reverse transcriptase (RT), to convert their RNA genomes into DNA. Reverse transcription is an essential step in retroviral replication. This article presents an overview of reverse transcription, briefly describes the structure and function of RT, provides an introduction to some of the cellular and viral factors that can affect reverse transcription, and discusses fidelity and recombination, two processes in which reverse transcription plays an important role. In keeping with the theme of the collection, the emphasis is on HIV-1 and HIV-1 RT. PMID:23028129

  6. Recognition of Membrane-Bound Fusion-Peptide/MPER Complexes by the HIV-1 Neutralizing 2F5 Antibody: Implications for Anti-2F5 Immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Huarte, Nerea; Araujo, Aitziber; Arranz, Rocio; Lorizate, Maier; Quendler, Heribert; Kunert, Renate; Valpuesta, José M.; Nieva, José L.

    2012-01-01

    The membrane proximal external region (MPER) of the fusogenic HIV-1 glycoprotein-41 harbors the epitope sequence recognized by 2F5, a broadly neutralizing antibody isolated from an infected individual. Structural mimicry of the conserved MPER 2F5 epitope constitutes a pursued goal in the field of anti-HIV vaccine development. It has been proposed that 2F5 epitope folding into its native state is attained in the vicinity of the membrane interface and might involve interactions with other viral structures. Here we present results indicating that oligomeric complexes established between MPER and the conserved amino-terminal fusion peptide (FP) can partition into lipid vesicles and be specifically bound by the 2F5 antibody at their surfaces. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy of liposomes doped with MPER:FP peptide mixtures provided the structural grounds for complex recognition by antibody at lipid bilayer surfaces. Supporting the immunogenicity of the membrane-bound complex, these MPER:FP peptide-vesicle formulations could trigger cross-reactive anti-MPER antibodies in rabbits. Thus, our observations suggest that contacts with N-terminal regions of gp41 may stabilize the 2F5 epitope as a membrane-surface antigen. PMID:23285173

  7. Magic Angle Spinning NMR Reveals Sequence-Dependent Structural Plasticity, Dynamics, and the Spacer Peptide 1 Conformation in HIV-1 Capsid Protein Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yun; Hou, Guangjin; Suiter, Christopher L.; Ahn, Jinwoo; Byeon, In-Ja L.; Lipton, Andrew S.; Burton, Sarah D.; Hung, Ivan; Gorkov, Peter L.; Gan, Zhehong; Brey, William W.; Rice, David M.; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Polenova, Tatyana E.

    2013-11-27

    Maturation of HIV-1 virus into an infectious virion requires cleavage of the Gag polyprotein into its constituent domains and formation of a conical capsid core that encloses viral RNA and a small complement of proteins for replication. The final step of this process is the cleavage of the SP1 peptide from the CA-SP1 maturation intermediate, which triggers the condensation of the CA protein into a conical capsid. The mechanism of this step, including the conformation of the SP1 peptide in CA-SP1, is under intense debate. In this report, we examine the tubular assemblies of CA and the CA-SP1 maturation intermediate using Magic Angle Spinning NMR spectroscopy. At the magnetic fields of 19.9 T and above, tubular CA and CA-SP1 assemblies yield outstanding-quality 2D and 3D MAS NMR spectra, which are amenable to resonance assignments and detailed structural characterization. Dipolar- and scalar-based correlation experiments unequivocally indicate that SP1 peptide is in a random coil conformation and mobile in the assembled CA-SP1. Analysis of two sequence variants reveals that remarkably, the conformation of SP1 tail, of the functionally important CypA loop, and of the loop preceding helix 8 are sequence dependent and modulated by the residue variations at distal sites. These findings challenge the role of SP1 as a conformational switch in the maturation process and establish sequence-dependent conformational plasticity in CA.

  8. Structure Determination of An Anti-HIV-1 Fab 447-52d-Peptide Complex From An Expitaxially Twinned Data Set

    SciTech Connect

    Dhillon, A.K.; Stanfield, R.L.; Gorny, M.K.; Williams, C.; Zolla-Pazner, S.; Wilson, I.A.

    2009-05-14

    Although antibodies against the third variable loop (V3) of the HIV-1 viral envelope glycoprotein are among the first neutralizing antibodies to be detected in infected individuals, they are normally restricted in their specificity. X-ray crystallographic studies of V3-specific antibodies have contributed to a more thorough understanding of recognition of this epitope and of conserved features in the V3 loop that could potentially aid in the design of a multi-component vaccine. The human antibody 447-52D exhibits relatively broad neutralization of primary viral isolates compared with other V3-loop antibodies. A crystal structure of Fab 447-52D in complex with a V3 peptide (UG1033) was determined at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution. The structure was determined using an epitaxially twinned data set and in-house programs to detect and remove overlapping reflections. Although the processed data have lower than desired completeness and slightly higher than normal R values for the resolution, good-quality electron-density maps were obtained that enabled structure determination. The structure revealed an extended CDR H3 loop that forms a {beta}-sheet with the peptide, with the predominant contacts being main-chain hydrogen bonds. The V3 peptide and Fab show high structural homology with the previously reported structures of other Fab 447-52D complexes, reinforcing the idea that the V3 loop may adopt a small set of conserved structures, particularly around the crown of the {beta}-hairpin.

  9. Structure and immunogenicity of a peptide vaccine, including the complete HIV-1 gp41 2F5 epitope: implications for antibody recognition mechanism and immunogen design.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Soraya; Araujo, Aitziber; Apellániz, Beatriz; Bryson, Steve; Carravilla, Pablo; de la Arada, Igor; Huarte, Nerea; Rujas, Edurne; Pai, Emil F; Arrondo, José L R; Domene, Carmen; Jiménez, María Angeles; Nieva, José L

    2014-03-07

    The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 harbors the epitope recognized by the broadly neutralizing anti-HIV 2F5 antibody, a research focus in HIV-1 vaccine development. In this work, we analyze the structure and immunogenic properties of MPERp, a peptide vaccine that includes the following: (i) the complete sequence protected from proteolysis by the 2F5 paratope; (ii) downstream residues postulated to establish weak contacts with the CDR-H3 loop of the antibody, which are believed to be crucial for neutralization; and (iii) an aromatic rich anchor to the membrane interface. MPERp structures solved in dodecylphosphocholine micelles and 25% 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (v/v) confirmed folding of the complete 2F5 epitope within continuous kinked helices. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) measurements demonstrated the retention of main helical conformations in immunogenic formulations based on alum, Freund's adjuvant, or two different types of liposomes. Binding to membrane-inserted MPERp, IR, molecular dynamics simulations, and characterization of the immune responses further suggested that packed helical bundles partially inserted into the lipid bilayer, rather than monomeric helices adsorbed to the membrane interface, could encompass effective MPER peptide vaccines. Together, our data constitute a proof-of-concept to support MPER-based peptides in combination with liposomes as stand-alone immunogens and suggest new approaches for structure-aided MPER vaccine development.

  10. Structure and function of a cyanophage-encoded peptide deformylase

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Jeremy A; Lorimer, Don; Youle, Merry; Witte, Pam; Craig, Tim; Abendroth, Jan; Rohwer, Forest; Edwards, Robert A; Segall, Anca M; Burgin, Alex B

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriophages encode auxiliary metabolic genes that support more efficient phage replication. For example, cyanophages carry several genes to maintain host photosynthesis throughout infection, shuttling the energy and reducing power generated away from carbon fixation and into anabolic pathways. Photodamage to the D1/D2 proteins at the core of photosystem II necessitates their continual replacement. Synthesis of functional proteins in bacteria requires co-translational removal of the N-terminal formyl group by a peptide deformylase (PDF). Analysis of marine metagenomes to identify phage-encoded homologs of known metabolic genes found that marine phages carry PDF genes, suggesting that their expression during infection might benefit phage replication. We identified a PDF homolog in the genome of Synechococcus cyanophage S-SSM7. Sequence analysis confirmed that it possesses the three absolutely conserved motifs that form the active site in PDF metalloproteases. Phylogenetic analysis placed it within the Type 1B subclass, most closely related to the Arabidopsis chloroplast PDF, but lacking the C-terminal α-helix characteristic of that group. PDF proteins from this phage and from Synechococcus elongatus were expressed and characterized. The phage PDF is the more active enzyme and deformylates the N-terminal tetrapeptides from D1 proteins more efficiently than those from ribosomal proteins. Solution of the X-ray/crystal structures of those two PDFs to 1.95 Å resolution revealed active sites identical to that of the Type 1B Arabidopsis chloroplast PDF. Taken together, these findings show that many cyanophages encode a PDF with a D1 substrate preference that adds to the repertoire of genes used by phages to maintain photosynthetic activities. PMID:23407310

  11. Inhibition of Rev-mediated HIV-1 expression by an RNA binding protein encoded by the interferon-inducible 9-27 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Constantoulakis, P.; Campbell, M.; Felber, B.K.; Nasioulas, G.; Afonina, E.; Pavlakis, G.N. )

    1993-02-26

    Interferon inhibits expression of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) through unknown mechanisms. A gene inducible by interferon-[alpha] (IFN-[alpha]) and interferon-[gamma] (IFN-[gamma]) was isolated by screening of a human complementary DNA library for proteins binding to the Rev-responsive element (RRE) of HIV-1. The product of this gene, RBP9-27, was shown to bind RNA in vitro and to inhibit HIV-1 expression after transfection into human cells. RBP9-27 primarily inhibited Rev-dependent posttransscriptional steps of viral gene expression. Thus, RBP9-27 is a cellular factor that antagonizes Rev function. These results suggest an inteferon-induced antiviral mechanism operating through the induction of RNA binding proteins such as RBP9-27. Elucidation of RBP9-27 function may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of interferon action during HIV-1 infection. 29 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Higher cross-subtype IFN-γ ELISpot responses to Gag and Nef peptides in Brazilian HIV-1 subtype B- and F1- than in C-infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Côrtes, Fernanda Heloise; Bello, Gonzalo; Vorsatz, Carla; Pilotto, José Henrique; Guimarães, Monick Lindenmeyer; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Pinto, Aguinaldo Roberto; Morgado, Mariza Gonçalves

    2013-02-04

    HIV-1 diversity has been considered a huge challenge for the HIV-1 vaccine development. To overcome it, immunogens based on centralized sequences, as consensus, have been tested. In Brazil, the co-circulation of three subtypes offers a suitable scenario to test T cell cross-subtype responses to consensus sequences. Furthermore, we included peptides based on closest viral isolates (CVI) from each subtype analyzed to compare with T cell responses detected against the consensus sequences. The study included 32 subjects infected with HIV-1 subtype B (n=13),C (n=11), and F1 (n=8). Gag and Nef-specific T cell responses were evaluated by IFN-γ-ELISpot assay. Peptides based on CVI sequences were similar to consensus in both reducing genetic distance and detecting T cell responses. A high cross-subtype response between B and F1 in both regions was observed in HIV-1 subtype B and F1-infected subjects. We also found no significant difference in responses to subtype B and C consensus peptides among subtype B-infected subjects. In contrast, the magnitude of T cell responses to consensus C peptides in the Gag region was higher than to consensus B peptides among HIV-1 subtype C-infected subjects. Regarding Nef, subtype C-infected subjects showed higher values to consensus C than to consensus F1 peptides. Moreover, subtype F1-infected subjects presented lower responses to subtype C peptides than to subtype F1 and B. A similar level of responses was detected with group M based peptides in subtype B and F1 infected subjects. However, among subtype C infected subjects, this set of peptides detected lower levels of response than consensus C. Overall, the level of cross-subtype response between subtypes B and F1 was higher than between subtype C and B or C and F1. Our data suggests that the barrier of genetic diversity in HIV-1 group M for vaccine design may be dependent on the subtypes involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Construction of Nef-positive doxycycline-dependent HIV-1 variants using bicistronic expression elements

    SciTech Connect

    Velden, Yme U. van der; Kleibeuker, Wendy; Harwig, Alex; Klaver, Bep; Siteur-van Rijnstra, Esther; Frankin, Esmay; Berkhout, Ben; Das, Atze T.

    2016-01-15

    Conditionally replicating HIV-1 variants that can be switched on and off at will are attractive tools for HIV research. We previously developed a genetically modified HIV-1 variant that replicates exclusively when doxycycline (dox) is administered. The nef gene in this HIV-rtTA variant was replaced with the gene encoding the dox-dependent rtTA transcriptional activator. Because loss of Nef expression compromises virus replication in primary cells and precludes studies on Nef function, we tested different approaches to restore Nef production in HIV-rtTA. Strategies that involved translation via an EMCV or synthetic internal ribosome entry site (IRES) failed because these elements were incompatible with efficient virus replication. Fusion protein approaches with the FMDV 2A peptide and human ubiquitin were successful and resulted in genetically-stable Nef-expressing HIV-rtTA strains that replicate more efficiently in primary T-cells and human immune system (HIS) mice than Nef-deficient variants, thus confirming the positive effect of Nef on in vivo virus replication. - Highlights: • Different approaches to encode additional proteins in the HIV-1 genome were tested. • IRES translation elements are incompatible with efficient HIV-1 replication. • Ubiquitin and 2A fusion protein approaches allow efficient HIV-1 replication. • Doxycycline-controlled HIV-1 variants that encode all viral proteins were developed. • Nef stimulates HIV-rtTA replication in primary cells and human immune system mice.

  14. Addition of a cholesterol group to an HIV-1 peptide fusion inhibitor dramatically increases its antiviral potency

    PubMed Central

    Ingallinella, Paolo; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Ladwa, Neal A.; Wang, Ying-Jie; Hrin, Renee; Veneziano, Maria; Bonelli, Fabio; Ketas, Thomas J.; Moore, John P.; Miller, Michael D.; Pessi, Antonello

    2009-01-01

    Peptides derived from the heptad repeat 2 (HR2) region of the HIV fusogenic protein gp41 are potent inhibitors of viral infection, and one of them, enfuvirtide, is used for the treatment of therapy-experienced AIDS patients. The mechanism of action of these peptides is binding to a critical intermediate along the virus–cell fusion pathway, and accordingly, increasing the affinity for the intermediate yields more potent inhibitors. We took a different approach, namely to increase the potency of the HR2 peptide inhibitor C34 by targeting it to the cell compartment where fusion occurs, and we show here that a simple, yet powerful way to accomplish this is attachment of a cholesterol group. C34 derivatized with cholesterol (C34-Chol) shows dramatically increased antiviral potency on a panel of primary isolates, with IC90 values 15- to 300-fold lower than enfuvirtide and the second-generation inhibitor T1249, making C34-Chol the most potent HIV fusion inhibitor to date. Consistent with its anticipated mechanism of action, the antiviral activity of C34-Chol is unusually persistent: washing target cells after incubation with C34-Chol, but before triggering fusion, increases IC50 only 7-fold, relative to a 400-fold increase observed for C34. Moreover, derivatization with cholesterol extends the half-life of the peptide in vivo. In the mouse, s.c. administration of 3.5 mg/kg C34-Chol yields a plasma concentration 24 h after injection >300-fold higher than the measured IC90 values. Because the fusion machinery targeted by C34-Chol is similar in several other enveloped viruses, we believe that these findings may be of general utility. PMID:19297617

  15. Effect of the HIV-1 fusion peptide on the mechanical properties and leaflet coupling of lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchelokovskyy, P.; Tristram-Nagle, S.; Dimova, R.

    2011-02-01

    The fusion peptide (FP) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is part of the N-terminus of the viral envelope glycoprotein gp41 and is believed to play an important role in the viral entry process. To understand the immediate effect of this peptide on the cell membrane, we have studied the influence of the synthetic FP sequence FP23 on the mechanical properties of model lipid bilayers. For this purpose, giant unilamellar vesicles were prepared from the unsaturated lipid dioleoylphosphatidylcholine mixed in various molar ratios with FP23. The bending stiffness of the vesicles was measured with two different methods: fluctuation analysis and aspiration with micropipettes. The data obtained from both of these approaches show that the bending stiffness of the membrane decreases gradually with increasing concentration of the FP23 in the bilayer. Low concentrations of only a few mol% FP23 are sufficient to decrease the bending stiffness of the lipid bilayer by about a factor of 2. Finally, data obtained for the stretching elasticity modulus of the membrane suggest that the peptide insertion decreases the coupling between the two leaflets of the bilayer.

  16. Effect of the HIV-1 fusion peptide on the mechanical properties and leaflet coupling of lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Shchelokovskyy, P; Tristram-Nagle, S; Dimova, R

    2013-01-01

    The fusion peptide (FP) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is part of the N-terminus of the viral envelope glycoprotein gp41 and is believed to play an important role in the viral entry process. To understand the immediate effect of this peptide on the cell membrane, we have studied the influence of the synthetic FP sequence FP23 on the mechanical properties of model lipid bilayers. For this purpose, giant unilamellar vesicles were prepared from the unsaturated lipid dioleoylphosphatidylcholine mixed in various molar ratios with FP23. The bending stiffness of the vesicles was measured with two different methods: fluctuation analysis and aspiration with micropipettes. The data obtained from both of these approaches show that the bending stiffness of the membrane decreases gradually with increasing concentration of the FP23 in the bilayer. Low concentrations of only a few mol% FP23 are sufficient to decrease the bending stiffness of the lipid bilayer by about a factor of 2. Finally, data obtained for the stretching elasticity modulus of the membrane suggest that the peptide insertion decreases the coupling between the two leaflets of the bilayer. PMID:23505334

  17. The current status and challenges in the development of fusion inhibitors as therapeutics for HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jian Jun; Ma, Xue Ting; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Xiao Yi; Wang, Cun Xin

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 membrane fusion as a part of the process of viral entry in the target cells is facilitated by gp41 and gp120, which are encoded by Env gene of HIV-1. Based on the structure and the mechanism researches, new treatment options targeting HIV-1 entry process have been proposed. Enfuvirtide, which mimics amino acid sequences of viral envelope glycoprotein gp41, is the first HIV-1 fusion inhibitor approved by FDA. Although it fulfills vital functions by binding to gp41 and abolishing the membrane fusion reaction when used in combination, it could induce drug resistant virus variants. Currently, a number of design and modification schemes have been presented, a large number of prospective fusion peptides have emerged. For these fusion inhibitors, multiple mutations in gp41 have been associated with the loss of susceptibility to agents. This review reported the current developments and innovative designs of HIV-1 membrane fusion inhibitors.

  18. Ribosomally encoded antibacterial proteins and peptides from Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Ghequire, Maarten G K; De Mot, René

    2014-07-01

    Members of the Pseudomonas genus produce diverse secondary metabolites affecting other bacteria, fungi or predating nematodes and protozoa but are also equipped with the capacity to secrete different types of ribosomally encoded toxic peptides and proteins, ranging from small microcins to large tailocins. Studies with the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa have revealed that effector proteins of type VI secretion systems are part of the antibacterial armamentarium deployed by pseudomonads. A novel class of antibacterial proteins with structural similarity to plant lectins was discovered by studying antagonism among plant-associated Pseudomonas strains. A genomic perspective on pseudomonad bacteriocinogeny shows that the modular architecture of S pyocins of P. aeruginosa is retained in a large diversified group of bacteriocins, most of which target DNA or RNA. Similar modularity is present in as yet poorly characterized Rhs (recombination hot spot) proteins and CDI (contact-dependent inhibition) proteins. Well-delimited domains for receptor recognition or cytotoxicity enable the design of chimeric toxins with novel functionalities, which has been applied successfully for S and R pyocins. Little is known regarding how these antibacterials are released and ultimately reach their targets. Other remaining issues concern the identification of environmental triggers activating these systems and assessment of their ecological impact in niches populated by pseudomonads. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential Control of BST2 Restriction and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Antiviral Response by Antagonists Encoded by HIV-1 Group M and O Strains.

    PubMed

    Bego, Mariana G; Cong, Lijun; Mack, Katharina; Kirchhoff, Frank; Cohen, Éric A

    2016-11-15

    BST2/tetherin is a type I interferon (IFN-I)-stimulated host factor that restricts the release of HIV-1 by entrapping budding virions at the cell surface. This membrane-associated protein can also engage and activate the plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC)-specific immunoglobulin-like transcript 7 (ILT7) inhibitory receptor to downregulate the IFN-I response by pDCs. Pandemic HIV-1 group M uses Vpu (M-Vpu) to counteract the two BST2 isoforms (long and short) that are expressed in human cells. M-Vpu efficiently downregulates surface long BST2, while it displaces short BST2 molecules away from viral assembly sites. We recently found that this attribute is used by M-Vpu to activate the BST2/ILT7-dependent negative-feedback pathway and to suppress pDC IFN-I responses during sensing of infected cells. However, whether this property is conserved in endemic HIV-1 group O, which has evolved Nef (O-Nef) to counteract specifically the long BST2 isoform, remains unknown. In the present study, we validated that O-Nefs have the capacity to downregulate surface BST2 and enhance HIV-1 particle release although less efficiently than M-Vpu. In contrast to M-Vpu, O-Nef did not efficiently enhance viral spread in T cell culture or displace short BST2 from viral assembly sites to prevent its occlusion by tethered HIV-1 particles. Consequently, O-Nef impairs the ability of BST2 to activate negative ILT7 signaling to suppress the IFN-I response by pDC-containing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during sensing of infected cells. These distinctive features of BST2 counteraction by O-Nefs may in part explain the limited spread of HIV-1 group O in the human population.

  20. Peptides derived from HIV-1, HIV-2, Ebola virus, SARS coronavirus and coronavirus 229E exhibit high affinity binding to the formyl peptide receptor

    PubMed Central

    Mills, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Peptides derived from the membrane proximal region of fusion proteins of human immunodeficiency viruses 1 and 2, Coronavirus 229 E, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus were all potent antagonists of the formyl peptide receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Binding of viral peptides was affected by the naturally occurring polymorphisms at residues 190 and 192, which are located at second extracellular loop-transmembrane helix 5 interface. Substitution of R190 with W190 enhanced the affinity for a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus peptide 6 fold but reduced the affinity for N-formyl-Nle–Leu-Phe by 2.5 fold. A 12 mer peptide derived from coronavirus 229E (ETYIKPWWVWL) was the most potent antagonist of the formyl peptide receptor W190 with a Ki of 230 nM. Fluorescently labeled ETYIKPWWVWL was effectively internalized by all three variants with EC50 of ~25 nM. An HKU-1 coronavirus peptide, MYVKWPWYVWL, was a potent antagonist but N-formyl-MYVKWPWYVWL was a potent agonist. ETYIKPWWVWL did not stimulate GTPγS binding but inhibited the stimulation by formyl-NleLeuPhe. It also blocked β arrestin translocation and receptor downregulation induced by formyl-Nle–Leu–Phe. This indicates that formyl peptide receptor may be important in viral infections and that variations in its sequence among individuals may affect their likelihood of viral and bacterial infections. PMID:16842982

  1. Structure determination of an anti-HIV-1 Fab 447-52D–peptide complex from an epitaxially twinned data set

    SciTech Connect

    Dhillon, Amandeep K.; Stanfield, Robyn L.; Gorny, Miroslaw K.; Williams, Constance; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Wilson, Ian A.

    2008-07-01

    Separation of two individual lattices within an epitaxially twinned data set allowed the crystal structure of the V3-specific neutralizing antibody 447-52D in complex with a V3 peptide (UG1033) to be determined. The structure confirms that the neutralization breadth of Fab 447-52D is likely to be attributable to the extensive focus on main-chain hydrogen-bond interactions with the peptide that permit the recognition of a range of V3 sequences. Although antibodies against the third variable loop (V3) of the HIV-1 viral envelope glycoprotein are among the first neutralizing antibodies to be detected in infected individuals, they are normally restricted in their specificity. X-ray crystallographic studies of V3-specific antibodies have contributed to a more thorough understanding of recognition of this epitope and of conserved features in the V3 loop that could potentially aid in the design of a multi-component vaccine. The human antibody 447-52D exhibits relatively broad neutralization of primary viral isolates compared with other V3-loop antibodies. A crystal structure of Fab 447-52D in complex with a V3 peptide (UG1033) was determined at 2.1 Å resolution. The structure was determined using an epitaxially twinned data set and in-house programs to detect and remove overlapping reflections. Although the processed data have lower than desired completeness and slightly higher than normal R values for the resolution, good-quality electron-density maps were obtained that enabled structure determination. The structure revealed an extended CDR H3 loop that forms a β-sheet with the peptide, with the predominant contacts being main-chain hydrogen bonds. The V3 peptide and Fab show high structural homology with the previously reported structures of other Fab 447-52D complexes, reinforcing the idea that the V3 loop may adopt a small set of conserved structures, particularly around the crown of the β-hairpin.

  2. The dimerization domain of the HIV-1 capsid protein binds a capsid protein-derived peptide: A biophysical characterization

    PubMed Central

    Garzón, María T.; Lidón-Moya, María C.; Barrera, Francisco N.; Prieto, Alicia; Gómez, Javier; Mateu, Mauricio G.; Neira, José L.

    2004-01-01

    The type 1 HIV presents a conical capsid formed by ~1500 units of the capsid protein, CA. Homodimer-ization of CA via its C-terminal domain, CA-C, constitutes a key step in virion assembly. CA-C dimerization is largely mediated by reciprocal interactions between residues of its second α-helix. Here, we show that an N-terminal-acetylated and C-terminal–amidated peptide, CAC1, comprising the sequence of the CA-C dimerization helix plus three flanking residues at each side, is able to form a complex with the entire CA-C domain. Thermal denaturation measurements followed by circular dichroism (CD), NMR, and size-exclusion chromatography provided evidence of the interaction between CAC1 and CA-C. The apparent dissociation constant of the heterocomplex formed by CA-C and CAC1 was determined by several biophysical techniques, namely, fluorescence (using an anthraniloyl-labeled peptide), affinity chromatography, and isothermal titration calorimetry. The three techniques yielded similar values for the apparent dissociation constant, in the order of 50 μM. This apparent dissociation constant was only five times higher than was the dissociation constant of both CA-C and the intact capsid protein homodimers (10 μM). PMID:15152086

  3. The dimerization domain of the HIV-1 capsid protein binds a capsid protein-derived peptide: a biophysical characterization.

    PubMed

    Garzón, María T; Lidón-Moya, María C; Barrera, Francisco N; Prieto, Alicia; Gómez, Javier; Mateu, Mauricio G; Neira, José L

    2004-06-01

    The type 1 HIV presents a conical capsid formed by approximately 1500 units of the capsid protein, CA. Homodimerization of CA via its C-terminal domain, CA-C, constitutes a key step in virion assembly. CA-C dimerization is largely mediated by reciprocal interactions between residues of its second alpha-helix. Here, we show that an N-terminal-acetylated and C-terminal-amidated peptide, CAC1, comprising the sequence of the CA-C dimerization helix plus three flanking residues at each side, is able to form a complex with the entire CA-C domain. Thermal denaturation measurements followed by circular dichroism (CD), NMR, and size-exclusion chromatography provided evidence of the interaction between CAC1 and CA-C. The apparent dissociation constant of the heterocomplex formed by CA-C and CAC1 was determined by several biophysical techniques, namely, fluorescence (using an anthraniloyl-labeled peptide), affinity chromatography, and isothermal titration calorimetry. The three techniques yielded similar values for the apparent dissociation constant, in the order of 50 microM. This apparent dissociation constant was only five times higher than was the dissociation constant of both CA-C and the intact capsid protein homodimers (10 microM).

  4. Characterization of the HIV-1 TAR RNA-Tat peptide and drug interactions by on-line acoustic wave sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassew, Nardos Gobena

    This thesis presents the application of the thickness shear-mode (TSM) acoustic wave sensor to the study of RNA-protein and RNA-drug interactions at the solid-liquid interface. The binding of the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 Tat protein to the trans-activation responsive RNA element (TAR) has been studied using this sensor. Data from such measurements show that the sensor is able to discriminate between different Tat peptides derived from the parent protein based on size. The effects of mutations introduced at specific sites in the protein and RNA on the TAR-Tat binding have also been examined in detail. Reduced level of response in acoustic parameters due to mutations was observed indicating that the decrease in binding in response to site specific mutations can be acoustically detected. Data from acoustic wave sensor measurements indicate that the TAR-Tat binding is also affected by ionic strength. Both the frequency and motional resistance signals show periodic responses when varying concentrations of salt are introduced on a TAR-modified surface. The binding of the two molecules seems to be a function of the response of the nucleic acid to salt concentrations. The kinetics of binding of Tat peptides to TAR RNA and to a bulge mutant analogue (MTAR) is also examined from the rate of change of the series resonant frequency. Results from such analysis illustrate longer Tat peptides formed more stable complexes with TAR RNA and exhibited increased discrimination between mutant and wild type TAR. The binding of two aminoglycoside antibiotics, neomycin and streptomycin, to TAR RNA and their effectiveness in preventing TAR-Tat complex formation has been studied in detail. Binding affinity is directly correlated with the inhibitory potency of these molecules and the TSM sensor shows that neomycin exhibits at least a ten fold greater affinity to TAR and that it is also a more potent inhibitor than streptomycin. The results from this research involving TAR-Tat and

  5. Application of novel solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN)-gene vector formulations based on a dimeric HIV-1 TAT-peptide in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Carsten; Schillinger, Ulrike; Ortiz, Aurora; Tabatt, Kerstin; Plank, Christian; Müller, Rainer H; Rosenecker, Joseph

    2004-09-01

    To optimize gene delivery of SLN-based gene vectors by incorporation of a dimeric HIV-1 TAT peptide (TAT2) into SLN gene vectors. Plasmid DNA was complexed with two SLN preparations either with or without pre-compaction of DNA by TAT2, poly-L-arginine, or the mutant TAT2-M1. DNA complexed with polyethylenimine (PEI) served as a standard. Gene expression was analyzed upon transfection of bronchial epithelial cells in vitro and after intratracheal instillation or aerosol application to the lungs of mice in vivo. Stability of DNA was analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Incorporation of TAT2 into SLN gene vectors induced an up to 100-fold sequence-dependent increase of gene expression as compared with the mutant TAT2-M1 and was 4- to 8-times higher as compared with PEI in vitro. In vivo application of TAT2-SLN gene vectors via jet nebulization increased SLN-based gene expression but was accompanied with DNA degradation. DNA degradation was not observed when an innovative device operating on the principle of a perforated vibrating membrane was used. Incorporation of TAT2 into SLN gene vectors is suitable to optimize gene transfer in vitro. The use of a mild nebulization technology avoids DNA degradation and offers the opportunity for further studies in large animal models.

  6. Subunit-dependent inhibition of recombinant rodent N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by a HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 derived peptide.

    PubMed

    Wittekindt, B; Betz, H; Laube, B

    2000-02-18

    Considerable evidence suggests that low (picomolar) concentrations of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 induce neuronal cell death by stimulating the release of microglial toxins, which in turn activate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Conversely, high (micromolar) concentrations of gp120 have been reported to directly inhibit NMDA receptor-mediated currents and do not induce neurotoxicity. Here we show that micromolar concentrations of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the V3-loop of gp120 (V3-pep) inhibited agonist responses of recombinant heteromeric rodent NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by decreasing their apparent glycine affinity. Different combinations of NMDA receptor subunits displayed differential sensitivities to inhibition by V3-pep, with a potency rank order of NR1/2B > NR1/2D > NR1/2C > or = NR1/2A. Our observations may provide an explanation for the reduced neurotoxicity of high doses of gp120 in cell cultures and may be useful for the pharmacological discrimination of NMDA receptor subtypes.

  7. Comprehensive Analysis of Contributions from Protein Conformational Stability and Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II-Peptide Binding Affinity to CD4+ Epitope Immunogenicity in HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingfeng; Steede, N. Kalaya; Nguyen, Hong-Nam P.; Freytag, Lucy C.; McLachlan, James B.; Mettu, Ramgopal R.; Robinson, James E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Helper T-cell epitope dominance in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 is not adequately explained by peptide binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. Antigen processing potentially influences epitope dominance, but few, if any, studies have attempted to reconcile the influences of antigen processing and MHC protein binding for all helper T-cell epitopes of an antigen. Epitopes of gp120 identified in both humans and mice occur on the C-terminal flanks of flexible segments that are likely to be proteolytic cleavage sites. In this study, the influence of gp120 conformation on the dominance pattern in gp120 from HIV strain 89.6 was examined in CBA mice, whose MHC class II protein has one of the most well defined peptide-binding preferences. Only one of six dominant epitopes contained the most conserved element of the I-Ak binding motif, an aspartic acid. Destabilization of the gp120 conformation by deletion of single disulfide bonds preferentially enhanced responses to the cryptic I-Ak motif-containing sequences, as reported by T-cell proliferation or cytokine secretion. Conversely, inclusion of CpG in the adjuvant with gp120 enhanced responses to the dominant CD4+ T-cell epitopes. The gp120 destabilization affected secretion of some cytokines more than others, suggesting that antigen conformation could modulate T-cell functions through mechanisms of antigen processing. IMPORTANCE CD4+ helper T cells play an essential role in protection against HIV and other pathogens. Thus, the sites of helper T-cell recognition, the dominant epitopes, are targets for vaccine design; and the corresponding T cells may provide markers for monitoring infection and immunity. However, T-cell epitopes are difficult to identify and predict. It is also unclear whether CD4+ T cells specific for one epitope are more protective than T cells specific for other epitopes. This work shows that the three-dimensional (3D) structure of an

  8. FUSION-COMPETENT STATE INDUCED BY A C-TERMINAL HIV-1 FUSION PEPTIDE IN CHOLESTEROL-RICH MEMBRANES

    PubMed Central

    Apellániz, Beatriz; Nieva, José L.

    2015-01-01

    The replicative cycle of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 begins after fusion of the viral and target-cell membranes. The envelope glycoprotein gp41 transmembrane subunit contains conserved hydrophobic domains that engage and perturb the merging lipid bilayers. In this work, we have characterized the fusion-committed state generated in vesicles by CpreTM, a synthetic peptide derived from the sequence connecting the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) and the transmembrane domain (TMD) of gp41. Pre-loading cholesterol-rich vesicles with CpreTM rendered them competent for subsequent lipid-mixing with fluorescently-labeled target vesicles. Highlighting the physiological relevance of the lasting fusion-competent state, the broadly neutralizing antibody 4E10 bound to the CpreTM-primed vesicles and inhibited lipid-mixing. Heterotypic fusion assays disclosed dependence on the lipid composition of the vesicles that acted either as virus or cell membrane surrogates. Lipid-mixing exhibited above all a critical dependence on the cholesterol content in those experiments. We infer that the fusion-competent state described herein resembles bona-fide perturbations generated by the pre-hairpin MPER-TMD connection within the viral membrane. PMID:25617671

  9. Deletion of the Vaccinia Virus N2L Gene Encoding an Inhibitor of IRF3 Improves the Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing HIV-1 Antigens

    PubMed Central

    García-Arriaza, Juan; Gómez, Carmen E.; Sorzano, Carlos Óscar S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A modified vaccinia virus Ankara poxvirus vector expressing the HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol, and Nef antigens from clade B (MVA-B) is currently being tested in clinical trials. To improve its immunogenicity, we have generated and characterized the immune profile of MVA-B containing a deletion of the vaccinia viral gene N2L, which codes for an inhibitor of IRF3 (MVA-B ΔN2L). Deletion of N2L had no effect on virus growth kinetics or on the expression of HIV-1 antigens; hence, the N2 protein is not essential for MVA replication. The innate immune responses triggered by MVA-B ΔN2L revealed an increase in beta interferon, proinflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. Mouse prime-boost protocols showed that MVA-B ΔN2L improves the magnitude and polyfunctionality of HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell adaptive and memory immune responses, with most of the HIV-1 responses mediated by CD8+ T cells. In the memory phase, HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells with an effector phenotype were predominant and in a higher percentage with MVA-B ΔN2L than with MVA-B. In both immunization groups, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were directed mainly against Env. Furthermore, MVA-B ΔN2L in the memory phase enhanced levels of antibody against Env. For the vector immune responses, MVA-B ΔN2L induced a greater magnitude and polyfunctionality of VACV-specific CD8+ T memory cells than MVA-B, with an effector phenotype. These results revealed the immunomodulatory role of N2L, whose deletion enhanced the innate immunity and improved the magnitude and quality of HIV-1-specific T cell adaptive and memory immune responses. These findings are relevant for the optimization of poxvirus vectors as vaccines. IMPORTANCE On the basis of the limited efficacy of the RV144 phase III clinical trial, new optimized poxvirus vectors as vaccines against HIV/AIDS are needed. Here we have generated and characterized a new HIV/AIDS vaccine candidate on the basis of the poxvirus MVA vector expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol

  10. Selective induction of cell-mediated immunity and protection of rhesus macaques from chronic SHIV{sub KU2} infection by prophylactic vaccination with a conserved HIV-1 envelope peptide-cocktail

    SciTech Connect

    Nehete, Pramod N.; Nehete, Bharti P.; Hill, Lori; Manuri, Pallavi R.; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Feng Lei; Simmons, Johnny; Sastry, K. Jagannadha

    2008-01-05

    Infection of Indian-origin rhesus macaques by the simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) is considered to be a suitable preclinical model for directly testing efficacy of vaccine candidates based on the HIV-1 envelope. We used this model for prophylactic vaccination with a peptide-cocktail comprised of highly conserved HIV-1 envelope sequences immunogenic/antigenic in macaques and humans. Separate groups of macaques were immunized with the peptide-cocktail by intravenous and subcutaneous routes using autologous dendritic cells (DC) and Freund's adjuvant, respectively. The vaccine elicited antigen specific IFN-{gamma}-producing cells and T-cell proliferation, but not HIV-neutralizing antibodies. The vaccinated animals also exhibited efficient cross-clade cytolytic activity against target cells expressing envelope proteins corresponding to HIV-1 strains representative of multiple clades that increased after intravenous challenge with pathogenic SHIV{sub KU2}. Virus-neutralizing antibodies were either undetectable or present only transiently at low levels in the control as well as vaccinated monkeys after infection. Significant control of plasma viremia leading to undetectable levels was achieved in majority of vaccinated monkeys compared to mock-vaccinated controls. Monkeys vaccinated with the peptide-cocktail using autologous DC, compared to Freund's adjuvant, and the mock-vaccinated animals, showed significantly higher IFN-{gamma} production, higher levels of vaccine-specific IFN-{gamma} producing CD4{sup +} cells and significant control of plasma viremia. These results support DC-based vaccine delivery and the utility of the conserved HIV-1 envelope peptide-cocktail, capable of priming strong cell-mediated immunity, for potential inclusion in HIV vaccination strategies.

  11. Targeting Multidrug-resistant Staphylococci with an anti-rpoA Peptide Nucleic Acid Conjugated to the HIV-1 TAT Cell Penetrating Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Abushahba, Mostafa FN; Mohammad, Haroon; Seleem, Mohamed N

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections present a serious challenge to healthcare practitioners due to the emergence of resistance to numerous conventional antibiotics. Due to their unique mode of action, peptide nucleic acids are novel alternatives to traditional antibiotics to tackle the issue of bacterial multidrug resistance. In this study, we designed a peptide nucleic acid covalently conjugated to the HIV-TAT cell penetrating peptide (GRKKKRRQRRRYK) in order to target the RNA polymerase α subunit gene (rpoA) required for bacterial genes transcription. We explored the antimicrobial activity of the anti-rpoA construct (peptide nucleic acid-TAT) against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus, vancomycin-resistant S. aureus, linezolid-resistant S. aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis in pure culture, infected mammalian cell culture, and in an in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. The anti-rpoA construct led to a concentration-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth (at micromolar concentrations) in vitro and in both infected cell culture and in vivo in C. elegans. Moreover, rpoA gene silencing resulted in suppression of its message as well as reduced expression of two important methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 toxins (α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin). This study confirms that rpoA gene is a potential target for development of novel antisense therapeutics to treat infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus. PMID:27434684

  12. Development of HIV-1 fusion inhibitors targeting gp41.

    PubMed

    Lu, K; Asyifah, M R; Shao, F; Zhang, D

    2014-06-01

    The HIV-1 envelope protein glycoprotein 41 (gp41) is crucial in the HIV-1 infection process, therefore gp41 has emerged as an attractive target for drug design against AIDS. During the past few decades, tremendous efforts have been made on developing inhibitors that can prevent the HIV-1 entry process via suppressing functional gp41. In this review, the development of HIV-1 fusion inhibitors targeting gp41 including peptide inhibitors, small molecule inhibitors, vaccines and neutralized antibodies will be discussed.

  13. High yields and soluble expression of superoxide dismutases in Escherichia coli due to the HIV-1 Tat peptide via increases in mRNA transcription

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yangdong; Ye, Qiao; Wu, Min; Wu, Yonghong; Zhang, Chenggang; Yan, Weiqun

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the high yield and soluble expression of proteins carrying the transactivator of transcription (Tat) peptide tag, and further explored the potential mechanism by which the Tat tag increases expression. Escherichia coli superoxide dismutase (SOD) proteins, including SodA, SodB and SodC, were selected for analysis. As expected, the yields and the solubility of Tat-tagged proteins were higher than those of Tat-free proteins, and similar results were observed for the total SOD enzyme activity. Bacterial cells that overexpressed Tat-tagged proteins exhibited increased anti-paraquat activity compared with those expressing Tat-free proteins that manifested as SodA>SodC>SodB. When compared with an MG1655 wild-type strain, the growth of a ΔSodA mutant strain was found to be inhibited after paraquat treatment; the growth of ΔSodB and ΔSodC mutant strains was also slightly inhibited. The mRNA transcript level of genes encoding Tat-tagged proteins was higher than that of genes encoding Tat-free proteins. Furthermore, the α-helix and turn of Tat-tagged proteins were higher than those of Tat-free proteins, but the β-sheet and random coil content was lower. These results indicated that the incorporation of the Tat core peptide as a significant basic membrane transduction peptide in fusion proteins could increase mRNA transcripts and promote the high yield and soluble expression of heterologous proteins in E. coli. PMID:27741225

  14. HIV-1 Prevention for HIV-1 Serodiscordant Couples

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Kathryn; Baeten, Jared M.; Coates, Thomas J.; Kurth, Ann; Mugo, Nelly R.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial proportion of HIV-1-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa are in stable relationships with HIV-1-uninfected partners, and HIV-1 serodiscordant couples thus represent an important target population for HIV-1 prevention. Couple-based HIV-1 testing and counseling facilitates identification of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples, counseling about risk reduction, and referrals to HIV-1 treatment, reproductive health services, and support services. Maximizing HIV-1 prevention for HIV-1 serodiscordant couples requires a combination of strategies, including counseling about condoms, sexual risk, fertility, contraception, and the clinical and prevention benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for the HIV-1-infected partner; provision of clinical care and ART for the HIV-1-infected partner; antenatal care and services to prevent mother to child transmission for HIV-1- infected pregnant women; male circumcision for HIV-1-uninfected men; and, pending guidelines and demonstration projects, oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1-uninfected partners. PMID:22415473

  15. Eukaryotic Peptide Deformylases. Nuclear-Encoded and Chloroplast-Targeted Enzymes in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Dirk, Lynnette M.A.; Williams, Mark A.; Houtz, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis (ecotype Columbia-0) genes, AtDEF1and AtDEF2, represent eukaryotic homologs of the essential prokaryotic gene encoding peptide deformylase. Both deduced proteins contain three conserved protein motifs found in the active site of all eubacterial peptide deformylases, and N-terminal extensions identifiable as chloroplast-targeting sequences. Radiolabeled full-length AtDEF1 was imported and processed by isolated pea (Pisum sativum L. Laxton's Progress No. 9) chloroplasts and AtDEF1 and 2 were immunologically detected in Arabidopsis leaf and chloroplast stromal protein extracts. The partial cDNAs encoding the processed forms of Arabidopsis peptide deformylase 1 and 2 (pAtDEF1 and 2, respectively) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using C-terminal hexahistidyl tags. Both recombinant Arabidopsis peptide deformylases had peptide deformylase activity with unique kinetic parameters that differed from those reported for the E. coli enzyme. Actinonin, a specific peptide deformylase inhibitor, was effective in vitro against Arabidopsis peptide deformylase 1 and 2 activity, respectively. Exposure of several plant species including Arabidopsis to actinonin resulted in chlorosis and severe reductions in plant growth and development. The results suggest an essential role for peptide deformylase in protein processing in all plant plastids. PMID:11553738

  16. Neutron-Encoded Protein Quantification by Peptide Carbamylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulbrich, Arne; Merrill, Anna E.; Hebert, Alexander S.; Westphall, Michael S.; Keller, Mark P.; Attie, Alan D.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a chemical tag for duplex proteome quantification using neutron encoding (NeuCode). The method utilizes the straightforward, efficient, and inexpensive carbamylation reaction. We demonstrate the utility of NeuCode carbamylation by accurately measuring quantitative ratios from tagged yeast lysates mixed in known ratios and by applying this method to quantify differential protein expression in mice fed a either control or high-fat diet.

  17. Fungal phytopathogens encode functional homologues of plant rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) peptides.

    PubMed

    Thynne, Elisha; Saur, Isabel M L; Simbaqueba, Jaime; Ogilvie, Huw A; Gonzalez-Cendales, Yvonne; Mead, Oliver; Taranto, Adam; Catanzariti, Ann-Maree; McDonald, Megan C; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Jones, David A; Rathjen, John P; Solomon, Peter S

    2016-06-13

    In this article, we describe the presence of genes encoding close homologues of an endogenous plant peptide, rapid alkalinization factor (RALF), within the genomes of 26 species of phytopathogenic fungi. Members of the RALF family are key growth factors in plants, and the sequence of the RALF active region is well conserved between plant and fungal proteins. RALF1-like sequences were observed in most cases; however, RALF27-like sequences were present in the Sphaerulina musiva and Septoria populicola genomes. These two species are pathogens of poplar and, interestingly, the closest relative to their respective RALF genes is a poplar RALF27-like sequence. RALF peptides control cellular expansion during plant development, but were originally defined on the basis of their ability to induce rapid alkalinization in tobacco cell cultures. To test whether the fungal RALF peptides were biologically active in plants, we synthesized RALF peptides corresponding to those encoded by two sequenced genomes of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. One of these peptides inhibited the growth of tomato seedlings and elicited responses in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana typical of endogenous plant RALF peptides (reactive oxygen species burst, induced alkalinization and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation). Gene expression analysis confirmed that a RALF-encoding gene in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was expressed during infection on tomato. However, a subsequent reverse genetics approach revealed that the RALF peptide was not required by F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici for infection on tomato roots. This study has demonstrated the presence of functionally active RALF peptides encoded within phytopathogens that harbour an as yet undetermined role in plant-pathogen interactions.

  18. Characterization of the primary structure of T cell receptor beta chains in cells infiltrating the salivary gland in the sicca syndrome of HIV-1 infection. Evidence of antigen-driven clonal selection suggested by restricted combinations of V beta J beta gene segment usage and shared somatically encoded amino acid residues.

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, E; Itescu, S; Winchester, R

    1993-01-01

    Infection with HIV-1 occasionally results in a sicca syndrome, termed the diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome, characterized by infiltration of the salivary glands with a predominance of CD8 T cells. This response is strongly associated with certain MHC class I and class II alleles. To define the salivary gland T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, the primary structure of the TCR beta-chains was determined using in situ cDNA synthesis followed by the "anchored" polymerase chain reaction. The sequences of 59 beta-chains from five individuals with diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome shared structural features suggesting antigenic clonal selection. Certain combinations of V beta J beta gene segments were selectively overrepresented in the repertoire sample, demonstrating a common restricted usage of certain V beta and J beta gene segments. The beta-chains derived from these overrepresented V beta J beta combinations revealed a preference for specific amino acids at position 97 in the third complementarity-determining region, a residue postulated to contact peptide antigen. Moreover, the nucleotides encoding this position were not germline in origin. TCR beta-chains in nonoverrepresented V beta J beta combinations did not exhibit preferential usage of selected somatically encoded residues. The pattern of TCR beta-chains expressed in the salivary gland of a control person with primary Sjögren's syndrome was considerably more heterogeneous and different from that found in diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. Images PMID:8392093

  19. A Conserved HIV-1-Derived Peptide Presented by HLA-E Renders Infected T-cells Highly Susceptible to Attack by NKG2A/CD94-Bearing Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Zachary B.; Cogswell, Andrew; Scott, Hamish; Mertsching, Amanda; Boucau, Julie; Wambua, Daniel; Le Gall, Sylvie; Planelles, Vicente; Campbell, Kerry S.; Barker, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I)-specific inhibitory receptors on natural killer (NK) cells (iNKRs) tolerize mature NK cell responses toward normal cells. NK cells generate cytolytic responses to virus-infected or malignant target cells with altered or decreased MHC-I surface expression due to the loss of tolerizing ligands. The NKG2A/CD94 iNKR suppresses NK cell responses through recognition of the non-classical MHC-I, HLA-E. We used HIV-infected primary T-cells as targets in an in vitro cytolytic assay with autologous NK cells from healthy donors. In these experiments, primary NKG2A/CD94+ NK cells surprisingly generated the most efficient responses toward HIV-infected T-cells, despite high HLA-E expression on the infected targets. Since certain MHC-I-presented peptides can alter recognition by iNKRs, we hypothesized that HIV-1-derived peptides presented by HLA-E on infected cells may block engagement with NKG2A/CD94, thereby engendering susceptibility to NKG2A/CD94+ NK cells. We demonstrate that HLA-E is capable of presenting a highly conserved peptide from HIV-1 capsid (AISPRTLNA) that is not recognized by NKG2A/CD94. We further confirmed that HLA-C expressed on HIV-infected cells restricts attack by KIR2DL+ CD56dim NK cells, in contrast to the efficient responses by CD56bright NK cells, which express predominantly NKG2A/CD94 and lack KIR2DLs. These findings are important since the use of NK cells was recently proposed to treat latently HIV-1-infected patients in combination with latency reversing agents. Our results provide a mechanistic basis to guide these future clinical studies, suggesting that ex vivo-expanded NKG2A/CD94+ KIR2DL- NK cells may be uniquely beneficial. PMID:26828202

  20. NK cytotoxicity against CD4+ T cells during HIV-1 infection: A gp41 peptide induces the expression of an NKp44 ligand

    PubMed Central

    Vieillard, Vincent; Strominger, Jack L.; Debré, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    HIV infection leads to a state of chronic immune activation and progressive deterioration in immune function, manifested most recognizably by the progressive depletion of CD4+ T cells. A substantial percentage of natural killer (NK) cells from patients with HIV infection are activated and express the natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR) NKp44. Here we show that a cellular ligand for NKp44 (NKp44L) is expressed during HIV-1 infection and is correlated with both the progression of CD4+ T cell depletion and the increase of viral load. CD4+ T cells expressing this ligand are highly sensitive to the NK lysis activity mediated by NKp44+ NK cells. The expression of NKp44L is induced by the linear motif NH2-SWSNKS-COOH of the HIV-1 envelope gp41 protein. This highly conserved motif appears critical to the sharp increase in NK lysis of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patients. These studies strongly suggest that induction of NKp44L plays a key role in the lysis of CD4+ T cells by activated NK cells in HIV infection and consequently provide a framework for considering how HIV-1 may use NK cell immune surveillance to trigger CD4+ T cells. Understanding this mechanism may help to develop future therapeutic strategies and vaccines against HIV-1 infection. PMID:16046540

  1. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein

    DOEpatents

    Caulfield, Michael; Cupo, Albert; Dean, Hansi; Hoffenberg, Simon; King, C. Richter; Klasse, P. J.; Marozsan, Andre; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Ward, Andrew; Wilson, Ian; Julien, Jean-Philippe

    2017-08-22

    The present application relates to novel HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, which may be utilized as HIV-1 vaccine immunogens, and antigens for crystallization, electron microscopy and other biophysical, biochemical and immunological studies for the identification of broad neutralizing antibodies. The present invention encompasses the preparation and purification of immunogenic compositions, which are formulated into the vaccines of the present invention.

  2. Psychoneuroimmunology and HIV-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoni, Michael H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents evidence describing benefits of behavioral interventions such as aerobic exercise training on both psychological and immunological functioning among high risk human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) seronegative and very early stage seropositive homosexual men. HIV-1 infection is cast as chronic disease for which early…

  3. T21/DP107, A synthetic leucine zipper-like domain of the HIV-1 envelope gp41, attracts and activates human phagocytes by using G-protein-coupled formyl peptide receptors.

    PubMed

    Su, S B; Gao, J l; Gong, W h; Dunlop, N M; Murphy, P M; Oppenheim, J J; Wang, J M

    1999-05-15

    A leucine zipper-like domain, T21/DP107, located in the amino terminus of the ectodomain of gp41, is crucial to the formation of fusogenic configuration of the HIV-1 envelope protein gp41. We report that the synthetic T21/DP107 segment is a potent stimulant of migration and calcium mobilization in human monocytes and neutrophils. The activity of T21/DP107 on phagocytes was pertussis toxin-sensitive, suggesting this peptide uses Gi-coupled seven-transmembrane receptor(s). Since the bacterial chemotactic peptide fMLP partially desensitized the calcium-mobilizing activity of T21/DP107 in phagocytes, we postulated that T21/DP107 might preferentially use a lower affinity fMLP receptor. By using cells transfected to express cloned prototype chemotactic N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) or its variant, FPR-like 1 (FPRL1), we demonstrate that T21/DP107 activates both receptors but has a much higher efficacy for FPRL1. In addition, T21/DP107 at nM concentrations induced migration of FPRL1-transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. In contrast, fMLP did not induce significant chemotaxis of the same cells at a concentration as high as 50 microM. Although a lipid metabolite, lipoxin A4, was a high-affinity ligand for FPRL1, it was not reported to induce Ca2+ mobilization or chemotaxis in FPRL1-transfected cells. Therefore, T21/DP107 is a first chemotactic peptide agonist identified thus far for FPRL1. Our results suggest that this peptide domain of the HIV-1 gp41 may have the potential to activate host innate immune response by interacting with FPR and FPRL1 on phagocytes.

  4. An Attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV1) Encoding the HIV-1 Tat Protein Protects Mice from a Deadly Mucosal HSV1 Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Sicurella, Mariaconcetta; Nicoli, Francesco; Gallerani, Eleonora; Volpi, Ilaria; Berto, Elena; Finessi, Valentina; Destro, Federica; Manservigi, Roberto; Cafaro, Aurelio; Ensoli, Barbara; Caputo, Antonella; Gavioli, Riccardo; Marconi, Peggy C.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2) are common infectious agents in both industrialized and developing countries. They cause recurrent asymptomatic and/or symptomatic infections, and life-threatening diseases and death in newborns and immunocompromised patients. Current treatment for HSV relies on antiviral medications, which can halt the symptomatic diseases but cannot prevent the shedding that occurs in asymptomatic patients or, consequently, the spread of the viruses. Therefore, prevention rather than treatment of HSV infections has long been an area of intense research, but thus far effective anti-HSV vaccines still remain elusive. One of the key hurdles to overcome in anti-HSV vaccine development is the identification and effective use of strategies that promote the emergence of Th1-type immune responses against a wide range of epitopes involved in the control of viral replication. Since the HIV1 Tat protein has several immunomodulatory activities and increases CTL recognition of dominant and subdominant epitopes of heterologous antigens, we generated and assayed a recombinant attenuated replication-competent HSV1 vector containing the tat gene (HSV1-Tat). In this proof-of-concept study we show that immunization with this vector conferred protection in 100% of mice challenged intravaginally with a lethal dose of wild-type HSV1. We demonstrate that the presence of Tat within the recombinant virus increased and broadened Th1-like and CTL responses against HSV-derived T-cell epitopes and elicited in most immunized mice detectable IgG responses. In sharp contrast, a similarly attenuated HSV1 recombinant vector without Tat (HSV1-LacZ), induced low and different T cell responses, no measurable antibody responses and did not protect mice against the wild-type HSV1 challenge. These findings strongly suggest that recombinant HSV1 vectors expressing Tat merit further investigation for their potential to prevent and/or contain HSV1 infection and

  5. An attenuated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) encoding the HIV-1 Tat protein protects mice from a deadly mucosal HSV1 challenge.

    PubMed

    Sicurella, Mariaconcetta; Nicoli, Francesco; Gallerani, Eleonora; Volpi, Ilaria; Berto, Elena; Finessi, Valentina; Destro, Federica; Manservigi, Roberto; Cafaro, Aurelio; Ensoli, Barbara; Caputo, Antonella; Gavioli, Riccardo; Marconi, Peggy C

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2) are common infectious agents in both industrialized and developing countries. They cause recurrent asymptomatic and/or symptomatic infections, and life-threatening diseases and death in newborns and immunocompromised patients. Current treatment for HSV relies on antiviral medications, which can halt the symptomatic diseases but cannot prevent the shedding that occurs in asymptomatic patients or, consequently, the spread of the viruses. Therefore, prevention rather than treatment of HSV infections has long been an area of intense research, but thus far effective anti-HSV vaccines still remain elusive. One of the key hurdles to overcome in anti-HSV vaccine development is the identification and effective use of strategies that promote the emergence of Th1-type immune responses against a wide range of epitopes involved in the control of viral replication. Since the HIV1 Tat protein has several immunomodulatory activities and increases CTL recognition of dominant and subdominant epitopes of heterologous antigens, we generated and assayed a recombinant attenuated replication-competent HSV1 vector containing the tat gene (HSV1-Tat). In this proof-of-concept study we show that immunization with this vector conferred protection in 100% of mice challenged intravaginally with a lethal dose of wild-type HSV1. We demonstrate that the presence of Tat within the recombinant virus increased and broadened Th1-like and CTL responses against HSV-derived T-cell epitopes and elicited in most immunized mice detectable IgG responses. In sharp contrast, a similarly attenuated HSV1 recombinant vector without Tat (HSV1-LacZ), induced low and different T cell responses, no measurable antibody responses and did not protect mice against the wild-type HSV1 challenge. These findings strongly suggest that recombinant HSV1 vectors expressing Tat merit further investigation for their potential to prevent and/or contain HSV1 infection and

  6. The Dh gene of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a diuretic peptide that acts through cyclic AMP.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, Pablo; Radford, Jonathan C; Broderick, Kate E; Costes, Laurence; Veenstra, Jan A; Spana, Eric P; Davies, Shireen A; Dow, Julian A T

    2002-12-01

    Dh, the gene that encodes a CRF-like peptide in Drosophila melanogaster, is described. The product of this gene is a 44-amino-acid peptide (Drome-DH(44)) with a sequence almost identical to the Musca domestica and Stomoxys calcitrans diuretic hormones. There are no other similar peptides encoded within the known Drosophila genomic sequence. Functional studies showed that the deduced peptide stimulated fluid production, and that this effect was mediated by cyclic AMP in principal cells only: there was no effect on the levels of either cyclic GMP or intracellular calcium. Stimulation also elevated levels of cyclic AMP (but not cyclic GMP) phosphodiesterase, a new mode of action for this class of hormone. The transcript was localised by in situ hybridisation, and the peptide by immunocytochemistry, to two groups of three neurones in the pars intercerebralis within the brain. These cells also express receptors for leucokinin, another major diuretic peptide, implying that the cells may be important in homeostatic regulation.

  7. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S Y

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This "shock" approach is then followed by "kill" of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells.

  8. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This “shock” approach is then followed by “kill” of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells. PMID:27049645

  9. Human Cytosolic Extracts Stabilize the HIV-1 Core

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, Thomas; Brandariz-Nuñez, Alberto; Wang, Xiaozhao; Smith, Amos B.

    2013-01-01

    The stability of the HIV-1 core in the cytoplasm is crucial for productive HIV-1 infection. Mutations that stabilize or destabilize the core showed defects on HIV-1 reverse transcription and infection. We developed a novel and simple assay to measure the stability of in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. The assay allowed us to demonstrate that cytosolic extracts strongly stabilize the HIV-1 core. Interestingly, stabilization of in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes is not due solely to macromolecular crowding, suggesting the presence of specific cellular factors that stabilize the HIV-1 core. By using our novel assay, we measured the abilities of different drugs, such as PF74, CAP-1, IXN-053, cyclosporine, Bi2 (also known as BI-2), and the peptide CAI, to modulate the stability of in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. Interestingly, we found that PF74 and Bi2 strongly stabilized HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. On the other hand, the peptide CAI destabilized HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. We also found that purified cyclophilin A destabilizes in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes in the presence of cellular extracts in a cyclosporine-sensitive manner. In agreement with previous observations using the fate-of-the-capsid assay, we also demonstrated the ability of recombinant CPSF6 to stabilize HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. Overall, our findings suggested that cellular extracts specifically stabilize the HIV-1 core. We believe that our assay can be a powerful tool to assess HIV-1 core stability in vitro. PMID:23885082

  10. Toxic peptides and genes encoding toxin gamma of the Brazilian scorpions Tityus bahiensis and Tityus stigmurus.

    PubMed

    Becerril, B; Corona, M; Coronas, F I; Zamudio, F; Calderon-Aranda, E S; Fletcher, P L; Martin, B M; Possani, L D

    1996-02-01

    Seven toxic peptides from the venom of Tityus bahiensis and Tityus stigmurus was isolated and sequenced, five of them to completion. The most abundant peptide from each of these two species of scorpion was 95% identical with that of toxin gamma from the venom of Tityus serrulatus. They were consequently named gamma-b and gamma-st respectively. The genes encoding these new gamma-like peptides were cloned and sequenced by utilizing oligonucleotides synthesized according to known cDNA sequences of toxin gamma, and amplified by PCR on templates of DNA purified from both T. bahiensis and T. stigmurus. They contain an intron of approx. 470 bp. Possible mechanisms of processing and expressing these peptides are discussed, in view of the fact that glycine is the first residue of the N-terminal sequence of T. stigmurus, whereas lysine is the residue at position 1 of toxin gamma from T. serrulatus and T. bahiensis. In addition, chemical characterization of the less abundant toxic peptides showed the presence of at least four distinct families of peptides in all three species of the genus Tityus studied. There is a large degree of similarity among peptides from different venoms of the same family. By using specific horse and rabbit antisera, the venoms of T. bahiensis, T. serrulatus and T. stigmurus were compared. They showed an extended degree of cross-reactivity. Thus these three species of scorpion have similar toxic components, the genes of which are similarly organized, processed and expressed.

  11. Toxic peptides and genes encoding toxin gamma of the Brazilian scorpions Tityus bahiensis and Tityus stigmurus.

    PubMed Central

    Becerril, B; Corona, M; Coronas, F I; Zamudio, F; Calderon-Aranda, E S; Fletcher, P L; Martin, B M; Possani, L D

    1996-01-01

    Seven toxic peptides from the venom of Tityus bahiensis and Tityus stigmurus was isolated and sequenced, five of them to completion. The most abundant peptide from each of these two species of scorpion was 95% identical with that of toxin gamma from the venom of Tityus serrulatus. They were consequently named gamma-b and gamma-st respectively. The genes encoding these new gamma-like peptides were cloned and sequenced by utilizing oligonucleotides synthesized according to known cDNA sequences of toxin gamma, and amplified by PCR on templates of DNA purified from both T. bahiensis and T. stigmurus. They contain an intron of approx. 470 bp. Possible mechanisms of processing and expressing these peptides are discussed, in view of the fact that glycine is the first residue of the N-terminal sequence of T. stigmurus, whereas lysine is the residue at position 1 of toxin gamma from T. serrulatus and T. bahiensis. In addition, chemical characterization of the less abundant toxic peptides showed the presence of at least four distinct families of peptides in all three species of the genus Tityus studied. There is a large degree of similarity among peptides from different venoms of the same family. By using specific horse and rabbit antisera, the venoms of T. bahiensis, T. serrulatus and T. stigmurus were compared. They showed an extended degree of cross-reactivity. Thus these three species of scorpion have similar toxic components, the genes of which are similarly organized, processed and expressed. PMID:8611151

  12. Productive replication and evolution of HIV-1 in ferret cells.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Hind J; Saenz, Dyana T; Guevara, Rebekah; von Messling, Veronika; Peretz, Mary; Poeschla, Eric M

    2012-02-01

    A rodent or other small animal model for HIV-1 has not been forthcoming, with the principal obstacles being species-specific restriction mechanisms and deficits in HIV-1 dependency factors. Some Carnivorans may harbor comparatively fewer impediments. For example, in contrast to mice, the domestic cat genome encodes essential nonreceptor HIV-1 dependency factors. All Feliformia species and at least one Caniformia species also lack a major lentiviral restriction mechanism (TRIM5α/TRIMCyp proteins). Here we investigated cells from two species in another carnivore family, the Mustelidae, for permissiveness to the HIV-1 life cycle. Mustela putorius furo (domesticated ferret) primary cells and cell lines did not restrict HIV-1, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), or N-tropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) postentry and supported late HIV-1 life cycle steps comparably to human cells. The ferret TRIM5α gene exon 8, which encodes the B30.2 domain, was found to be pseudogenized. Strikingly, ferret (but not mink) cells engineered to express human HIV-1 entry receptors supported productive spreading replication, amplification, and serial passage of wild-type HIV-1. Nevertheless, produced virions had relatively reduced infectivity and the virus accrued G→A hypermutations, consistent with APOBEC3 protein pressure. Ferret cell-passaged HIV-1 also evolved amino acid changes in the capsid cyclophilin A binding loop. We conclude that the genome of this carnivore can provide essential nonreceptor HIV-1 dependency factors and that ferret APOBEC3 proteins with activity against HIV-1 are likely. Even so, unlike in cat cells, HIV-1 can replicate in ferret cells without vif substitution. The virus evolves in this novel nonprimate cell adaptive landscape. We suggest that further characterization of HIV-1 adaptation in ferret cells and delineation of Mustelidae restriction factor repertoires are warranted, with a view to the potential for an HIV-1

  13. Productive Replication and Evolution of HIV-1 in Ferret Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fadel, Hind J.; Saenz, Dyana T.; Guevara, Rebekah; von Messling, Veronika; Peretz, Mary

    2012-01-01

    A rodent or other small animal model for HIV-1 has not been forthcoming, with the principal obstacles being species-specific restriction mechanisms and deficits in HIV-1 dependency factors. Some Carnivorans may harbor comparatively fewer impediments. For example, in contrast to mice, the domestic cat genome encodes essential nonreceptor HIV-1 dependency factors. All Feliformia species and at least one Caniformia species also lack a major lentiviral restriction mechanism (TRIM5α/TRIMCyp proteins). Here we investigated cells from two species in another carnivore family, the Mustelidae, for permissiveness to the HIV-1 life cycle. Mustela putorius furo (domesticated ferret) primary cells and cell lines did not restrict HIV-1, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), or N-tropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) postentry and supported late HIV-1 life cycle steps comparably to human cells. The ferret TRIM5α gene exon 8, which encodes the B30.2 domain, was found to be pseudogenized. Strikingly, ferret (but not mink) cells engineered to express human HIV-1 entry receptors supported productive spreading replication, amplification, and serial passage of wild-type HIV-1. Nevertheless, produced virions had relatively reduced infectivity and the virus accrued G→A hypermutations, consistent with APOBEC3 protein pressure. Ferret cell-passaged HIV-1 also evolved amino acid changes in the capsid cyclophilin A binding loop. We conclude that the genome of this carnivore can provide essential nonreceptor HIV-1 dependency factors and that ferret APOBEC3 proteins with activity against HIV-1 are likely. Even so, unlike in cat cells, HIV-1 can replicate in ferret cells without vif substitution. The virus evolves in this novel nonprimate cell adaptive landscape. We suggest that further characterization of HIV-1 adaptation in ferret cells and delineation of Mustelidae restriction factor repertoires are warranted, with a view to the potential for an HIV-1

  14. Conserved epitopes on HIV-1, FIV and SIV p24 proteins are recognized by HIV-1 infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Roff, Shannon R; Sanou, Missa P; Rathore, Mobeen H; Levy, Jay A; Yamamoto, Janet K

    2015-01-01

    Cross-reactive peptides on HIV-1 and FIV p24 protein sequences were studied using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from untreated HIV-1-infected long-term survivors (LTS; >10 y of infection without antiretroviral therapy, ART), short-term HIV-1 infected subjects not on ART, and ART-treated HIV-1 infected subjects. IFNγ-ELISpot and CFSE-proliferation analyses were performed with PBMC using overlapping HIV-1 and FIV p24 peptides. Over half of the HIV-1 infected subjects tested (22/31 or 71%) responded to one or more FIV p24 peptide pools by either IFNγ or T-cell proliferation analysis. PBMC and T cells from infected subjects in all 3 HIV(+) groups predominantly recognized one FIV p24 peptide pool (Fp14) by IFNγ production and one additional FIV p24 peptide pool (Fp9) by T-cell proliferation analysis. Furthermore, evaluation of overlapping SIV p24 peptide sequences identified conserved epitope(s) on the Fp14/Hp15-counterpart of SIV, Sp14, but none on Fp9-counterpart of SIV, Sp9. The responses to these FIV peptide pools were highly reproducible and persisted throughout 2-4 y of monitoring. Intracellular staining analysis for cytotoxins and phenotyping for CD107a determined that peptide epitopes from Fp9 and Fp14 pools induced cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecules including perforin, granzyme B, granzyme A, and/or expression of CD107a. Selected FIV and corresponding SIV epitopes recognized by HIV-1 infected patients indicate that these protein sequences are evolutionarily conserved on both SIV and HIV-1 (e.g., Hp15:Fp14:Sp14). These studies demonstrate that comparative immunogenicity analysis of HIV-1, FIV, and SIV can identify evolutionarily-conserved T cell-associated lentiviral epitopes, which could be used as a vaccine for prophylaxis or immunotherapy.

  15. Peptide Derived from HIV-1 TAT Protein Destabilizes a Monolayer of Endothelial Cells in an in Vitro Model of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Allows Permeation of High Molecular Weight Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Itzik; Sasson, Keren; Teichberg, Vivian I.; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal; Fridkin, Mati; Shechter, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    Most chemotherapeutic agents are blood-brain barrier (BBB) impermeants. HIV-1-derived TAT protein variants contain a transmembrane domain, which may enable them to cross the BBB and reach the brain. Here we synthesized CAYGRKKRRQRRR, a peptide containing a cysteine moiety attached to the N terminus of the transmembrane domain (C-TAT peptide), and studied its effects in an in vitro BBB model, which we found to reflect penetration by a receptor-independent pathway. Incubation of the brain capillary endothelial cell monolayer with 0.3–0.6 μmol/ml of this C-TAT peptide, for a period of 1–2 h, destabilizes brain capillary endothelial cell monolayer and introduces the ability of impermeant therapeutic agents including high molecular weight proteins to penetrate it substantially. The cysteinyl moiety at position 1 of the C-TAT peptide contributes largely to the destabilizing potency and the penetration efficacy of impermeant substances. The destabilizing effect was reversed using heparin. In summary, experimental conditions allowing a significant increase in entry of impermeant low and high molecular weight substances from the luminal (blood) to the abluminal side (brain) were found in an in vitro BBB model reflecting in vivo protein penetrability by a receptor-independent pathway. PMID:23150670

  16. Peptide derived from HIV-1 TAT protein destabilizes a monolayer of endothelial cells in an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier and allows permeation of high molecular weight proteins.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Itzik; Sasson, Keren; Teichberg, Vivian I; Schnaider-Beeri, Michal; Fridkin, Mati; Shechter, Yoram

    2012-12-28

    Most chemotherapeutic agents are blood-brain barrier (BBB) impermeants. HIV-1-derived TAT protein variants contain a transmembrane domain, which may enable them to cross the BBB and reach the brain. Here we synthesized CAYGRKKRRQRRR, a peptide containing a cysteine moiety attached to the N terminus of the transmembrane domain (C-TAT peptide), and studied its effects in an in vitro BBB model, which we found to reflect penetration by a receptor-independent pathway. Incubation of the brain capillary endothelial cell monolayer with 0.3-0.6 μmol/ml of this C-TAT peptide, for a period of 1-2 h, destabilizes brain capillary endothelial cell monolayer and introduces the ability of impermeant therapeutic agents including high molecular weight proteins to penetrate it substantially. The cysteinyl moiety at position 1 of the C-TAT peptide contributes largely to the destabilizing potency and the penetration efficacy of impermeant substances. The destabilizing effect was reversed using heparin. In summary, experimental conditions allowing a significant increase in entry of impermeant low and high molecular weight substances from the luminal (blood) to the abluminal side (brain) were found in an in vitro BBB model reflecting in vivo protein penetrability by a receptor-independent pathway.

  17. Sex differences in HIV-1-mediated immunopathology.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Susanne; Altfeld, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    The article reviews our current knowledge regarding the role of sex and sex hormones in regulating innate immune responses to viral infections, which may account for the described sex differences in immunity to HIV-1. Prominent sex differences exist in various infectious and autoimmune diseases. Biological mechanisms underlying these differences include the modulation of immunological pathways by sex hormones and gene dosage effects of immunomodulatory genes encoded by the X chromosome. During HIV-1 infections, women have been shown to present with lower viral load levels in primary infection, although their progression to AIDS is faster in comparison with men when accounting for viral load levels in chronic infection. HIV-1-infected women furthermore tend to have higher levels of immune activation and interferon-stimulated gene expression in comparison with men for the same viral load, which has been associated to innate sensing of HIV-1 by Toll-like receptor 7 and the consequent interferon-α production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Improvement in understanding the mechanisms associated with sex differences in HIV-1-mediated immunopathology will be critical to take sex differences into consideration when designing experimental and clinical studies in HIV-1-infected populations.

  18. Encoding Cell-Instructive Cues to PEG-Based Hydrogels via Triple Helical Peptide Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Effective synthetic tissue engineering scaffolds mimic the structure and composition of natural extracellular matrix (ECM) to promote optimal cellular adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Among many proteins of the ECM, collagen and fibronectin are known to play a key role in the scaffold’s structural integrity as well as its ability to support cell adhesion. Here, we present photocrosslinked poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels displaying collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) that can be further conjugated to bioactive molecules via CMP-CMP triple helix association. Pre-formed PEGDA-CMP hydrogels can be encoded with varying concentration of cell-signaling CMP-RGD peptides similar to cell adhesive fibronectin decorating the collagen fibrous network by non-covalent binding. Furthermore, the triple helix mediated encoding allows facile generation of spatial gradients and patterns of cell-instructive cues across the cell scaffold that simulate distribution of insoluble factors in the natural ECM. PMID:23908674

  19. Rhizobial peptidase HrrP cleaves host-encoded signaling peptides and mediates symbiotic compatibility

    PubMed Central

    Price, Paul A.; Tanner, Houston R.; Dillon, Brett A.; Shabab, Mohammed; Walker, Graham C.; Griffitts, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    Legume–rhizobium pairs are often observed that produce symbiotic root nodules but fail to fix nitrogen. Using the Sinorhizobium meliloti and Medicago truncatula symbiotic system, we previously described several naturally occurring accessory plasmids capable of disrupting the late stages of nodule development while enhancing bacterial proliferation within the nodule. We report here that host range restriction peptidase (hrrP), a gene found on one of these plasmids, is capable of conferring both these properties. hrrP encodes an M16A family metallopeptidase whose catalytic activity is required for these symbiotic effects. The ability of hrrP to suppress nitrogen fixation is conditioned upon the genotypes of both the host plant and the hrrP-expressing rhizobial strain, suggesting its involvement in symbiotic communication. Purified HrrP protein is capable of degrading a range of nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides encoded by M. truncatula. NCR peptides are crucial signals used by M. truncatula for inducing and maintaining rhizobial differentiation within nodules, as demonstrated in the accompanying article [Horváth B, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 10.1073/pnas.1500777112]. The expression pattern of hrrP and its effects on rhizobial morphology are consistent with the NCR peptide cleavage model. This work points to a symbiotic dialogue involving a complex ensemble of host-derived signaling peptides and bacterial modifier enzymes capable of adjusting signal strength, sometimes with exploitative outcomes. PMID:26401024

  20. Rhizobial peptidase HrrP cleaves host-encoded signaling peptides and mediates symbiotic compatibility.

    PubMed

    Price, Paul A; Tanner, Houston R; Dillon, Brett A; Shabab, Mohammed; Walker, Graham C; Griffitts, Joel S

    2015-12-08

    Legume-rhizobium pairs are often observed that produce symbiotic root nodules but fail to fix nitrogen. Using the Sinorhizobium meliloti and Medicago truncatula symbiotic system, we previously described several naturally occurring accessory plasmids capable of disrupting the late stages of nodule development while enhancing bacterial proliferation within the nodule. We report here that host range restriction peptidase (hrrP), a gene found on one of these plasmids, is capable of conferring both these properties. hrrP encodes an M16A family metallopeptidase whose catalytic activity is required for these symbiotic effects. The ability of hrrP to suppress nitrogen fixation is conditioned upon the genotypes of both the host plant and the hrrP-expressing rhizobial strain, suggesting its involvement in symbiotic communication. Purified HrrP protein is capable of degrading a range of nodule-specific cysteine-rich (NCR) peptides encoded by M. truncatula. NCR peptides are crucial signals used by M. truncatula for inducing and maintaining rhizobial differentiation within nodules, as demonstrated in the accompanying article [Horváth B, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 10.1073/pnas.1500777112]. The expression pattern of hrrP and its effects on rhizobial morphology are consistent with the NCR peptide cleavage model. This work points to a symbiotic dialogue involving a complex ensemble of host-derived signaling peptides and bacterial modifier enzymes capable of adjusting signal strength, sometimes with exploitative outcomes.

  1. Vpx-containing Dendritic Cell Vaccine Vectors Induce CTLs and Reactivate Latent HIV-1 in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Thomas D.; Miller, Elizabeth A.; Bhardwaj, Nina; Landau, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Eradication of HIV-1 from an infected individual requires a means of inducing production of virus from latently infected cells and stimulating an immune response against the infected cells. We report the development of lentiviral vectors that transduce dendritic cells (DCs) to both induce production of virus from latently infected cells and stimulate antigen-specific CTLs. The vectors package Vpx, a lentiviral accessory protein that counteracts the SAMHD1-mediated block to DC transduction, allowing for long-term expression of vector-encoded proteins. The vectors encode influenza or HIV-1-derived epitopes fused via a self-cleaving peptide to CD40L that releases the peptide into the endoplasmic reticulum for entry into the antigen presentation pathway. Expression of CD40L caused transduced DCs to mature and produce Th1-skewing cytokines. The DCs presented antigen to CD8 T cells, enhancing antigen-specific CTLs. Coculture of the transduced DCs with latently infected cells induced high level virus production, an effect that was mediated by TNF-α. The ability of a DC vaccine to reactivate latent HIV-1 and stimulate an adaptive immune response provides a means to reduce the size of the latent reservoir in patients. This strategy can also be applied to develop DC vaccines for other diseases. PMID:25567537

  2. BAGEL3: automated identification of genes encoding bacteriocins and (non-)bactericidal posttranslationally modified peptides

    PubMed Central

    van Heel, Auke J.; de Jong, Anne; Montalbán-López, Manuel; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying genes encoding bacteriocins and ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) can be a challenging task. Especially those peptides that do not have strong homology to previously identified peptides can easily be overlooked. Extensive use of BAGEL2 and user feedback has led us to develop BAGEL3. BAGEL3 features genome mining of prokaryotes, which is largely independent of open reading frame (ORF) predictions and has been extended to cover more (novel) classes of posttranslationally modified peptides. BAGEL3 uses an identification approach that combines direct mining for the gene and indirect mining via context genes. Especially for heavily modified peptides like lanthipeptides, sactipeptides, glycocins and others, this genetic context harbors valuable information that is used for mining purposes. The bacteriocin and context protein databases have been updated and it is now easy for users to submit novel bacteriocins or RiPPs. The output has been simplified to allow user-friendly analysis of the results, in particular for large (meta-genomic) datasets. The genetic context of identified candidate genes is fully annotated. As input, BAGEL3 uses FASTA DNA sequences or folders containing multiple FASTA formatted files. BAGEL3 is freely accessible at http://bagel.molgenrug.nl. PMID:23677608

  3. BAGEL3: Automated identification of genes encoding bacteriocins and (non-)bactericidal posttranslationally modified peptides.

    PubMed

    van Heel, Auke J; de Jong, Anne; Montalbán-López, Manuel; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2013-07-01

    Identifying genes encoding bacteriocins and ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs) can be a challenging task. Especially those peptides that do not have strong homology to previously identified peptides can easily be overlooked. Extensive use of BAGEL2 and user feedback has led us to develop BAGEL3. BAGEL3 features genome mining of prokaryotes, which is largely independent of open reading frame (ORF) predictions and has been extended to cover more (novel) classes of posttranslationally modified peptides. BAGEL3 uses an identification approach that combines direct mining for the gene and indirect mining via context genes. Especially for heavily modified peptides like lanthipeptides, sactipeptides, glycocins and others, this genetic context harbors valuable information that is used for mining purposes. The bacteriocin and context protein databases have been updated and it is now easy for users to submit novel bacteriocins or RiPPs. The output has been simplified to allow user-friendly analysis of the results, in particular for large (meta-genomic) datasets. The genetic context of identified candidate genes is fully annotated. As input, BAGEL3 uses FASTA DNA sequences or folders containing multiple FASTA formatted files. BAGEL3 is freely accessible at http://bagel.molgenrug.nl.

  4. Core-Gene-Encoded Peptide Regulating Virulence-Associated Traits in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Nam; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, high-coverage genome sequence of 57 isolates of Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiological agent of human dental caries, was completed. The SMU.1147 gene, encoding a 61-amino-acid (61-aa) peptide, was present in all sequenced strains of S. mutans but absent in all bacteria in current databases. Reverse transcription-PCR revealed that SMU.1147 is cotranscribed with scnK and scnR, which encode the histidine kinase and response regulator, respectively, of a two-component system (TCS). The C terminus of the SMU.1147 gene product was tagged with a FLAG epitope and shown to be expressed in S. mutans by Western blotting with an anti-FLAG antibody. A nonpolar mutant of SMU.1147 formed less biofilm in glucose-containing medium and grew slower than did the wild-type strain under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, at low pH, or in the presence of H2O2. Mutation of SMU.1147 dramatically reduced genetic competence and expression of comX and comY, compared to S. mutans UA159. The competence defect of the SMU.1147 mutant could not be overcome by addition of sigX-inducing peptide (XIP) in defined medium or by competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) in complex medium. Complementation with SMU.1147 on a plasmid restored all phenotypes. Interestingly, mutants lacking either one of the TCS components and a mutant lacking all three genes behaved like the wild-type strain for all phenotypes mentioned above, but all mutant strains grew slower than UA159 in medium supplemented with 0.3 M NaCl. Thus, the SMU.1147-encoded peptide affects virulence-related traits and dominantly controls quorum-sensing pathways for development of genetic competence in S. mutans. PMID:23603743

  5. HIV-1 vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Robb, Merlin L; Kim, Jerome H

    2014-01-01

    The development of a safe and effective preventive HIV-1 vaccine remains a public health priority. Despite scientific difficulties and disappointing results, HIV-1 vaccine clinical development has, for the first time, established proof-of-concept efficacy against HIV-1 acquisition and identified vaccine-associated immune correlates of risk. The correlate of risk analysis showed that IgG antibodies against the gp120 V2 loop correlated with decreased risk of HIV infection, while Env-specific IgA directly correlated with increased risk. The development of vaccine strategies such as improved envelope proteins formulated with potent adjuvants and DNA and vectors expressing mosaics, or conserved sequences, capable of eliciting greater breadth and depth of potentially relevant immune responses including neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses, mucosal immune responses, and immunological memory, is now proceeding quickly. Additional human efficacy trials combined with other prevention modalities along with sustained funding and international collaboration remain key to bring an HIV-1 vaccine to licensure. PMID:24637946

  6. Induction of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes by immunization with syngeneic irradiated HIV-1 envelope derived peptide-pulsed dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, H; Nakagawa, Y; Yokomuro, K; Berzofsky, J A

    1993-08-01

    Based on the evidence that CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) precursors do not appear to distinguish between virus-infected cells and viral peptide-pulsed syngeneic cells, we have developed methods for priming class I MHC molecule restricted CD8+ CTL with such peptides without using any adjuvant. We were able to prime in vivo such CTL immunity lasting at least 6 months with a single i.v. injection of syngeneic 2200-3300 rad irradiated peptide-pulsed spleen cells, and even more efficiently with a very small number of irradiated class II MHC molecule expressing splenic dendritic cells (DC). No foreign serum source was necessary during the pulsing. Interestingly, we could not generate significant CTL activity with unirradiated or low dose (< 1100 rad) irradiated spleen cells. Because even purified DC required irradiation for optimal activity, because unirradiated B cells did not significantly inhibit the immunization with DC, and because B cell depletion did not substitute for irradiation, we believe that the effect of irradiation is more to determine homing of the cells than to eliminate interference by B cells. Intravenous immunization was much more effective than s.c. or i.p. immunization. CTL generated by this method could kill both peptide-pulsed syngeneic targets and targets endogenously expressing the whole gp160 gene. Moreover, we found that we could prime CD8+ CTL with the minimal 10-residue core peptide (RGPGRAFVTI) for optimal presentation by class I MHC molecules as efficiently as the original p18. These results suggested that DC bearing antigenic peptide may prime antigen-specific CD8+ CTL in vivo. These results offer useful information for development of synthetic peptide vaccines and immunotherapy.

  7. The HIV-1 antisense protein (ASP) induces CD8 T cell responses during chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Bet, Anne; Maze, Emmanuel Atangana; Bansal, Anju; Sterrett, Sarah; Gross, Antoine; Graff-Dubois, Stéphanie; Samri, Assia; Guihot, Amélie; Katlama, Christine; Theodorou, Ioannis; Mesnard, Jean-Michel; Moris, Arnaud; Goepfert, Paul A; Cardinaud, Sylvain

    2015-02-10

    CD8+ T cells recognize HIV-1 epitopes translated from a gene's primary reading frame (F1) and any one of its five alternative reading frames (ARFs) in the forward (F2, F3) or reverse (R1-3) directions. The 3' end of HIV-1's proviral coding strand contains a conserved sequence that is directly overlapping but antiparallel to the env gene (ARF R2) and encodes for a putative antisense HIV-1 protein called ASP. ASP expression has been demonstrated in vitro using HIV-transfected cell lines or infected cells. Although antibodies to ASP were previously detected in patient sera, T cell recognition of ASP-derived epitopes has not been evaluated. We therefore investigated the ex vivo and in vitro induction of ASP-specific T cell responses as a measure of immune recognition and protein expression during HIV-1 infection. A panel of overlapping peptides was initially designed from the full-length ASP sequence to perform a global assessment of T cell responses. Recognition of ASP-derived antigens was evaluated in an IFN-γELISpot assay using PBMCs from HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative individuals. Eight of 25 patients had positive responses to ASP antigens and none of the seronegative donors responded. As a complimentary approach, a second set of antigens was designed using HLA-I binding motifs and affinities. Two ASP-derived peptides with high predicted binding affinities for HLA-A*02 (ASP-YL9) and HLA-B*07 (ASP-TL10) were tested using PBMCs from HIV-1 seropositive and seronegative individuals who expressed the matching HLA-I-restricting allele. We found that HLA-I-restricted ASP peptides were only recognized by CD8+ T cells from patients with the relevant HLA-I and did not induce responses in any of the seronegative donors or patients who do not express the restrictive HLA alleles. Further, ASP-YL9-specific CD8+ T cells had functional profiles that were similar to a previously described HLA-A*02-restricted epitope (Gag-SL9). Specific recognition of ASP-YL9 by CD8+ T cells

  8. Psoriasis Patients Are Enriched for Genetic Variants That Protect against HIV-1 Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haoyan; Hayashi, Genki; Lai, Olivia Y.; Dilthey, Alexander; Kuebler, Peter J.; Wong, Tami V.; Martin, Maureen P.; Fernandez Vina, Marcelo A.; McVean, Gil; Wabl, Matthias; Leslie, Kieron S.; Maurer, Toby; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Deeks, Steven G.; Carrington, Mary; Bowcock, Anne M.; Nixon, Douglas F.; Liao, Wilson

    2012-01-01

    An important paradigm in evolutionary genetics is that of a delicate balance between genetic variants that favorably boost host control of infection but which may unfavorably increase susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Here, we investigated whether patients with psoriasis, a common immune-mediated disease of the skin, are enriched for genetic variants that limit the ability of HIV-1 virus to replicate after infection. We analyzed the HLA class I and class II alleles of 1,727 Caucasian psoriasis cases and 3,581 controls and found that psoriasis patients are significantly more likely than controls to have gene variants that are protective against HIV-1 disease. This includes several HLA class I alleles associated with HIV-1 control; amino acid residues at HLA-B positions 67, 70, and 97 that mediate HIV-1 peptide binding; and the deletion polymorphism rs67384697 associated with high surface expression of HLA-C. We also found that the compound genotype KIR3DS1 plus HLA-B Bw4-80I, which respectively encode a natural killer cell activating receptor and its putative ligand, significantly increased psoriasis susceptibility. This compound genotype has also been associated with delay of progression to AIDS. Together, our results suggest that genetic variants that contribute to anti-viral immunity may predispose to the development of psoriasis. PMID:22577363

  9. Delivery of DNA HIV-1 Vaccine to the Liver Induces High and Long-lasting Humoral Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Raska, Milan; Moldoveanu, Zina; Novak, Jan; Hel, Zdenek; Bozja, Jadranka; Compans, Richard W.; Yang, Chinglai; Mestecky, Jiri

    2008-01-01

    The quality of immune responses induced by DNA vaccination depends on the site of DNA administration, the expression, and the properties of the encoded antigen. In the present study we demonstrate that intravenous hydrodynamic HIV-1 envelope DNA injection resulted in high levels of expression of HIV-1 envelope antigen in the liver. When compared to the administration of DNA by i.n., i.d., i.m., and i.splenic routes, hydrodynamic vaccination induced, upon DNA boosting, 40 times increase of HIV-1 envelope-specific antibodies over the preimmune levels. Hydrodynamic vaccination with 1 μg DNA induced higher humoral responses than 100 μg DNA given intramuscularly in the prime – boost regimen. High levels of envelope-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were induced in genital tract secretions after two doses of DNA followed by intranasal boosting with recombinant HIV-1 gp120 protein. Furthermore, two doses of 100 μg DNA generated interferon-gamma production in ~ 4.3 ± 1.7 % of CD8+ splenocytes after in vitro stimulation with HIV-1 envelope peptides. These results demonstrate that DNA vaccines targeted to tissues with high proteosynthetic activity, such as the liver, results in enhanced immune responses. PMID:18304708

  10. Micelle-induced curvature in a water-insoluble HIV-1 Env peptide revealed by NMR dipolar coupling measurement in stretched polyacrylamide gel.

    PubMed

    Chou, James J; Kaufman, Joshua D; Stahl, Stephen J; Wingfield, Paul T; Bax, Ad

    2002-03-20

    The structure of a water-insoluble fragment encompassing residues 282-304 of the HIV envelope protein gp41 is studied when solubilized by dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DHPC) and by small bicelles, consisting of a 4:1 molar ratio of DHPC and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC). Weak alignment with the magnetic field was accomplished in a stretched polyacrylamide gel, permitting measurement of one-bond (1)H-(15)N, (13)Ca-(13)C', and (13)C'-(15)N dipolar couplings, which formed the basis for determining the peptide structure. In both detergent systems, the peptide adopts an alpha-helical conformation from residue 4 through 18. In the presence of the DHPC micelles the helix is strongly curved towards the hydrophobic surface, whereas in the presence of bicelles a much weaker curvature in the opposite direction is observed.

  11. A Gene Encoding Antigenic Peptides of Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma Recognized by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shichijo, Shigeki; Nakao, Masanobu; Imai, Yasuhisa; Takasu, Hideo; Kawamoto, Mayumi; Niiya, Fumihiko; Yang, Damu; Toh, Yuji; Yamana, Hideaki; Itoh, Kyogo

    1998-01-01

    Except for melanomas, tumor antigens recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are yet unidentified. We have identified a gene encoding antigenic peptides of human squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) recognized by human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens (HLA)- A2601–restricted CTLs. This gene showed no similarity to known sequences, and encoded two (125- and 43-kilodalton [kD]) proteins. The 125-kD protein with the leucine zipper motif was expressed in the nucleus of the majority of proliferating cells tested, including normal and malignant cells. The 43-kD protein was expressed in the cytosol of most SCCs from various organs and half of lung adenocarcinomas, but was not expressed in other cancers nor in a panel of normal tissues. The three nonapeptides shared by the two proteins were recognized by the KE4 CTLs, and one of the peptides induced in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) the CTLs restricted to the autologous tumor cells. The 43-kD protein and this nonapeptide (KGSGKMKTE) may be useful for the specific immunotherapy of HLA-A2601+ epithelial cancer patients. PMID:9449708

  12. Unusual Fusion Proteins of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Simon; Sauter, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Despite its small genome size, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) is one of the most successful pathogens and has infected more than 70 million people worldwide within the last decades. In total, HIV-1 expresses 16 canonical proteins from only nine genes within its 10 kb genome. Expression of the structural genes gag, pol, and env, the regulatory genes rev and tat and the accessory genes vpu, nef, vpr, and vif enables assembly of the viral particle, regulates viral gene transcription, and equips the virus to evade or counteract host immune responses. In addition to the canonically expressed proteins, a growing number of publications describe the existence of non-canonical fusion proteins in HIV-1 infected cells. Most of them are encoded by the tat-env-rev locus. While the majority of these fusion proteins (e.g., TNV/p28tev, p186Drev, Tat1-Rev2, Tat^8c, p17tev, or Ref) are the result of alternative splicing events, Tat-T/Vpt is produced upon programmed ribosomal frameshifting, and a Rev1-Vpu fusion protein is expressed due to a nucleotide polymorphism that is unique to certain HIV-1 clade A and C strains. A better understanding of the expression and activity of these non-canonical viral proteins will help to dissect their potential role in viral replication and reveal how HIV-1 optimized the coding potential of its genes. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of previously described HIV-1 fusion proteins and to summarize our current knowledge of their expression patterns and putative functions. PMID:28119676

  13. Sequences encoding identical peptides for the analysis and manipulation of coding DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    The use of sequences encoding identical peptides (SEIP) for the in silico analysis of coding DNA from different species has not been reported; the study of such sequences could directly reveal properties of coding DNA that are independent of peptide sequences. For practical purposes SEIP might also be manipulated for e.g. heterologous protein expression. We extracted 1,551 SEIP from human and E. coli and 2,631 SEIP from human and D. melanogaster. We then analyzed codon usage and intercodon dinucleotide tendencies and found differences in both, with more conspicuous disparities between human and E. coli than between human and D. melanogaster. We also briefly manipulated SEIP to find out if they could be used to create new coding sequences. We hence attempted replacement of human by E. coli codons via dicodon exchange but found that full replacement was not possible, this indicated robust species-specific dicodon tendencies. To test another form of codon replacement we isolated SEIP from human and the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) and we then re-constructed the GFP coding DNA with human tetra-peptide-coding sequences. Results provide proof-of-principle that SEIP may be used to reveal differences in the properties of coding DNA and to reconstruct in pieces a protein coding DNA with sequences from a different organism, the latter might be exploited in heterologous protein expression. PMID:23861567

  14. Sequences encoding identical peptides for the analysis and manipulation of coding DNA.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    The use of sequences encoding identical peptides (SEIP) for the in silico analysis of coding DNA from different species has not been reported; the study of such sequences could directly reveal properties of coding DNA that are independent of peptide sequences. For practical purposes SEIP might also be manipulated for e.g. heterologous protein expression. We extracted 1,551 SEIP from human and E. coli and 2,631 SEIP from human and D. melanogaster. We then analyzed codon usage and intercodon dinucleotide tendencies and found differences in both, with more conspicuous disparities between human and E. coli than between human and D. melanogaster. We also briefly manipulated SEIP to find out if they could be used to create new coding sequences. We hence attempted replacement of human by E. coli codons via dicodon exchange but found that full replacement was not possible, this indicated robust species-specific dicodon tendencies. To test another form of codon replacement we isolated SEIP from human and the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) and we then re-constructed the GFP coding DNA with human tetra-peptide-coding sequences. Results provide proof-of-principle that SEIP may be used to reveal differences in the properties of coding DNA and to reconstruct in pieces a protein coding DNA with sequences from a different organism, the latter might be exploited in heterologous protein expression.

  15. Plasmid DNA encoding targeted naturally processed peptides generates protective cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in immunized animals.

    PubMed

    Hedley, M L; Strominger, J L; Urban, R G

    1998-02-10

    Genetic immunization has been widely applied in efforts to find novel and efficient mechanisms of stimulating the immune response. An effective attack against viral pathogens or tumors often requires activation of T cell-mediated immunity and the generation of cytotoxic T cells. Intramuscular immunization with plasmid DNA containing cDNAs that encode proteins results in expression and secretion of the foreign antigen by muscle cells. T cell activation occurs when peptide fragments of the exogenous protein are presented by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells. Identification of specific peptide epitopes from a protein antigen presented to T cells during an infectious process or tumor situation would provide all of the antigenic information needed to stimulate effective T cell-mediated immunity. Such peptides represent the naturally processed epitopes selected by the processing machinery of antigen presenting cells. Delivery of this information to the appropriate cells in vivo might be sufficient to stimulate T cell immunity and overcome the difficulties associated with overexpression of large protein antigens or those with potentially toxic side effects. This report describes the use of naturally processed T cell epitopes, administered in plasmid DNA vaccines, to stimulate cytotoxic T cell responses to two viral antigens effectively.

  16. [Cloning, prokaryotic expression and antibacterial assay of Tenecin gene encoding an antibacterial peptide from Tenebrio molitor].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yu-xin; Li, Chao-pin

    2011-12-01

    To clone tenecin gene, an antibacterial peptide gene, from Tenebrio molitor for its prokaryotic expression and explore the molecular mechanism for regulating the expression of antibacterial peptide in Tenebrio molitor larvae. The antibacterial peptide was induced from the larvae of Tenebrio molitor by intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli DH-5α (1×10(8)/ml). RT-PCR was performed 72 h after the injection to clone Tenecin gene followed by sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. The recombinant expression vector pET-28a(+)-Tenecin was constructed and transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) cells and the expression of tenecin protein was observed after IPTG induction. Tenecin expression was detected in transformed E.coli using SDS-PAGE after 1 mmol/L IPTG induction. Tenecin gene, which was about 255 bp in length, encoded Tenecin protein with a relative molecular mass of 9 kD. Incubation of E.coli with 80, 60, 40, and 20 µg/ml tenecin for 18 h resulted in a diameter of the inhibition zone of 25.1∓0.03, 20.7∓0.06, 17.2∓0.11 and 9.3∓0.04 mm, respectively. Tenecin protein possesses strong antibacterial activity against E. coli DH-5α, which warrants further study of this protein for its potential as an antibacterial agent in clinical application.

  17. GB Virus Type C Envelope Protein E2 Elicits Antibodies That React with a Cellular Antigen on HIV-1 Particles and Neutralize Diverse HIV-1 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Emma L.; Xiang, Jinhua; McLinden, James H.; Kaufman, Thomas M.; Chang, Qing; Montefiori, David C.; Klinzman, Donna; Stapleton, Jack T.

    2012-01-01

    Broadly neutralizing Abs to HIV-1 are well described; however, identification of Ags that elicit these Abs has proven difficult. Persistent infection with GB virus type C (GBV-C) is associated with prolonged survival in HIV-1–infected individuals, and among those without HIV-1 viremia, the presence of Ab to GBV-C glycoprotein E2 is also associated with survival. GBV-C E2 protein inhibits HIV-1 entry, and an antigenic peptide within E2 interferes with gp41-induced membrane perturbations in vitro, suggesting the possibility of structural mimicry between GBV-C E2 protein and HIV-1 particles. Naturally occurring human and experimentally induced GBV-C E2 Abs were examined for their ability to neutralize infectious HIV-1 particles and HIV-1–enveloped pseudovirus particles. All GBV-C E2 Abs neutralized diverse isolates of HIV-1 with the exception of rabbit anti-peptide Abs raised against a synthetic GBV-C E2 peptide. Rabbit anti–GBV-C E2 Abs neutralized HIV-1–pseudotyped retrovirus particles but not HIV-1–pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus particles, and E2 Abs immune-precipitated HIV-1 gag particles containing the vesicular stomatitis virus type G envelope, HIV-1 envelope, GBV-C envelope, or no viral envelope. The Abs did not neutralize or immune-precipitate mumps or yellow fever viruses. Rabbit GBV-C E2 Abs inhibited HIV attachment to cells but did not inhibit entry following attachment. Taken together, these data indicate that the GBV-C E2 protein has a structural motif that elicits Abs that cross-react with a cellular Ag present on retrovirus particles, independent of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. The data provide evidence that a heterologous viral protein can induce HIV-1–neutralizing Abs. PMID:20826757

  18. Ribosomal Synthesis of Macrocyclic Peptides in Vitro and in Vivo Mediated by Genetically Encoded Amino-Thiol Unnatural Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Frost, John R.; Jacob, Nicholas T.; Papa, Louis J.; Owens, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    A versatile method for orchestrating the formation of side-chain-to-tail cyclic peptides from ribosomally derived polypeptide precursors is reported. Upon ribosomal incorporation into intein-containing precursor proteins, designer unnatural amino acids bearing side-chain 1,3- or 1,2-aminothiol functionalities are able to promote the cyclization of a downstream target peptide sequence via a C-terminal ligation/ring contraction mechanism. Using this approach, peptide macrocycles of variable size and composition could be generated in a pH-triggered manner in vitro, or directly in living bacterial cells. This methodology furnishes a new platform for the creation and screening of genetically encoded libraries of conformationally constrained peptides. This strategy was applied to identify and isolate a low micromolar streptavidin binder (KD = 1.1 µM) from a library of cyclic peptides produced in E. coli, thereby illustrating its potential toward aiding the discovery of functional peptide macrocycles. PMID:25933125

  19. The choreography of HIV-1 proteolytic processing and virion assembly.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Kyung; Potempa, Marc; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2012-11-30

    HIV-1 has been the target of intensive research at the molecular and biochemical levels for >25 years. Collectively, this work has led to a detailed understanding of viral replication and the development of 24 approved drugs that have five different targets on various viral proteins and one cellular target (CCR5). Although most drugs target viral enzymatic activities, our detailed knowledge of so much of the viral life cycle is leading us into other types of inhibitors that can block or disrupt protein-protein interactions. Viruses have compact genomes and employ a strategy of using a small number of proteins that can form repeating structures to enclose space (i.e. condensing the viral genome inside of a protein shell), thus minimizing the need for a large protein coding capacity. This creates a relatively small number of critical protein-protein interactions that are essential for viral replication. For HIV-1, the Gag protein has the role of a polyprotein precursor that contains all of the structural proteins of the virion: matrix, capsid, spacer peptide 1, nucleocapsid, spacer peptide 2, and p6 (which contains protein-binding domains that interact with host proteins during budding). Similarly, the Gag-Pro-Pol precursor encodes most of the Gag protein but now includes the viral enzymes: protease, reverse transcriptase (with its associated RNase H activity), and integrase. Gag and Gag-Pro-Pol are the substrates of the viral protease, which is responsible for cleaving these precursors into their mature and fully active forms (see Fig. 1A).

  20. Gbeta subunit interacts with a peptide encoding region 956-982 of adenylyl cyclase 2. Cross-linking of the peptide to free Gbetagamma but not the heterotrimer.

    PubMed

    Weng, G; Li, J; Dingus, J; Hildebrandt, J D; Weinstein, H; Iyengar, R

    1996-10-25

    The region encoded by amino acids 956-982 of adenylyl cyclase 2 is important for Gbetagamma stimulation. Interactions of a peptide encoding the 956-982 region of adenylyl cyclase 2 (QEHAQEPERQYMHIGTMVEFAYALVGK (QEHA peptide)) with Gbetagamma subunits were studied. QEHA peptide was covalently attached to beta subunit of free Gbetagamma by the cross-linker N-succinimidyl(4-iodoacetyl)aminobenzoate. Cross-linking was proportional to the amount of QEHA peptide added; other control peptides cross-linked minimally. When Go was used, very little cross-linking was observed with GDP and EDTA, but upon activation by guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate and Mg2+, specific cross-linking of the QEHA peptide to Gbeta was observed. We conclude that beta subunits of G proteins contain effector interaction domains that are occluded by Galpha subunits in the heterotrimer. Molecular modeling studies used to dock the QEHA peptide on to Gbeta indicate that amino acids 75-165 of Gbeta may be involved in effector interactions.

  1. A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening HIV-1 fusion inhibitors targeting HIV-1 Gp41 core structure.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wei; Wang, Rui-Rui; Gao, Yue-Dong; Yang, Liu-Meng; Sun, Yi; Huang, Jing-Fei; Tien, Po; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2011-02-01

    The gp41 subunit of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein mediates the fusion of viral and host cell membranes. As the HIV-1 enters the host cells, the 2 helical regions, HR1 and HR2, in the ectodomain of gp41 can form a 6-helix bundle, which brings the viral and target cell membranes to close proximity and serves as an attractive target for developing HIV-1 fusion inhibitors. Now, there are several cell- and molecule-based assays to identify potential HIV-1 fusion inhibitors targeting gp41. However, these assays cannot be used universally because they are time-consuming, inconvenient, and expensive. In the present study, the authors expressed and purified GST-HR121 and C43-30a proteins that were derived from the HIV-1 gp41 ectodomain region. GST-HR121 has a function similar to the HR1 peptide of gp41, whereas C43-30a is an HR2-derived peptide that added 50 amino acid residues (aa) in the N-terminal of C43. Further research found they could interact with each other, and a potential HIV-1 fusion inhibitor could inhibit this interaction. On the basis of this fact, a novel, rapid, and economic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established, which can be developed for high-throughput screening of HIV-1 fusion inhibitors.

  2. rOv-ASP-1, a recombinant secreted protein of the helminth Onchocercavolvulus, is a potent adjuvant for inducing antibodies to ovalbumin, HIV-1 polypeptide and SARS-CoV peptide antigens.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Angus J; Cao, Long; He, Yuxian; Zhao, Qian; Jiang, Shibo; Lustigman, Sara

    2005-05-16

    We studied the adjuvanticity of recombinant Onchocerca volvulus activation associated protein-1 (rOv-ASP-1) for ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. After a single immunization and one boost, rOv-ASP-1 exceeded the efficacy of alum or MPL + TDM adjuvants in terms of end-point total IgG or IgG1 and IgG2a anti-OVA titres. Using the helminth-derived adjuvant, IgG isotype responses to OVA were of a mixed Th1/Th2 profile and spleen cell cytokines exclusively Th1-type. The potent adjuvanticity of rOv-ASP-1 was confirmed in mice vaccinated with a 37-mer peptide from the S protein of SARS-CoV and an HIV-1 gp120-CD4 chimeric polypeptide antigen. Unusually for a helminth product, the rOv-ASP-1 adjuvant augmented not only Th2 but also Th1 responses, the latter property being of potential utility in stimulating anti-viral immune responses.

  3. HTLV-1 Tax activates HIV-1 transcription in latency models.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Victor Emmanuel Viana; José, Diego Pandeló; Leal, Fabio E; Nixon, Douglas F; Tanuri, Amilcar; Aguiar, Renato Santana

    2017-04-01

    HIV-1 latency is a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. Coinfection with HTLV-1 has been associated with faster progression to AIDS. HTLV-1 encodes the transactivator Tax which can activate both HTLV-1 and HIV-1 transcription. Here, we demonstrate that Tax activates HIV transcription in latent CD4(+) T cells. Tax promotes the activation of P-TEFb, releasing CDK9 and Cyclin T1 from inactive forms, promoting transcription elongation and reactivation of latent HIV-1. Tax mutants lacking interaction with the HIV-1-LTR promoter were not able to activate P-TEFb, with no subsequent activation of latent HIV. In HIV-infected primary resting CD4(+) T cells, Tax-1 reactivated HIV-1 transcription up to five fold, confirming these findings in an ex vivo latency model. Finally, our results confirms that HTLV-1/Tax hijacks cellular partners, promoting HIV-1 transcription, and this interaction should be further investigated in HIV-1 latency studies in patients with HIV/HTLV-1 co-infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Maternal plasma and breastmilk viral loads are associated with HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses among HIV-1-exposed, uninfected infants in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Liu, A Y; Lohman-Payne, B; Chung, M H; Kiarie, J; Kinuthia, J; Slyker, J; Richardson, B; Lehman, D; Farquhar, C; John-Stewart, G

    2015-01-01

    Infants exposed to maternal HIV-1 provide an opportunity to assess correlates of HIV-1-specific interferon (IFN)-γ responses and may be informative in the development of HIV-1 vaccines. HIV-1-infected women with CD4 counts 200–500 cells/mm3 were randomized to short-course zidovudine/nevirapine (ZDV/NVP) or highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) between 2003 and 2005. Maternal plasma and breastmilk HIV-1 RNA and DNA were quantified during the first 6–12 months postpartum. HIV-1 gag peptide-stimulated enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays were conducted in HIV-1-exposed, uninfected infants (EU), and correlates were determined using regression and generalized estimating equations. Among 47 EU infants, 21 (45%) had ≥1 positive ELISPOT result during follow-up. Infants had a median response magnitude of 177 HIV-1-specific spot-forming units (SFU)/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) [interquartile range (IQR) = 117–287] directed against 2 (IQR = 1–3) gag peptide pools. The prevalence and magnitude of responses did not differ by maternal anti-retroviral (ARV) randomization arm. Maternal plasma HIV-1 RNA levels during pregnancy (P = 0·009) and breastmilk HIV-1 DNA levels at 1 month (P = 0·02) were associated with a higher magnitude of infant HIV-1-specific ELISPOT responses at 1 month postpartum. During follow-up, concurrent breastmilk HIV-1 RNA and DNA (cell-free virus and cell-associated virus, respectively) each were associated positively with magnitude of infant HIV-1-specific responses (P = 0·01). Our data demonstrate the importance of antigenic exposure on the induction of infant HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses in the absence of infection. PMID:25652232

  5. The Novel Gene CRNDE Encodes a Nuclear Peptide (CRNDEP) Which Is Overexpressed in Highly Proliferating Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Szafron, Lukasz Michal; Balcerak, Anna; Grzybowska, Ewa Anna; Pienkowska-Grela, Barbara; Felisiak-Golabek, Anna; Podgorska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Magdalena; Nowak, Natalia; Pomorski, Pawel; Wysocki, Juliusz; Rubel, Tymon; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Konopka, Bozena; Lukasik, Martyna; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    CRNDE, recently described as the lncRNA-coding gene, is overexpressed at RNA level in human malignancies. Its role in gametogenesis, cellular differentiation and pluripotency has been suggested as well. Herein, we aimed to verify our hypothesis that the CRNDE gene may encode a protein product, CRNDEP. By using bioinformatics methods, we identified the 84-amino acid ORF encoded by one of two CRNDE transcripts, previously described by our research team. This ORF was cloned into two expression vectors, subsequently utilized in localization studies in HeLa cells. We also developed a polyclonal antibody against CRNDEP. Its specificity was confirmed in immunohistochemical, cellular localization, Western blot and immunoprecipitation experiments, as well as by showing a statistically significant decrease of endogenous CRNDEP expression in the cells with transient shRNA-mediated knockdown of CRNDE. Endogenous CRNDEP localizes predominantly to the nucleus and its expression seems to be elevated in highly proliferating tissues, like the parabasal layer of the squamous epithelium, intestinal crypts or spermatocytes. After its artificial overexpression in HeLa cells, in a fusion with either the EGFP or DsRed Monomer fluorescent tag, CRNDEP seems to stimulate the formation of stress granules and localize to them. Although the exact role of CRNDEP is unknown, our preliminary results suggest that it may be involved in the regulation of the cell proliferation. Possibly, CRNDEP also participates in oxygen metabolism, considering our in silico results, and the correlation between its enforced overexpression and the formation of stress granules. This is the first report showing the existence of a peptide encoded by the CRNDE gene. PMID:25978564

  6. Expression of genes encoding antimicrobial and bradykinin-related peptides in skin of the stream brown frog Rana sakuraii.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroe; Iwamuro, Shawichi; Ohnuma, Aya; Coquet, Laurent; Leprince, Jérôme; Jouenne, Thierry; Vaudry, Hubert; Taylor, Christopher K; Abel, Peter W; Conlon, J Michael

    2007-03-01

    Peptidomic analysis of an extract of the skin of the stream brown frog Rana sakuraii Matsui and Matsui, 1990 led to the isolation of a C-terminally alpha-amidated peptide (VR-23; VIGSILGALASGLPTLISWIKNR x NH2) with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that shows structural similarity to the bee venom peptide, melittin together with two peptides belonging to the temporin family (temporin-1SKa; FLPVILPVIGKLLNGIL x NH2 and temporin-1SKb; FLPVILPVIGKLLSGIL x NH2), and peptides whose primary structures identified them as belonging to the brevinin-2 (2 peptides) and ranatuerin-2 (1 peptide) families. Using a forward primer that was designed from a conserved region of the 5'-untranslated regions of Rana temporaria preprotemporins in a 3'-RACE procedure, a cDNA clone encoding preprotemporin-1SKa was prepared from R. sakuraii skin total RNA. Further preprotemporin cDNAs encoding temporin-1SKc (AVDLAKIANIAN KVLSSL F x NH2) and temporin-1SKd (FLPMLAKLLSGFL x NH2) were obtained by RT-PCR. Unexpectedly, the 3'-RACE procedure using the same primer led to amplification of a cDNA encoding a preprobradykinin whose signal peptide region was identical to that of preprotemporin-1SKa except for the substitution Ser18-->Asn. R. sakuraii bradykinin ([Arg0,Leu1,Thr6,Trp8] BK) was 28-fold less potent than mammalian BK in effecting B2 receptor-mediated relaxation of mouse trachea and the des[Arg0] derivative was only a weak partial agonist. The evolutionary history of the Japanese brown frogs is incompletely understood but a comparison of the primary structures of the R. sakuraii dermal peptides with those of Tago's brown frog Rana tagoi provides evidence for a close phylogenetic relationship between these species.

  7. Nanochemistry-based immunotherapy for HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Lori, F; Calarota, S A; Lisziewicz, J

    2007-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), i.e. the combination of three or more drugs against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), has greatly improved the clinical outcome of HIV-1-infected individuals. However, HAART is unable to reconstitute HIV-specific immunity and eradicate the virus. Several observations in primate models and in humans support the notion that cell-mediated immunity can control viral replication and slow disease progression. Thus, besides drugs, an immunotherapy that induces long-lasting HIV-specific T-cell responses could play a role in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. To induce such immune responses, DermaVir Patch has been developed. DermaVir consists of an HIV-1 antigen-encoding plasmid DNA that is chemically formulated in a nanoparticle. DermaVir is administered under a patch after a skin preparation that supports the delivery of the nanoparticle to Langerhans cells (LC). Epidermal LC trap and transport the nanomedicine to draining lymph nodes. While in transit, LC mature into dendritic cells (DC), which can efficiently present the DNA-encoded antigens to naïve T-cells for the induction of cellular immunity. Pre-clinical studies and Phase I clinical testing of DermaVir in HIV-1-infected individuals have demonstrated the safety and tolerability of DermaVir Patch. To further modulate cellular immunity, molecular adjuvants might be added into the nanoparticle. DermaVir Patch represents a new nanomedicine platform for immunotherapy of HIV/AIDS. In this review, the antiviral activity of DermaVir-induced cellular immunity is discussed. Furthermore, the action of some cytokines currently being tested as adjuvants are highlighted and the adjuvant effect of cytokine plasmid DNA included in the DermaVir nanoparticle is reviewed.

  8. Expression of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies mediated by recombinant adeno-associated virus 8 in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongjiao; Fu, Lu; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Guan, Shanshan; Kuai, Ziyu; Kong, Wei; Shi, Yuhua; Shan, Yaming

    2016-12-01

    Despite unremitting efforts since the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), an effective vaccine has not been generated. Viral vector-mediated transfer for expression of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) is an attractive strategy. In this study, a recombinant adeno-associated virus 8 (rAAV8) vector was used to encode full-length antibodies against HIV-1 in 293T cells and Balb/c mice after gene transfer. The 10E8 or NIH45-46 BnAb was expressed from a single open reading frame by linking the heavy and light chains with a furin cleavage and a 2A self-processing peptide (F2A). The results showed that the BnAbs could be expressed in the 293T cell culture medium. A single intramuscular injection of rAAV8 led to long-term expression of BnAbs in Balb/c mice. The expressed antibodies in the supernatant of 293T cells and in Balb/c mice showed neutralization effects against HIV-1 pseudoviruses. Combined immunization of rAAV8 expressing 10E8 and rAAV8 expressing NIH45-46 in Balb/c mice could increase these neutralization effects on strains of HIV-1 sensitive to 10E8 or NIH45-46 antibody compared with a single injection of rAAV8 expressing either antibody alone. Therefore, the combined immunization may be a potential vaccine approach against HIV-1.

  9. Immunogenicity of a recombinant measles-HIV-1 clade B candidate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Stebbings, Richard; Février, Michèle; Li, Bo; Lorin, Clarisse; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Mee, Edward; Rose, Nicola; Hall, Joanna; Page, Mark; Almond, Neil; Voss, Gerald; Tangy, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Live attenuated measles virus is one of the most efficient and safest vaccines available, making it an attractive candidate vector for a HIV/AIDS vaccine aimed at eliciting cell-mediated immune responses (CMI). Here we have characterized the potency of CMI responses generated in mice and non-human primates after intramuscular immunisation with a candidate recombinant measles vaccine carrying an HIV-1 insert encoding Clade B Gag, RT and Nef (MV1-F4). Eight Mauritian derived, MHC-typed cynomolgus macaques were immunised with 10(5) TCID(50) of MV1-F4, four of which were boosted 28 days later with the same vaccine. F4 and measles virus (MV)-specific cytokine producing T cell responses were detected in 6 and 7 out of 8 vaccinees, respectively. Vaccinees with either M6 or recombinant MHC haplotypes demonstrated the strongest cytokine responses to F4 peptides. Polyfunctional analysis revealed a pattern of TNFα and IL-2 responses by CD4+ T cells and TNFα and IFNγ responses by CD8+ T cells to F4 peptides. HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing cytokines waned in peripheral blood lymphocytes by day 84, but CD8+ T cell responses to F4 peptides could still be detected in lymphoid tissues more than 3 months after vaccination. Anti-F4 and anti-MV antibody responses were detected in 6 and 8 out of 8 vaccinees, respectively. Titres of anti-F4 and MV antibodies were boosted in vaccinees that received a second immunisation. MV1-F4 carrying HIV-1 Clade B inserts induces robust boostable immunity in non-human primates. These results support further exploration of the MV1-F4 vector modality in vaccination strategies that may limit HIV-1 infectivity.

  10. Glycans Flanking the Hypervariable Connecting Peptide between the A and B Strands of the V1/V2 Domain of HIV-1 gp120 Confer Resistance to Antibodies That Neutralize CRF01_AE Viruses

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Sara M.; Sutthent, Ruengpung; Phung, Pham; Mesa, Kathryn A.; Frigon, Normand L.; To, Briana; Horthongkham, Navin; Limoli, Kay; Wrin, Terri; Berman, Phillip W.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular determinants of sensitivity and resistance to neutralizing antibodies is critical for the development of vaccines designed to prevent HIV infection. In this study, we used a genetic approach to characterize naturally occurring polymorphisms in the HIV envelope protein that conferred neutralization sensitivity or resistance. Libraries of closely related envelope genes, derived from virus quasi-species, were constructed from individuals infected with CRF01_AE viruses. The libraries were screened with plasma containing broadly neutralizing antibodies, and neutralization sensitive and resistant variants were selected for sequence analysis. In vitro mutagenesis allowed us to identify single amino acid changes in three individuals that conferred resistance to neutralization by these antibodies. All three mutations created N-linked glycosylation sites (two at N136 and one at N149) proximal to the hypervariable connecting peptide between the C-terminus of the A strand and the N-terminus of the B strand in the four-stranded V1/V2 domain β-sheet structure. Although N136 has previously been implicated in the binding of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, this glycosylation site appears to inhibit the binding of neutralizing antibodies in plasma from HIV-1 infected subjects. Previous studies have reported that the length of the V1/V2 domain in transmitted founder viruses is shorter and possesses fewer glycosylation sites compared to viruses isolated from chronic infections. Our results suggest that vaccine immunogens based on recombinant envelope proteins from clade CRF01_AE viruses might be improved by inclusion of envelope proteins that lack these glycosylation sites. This strategy might improve the efficacy of the vaccines used in the partially successful RV144 HIV vaccine trial, where the two CRF01_AE immunogens (derived from the A244 and TH023 isolates) both possessed glycosylation sites at N136 and N149. PMID:25793890

  11. Glycans flanking the hypervariable connecting peptide between the A and B strands of the V1/V2 domain of HIV-1 gp120 confer resistance to antibodies that neutralize CRF01_AE viruses.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Sara M; Sutthent, Ruengpung; Phung, Pham; Mesa, Kathryn A; Frigon, Normand L; To, Briana; Horthongkham, Navin; Limoli, Kay; Wrin, Terri; Berman, Phillip W

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular determinants of sensitivity and resistance to neutralizing antibodies is critical for the development of vaccines designed to prevent HIV infection. In this study, we used a genetic approach to characterize naturally occurring polymorphisms in the HIV envelope protein that conferred neutralization sensitivity or resistance. Libraries of closely related envelope genes, derived from virus quasi-species, were constructed from individuals infected with CRF01_AE viruses. The libraries were screened with plasma containing broadly neutralizing antibodies, and neutralization sensitive and resistant variants were selected for sequence analysis. In vitro mutagenesis allowed us to identify single amino acid changes in three individuals that conferred resistance to neutralization by these antibodies. All three mutations created N-linked glycosylation sites (two at N136 and one at N149) proximal to the hypervariable connecting peptide between the C-terminus of the A strand and the N-terminus of the B strand in the four-stranded V1/V2 domain β-sheet structure. Although N136 has previously been implicated in the binding of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, this glycosylation site appears to inhibit the binding of neutralizing antibodies in plasma from HIV-1 infected subjects. Previous studies have reported that the length of the V1/V2 domain in transmitted founder viruses is shorter and possesses fewer glycosylation sites compared to viruses isolated from chronic infections. Our results suggest that vaccine immunogens based on recombinant envelope proteins from clade CRF01_AE viruses might be improved by inclusion of envelope proteins that lack these glycosylation sites. This strategy might improve the efficacy of the vaccines used in the partially successful RV144 HIV vaccine trial, where the two CRF01_AE immunogens (derived from the A244 and TH023 isolates) both possessed glycosylation sites at N136 and N149.

  12. Encoding physico-chemical cues in synthetic hydrogels by triple helix assembly of collagen mimetic peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Patrick

    The ECM is a complex natural system evolved to promote proliferation and differentiation of cells during tissue development. In order to create synthetic biomaterials for studying cell-scaffold interactions and ultimately for engineering tissues, scientists strive to recapitulate many characteristics of ECM by developing hydrogels that contain mechanical cues and biochemical signals such as adhesion moieties and cell growth factors. While synthetic hydrogels bypass limitations of naturally-derived materials (e.g. transfer of pathogens), nature provides inspiration to enhance the functionality of synthetic hydrogels through biomimetic approaches. The collagen triple helix is the basis for the supramolecular structure of collagen in the ECM, and its adaptation in collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) has provided hybridization mechanisms that can be employed in the formation and functionalization of synthetic hydrogels. The aim of this dissertation is to develop novel poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels that employ CMP triple helix assembly as a non-covalent yet target-specific tool to encode physical and chemical cues into the hydrogel with spatial control. We demonstrate that multi-arm PEG functionalized with CMPs form hydrogels supported by physical crosslinks mediated by CMP triple helix. Particle tracking microrheology shows that these physical crosslinks are sensitive to temperature as well as addition of exogenous CMPs that can disrupt crosslinks by competing for triple helix formation. This physical crosslink disruption enables the modulation of bulk hydrogel elasticity and the introduction of local stiffness gradients in PEG-CMP hydrogels. We also present photopolymerized PEG diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels displaying CMPs that can be further conjugated to CMPs with bioactive moieties via triple helix hybridization. Encoding these hydrogels with cell-adhesive CMPs induces cell spreading and proliferation. We further demonstrate generation of gradients and

  13. Immunogenicity of a recombinant measles HIV-1 subtype C vaccine.

    PubMed

    Stebbings, Richard; Li, Bo; Lorin, Clarisse; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Février, Michèle; Mee, Edward T; Page, Mark; Almond, Neil; Tangy, Frédéric; Voss, Gérald

    2013-12-09

    The HIV epidemic is greatest in Sub-Saharan Africa and India where HIV-1 subtype C is predominant. To control the spread of HIV in these parts of the world a preventive HIV-1 subtype C vaccine is urgently required. Here we report the immunogenicity of a candidate HIV-1 subtype C vaccine delivered by a recombinant measles vector carrying an insert encoding HIV-1 subtype C Gag, RT and Nef (MV1-F4), in MHC-typed non-human primates. HIV-1 specific cytokine secreting CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were detected in 15 out of 16 vaccinees. These HIV-specific T cell responses persisted in lymphoid tissues. Anti-HIV-1 antibody responses were detected in 15 out of 16 vaccinees and titres were boosted by a second immunisation carried out 84 days later. These findings support further exploration of the MV1-F4 vector as a candidate HIV-1 subtype C vaccine or as part of a wider vaccine strategy. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. HIV-1-Specific T Cell-Dependent Natural Killer (NK) Cell Activation: Major Contribution by NK Cells to Interferon-γ Production in Response to HIV-1 Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Christopher P.; Long, Brian R.; Hecht, Frederick M.; Nixon, Douglas F.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Natural killer (NK) cells can directly recognize virus-infected cells. Here, we demonstrate that NK cells also produce interferon (IFN)-γ in an HIV-1-specific, T cell-dependent manner. After stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HIV-1-infected individuals with HIV-1-derived peptides, up to half of the IFN-γ-producing PBMCs are NK cells. These results indicate that T cell-dependent NK cell IFN-γ production can be important for immune control of HIV-1, and have implications for the interpretation of data from vaccine trials using ELISPOT and ELISA. PMID:19500013

  15. Design of dimerization inhibitors of HIV-1 aspartic proteinase: A computer-based combinatorial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caflisch, Amedeo; Schramm, Hans J.; Karplus, Martin

    2000-02-01

    Inhibition of dimerization to the active form of the HIV-1 aspartic proteinase (HIV-1 PR) may be a way to decrease the probability of escape mutations for this viral protein. The Multiple Copy Simultaneous Search (MCSS) methodology was used to generate functionality maps for the dimerization interface of HIV-1 PR. The positions of the MCSS minima of 19 organic fragments, once postprocessed to take into account solvation effects, are in good agreement with experimental data on peptides that bind to the interface. The MCSS minima combined with an approach for computational combinatorial ligand design yielded a set of modified HIV-1 PR C-terminal peptides that are similar to known nanomolar inhibitors of HIV-1 PR dimerization. A number of N-substituted 2,5-diketopiperazines are predicted to be potential dimerization inhibitors of HIV-1 PR.

  16. A Pragmatic Approach to HIV-1 Drug Resistance Determination in Resource-Limited Settings by Use of a Novel Genotyping Assay Targeting the Reverse Transcriptase-Encoding Region Only

    PubMed Central

    Bronze, Michelle; Wallis, Carole L.; Stuyver, Lieven; Steegen, Kim; Balinda, Sheila; Kityo, Cissy; Stevens, Wendy; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Schuurman, Rob

    2013-01-01

    In resource-limited settings (RLS), reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors form the backbone of first-line treatment regimens. We have developed a simplified HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping assay targeting the region of RT harboring all major RT inhibitor resistance mutation positions, thus providing all relevant susceptibility data for first-line failures, coupled with minimal cost and labor. The assay comprises a one-step RT-PCR amplification reaction, followed by sequencing using one forward and one reverse primer, generating double-stranded coverage of RT amino acids (aa) 41 to 238. The assay was optimized for all major HIV-1 group M subtypes in plasma and dried blood spot (DBS) samples using a panel of reference viruses for HIV-1 subtypes A to D, F to H, and circulating recombinant form 01_AE (CRF01_AE) and applied to 212 clinical plasma samples and 25 DBS samples from HIV-1-infected individuals from Africa and Europe. The assay was subsequently transferred to Uganda and applied locally on clinical plasma samples. All major HIV-1 subtypes could be detected with an analytical sensitivity of 5.00E+3 RNA copies/ml for plasma and DBS. Application of the assay on 212 clinical samples from African subjects comprising subtypes A to D, F to H (rare), CRF01_AE, and CRF02_AG at a viral load (VL) range of 6.71E+2 to 1.00E+7 (median, 1.48E+5) RNA copies/ml was 94.8% (n = 201) successful. Application on clinical samples in Uganda demonstrated a comparable success rate. Genotyping of clinical DBS samples, all subtype C with a VL range of 1.02E+3 to 4.49E+5 (median, 1.42E+4) RNA copies/ml, was 84.0% successful. The described assay greatly reduces hands-on time and the costs required for genotyping and is ideal for use in RLS, as demonstrated in a reference laboratory in Uganda and its successful application on DBS samples. PMID:23536405

  17. Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Ferdinand; Meziane, Oussama; Kula, Anna; Nisole, Sébastien; Porrot, Françoise; Anderson, Ian; Mammano, Fabrizio; Fassati, Ariberto; Marcello, Alessandro; Benkirane, Monsef; Schwartz, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42-45°C) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38-40°C) on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C) increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity.

  18. Hyperthermia Stimulates HIV-1 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Roesch, Ferdinand; Meziane, Oussama; Kula, Anna; Nisole, Sébastien; Porrot, Françoise; Anderson, Ian; Mammano, Fabrizio; Fassati, Ariberto; Marcello, Alessandro; Benkirane, Monsef; Schwartz, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42–45°C) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38–40°C) on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C) increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity. PMID:22807676

  19. An antifreeze glycopeptide gene from the antarctic cod Notothenia coriiceps neglecta encodes a polyprotein of high peptide copy number.

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, K C; Cheng, C H; Fernandes, I E; Detrich, H W; DeVries, A L

    1990-01-01

    The antarctic fish Notothenia coriiceps neglecta synthesizes eight antifreeze glycopeptides (AFGP 1-8; Mr 2600-34,000) to avoid freezing in its ice-laden freezing habitat. We report here the sequence of one of its AFGP genes. The structural gene contains 46 tandemly repeated segments, each encoding one AFGP peptide plus a 3-amino acid spacer. Most of the repeats (44/46) code for peptides of AFGP 8; the remaining 2 code for peptides of AFGP 7. At least 2 of the 3 amino acids in the spacers could act as substrate for chymotrypsin-like proteases. The nucleotide sequence between the translation initiation codon (ATG) and the first AFGP-coding segment is G + T-rich and encodes a presumptive 37-residue signal peptide of unusual sequence. Primer extension establishes the transcription start site at nucleotide 43 upstream from ATG. CAAT and TATA boxes begin at nucleotides 53 and 49, respectively, upstream from the transcription start site. The polyadenylylation signal, AATAAA, is located approximately 240 nucleotides downstream from the termination codon. A mRNA (approximately 3 kilobases) was found that matches the size of this AFGP gene. Thus, this AFGP gene encodes a secreted, high-copy-number polyprotein that is processed posttranslationally to produce active AFGPs. Images PMID:2251271

  20. Purification of an angiotensin II binding protein by using antibodies to a peptide encoded by angiotensin II complementary RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Elton, T.S.; Dion, L.D.; Bost, K.L.; Oparil, S.; Blalock, J.E.

    1988-04-01

    The authors have generated a monospecific antibody to a synthetic peptide encoded by an RNA complementary to the mRNA for angiotensin II (AII) and determined whether this antibody recognizes the AII receptor. They demonstrate that the antibody competes specifically with /sup 125/I-labeled AII for the same binding site on rat adrenal membranes. Furthermore, they show this antibody inhibits the secretion of aldosterone from cultured rat adrenal cells, suggesting that the antibody recognizes the biologically relevant AII receptor. Finally, they demonstrate that antibody to the complementary peptide can be used to immunoaffinity-purify a protein of M/sub r/ 66,000 that specifically binds radiolabeled AII.

  1. Nine Crystal Structures Determine the Substrate Envelope of the MDR HIV-1 Protease

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yong; Brunzelle, Joseph; Kovari, Iulia A.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2012-03-27

    Under drug selection pressure, emerging mutations render HIV-1 protease drug resistant, leading to the therapy failure in anti-HIV treatment. It is known that nine substrate cleavage site peptides bind to wild type (WT) HIV-1 protease in a conserved pattern. However, how the multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 protease binds to the substrate cleavage site peptides is yet to be determined. MDR769 HIV-1 protease (resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84, and 90) was selected for present study to understand the binding to its natural substrates. MDR769 HIV-1 protease was co-crystallized with nine substrate cleavage site hepta-peptides. Crystallographic studies show that MDR769 HIV-1 protease has an expanded substrate envelope with wide open flaps. Furthermore, ligand binding energy calculations indicate weaker binding in MDR769 HIV-1 protease-substrate complexes. These results help in designing the next generation of HIV-1 protease inhibitors by targeting the MDR HIV-1 protease.

  2. HIV-1 subtypes in Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, Maja; Papa, Anna; Papadimitriou, Evagelia; Zerjav, Sonja; Jevtovic, Djordje; Salemovic, Dubravka; Jovanovic, Tanja; Antoniadis, Antonis

    2002-05-01

    To gain insight concerning the genetic diversity of HIV-1 viruses associated with the HIV-1 epidemic in Yugoslavia, 45 specimens from HIV-1-infected individuals were classified into subtypes by sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of the polymerase (pol) region of the viral genome. Forty-one of 45 specimens (91.2%) were identified as pol subtype B, 2 of 45 as subtype C (4.4%), 1 of 45 as CRF01_AE (2.2%), and 1 as CRF02_AG recombinant (2.2%). Nucleotide divergence among subtype B sequences was 4.8%. Results of this study show that among HIV-1-infected patients in Yugoslavia subtype B predominates (91.5%), whereas non-B subtypes are present at a low percentage, mostly related to travel abroad.

  3. Diverse Ecological Strategies Are Encoded by Streptococcus pneumoniae Bacteriocin-Like Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Eric L.; Abrudan, Monica I.; Roberts, Ian S.; Rozen, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is commonly carried asymptomatically in the human nasopharynx. Due to high rates of cocolonization with other pneumococcus strains, intraspecific competitive interactions partly determine the carriage duration of strains and thereby their potential to cause disease. These interactions may be mediated by bacteriocins, such as the type IIb bacteriocins encoded by the blp (bacteriocin-like peptide) locus. To understand blp diversity and evolution, we undertook a bioinformatic analysis of 4,418 pneumococcal genomes, including 168 newly sequenced genomes. We describe immense variation at all levels of genomic organization: Gene presence/absence, gene order, and allelic diversity. If we make the extreme and naive hypothesis that assumes all genes in this operon can assort randomly, this variation could lead to 1015 distinct bacteriocin-related phenotypes, each potentially representing a unique ecological strategy; however, we provide several explanations for why this extreme is not realized. Although rarefaction analysis indicates that the number of unique strategies is not saturated, even after sampling thousands of genomes, we show that the variation is neither unbounded nor random. We delimit three bacteriocin groups, which contain group-specific bacteriocins, immunity genes, and blp operon gene order, and argue that this organization places a constraint on realized ecological strategies. We additionally show that ecological strategy diversity is significantly constrained by pneumococcal phylogeny and clonal structure. By examining patterns of association between alleles within the blp operon, we show that bacteriocin genes, which were believed to function in pairs, can be found with a broad diversity of partner alleles and immunity genes; this overall lack of allelic fidelity likely contributes to the fluid structure of this operon. Our results clarify the diversity of antagonistic ecological strategies in the

  4. Therapeutic doses of irradiation activate viral transcription and induce apoptosis in HIV-1 infected cells.

    PubMed

    Iordanskiy, Sergey; Van Duyne, Rachel; Sampey, Gavin C; Woodson, Caitlin M; Fry, Kelsi; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao; Romerio, Fabio; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2015-11-01

    The highly active antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV-1 RNA in plasma to undetectable levels. However, the virus continues to persist in the long-lived resting CD4(+) T cells, macrophages and astrocytes which form a viral reservoir in infected individuals. Reactivation of viral transcription is critical since the host immune response in combination with antiretroviral therapy may eradicate the virus. Using the chronically HIV-1 infected T lymphoblastoid and monocytic cell lines, primary quiescent CD4(+) T cells and humanized mice infected with dual-tropic HIV-1 89.6, we examined the effect of various X-ray irradiation (IR) doses (used for HIV-related lymphoma treatment and lower doses) on HIV-1 transcription and viability of infected cells. Treatment of both T cells and monocytes with IR, a well-defined stress signal, led to increase of HIV-1 transcription, as evidenced by the presence of RNA polymerase II and reduction of HDAC1 and methyl transferase SUV39H1 on the HIV-1 promoter. This correlated with the increased GFP signal and elevated level of intracellular HIV-1 RNA in the IR-treated quiescent CD4(+) T cells infected with GFP-encoding HIV-1. Exposition of latently HIV-1infected monocytes treated with PKC agonist bryostatin 1 to IR enhanced transcription activation effect of this latency-reversing agent. Increased HIV-1 replication after IR correlated with higher cell death: the level of phosphorylated Ser46 in p53, responsible for apoptosis induction, was markedly higher in the HIV-1 infected cells following IR treatment. Exposure of HIV-1 infected humanized mice with undetectable viral RNA level to IR resulted in a significant increase of HIV-1 RNA in plasma, lung and brain tissues. Collectively, these data point to the use of low to moderate dose of IR alone or in combination with HIV-1 transcription activators as a potential application for the "Shock and Kill" strategy for latently HIV-1 infected cells.

  5. HIV-1 Epidemiology, Genetic Diversity, and Primary Drug Resistance in the Tyumen Oblast, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gashnikova, Natalya M; Astakhova, Ekaterina M; Gashnikova, Mariya P; Bocharov, Evgeniy F; Petrova, Svetlana V; Pun'ko, Olga A; Popkov, Alexander V; Totmenin, Aleksey V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Specific molecular epidemic features of HIV infection in Tyumen Oblast (TO), Russia, were studied. Methods. The genome sequences encoding HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase, integrase, and major envelope protein were examined for 72 HIV-1 specimens isolated from the TO resident infected in 2000-2015. Results. The recorded prevalence of HIV-1 subtype A (A1) is 93.1%; HIV-1 subtype B continues to circulate in MSM risk group (1.4%). Solitary instances of HIV-1 recombinant forms, CRF63_02A1 (1.4%) and CRF03_AB (1.4%), were detected as well as two cases of HIV-1 URF63_A1 (2.8%). Phylogenetic analysis showed no HIV-1 clustering according to the duration of infection and risk groups but revealed different epidemic networks confirming that HIV infection spread within local epidemic foci. A high incidence of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 variants and a higher rate of secondary mutations influencing the virus fitness (K20R, L10V, and I) are observed among the virus specimens isolated from newly infected individuals. Conclusions. The current HIV-1 epidemic in TO develops within the local epidemic networks. Similar to the previous period, HIV-1 subtype A is predominant in TO with sporadic cases of importation of HIV-1 recombinant forms circulating in adjacent areas.

  6. HIV-1 Epidemiology, Genetic Diversity, and Primary Drug Resistance in the Tyumen Oblast, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Astakhova, Ekaterina M.; Gashnikova, Mariya P.; Bocharov, Evgeniy F.; Petrova, Svetlana V.; Pun'ko, Olga A.; Popkov, Alexander V.; Totmenin, Aleksey V.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Specific molecular epidemic features of HIV infection in Tyumen Oblast (TO), Russia, were studied. Methods. The genome sequences encoding HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase, integrase, and major envelope protein were examined for 72 HIV-1 specimens isolated from the TO resident infected in 2000–2015. Results. The recorded prevalence of HIV-1 subtype A (A1) is 93.1%; HIV-1 subtype B continues to circulate in MSM risk group (1.4%). Solitary instances of HIV-1 recombinant forms, CRF63_02A1 (1.4%) and CRF03_AB (1.4%), were detected as well as two cases of HIV-1 URF63_A1 (2.8%). Phylogenetic analysis showed no HIV-1 clustering according to the duration of infection and risk groups but revealed different epidemic networks confirming that HIV infection spread within local epidemic foci. A high incidence of CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 variants and a higher rate of secondary mutations influencing the virus fitness (K20R, L10V, and I) are observed among the virus specimens isolated from newly infected individuals. Conclusions. The current HIV-1 epidemic in TO develops within the local epidemic networks. Similar to the previous period, HIV-1 subtype A is predominant in TO with sporadic cases of importation of HIV-1 recombinant forms circulating in adjacent areas. PMID:27957489

  7. Cloning and sequence analysis of an Ophiophagus hannah cDNA encoding a precursor of two natriuretic peptide domains.

    PubMed

    Lei, Weiwei; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Guoyu; Jiang, Ping; He, Yingying; Lee, Wenhui; Zhang, Yun

    2011-04-01

    The king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) is the largest venomous snake. Despite the components are mainly neurotoxins, the venom contains several proteins affecting blood system. Natriuretic peptide (NP), one of the important components of snake venoms, could cause local vasodilatation and a promoted capillary permeability facilitating a rapid diffusion of other toxins into the prey tissues. Due to the low abundance, it is hard to purify the snake venom NPs. The cDNA cloning of the NPs become a useful approach. In this study, a 957 bp natriuretic peptide-encoding cDNA clone was isolated from an O. hannah venom gland cDNA library. The open-reading frame of the cDNA encodes a 210-amino acid residues precursor protein named Oh-NP. Oh-NP has a typical signal peptide sequence of 26 amino acid residues. Surprisingly, Oh-NP has two typical NP domains which consist of the typical sequence of 17-residue loop of CFGXXDRIGC, so it is an unusual NP precursor. These two NP domains share high amino acid sequence identity. In addition, there are two homologous peptides of unknown function within the Oh-NP precursor. To our knowledge, Oh-NP is the first protein precursor containing two NP domains. It might belong to another subclass of snake venom NPs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel twin streptolysin S-like peptides encoded in the sag operon homologue of beta-hemolytic Streptococcus anginosus.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Atsushi; Nakano, Kota; Ohkura, Kazuto; Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Kikuchi, Ken; Whiley, Robert A; Nagamune, Hideaki

    2013-03-01

    Streptococcus anginosus is a member of the anginosus group streptococci, which form part of the normal human oral flora. In contrast to the pyogenic group streptococci, our knowledge of the virulence factors of the anginosus group streptococci, including S. anginosus, is not sufficient to allow a clear understanding of the basis of their pathogenicity. Generally, hemolysins are thought to be important virulence factors in streptococcal infections. In the present study, a sag operon homologue was shown to be responsible for beta-hemolysis in S. anginosus strains by random gene knockout. Interestingly, contrary to pyogenic group streptococci, beta-hemolytic S. anginosus was shown to have two tandem sagA homologues, encoding streptolysin S (SLS)-like peptides, in the sag operon homologue. Gene deletion and complementation experiments revealed that both genes were functional, and these SLS-like peptides were essential for beta-hemolysis in beta-hemolytic S. anginosus. Furthermore, the amino acid sequence of these SLS-like peptides differed from that of the typical SLS of S. pyogenes, especially in their propeptide domain, and an amino acid residue indicated to be important for the cytolytic activity of SLS in S. pyogenes was deleted in both S. anginosus homologues. These data suggest that SLS-like peptides encoded by two sagA homologues in beta-hemolytic S. anginosus may be potential virulence factors with a different structure essential for hemolytic activity and/or the maturation process compared to the typical SLS present in pyogenic group streptococci.

  9. Novel Twin Streptolysin S-Like Peptides Encoded in the sag Operon Homologue of Beta-Hemolytic Streptococcus anginosus

    PubMed Central

    Tabata, Atsushi; Nakano, Kota; Ohkura, Kazuto; Tomoyasu, Toshifumi; Kikuchi, Ken; Whiley, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus anginosus is a member of the anginosus group streptococci, which form part of the normal human oral flora. In contrast to the pyogenic group streptococci, our knowledge of the virulence factors of the anginosus group streptococci, including S. anginosus, is not sufficient to allow a clear understanding of the basis of their pathogenicity. Generally, hemolysins are thought to be important virulence factors in streptococcal infections. In the present study, a sag operon homologue was shown to be responsible for beta-hemolysis in S. anginosus strains by random gene knockout. Interestingly, contrary to pyogenic group streptococci, beta-hemolytic S. anginosus was shown to have two tandem sagA homologues, encoding streptolysin S (SLS)-like peptides, in the sag operon homologue. Gene deletion and complementation experiments revealed that both genes were functional, and these SLS-like peptides were essential for beta-hemolysis in beta-hemolytic S. anginosus. Furthermore, the amino acid sequence of these SLS-like peptides differed from that of the typical SLS of S. pyogenes, especially in their propeptide domain, and an amino acid residue indicated to be important for the cytolytic activity of SLS in S. pyogenes was deleted in both S. anginosus homologues. These data suggest that SLS-like peptides encoded by two sagA homologues in beta-hemolytic S. anginosus may be potential virulence factors with a different structure essential for hemolytic activity and/or the maturation process compared to the typical SLS present in pyogenic group streptococci. PMID:23292771

  10. Negative Feedback Regulation of HIV-1 by Gene Editing Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Rafal; Chen, Yilan; Salkind, Julian; Bella, Ramona; Young, Won-bin; Ferrante, Pasquale; Karn, Jonathan; Malcolm, Thomas; Hu, Wenhui; Khalili, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing method is comprised of the guide RNA (gRNA) to target a specific DNA sequence for cleavage and the Cas9 endonuclease for introducing breaks in the double-stranded DNA identified by the gRNA. Co-expression of both a multiplex of HIV-1-specific gRNAs and Cas9 in cells results in the modification and/or excision of the segment of viral DNA, leading to replication-defective virus. In this study, we have personalized the activity of CRISPR/Cas9 by placing the gene encoding Cas9 under the control of a minimal promoter of HIV-1 that is activated by the HIV-1 Tat protein. We demonstrate that functional activation of CRISPR/Cas9 by Tat during the course of viral infection excises the designated segment of the integrated viral DNA and consequently suppresses viral expression. This strategy was also used in a latently infected CD4+ T-cell model after treatment with a variety of HIV-1 stimulating agents including PMA and TSA. Controlled expression of Cas9 by Tat offers a new strategy for safe implementation of the Cas9 technology for ablation of HIV-1 at a very early stage of HIV-1 replication during the course of the acute phase of infection and the reactivation of silent proviral DNA in latently infected cells. PMID:27528385

  11. Negative Feedback Regulation of HIV-1 by Gene Editing Strategy.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Rafal; Chen, Yilan; Salkind, Julian; Bella, Ramona; Young, Won-Bin; Ferrante, Pasquale; Karn, Jonathan; Malcolm, Thomas; Hu, Wenhui; Khalili, Kamel

    2016-08-16

    The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing method is comprised of the guide RNA (gRNA) to target a specific DNA sequence for cleavage and the Cas9 endonuclease for introducing breaks in the double-stranded DNA identified by the gRNA. Co-expression of both a multiplex of HIV-1-specific gRNAs and Cas9 in cells results in the modification and/or excision of the segment of viral DNA, leading to replication-defective virus. In this study, we have personalized the activity of CRISPR/Cas9 by placing the gene encoding Cas9 under the control of a minimal promoter of HIV-1 that is activated by the HIV-1 Tat protein. We demonstrate that functional activation of CRISPR/Cas9 by Tat during the course of viral infection excises the designated segment of the integrated viral DNA and consequently suppresses viral expression. This strategy was also used in a latently infected CD4+ T-cell model after treatment with a variety of HIV-1 stimulating agents including PMA and TSA. Controlled expression of Cas9 by Tat offers a new strategy for safe implementation of the Cas9 technology for ablation of HIV-1 at a very early stage of HIV-1 replication during the course of the acute phase of infection and the reactivation of silent proviral DNA in latently infected cells.

  12. Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding derivatives of the synthetic antimicrobial peptide BP100: impact on rice host plant fitness

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Biopeptide BP100 is a synthetic and strongly cationic α-helical undecapeptide with high, specific antibacterial activity against economically important plant-pathogenic bacteria, and very low toxicity. It was selected from a library of synthetic peptides, along with other peptides with activities against relevant bacterial and fungal species. Expression of the BP100 series of peptides in plants is of major interest to establish disease-resistant plants and facilitate molecular farming. Specific challenges were the small length, peptide degradation by plant proteases and toxicity to the host plant. Here we approached the expression of the BP100 peptide series in plants using BP100 as a proof-of-concept. Results Our design considered up to three tandemly arranged BP100 units and peptide accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), analyzing five BP100 derivatives. The ER retention sequence did not reduce the antimicrobial activity of chemically synthesized BP100 derivatives, making this strategy possible. Transformation with sequences encoding BP100 derivatives (bp100der) was over ten-fold less efficient than that of the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hptII) transgene. The BP100 direct tandems did not show higher antimicrobial activity than BP100, and genetically modified (GM) plants constitutively expressing them were not viable. In contrast, inverted repeats of BP100, whether or not elongated with a portion of a natural antimicrobial peptide (AMP), had higher antimicrobial activity, and fertile GM rice lines constitutively expressing bp100der were produced. These GM lines had increased resistance to the pathogens Dickeya chrysanthemi and Fusarium verticillioides, and tolerance to oxidative stress, with agronomic performance comparable to untransformed lines. Conclusions Constitutive expression of transgenes encoding short cationic α-helical synthetic peptides can have a strong negative impact on rice fitness. However, GM plants expressing, for

  13. Therapeutic doses of irradiation activate viral transcription and induce apoptosis in HIV-1 infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iordanskiy, Sergey; Van Duyne, Rachel; Sampey, Gavin C; Woodson, Caitlin M; Fry, Kelsi; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao; Romerio, Fabio; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2015-11-15

    The highly active antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV-1 RNA in plasma to undetectable levels. However, the virus continues to persist in the long-lived resting CD4{sup +} T cells, macrophages and astrocytes which form a viral reservoir in infected individuals. Reactivation of viral transcription is critical since the host immune response in combination with antiretroviral therapy may eradicate the virus. Using the chronically HIV-1 infected T lymphoblastoid and monocytic cell lines, primary quiescent CD4{sup +} T cells and humanized mice infected with dual-tropic HIV-1 89.6, we examined the effect of various X-ray irradiation (IR) doses (used for HIV-related lymphoma treatment and lower doses) on HIV-1 transcription and viability of infected cells. Treatment of both T cells and monocytes with IR, a well-defined stress signal, led to increase of HIV-1 transcription, as evidenced by the presence of RNA polymerase II and reduction of HDAC1 and methyl transferase SUV39H1 on the HIV-1 promoter. This correlated with the increased GFP signal and elevated level of intracellular HIV-1 RNA in the IR-treated quiescent CD4{sup +} T cells infected with GFP-encoding HIV-1. Exposition of latently HIV-1infected monocytes treated with PKC agonist bryostatin 1 to IR enhanced transcription activation effect of this latency-reversing agent. Increased HIV-1 replication after IR correlated with higher cell death: the level of phosphorylated Ser46 in p53, responsible for apoptosis induction, was markedly higher in the HIV-1 infected cells following IR treatment. Exposure of HIV-1 infected humanized mice with undetectable viral RNA level to IR resulted in a significant increase of HIV-1 RNA in plasma, lung and brain tissues. Collectively, these data point to the use of low to moderate dose of IR alone or in combination with HIV-1 transcription activators as a potential application for the “Shock and Kill” strategy for latently HIV-1 infected cells. - Highlights: • X-ray irradiation

  14. Protein grafting of an HIV-1-inhibiting epitope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sia, Samuel K.; Kim, Peter S.

    2003-08-01

    Protein grafting, the transfer of a binding epitope of one ligand onto the surface of another protein, is a potentially powerful technique for presenting peptides in preformed and active three-dimensional conformations. Its utility, however, has been limited by low biological activity of the designed ligands and low tolerance of the protein scaffolds to surface substitutions. Here, we graft the complete binding epitope (19 nonconsecutive amino acids with a solvent-accessible surface area of >2,000 Å2) of an HIV-1 C-peptide, which is derived from the C-terminal region of HIV-1 gp41 and potently inhibits HIV-1 entry into cells, onto the surface of a GCN4 leucine zipper. The designed peptide, named C34coil, displays a potent antiviral activity approaching that of the native ligand. Moreover, whereas the linear C-peptide is unstructured and sensitive to degradation by proteases, C34coil is well structured, conformationally stable, and exhibits increased resistance to proteolytic degradation compared with the linear peptide. In addition to being a structured antiviral inhibitor, C34coil may also serve as the basis for the development of an alternative class of immunogens. This study demonstrates that "one-shot" protein grafting, without subsequent rounds of optimization, can be used to create ligands with structural conformations and improved biomedical properties.

  15. DNA vaccines encoding altered peptide ligands for SSX2 enhance epitope-specific CD8+ T-cell immune responses.

    PubMed

    Smith, Heath A; Rekoske, Brian T; McNeel, Douglas G

    2014-03-26

    Plasmid DNA serves as a simple and easily modifiable form of antigen delivery for vaccines. The USDA approval of DNA vaccines for several non-human diseases underscores the potential of this type of antigen delivery method as a cost-effective approach for the treatment or prevention of human diseases, including cancer. However, while DNA vaccines have demonstrated safety and immunological effect in early phase clinical trials, they have not consistently elicited robust anti-tumor responses. Hence many recent efforts have sought to increase the immunological efficacy of DNA vaccines, and we have specifically evaluated several target antigens encoded by DNA vaccine as treatments for human prostate cancer. In particular, we have focused on SSX2 as one potential target antigen, given its frequent expression in metastatic prostate cancer. We have previously identified two peptides, p41-49 and p103-111, as HLA-A2-restricted SSX2-specific epitopes. In the present study we sought to determine whether the efficacy of a DNA vaccine could be enhanced by an altered peptide ligand (APL) strategy wherein modifications were made to anchor residues of these epitopes to enhance or ablate their binding to HLA-A2. A DNA vaccine encoding APL modified to increase epitope binding elicited robust peptide-specific CD8+ T cells producing Th1 cytokines specific for each epitope. Ablation of one epitope in a DNA vaccine did not enhance immune responses to the other epitope. These results demonstrate that APL encoded by a DNA vaccine can be used to elicit increased numbers of antigen-specific T cells specific for multiple epitopes simultaneously, and suggest this could be a general approach to improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines encoding tumor antigens.

  16. Authentic HIV-1 integrase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chenzhong; Marchand, Christophe; Burke, Terrence R; Pommier, Yves; Nicklaus, Marc C

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is indispensable for HIV-1 replication and has become a validated target for developing anti-AIDS agents. In two decades of development of IN inhibition-based anti-HIV therapeutics, a significant number of compounds were identified as IN inhibitors, but only some of them showed antiviral activity. This article reviews a number of patented HIV-1 IN inhibitors, especially those that possess high selectivity for the strand transfer reaction. These compounds generally have a polar coplanar moiety, which is assumed to chelate two magnesium ions in the binding site. Resistance to those compounds, when given to patients, can develop as a result of IN mutations. We refer to those compounds as authentic IN inhibitors. Continued drug development has so far delivered one authentic IN inhibitor to the market (raltegravir in 2007). Current and future attention will be focused on the development of novel authentic IN inhibitors with the goal of overcoming viral resistance. PMID:21426159

  17. Construction of a live-attenuated HIV-1 vaccine through genetic code expansion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nanxi; Li, Yue; Niu, Wei; Sun, Ming; Cerny, Ronald; Li, Qingsheng; Guo, Jiantao

    2014-05-05

    A safe and effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is urgently needed to combat the worldwide AIDS pandemic, but still remains elusive. The fact that uncontrolled replication of an attenuated vaccine can lead to regaining of its virulence creates safety concerns precluding many vaccines from clinical application. We introduce a novel approach to control HIV-1 replication, which entails the manipulation of essential HIV-1 protein biosynthesis through unnatural amino acid (UAA*)-mediated suppression of genome-encoded blank codon. We successfully demonstrate that HIV-1 replication can be precisely turned on and off in vitro.

  18. Sensitive and Selective Detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA Using Vertical Silicon Nanowire Electrode Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehyung; Hong, Min-Ho; Han, Sanghun; Na, Jukwan; Kim, Ilsoo; Kwon, Yong-Joon; Lim, Yong-beom; Choi, Heon-Jin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) RNA was detected via an Au-coated vertical silicon nanowire electrode array (VSNEA). The VSNEA was fabricated by combining bottom-up and top-down approaches and then immobilized by artificial peptides for the recognition of HIV-1 RRE. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis was used to measure the electrochemical response of the peptide-immobilized VSNEA to the concentration and types of HIV-1 RRE RNA. DPV peaks showed linearity to the concentration of RNA with a detection limit down to 1.513 fM. It also showed the clear different peaks to the mutated HIV-1 RRE RNA. The high sensitivity and selectivity of VSNEA for the detection of HIV-1 RRE RNA may be attributed to the high surface-to-volume ratio and total overlap diffusion mode of ions of the one-dimensional nanowire electrodes.

  19. Human cellular restriction factors that target HIV-1 replication

    PubMed Central

    Strebel, Klaus; Luban, Jeremy; Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings have highlighted roles played by innate cellular factors in restricting intracellular viral replication. In this review, we discuss in brief the activities of apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (APOBEC3G), bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2), cyclophilin A, tripartite motif protein 5 alpha (Trim5α), and cellular microRNAs as examples of host restriction factors that target HIV-1. We point to countermeasures encoded by HIV-1 for moderating the potency of these cellular restriction functions. PMID:19758442

  20. The POLARIS Gene of Arabidopsis Encodes a Predicted Peptide Required for Correct Root Growth and Leaf Vascular Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Casson, Stuart A.; Chilley, Paul M.; Topping, Jennifer F.; Evans, I. Marta; Souter, Martin A.; Lindsey, Keith

    2002-01-01

    The POLARIS (PLS) gene of Arabidopsis was identified as a promoter trap transgenic line, showing β-glucuronidase fusion gene expression predominantly in the embryonic and seedling root, with low expression in aerial parts. Cloning of the PLS locus revealed that the promoter trap T-DNA had inserted into a short open reading frame (ORF). Rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR, RNA gel blot analysis, and RNase protection assays showed that the PLS ORF is located within a short (∼500 nucleotides) auxin-inducible transcript and encodes a predicted polypeptide of 36 amino acid residues. pls mutants exhibit a short-root phenotype and reduced vascularization of leaves. pls roots are hyperresponsive to exogenous cytokinins and show increased expression of the cytokinin-inducible gene ARR5/IBC6 compared with the wild type. pls seedlings also are less responsive to the growth-inhibitory effects of exogenous auxin and show reduced expression of the auxin-inducible gene IAA1 compared with the wild type. The PLS peptide-encoding region of the cDNA partially complements the pls mutation and requires the PLS ORF ATG for activity, demonstrating the functionality of the peptide-encoding ORF. Ectopic expression of the PLS ORF reduces root growth inhibition by exogenous cytokinins and increases leaf vascularization. We propose that PLS is required for correct auxin-cytokinin homeostasis to modulate root growth and leaf vascular patterning. PMID:12172017

  1. Developing strategies for HIV-1 eradication

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Christine M.; Blankson, Joel N.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses HIV-1 replication, transforming the outlook for infected patients. However, reservoirs of replication-competent forms of the virus persist during HAART, and when treatment is stopped, high rates of HIV-1 replication return. Recent insights into HIV-1 latency, as well as a report that HIV-1 infection was eradicated in one individual, have renewed interest in finding a cure for HIV-1 infection. Strategies for HIV-1 eradication include gene therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, stimulating host immunity to control HIV-1 replication, and targeting latent HIV-1 in resting memory CD4+ T cells. Future efforts should aim to provide better understanding of how to reconstitute the CD4+ T cell compartment with genetically engineered cells, exert immune control over HIV-1 replication, and identify and eliminate all viral reservoirs. PMID:22867874

  2. Neutralizing antibodies decrease the envelope fluidity of HIV-1

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Shinji Monde, Kazuaki; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Kimura, Tetsuya; Maeda, Yosuke; Yusa, Keisuke

    2008-01-05

    For successful penetration of HIV-1, the formation of a fusion pore may be required in order to accumulate critical numbers of fusion-activated gp41 with the help of fluidization of the plasma membrane and viral envelope. An increase in temperature to 40 {sup o}C after viral adsorption at 25 {sup o}C enhanced the infectivity by 1.4-fold. The enhanced infectivity was inhibited by an anti-CXCR4 peptide, T140, and anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies (0.5{beta} and 694/98-D) by post-attachment neutralization, but not by non-neutralizing antibodies (670-30D and 246-D) specific for the C5 of gp120 and cluster I of gp41, respectively. Anti-HLA-II and an anti-HTLV-I gp46 antibody, LAT27, neutralized the molecule-carrying HIV-1{sub C-2(MT-2)}. The anti-V3 antibodies suppressed the fluidity of the HIV-1{sub C-2} envelope, whereas the non-neutralizing antibodies did not. The anti-HLA-II antibody decreased the envelope fluidity of HIV-1{sub C-2(MT-2)}, but not that of HIV-1{sub C-2}. Therefore, fluidity suppression by these antibodies represents an important neutralization mechanism, in addition to inhibition of viral attachment.

  3. Role of semen in HIV-1 transmission: inhibitor or facilitator?

    PubMed

    Doncel, Gustavo F; Joseph, Theresa; Thurman, Andrea R

    2011-03-01

    Sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accounts for 60-90% of new infections, especially in developing countries. During male-to-female transmission, the virus is typically deposited in the vagina as cell-free and cell-associated virions carried by semen. But semen is more than just a carrier for HIV-1. Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies supports both inhibitory and enhancing effects. Intrinsic antiviral activity mediated by cationic antimicrobial peptides, cytotoxicity, and blockage of HIV-dendritic cell interactions are seminal plasma properties that inhibit HIV-1 infection. On the contrary, neutralization of vaginal acidic pH, enhanced virus-target cell attachment by seminal amyloid fibrils, opsonization by complement fragments, and electrostatic interactions are factors that facilitate HIV-1 infection. The end result, i.e., inhibition or enhancement of HIV mucosal infection, in vivo, likely depends on the summation of all these biological effects. More research is needed, especially in animal models, to dissect the role of these factors and establish their relevance in HIV-1 transmission. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Structure and immune recognition of trimeric prefusion HIV-1 Env

    PubMed Central

    Pancera, Marie; Zhou, Tongqing; Druz, Aliaksandr; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Soto, Cinque; Gorman, Jason; Huang, Jinghe; Acharya, Priyamvada; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Ofek, Gilad; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume B. E.; Stuckey, Jonathan; Bailer, Robert T.; Joyce, M. Gordon; Louder, Mark K.; Tumba, Nancy; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Baoshan; Cohen, Myron S.; Haynes, Barton F.; Mascola, John R.; Morris, Lynn; Munro, James B.; Blanchard, Scott C.; Mothes, Walther; Connors, Mark; Kwong, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    The HIV-1-envelope (Env) spike, comprising three gp120 and three gp41 subunits, is a conformational machine that facilitates HIV-1 entry by rearranging from a mature unliganded state, through receptor-bound intermediates, to a postfusion state. As the sole viral antigen on the HIV-1-virion surface, Env is both the target of neutralizing antibodies and a focus of vaccine efforts. Here we report the structure at 3.5-Å resolution for an HIV-1-Env trimer captured in a mature closed state by antibodies PGT122 and 35O22. This structure reveals the prefusion conformation of gp41, indicates rearrangements needed for fusion activation, and defines parameters of immune evasion and immune recognition. Prefusion gp41 encircles N- and C-terminal strands of gp120 with four helices that form a membrane-proximal collar, fastened by insertion of a fusion peptide-proximal methionine into a gp41-tryptophan clasp. Spike rearrangements required for entry likely involve opening the clasp and expelling the termini. N-linked glycosylation and sequence-variable regions cover the prefusion closed spike: we used chronic cohorts to map the prevalence and location of effective HIV-1-neutralizing responses, which were distinguished by their recognition of N-linked glycan and tolerance for epitope-sequence variation. PMID:25296255

  5. Two putative subunits of a peptide pump encoded in the human major histocompatibility complex class II region.

    PubMed Central

    Bahram, S; Arnold, D; Bresnahan, M; Strominger, J L; Spies, T

    1991-01-01

    The class II region of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) may encode several genes controlling the processing of endogenous antigen and the presentation of peptide epitopes by MHC class I molecules to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. A previously described peptide supply factor (PSF1) is a member of the multidrug-resistance family of transporters and may pump cytosolic peptides into the membrane-bound compartment where class I molecules assemble. A second transporter gene, PSF2, was identified 10 kilobases (kb) from PSF1, near the class II DOB gene. The complete sequences of PSF1 and PSF2 were determined from cDNA clones. The translation products are closely related in sequence and predicted secondary structure. Both contain a highly conserved ATP-binding fold and share 25% homology in a hydrophobic domain with a tentative number of eight membrane-spanning segments. Based on the principle dimeric organization of these two domains in other transporters, PSF1 and PSF2 may function as complementary subunits, independently as homodimers, or both. Taken together with previous genetic evidence, the coregulation of PSF1 and PSF2 by gamma interferon and the to-some-degree coordinate transcription of these genes suggest a common role in peptide-loading of class I molecules, although a distinct function of PSF2 cannot be ruled out. Images PMID:1946428

  6. [Genetically encoded FRET-pair on the basis of terbium-binding peptide and red fluorescent protein].

    PubMed

    Arslanbaeva, L R; Zherdeva, V V; Ivashina, T V; Vinokurov, L M; Rusanov, A L; Savitskiĭ, A P

    2010-01-01

    The genetically encoded FRET-pair was developed on the basis of terbium-binding peptide and red fluorescent protein DsRed2. To study fluorescence resonance energy transfer within FRET-pair, the gene-engineered construction was obtained, where sequences of terbium-binding peptide and red fluorescent protein DsRed2 were fused in single reading frame. The expression of this construction in strain E. coli BL21 (DE3) was studied and conditions of synthesis, isolation and purification of recombinant protein were optimized. The hydrodynamic radius of hybrid protein was determined by the method of dynamic light scattering. Energy transfer between sensitized terbium and red fluorescent protein was confirmed by the methods of phosporescent spectroscopy. The obtained FRET-pair can be used both for studies in vitro and as a reporter in living cells.

  7. A mitogenic peptide amide encoded within the E peptide domain of the insulin-like growth factor IB prohormone.

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, J M; Kasprzyk, P G; Treston, A M; Mulshine, J L; Quinn, K A; Cuttitta, F

    1992-01-01

    We have identified an amino acid sequence within the E peptide of the insulin-like growth factor IB (IGF-IB) precursor that is biologically active and designated this peptide insulin-like growth factor IB-(103-124) E1 amide (IBE1). Its existence was predicted by a flanking Gly-Lys-Lys-Lys, a signal sequence for sequential proteolytic cleavage and peptidyl C-terminal amidation. A synthetic analog of the predicted IBE1 peptide, designated Y-23-R-NH2, was generated with tyrosine added at position 0. This peptide at 2-20 nM had growth-promoting effects on both normal and malignant human bronchial epithelial cells. Y-23-R-NH2 bound to specific high-affinity receptors (Kd = 2.8 +/- 1.4 x 10(-11) M) present at 1-2 x 10(4) binding sites per cell. Ligand binding was not inhibited by recombinant insulin or recombinant IGF-I. Furthermore, a monoclonal antibody antagonist to the IGF-I receptor (alpha IR3) did not suppress the proliferative response induced by Y-23-R-NH2. In addition, C-terminal amidation was shown to be important in receptor recognition since the free-acid analog of IBE1 (Y-23-R-OH) did not effectively compete for binding and was not a potent agonist of proliferation. Immunoblot analysis of human lung tumor cell line extracts using an antibody raised against Y-23-R-NH2 detected a low molecular mass band of approximately 5 kDa, implying that a protein product is produced that has immunological similarity to IBE1. Extracts of human, mammalian, and avian livers analyzed on an immunoblot with the anti-Y-23-R-NH2 antibody contained proteins of approximately 21 kDa that were specifically recognized by the antiserum and presumably represent an IGF-I precursor molecule. This implies that in species where an IGF-I mRNA with homology to the human IGF-IB E domain has not yet been described, an alternate mRNA must be produced that contains a sequence similar to that of the midportion of the human IGF-IB E domain. Our findings demonstrate that IBE1 is a growth factor that

  8. Cholesterol-Enriched Domain Formation Induced by Viral-Encoded, Membrane-Active Amphipathic Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Joshua M.; Gettel, Douglas L.; Tabaei, Seyed R.; Jackman, Joshua; Kim, Min Chul; Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Groves, Jay T.; Liedberg, Bo; Cho, Nam-Joon; Parikh, Atul N.

    2016-01-01

    The α-helical (AH) domain of the hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein NS5A, anchored at the cytoplasmic leaflet of the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a role in viral replication. However, the peptides derived from this domain also exhibit remarkably broad-spectrum virocidal activity, raising questions about their modes of membrane association. Here, using giant lipid vesicles, we show that the AH peptide discriminates between membrane compositions. In cholesterol-containing membranes, peptide binding induces microdomain formation. By contrast, cholesterol-depleted membranes undergo global softening at elevated peptide concentrations. Furthermore, in mixed populations, the presence of ∼100 nm vesicles of viral dimensions suppresses these peptide-induced perturbations in giant unilamellar vesicles, suggesting size-dependent membrane association. These synergistic composition- and size-dependent interactions explain, in part, how the AH domain might on the one hand segregate molecules needed for viral assembly and on the other hand furnish peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum virocidal activity. PMID:26745420

  9. Productive replication of Vif-chimeric HIV-1 in feline cells.

    PubMed

    Stern, Melissa A; Hu, Chunling; Saenz, Dyana T; Fadel, Hind J; Sims, Olivia; Peretz, Mary; Poeschla, Eric M

    2010-07-01

    Nonprimate animal models of HIV-1 infection are prevented by missing cellular cofactors and by antiviral actions of species-specific host defense factors. These blocks are profound in rodents but may be less abundant in certain Carnivora. Here, we enabled productive, spreading replication and passage of HIV-1 in feline cells. Feline fibroblasts, T-cell lines, and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells supported early and late HIV-1 life cycle phases in a manner equivalent to that of human cells, except that produced virions had low infectivity. Stable expression of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Vif-green fluorescent protein (GFP) in HIV-1 entry receptor-complemented feline (CrFK) cells enabled robust spreading HIV-1 replication. FIV Vif colocalized with feline APOBEC3 (fA3) proteins, targeted them for degradation, and prevented G-->A hypermutation of the HIV-1 cDNA by fA3CH and fA3H. HIV-1 Vif was inactive against fA3s as expected and even paradoxically augmented restriction in some assays. In an interesting contrast, simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac Vif had substantial anti-fA3 activities, which were complete against fA3CH and partial against fA3H. Moreover, both primate lentiviral Vifs colocalized with fA3s and could be pulled down from cell lysates by fA3CH. HIV-1 molecular clones that encode FIV Vif or SIVmac Vif (HIV-1(VF) and HIV-1(VS)) were then constructed. These viruses replicated productively in HIV-1 receptor-expressing CrFK cells and could be passaged serially to uninfected cells. Thus, with the exception of entry receptors, the cat genome can supply the dependency factors needed by HIV-1, and a main restriction can be countered by vif chimerism. The results raise the possibility that the domestic cat could yield an animal model of HIV-1 infection.

  10. Evolutionary conservation of the insulin gene structure in invertebrates: cloning of the gene encoding molluscan insulin-related peptide III from Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Smit, A B; van Marle, A; van Elk, R; Bogerd, J; van Heerikhuizen, H; Geraerts, W P

    1993-08-01

    Although insulins and structurally related peptides are found in vertebrates as well as in invertebrates, it is not clear whether the genes encoding these hormones have emerged from a single ancestral (insulin)-type of gene or, alternatively, have arisen independently through convergent evolution from different types of gene. To investigate this issue, we cloned the gene encoding the molluscan insulin-related peptide III (MIP III) from the freshwater snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. The predicted MIP III preprohormone had the overall organization of preproinsulin, with a signal peptide and A and B chains, connected by two putative C peptides. Although MIP III was found to share key features with vertebrate insulins, it also had unique structural characteristics in common with the previously identified MIPs I and II, thus forming a distinct class of MIP peptides within the insulin superfamily. MIP III is synthesized in neurones in the brain. It is encoded by a gene with the overall organization of the vertebrate insulin genes, with three exons and two introns, of which the second intron interrupts the coding region of the C peptides. Our data therefore demonstrate that in the Archaemetazoa, the common ancestor of the vertebrates and invertebrates, a primordial peptide with a two-chain insulin configuration encoded by a primordial insulin-type gene must have been present.

  11. Characterization of T-cell responses to cryptic epitopes in recipients of a noncodon-optimized HIV-1 vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bet, Anne; Sterrett, Sarah; Sato, Alicia; Bansal, Anju; Goepfert, Paul A

    2014-02-01

    Cryptic epitopes (CEs) can be encoded by any of the 5 alternative reading frames (ARFs, 2 sense and 3 antisense) of a known gene. Although CE responses are commonly detected during HIV-1 infection, it is not known whether these responses are induced after vaccination. Using a bioinformatic approach, we determined that vaccines with codon-optimized HIV inserts significantly skewed CE sequences and are not likely to induce crossreactive responses to natural HIV CE. We then evaluated the CE- and protein-specific T-cell responses using Gag, Pol, and ARF peptide pools among participants immunized with a non-codon optimized vaccine regimen of 2 pGA2/JS7 DNA primes followed by 2 MVA/HIV62 Gag-Pol-Env vector boosts or 4 saline injections. Vaccinees had significantly more interferon gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (IFNγ ELISpot) responses toward Gag (P = 0.003) but not toward Pol protein than did placebo recipients. However, CE-specific T-cell responses were low in magnitude, and their frequencies did not differ significantly between vaccine and placebo recipients. Additionally, most positive CE responses could not be mapped to individual peptides. After expanding responses in a cultured assay, however, the frequency and the median magnitude of responses to ARF peptides were significantly greater in vaccinees (P < 0.0001), indicating that CE-specific T-cell responses are present but below an ex vivo assay's limit of detection. Our data demonstrate that HIV-1 vaccines currently in clinical trials are poorly immunogenic with regard to CE-specific T-cell responses. Therefore, the context of HIV-1 immunogens may need to be modified as a comprehensive strategy to broaden vaccine-induced T-cell responses.

  12. Insights into the activity of maturation inhibitor PF-46396 on HIV-1 clade C

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Dibya; Timilsina, Uddhav; Srivastava, Tryambak Pratap; Gaur, Ritu

    2017-01-01

    HIV maturation inhibitors are an emerging class of anti-retroviral compounds that inhibit the viral protease-mediated cleavage of the Gag, CA-SP1 (capsid-spacer peptide 1) peptide to mature CA. The first-in-class maturation inhibitor bevirimat (BVM) displayed potent activity against HIV-1 clade B but was ineffective against other HIV-1 clades including clade C. Another pyridone-based maturation inhibitor, PF-46396 displayed potent activity against HIV-1 clade B. In this study, we aimed at determining the activity of PF-46396 against HIV-1 clade C. We employed various biochemical and virological assays to demonstrate that PF-46396 is effective against HIV-1 clade C. We observed a dose dependent accumulation of CA-SP1 intermediate in presence of the compound. We carried out mutagenesis in the CA- SP1 region of HIV-1 clade C Gag and observed that the mutations conferred resistance against the compound. Many mutations inhibited Gag processing thereby reducing virus release in the absence of the compound. However, presence of PF-46396 rescued these defects and enhanced virus release, replication capacity and infectivity of HIV-1 clade C. These results put together identify PF-46396 as a broadly active maturation inhibitor against HIV-1 clade B and C and help in rational designing of novel analogs with reduced toxicity and increased efficacy for its potential use in clinics. PMID:28252110

  13. Friendly strategy to prepare encoded one bead-one compound cyclic peptide library.

    PubMed

    Giudicessi, Silvana L; Gurevich-Messina, Juan M; Martínez-Ceron, María C; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Albericio, Fernando; Cascone, Osvaldo; Camperi, Silvia A

    2013-10-14

    One bead-one peptide libraries allow the screening of suitable ligands for any target protein. Short cyclic peptides are ideal ligands for affinity chromatography because of their high affinity and selectivity for the target protein and stability against proteases. We designed a library synthesis strategy to facilitate the identification of cyclic peptides by MS consisting of (a) sequential incorporation of a mixture of Fmoc-Ala-OH and Fmoc-Asp[2-phenylisopropyl (OPp)]-OH (15:85) to Gly-oxymethylbenzamide-ChemMatrix (Gly-HMBA-CM) resin, (b) synthesis of the combinatorial library on the resin by the divide-couple-recombine method, (c) removal of OPp with 4% TFA, (d) peptide cyclization on solid phase through side-chain Asp and amino terminus, and (e) removal of side chain protecting groups with a 95% TFA cocktail. Peptides were cleaved from the beads with ammonia and the linear code was sequenced by MALDI-TOF MS/MS. The high capacity of ChemMatrix resin together with the sensitivity of MS allows code sequencing from a single bead.

  14. Escherichia coli surface display of single-chain antibody VRC01 against HIV-1 infection

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Xu; Mellon, Michael; Bowder, Dane; Quinn, Meghan; Shea, Danielle; Wood, Charles; Xiang, Shi-Hua

    2015-01-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission and infection occur mainly via the mucosal surfaces. The commensal bacteria residing in these surfaces can potentially be employed as a vehicle for delivering inhibitors to prevent HIV-1 infection. In this study, we have employed a bacteria-based strategy to display a broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01, which could potentially be used to prevent HIV-1 infection. The VRC01 antibody mimics CD4-binding to gp120 and has broadly neutralization activities against HIV-1. We have designed a construct that can express the fusion peptide of the scFv-VRC01 antibody together with the autotransporter β-barrel domain of IgAP gene from Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which enabled surface display of the antibody molecule. Our results indicate that the scFv-VRC01 antibody molecule was displayed on the surface of the bacteria as demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. The engineered bacteria can capture HIV-1 particles via surface-binding and inhibit HIV-1 infection in cell culture. - Highlights: • Designed single-chain VRC01 antibody was demonstrated to bind HIV-1 envelope gp120. • Single-chain VRC01 antibody was successfully displayed on the surface of E. coli. • Engineered bacteria can absorb HIV-1 particles and prevent HIV-1 infection in cell culture.

  15. Low complexity regions (LCRs) contribute to the hypervariability of the HIV-1 gp120 protein.

    PubMed

    María Velasco, Ana; Becerra, Arturo; Hernández-Morales, Ricardo; Delaye, Luis; Jiménez-Corona, María Eugenia; Ponce-de-Leon, Samuel; Lazcano, Antonio

    2013-12-07

    Low complexity regions (LCRs) are sequences of nucleic acids or proteins defined by a compositional bias. Their occurrence has been confirmed in sequences of the three cellular lineages (Bacteria, Archaea and Eucarya), and has also been reported in viral genomes. We present here the results of a detailed computer analysis of the LCRs present in the HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 (gp120) encoded by the viral gene env. The analysis was performed using a sample of 3637 Env polyprotein sequences derived from 4117 completely sequenced and translated HIV-1 genomes available in public databases as of December 2012. We have identified 1229 LCRs located in four different regions of the gp120 protein that correspond to four of the five regions that have been identified as hypervariable (V1, V2, V4 and V5). The remaining 29 LCRs are found in the signal peptide and in the conserved regions C2, C3, C4 and C5. No LCR has been identified in the hypervariable region V3. The LCRs detected in the V1, V2, V4, and V5 hypervariable regions exhibit a high Asn content in their amino acid composition, which very likely correspond to glycosylation sites, which may contribute to the retroviral ability to avoid the immune system. In sharp contrast with what is observed in gp120 proteins lacking LCRs, the glycosylation sites present in LCRs tend to be clustered towards the center of the region forming well-defined islands. The results presented here suggest that LCRs represent a hitherto undescribed source of genomic variability in lentivirus, and that these repeats may represent an important source of antigenic variation in HIV-1 populations. The results reported here may exemplify the evolutionary processes that may have increased the size of primitive cellular RNA genomes and the role of LCRs as a source of raw material during the processes of evolutionary acquisition of new functions.

  16. The HIV-1 Rev/RRE system is required for HIV-1 5' UTR cis elements to augment encapsidation of heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles.

    PubMed

    Cockrell, Adam S; van Praag, Henriette; Santistevan, Nicholas; Ma, Hong; Kafri, Tal

    2011-06-24

    The process of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) encapsidation is governed by a number of viral encoded components, most notably the Gag protein and gRNA cis elements in the canonical packaging signal (ψ). Also implicated in encapsidation are cis determinants in the R, U5, and PBS (primer binding site) from the 5' untranslated region (UTR). Although conventionally associated with nuclear export of HIV-1 RNA, there is a burgeoning role for the Rev/RRE in the encapsidation process. Pleiotropic effects exhibited by these cis and trans viral components may confound the ability to examine their independent, and combined, impact on encapsidation of RNA into HIV-1 viral particles in their innate viral context. We systematically reconstructed the HIV-1 packaging system in the context of a heterologous murine leukemia virus (MLV) vector RNA to elucidate a mechanism in which the Rev/RRE system is central to achieving efficient and specific encapsidation into HIV-1 viral particles. We show for the first time that the Rev/RRE system can augment RNA encapsidation independent of all cis elements from the 5' UTR (R, U5, PBS, and ψ). Incorporation of all the 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance RNA encapsidation in the absence of the Rev/RRE system. In fact, we demonstrate that the Rev/RRE system is required for specific and efficient encapsidation commonly associated with the canonical packaging signal. The mechanism of Rev/RRE-mediated encapsidation is not a general phenomenon, since the combination of the Rev/RRE system and 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance encapsidation into MLV-derived viral particles. Lastly, we show that heterologous MLV RNAs conform to transduction properties commonly associated with HIV-1 viral particles, including in vivo transduction of non-dividing cells (i.e. mouse neurons); however, the cDNA forms are episomes predominantly in the 1-LTR circle form. Premised on encapsidation of a heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles, our findings define a functional

  17. The HIV-1 Rev/RRE system is required for HIV-1 5' UTR cis elements to augment encapsidation of heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The process of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) encapsidation is governed by a number of viral encoded components, most notably the Gag protein and gRNA cis elements in the canonical packaging signal (ψ). Also implicated in encapsidation are cis determinants in the R, U5, and PBS (primer binding site) from the 5' untranslated region (UTR). Although conventionally associated with nuclear export of HIV-1 RNA, there is a burgeoning role for the Rev/RRE in the encapsidation process. Pleiotropic effects exhibited by these cis and trans viral components may confound the ability to examine their independent, and combined, impact on encapsidation of RNA into HIV-1 viral particles in their innate viral context. We systematically reconstructed the HIV-1 packaging system in the context of a heterologous murine leukemia virus (MLV) vector RNA to elucidate a mechanism in which the Rev/RRE system is central to achieving efficient and specific encapsidation into HIV-1 viral particles. Results We show for the first time that the Rev/RRE system can augment RNA encapsidation independent of all cis elements from the 5' UTR (R, U5, PBS, and ψ). Incorporation of all the 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance RNA encapsidation in the absence of the Rev/RRE system. In fact, we demonstrate that the Rev/RRE system is required for specific and efficient encapsidation commonly associated with the canonical packaging signal. The mechanism of Rev/RRE-mediated encapsidation is not a general phenomenon, since the combination of the Rev/RRE system and 5' UTR cis elements did not enhance encapsidation into MLV-derived viral particles. Lastly, we show that heterologous MLV RNAs conform to transduction properties commonly associated with HIV-1 viral particles, including in vivo transduction of non-dividing cells (i.e. mouse neurons); however, the cDNA forms are episomes predominantly in the 1-LTR circle form. Conclusions Premised on encapsidation of a heterologous RNA into HIV-1 viral particles

  18. Dual-function sRNA encoded peptide SR1P modulates moonlighting activity of B. subtilis GapA

    PubMed Central

    Gimpel, Matthias; Brantl, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT SR1 is a dual-function sRNA from B. subtilis that acts as a base-pairing regulatory RNA and as a peptide-encoding mRNA. Both functions of SR1 are highly conserved. Previously, we uncovered that the SR1 encoded peptide SR1P binds the glycolytic enzyme GapA resulting in stabilization of gapA mRNA. Here, we demonstrate that GapA interacts with RNases Y and J1, and this interaction was RNA-independent. About 1% of GapA molecules purified from B. subtilis carry RNase J1 and about 2% RNase Y. In contrast to the GapA/RNase Y interaction, the GapA/RNaseJ1 interaction was stronger in the presence of SR1P. GapA/SR1P-J1/Y displayed in vitro RNase activity on known RNase J1 substrates. Moreover, the RNase J1 substrate SR5 has altered half-lives in a ΔgapA strain and a Δsr1 strain, suggesting in vivo functions of the GapA/SR1P/J1 interaction. Our results demonstrate that the metabolic enzyme GapA moonlights in recruiting RNases while GapA bound SR1P promotes binding of RNase J1 and enhances its activity. PMID:27449348

  19. CD4+ T-cell help enhances NK cell function following therapeutic HIV-1 vaccination.

    PubMed

    Jost, Stephanie; Tomezsko, Phillip John; Rands, Keith; Toth, Ildiko; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Gandhi, Rajesh Tim; Altfeld, Marcus

    2014-08-01

    Increasing data suggest that NK cells can mediate antiviral activity in HIV-1-infected humans, and as such, novel approaches harnessing the anti-HIV-1 function of both T cells and NK cells represent attractive options to improve future HIV-1 immunotherapies. Chronic progressive HIV-1 infection has been associated with a loss of CD4(+) T helper cell function and with the accumulation of anergic NK cells. As several studies have suggested that cytokines produced by CD4(+) T cells are required to enhance NK cell function in various infection models, we hypothesized that reconstitution of HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses by therapeutic immunization would restore NK cell activity in infected individuals. Using flow cytometry, we examined the function of CD4(+) T cells and NK cells in response to HIV-1 in subjects with treated chronic HIV-1 infection before and after immunization with an adjuvanted HIV-1 Gp120/NefTat subunit protein vaccine candidate provided by GlaxoSmithKline. Vaccination induced an increased expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) by Gp120-specific CD4(+) T cells in response to HIV-1 peptides ex vivo, which was associated with enhanced production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) by NK cells. Our data show that reconstitution of HIV-1-specific CD4(+) T-cell function by therapeutic immunization can enhance NK cell activity in HIV-1-infected individuals. NK cells are effector cells of the innate immune system and are important in the control of viral infection. Recent studies have demonstrated the crucial role played by NK cells in controlling and/or limiting acquisition of HIV-1 infection. However, NK cell function is impaired during progressive HIV-1 infection. We recently showed that therapeutic immunization of treated HIV-1-infected individuals reconstituted strong T-cell responses, measured notably by their production of IL-2, a cytokine that can activate NK cells. The current study suggests that reconstitution of T-cell function by therapeutic

  20. Immunologically active peptides capable of inducing immunization against malaria and genes encoding therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Dame, J.B.; Williams, J.L.; McCutchan, T.F.; Schneider, I.

    1987-11-17

    An antimalarial immunogenic stimulant is described comprising an immunogenic carrier and a peptide sequence of between 2 and 1000 consecutive repeats of a sequence Asn-X-Y-Pro, wherein X is Ala or Val and Y is Asn or Asp.

  1. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R.

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  2. GAD1 Encodes a Secreted Peptide That Regulates Grain Number, Grain Length, and Awn Development in Rice Domestication[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Lei; Zhao, Xinhui; Zhang, Weifeng; Liu, Fengxia; Fu, Yongcai; Cai, Hongwei; Sun, Xianyou; Gu, Ping; Xie, Daoxin

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) was domesticated from wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), which typically displays fewer grains per panicle and longer grains than cultivated rice. In addition, wild rice has long awns, whereas cultivated rice has short awns or lacks them altogether. These changes represent critical events in rice domestication. Here, we identified a major gene, GRAIN NUMBER, GRAIN LENGTH AND AWN DEVELOPMENT1 (GAD1), that regulates those critical changes during rice domestication. GAD1 is located on chromosome 8 and is predicted to encode a small secretary signal peptide belonging to the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE family. A frame-shift insertion in gad1 destroyed the conserved cysteine residues of the peptide, resulting in a loss of function, and causing the increased number of grains per panicle, shorter grains, and awnless phenotype characteristic of cultivated rice. Our findings provide a useful paradigm for revealing functions of peptide signal molecules in plant development and helps elucidate the molecular basis of rice domestication. PMID:27634315

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the cerebrovascular and the neuritic plaque amyloid peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Robakis, N.K.; Ramakrishna, N.; Wolfe, G.; Wisniewski, H.M.

    1987-06-01

    Deposits of amyloid fibers are found in large numbers in the walls of blood vessels and in neuritic plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease and adults with Down syndrome. The authors used the amino acid sequence of the amyloid peptide to synthesize oligonucleotide probes specific for the gene encoding this peptide. When a human brain cDNA library was screened with this probe, a clone was found with a 1.7-kilobase insert that contains a long open reading frame coding for 412 amino acid residues including the 28 amino acids of the amyloid peptide. RNA gel blots revealed that a 3.3-kilobase mRNA species was present in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer disease, with Down syndrome, or with not apparent neurological disorders. Southern blots showed that homologous genes are present in the genomic DNA of humans, rabbits, sheep, hamsters, and mice, suggesting that this gene has been conserved through mammalian evolution. Localization of the corresponding genomic sequences on human chromosome 21 suggest a genetic relationship between Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome, and it may explain the early appearance of large numbers of neuritic plaques in adult Down syndrome patients.

  4. Molecular characterisation of cDNAs from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda encoding Manduca sexta allatotropin and allatostatin preprohormone peptides.

    PubMed

    Abdel-latief, M; Meyering-Vos, M; Hoffmann, K H

    2003-05-01

    Allatotropin (AT) is a 13-residue amidated neuropeptide, first isolated from pharate adult heads of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta (Manse-AT), which strongly stimulates the biosynthesis of juvenile hormones (JH) in the corpora allata (CA) of adult moths. In Spodoptera frugiperda, a cDNA that encodes 134 amino acids, including an AT peptide, has been cloned. The S. frugiperda allatotropin mature peptide (Spofr-AT) [GFKNVEMMTARGFa] is identical to that isolated from M. sexta. The basic organization of the Spofr-AT precursor is similar to that of Agrius convolvuli, M. sexta, Pseudaletia unipuncta, and Bombyx mori with 83-93% amino acid sequence identity. The Spofr-AT gene is expressed in at least three mRNA isoforms with 134, 171 and 200 amino acids, differing from each other by alternative splicing. All allatostatins (AS) have an inhibitory action on the JH biosynthesis in the CA. A cDNA that encodes 125 amino acid residues including one copy of the Manse-AS peptide has been cloned from S. frugiperda (Spofr-AS; QVRFRQCYFNPISCF). The basic organization of the Spofr-AS precursor is similar to that of P. unipuncta with 85% amino acid sequence identity. Using one step RT-PCR for semi-quantification of the gene expression, we showed that the three mRNAs of the Spofr-AT gene and the Spofr-AS gene are expressed in brains of last instar larvae, prepupae, pupae, and adults of both sexes of S. frugiperda with variable intensity.

  5. HIV-1 production is specifically associated with human NMT1 long form in human NMT isozymes.

    PubMed

    Takamune, Nobutoki; Gota, Kayoko; Misumi, Shogo; Tanaka, Kenzo; Okinaka, Shigetaka; Shoji, Shozo

    2008-02-01

    The N-myristoylation of the N-terminal of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Pr55(gag) by human N-myristoyltransferase (hNMT) is a prerequisite modification for HIV-1 production. hNMT consists of multiple isozymes encoded by hNMT1 and hNMT2. The hNMT1 isozyme consists of long, medium, and short forms. Here, we investigated which isozyme is crucial for HIV-1 production. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells transfected with infectious HIV-1 vectors were used as models of HIV-1-infected cells in this study. The significant reduction in HIV-1 production and the failure of the specific localization of Pr55(gag) in a detergent-resistant membrane fraction were dependent on the knockdown of the different forms of the hNMT1 isozyme but not of the hNMT2 isozyme. Additionally, the coexpression of an inactive mutant hNMT1 isozyme, namely the hNMT1 long form (hNMT1(L)), but not that of other hNMT mutants resulted in a significant reduction in HIV-1 production. These results strongly suggest that HIV-1 production is specifically associated with hNMT1, particularly hNMT1(L), but not with hNMT2 in vivo, contributing to the understanding of a step in HIV-1 replication.

  6. Functional C‐TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE (CEP) plant hormone domains evolved de novo in the plant parasite Rotylenchulus reniformis

    PubMed Central

    Eves‐Van Den Akker, Sebastian; Lilley, Catherine J.; Yusup, Hazijah B.; Jones, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Sedentary plant‐parasitic nematodes (PPNs) induce and maintain an intimate relationship with their host, stimulating cells adjacent to root vascular tissue to re‐differentiate into unique and metabolically active ‘feeding sites’. The interaction between PPNs and their host is mediated by nematode effectors. We describe the discovery of a large and diverse family of effector genes, encoding C‐TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE (CEP) plant hormone mimics (RrCEPs), in the syncytia‐forming plant parasite Rotylenchulus reniformis. The particular attributes of RrCEPs distinguish them from all other CEPs, regardless of origin. Together with the distant phylogenetic relationship of R. reniformis to the only other CEP‐encoding nematode genus identified to date (Meloidogyne), this suggests that CEPs probably evolved de novo in R. reniformis. We have characterized the first member of this large gene family (RrCEP1), demonstrating its significant up‐regulation during the plant–nematode interaction and expression in the effector‐producing pharyngeal gland cell. All internal CEP domains of multi‐domain RrCEPs are followed by di‐basic residues, suggesting a mechanism for cleavage. A synthetic peptide corresponding to RrCEP1 domain 1 is biologically active and capable of up‐regulating plant nitrate transporter (AtNRT2.1) expression, whilst simultaneously reducing primary root elongation. When a non‐CEP‐containing, syncytia‐forming PPN species (Heterodera schachtii) infects Arabidopsis in a CEP‐rich environment, a smaller feeding site is produced. We hypothesize that CEPs of R. reniformis represent a two‐fold adaptation to sustained biotrophy in this species: (i) increasing host nitrate uptake, whilst (ii) limiting the size of the syncytial feeding site produced. PMID:26996971

  7. Functional C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE (CEP) plant hormone domains evolved de novo in the plant parasite Rotylenchulus reniformis.

    PubMed

    Eves-Van Den Akker, Sebastian; Lilley, Catherine J; Yusup, Hazijah B; Jones, John T; Urwin, Peter E

    2016-10-01

    Sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) induce and maintain an intimate relationship with their host, stimulating cells adjacent to root vascular tissue to re-differentiate into unique and metabolically active 'feeding sites'. The interaction between PPNs and their host is mediated by nematode effectors. We describe the discovery of a large and diverse family of effector genes, encoding C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE (CEP) plant hormone mimics (RrCEPs), in the syncytia-forming plant parasite Rotylenchulus reniformis. The particular attributes of RrCEPs distinguish them from all other CEPs, regardless of origin. Together with the distant phylogenetic relationship of R. reniformis to the only other CEP-encoding nematode genus identified to date (Meloidogyne), this suggests that CEPs probably evolved de novo in R. reniformis. We have characterized the first member of this large gene family (RrCEP1), demonstrating its significant up-regulation during the plant-nematode interaction and expression in the effector-producing pharyngeal gland cell. All internal CEP domains of multi-domain RrCEPs are followed by di-basic residues, suggesting a mechanism for cleavage. A synthetic peptide corresponding to RrCEP1 domain 1 is biologically active and capable of up-regulating plant nitrate transporter (AtNRT2.1) expression, whilst simultaneously reducing primary root elongation. When a non-CEP-containing, syncytia-forming PPN species (Heterodera schachtii) infects Arabidopsis in a CEP-rich environment, a smaller feeding site is produced. We hypothesize that CEPs of R. reniformis represent a two-fold adaptation to sustained biotrophy in this species: (i) increasing host nitrate uptake, whilst (ii) limiting the size of the syncytial feeding site produced. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology Published by British Society for Plant Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. HIV-1 protease-substrate coevolution in nelfinavir resistance.

    PubMed

    Kolli, Madhavi; Ozen, Ayşegül; Kurt-Yilmaz, Nese; Schiffer, Celia A

    2014-07-01

    Resistance to various human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs) challenges the effectiveness of therapies in treating HIV-1-infected individuals and AIDS patients. The virus accumulates mutations within the protease (PR) that render the PIs less potent. Occasionally, Gag sequences also coevolve with mutations at PR cleavage sites contributing to drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the structural basis of coevolution of the p1-p6 cleavage site with the nelfinavir (NFV) resistance D30N/N88D protease mutations by determining crystal structures of wild-type and NFV-resistant HIV-1 protease in complex with p1-p6 substrate peptide variants with L449F and/or S451N. Alterations of residue 30's interaction with the substrate are compensated by the coevolving L449F and S451N cleavage site mutations. This interdependency in the PR-p1-p6 interactions enhances intermolecular contacts and reinforces the overall fit of the substrate within the substrate envelope, likely enabling coevolution to sustain substrate recognition and cleavage in the presence of PR resistance mutations. Resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors challenges the effectiveness of therapies in treating HIV-1-infected individuals and AIDS patients. Mutations in HIV-1 protease selected under the pressure of protease inhibitors render the inhibitors less potent. Occasionally, Gag sequences also mutate and coevolve with protease, contributing to maintenance of viral fitness and to drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the structural basis of coevolution at the Gag p1-p6 cleavage site with the nelfinavir (NFV) resistance D30N/N88D protease mutations. Our structural analysis reveals the interdependency of protease-substrate interactions and how coevolution may restore substrate recognition and cleavage in the presence of protease drug resistance mutations. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Polyepitope protein incorporated the HIV-1 mimotope recognized by monoclonal antibody 2G12.

    PubMed

    Karpenko, Larisa I; Scherbakova, Nadezhda S; Chikaev, Anton N; Tumanova, Olga Yu; Lebedev, Leonid R; Shalamova, Lyudmila A; Pyankova, Olga G; Ryzhikov, Alexander B; Ilyichev, Alexander A

    2012-04-01

    A major goal in HIV-1 vaccine research is to develop an immunogen that can elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies that efficiently neutralize a wide range of the HIV-1 subtypes. Using biopanning procedure we have selected linear peptide VGAFGSFYRLSVLQS mimicking the structure of discontinuous binding sites of broadly neutralizing antibodies 2G12 from phage peptide library. As a protein carrier, we used the earlier designed artificial polyepitope immunogen named TBI (T- and B-cell immunogen), which comprises B-cell and T-helper epitopes from the HIV-1 Env and Gag proteins. On the base of selected peptide mimotope VGAFGSFYRLSVLQS the artificial protein TBI-2g12 was constructed and its immunogenic properties was investigated. It was shown that the TBI-2g12 as well as the original TBI induces antibodies that recognize HIV-1 proteins and TBI protein using ELISA and immunoblotting. However only anti-TBI-2g12 serum recognized the synthetic peptide mimotope VGAFGSFYRLSVLQS, whereas the antibodies against original TBI don't recognize it. The neutralization assay demonstrated that serum antibodies of the mice immunized with TBI-2g12 possess virus neutralizing activity. The addition of selected peptide leads to inhibition neutralizing activity of anti- TBI-2g12 serum. We conclude from these results that immunogen TBI-2g12 containing the selected peptide VGAFGSFYRLSVLQS elicits HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies during immunization. Our data suggest that this immunogen may be useful in designing effective HIV-vaccine candidates.

  10. Electron Tomography of HIV-1 Infection in Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Ladinsky, Mark S.; Kieffer, Collin; Olson, Gregory; Deruaz, Maud; Vrbanac, Vladimir; Tager, Andrew M.; Kwon, Douglas S.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Critical aspects of HIV-1 infection occur in mucosal tissues, particularly in the gut, which contains large numbers of HIV-1 target cells that are depleted early in infection. We used electron tomography (ET) to image HIV-1 in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of HIV-1–infected humanized mice, the first three-dimensional ultrastructural examination of HIV-1 infection in vivo. Human immune cells were successfully engrafted in the mice, and following infection with HIV-1, human T cells were reduced in GALT. Virions were found by ET at all stages of egress, including budding immature virions and free mature and immature viruses. Immuno-electron microscopy verified the virions were HIV-1 and showed CD4 sequestration in the endoplasmic reticulum of infected cells. Observation of HIV-1 in infected GALT tissue revealed that most HIV-1–infected cells, identified by immunolabeling and/or the presence of budding virions, were localized to intestinal crypts with pools of free virions concentrated in spaces between cells. Fewer infected cells were found in mucosal regions and the lamina propria. The preservation quality of reconstructed tissue volumes allowed details of budding virions, including structures interpreted as host-encoded scission machinery, to be resolved. Although HIV-1 virions released from infected cultured cells have been described as exclusively mature, we found pools of both immature and mature free virions within infected tissue. The pools could be classified as containing either mostly mature or mostly immature particles, and analyses of their proximities to the cell of origin supported a model of semi-synchronous waves of virion release. In addition to HIV-1 transmission by pools of free virus, we found evidence of transmission via virological synapses. Three-dimensional EM imaging of an active infection within tissue revealed important differences between cultured cell and tissue infection models and furthered the ultrastructural understanding

  11. Inhibition of HIV-1 by fusion inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Eggink, Dirk; Berkhout, Ben; Sanders, Rogier W

    2010-01-01

    The envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) is responsible for entry of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into cells by mediating attachment to target cells and subsequent membrane fusion. Env consists of three gp120 subunits that mediate receptor and co-receptor attachment and three gp41 subunits responsible for membrane fusion. Several steps of the entry process can serve as drug targets. Receptor antagonists prevent attachment of gp120 to the receptor or co-receptor and conformational changes within gp41 required for membrane fusion can be inhibited by fusion inhibitors. Enfuvirtide (T20, Fuzeon) is a peptide based on the gp41 sequence and is the only approved fusion inhibitor. It prevents membrane fusion by competitively binding to gp41 and blocking the formation of the post-fusion structure. New generations of T20-like peptides have been developed with improved potency and stability. Besides T20 and derivatives, other fusion inhibitors have been developed that target different domains of gp41. Here we discuss the development of fusion inhibitors, their mode of action and their potential for incorporation in future drug regimens.

  12. Inhibition of HIV-1 gp41 expression with hammerhead ribozymes.

    PubMed

    Fedoruk-Wyszomirska, Agnieszka; Szymański, Maciej; Głodowicz, Paweł; Gabryelska, Marta; Wyszko, Eliza; Estrin, William J; Barciszewski, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Despite great progress in the treatment of AIDS, HIV-1 remains one of the major concerns as a human pathogen. One of the therapeutic strategies against viral infections is the application of catalytic ribonucleic acids (ribozymes) that can significantly reduce expression of a target gene by site-specific hydrolysis of its mRNA. In the present paper, we report a study on the activity of several variants of hammerhead ribozymes targeting a conserved region within mRNA encoding HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp41. On the basis of the data from in vitro assays and gene silencing in the cultured cells, we propose a new hammerhead ribozyme targeting the gp41-encoding sequence that can be potentially used as a therapeutic agent in AIDS treatment. Moreover, we demonstrate that the hydrolytic activity of the ribozyme in the intracellular environment cannot be inferred solely from the results of in vitro experiments.

  13. Obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's effects on food intake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian V; Ren, Pei-Gen; Avsian-Kretchmer, Orna; Luo, Ching-Wei; Rauch, Rami; Klein, Cynthia; Hsueh, Aaron J W

    2005-11-11

    Ghrelin, a circulating appetite-inducing hormone, is derived from a prohormone by posttranslational processing. On the basis of the bioinformatic prediction that another peptide also derived from proghrelin exists, we isolated a hormone from rat stomach and named it obestatin-a contraction of obese, from the Latin "obedere," meaning to devour, and "statin," denoting suppression. Contrary to the appetite-stimulating effects of ghrelin, treatment of rats with obestatin suppressed food intake, inhibited jejunal contraction, and decreased body-weight gain. Obestatin bound to the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR39. Thus, two peptide hormones with opposing action in weight regulation are derived from the same ghrelin gene. After differential modification, these hormones activate distinct receptors.

  14. HSV-1 amplicon vectors elicit polyfunctional T cell responses to HIV-1 Env, and strongly boost responses to an adenovirus prime

    PubMed Central

    Duke, Cindy M.P.; Maguire, Casey A.; Keefer, Michael C.; Federoff, Howard J.; Bowers, William J.; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    HSV-1 amplicon vectors elicit strong T-cell responses to encoded antigens but the qualitative nature of these responses is poorly understood. Antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses to amplicon and adenovirus (rAd5) vectors encoding HIV-1 gp120 were assessed following immunization of mice, by performing intracellular cytokine staining for IFNγ, IL-2 and TNFα, following stimulation of splenocytes with a HIV-1 Env peptide pool. The quality of the primary T-cell response to amplicon and rAd5 vectors was strikingly similar, but there were qualitative differences in responses to amplicon vectors that incorporated different promoters upstream of gp120 - suggesting that promoters can significantly influence immune response quality. When prime-boost combinations were studied, a rAd5 prime and amplicon boost elicited the highest T-cell response. Furthermore, protocols that incorporated a rAd5 prime consistently elicited a greater proportion of polyfunctional CD4+ T-cells - regardless of boost. This suggests that initial priming can shape immune response quality after a boost. Overall, these findings provide insight into effective vector combinations for HIV-1 vaccine development. PMID:17868958

  15. Cloning of DNA sequences encoding foreign peptides and their expression in the K88 pili.

    PubMed Central

    Thiry, G; Clippe, A; Scarcez, T; Petre, J

    1989-01-01

    A genetic system that allows the cloning of a peptide-coding sequence in the Escherichia coli K88ac and K88ad pilin genes and their expression as recombinant pili has been constructed. Two insertion vectors were created by subcloning the pilin genes in a pBR322 plasmid and replacing the coding sequence of two nonconserved clusters by a linker. The K88ac helper genes were subcloned in the compatible pACYC184 plasmid, and expression of pili by bacteria carrying both plasmids occurred by complementation. Two peptide-coding sequences of the influenza hemagglutinin were cloned in both insertion vectors, and recombinant pilins were shown to be assembled in pili. One recombinant pilus was shown to elicit antibodies against the synthetic peptide in immunized rats. The somatostatin-coding sequence was cloned in both vectors and led in one case to detectable pilus production. The fused somatostatin was shown to be recognized by specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Images PMID:2471451

  16. Genomic organization of the gene that encodes the precursor to EGF-related peptides, exogastrula-inducing peptides, of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina.

    PubMed

    Haruguchi, Yoshiko; Horii, Keisuke; Suzuki, Gentaroh; Suyemitsu, Takashi; Ishihara, Katsutoshi; Yamasu, Kyo

    2002-04-12

    Exogastrula-inducing peptides (EGIPs) were identified in embryos of the sea urchin Anthocidaris crassispina as polypeptides with structural similarity to epidermal growth factor (EGF) that severely affect gastrulation of sea urchin embryos to induce exogastrulation. Here we have obtained genomic clones for the EGIP precursor gene (EGIP) and determined its genomic organization. The EGIP gene spans the length of 9 kb in the genome and is composed of seven exons and six introns. Each of the four EGF motifs in the precursor protein is encoded by a single exon, and all the exon boundaries are in phase 1, suggesting that EGIP have been generated during evolution by duplication of an exon encoding a single ancient EGIP sequence. The 5'-flanking sequence of EGIP from -4372 to +194 revealed the presence of multiple repeat sequences including direct and inverted repeats as well as two clusters of GGGG/CCCC elements. The function of the upstream flanking region of EGIP was examined by introducing the gene constructs into embryos in which different regions from the flanking DNA were placed upstream to the GFP reporter gene. Systematic deletion of the upstream DNA revealed the presence of potent enhancer activity between -372 and -210.

  17. HIV-1 Entry Inhibitors: Recent Development and Clinical Use

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Timothy J.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review This review provides an overview of HIV-1 entry inhibitors, with a focus on drugs in the later stages of clinical development. Recent findings Entry of HIV-1 into target cells involves viral attachment, co-receptor binding and fusion. Antiretroviral drugs that interact with each step in the entry process have been developed, but only two are currently approved for clinical use. The small molecule attachment inhibitor BMS-663068 has shown potent antiviral activity in early phase studies, and phase 2b trials are currently underway. The post-attachment inhibitor ibalizumab has shown antiviral activity in phase 1 and 2 trials; further studies, including subcutaneous delivery of drug to healthy individuals, are anticipated. The CCR5 antagonist maraviroc is approved for use in treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients. Cenicriviroc, a small-molecule CCR5 antagonist that also has activity as a CCR2 antagonist, has entered phase 2b studies. No CXCR4 antagonists are currently in clinical trials, but once daily, next-generation injectable peptide fusion inhibitors have entered human trials. Both maraviroc and ibalizumab are being studied for prevention of HIV-1 transmission and/or for use in nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing antiretroviral regimens. Summary Inhibition of HIV-1 entry continues to be a promising target for antiretroviral drug development. PMID:23290628

  18. Mass spectrometric identification, sequence evolution, and intraspecific variability of dimeric peptides encoded by cockroach akh genes.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Sebastian; Predel, Reinhard

    2015-02-01

    Neuropeptides are structurally the most diverse group of messenger molecules of the nervous system. Regarding neuropeptide identification, distribution, function, and evolution, insects are among the best studied invertebrates. Indeed, more than 100 neuropeptides are known from single species. Most of these peptides can easily be identified by direct tissue or cell profiling using MALDI-TOF MS. In these experiments, protein hormones with extensive post-translational modifications such as inter- and intramolecular disulfides are usually missed. It is evident that an exclusion of these bioactive molecules hinders the utilization of direct profiling methods in comprehensive peptidomic analyses. In the current study, we focus on the detection and structural elucidation of homo- and heterodimeric adipokinetic hormone precursor-related peptides (APRPs) of cockroaches. The physiological relevance of these molecules with highly conserved sequences in insects is still uncertain. Sequence similarities with vertebrate growth hormone-releasing factors have been reported, but remarkably, few data regarding APRP processing exist and these data are restricted to locusts. Here, we elucidated sequences of carbamidomethylated APRP monomers of different cockroaches by means of MALDI-TOF MS(2), and we were able to identify a surprisingly large number of APRP sequences, resulting either from intraspecific amino acid substitutions within the APRP sequences or C-terminal truncated APRPs.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of a new cDNA sequence encoding a venom peptide from the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanhong; Luo, Feng; He, Jing; Cao, Zhijian; Miao, Lixia

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been performed on venomous peptides derived from animals. However, little of this research has focused on peptides from centipede venoms. Here, a venom gland cDNA library was successfully constructed for the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans. A new cDNA encoding the precursor of a venom peptide, named SsmTx, was cloned from the venomous gland cDNA library of the centipede S. subspinipes mutilans. The full-length SsmTx cDNA sequence is 465 nt, including a 249 nt ORF, a 45 nt 5' UTR and a 171 nt 3' UTR. There is a signal tail AATAAA 31 nt upstream of the poly (A) tail. The precursor nucleotide sequence of SsmTx encodes a signal peptide of 25 residues and a mature peptide of 57 residues, which is bridged by two pairs of disulfide bonds. SsmTx displays a unique cysteine motif that is completely different from that of other venomous animal toxins. This is the first reported cDNA sequence encoding a venom peptide from the centipede S. subspinipes mutilans.

  20. Nuclear Export Signal Masking Regulates HIV-1 Rev Trafficking and Viral RNA Nuclear Export

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Ryan T.; Aligeti, Mounavya; Pocock, Ginger M.; Higgins, Christina A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1's Rev protein forms a homo-oligomeric adaptor complex linking viral RNAs to the cellular CRM1/Ran-GTP nuclear export machinery through the activity of Rev's prototypical leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES). In this study, we used a functional fluorescently tagged Rev fusion protein as a platform to study the effects of modulating Rev NES identity, number, position, or strength on Rev subcellular trafficking, viral RNA nuclear export, and infectious virion production. We found that Rev activity was remarkably tolerant of diverse NES sequences, including supraphysiological NES (SNES) peptides that otherwise arrest CRM1 transport complexes at nuclear pores. Rev's ability to tolerate a SNES was both position and multimerization dependent, an observation consistent with a model wherein Rev self-association acts to transiently mask the NES peptide(s), thereby biasing Rev's trafficking into the nucleus. Combined imaging and functional assays also indicated that NES masking underpins Rev's well-known tendency to accumulate at the nucleolus, as well as Rev's capacity to activate optimal levels of late viral gene expression. We propose that Rev multimerization and NES masking regulates Rev's trafficking to and retention within the nucleus even prior to RNA binding. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 infects more than 34 million people worldwide causing >1 million deaths per year. Infectious virion production is activated by the essential viral Rev protein that mediates nuclear export of intron-bearing late-stage viral mRNAs. Rev's shuttling into and out of the nucleus is regulated by the antagonistic activities of both a peptide-encoded N-terminal nuclear localization signal and C-terminal nuclear export signal (NES). How Rev and related viral proteins balance strong import and export activities in order to achieve optimal levels of viral gene expression is incompletely understood. We provide evidence that multimerization provides a mechanism by which Rev transiently masks

  1. Cross-Reactive Potential of HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Indian Individuals Against Multiple HIV-1 Potential T Cell Epitope Gag Variants.

    PubMed

    Negi, Neema; Vajpayee, Madhu; Singh, Ravinder; Sharma, Ashutosh; Murugavel, Kailapuri G; Ranga, Udaykumar; Thakar, Madhuri; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Das, Bimal Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Vaccine immunogen with expanded T cell coverage for protection against HIV-1 diversity is the need of the hour. This study was undertaken to examine the ability of T cells to respond to a broad spectrum of potential T cell epitope (PTE) peptides containing variable as well as conserved sequences that would most accurately reflect immune responses to different circulating strains. Set of 320 PTE peptides were pooled in a matrix format that included 40 pools of 32 peptides per pool. These pools were used in interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay for screening and confirmation of HIV-1 PTE Gag-specific T cell immune responses in 34 HIV-1 seropositive Indian individuals. "Deconvolute This" software was used for result analysis. The dominant target in terms of magnitude and breadth of responses was observed to be the p24 subunit of Gag protein. Of the 34 study subjects, 26 (77%) showed a response to p24 PTE Gag peptides, 17 (50%) to p17, and 17 (50%) responded to p15 PTE peptides. The total breadth and magnitude of immune response ranged from 0.75 to 14.50 and 95.02 to 1,103 spot-forming cells/10(6) cells, respectively. Seventy-six peptides located in p24 Gag were targeted by 77% of the study subjects followed by 51 peptides in p17 Gag and 46 peptides in p15 Gag with multiple variants being recognized. Maximum study participants recognized PTE peptide sequence Gag271→285NKIVRMYSPVSILDI located in p24 Gag subunit. T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals can recognize multiple PTE peptide variants, although the magnitude of the responses can vary greatly across these variants.

  2. Lyme Disease-Causing Borrelia Species Encode Multiple Lipoproteins Homologous to Peptide-Binding Proteins of ABC-Type Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kornacki, Jon A.; Oliver, Donald B.

    1998-01-01

    To identify cell envelope proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, we constructed a library of B. burgdorferi genes fused to the Escherichia coli phoA gene, which expresses enzymatically active alkaline phosphatase. One such gene, oppA-1, encodes a predicted polypeptide with significant similarities to various peptide-binding proteins of ABC-type transporters. Immediately downstream of oppA-1 are two genes, oppA-2 and oppA-3, whose predicted polypeptide products show strong similarities in their amino acid sequences to OppA-1, including a sequence that resembles the most highly conserved region in peptide-binding proteins. By labeling with [3H]palmitate, OppA-1, OppA-2, and OppA-3 were shown to be lipoproteins. DNA hybridization analysis showed that the oppA-1 oppA-2 oppA-3 region is located on the linear chromosome of B. burgdorferi, and the genes are conserved among different Borrelia species that cause Lyme disease (B. burgdorferi, B. garinii, and B. afzelli), suggesting that all three homologous genes are important to the maintenance of Lyme disease spirochetes in one or more of their hosts. PMID:9712756

  3. Skin Electroporation of a Plasmid Encoding hCAP-18/LL-37 Host Defense Peptide Promotes Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Steinstraesser, Lars; Lam, Martin C; Jacobsen, Frank; Porporato, Paolo E; Chereddy, Kiran Kumar; Becerikli, Mustafa; Stricker, Ingo; Hancock, Robert EW; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Sonveaux, Pierre; Préat, Véronique; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle

    2014-01-01

    Host defense peptides, in particular LL-37, are emerging as potential therapeutics for promoting wound healing and inhibiting bacterial growth. However, effective delivery of the LL-37 peptide remains limiting. We hypothesized that skin-targeted electroporation of a plasmid encoding hCAP-18/LL-37 would promote the healing of wounds. The plasmid was efficiently delivered to full-thickness skin wounds by electroporation and it induced expression of LL-37 in the epithelium. It significantly accelerated reepithelialization of nondiabetic and diabetic wounds and caused a significant VEGFa and interleukin (IL)-6 induction. IL-6 was involved in LL-37–mediated keratinocyte migration in vitro and IL-6 neutralizing antibodies delivered to mice were able to suppress the wound healing activity of the hCAP-18/LL-37 plasmid. In a hindlimb ischemia model, electroporation of the hCAP-18/LL-37 plasmid increased blood perfusion, reduced muscular atrophy, and upregulated the angiogenic chemokines VEGFa and SDF-1a, and their receptors VEGF-R and CXCR-4. These findings demonstrate that a localized gene therapy with LL-37 is a promising approach for the treatment of wounds. PMID:24394186

  4. In silico prediction of mutant HIV-1 proteases cleaving a target sequence.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jan H; Willemoës, Martin; Winther, Jakob R; De Vico, Luca

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 protease represents an appealing system for directed enzyme re-design, since it has various different endogenous targets, a relatively simple structure and it is well studied. Recently Chaudhury and Gray (Structure (2009) 17: 1636-1648) published a computational algorithm to discern the specificity determining residues of HIV-1 protease. In this paper we present two computational tools aimed at re-designing HIV-1 protease, derived from the algorithm of Chaudhuri and Gray. First, we present an energy-only based methodology to discriminate cleavable and non cleavable peptides for HIV-1 proteases, both wild type and mutant. Secondly, we show an algorithm we developed to predict mutant HIV-1 proteases capable of cleaving a new target substrate peptide, different from the natural targets of HIV-1 protease. The obtained in silico mutant enzymes were analyzed in terms of cleavability and specificity towards the target peptide using the energy-only methodology. We found two mutant proteases as best candidates for specificity and cleavability towards the target sequence.

  5. In Silico Prediction of Mutant HIV-1 Proteases Cleaving a Target Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jan H.; Willemoës, Martin; Winther, Jakob R.; De Vico, Luca

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 protease represents an appealing system for directed enzyme re-design, since it has various different endogenous targets, a relatively simple structure and it is well studied. Recently Chaudhury and Gray (Structure (2009) 17: 1636–1648) published a computational algorithm to discern the specificity determining residues of HIV-1 protease. In this paper we present two computational tools aimed at re-designing HIV-1 protease, derived from the algorithm of Chaudhuri and Gray. First, we present an energy-only based methodology to discriminate cleavable and non cleavable peptides for HIV-1 proteases, both wild type and mutant. Secondly, we show an algorithm we developed to predict mutant HIV-1 proteases capable of cleaving a new target substrate peptide, different from the natural targets of HIV-1 protease. The obtained in silico mutant enzymes were analyzed in terms of cleavability and specificity towards the target peptide using the energy-only methodology. We found two mutant proteases as best candidates for specificity and cleavability towards the target sequence. PMID:24796579

  6. A conditionally replicating HIV-1 vector interferes with wild-type HIV-1 replication and spread.

    PubMed Central

    Dropulić, B; Hĕrmánková, M; Pitha, P M

    1996-01-01

    Defective-interfering viruses are known to modulate virus pathogenicity. We describe conditionally replicating HIV-1 (crHIV) vectors that interfere with wild-type HIV-1 (wt-HIV) replication and spread. crHIV vectors are defective-interfering HIV genomes that do not encode viral proteins and replicate only in the presence of wt-HIV helper virus. In cells that contain both wt-HIV and crHIV genomes, the latter are shown to have a selective advantage for packaging into progeny virions because they contain ribozymes that cleave wt-HIV RNA but not crHIV RNA. A crHIV vector containing a triple anti-U5 ribozyme significantly interferes with wt-HIV replication and spread. crHIV vectors are also shown to undergo the full viral replicative cycle after complementation with wt-HIV helper-virus. The application of defective interfering crHIV vectors may result in competition with wt-HIVs and decrease pathogenic viral loads in vivo. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8855316

  7. Tailored enrichment strategy detects low abundant small noncoding RNAs in HIV-1 infected cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The various classes of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression across divergent types of organisms. While a rapidly increasing number of sncRNAs has been identified over recent years, the isolation of sncRNAs of low abundance remains challenging. Virally encoded sncRNAs, particularly those of RNA viruses, can be expressed at very low levels. This is best illustrated by HIV-1 where virus encoded sncRNAs represent approximately 0.1-1.0% of all sncRNAs in HIV-1 infected cells or were found to be undetected. Thus, we applied a novel, sequence targeted enrichment strategy to capture HIV-1 derived sncRNAs in HIV-1 infected primary CD4+ T-lymphocytes and macrophages that allows a greater than 100-fold enrichment of low abundant sncRNAs. Results Eight hundred and ninety-two individual HIV-1 sncRNAs were cloned and sequenced from nine different sncRNA libraries derived from five independent experiments. These clones represent up to 90% of all sncRNA clones in the generated libraries. Two hundred and sixteen HIV-1 sncRNAs were distinguishable as unique clones. They are spread throughout the HIV-1 genome, however, forming certain clusters, and almost 10% show an antisense orientation. The length of HIV-1 sncRNAs varies between 16 and 89 nucleotides with an unexpected peak at 31 to 50 nucleotides, thus, longer than cellular microRNAs or short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Exemplary HIV-1 sncRNAs were also generated in cells infected with different primary HIV-1 isolates and can inhibit HIV-1 replication. Conclusions HIV-1 infected cells generate virally encoded sncRNAs, which might play a role in the HIV-1 life cycle. Furthermore, the enormous capacity to enrich low abundance sncRNAs in a sequence specific manner highly recommends our selection strategy for any type of investigation where origin or target sequences of the sought-after sncRNAs are known. PMID:22458358

  8. Replication potentials of HIV-1/HSIV in PBMCs from northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina).

    PubMed

    Lei, Ai-Hua; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Tian, Ren-Rong; Zhu, Jia-Wu; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Pang, Wei; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2014-05-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) has been identified as an independent species of Old World monkey, and we previously found that PBMCs from M. leonina were susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), which may be due to the absence of a TRIM5 protein restricting HIV-1 replication. Here we investigated the infection potentials of six laboratory adapted HIV-1 strains and three primary HIV-1 isolates in PBMCs from M. leonina. The results indicate that these strains are characterized by various but low replication levels, and among which, HIV-1NL4-3 shows the highest replication ability. Based on the abundant evidence of species-specific interactions between restriction factors APOBEC3 and HIV/SIV-derived Vif protein, we subsequently examined the replication potentials of vif-substituted HIV-1 (HSIV) in M. leonina PBMCs. Notably, HSIV-vifmac and stHIV-1SV chimeras, two HIV-1NL4-3-derived viruses encoding the viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein from SIVmac239, replicated robustly in cells from M. leonina, which suggests that HSIV could effectively antagonize the antiviral activity of APOBEC3 proteins expressed in cells of M. leonina. Therefore, our data demonstrate that M. leonina has the potential to be developed into a promising animal model for human AIDS.

  9. Replication potentials of HIV-1/HSIV in PBMCs from northern pigtailed macaque (Macaca leonina)

    PubMed Central

    LEI, Ai-Hua; ZHANG, Gao-Hong; TIAN, Ren-Rong; ZHU, Jia-Wu; ZHENG, Hong-Yi; PANG, Wei; ZHENG, Yong-Tang

    2014-01-01

    The northern pig-tailed macaque (Macaca leonina) has been identified as an independent species of Old World monkey, and we previously found that PBMCs from M. leonina were susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), which may be due to the absence of a TRIM5 protein restricting HIV-1 replication. Here we investigated the infection potentials of six laboratory adapted HIV-1 strains and three primary HIV-1 isolates in PBMCs from M. leonina. The results indicate that these strains are characterized by various but low replication levels, and among which, HIV-1NL4-3 shows the highest replication ability. Based on the abundant evidence of species-specific interactions between restriction factors APOBEC3 and HIV/SIV-derived Vif protein, we subsequently examined the replication potentials of vif-substituted HIV-1 (HSIV) in M. leonina PBMCs. Notably, HSIV-vifmac and stHIV-1SV chimeras, two HIV-1NL4-3-derived viruses encoding the viral infectivity factor (Vif) protein from SIVmac239, replicated robustly in cells from M. leonina, which suggests that HSIV could effectively antagonize the antiviral activity of APOBEC3 proteins expressed in cells of M. leonina. Therefore, our data demonstrate that M. leonina has the potential to be developed into a promising animal model for human AIDS. PMID:24866489

  10. Gp120 on HIV-1 Virions Lacks O-Linked Carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Stansell, Elizabeth; Panico, Maria; Canis, Kevin; Pang, Poh-Choo; Bouché, Laura; Binet, Daniel; O'Connor, Michael-John; Chertova, Elena; Bess, Julian; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Haslam, Stuart M; Morris, Howard R; Desrosiers, Ronald C; Dell, Anne

    2015-01-01

    As HIV-1-encoded envelope protein traverses the secretory pathway, it may be modified with N- and O-linked carbohydrate. When the gp120s of HIV-1 NL4-3, HIV-1 YU2, HIV-1 Bal, HIV-1 JRFL, and HIV-1 JRCSF were expressed as secreted proteins, the threonine at consensus position 499 was found to be O-glycosylated. For SIVmac239, the corresponding threonine was also glycosylated when gp120 was recombinantly expressed. Similarly-positioned, highly-conserved threonines in the influenza A virus H1N1 HA1 and H5N1 HA1 envelope proteins were also found to carry O-glycans when expressed as secreted proteins. In all cases, the threonines were modified predominantly with disialylated core 1 glycans, together with related core 1 and core 2 structures. Secreted HIV-1 gp140 was modified to a lesser extent with mainly monosialylated core 1 O-glycans, suggesting that the ectodomain of the gp41 transmembrane component may limit the accessibility of Thr499 to glycosyltransferases. In striking contrast to these findings, gp120 on purified virions of HIV-1 Bal and SIV CP-MAC lacked any detectable O-glycosylation of the C-terminal threonine. Our results indicate the absence of O-linked carbohydrates on Thr499 as it exists on the surface of virions and suggest caution in the interpretation of analyses of post-translational modifications that utilize recombinant forms of envelope protein.

  11. Gp120 on HIV-1 Virions Lacks O-Linked Carbohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Stansell, Elizabeth; Panico, Maria; Canis, Kevin; Pang, Poh-Choo; Bouché, Laura; Binet, Daniel; O'Connor, Michael-John; Chertova, Elena; Bess, Julian; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Morris, Howard R.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.; Dell, Anne

    2015-01-01

    As HIV-1-encoded envelope protein traverses the secretory pathway, it may be modified with N- and O-linked carbohydrate. When the gp120s of HIV-1 NL4-3, HIV-1 YU2, HIV-1 Bal, HIV-1 JRFL, and HIV-1 JRCSF were expressed as secreted proteins, the threonine at consensus position 499 was found to be O-glycosylated. For SIVmac239, the corresponding threonine was also glycosylated when gp120 was recombinantly expressed. Similarly-positioned, highly-conserved threonines in the influenza A virus H1N1 HA1 and H5N1 HA1 envelope proteins were also found to carry O-glycans when expressed as secreted proteins. In all cases, the threonines were modified predominantly with disialylated core 1 glycans, together with related core 1 and core 2 structures. Secreted HIV-1 gp140 was modified to a lesser extent with mainly monosialylated core 1 O-glycans, suggesting that the ectodomain of the gp41 transmembrane component may limit the accessibility of Thr499 to glycosyltransferases. In striking contrast to these findings, gp120 on purified virions of HIV-1 Bal and SIV CP-MAC lacked any detectable O-glycosylation of the C-terminal threonine. Our results indicate the absence of O-linked carbohydrates on Thr499 as it exists on the surface of virions and suggest caution in the interpretation of analyses of post-translational modifications that utilize recombinant forms of envelope protein. PMID:25915761

  12. Expression, purification and characterization of a full-length recombinant HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Njengele, Zikhona; Kleynhans, Ronel; Sayed, Yasien; Mosebi, Salerwe

    2016-12-01

    Vpu is one of four accessory proteins encoded by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1). Vpu modulates the expression of several cellular restriction factors within the HIV-1 infected cell including CD4, CD74, the bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) and NK-T-and-B antigen. The interaction of HIV-1 Vpu with these proteins interferes with the innate immune response directed against HIV-1; thereby promoting viral persistence. The involvement of HIV-1 Vpu in manipulating the cellular environment in ways that favor viral replication makes it an attractive target for anti-HIV drug intervention. This paper describes the over-expression and purification of a soluble HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies by ion-exchange chromatography, allowing production of 6 mg of highly purified protein (>95% purity) per 10 mg of pelleted cells obtained from 1 L of bacterial culture. Far-UV circular dichroism showed that the recombinant protein is folded and retained its secondary structure. Moreover, using ELISA, known HIV-1 Vpu binding partners, BST-2 and CD74, showed that the refolded purified protein is functional or at least assumes a conformation that is capable of binding these putative binding partners. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the purification and successful solubilization of full-length, wild-type HIV-1 Vpu from inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DDX3 RNA helicase is required for HIV-1 Tat function.

    PubMed

    Yasuda-Inoue, Mariko; Kuroki, Misao; Ariumi, Yasuo

    2013-11-22

    Host RNA helicase has been involved in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication, since HIV-1 does not encode an RNA helicase. Indeed, DDX1 and DDX3 DEAD-box RNA helicases are known to be required for efficient HIV-1 Rev-dependent RNA export. However, it remains unclear whether DDX RNA helicases modulate the HIV-1 Tat function. In this study, we demonstrate, for the first time, that DDX3 is required for the HIV-1 Tat function. Notably, DDX3 colocalized and interacted with HIV-1 Tat in cytoplasmic foci. Indeed, DDX3 localized in the cytoplasmic foci P-bodies or stress granules under stress condition after the treatment with arsenite. Importantly, only DDX3 enhanced the Tat function, while various distinct DEAD-box RNA helicases including DDX1, DDX3, DDX5, DDX17, DDX21, and DDX56, stimulated the HIV-1 Rev-dependent RNA export function, indicating a specific role of DDX3 in Tat function. Indeed, the ATPase-dependent RNA helicase activity of DDX3 seemed to be required for the Tat function as well as the colocalization with Tat. Furthermore, the combination of DDX3 with other distinct DDX RNA helicases cooperated to stimulate the Rev but not Tat function. Thus, DDX3 seems to interact with the HIV-1 Tat and facilitate the Tat function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Control of the transcription of a short gene encoding a cyclic peptide in Streptococcus thermophilus: a new quorum-sensing system?

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mariam; Guillot, Alain; Wessner, Francoise; Algaron, Florence; Besset, Colette; Courtin, Pascal; Gardan, Rozenn; Monnet, Véronique

    2007-12-01

    Gram-positive bacteria secrete a variety of peptides that are often subjected to posttranslational modifications and that are either antimicrobials or pheromones involved in bacterial communication. Our objective was to identify peptides secreted by Streptococcus thermophilus, a nonpathogenic bacterium widely used in dairy technology in association with other bacteria, and to understand their potential roles in cell-cell communication. Using reverse-phase liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and Edman sequencing, we analyzed the culture supernatants of three S. thermophilus strains (CNRZ1066, LMG18311, and LMD-9) grown in a medium containing no peptides. We identified several peptides in the culture supernatants, some of them found with the three strains while others were specific to the LMD-9 strain. We focused our study on a new modified peptide secreted by S. thermophilus LMD-9 and designated Pep1357C. This peptide contains 9 amino acids and lost 2 Da in a posttranslational modification, most probably a dehydrogenation, leading to a linkage between the Lys2 and Trp6 residues. Production of Pep1357C and transcription of its encoding gene depend on both the medium composition and the growth phase. Furthermore, we demonstrated that transcription of the gene coding for Pep1357C is drastically decreased in mutants inactivated for the synthesis of a short hydrophobic peptide, a transcriptional regulator, or the oligopeptide transport system. Taken together, our results led us to deduce that the transcription of the Pep1357C-encoding gene is controlled by a new quorum-sensing system.

  15. The natriuretic peptide/helokinestatin precursor from Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum) venom: Amino acid sequence deduced from cloned cDNA and identification of two novel encoded helokinestatins.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chengbang; Yang, Mu; Zhou, Mei; Wu, Yuxin; Wang, Lei; Chen, Tianbao; Ding, Anwei; Shaw, Chris

    2011-06-01

    Natriuretic peptides are common components of reptile venoms and molecular cloning of their biosynthetic precursors has revealed that in snakes, they co-encode bradykinin-potentiating peptides and in venomous lizards, some co-encode bradykinin inhibitory peptides such as the helokinestatins. The common natriuretic peptide/helokinestatin precursor of the Gila Monster, Heloderma suspectum, encodes five helokinestatins of differing primary structures. Here we report the molecular cloning of a natriuretic peptide/helokinestatin precursor cDNA from a venom-derived cDNA library of the Mexican beaded lizard (Heloderma horridum). Deduction of the primary structure of the encoded precursor protein from this cloned cDNA template revealed that it consisted of 196 amino acid residues encoding a single natriuretic peptide and five helokinestatins. While the natriuretic peptide was of identical primary structure to its Gila Monster (H. suspectum) homolog, the encoded helokinestatins were not, with this region of the common precursor displaying some significant differences to its H. suspectum homolog. The helokinestatin-encoding region contained a single copy of helokinestatin-1, 2 copies of helokinestatin-3 and single copies of 2 novel peptides, (Phe)(5)-helokinestatin-2 (VPPAFVPLVPR) and helokinestatin-6 (GPPFNPPPFVDYEPR). All predicted peptides were found in reverse phase HPLC fractions of the same venom. Synthetic replicates of both novel helokinestatins were found to antagonize the relaxing effect of bradykinin on rat tail artery smooth muscle. Thus lizard venom continues to provide a source of novel biologically active peptides. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. A Turquoise Mutant Genetically Separates Expression of Genes Encoding Phycoerythrin and Its Associated Linker Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Seib, Laura Ort; Kehoe, David M.

    2002-01-01

    During complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA), cyanobacterial light harvesting structures called phycobilisomes are restructured in response to ambient light quality shifts. Transcription of genes encoding components of the phycobilisome is differentially regulated during this process: red light activates cpcB2A2, whereas green light coordinately activates the cpeCDE and cpeBA operons. Three signal transduction components that regulate CCA have been isolated to date: a sensor-photoreceptor (RcaE) and two response regulators (RcaF and RcaC). Mutations in the genes encoding these components affect the accumulation of both cpcB2A2 and cpeBA gene products. We have isolated and characterized a new pigmentation mutant called Turquoise 1. We demonstrate that this mutant phenotype is due to a dramatic decrease in cpeBA transcript abundance and results from a lesion in the cpeR gene. However, in this mutant cpeCDE RNA levels remain near those found in wild-type cells. Our results show that the coordinate regulation of cpeBA and cpeCDE by green light can be uncoupled by the loss of CpeR, and we furnish the first genetic evidence that different regulatory mechanisms control these two operons. Sequence analysis of CpeR reveals that it shares limited sequence similarity to members of the PP2C class of protein serine/threonine phosphatases. We also demonstrate that cpeBA and cpeCDE retain light quality responsiveness in a mutant lacking the RcaE photoreceptor. This provides compelling evidence for the partial control of CCA through an as-yet-uncharacterized second light quality sensing system. PMID:11807056

  17. A turquoise mutant genetically separates expression of genes encoding phycoerythrin and its associated linker peptides.

    PubMed

    Seib, Laura Ort; Kehoe, David M

    2002-02-01

    During complementary chromatic adaptation (CCA), cyanobacterial light harvesting structures called phycobilisomes are restructured in response to ambient light quality shifts. Transcription of genes encoding components of the phycobilisome is differentially regulated during this process: red light activates cpcB2A2, whereas green light coordinately activates the cpeCDE and cpeBA operons. Three signal transduction components that regulate CCA have been isolated to date: a sensor-photoreceptor (RcaE) and two response regulators (RcaF and RcaC). Mutations in the genes encoding these components affect the accumulation of both cpcB2A2 and cpeBA gene products. We have isolated and characterized a new pigmentation mutant called Turquoise 1. We demonstrate that this mutant phenotype is due to a dramatic decrease in cpeBA transcript abundance and results from a lesion in the cpeR gene. However, in this mutant cpeCDE RNA levels remain near those found in wild-type cells. Our results show that the coordinate regulation of cpeBA and cpeCDE by green light can be uncoupled by the loss of CpeR, and we furnish the first genetic evidence that different regulatory mechanisms control these two operons. Sequence analysis of CpeR reveals that it shares limited sequence similarity to members of the PP2C class of protein serine/threonine phosphatases. We also demonstrate that cpeBA and cpeCDE retain light quality responsiveness in a mutant lacking the RcaE photoreceptor. This provides compelling evidence for the partial control of CCA through an as-yet-uncharacterized second light quality sensing system.

  18. Macrophages and HIV-1: An Unhealthy Constellation.

    PubMed

    Sattentau, Quentin J; Stevenson, Mario

    2016-03-09

    Lentiviruses have a long-documented association with macrophages. Abundant evidence exists for in vitro and, in a tissue-specific manner, in vivo infection of macrophages by the primate lentiviruses HIV-1 and SIV. However, macrophage contribution to aspects of HIV-1 and SIV pathogenesis, and their role in viral persistence in individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy, remains unclear. Here we discuss recent evidence implicating macrophages in HIV-1-mediated disease and highlight directions for further investigation.

  19. Identification of a human protein-derived HIV-1 fusion inhibitor targeting the gp41 fusion core structure.

    PubMed

    Chao, Lijun; Lu, Lu; Yang, Hengwen; Zhu, Yun; Li, Yuan; Wang, Qian; Yu, Xiaowen; Jiang, Shibo; Chen, Ying-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp41 plays a crucial role in the viral fusion process. The peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) of gp41 are potent HIV fusion inhibitors. However, the activity of these anti-HIV-1 peptides in vivo may be attenuated by their induction of anti-gp41 antibodies. Thus, it is essential to identify antiviral peptides or proteins with low, or no, immunogenicity to humans. Here, we found that the C-terminal fragment (aa 462-521) of the human POB1 (the partner of RalBP1), designated C60, is an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor. It bound to N36, the peptide derived from the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) of gp41, and to the six-helix bundle (6-HB) formed by N36 and C34, a CHR-peptide, but it did not bind to C34. Unlike the CHR-peptides, C60 did not block gp41 6-HB formation. Rather, results suggest that C60 inhibits HIV-1 fusion by binding to the 6-HB, in particular, the residues in the gp41 NHR domain that are exposed on the surface of 6-HB. Since 6-HB plays a crucial role in the late stage of fusion between the viral envelope and endosomal membrane during the endocytic process of HIV-1, C60 may serve as a host restriction factor to suppress HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T lymphocytes. Taken together, it can be concluded from these results that C60 can be used as a lead for the development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutics or microbicides for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection, as well as a molecular probe to study the fusogenic mechanism of HIV-1.

  20. Therapeutic doses of irradiation activate viral transcription and induce apoptosis in HIV-1 infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Iordanskiy, Sergey; Van Duyne, Rachel; Sampey, Gavin C; Woodson, Caitlin M; Fry, Kelsi; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao; Romerio, Fabio; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2015-01-01

    The highly active antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV-1 RNA in plasma to undetectable levels. However, the virus continues to persist in the long-lived resting CD4+ T cells, macrophages and astrocytes which form a viral reservoir in infected individuals. Reactivation of viral transcription is critical since the host immune response in combination with antiretroviral therapy may eradicate the virus. Using the chronically HIV-1 infected T lymphoblastoid and monocytic cell lines, primary quiescent CD4+ T cells and humanized mice infected with dual-tropic HIV-1 89.6, we examined the effect of various X-ray irradiation (IR) doses (used for HIV-related lymphoma treatment and lower doses) on HIV-1 transcription and viability of infected cells. Treatment of both T cells and monocytes with IR, a well-defined stress signal, led to increase of HIV-1 transcription, as evidenced by the presence of RNA polymerase II and reduction of HDAC1 and methyl transferase SUV39H1 on the HIV-1 promoter. This correlated with the increased GFP signal and elevated level of intracellular HIV-1 RNA in the IR-treated quiescent CD4+ T cells infected with GFP-encoding HIV-1. Exposition of latently HIV-1infected monocytes treated with PKC agonist bryostatin 1 to IR enhanced transcription activation effect of this latency-reversing agent. Increased HIV-1 replication after IR correlated with higher cell death: the level of phosphorylated Ser46 in p53, responsible for apoptosis induction, was markedly higher in the HIV-1 infected cells following IR treatment. Exposure of HIV-1 infected humanized mice with undetectable viral RNA level to IR resulted in a significant increase of HIV-1 RNA in plasma, lung and brain tissues. Collectively, these data point to the use of low to moderate dose of IR alone or in combination with HIV-1 transcription activators as a potential application for the “Shock and Kill” strategy for latently HIV-1 infected cells. PMID:26184775

  1. Comprehensive epitope analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific T-cell responses directed against the entire expressed HIV-1 genome demonstrate broadly directed responses, but no correlation to viral load.

    PubMed

    Addo, M M; Yu, X G; Rathod, A; Cohen, D; Eldridge, R L; Strick, D; Johnston, M N; Corcoran, C; Wurcel, A G; Fitzpatrick, C A; Feeney, M E; Rodriguez, W R; Basgoz, N; Draenert, R; Stone, David R; Brander, C; Goulder, P J R; Rosenberg, E S; Altfeld, M; Walker, B D

    2003-02-01

    Cellular immune responses play a critical role in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); however, the breadth of these responses at the single-epitope level has not been comprehensively assessed. We therefore screened peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 57 individuals at different stages of HIV-1 infection for virus-specific T-cell responses using a matrix of 504 overlapping peptides spanning all expressed HIV-1 proteins in a gamma interferon-enzyme-linked immunospot (Elispot) assay. HIV-1-specific T-cell responses were detectable in all study subjects, with a median of 14 individual epitopic regions targeted per person (range, 2 to 42), and all 14 HIV-1 protein subunits were recognized. HIV-1 p24-Gag and Nef contained the highest epitope density and were also the most frequently recognized HIV-1 proteins. The total magnitude of the HIV-1-specific response ranged from 280 to 25,860 spot-forming cells (SFC)/10(6) PBMC (median, 4,245) among all study participants. However, the number of epitopic regions targeted, the protein subunits recognized, and the total magnitude of HIV-1-specific responses varied significantly among the tested individuals, with the strongest and broadest responses detectable in individuals with untreated chronic HIV-1 infection. Neither the breadth nor the magnitude of the total HIV-1-specific CD8+-T-cell responses correlated with plasma viral load. We conclude that a peptide matrix-based Elispot assay allows for rapid, sensitive, specific, and efficient assessment of cellular immune responses directed against the entire expressed HIV-1 genome. These data also suggest that the impact of T-cell responses on control of viral replication cannot be explained by the mere quantification of the magnitude and breadth of the CD8+-T-cell response, even if a comprehensive pan-genome screening approach is applied.

  2. Willingness of Kenyan HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to use antiretroviral based HIV-1 prevention strategies

    PubMed Central

    Heffron, Renee; Ngure, Kenneth; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Kurth, Ann; Curran, Kathryn; Baeten, Jared M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Antiretroviral treatment (ART) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have demonstrated efficacy as new HIV-1 prevention approaches for HIV-1 serodiscordant couples. Methods Among Kenyan HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples participating in a clinical trial of PrEP, we conducted a cross-sectional study and used descriptive statistical methods to explore couples' willingness to use antiretrovirals for HIV-1 prevention. The study was conducted prior to July 2011, when studies among heterosexual populations reported that ART and PrEP reduced HIV-1 risk. Results For 181 couples in which the HIV-1 infected partner had a CD4 count ≥350 cells/μL and had not yet initiated ART (and thus did not qualify for ART under Kenyan guidelines), 60.2% of HIV-1 infected partners (69.4% of men and 57.9% of women) were willing to use early ART (at CD4 ≥350 cells/μL) for HIV-1 prevention. Among HIV-1 uninfected partners, 92.7% (93.8% of men and 86.1% of women) reported willingness to use PrEP. When given a hypothetical choice of early ART or PrEP for HIV-1 prevention, 52.5% of HIV-1 infected participants would prefer to initiate ART early and 56.9% of HIV-1 uninfected participants would prefer to use PrEP. Conclusions Nearly 40% of Kenyan HIV-1 infected individuals in known HIV-1 serodiscordant partnerships reported reservations about early ART initiation for HIV-1 prevention. PrEP interest in this PrEP-experienced population was high. Strategies to achieve high uptake and sustained adherence to ART and PrEP for HIV-1 prevention in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples will require responding to couples' preferences for prevention strategies. PMID:22595872

  3. The HIV-1 epidemic in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Puren, A J

    2002-01-01

    The first reported cases of HIV-1 infection in South Africa occurred in 1982. Two distinct HIV-1 epidemic patterns were recognized. Initially the infection was prevalent in white males who had sex with males. The HIV-1 clade B was associated with this group. By 1989, the second epidemic was recognized primarily in the black population. Infections in this case were mainly heterosexual in origin. The HIV-1 clade involved was mainly C. The national HIV-1 sero-prevalence in antenatal attendees was less than 1% in 1990 and by 1994 this figure had risen to 7.5%. The most recent antenatal surveillance for HIV-1 sero-prevalence in 1999 revealed the following. The national prevalence rate for 1999 was 22.4% compared with the 1998 rate of 22.8%. The data highlighted the profound effect the epidemic had and will have on the disease burden in South Africa and by extension on the social and economic fronts. This view was emphasised by the impact HIV-1 infection had on tuberculosis. For example, sentinel surveys have attributed 44% of tuberculosis cases to HIV-1 infection. Moreover, the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections will certainly exacerbate the HIV-1 epidemic.

  4. HIV-1 Nef-associated Factor 1 Enhances Viral Production by Interacting with CRM1 to Promote Nuclear Export of Unspliced HIV-1 gag mRNA.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiao-Xin; Wang, Hai-Bo; Li, Chuan; Jiang, Jin-Feng; Xiong, Si-Dong; Jin, Xia; Wu, Li; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2016-02-26

    HIV-1 depends on host-cell-encoded factors to complete its life cycle. A comprehensive understanding of how HIV-1 manipulates host machineries during viral infection can facilitate the identification of host targets for antiviral drugs or gene therapy. The cellular protein Naf1 (HIV-1 Nef-associated factor 1) is a CRM1-dependent nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein, and has been identified to regulate multiple receptor-mediated signal pathways in inflammation. The cytoplasm-located Naf1 can inhibit NF-κB activation through binding to A20, and the loss of Naf1 controlled NF-κB activation is associated with multiple autoimmune diseases. However, the effect of Naf1 on HIV-1 mRNA expression has not been characterized. In this study we found that the nucleus-located Naf1 could promote nuclear export of unspliced HIV-1 gag mRNA. We demonstrated that the association between Naf1 and CRM1 was required for this function as the inhibition or knockdown of CRM1 expression significantly impaired Naf1-promoted HIV-1 production. The mutation of Naf1 nuclear export signals (NESs) that account for CRM1 recruitment for nuclear export decreased Naf1 function. Additionally, the mutation of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of Naf1 diminished its ability to promote HIV-1 production, demonstrating that the shuttling property of Naf1 is required for this function. Our results reveal a novel role of Naf1 in enhancing HIV-1 production, and provide a potential therapeutic target for controlling HIV-1 infection. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Combinatorial RNAi Against HIV-1 Using Extended Short Hairpin RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying Poi; von Eije, Karin Jasmijn; Schopman, Nick CT; Westerink, Jan-Tinus; Brake, Olivier ter; Haasnoot, Joost; Berkhout, Ben

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a widely used gene suppression tool that holds great promise as a novel antiviral approach. However, for error-prone viruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1), a combinatorial approach against multiple conserved sequences is required to prevent the emergence of RNAi-resistant escape viruses. Previously, we constructed extended short hairpin RNAs (e-shRNAs) that encode two potent small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) (e2-shRNAs). We showed that a minimal hairpin stem length of 43 base pairs (bp) is needed to obtain two functional siRNAs. In this study, we elaborated on the e2-shRNA design to make e-shRNAs encoding three or four antiviral siRNAs. We demonstrate that siRNA production and the antiviral effect is optimal for e3-shRNA of 66 bp. Further extension of the hairpin stem results in a loss of RNAi activity. The same was observed for long hairpin RNAs (lhRNAs) that target consecutive HIV-1 sequences. Importantly, we show that HIV-1 replication is durably inhibited in T cells stably transduced with a lentiviral vector containing the e3-shRNA expression cassette. These results show that e-shRNAs can be used as a combinatorial RNAi approach to target error-prone viruses. PMID:19672247

  6. An efficient procedure for the expression and purification of HIV-1 protease from inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hong-Loan Thi; Nguyen, Thuy Thi; Vu, Quy Thi; Le, Hang Thi; Pham, Yen; Trinh, Phuong Le; Bui, Thuan Phuong; Phan, Tuan-Nghia

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have focused on HIV-1 protease for developing drugs for treating AIDS. Recombinant HIV-1 protease is used to screen new drugs from synthetic compounds or natural substances. However, large-scale expression and purification of this enzyme is difficult mainly because of its low expression and solubility. In this study, we constructed 9 recombinant plasmids containing a sequence encoding HIV-1 protease along with different fusion tags and examined the expression of the enzyme from these plasmids. Of the 9 plasmids, pET32a(+) plasmid containing the HIV-1 protease-encoding sequence along with sequences encoding an autocleavage site GTVSFNF at the N-terminus and TEV plus 6× His tag at the C-terminus showed the highest expression of the enzyme and was selected for further analysis. The recombinant protein was isolated from inclusion bodies by using 2 tandem Q- and Ni-Sepharose columns. SDS-PAGE of the obtained HIV-1 protease produced a single band of approximately 13 kDa. The enzyme was recovered efficiently (4 mg protein/L of cell culture) and had high specific activity of 1190 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) at an optimal pH of 4.7 and optimal temperature of 37 °C. This procedure for expressing and purifying HIV-1 protease is now being scaled up to produce the enzyme on a large scale for its application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cytopathic Mechanisms of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Costin, Joshua M

    2007-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been intensely investigated since its discovery in 1983 as the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). With relatively few proteins made by the virus, it is able to accomplish many tasks, with each protein serving multiple functions. The Envelope glycoprotein, composed of the two noncovalently linked subunits, SU (surface glycoprotein) and TM (transmembrane glycoprotein) is largely responsible for host cell recognition and entry respectively. While the roles of the N-terminal residues of TM is well established as a fusion pore and anchor for Env into cell membranes, the role of the C-terminus of the protein is not well understood and is fiercely debated. This review gathers information on TM in an attempt to shed some light on the functional regions of this protein. PMID:17945027

  8. Cytopathic mechanisms of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Costin, Joshua M

    2007-10-18

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been intensely investigated since its discovery in 1983 as the cause of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). With relatively few proteins made by the virus, it is able to accomplish many tasks, with each protein serving multiple functions. The Envelope glycoprotein, composed of the two noncovalently linked subunits, SU (surface glycoprotein) and TM (transmembrane glycoprotein) is largely responsible for host cell recognition and entry respectively. While the roles of the N-terminal residues of TM is well established as a fusion pore and anchor for Env into cell membranes, the role of the C-terminus of the protein is not well understood and is fiercely debated. This review gathers information on TM in an attempt to shed some light on the functional regions of this protein.

  9. Modulation of innate and adaptive cellular immunity relevant to HIV-1 vaccine design by seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Selva, Kevin J; Kent, Stephen J; Parsons, Matthew S

    2017-01-28

    Mucosal exposure to HIV-1 infection generally occurs in the presence of semen. Immunomodulation by seminal plasma is well described in the reproductive biology literature. Little is known, however, about the impact of seminal plasma on innate and adaptive anti-HIV-1 cellular immunity. The study investigated the effects of seminal plasma on immune responses considered important for prophylactic HIV-1 vaccine development, namely innate and adaptive cellular immunity mediated by natural killer (NK) cells and T cells, respectively. The ability of seminal plasma to modulate direct, antibody-dependent and cytokine-stimulated NK cell activation was assessed utilizing intracellular cytokine staining. Direct and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity was assessed using lactate dehydrogenase release assays. The effects of seminal plasma on T-cell activation upon stimulation with staphylococcus enterotoxin B or HIV-1 Gag peptides were assessed by intracellular cytokine staining. The impact of seminal plasma on redirected cytolysis mediated by T cells was measured using lactate dehydrogenase release assays. Both direct and antibody-dependent NK cell activation were dramatically impaired by the presence of either HIV-1-uninfected or HIV-1-infected seminal plasma in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, seminal plasma suppressed both direct and antibody-dependent NK cell-mediated cytolysis, including anti-HIV-1 antibody-dependent cytolysis of gp120-pulsed CEM.NKr-CCR5 cells. Finally, seminal plasma attenuated both HIV-1 Gag-specific and staphylococcus enterotoxin B-induced CTL activation. Semen contains potent immunosuppressors of both NK cell and CD8 T-cell-mediated anti-HIV-1 immune responses. This could impede attempts to provide vaccine-induced immunity to HIV-1.

  10. Allosteric induction of the CD4-bound conformation of HIV-1 Gp120

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-1 infection of target cells is mediated via the binding of the viral envelope protein, gp120, to the cell surface receptor CD4. This interaction leads to conformational rearrangements in gp120 forming or revealing CD4 induced (CD4i) epitopes which are critical for the subsequent recognition of the co-receptor required for viral entry. The CD4-bound state of gp120 has been considered a potential immunogen for HIV-1 vaccine development. Here we report on an alternative means to induce gp120 into the CD4i conformation. Results Combinatorial phage display peptide libraries were screened against HIV-1 gp120 and short (14aa) peptides were selected that bind the viral envelope and allosterically induce the CD4i conformation. The lead peptide was subsequently systematically optimized for higher affinity as well as more efficient inductive activity. The peptide:gp120 complex was scrutinized with a panel of neutralizing anti-gp120 monoclonal antibodies and CD4 itself, illustrating that peptide binding does not interfere with or obscure the CD4 binding site. Conclusions Two surfaces of gp120 are considered targets for the development of cross neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1; the CD4 binding site and CD4i epitopes. By implementing novel peptides that allosterically induce the CD4i epitopes we have generated a viral envelope that presents both of these surfaces simultaneously. PMID:24304511

  11. Genes encoding 4-Cys antimicrobial peptides in wheat Triticum kiharae Dorof. et Migush.: multimodular structural organization, instraspecific variability, distribution and role in defence.

    PubMed

    Utkina, Lyubov L; Andreev, Yaroslav A; Rogozhin, Eugene A; Korostyleva, Tatyana V; Slavokhotova, Anna A; Oparin, Peter B; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Grishin, Eugene V; Egorov, Tsezi A; Odintsova, Tatyana I

    2013-08-01

    A novel family of antifungal peptides was discovered in the wheat Triticum kiharae Dorof. et Migusch. Two members of the family, designated Tk-AMP-X1 and Tk-AMP-X2, were completely sequenced and shown to belong to the α-hairpinin structural family of plant peptides with a characteristic C1XXXC2-X(n)-C3XXXC4 motif. The peptides inhibit the spore germination of several fungal pathogens in vitro. cDNA and gene cloning disclosed unique structure of genes encoding Tk-AMP-X peptides. They code for precursor proteins of unusual multimodular structure, consisting of a signal peptide, several α-hairpinin (4-Cys) peptide domains with a characteristic cysteine pattern separated by linkers and a C-terminal prodomain. Three types of precursor proteins, with five, six or seven 4-Cys peptide modules, were found in wheat. Among the predicted family members, several peptides previously isolated from T. kiharae seeds were identified. Genes encoding Tk-AMP-X precursors have no introns in the protein-coding regions and are upregulated by fungal pathogens and abiotic stress, providing conclusive evidence for their role in stress response. A combined PCR-based and bioinformatics approach was used to search for related genes in the plant kingdom. Homologous genes differing in the number of peptide modules were discovered in phylogenetically-related Triticum and Aegilops species, including polyploid wheat genome donors. Association of the Tk-AMP-X genes with A, B/G or D genomes of hexaploid wheat was demonstrated. Furthermore, Tk-AMP-X-related sequences were shown to be widespread in the Poaceae family among economically important crops, such as barley, rice and maize. © 2013 FEBS.

  12. Breast milk transmission of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Nduati, R; John, G

    1995-12-01

    Breast milk provides infants and children immunologic, nutritional, and child spacing benefits. Yet it also transmits some viruses, for example, HIV-1. The World Health Organization recommends that, in conditions with poor access to breast milk substitutes, HIV-positive women should still breast feed due to the nutritional and infectious risk of artificial feeding. It appears that breast fed infants experience a slower progression of AIDS and death. Vertical transmission of HIV-1 may occur during pregnancy, at delivery, or through breast milk. The HIV-1 transmission rate via breast milk from acutely infected women is estimated to be 29-36%. A meta-analysis of case reports and small case series of women with chronic HIV-1 infection indicated a breast feeding transmission rate of 14%. Studies suggest that the likelihood of HIV-1 transmission via breast milk increases as duration of breast feeding increases. Infants with detectable HIV-1 DNA tend to have mothers whose absolute CD4 counts are less than 400 and have severe vitamin A deficiency. Breast milk has HIV-1 specific immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, and IgM). It appears that HIV-1 elicits a local immune response. Breast milk of HIV-1 positive mothers with non-infected children tends to still have IgM and IgA until 18 months. Potential risk factors for breast milk transmission of HIV-1 include cracked nipples and mastitis in the mother; oral thrush, malnutrition, inflammation of the lips, and mucosal compromise in the infant; and vigorous suction of the neonate and use of the wrong equipment for suctioning. Inhibiting factors of HIV-1 in breast milk are bovine and human lactoferrin and a membrane associated protein that attaches to the CD4 receptor and thus prevents attachment of the HIV antigen gp120 to the CD4 receptor on T-cells.

  13. HIV-1 protease-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is one of the presumptive causes of CD4+ T cell depletion during HIV infection and progression to AIDS. However, the precise role of HIV-1 in this process remains unexplained. HIV-1 protease (PR) has been suggested as a possible factor, but a direct link between HIV-1 PR enzymatic activity and apoptosis has not been established. Results Here, we show that expression of active HIV-1 PR induces death in HeLa and HEK-293 cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This conclusion is based on in vivo observations of the direct localization of HIV-1 PR in mitochondria, a key player in triggering apoptosis. Moreover, we observed an HIV-1 PR concentration-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and the role of HIV-1 PR in activation of caspase 9, PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. In addition, in vitro data demonstrated that HIV-1 PR mediates cleavage of mitochondrial proteins Tom22, VDAC and ANT, leading to release of AIF and Hsp60 proteins. By using yeast two-hybrid screening, we also identified a new HIV-1 PR interaction partner, breast carcinoma-associated protein 3 (BCA3). We found that BCA3 accelerates p53 transcriptional activity on the bax promoter, thus elevating the cellular level of pro-apoptotic Bax protein. Conclusion In summary, our results describe the involvement of HIV-1 PR in apoptosis, which is caused either by a direct effect of HIV-1 PR on mitochondrial membrane integrity or by its interaction with cellular protein BCA3. PMID:24886575

  14. Quantifying Ongoing HIV-1 Exposure in HIV-1–Serodiscordant Couples to Identify Individuals With Potential Host Resistance to HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Mackelprang, Romel D.; Baeten, Jared M.; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Farquhar, Carey; de Bruyn, Guy; Essex, Max; McElrath, M. Juliana; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Lingappa, Jairam R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Immunogenetic correlates of resistance to HIV-1 in HIV-1–exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals with consistently high exposure may inform HIV-1 prevention strategies. We developed a novel approach for quantifying HIV-1 exposure to identify individuals remaining HIV-1 uninfected despite persistent high exposure. Methods. We used longitudinal predictors of HIV-1 transmission in HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to score HIV-1 exposure and define HESN clusters with persistently high, low, and decreasing risk trajectories. The model was validated in an independent cohort of serodiscordant couples. We describe a statistical tool that can be applied to other HESN cohorts to identify individuals with high exposure to HIV-1. Results. HIV-1 exposure was best quantified by frequency of unprotected sex with, plasma HIV-1 RNA levels among, and presence of genital ulcer disease among HIV-1–infected partners and by age, pregnancy status, herpes simplex virus 2 serostatus, and male circumcision status among HESN participants. Overall, 14% of HESN individuals persistently had high HIV-1 exposure and exhibited a declining incidence of HIV-1 infection over time. Conclusions. A minority of HESN individuals from HIV-1–discordant couples had persistent high HIV-1 exposure over time. Decreasing incidence of infection in this group suggests these individuals were selected for resistance to HIV-1 and may be most appropriate for identifying biological correlates of natural host resistance to HIV-1 infection. PMID:22926009

  15. Ectopic expression of anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD8(+) T cells modified with CD4ζ CAR from HIV-1 infection and alleviates impairment of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Masakazu; Kim, Patrick Y; Ng, Hwee L; Ringpis, Gene-Errol E; Kranz, Emiko; Chan, Joshua; O'Connor, Sean; Yang, Otto O; Chen, Irvin S Y

    2015-07-31

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are artificially engineered receptors that confer a desired specificity to immune effector T cells. As an HIV-1-specific CAR, CD4ζ CAR has been extensively tested in vitro as well as in clinical trials. T cells modified with this CAR mediated highly potent anti-HIV-1 activities in vitro and were well-tolerated in vivo, but exerted limited effects on viral load and reservoir size due to poor survival and/or functionality of the transduced cells in patients. We hypothesize that ectopic expression of CD4ζ on CD8(+) T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection, resulting in poor survival of those cells. To test this possibility, highly purified CD8(+) T cells were genetically modified with a CD4ζ-encoding lentiviral vector and infected with HIV-1. CD8(+) T cells were vulnerable to HIV-1 infection upon expression of CD4ζ as evidenced by elevated levels of p24(Gag) in cells and culture supernatants. Concurrently, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8(+) T cells was reduced relative to control cells upon HIV-1 infection. To protect these cells from HIV-1 infection, we co-expressed two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs previously developed by our group together with CD4ζ. This combination vector was able to suppress HIV-1 infection without impairing HIV-1-dependent effector activities of CD4ζ. In addition, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8(+) T cells maintained similar levels to that of the control even under HIV-1 infection. These results suggest that protecting CD4ζ-modified CD8(+) T cells from HIV-1 infection is required for prolonged HIV-1-specific immune surveillance.

  16. Conserved hydrogen bonds and water molecules in MDR HIV-1 protease substrate complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yong; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Dewdney, Tamaria G.; Reiter, Samuel J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Kovari, Iulia A.; Kovari, Ladislau C.

    2012-12-19

    Success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in anti-HIV therapy is severely compromised by the rapidly developing drug resistance. HIV-1 protease inhibitors, part of HAART, are losing their potency and efficacy in inhibiting the target. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) 769 HIV-1 protease (resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84, 90) was selected for the present study to understand the binding to its natural substrates. The nine crystal structures of MDR769 HIV-1 protease substrate hepta-peptide complexes were analyzed in order to reveal the conserved structural elements for the purpose of drug design against MDR HIV-1 protease. Our structural studies demonstrated that highly conserved hydrogen bonds between the protease and substrate peptides, together with the conserved crystallographic water molecules, played a crucial role in the substrate recognition, substrate stabilization and protease stabilization. Additionally, the absence of the key flap-ligand bridging water molecule might imply a different catalytic mechanism of MDR769 HIV-1 protease compared to that of wild type (WT) HIV-1 protease.

  17. Conserved hydrogen bonds and water molecules in MDR HIV-1 protease substrate complexes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhigang; Wang, Yong; Yedidi, Ravikiran S; Dewdney, Tamaria G; Reiter, Samuel J; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Kovari, Iulia A; Kovari, Ladislau C

    2013-01-18

    The success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in anti-HIV therapy is severely compromised by the rapidly developing drug resistance. HIV-1 protease inhibitors, part of HAART, are losing their potency and efficacy in inhibiting the target. Multi-drug resistant (MDR) 769 HIV-1 protease (resistant mutations at residues 10, 36, 46, 54, 62, 63, 71, 82, 84, 90) was selected for the present study to understand the binding to its natural substrates. The nine crystal structures of MDR769 HIV-1 protease substrate hepta-peptide complexes were analyzed in order to reveal the conserved structural elements for the purpose of drug design against MDR HIV-1 protease. Our structural studies demonstrated that highly conserved hydrogen bonds between the protease and substrate peptides, together with the conserved crystallographic water molecules, played a crucial role in the substrate recognition, substrate stabilization and protease stabilization. In addition, the absence of the key flap-ligand bridging water molecule might imply a different catalytic mechanism of MDR769 HIV-1 protease compared to that of wild type (WT) HIV-1 protease.

  18. Human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(HML-2) encodes a stable signal peptide with biological properties distinct from Rec

    PubMed Central

    Ruggieri, Alessia; Maldener, Esther; Sauter, Marlies; Mueller-Lantzsch, Nikolaus; Meese, Eckart; Fackler, Oliver T; Mayer, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Background The human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(HML-2) family is associated with testicular germ cell tumors (GCT). Various HML-2 proviruses encode viral proteins such as Env and Rec. Results We describe here that HML-2 Env gives rise to a 13 kDa signal peptide (SP) that harbors a different C-terminus compared to Rec. Subsequent to guiding Env to the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER), HML-2 SP is released into the cytosol. Biochemical analysis and confocal microscopy demonstrated that similar to Rec, SP efficiently translocates to the granular component of nucleoli. Unlike Rec, SP does not shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. SP is less stable than Rec as it is subjected to proteasomal degradation. Moreover, SP lacks export activity towards HML-2 genomic RNA, the main function of Rec in the original viral context, and SP does not interfere with Rec's RNA export activity. Conclusion SP is a previously unrecognized HML-2 protein that, besides targeting and translocation of Env into the ER lumen, may exert biological functions distinct from Rec. HML-2 SP represents another functional similarity with the closely related Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus that encodes an Env-derived SP named p14. Our findings furthermore support the emerging concept of bioactive SPs as a conserved retroviral strategy to modulate their host cell environment, evidenced here by a "retroviral fossil". While the specific role of HML-2 SP remains to be elucidated in the context of human biology, we speculate that it may be involved in immune evasion of GCT cells or tumorigenesis. PMID:19220907

  19. Oligovalent Amyloid-Binding Agents Reduce SEVI-Mediated Enhancement of HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Capule, Christina C.; Brown, Caitlin; Olsen, Joanna S.; Dewhurst, Stephen; Yang, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of oligovalent amyloid-binding molecules as potential agents that can reduce the enhancement of HIV-1 infection in cells by SEVI fibrils. These naturally occurring amyloid fibrils found in semen have been implicated as mediators that can facilitate the attachment and internalization of HIV-1 virions to immune cells. Molecules that are capable of reducing the role of SEVI in HIV-1 infection may, therefore, represent a novel strategy to reduce the rate of sexual transmission of HIV-1 in humans. Here, we evaluated a set of synthetic, oligovalent derivatives of BTA (a known amyloid-binding molecule) for their capability to bind cooperatively to aggregated amyloid peptides and to neutralize the effects of SEVI in HIV-1 infection. We demonstrate that these BTA derivatives exhibit a general trend of increased binding to aggregated amyloids as a function of increasing valence number of the oligomer. Importantly, we find that oligomers of BTA show improved capability to reduce SEVI-mediated infection of HIV-1 in cells compared to a BTA monomer, with the pentamer exhibiting a 65-fold improvement in efficacy compared to a previously reported monomeric BTA derivative. These results, thus, support the use of amyloid-targeting molecules as potential supplements for microbicides to curb the spread of HIV-1 through sexual contact. PMID:22239120

  20. A comparison of the Genie and western blot assays in confirmatory testing for HIV-1 antibody.

    PubMed

    Chan, E L; Sidaway, F; Horsman, G B

    1996-03-01

    The Genie HIV-1/2 kit (Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur, Montreal, Quebec), a synthetic-peptide solid-phase enzyme immunoassay, was evaluated as a confirmatory assay for HIV-1 antibodies in comparison with Western blot (BioRad, Hercules, CA, USA) on 50 stored HIV-1 antibody-positive sera and the 137 sera yielding repeated positive results in the conventional EIA screen out of 13405 fresh patient sera from Saskatchewan in 1993. The stored HIV-1-positive sera were uniformly positive in the Genie test. Of the 137 EIA screen-positive sera, 33 were uniformly positive and 64 were uniformly negative in Genie and Western blot; 36 were Genie-negative and indeterminate by Western blot; and four were Genie indeterminate, of which one was negative and three were indeterminate by Western blot. All HIV-1 Western blot-indeterminate and Genie-interdeterminate sera were negative in radio-immunoprecipitation assay (RIPA) and Western blot for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies performed by a reference laboratory. Genie gave an accurate definitive result for 97% of EIA positive sera compared with 71% for Western blot. There was excellent correlation between Genie, Western blot and RIPA results. However, the Genie assay was faster, less costly and yielded fewer indeterminate results than Western blot in confirmatory testing for HIV-1 antibodies.

  1. HIV-1 proteins in infected cells determine the presentation of viral peptides by HLA class I and class II molecules and the nature of the cellular and humoral antiviral immune responses--a review.

    PubMed

    Becker, Y

    1994-07-01

    The goals of molecular virology and immunology during the second half of the 20th century have been to provide the conceptual approaches and the tools for the development of safe and efficient virus vaccines for the human population. The success of the vaccination approach to prevent virus epidemics was attributed to the ability of inactivated and live virus vaccines to induce a humoral immune response and to produce antiviral neutralizing antibodies in the vaccinees. The successful development of antiviral vaccines and their application to most of the human population led to a marked decrease in virus epidemics around the globe. Despite this remarkable achievement, the developing epidemics of HIV-caused AIDS (accompanied by activation of latent herpesviruses in AIDS patients), epidemics of Dengue fever, and infections with respiratory syncytial virus may indicate that conventional approaches to the development of virus vaccines that induce antiviral humoral responses may not suffice. This may indicate that virus vaccines that induce a cellular immune response, leading to the destruction of virus-infected cells by CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), may be needed. Antiviral CD8+ CTLs are induced by viral peptides presented within the peptide binding grooves of HLA class I molecules present on the surface of infected cells. Studies in the last decade provided an insight into the presentation of viral peptides by HLA class I molecules to CD8+ T cells. These studies are here reviewed, together with a review of the molecular events of virus replication, to obtain an overview of how viral peptides associate with the HLA class I molecules. A similar review is provided on the molecular pathway by which viral proteins, used as subunit vaccines or inactivated virus particles, are taken up by endosomes in the endosome pathway and are processed by proteolytic enzymes into peptides that interact with HLA class II molecules during their transport to the plasma membrane of antigen

  2. HIV-1-induced AIDS in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Hatziioannou, Theodora; Del Prete, Gregory Q; Keele, Brandon F; Estes, Jacob D; McNatt, Matthew W; Bitzegeio, Julia; Raymond, Alice; Rodriguez, Anthony; Schmidt, Fabian; Mac Trubey, C; Smedley, Jeremy; Piatak, Michael; KewalRamani, Vineet N; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2014-06-20

    Primate lentiviruses exhibit narrow host tropism, reducing the occurrence of zoonoses but also impairing the development of optimal animal models of AIDS. To delineate the factors limiting cross-species HIV-1 transmission, we passaged a modified HIV-1 in pigtailed macaques that were transiently depleted of CD8(+) cells during acute infection. During adaptation over four passages in macaques, HIV-1 acquired the ability to antagonize the macaque restriction factor tetherin, replicated at progressively higher levels, and ultimately caused marked CD4(+) T cell depletion and AIDS-defining conditions. Transient treatment with an antibody to CD8 during acute HIV-1 infection caused rapid progression to AIDS, whereas untreated animals exhibited an elite controller phenotype. Thus, an adapted HIV-1 can cause AIDS in macaques, and stark differences in outcome can be determined by immunological perturbations during early infection.

  3. Increased immunoglobulin G, but not M, binding to endogenous retroviral antigens in HIV-1 infected persons.

    PubMed

    Lawoko, A; Johansson, B; Rabinayaran, D; Pipkorn, R; Blomberg, J

    2000-12-01

    The modes of interaction between products of human endogenous retroviral (HERV) sequences and the immune system are largely unknown. In HIV infected persons, an exogenous retrovirus adds further complexity to the situation. Therefore, 14 synthetic peptides with sequences derived from conserved regions of various endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) and from related exogenous retroviruses were used to search for IgG and IgM antibodies that bind to such antigens in 15 HIV-1 seropositive and 17 seronegative immunosuppressed patients. IgG binding to three peptides, namely, the C-terminal half of murine leukemia virus (MLV) capsid protein, the conserved portion of HERV-H transmembrane protein, and the Pol region of human mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-like (HML3) sequence, was observed in both groups. Binding was, however, more frequent and more firm in HIV-1 positive samples (P<0.0001, Wilcoxon rank sum test). IgM binding to the same peptides showed no significant differentiation between the two groups of patients. Binding to both immunoglobulin isotypes was sometimes variable over time in both groups. No correlation of either IgG or IgM peptide binding with progression to AIDS in HIV-1 infected individuals was observed. Inhibition studies using analogous endogenous and exogenous retroviral peptides, including HIV-1, demonstrated specificity of the IgG antibodies for a narrow range of MLV- and MMTV-like retroviral antigens, and excluded cross-reactivity of antibodies to HIV-1 as a cause of these observations. Thus, unlike IgG, IgM binding to retroviral antigens was ubiquitous. It is suggested that anti-HERV IgM belong to a class of natural antibodies and might serve as primers in the mediation of humoral immune responses to more or less related exogenous retroviruses. Increased IgG binding in HIV-1 infected individuals could result from such priming, or reflect higher HERV antigen expression.

  4. Zinc binding to the HCCH motif of HIV-1 virion infectivity factor induces a conformational change that mediates protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Indrani; Cui, Jian; Maynard, Ernest L.

    2006-01-01

    Virion infectivity factor (Vif) is an accessory protein encoded by HIV-1 and is critical for viral infection of the host CD4+ T cell population. Vif induces ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of Apo3G, a cytosolic cytidine deaminase that otherwise targets the retroviral genome. Interaction of Vif with the cellular Cullin5-based E3 ubiquitin ligase requires a conserved BC box and upstream residues that are part of the conserved H-(Xaa)5-C-(Xaa)17–18-C-(Xaa)3–5-H (HCCH) motif. The HCCH motif is involved in stabilizing the Vif–Cullin 5 interaction, but the exact role of the conserved His and Cys residues remains elusive. In this report, we find that full-length HIV-1 Vif, as well as a HCCH peptide, is capable of binding to zinc with high specificity. Zinc binding induces a conformational change that leads to the formation of large protein aggregates. EDTA reversed aggregation and regenerated the apoprotein conformation. Cysteine modification studies with the HCCH peptide suggest that C114 is critical for stabilizing the fold of the apopeptide, and that C133 is located in a solvent-exposed region with no definite secondary structure. Selective alkylation of C133 reduced metal-binding specificity of the HCCH peptide, allowing cobalt to bind with rates comparable to that with zinc. This study demonstrates that the HCCH motif of HIV-1 Vif is a unique metal-binding domain capable of mediating protein–protein interactions in the presence of zinc and adds to a growing list of examples in which metal ion binding induces protein misfolding and/or aggregation. PMID:17132731

  5. atToc159 is a selective transit peptide receptor for the import of nucleus-encoded chloroplast proteins

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew D.; Rounds, Caleb M.; Wang, Fei; Chen, Kunhua; Afitlhile, Meshack; Schnell, Danny J.

    2004-01-01

    The members of the Toc159 family of GTPases act as the primary receptors for the import of nucleus-encoded preproteins into plastids. Toc159, the most abundant member of this family in chloroplasts, is required for chloroplast biogenesis (Bauer, J., K. Chen, A. Hiltbunner, E. Wehrli, M. Eugster, D. Schnell, and F. Kessler. 2000. Nature. 403:203–207) and has been shown to covalently cross-link to bound preproteins at the chloroplast surface (Ma, Y., A. Kouranov, S. LaSala, and D.J. Schnell. 1996. J. Cell Biol. 134:1–13; Perry, S.E., and K. Keegstra. 1994. Plant Cell. 6:93–105). These reports led to the hypothesis that Toc159 functions as a selective import receptor for preproteins that are required for chloroplast development. In this report, we provide evidence that Toc159 is required for the import of several highly expressed photosynthetic preproteins in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the cytoplasmic and recombinant forms of soluble Toc159 bind directly and selectively to the transit peptides of these representative photosynthetic preproteins, but not representative constitutively expressed plastid preproteins. These data support the function of Toc159 as a selective import receptor for the targeting of a set of preproteins required for chloroplast biogenesis. PMID:15138290

  6. Host Double Strand Break Repair Generates HIV-1 Strains Resistant to CRISPR/Cas9

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Kristine E.; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing has been proposed as a therapeutic treatment for HIV-1 infection. CRISPR/Cas9 induced double strand breaks (DSBs) targeted to the integrated viral genome have been shown to decrease production of progeny virus. Unfortunately HIV-1 evolves rapidly and may readily produce CRISPR/Cas9 resistant strains. Here we used next-generation sequencing to characterize HIV-1 strains that developed resistance to six different CRISPR/Cas9 guide RNAs (gRNAs). Reverse transcriptase (RT) derived base substitution mutations were commonly found at sites encoding unpaired bases of RNA stem-loop structures. In addition to RT mutations, insertion and/or deletion (indel) mutations were common. Indels localized to the CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage site were major contributors to CRISPR gRNA resistance. While most indels at non-coding regions were a single base pair, 3 base pair indels were observed when a coding region of HIV-1 was targeted. The DSB repair event may preserve the HIV-1 reading frame, while destroying CRISPR gRNA homology. HIV-1 may be successfully edited by CRISPR/Cas9, but the virus remains competent for replication and resistant to further CRISPR/Cas9 targeting at that site. These observations strongly suggest that host DSB repair at CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage sites is a novel and important pathway that may contribute to HIV-1 therapeutic resistance. PMID:27404981

  7. TCR clonotypes modulate the protective effect of HLA class I molecules in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huabiao; Ndhlovu, Zaza M; Liu, Dongfang; Porter, Lindsay C; Fang, Justin W; Darko, Sam; Brockman, Mark A; Miura, Toshiyuki; Brumme, Zabrina L; Schneidewind, Arne; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Cesa, Kevin T; Sela, Jennifer; Cung, Thai D; Toth, Ildiko; Pereyra, Florencia; Yu, Xu G; Douek, Daniel C; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Allen, Todd M; Walker, Bruce D

    2012-06-10

    The human leukocyte antigens HLA-B27 and HLA-B57 are associated with protection against progression of disease that results from infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), yet most people with alleles encoding HLA-B27 and HLA-B57 are unable to control HIV-1. Here we found that HLA-B27-restricted CD8(+) T cells in people able to control infection with HIV-1 (controllers) and those who progress to disease after infection with HIV-1 (progressors) differed in their ability to inhibit viral replication through targeting of the immunodominant epitope of group-associated antigen (Gag) of HIV-1. This was associated with distinct T cell antigen receptor (TCR) clonotypes, characterized by superior control of HIV-1 replication in vitro, greater cross-reactivity to epitope variants and enhanced loading and delivery of perforin. We also observed clonotype-specific differences in antiviral efficacy for an immunodominant HLA-B57-restricted response in controllers and progressors. Thus, the efficacy of such so-called 'protective alleles' is modulated by specific TCR clonotypes selected during natural infection, which provides a functional explanation for divergent HIV-1 outcomes.

  8. Host Double Strand Break Repair Generates HIV-1 Strains Resistant to CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Kristine E; Bundschuh, Ralf

    2016-07-12

    CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing has been proposed as a therapeutic treatment for HIV-1 infection. CRISPR/Cas9 induced double strand breaks (DSBs) targeted to the integrated viral genome have been shown to decrease production of progeny virus. Unfortunately HIV-1 evolves rapidly and may readily produce CRISPR/Cas9 resistant strains. Here we used next-generation sequencing to characterize HIV-1 strains that developed resistance to six different CRISPR/Cas9 guide RNAs (gRNAs). Reverse transcriptase (RT) derived base substitution mutations were commonly found at sites encoding unpaired bases of RNA stem-loop structures. In addition to RT mutations, insertion and/or deletion (indel) mutations were common. Indels localized to the CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage site were major contributors to CRISPR gRNA resistance. While most indels at non-coding regions were a single base pair, 3 base pair indels were observed when a coding region of HIV-1 was targeted. The DSB repair event may preserve the HIV-1 reading frame, while destroying CRISPR gRNA homology. HIV-1 may be successfully edited by CRISPR/Cas9, but the virus remains competent for replication and resistant to further CRISPR/Cas9 targeting at that site. These observations strongly suggest that host DSB repair at CRISPR/Cas9 cleavage sites is a novel and important pathway that may contribute to HIV-1 therapeutic resistance.

  9. GADD45 proteins inhibit HIV-1 replication through specific suppression of HIV-1 transcription.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhibin; Liu, Ruikang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Suzhen; Hu, Xiaomei; Tan, Juan; Liang, Chen; Qiao, Wentao

    2016-06-01

    GADD45 proteins are a group of stress-induced proteins and participate in various cellular pathways including cell cycle regulation, cell survival and death, DNA repair and demethylation. It was recently shown that HIV-1 infection induces the expression of GADD45 proteins. However, the effect of GADD45 on HIV-1 replication has not been studied. Here, we report that overexpression of GADD45 proteins reduces HIV-1 production through suppressing transcription from the HIV-1 LTR promoter. This inhibitory effect is specific to HIV-1, since GADD45 proteins neither inhibit the LTR promoters from other retroviruses nor reduce the production of these viruses. Knockdown of endogenous GADD45 modestly activates HIV-1 in the J-Lat A72 latency cell line, which suggests GADD45 proteins might play a role in maintaining HIV-1 latency.

  10. Nucleic acids encoding mosaic HIV-1 gag proteins

    DOEpatents

    Korber, Bette T.; Perkins, Simon; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Fischer, William M.; Theiler, James; Letvin, Norman; Haynes, Barton F.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Yusim, Karina; Kuiken, Carla

    2016-11-15

    The disclosure generally relates to an immunogenic composition (e.g., a vaccine) and, in particular, to a polyvalent immunogenic composition, such as a polyvalent HIV vaccine, and to methods of using same.

  11. Uneven Genetic Robustness of HIV-1 Integrase

    PubMed Central

    Rihn, Suzannah J.; Hughes, Joseph; Wilson, Sam J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic robustness (tolerance of mutation) may be a naturally selected property in some viruses, because it should enhance adaptability. Robustness should be especially beneficial to viruses like HIV-1 that exhibit high mutation rates and exist in immunologically hostile environments. Surprisingly, however, the HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) exhibits extreme fragility. To determine whether fragility is a general property of HIV-1 proteins, we created a large library of random, single-amino-acid mutants in HIV-1 integrase (IN), covering >40% of amino acid positions. Despite similar degrees of sequence variation in naturally occurring IN and CA sequences, we found that HIV-1 IN was significantly more robust than CA, with random nonsilent IN mutations only half as likely to cause lethal defects. Interestingly, IN and CA were similar in that a subset of mutations with high in vitro fitness were rare in natural populations. IN mutations of this type were more likely to occur in the buried interior of the modeled HIV-1 intasome, suggesting that even very subtle fitness effects suppress variation in natural HIV-1 populations. Lethal mutations, in particular those that perturbed particle production, proteolytic processing, and particle-associated IN levels, were strikingly localized at specific IN subunit interfaces. This observation strongly suggests that binding interactions between particular IN subunits regulate proteolysis during HIV-1 virion morphogenesis. Overall, use of the IN mutant library in conjunction with structural models demonstrates the overall robustness of IN and highlights particular regions of vulnerability that may be targeted in therapeutic interventions. IMPORTANCE The HIV-1 integrase (IN) protein is responsible for the integration of the viral genome into the host cell chromosome. To measure the capacity of IN to maintain function in the face of mutation, and to probe structure/function relationships, we created a library of random single

  12. The APPEESFRS Peptide, Restricted by the HLA-B*35:01 Molecule, and the APPEESFRF Variant Derived from an Autologous HIV-1 Strain Induces Polyfunctional Responses in CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo-Sáenz, Liliana; Carmona-Pérez, Liseth; Velilla-Hernández, Paula Andrea; Delgado, Julio C.; Rugeles L., María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Numerous reports have focused on consensus peptides to determine CD8+ T-cell responses; however, few studies evaluated the functional profile using peptides derived from circulating strains of a specific region. We determined the effector profile and maturation phenotype of CD8+ T-cells targeting the consensus APPEESFRS (AS9) epitope and its variant APPEESFRF (AF9), previously identified. The free energy of binding, maturation phenotype, and polyfunctional profile of both peptides were similar. The magnitude of CD8+ T-cell responses to AF9 was greater than the one elicited by AS9, although the difference was not significant. The polyfunctional profile of AF9 was characterized by CD107a/interleukin-2 (IL-2)/macrophage inflammatory protein beta (MIP1β) and by interferon gamma (IFNγ)/MIP1β/tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in response to AS9. TNFα production was significantly higher in response to AF9 than to AS9, and there was a negative correlation between the absolute number of CD8+ T-cell-producing TNFα and the plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load, suggesting a role of this cytokine in the control of HIV replication. PMID:26309788

  13. Ion Channel Activity of Vpu Proteins Is Conserved throughout Evolution of HIV-1 and SIV

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Timo; Bolduan, Sebastian; Hertel, Brigitte; Groß, Christine; Hamacher, Kay; Schubert, Ulrich; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protein Vpu is encoded exclusively by HIV-1 and related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). The transmembrane domain of the protein has dual functions: it counteracts the human restriction factor tetherin and forms a cation channel. Since these two functions are causally unrelated it remains unclear whether the channel activity has any relevance for viral release and replication. Here we examine structure and function correlates of different Vpu homologs from HIV-1 and SIV to understand if ion channel activity is an evolutionary conserved property of Vpu proteins. An electrophysiological testing of Vpus from different HIV-1 groups (N and P) and SIVs from chimpanzees (SIVcpz), and greater spot-nosed monkeys (SIVgsn) showed that they all generate channel activity in HEK293T cells. This implies a robust and evolutionary conserved channel activity and suggests that cation conductance may also have a conserved functional significance. PMID:27916968

  14. Ion Channel Activity of Vpu Proteins Is Conserved throughout Evolution of HIV-1 and SIV.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Timo; Bolduan, Sebastian; Hertel, Brigitte; Groß, Christine; Hamacher, Kay; Schubert, Ulrich; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2016-12-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protein Vpu is encoded exclusively by HIV-1 and related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). The transmembrane domain of the protein has dual functions: it counteracts the human restriction factor tetherin and forms a cation channel. Since these two functions are causally unrelated it remains unclear whether the channel activity has any relevance for viral release and replication. Here we examine structure and function correlates of different Vpu homologs from HIV-1 and SIV to understand if ion channel activity is an evolutionary conserved property of Vpu proteins. An electrophysiological testing of Vpus from different HIV-1 groups (N and P) and SIVs from chimpanzees (SIVcpz), and greater spot-nosed monkeys (SIVgsn) showed that they all generate channel activity in HEK293T cells. This implies a robust and evolutionary conserved channel activity and suggests that cation conductance may also have a conserved functional significance.

  15. Viral Determinants of HIV-1 Macrophage Tropism

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Christopher J. A.; Sattentau, Quentin J.

    2011-01-01

    Macrophages are important target cells for HIV-1 infection that play significant roles in the maintenance of viral reservoirs and other aspects of pathogenesis. Understanding the determinants of HIV-1 tropism for macrophages will inform HIV-1 control and eradication strategies. Tropism for macrophages is both qualitative (infection or not) and quantitative (replication capacity). For example many R5 HIV-1 isolates cannot infect macrophages, but for those that can the macrophage replication capacity can vary by up to 1000-fold. Some X4 viruses are also capable of replication in macrophages, indicating that cellular tropism is partially independent of co-receptor preference. Preliminary data obtained with a small number of transmitted/founder viruses indicate inefficient macrophage infection, whereas isolates from later in disease are more frequently tropic for macrophages. Thus tropism may evolve over time, and more macrophage tropic viruses may be implicated in the pathogenesis of advanced HIV-1 infection. Compartmentalization of macrophage-tropic brain-derived envelope glycoproteins (Envs), and non-macrophage tropic non-neural tissue-derived Envs points to adaptation of HIV-1 quasi-species in distinct tissue microenvironments. Mutations within and adjacent to the Env-CD4 binding site have been identified that determine macrophage tropism at the entry level, but post-entry molecular determinants of macrophage replication capacity involving HIV-1 accessory proteins need further definition. PMID:22163344

  16. Adenoviral gene delivery for HIV-1 vaccination.

    PubMed

    Vanniasinkam, T; Ertl, H C J

    2005-04-01

    The AIDS epidemic continues to spread throughout nations of Africa and Asia and is by now threatening to undermine the already frail infrastructure of developing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa that are hit the hardest. The only option to stem this epidemic is through inexpensive and efficacious vaccines that prevent or at least blunt HIV-1 infections. Despite decades of pre-clinical and clinical research such vaccines remain elusive. Most anti-viral vaccines act by inducing protective levels of virus-neutralizing antibodies. The envelope protein of HIV-1, the sole target of neutralizing antibodies, is constantly changing due to mutations, B cell epitopes are masked by heavy glycosylation and the protein's structural unfolding upon binding to its CD4 receptor and chemokine co-receptors. Efforts to induce broadly cross-reactive virus-neutralizing antibodies able to induce sterilizing or near sterilizing immunity to HIV-1 have thus failed. Studies have indicated that cell-mediated immune responses and in particular CD8+ T cell responses to internal viral proteins may control HIV-1 infections without necessarily preventing them. Adenoviral vectors expressing antigens of HIV-1 are eminently suited to stimulate potent CD8+ T cell responses against transgene products, such as antigens of HIV-1. They performed well in pre-clinical studies in rodents and nonhuman primates and are currently in human clinical trials. This review summarizes the published literature on adenoviral vectors as vaccine carriers for HIV-1 and discusses advantages and disadvantages of this vaccine modality.

  17. Lessons from HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials.

    PubMed

    Excler, Jean-Louis; Michael, Nelson L

    2016-11-01

    Only four HIV-1 vaccine concepts have been tested in six efficacy trials with no product licensed to date. Several scientific and programmatic lessons can be learned from these studies generating new hypotheses and guiding future steps. RV144 [ALVAC-HIV (canarypox vector) and AIDSVAX B/E (bivalent gp120 HIV-1 subtype B and CRF01_AE)] remains the only efficacy trial that demonstrated a modest vaccine efficacy, which led to the identification of immune correlates of risk. Progress on subtype-specific, ALVAC (canarypox vector) and gp120 vaccine prime-boost approaches has been slow, but we are finally close to the launch of an efficacy study in Africa in 2016. The quest of a globally effective HIV-1 vaccine has led to the development of new approaches. Efficacy studies of combinations of Adenovirus type 26 (Ad26)/Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA)/gp140 vaccines with mosaic designs will enter efficacy studies mid-2017 and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-vectored vaccines begin Phase I studies at the same time. Future HIV-1 vaccine efficacy trials face practical challenges as effective nonvaccine prevention programs are projected to decrease HIV-1 incidence. An HIV-1 vaccine is urgently needed. Increased industry involvement, mobilization of resources, expansion of a robust pipeline of new concepts, and robust preclinical challenge studies will be essential to accelerate efficacy testing of next generation HIV-1 vaccine candidates.

  18. Unexplained diarrhoea in HIV-1 infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular diarrhoea, are common in non-treated HIV-1 infected individuals. Although various enteric pathogens have been implicated, the aetiology of diarrhoea remains unexplained in a large proportion of HIV-1 infected patients. Our aim is to identify the cause of diarrhoea for patients that remain negative in routine diagnostics. Methods In this study stool samples of 196 HIV-1 infected persons, including 29 persons with diarrhoea, were examined for enteropathogens and HIV-1. A search for unknown and unexpected viruses was performed using virus discovery cDNA-AFLP combined with Roche-454 sequencing (VIDISCA-454). Results HIV-1 RNA was detected in stool of 19 patients with diarrhoea (66%) compared to 75 patients (45%) without diarrhoea. In 19 of the 29 diarrhoea cases a known enteropathogen could be identified (66%). Next to these known causative agents, a range of recently identified viruses was identified via VIDISCA-454: cosavirus, Aichi virus, human gyrovirus, and non-A non-B hepatitis virus. Moreover, a novel virus was detected which was named immunodeficiency-associated stool virus (IASvirus). However, PCR based screening for these viruses showed that none of these novel viruses was associated with diarrhoea. Notably, among the 34% enteropathogen-negative cases, HIV-1 RNA shedding in stool was more frequently observed (80%) compared to enteropathogen-positive cases (47%), indicating that HIV-1 itself is the most likely candidate to be involved in diarrhoea. Conclusion Unexplained diarrhoea in HIV-1 infected patients is probably not caused by recently described or previously unknown pathogens, but it is more likely that HIV-1 itself plays a role in intestinal mucosal abnormalities which leads to diarrhoea. PMID:24410947

  19. Control of HIV-1 replication in vitro by vaccine-induced human CD8+ T cells through conserved subdominant Pol epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tina; Borthwick, Nicola J.; Gilmour, Jill; Hayes, Peter; Dorrell, Lucy; Hanke, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Objective The specificity of CD8+ T cells is critical for early control of founder/transmitted and reactivated HIV-1. To tackle HIV-1 variability and escape, we designed vaccine immunogen HIVconsv assembled from 14 highly conserved regions of mainly Gag and Pol proteins. When administered to HIV-1-negative human volunteers in trial HIV-CORE 002, HIVconsv vaccines elicited CD8+ effector T cells which inhibited replication of up to 8 HIV-1 isolates in autologous CD4+ cells. This inhibition correlated with interferon-γ production in response to Gag and Pol peptide pools, but direct evidence of the inhibitory specificity was missing. Here, we aimed to define through recognition of which epitopes these effectors inhibit HIV-1 replication. Design CD8+ T-cells from the 3 broadest HIV-1 inhibitors out of 23 vaccine recipients were expanded in culture by Gag or Pol peptide restimulation and tested in viral inhibition assay (VIA) using HIV-1 clade B and A isolates. Methods Frozen PBMCs were expanded first using peptide pools from Gag or Pol conserved regions and tested on HIV-1-infected cells in VIA or by individual peptides for their effector functions. Single peptide specificities responsible for inhibition of HIV-1 replication were then confirmed by single-peptide expanded effectors tested on HIV-1-infected cells. Results We formally demonstrated that the vaccine-elicited inhibitory human CD8+ T cells recognized conserved epitopes of both Pol and Gag proteins. We defined 7 minimum epitopes, of which 3 were novel, presumably naturally subdominant. The effectors were oligofunctional producing several cytokines and chemokines and killing peptide-pulsed target cells. Conclusions These results implicate the use of functionally conserved regions of Pol in addition to the widely used Gag for T-cell vaccine design. Proportion of volunteers developing these effectors and their frequency in circulating PBMC are separate issues, which can be addressed, if needed, by more efficient

  20. Human renal carcinoma expresses two messages encoding a parathyroid hormone-like peptide: evidence for the alternative splicing of a single-copy gene.

    PubMed Central

    Thiede, M A; Strewler, G J; Nissenson, R A; Rosenblatt, M; Rodan, G A

    1988-01-01

    A peptide secreted by tumors associated with the clinical syndrome of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy was recently purified from human renal carcinoma cell line 786-0. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this peptide has considerable similarity with those of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and of peptides isolated from human breast and lung carcinoma (cell line BEN). In this study we obtained the nucleotide sequence of a 1595-base cDNA complementary to mRNA encoding the PTH-like peptide produced by 786-0 cells. The cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding a leader sequence of 36 amino acids and a 139-residue peptide, in which 8 of the first 13 residues are identical to the N terminus of PTH. Through the first 828 bases the sequence of this cDNA is identical with one recently isolated from a BEN cell cDNA library; however, beginning with base 829 the sequences diverge, shortening the open reading frame by 2 amino acids. Differential RNA blot analysis revealed that 786-0 cells express two major PTH-like peptide mRNAs with different 3' untranslated sequences, one of which hybridizes with the presently described sequence and the other one with that reported for the BEN cell PTH-like peptide cDNA. Primer-extension analysis of 786-0 poly(A)+ RNA together with Southern blot analysis of human DNA confirmed the presence of a single-copy gene coding for multiple mRNAs through alternate splicing. In addition, the 3' untranslated sequence of the cDNA described here has significant similarity to the c-myc protooncogene. Images PMID:3290897

  1. Ectopic expression of anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD8{sup +} T cells modified with CD4ζ CAR from HIV-1 infection and alleviates impairment of cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Kamata, Masakazu; Kim, Patrick Y.; Ng, Hwee L.; Ringpis, Gene-Errol E.; Kranz, Emiko; Chan, Joshua; O'Connor, Sean; Yang, Otto O.; Chen, Irvin S.Y.

    2015-07-31

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are artificially engineered receptors that confer a desired specificity to immune effector T cells. As an HIV-1-specific CAR, CD4ζ CAR has been extensively tested in vitro as well as in clinical trials. T cells modified with this CAR mediated highly potent anti-HIV-1 activities in vitro and were well-tolerated in vivo, but exerted limited effects on viral load and reservoir size due to poor survival and/or functionality of the transduced cells in patients. We hypothesize that ectopic expression of CD4ζ on CD8{sup +} T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection, resulting in poor survival of those cells. To test this possibility, highly purified CD8{sup +} T cells were genetically modified with a CD4ζ-encoding lentiviral vector and infected with HIV-1. CD8{sup +} T cells were vulnerable to HIV-1 infection upon expression of CD4ζ as evidenced by elevated levels of p24{sup Gag} in cells and culture supernatants. Concurrently, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells was reduced relative to control cells upon HIV-1 infection. To protect these cells from HIV-1 infection, we co-expressed two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs previously developed by our group together with CD4ζ. This combination vector was able to suppress HIV-1 infection without impairing HIV-1-dependent effector activities of CD4ζ. In addition, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells maintained similar levels to that of the control even under HIV-1 infection. These results suggest that protecting CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection is required for prolonged HIV-1-specific immune surveillance. - Highlights: • Ectopic expression of CD4ζ CAR in CD8{sup +} T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection. • Co-expression of two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection. • Protecting CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection suppresses its cytopathic effect.

  2. Antiretroviral (HIV-1) activity of azulene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Peet, Julia; Selyutina, Anastasia; Bredihhin, Aleksei

    2016-04-15

    The antiretroviral activity of azulene derivatives was detected for the first time. A series of eighteen diversely substituted azulenes was synthesized and tested in vitro using HIV-1 based virus-like particles (VLPs) and infectious HIV-1 virus in U2OS and TZM-bl cell lines. Among the compounds tested, the 2-hydroxyazulenes demonstrated the most significant activity by inhibiting HIV-1 replication with IC50 of 2-10 and 8-20 μM for the VLPs and the infectious virus, respectively. These results indicate that azulene derivatives may be potentially useful candidates for the development of antiretroviral agents.

  3. Women's barriers to HIV-1 testing and disclosure: challenges for HIV-1 voluntary counselling and testing.

    PubMed

    Maman, S; Mbwambo, J; Hogan, N M; Kilonzo, G P; Sweat, M

    2001-10-01

    In view of the ever-increasing HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, the expansion of HIV-1 voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) as an integral part of prevention strategies and medical research is both a reality and an urgent need. As the availability of HIV-1 VCT grows two limitations need to be addressed, namely: low rates of HIV-1 serostatus disclosure to sexual partners and negative outcomes of serostatus disclosure. Results from a study among men, women and couples at an HIV-1 VCT clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania are presented. The individual, relational and environmental factors that influence the decision to test for HIV-1 and to share test results with partners are described. The most salient barriers to HIV-1 testing and serostatus disclosure described by women include fear of partners' reaction, decision-making and communication patterns between partners, and partners' attitudes towards HIV-1 testing. Perception of personal risk for HIV-1 is the major factor driving women to overcome barriers to HIV-1 testing. The implications of findings for the promotion of HIV-1 VCT programmes, the implementation of partner notification policies and the development of post-test support services are discussed.

  4. Prevalence and persistence of antibody titers to recombinant HIV-1 core and matrix proteins in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Janvier, B; Mallet, F; Cheynet, V; Dalbon, P; Vernet, G; Besnier, J M; Choutet, P; Goudeau, A; Mandrand, B; Barin, F

    1993-08-01

    Numerous studies have established the correlation between antibodies to the core protein p24 of HIV-1 and the progression of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In this study, we analyzed the immune response to two recombinant gag proteins, p24 and p17, in order to evaluate their diagnostic or prognostic significance. Immune response to the immunodominant domain of the transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 was used as a reference. Sera collected from individuals from France and Burundi (Central Africa) at various CDC stages of HIV-1 infection were tested using three sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassays developed with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the immunodominant domain of gp41, SP gp41, or recombinant p24 and p17 cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. These assays allowed detection of titer antibodies to the three cited antigens. Antibodies to SP gp41 were detected in every HIV-1-positive patient from France and Burundi, generally at a high and stable level. Results obtained with p24 confirmed the value of antibodies to p24 as a prognostic marker only in European and North American populations, since the African population had very high levels of these antibodies even at an advanced stage of the disease. They also confirmed that initial antibody response to p24 is more predictive of outcome than antibody titer change over time. Although antibodies to p17 decline during progression to AIDS, they are frequently absent in French patients at early, asymptomatic stages and therefore could not be used as a prognostic marker. In contrast, antibodies to p17 are significantly less common in African patients with AIDS when compared with symptomless HIV-1-infected African individuals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Development of prophylactic vaccines against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Schiffner, Torben; Sattentau, Quentin J; Dorrell, Lucy

    2013-07-17

    The focus of most current HIV-1 vaccine development is on antibody-based approaches. This is because certain antibody responses correlated with protection from HIV-1 acquisition in the RV144 phase III trial, and because a series of potent and broad spectrum neutralizing antibodies have been isolated from infected individuals. Taken together, these two findings suggest ways forward to develop a neutralizing antibody-based vaccine. However, understanding of the correlates of protection from disease in HIV-1 and other infections strongly suggests that we should not ignore CTL-based research. Here we review recent progress in the field and highlight the challenges implicit in HIV-1 vaccine design and some potential solutions.

  6. HIV-1 Eradication: Early Trials (and Tribulations).

    PubMed

    Spivak, Adam M; Planelles, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has rendered HIV-1 infection a manageable illness for those with access to treatment. However, ART does not lead to viral eradication owing to the persistence of replication-competent, unexpressed proviruses in long-lived cellular reservoirs. The potential for long-term drug toxicities and the lack of access to ART for most people living with HIV-1 infection have fueled scientific interest in understanding the nature of this latent reservoir. Exploration of HIV-1 persistence at the cellular and molecular level in resting memory CD4(+) T cells, the predominant viral reservoir in patients on ART, has uncovered potential strategies to reverse latency. We review recent advances in pharmacologically based 'shock and kill' HIV-1 eradication strategies, including comparative analysis of early clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunogenicity and specificity of the candidate multi-epitope-vaccines against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Ding, J; Chen, Y H

    2001-11-01

    The failure of some candidate HIV-1 vaccines may result from inducing very weak neutralization activity against representative primary viral isolates. Based on our hypothesis that epitope-vaccine may be a new strategy to induce high levels of neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1, we designed two candidate multi-epitope-vaccines, EP1 [C-G-(ELDKWA-GPGRAFY)2-K] and EP2 (CG-GPGRAFY-G-ELDKWA-G-RILAVERYLKD), containing three neutralizing epitopes (GPGRAFY, ELDKWA and RILAVERYLKD) on HIV-1 envelope protein, and expected them to induce epitope-specific antibodies of predefined epitope-specificity. The two peptides were conjugated to carrier protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) and used for immunization of rabbits. Proteins were purified from the rabbit sera induced by both candidate multi-epitope-vaccines (EP1-BSA and EP2-BSA) through affinity chromatography with epitope-peptide-conjugated sepharose-column, and identified as antibodies in silver-staining and immunoblotting. These antibodies were demonstrated to recognize three neutralizing epitopes on peptides and the recombinant gp41 in ELISA-assay and immunoblotting. These results indicated that both candidate multi-epitope-vaccines could induce high levels of antibodies of predefined epitope-specificity which recognized a few of neutralizing epitopes on peptides and protein, providing experimental evidence for the new strategy to develop an effective neutralizing-antibody-based multi-epitope-vaccine against HIV-1.

  8. Technologies for the synthesis of mRNA-encoding libraries and discovery of bioactive natural product-inspired non-traditional macrocyclic peptides.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kenichiro; Passioura, Toby; Suga, Hiroaki

    2013-03-18

    In this review, we discuss emerging technologies for drug discovery, which yields novel molecular scaffolds based on natural product-inspired non-traditional peptides expressed using the translation machinery. Unlike natural products, these technologies allow for constructing mRNA-encoding libraries of macrocyclic peptides containing non-canonical sidechains and N-methyl-modified backbones. The complexity of sequence space in such libraries reaches as high as a trillion (>1012), affording initial hits of high affinity ligands against protein targets. Although this article comprehensively covers several related technologies, we discuss in greater detail the technical development and advantages of the Random non-standard Peptide Integration Discovery (RaPID) system, including the recent identification of inhibitors against various therapeutic targets.

  9. Substance abuse, HIV-1 and hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Nirzari; Nonnemacher, Michael R.; Pirrone, Vanessa; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand; Wigdahl, Brian

    2013-01-01

    During the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease, the virus has been shown to effectively escape the immune response with the subsequent establishment of latent viral reservoirs in specific cell populations within the peripheral blood (PB) and associated lymphoid tissues, bone marrow (BM), brain, and potentially other end organs. HIV-1, along with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), are known to share similar routes of transmission, including intravenous drug use, blood transfusions, sexual intercourse, and perinatal exposure. Substance abuse, including the use of opioids and cocaine, is a significant risk factor for exposure to HIV-1 and the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, as well as HBV and HCV exposure, infection, and disease. Thus, coinfection with HIV-1 and HBV or HCV is common and may be impacted by chronic substance abuse during the course of disease. HIV-1 impacts the natural course of HBV and HCV infection by accelerating the progression of HBV/HCV-associated liver disease toward end-stage cirrhosis and quantitative depletion of the CD4+ T-cell compartment. HBV or HCV coinfection with HIV-1 is also associated with increased mortality when compared to either infection alone. This review focuses on the impact of substance abuse and coinfection with HBV and HCV in the PB, BM, and brain on the HIV-1 pathogenic process as it relates to viral pathogenesis, disease progression, and the associated immune response during the course of this complex interplay. The impact of HIV-1 and substance abuse on hepatitis virus-induced disease is also a focal point. PMID:22973853

  10. Substance abuse, HIV-1 and hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Nirzari; Nonnemacher, Michael R; Pirrone, Vanessa; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand; Wigdahl, Brian

    2012-10-01

    During the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease, the virus has been shown to effectively escape the immune response with the subsequent establishment of latent viral reservoirs in specific cell populations within the peripheral blood (PB) and associated lymphoid tissues, bone marrow (BM), brain, and potentially other end organs. HIV-1, along with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), are known to share similar routes of transmission, including intravenous drug use, blood transfusions, sexual intercourse, and perinatal exposure. Substance abuse, including the use of opioids and cocaine, is a significant risk factor for exposure to HIV-1 and the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, as well as HBV and HCV exposure, infection, and disease. Thus, coinfection with HIV-1 and HBV or HCV is common and may be impacted by chronic substance abuse during the course of disease. HIV- 1 impacts the natural course of HBV and HCV infection by accelerating the progression of HBV/HCV-associated liver disease toward end-stage cirrhosis and quantitative depletion of the CD4+ T-cell compartment. HBV or HCV coinfection with HIV-1 is also associated with increased mortality when compared to either infection alone. This review focuses on the impact of substance abuse and coinfection with HBV and HCV in the PB, BM, and brain on the HIV-1 pathogenic process as it relates to viral pathogenesis, disease progression, and the associated immune response during the course of this complex interplay. The impact of HIV-1 and substance abuse on hepatitis virus-induced disease is also a focal point.

  11. Molecular cloning of skin peptide precursor-encoding cDNAs from tibial gland secretion of the Giant Monkey Frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor (Hylidae, Anura).

    PubMed

    König, Enrico; Clark, Valerie C; Shaw, Chris; Bininda-Emonds, Olaf R P

    2012-12-01

    The skins of phyllomedusine frogs have long been considered as being tremendously rich sources of bioactive peptides. Previous studies of both peptides and cloning of their precursor encoding cDNAs have relied upon methanolic skin extracts or the dissected skins of recently deceased specimens and have not considered the different glands in isolation. We therefore focused our attention on the tibial gland of the Giant Monkey Frog, Phyllomedusa bicolor and constructed a cDNA library from the skin secretion that was obtained via mechanical stimulation of this macrogland. Using shotgun cloning, four precursors encoding host-defense peptides were identified: two archetypal dermaseptins, a phyllokinin and a phylloseptin that is new for this species but has been recently described from the Waxy Monkey Leaf Frog, Phyllomedusa sauvagii. Our study is the first to report defensive peptides specifically isolated from anuran tibial glands, confirming the hypothesis that these glands also contribute to chemical defense. Moreover, the discovery of novel compounds for this otherwise very well characterized species suggests that this largely neglected gland might possess a different cocktail of secretions from glands elsewhere in the same animal. We will also discuss some evolutionary implications of our findings with respect to the adaptive plasticity of secretory glands. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) from HIV-1 subtype C-infected Indian patients recognize CTL epitopes from a conserved immunodominant region of HIV-1 Gag and Nef.

    PubMed

    Thakar, Madhuri R; Bhonge, Leena S; Lakhashe, Samir K; Shankarkumar, U; Sane, Suvarna S; Kulkarni, Smita S; Mahajan, Bharati A; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2005-09-01

    Analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes recognized by the targeted population is critical for HIV-1 vaccine design. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 47 Indian subjects at different stages of HIV-1 infection were tested for HIV-1 Gag-, Nef-, and Env-specific T cell responses by interferon (IFN)- gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, using pools of overlapping peptides. The Gag and Nef antigens were targeted by 83% and 36% of responders. Five immunodominant regions, 4 in Gag and 1 in Nef, were identified in the study; these regions are conserved across clades, including the African subtype C clade. Three antigenic regions were also found to be recognized by CTLs of the study participants. These regions were not identified as immunodominant regions in studies performed in Africa, which highlights the importance of differential clustering of responses within HIV-1 subtype C. Twenty-six putative epitopes--15 Gag (10 in p24 and 5 in p17), 10 Nef, and 1 Env (gp 41)--were predicted using a combination of peptide matrix ELISPOT assay and CTL epitope-prediction software. Ninety percent of the predicted epitopes were clustered in the conserved immunodominant regions of the Gag and Nef antigens. Of 26 predicted epitopes, 8 were promiscuous, 3 of which were highly conserved across clades. Three Gag and 4 Nef epitopes were novel. The identification of conserved epitopes will be important in the planning of an HIV-1 vaccine strategy for subtype C-affected regions.

  13. A structure-based approach to a synthetic vaccine for HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, E; Wang, M; Parren, P W; Stanfield, R L; Satterthwait, A C

    2000-11-28

    The generation of neutralizing antibodies by peptide immunization is dependent on achieving conformational compatibility between antibodies and native protein. Consequently, approaches are needed for developing conformational mimics of protein neutralization sites. We replace putative main-chain hydrogen bonds (NH --> O=CRNH) with a hydrazone link (N-N=CH-CH(2)CH(2)) and scan constrained peptides for fit with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). To explore this approach, a V3 MAb 58.2 that potently neutralizes T-cell lab-adapted HIV-1(MN) was used to identify a cyclic peptide, [JHIGPGR(Aib)F(D-Ala)GZ]G-NH(2) (loop 5), that binds with >1000-fold higher affinity than the unconstrained peptide. NMR structural studies suggested that loop 5 stabilized beta-turns at GPGR and R(Aib)F(D-Ala) in aqueous solvent implying considerable conformational mimicry of a Fab 58.2 bound V3 peptide determined by X-ray crystallography [Stanfield, R. L. et al. (1999) Structure 142, 131-142]. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) generated to loop 5 but not to the corresponding uncyclized peptide bound the HIV-1(MN) envelope glycoprotein, gp120. When individual rabbit antisera were scanned with linear and cyclic peptides, further animal-to-animal differences in antibody populations were characterized. Loop 5 PAbs that most closely mimicked MAb 58.2 neutralized HIV-1(MN) with similar potency. These results demonstrate the remarkable effect that conformation can have on peptide affinity and immunogenicity and identify an approach that can be used to achieve these results. The implications for synthetic vaccine and HIV-1 vaccine research are discussed.

  14. Functional characteristics of the natural polymorphisms of HIV-1 gp41 in HIV-1 isolates from enfuvirtide-naïve Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Shin, YoungHyun; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Yang, Hyo-Jin; Lim, Hoyong; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Kim, Sung Soon; Kang, Chun

    2016-06-01

    HIV-1 gp41 plays a key role in viral entry. The insertion of Thr at position 4 and Met/Val/Phe substitutions at position 7 are frequently observed in the fusion peptide (FP) motif of gp41 without major enfuvirtide resistance associated with mutation in heptad repeats 1/2 (HR1/2) of HIV-1 isolates from Korean patients. Here, the influence of these mutations on their biological function was evaluated by employing HIV-1 variants with mutant FPs as shown previously and with recombinant HIV-1 using the env genes of 20 HIV-1 isolates from Korean patients. In an infectivity assay, all FP mutants showed lower infectivity than the wild-type NL4-3. In particular, the substitutions at position 7 led to much greater reductions in infectivity than the insertions at position 4. Nevertheless, the replication kinetics of most mutants were similar to those of the wild type, except that the FP mutants with an Ile insertion at position 4 and a Phe substitution at position 7 showed reduced replication. Moreover, most point mutants showed lower IC50 values for enfuvirtide than the wild type, whereas the L7M substitution resulted in a slightly increased IC50 value. The infectivity using the HIV-1 env recombinant viruses decreased in 14 cases but increased slightly in six cases compared with the wild type. Most recombinants were more susceptible to enfuvirtide than the wild type, except for three recombinants that showed slight resistance. Our findings may help to explain the potential mechanisms corresponding to the natural polymorphism of gp41 and to predict the efficiency of enfuvirtide in treatment of HIV-1-infected patients in Korea.

  15. Exosomes: Implications in HIV-1 Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Marisa N.; Okeoma, Chioma M.

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles of endocytic origin that carry host and pathogen derived genomic, proteomic, and lipid cargos. Exosomes are secreted by most cell types into the extracellular milieu and are subsequently internalized by recipient cells. Upon internalization, exosomes condition recipient cells by donating their cargos and/or activating various signal transduction pathways, consequently regulating physiological and pathophysiological processes. The role of exosomes in viral pathogenesis, especially human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [HIV-1] is beginning to unravel. Recent research reports suggest that exosomes from various sources play important but different roles in the pathogenesis of HIV-1. From these reports, it appears that the source of exosomes is the defining factor for the exosomal effect on HIV-1. In this review, we will describe how HIV-1 infection is modulated by exosomes and in turn how exosomes are targeted by HIV-1 factors. Finally, we will discuss potentially emerging therapeutic options based on exosomal cargos that may have promise in preventing HIV-1 transmission. PMID:26205405

  16. Exosomes: Implications in HIV-1 Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Madison, Marisa N; Okeoma, Chioma M

    2015-07-20

    Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles of endocytic origin that carry host and pathogen derived genomic, proteomic, and lipid cargos. Exosomes are secreted by most cell types into the extracellular milieu and are subsequently internalized by recipient cells. Upon internalization, exosomes condition recipient cells by donating their cargos and/or activating various signal transduction pathways, consequently regulating physiological and pathophysiological processes. The role of exosomes in viral pathogenesis, especially human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [HIV-1] is beginning to unravel. Recent research reports suggest that exosomes from various sources play important but different roles in the pathogenesis of HIV-1. From these reports, it appears that the source of exosomes is the defining factor for the exosomal effect on HIV-1. In this review, we will describe how HIV-1 infection is modulated by exosomes and in turn how exosomes are targeted by HIV-1 factors. Finally, we will discuss potentially emerging therapeutic options based on exosomal cargos that may have promise in preventing HIV-1 transmission.

  17. HIV-1 transmission linkage in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, Thomas; Campbell, Mary S; Mullins, James I; Hughes, James P; Wong, Kim G; Raugi, Dana N; Scrensen, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 sequencing has been used extensively in epidemiologic and forensic studies to investigate patterns of HIV-1 transmission. However, the criteria for establishing genetic linkage between HIV-1 strains in HIV-1 prevention trials have not been formalized. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicaITrials.gov NCT00194519) enrolled 3408 HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual African couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression with acyclovir in reducing HIV-1 transmission. The trial analysis required laboratory confirmation of HIV-1 linkage between enrolled partners in couples in which seroconversion occurred. Here we describe the process and results from HIV-1 sequencing studies used to perform transmission linkage determination in this clinical trial. Consensus Sanger sequencing of env (C2-V3-C3) and gag (p17-p24) genes was performed on plasma HIV-1 RNA from both partners within 3 months of seroconversion; env single molecule or pyrosequencing was also performed in some cases. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between HIV-1 sequences in the transmitting and seroconverting partners, and developed a Bayesian algorithm using genetic distances to evaluate the posterior probability of linkage of participants sequences. Adjudicators classified transmissions as linked, unlinked, or indeterminate. Among 151 seroconversion events, we found 108 (71.5%) linked, 40 (26.5%) unlinked, and 3 (2.0%) to have indeterminate transmissions. Nine (8.3%) were linked by consensus gag sequencing only and 8 (7.4%) required deep sequencing of env. In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner, illustrating the relevance of these methods in the design of future HIV-1 prevention trials in serodiscordant couples. A hierarchy of sequencing techniques, analysis methods, and expert adjudication contributed to the linkage

  18. A novel approach to block HIV-1 coreceptor CXCR4 in non-toxic manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Zhou, Jieqiong; Pan, Ji-An; Mabiala, Prudence; Guo, Deyin

    2014-10-01

    The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is one of the major coreceptors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and considered as an important therapeutic target. Knockdown of CXCR4 by RNA interference has emerged as a promising strategy for combating HIV-1 infection. However, there is a potential drawback to this strategy as undesired side effects may occur due to the loss of natural function of CXCR4. In this study, we developed a novel approach using a single lentiviral vector to express simultaneously CXCR4 dual-shRNAs and an shRNA-resistant CXCR4 mutant possessing the most possible natural functions of CXCR4 and reduced HIV-1 coreceptor activity. Via this approach we achieved the replacement of endogenous CXCR4 by CXCR4 mutant P191A that could compensate the functional loss of endogenous CXCR4 and significant reduction of HIV-1 replication by 59.2 %. Besides, we demonstrated that construction of recombinant lentiviral vector using 2A peptide-based strategy has significant advantages over using additional promoter-based strategy, including increase of lentivirus titer and avoidance of promoter competition. Therefore, the novel approach to block HIV-1 coreceptor CXCR4 without impairing its normal function provides a new strategy for CXCR4-targeted therapeutics for HIV-1 infection and potential universal applications to knock down a cellular protein in non-toxic manner.

  19. Recombinant multi-epitope vaccine induce predefined epitope-specific antibodies against HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Liu, Zu-Qiang; Ding, Jian; Chen, Ying-Hua

    2002-11-01

    Monoclonal antibody 2F5 recognizing ELDKWA-epitope on HIV-1 gp41 has significant neutralization potency against 90% of the investigated viruses of African, Asia, American and European strains, but antibodies responses to ELDKWA-epitope in HIV-1 infected individuals were very low. Based on the epitope-vaccine strategy suggested by us, a recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein (GST-MELDKWAGELDKWAGELDKWAVDIGPGRAFYGPGRAFYGPGRAFY) as vaccine antigen containing three repeats of neutralizing epitope ELDKWA on gp41 and GPGRAFY on gp120 was designed and expressed in Escherichia coli. After vaccination course, the recombinant multi-epitope vaccine could induce high levels of predefined multi-epitope-specific antibodies in mice. These antibodies in sera could bind to both neutralizing epitopes on gp41 peptide, V3 loop peptide and recombinant soluble gp41 (aa539-684) in ELISA assay (antisera dilution: 1:1,600-25,600), while normal sera did not. Moreover, these antibodies in sera could recognize the CHO-WT cells which expressed HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein on the cell surfaces, indicating that the predefined epitope-specific antibodies could recognize natural envelope protein of HIV-1 though these antibodies were induced by recombinant multi-epitope-vaccine. These experimental results suggested a possible way to develop recombinant multi-epitope vaccine inducing multi-antiviral activities against HIV-1.

  20. A novel and rapid assay for HIV-1 protease detection using magnetic bead mediation.

    PubMed

    Esseghaier, Chiheb; Ng, Andy; Zourob, Mohammed

    2013-03-15

    A simple sensing assay was established for label-free detection of HIV-1 protease. HIV-1 protease peptide substrate conjugated to magnetic beads via its N-terminus is directly fixed onto the sensor gold surface through the sulphur atom of cysteine. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to study the peptide substrate cleavage efficiency of the protease with magnetic beads of different sizes (1 μm and 30 nm). Cyclic voltammetry and faradic impedance spectroscopy were employed in order to characterize the functionalized gold electrode. It was found that the nano-sized beads are a more efficient sensing probe for the protease. Electrochemical biosensing showed a gradual decrease in charge transfer resistance after injection of the HIV-1 protease. The experimental data established a detection limit of 10 pg/ml, as well as demonstrated a drug screening assay. This HIV-1 protease biosensor represents a new detection approach which will lead to low-cost point-of-care devices for sensitive HIV-1 diagnosis, as well as high-throughput drug screening platforms.

  1. Inhibition of replication of HIV-1 at both early and late stages of the viral life cycle by single-chain antibody against viral integrase.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Y; Ishikawa, T; Okui, N; Kobayashi, N; Kanda, T; Shimada, T; Miyake, K; Yoshiike, K

    1999-02-01

    Retroviruses including HIV-1 integrates a DNA copy of their RNA genome into cellular DNA of the infected cell. This reaction, essential and unique to replication of retroviruses, is mediated by the viral enzyme, integrase (IN). We constructed a recombinant gene encoding a single-chain, antigen-binding peptide (scAb2-19), which interacted with a carboxyl terminal part of HIV-1 IN. HeLa CD4 cells expressing scAb2-19 localized in either cytoplasmic or nuclear compartment were resistant to HIV-1 infection at an multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.25 or 0.063, but the resistance was overcome when MOI was increased to 1. To determine whether this resistance was due to inhibition of the early events, transduction experiments were performed with a replication-incompetent HIV-1 vector carrying bacterial lacZ driven by an internal Tat-independent cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter. Both cytoplasmic and nuclear expressions of scAb2-19 resulted in decrease in the transduction efficiency on HeLa CD4 cells. This implies that an early step of replication--before or during integration--was affected by the scAb2-19. Furthermore, cytoplasmic expression of scAb2-19 did not affect the viral amount released from the cells transfected with HIV-1 infectious clone DNA (pLAI). However, infectivity relative to reverse transcriptase activity was lower for virions released from the 293T cells cotransfected with pLAI and the cytoplasmic scAb2-19 expression plasmid than for those released from the 293T cells transfected with pLAI alone. This implies that scAb2-19 reduced infectivity of released virions by interfering a late step of the viral replication. The single-chain, antigen-binding peptide molecule may prove useful not only for studies of the functions of IN and its role in the viral life cycle but also for developing a gene therapy strategy against AIDS.

  2. Artificial polyepitope HIV-1 immunogen containing mimotope of 2F5 epitope.

    PubMed

    Shcherbakova, Nadezhda S; Shcherbakov, Dmitry N; Bakulina, Anastasiya Yu; Karpenko, Larisa I; Ryzhikov, Alexander B; Ilyichev, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    Constructing a vaccine against HIV-1, able to induce production of broadly neutralizing antibodies, is crucial. We report here the selection and characterization of RDWSFDRWSLSEFWL peptide mimotope that binds specifically to bNAbs 2F5. The peptide mimotope was selected from 15-mer phage-displayed peptide library by using Mab 2F5 as the selecting agent. The most abundant RDWSFDRWSLSEFWL peptide was inserted into a carrier, an artificial polyepitope immunogen - TBI (T- and B-cell immunogen). TBI-2F5 polyepitope immunogen that includes the mimotope of 2F5 epitope was constructed. It was shown that sera of mice immunized with TBI-2F5 protein recognized TBI protein as well as RDWSFDRWSLSEFWL peptide. The capacity of sera of immunized mice to neutralize HIV-1 was demonstrated using subtype B env-pseudoviruses of HIV-1 QH0692.42 and PVO.4. Based on these results, we conclude that peptide mimotope of 2F5 epitope RDWSFDRWSLSEFWL can be an essential component for a successful HIV-vaccine.

  3. Identification of Owl Monkey CD4 Receptors Broadly Compatible with Early-Stage HIV-1 Isolates.

    PubMed

    Meyerson, Nicholas R; Sharma, Amit; Wilkerson, Gregory K; Overbaugh, Julie; Sawyer, Sara L

    2015-08-01

    Most HIV-1 variants isolated from early-stage human infections do not use nonhuman primate versions of the CD4 receptor for cellular entry, or they do so poorly. We and others have previously shown that CD4 has experienced strong natural selection over the course of primate speciation, but it is unclear whether this selection has influenced the functional characteristics of CD4 as an HIV-1 receptor. Surprisingly, we find that selection on CD4 has been most intense in the New World monkeys, animals that have never been found to harbor lentiviruses related to HIV-1. Based on this, we sampled CD4 genetic diversity within populations of individuals from seven different species, including five species of New World monkeys. We found that some, but not all, CD4 alleles found in Spix's owl monkeys (Aotus vociferans) encode functional receptors for early-stage human HIV-1 isolates representing all of the major group M clades (A, B, C, and D). However, only some isolates of HIV-1 subtype C can use the CD4 receptor encoded by permissive Spix's owl monkey alleles. We characterized the prevalence of functional CD4 alleles in a colony of captive Spix's owl monkeys and found that 88% of surveyed individuals are homozygous for permissive CD4 alleles, which encode an asparagine at position 39 of the receptor. We found that the CD4 receptors encoded by two other species of owl monkeys (Aotus azarae and Aotus nancymaae) also serve as functional entry receptors for early-stage isolates of HIV-1. Nonhuman primates, particularly macaques, are used for preclinical evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates. However, a significant limitation of the macaque model is the fact that most circulating HIV-1 variants cannot use the macaque CD4 receptor to enter cells and have to be adapted to these species. This is particularly true for viral variants from early stages of infection, which represent the most relevant vaccine targets. In this study, we found that some individuals from captive owl

  4. Identification of Owl Monkey CD4 Receptors Broadly Compatible with Early-Stage HIV-1 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Nicholas R.; Sharma, Amit; Wilkerson, Gregory K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most HIV-1 variants isolated from early-stage human infections do not use nonhuman primate versions of the CD4 receptor for cellular entry, or they do so poorly. We and others have previously shown that CD4 has experienced strong natural selection over the course of primate speciation, but it is unclear whether this selection has influenced the functional characteristics of CD4 as an HIV-1 receptor. Surprisingly, we find that selection on CD4 has been most intense in the New World monkeys, animals that have never been found to harbor lentiviruses related to HIV-1. Based on this, we sampled CD4 genetic diversity within populations of individuals from seven different species, including five species of New World monkeys. We found that some, but not all, CD4 alleles found in Spix's owl monkeys (Aotus vociferans) encode functional receptors for early-stage human HIV-1 isolates representing all of the major group M clades (A, B, C, and D). However, only some isolates of HIV-1 subtype C can use the CD4 receptor encoded by permissive Spix's owl monkey alleles. We characterized the prevalence of functional CD4 alleles in a colony of captive Spix's owl monkeys and found that 88% of surveyed individuals are homozygous for permissive CD4 alleles, which encode an asparagine at position 39 of the receptor. We found that the CD4 receptors encoded by two other species of owl monkeys (Aotus azarae and Aotus nancymaae) also serve as functional entry receptors for early-stage isolates of HIV-1. IMPORTANCE Nonhuman primates, particularly macaques, are used for preclinical evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates. However, a significant limitation of the macaque model is the fact that most circulating HIV-1 variants cannot use the macaque CD4 receptor to enter cells and have to be adapted to these species. This is particularly true for viral variants from early stages of infection, which represent the most relevant vaccine targets. In this study, we found that some individuals

  5. Antigenicity and Immunogenicity of a Trimeric Envelope Protein from an Indian Clade C HIV-1 Isolate*

    PubMed Central

    Sneha Priya, Rangasamy; Veena, Menon; Kalisz, Irene; Whitney, Stephen; Priyanka, Dhopeshwarkar; LaBranche, Celia C.; Sri Teja, Mullapudi; Montefiori, David C.; Pal, Ranajit; Mahalingam, Sundarasamy; Kalyanaraman, Vaniambadi S.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates from India mainly belong to clade C and are quite distinct from clade C isolates from Africa in terms of their phylogenetic makeup, serotype, and sensitivity to known human broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Because many of these properties are associated with the envelope proteins of HIV-1, it is of interest to study the envelope proteins of Indian clade C isolates as part of the ongoing efforts to develop a vaccine against HIV-1. To this end, we purified trimeric uncleaved gp145 of a CCR5 tropic Indian clade C HIV-1 (93IN101) from the conditioned medium of 293 cells. The purified protein was shown to be properly folded with stable structure by circular dichroism. Conformational integrity was further demonstrated by its high affinity binding to soluble CD4, CD4 binding site antibodies such as b12 and VRC01, quaternary epitope-specific antibody PG9, and CD4-induced epitope-specific antibody 17b. Sera from rabbits immunized with gp145 elicited high titer antibodies to various domains of gp120 and neutralized a broad spectrum of clade B and clade C HIV-1 isolates. Similar to other clade B and clade C envelope immunogens, most of the Tier 1 neutralizing activity could be absorbed with the V3-specific peptide. Subsequent boosting of these rabbits with a clade B HIV-1 Bal gp145 resulted in an expanded breadth of neutralization of HIV-1 isolates. The present study strongly supports the inclusion of envelopes from Indian isolates in a future mixture of HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:25691567

  6. Newly Exerted T Cell Pressures on Mutated Epitopes following Transmission Help Maintain Consensus HIV-1 Sequences.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Emily M; Liegler, Teri; Keh, Chris E; Karlsson, Annika C; Holditch, Sara J; Pilcher, Christopher D; Loeb, Lisa; Nixon, Douglas F; Hecht, Frederick M

    2014-01-01

    CD8+ T cells are important for HIV-1 virus control, but are also a major contributing factor that drives HIV-1 virus sequence evolution. Although HIV-1 cytotoxic T cell (CTL) escape mutations are a common aspect during HIV-1 infection, less is known about the importance of T cell pressure in reversing HIV-1 virus back to a consensus sequences. In this study we aimed to assess the frequency with which reversion of transmitted mutations in T cell epitopes were associated with T cell responses to the mutation. This study included 14 HIV-1 transmission pairs consisting of a 'source' (virus-donor) and a 'recipient' (newly infected individual). Non-consensus B sequence amino acids (mutations) in T cell epitopes in HIV-1 gag regions p17, p24, p2 and p7 were identified in each pair and transmission of mutations to the recipient was verified with population viral sequencing. Longitudinal analyses of the recipient's viral sequence were used to identify whether reversion of mutations back to the consensus B sequence occurred. Autologous 12-mer peptides overlapping by 11 were synthesized, representing the sequence region surrounding each reversion and longitudinal analysis of T cell responses to source-derived mutated and reverted epitopes were assessed. We demonstrated that mutations in the source were frequently transmitted to the new host and on an average 17 percent of mutated epitopes reverted to consensus sequence in the recipient. T cell responses to these mutated epitopes were detected in 7 of the 14 recipients in whom reversion occurred. Overall, these findings indicate that transmitted non-consensus B epitopes are frequently immunogenic in HLA-mismatched recipients and new T cell pressures to T cell escape mutations following transmission play a significant role in maintaining consensus HIV-1 sequences.

  7. Early type I Interferon response induces upregulation of human β-defensin 1 during acute HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Corleis, Björn; Lisanti, Antonella C; Körner, Christian; Schiff, Abigail E; Rosenberg, Eric S; Allen, Todd M; Altfeld, Marcus; Kwon, Douglas S

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 is able to evade innate antiviral responses during acute infection to establish a chronic systemic infection which, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART), typically progresses to severe immunodeficiency. Understanding these early innate immune responses against HIV-1 and their mechanisms of failure is relevant to the development of interventions to better prevent HIV-1 transmission. Human beta defensins (HBDs) are antibacterial peptides but have recently also been associated with control of viral replication. HBD1 and 2 are expressed in PBMCs as well as intestinal tissue, but their expression in vivo during HIV-1 infection has not been characterized. We demonstrate that during acute HIV-1 infection, HBD1 but not HBD2 is highly upregulated in circulating monocytes but returns to baseline levels during chronic infection. HBD1 expression in monocytes can be induced by HIV-1 in vitro, although direct infection may not entirely account for the increase in HBD1 during acute infection. We provide evidence that HIV-1 triggers antiviral IFN-α responses, which act as a potent inducer of HBD1. Our results show the first characterization of induction of an HBD during acute and chronic viral infection in humans. HBD1 has been reported to have low activity against HIV-1 compared to other defensins, suggesting that in vivo induced defensins may not significantly contribute to the robust early antiviral response against HIV-1. These data provide important insight into the in vivo kinetics of HBD expression, the mechanism of HBD1 induction by HIV-1, and the role of HBDs in the early innate response to HIV-1 during acute infection.

  8. Early type I Interferon response induces upregulation of human β-defensin 1 during acute HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Lisanti, Antonella C.; Körner, Christian; Schiff, Abigail E.; Rosenberg, Eric S.; Allen, Todd M.; Altfeld, Marcus; Kwon, Douglas S.

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 is able to evade innate antiviral responses during acute infection to establish a chronic systemic infection which, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART), typically progresses to severe immunodeficiency. Understanding these early innate immune responses against HIV-1 and their mechanisms of failure is relevant to the development of interventions to better prevent HIV-1 transmission. Human beta defensins (HBDs) are antibacterial peptides but have recently also been associated with control of viral replication. HBD1 and 2 are expressed in PBMCs as well as intestinal tissue, but their expression in vivo during HIV-1 infection has not been characterized. We demonstrate that during acute HIV-1 infection, HBD1 but not HBD2 is highly upregulated in circulating monocytes but returns to baseline levels during chronic infection. HBD1 expression in monocytes can be induced by HIV-1 in vitro, although direct infection may not entirely account for the increase in HBD1 during acute infection. We provide evidence that HIV-1 triggers antiviral IFN-α responses, which act as a potent inducer of HBD1. Our results show the first characterization of induction of an HBD during acute and chronic viral infection in humans. HBD1 has been reported to have low activity against HIV-1 compared to other defensins, suggesting that in vivo induced defensins may not significantly contribute to the robust early antiviral response against HIV-1. These data provide important insight into the in vivo kinetics of HBD expression, the mechanism of HBD1 induction by HIV-1, and the role of HBDs in the early innate response to HIV-1 during acute infection. PMID:28253319

  9. Role of APOBEC3F Gene Variation in HIV-1 Disease Progression and Pneumocystis Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    An, Ping; Penugonda, Sudhir; Thorball, Christian W; Bartha, Istvan; Goedert, James J; Donfield, Sharyne; Buchbinder, Susan; Binns-Roemer, Elizabeth; Kirk, Gregory D; Zhang, Wenyan; Fellay, Jacques; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Winkler, Cheryl A

    2016-03-01

    Human APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases are intrinsic resistance factors to HIV-1. However, HIV-1 encodes a viral infectivity factor (Vif) that degrades APOBEC3 proteins. In vitro APOBEC3F (A3F) anti-HIV-1 activity is weaker than A3G but is partially resistant to Vif degradation unlike A3G. It is unknown whether A3F protein affects HIV-1 disease in vivo. To assess the effect of A3F gene on host susceptibility to HIV- acquisition and disease progression, we performed a genetic association study in six well-characterized HIV-1 natural cohorts. A common six-Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) haplotype of A3F tagged by a codon-changing variant (p. I231V, with allele (V) frequency of 48% in European Americans) was associated with significantly lower set-point viral load and slower rate of progression to AIDS (Relative Hazards (RH) = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.91) and delayed development of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) (RH = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.37-0.76). A validation study in the International Collaboration for the Genomics of HIV (ICGH) showed a consistent association with lower set-point viral load. An in vitro assay revealed that the A3F I231V variant may influence Vif mediated A3F degradation. Our results provide genetic epidemiological evidence that A3F modulates HIV-1/AIDS disease progression.

  10. Immunoglobulin gene insertions and deletions in the affinity maturation of HIV-1 broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Thomas B; Liao, Hua-Xin; Alam, S Munir; Bhaskarabhatla, Rekha; Zhang, Ruijun; Yandava, Chandri; Stewart, Shelley; Anasti, Kara; Kelsoe, Garnett; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey E; Stolarchuk, Christina; Pritchett, Jamie; Solomon, Erika; Friberg, Emma; Morris, Lynn; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Cohen, Myron S; Walter, Emmanuel; Moody, M Anthony; Wu, Xueling; Altae-Tran, Han R; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Kwong, Peter D; Boyd, Scott D; Fire, Andrew Z; Mascola, John R; Haynes, Barton F

    2014-09-10

    Induction of HIV-1 broad neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a goal of HIV-1 vaccine development but has remained challenging partially due to unusual traits of bnAbs, including high somatic hypermutation (SHM) frequencies and in-frame insertions and deletions (indels). Here we examined the propensity and functional requirement for indels within HIV-1 bnAbs. High-throughput sequencing of the immunoglobulin (Ig) VHDJH genes in HIV-1 infected and uninfected individuals revealed that the indel frequency was elevated among HIV-1-infected subjects, with no unique properties attributable to bnAb-producing individuals. This increased indel occurrence depended only on the frequency of SHM point mutations. Indel-encoded regions were generally proximal to antigen binding sites. Additionally, reconstruction of a HIV-1 CD4-binding site bnAb clonal lineage revealed that a large compound VHDJH indel was required for bnAb activity. Thus, vaccine development should focus on designing regimens targeted at sustained activation of bnAb lineages to achieve the required SHM and indel events.

  11. Role of APOBEC3F Gene Variation in HIV-1 Disease Progression and Pneumocystis Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    An, Ping; Penugonda, Sudhir; Thorball, Christian W.; Bartha, Istvan; Goedert, James J.; Donfield, Sharyne; Buchbinder, Susan; Binns-Roemer, Elizabeth; Kirk, Gregory D.; Zhang, Wenyan; Fellay, Jacques; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Winkler, Cheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    Human APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases are intrinsic resistance factors to HIV-1. However, HIV-1 encodes a viral infectivity factor (Vif) that degrades APOBEC3 proteins. In vitro APOBEC3F (A3F) anti-HIV-1 activity is weaker than A3G but is partially resistant to Vif degradation unlike A3G. It is unknown whether A3F protein affects HIV-1 disease in vivo. To assess the effect of A3F gene on host susceptibility to HIV- acquisition and disease progression, we performed a genetic association study in six well-characterized HIV-1 natural cohorts. A common six-Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) haplotype of A3F tagged by a codon-changing variant (p. I231V, with allele (V) frequency of 48% in European Americans) was associated with significantly lower set-point viral load and slower rate of progression to AIDS (Relative Hazards (RH) = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.91) and delayed development of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) (RH = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.37–0.76). A validation study in the International Collaboration for the Genomics of HIV (ICGH) showed a consistent association with lower set-point viral load. An in vitro assay revealed that the A3F I231V variant may influence Vif mediated A3F degradation. Our results provide genetic epidemiological evidence that A3F modulates HIV-1/AIDS disease progression. PMID:26942578

  12. Immunoglobulin Gene Insertions and Deletions in the Affinity Maturation of HIV-1 Broadly Reactive Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kepler, Thomas B.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Alam, S. Munir; Bhaskarabhatla, Rekha; Zhang, Ruijun; Stewart, Shelley; Anasti, Kara; Kelsoe, Garnett; Parks, Robert; Lloyd, Krissey E.; Stolarchuk, Christina; Pritchett, Jamie; Solomon, Erika; Friberg, Emma; Morris, Lynn; Karim, Salim S. Abdool; Cohen, Myron S.; Walter, Emmanuel; Moody, M. Anthony; Wu, Xueling; Altae-Tran, Han R.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Kwong, Peter D.; Boyd, Scott D.; Fire, Andrew Z.; Mascola, John R.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Induction of HIV-1 broad neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a goal of HIV-1 vaccine development but has remained challenging partially due to unusual traits of bnAbs, including high somatic hypermutation (SHM) frequencies and in-frame insertions and deletions (indels). Here we examined the propensity and functional requirement for indels within HIV-1 bnAbs. High-throughput sequencing of the immunoglobulin (Ig) VHDJH genes in HIV-1 infected and uninfected individuals revealed that the indel frequency was elevated among HIV-1-infected subjects, with no unique properties attributable to bnAb-producing individuals. This increased indel occurrence depended only on the frequency of SHM point-mutations. Indel-encoded regions were generally proximal to antigen binding sites. Additionally, reconstruction of a HIV-1 CD4-binding site bnAb clonal lineage revealed that a large compound VHDJH indel was required for bnAb activity. Thus, vaccine development should focus on designing regimens targeted at sustained activation of bnAb lineages to achieve the required SHM and indel events. PMID:25211073

  13. The immunosuppressive role of IL-32 in lymphatic tissue during HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anthony J; Toledo, Chad M; Wietgrefe, Stephen W; Duan, Lijie; Schacker, Timothy W; Reilly, Cavan S; Haase, Ashley T

    2011-06-01

    One pathological hallmark of HIV-1 infection is chronic activation of the immune system, driven, in part, by increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines. The host attempts to counterbalance this prolonged immune activation through compensatory mediators of immune suppression. We recently identified a gene encoding the proinflammatory cytokine IL-32 in microarray studies of HIV-1 infection in lymphatic tissue (LT) and show in this study that increased expression of IL-32 in both gut and LT of HIV-1-infected individuals may have a heretofore unappreciated role as a mediator of immune suppression. We show that: 1) IL-32 expression is increased in CD4(+) T cells, B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and epithelial cells in vivo; 2) IL-32 induces the expression of immunosuppressive molecules IDO and Ig-like transcript 4 in immune cells in vitro; and 3) in vivo, IL-32-associated IDO/Ig-like transcript 4 expression in LT macrophages and gut epithelial cells decreases immune activation but also may impair host defenses, supporting productive viral replication, thereby accounting for the correlation between IL-32 levels and HIV-1 replication in LT. Thus, during HIV-1 infection, we propose that IL-32 moderates chronic immune activation to avert associated immunopathology but at the same time dampens the antiviral immune response and thus paradoxically supports HIV-1 replication and viral persistence.

  14. Semen Bacterial Concentrations and HIV-1 RNA Shedding Among HIV-1–Seropositive Kenyan Men

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sujatha; Huang, Dandi; Ko, Daisy L.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Peshu, Norbert M.; Krieger, John N.; Muller, Charles H.; Coombs, Robert W.; Fredricks, David N.; Graham, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: HIV-1 is transmitted through semen from men to their sexual partners. Genital infections can increase HIV-1 RNA shedding in semen, but shedding also occurs in the absence of typical pathogens. We hypothesized that higher bacterial concentrations in semen would be associated with higher HIV-1 RNA levels. Methods: We analyzed semen samples from 42 HIV-1–seropositive Kenyan men using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess bacterial concentrations and real-time PCR to measure HIV-1 RNA levels. Generalized estimation equations were used to evaluate associations between these 2 measures. Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR with pyrosequencing was performed on a subset of 13 samples to assess bacterial community composition. Results: Bacteria were detected in 96.6% of 88 samples by quantitative PCR. Semen bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA levels were correlated 0.30 (P = 0.01). The association between bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA detection was not significant after adjustment for antiretroviral therapy (ART) (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.91). Factors associated with semen bacterial concentration included insertive anal sex (adjusted beta 0.92, 95% CI: 0.12 to 1.73) and ART use (adjusted beta: −0.77, 95% CI: −1.50 to 0.04). Among 13 samples with pyrosequencing data, Corynebacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. were most frequently detected. Conclusion: Most of these HIV-1–infected men had bacteria in their semen. ART use was associated with undetectable semen HIV-1 RNA and lower semen bacterial concentrations, whereas insertive anal sex was associated with higher bacterial concentrations. Additional studies evaluating the relationship between semen bacteria, inflammation, mucosal immunity, and HIV-1 shedding are needed to understand implications for HIV-1 transmission. PMID:27861240

  15. Global analysis of host-pathogen interactions that regulate early stage HIV-1 replication

    PubMed Central

    König, Renate; Zhou, Yingyao; Elleder, Daniel; Diamond, Tracy L.; Bonamy, Ghislain M.C.; Irelan, Jeffrey T.; Chiang, Chih-yuan; Tu, Buu P.; De Jesus, Paul D.; Lilley, Caroline E.; Seidel, Shannon; Opaluch, Amanda M.; Caldwell, Jeremy S.; Weitzman, Matthew D.; Kuhen, Kelli L.; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Ideker, Trey; Orth, Anthony P.; Miraglia, Loren J.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Young, John A.; Chanda, Sumit K.

    2008-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) rely upon host-encoded proteins to facilitate their replication. Here we combined genome-wide siRNA analyses with interrogation of human interactome databases to assemble a host-pathogen biochemical network containing 213 confirmed host cellular factors and 11 HIV-1-encoded proteins. Protein complexes that regulate ubiquitin conjugation, proteolysis, DNA damage response and RNA splicing were identified as important modulators of early stage HIV-1 infection. Additionally, over 40 new factors were shown to specifically influence initiation and/or kinetics of HIV-1 DNA synthesis, including cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, modulators of post-translational modification, and nucleic acid binding proteins. Finally, fifteen proteins with diverse functional roles, including nuclear transport, prostaglandin synthesis, ubiquitination, and transcription, were found to influence nuclear import or viral DNA integration. Taken together, the multi-scale approach described here has uncovered multiprotein virus-host interactions that likely act in concert to facilitate early steps of HIV-1 infection. PMID:18854154

  16. Lysosomal and cytosolic sialic acid 9-O-acetylesterase activities can Be encoded by one gene via differential usage of a signal peptide-encoding exon at the N terminus.

    PubMed

    Takematsu, H; Diaz, S; Stoddart, A; Zhang, Y; Varki, A

    1999-09-03

    9-O-Acetylation is one of the most common modifications of sialic acids, and it can affect several sialic acid-mediated recognition phenomena. We previously reported a cDNA encoding a lysosomal sialic acid-specific 9-O-acetylesterase, which traverses the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi pathway and localizes primarily to lysosomes and endosomes. In this study, we report a variant cDNA derived from the same gene that contains a different 5' region. This cDNA has a putative open reading frame lacking a signal peptide-encoding sequence and is thus a candidate for the previously described cytosolic sialic acid 9-O-acetylesterase activity. Epitope-tagged constructs confirm that the new sequence causes the protein product to be targeted to the cytosol and has esterase activity. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to distinguish the two forms of message, we show that although the lysosomal sialic acid-specific 9-O-acetylesterase message has a widespread pattern of expression in adult mouse tissues, this cytosolic sialic acid 9-O-acetylesterase form has a rather restricted distribution, with the strongest expression in the liver, ovary, and brain. Using a polyclonal antibody directed against the 69-amino acid region common to both proteins, we confirmed that the expression of glycosylated and nonglycosylated polypeptides occurred in appropriate subcellular fractions of normal mouse tissues. Rodent liver polypeptides reacting to the antibody also co-purify with previously described lysosomal sialic acid esterase activity and at least a portion of the cytosolic activity. Thus, two sialic acid 9-O-acetylesterases found in very different subcellular compartments can be encoded by a single gene by differential usage of a signal peptide-encoding exon at the N terminus. The 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends results and the differences in tissue-specific expression suggest that expression of these two products may be differentially regulated by independent promoters.

  17. Requirements for capsid-binding and an effector function in TRIMCyp-mediated restriction of HIV-1

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Vandegraaff, Nick; Li Yuan; McGee-Estrada, Kathleen; Stremlau, Matthew; Welikala, Sohanya; Si Zhihai; Engelman, Alan; Sodroski, Joseph . E-mail: joseph_sodroski@dfci.harvard.edu

    2006-08-01

    In owl monkeys, a retrotransposition event replaced the gene encoding the retroviral restriction factor TRIM5{alpha} with one encoding TRIMCyp, a fusion between the RING, B-box 2 and coiled-coil domains of TRIM5 and cyclophilin A. TRIMCyp restricts human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection by a mechanism dependent on the interaction of the cyclophilin A moiety and the HIV-1 capsid protein. Here, we show that infection by retroviruses other than HIV-1 can be restricted by TRIMCyp, providing an explanation for the evolutionary retention of the TRIMCyp gene in owl monkey lineages. The TRIMCyp-mediated block to HIV-1 infection occurs before the earliest step of reverse transcription. TRIMCyp-mediated restriction involves at least two functions: (1) capsid binding, which occurs most efficiently for trimeric TRIMCyp proteins that retain the coiled-coil and cyclophilin A domains, and (2) an effector function that depends upon the B-box 2 domain.

  18. Approaches for identification of HIV-1 entry inhibitors targeting gp41 pocket.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Lu, Lu; Du, Lanying; Zhu, Xiaojie; Debnath, Asim K; Jiang, Shibo

    2013-01-11

    The hydrophobic pocket in the HIV-1 gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) domain plays an important role in viral fusion and entry into the host cell, and serves as an attractive target for development of HIV-1 fusion/entry inhibitors. The peptide anti-HIV drug targeting gp41 NHR, T-20 (generic name: enfuvirtide; brand name: Fuzeon), was approved by the U.S. FDA in 2003 as the first HIV fusion/entry inhibitor for treatment of HIV/AIDS patients who fail to respond to the current antiretroviral drugs. However, because T20 lacks the pocket-binding domain (PBD), it exhibits low anti-HIV-1 activity and short half-life. Therefore, several next-generation HIV fusion inhibitory peptides with PBD have been developed. They possess longer half-life and more potent antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of HIV-1 strains, including the T-20-resistant variants. Nonetheless, the clinical application of these peptides is still limited by the lack of oral availability and the high cost of production. Thus, development of small molecule compounds targeting the gp41 pocket with oral availability has been promoted. This review describes the main approaches for identification of HIV fusion/entry inhibitors targeting the gp41 pocket and summarizes the latest progress in developing these inhibitors as a new class of anti-HIV drugs.

  19. N6-methyladenosine of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral infection and HIV-1 Gag protein expression

    PubMed Central

    Tirumuru, Nagaraja; Zhao, Boxuan Simen; Lu, Wuxun; Lu, Zhike; He, Chuan; Wu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The internal N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation of eukaryotic nuclear RNA controls post-transcriptional gene expression, which is regulated by methyltransferases (writers), demethylases (erasers), and m6A-binding proteins (readers) in cells. The YTH domain family proteins (YTHDF1–3) bind to m6A-modified cellular RNAs and affect RNA metabolism and processing. Here, we show that YTHDF1–3 proteins recognize m6A-modified HIV-1 RNA and inhibit HIV-1 infection in cell lines and primary CD4+ T-cells. We further mapped the YTHDF1–3 binding sites in HIV-1 RNA from infected cells. We found that the overexpression of YTHDF proteins in cells inhibited HIV-1 infection mainly by decreasing HIV-1 reverse transcription, while knockdown of YTHDF1–3 in cells had the opposite effects. Moreover, silencing the m6A writers decreased HIV-1 Gag protein expression in virus-producing cells, while silencing the m6A erasers increased Gag expression. Our findings suggest an important role of m6A modification of HIV-1 RNA in viral infection and HIV-1 protein synthesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15528.001 PMID:27371828

  20. HIV-1 Entry Inhbitors: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Kuritzkes, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review This review provides an overview of HIV-1 entry inhibitors, with a focus on chemokine receptor antagonists. Recent findings Entry of HIV-1 into target cells is an ordered multi-step process involving attachment, co-receptor binding and fusion. Inhibitors of each step have been identified and shown to have antiviral activity in clinical trials. Phase 1-2 trials of monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule attachment inhibitors have demonstrated activity in HIV-1-infected subjects, but none has progressed to later phase clinical trials. The post-attachment inhibitor ibalizumab has shown activity in phase 1 and 2 trials; further studies are anticipated. The CCR5 antagonists maraviroc (now been approved for clinical use) and vicriviroc (in phase 3 trials) have shown significant benefit in controlled trials in treatment-experienced subjects; additional CCR5 antagonists are in various stages of clinical development. Targeting CXCR4 has proven to be more challenging. Although proof of concept has been demonstrated in phase 1-2 trials of two compounds, neither proved suitable for chronic administration. Little progress has been reported in developing longer acting or orally bioavailable fusion inhibitors. Summary ACCR5 antagonist and a fusion inhibitor are approved for use as HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Development of drugs targeting other steps in HIV-1 entry is ongoing. PMID:19339945

  1. Macrophage polarization and HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Cassol, Edana; Cassetta, Luca; Alfano, Massimo; Poli, Guido

    2010-04-01

    Polarization of MP into classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2a, M2b, and M2c) macrophages is critical in mediating an effective immune response against invading pathogens. However, several pathogens use these activation pathways to facilitate dissemination and pathogenesis. Viruses generally induce an M1-like phenotype during the acute phase of infection. In addition to promoting the development of Th1 responses and IFN production, M1 macrophages often produce cytokines that drive viral replication and tissue damage. As shown for HIV-1, polarization can also alter macrophage susceptibility to infection. In vitro polarization into M1 cells prevents HIV-1 infection, and M2a polarization inhibits viral replication at a post-integration level. M2a cells also express high levels of C-type lectins that can facilitate macrophage-mediated transmission of HIV-1 to CD4(+) T cells. Macrophages are particularly abundant in mucosal membranes and unlike DCs, do not usually migrate to distal tissues. As a result, macrophages are likely to contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis in mucosal rather than lymphatic tissues. In vivo polarization of MP is likely to span a spectrum of activation phenotypes that may change the permissivity to and alter the outcome of HIV-1 and other viral infections.